WorldWideScience

Sample records for angular distribution tables

  1. Angular anisotropy representation by probability tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we improve point-wise or group-wise angular anisotropy representation by using probability tables. The starting point of this study was to give more flexibility (sensitivity analysis) and more accuracy (ray effect) to group-wise anisotropy representation by Dirac functions, independently introduced at CEA (Mao, 1998) and at IRSN (Le Cocq, 1998) ten years ago. Basing ourselves on our experience of cross-section description, acquired in CALENDF (Sublet et al., 2006), we introduce two kinds of moment based probability tables, Dirac (DPT) and Step-wise (SPT) Probability Tables where the angular probability distribution is respectively represented by Dirac functions or by a step-wise function. First, we show how we can improve equi-probable cosine representation of point-wise anisotropy by using step-wise probability tables. Then we show, by Monte Carlo techniques, how we can obtain a more accurate description of group-wise anisotropy than the one usually given by a finite expansion on a Legendre polynomial basis (that can induce negative values) and finally, we describe it by Dirac probability tables. This study is carried out in the framework of GALILEE project R and D activities (Coste-Delclaux, 2008). (authors)

  2. UTOE, UKNDL to ENDF/B Format Conversion with Log-Log Interpolation and Angular Distribution Tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The programme performs a fully automated translation from UKNDL into ENDF/B (version 1) format. 2 - Method of solution: Each reaction is cropped to reduce the number of redundant points; log-log interpolation scheme is adopted everywhere. Angular distributions are given in tabular form. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The existing array size limitations which apply to both UKNDL and ENDF/B have been taken into account. Secondary energy distributions as formulated by UKNDL are not considered; a simple evaporation spectrum is introduced everywhere for the (n,n') continuum and (n,2n) reactions

  3. Perturbed angular correlations and distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present index comprises original works and review papers on the perturbed angular correlations (PAC) and distributions (PAD). The articles published in the Soviet and foreign journals as well as the materials of conferences, monographs and collections published in the USSR and abroad, the preprints produced by various institutes and abstracts of disertations are included from 1948 up to 1973. The whole material compiled in this index is divided into three parts. Part one is a bibliographic index. All papers in this part are divided into three sections. Section one comprises the papers devoted to the theoretical works on PAC, review papers, monographs, materials of conferences. Section two deals with the works of methodical character where correlation spectrometers as well as the treatment of experimental data are described. In section three experimental works with concrete nuclei are compiled. Part two gives the characteristic of works performed with concrete nuclei. This part is presented in the form of the table in which the works are systematized according to the chemical elements and isotopes. The table shows the characteristics of the nuclear levels used in the investigations by PAC as well as brief characteristics of experiments and results obtained. Part three - appendix contains alphabetic index of the authors, the list of the used editions with the abbreviations of the titles of these editions. The lists indicating the dynamic of the quantity of works on PAC and the distribution according to the literature sources are also given

  4. Fission fragment angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently a Letter appeared (Phys. Rev. Lett., 522, 414(1984)) claiming that the usual expression for describing the angula distribution of fission fragments from compound nuclear decay is not a necessarily valid limit of a more general expression. In this comment we wish to point out that the two expressions arise from distinctly different models, and that the new expression as used in the cited reference is internally inconsistent

  5. Angular distribution of coherent bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distribution of the linearly polarised photon beam produced by coherent bremsstrahlung from an aligned diamond radiator has been measured at the MAMI A2 tagged photon facility. The measurements were made with a prototype position sensitive photon detector which utilises the pair production process and a double sided silicon strip detector. This polarised photon beam is used for nuclear and hadronic experiments and in their analysis the polarisation is obtained from a calculation, which matches the experimental intensity spectrum. As the polarisation is related to the photon beam angular distribution, the present measurements can be used to test this calculation. The overall agreement is found to be good although there are some regions where significant discrepancies exist.

  6. Wigner distributions and quark orbital angular momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Cedric LorceOrsay, IPN and Orsay, LPT; Barbara Pasquini(Pavia U. and INFN, Pavia)

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the quark phase-space or Wigner distributions of the nucleon which combine in a single picture all the information contained in the generalized parton distributions and the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. In particular, we present results for the distribution of unpolarized quarks in a longitudinally polarized nucleon obtained in a light-front constituent quark model. We show how the quark orbital angular momentum can be extracted from the Wigner distributions a...

  7. Angular distribution of oriented nucleus fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations of anisotropy of angular distribution of oriented 235U nuclei thermal fission neutrons have been carried out. the neutrons were assumed to evaporate isotropically by completely accelerated fragements in the fragment system with only its small part, i. e. fission-producing neutrons, emitted at the moment of neck break. It has been found out that at low energies of neutrons Esub(n)=1-2 MeV the sensitivity of the angular distribution anisotropy to variations of spectrum of neutron evaporation from fragments and the magnitude of a share of fission-producing neutrons reaches approximately 100%, which at high energies, Esub(n) > 5 MeV it does not exceed approximately 20%. Therefore the angular distribution of fast neutrons to a greater degree of confidence may be used for restoring the angular distribution anisotropy of fragments while the angular distribution of low energy neutrons may be used for deriving information on the fission process, but only in case 6f the experiment accuracy is better than approximately 3%

  8. Moliere angular and lateral distributions with ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Moliere distribution for arbitrary linear combination between the deflection angle and the lateral displacement is improved to take into account ionization loss. The analytical results for lateral distribution derived through numerical integrations for dilogarithm function are compared with our detailed Monte Carlo results. Goudsmit-Saunderson angular distribution derived with Moliere parameters, is also confirmed to agree with our detailed Monte Carlo results. (author)

  9. Quark Wigner distributions and orbital angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the Wigner functions of the nucleon which provide multidimensional images of the quark distributions in phase space. These functions can be obtained through a Fourier transform in the transverse space of the generalized transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. They depend on both the transverse position and the three-momentum of the quark relative to the nucleon, and therefore combine in a single picture all the information contained in the generalized parton distributions and the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. We focus the discussion on the distributions of unpolarized/longitudinally polarized quark in an unpolarized/longitudinally polarized nucleon. In this way, we can study the role of the orbital angular momentum of the quark in shaping the nucleon and its correlations with the quark and nucleon polarizations. The quark orbital angular momentum is also calculated from its phase-space average weighted with the Wigner distribution of unpolarized quarks in a longitudinally polarized nucleon. The corresponding results obtained within different light-cone quark models are compared with alternative definitions of the quark orbital angular momentum, as given in terms of generalized parton distributions and transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions.

  10. Jet angular distribution from quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum chromodynamic correction to jet (defined a la Sterman and Weinberg) angular distribution in energetic e+e- annihilation is calculated to order α/sub s/ keeping exact dependence on epsilon and delta. Deviations from the zeroth order distribution, 1 + cos2theta, for are found relatively large values of epsilon and delta. This effect could be tested at the existing e+e- colliding beam facilities

  11. Angular momentum distributions in subbarrier fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in subbarrier heavy-ion fusion was stimulated by the realization that subbarrier fusion cross sections were enhanced by many orders of magnitude over what would be expected from quantum mechanical one-dimensional barrier penetration. This review focuses on the angular momentum (spin) distributions in heavy-ion fusion reactions. Experimental probes, theoretical considerations, and a comparison of experimental results with model calculations are given. 86 refs., 10 figs

  12. Quark Orbital-Angular-Momentum Distribution in the Nucleon

    OpenAIRE

    Hoodbhoy, Pervez; Ji, Xiangdong; Lu, Wei

    1998-01-01

    We introduce gauge-invariant quark and gluon angular momentum distributions after making a generalization of the angular momentum density operators. From the quark angular momentum distribution, we define the gauge-invariant and leading-twist quark {\\it orbital} angular momentum distribution $L_q(x)$. The latter can be extracted from data on the polarized and unpolarized quark distributions and the off-forward distribution $E(x)$ in the forward limit. We comment upon the evolution equations o...

  13. Study of the Angular Distribution of Scintillation Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Fornaro, Giulia Alice; Ghezzi, Alessio; Knapitsch, Arno; Modrzynski, Pawel; Pizzichemi, Marco; Lecoq, Paul; Auffray, Etiennette

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a characterization method to experimentally determine the angular distribution of scintillation light. By exciting LYSO crystals with a radioactive source, we measured the light angular profiles obtained with samples of different geometries in different conditions of wrapping. We also measured the angular distribution of light emitting in glue and compared it with the one emitting in air. Angular distribution of light output of photonic crystals is also provided. Consistency of the measurements is verified with conventional light output measurements.

  14. Quark orbital-angular-momentum distribution in the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoodbhoy, P.; Ji, X.; Lu, W. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    1999-01-01

    We introduce gauge-invariant quark and gluon angular momentum distributions after making a generalization of the angular momentum density operators. From the quark angular momentum distribution, we define the gauge-invariant and leading-twist quark {ital orbital} angular momentum distribution L{sub q}(x). The latter can be extracted from data on the polarized and unpolarized quark distributions and the off-forward distribution E(x) in the forward limit. We comment upon the evolution equations obeyed by this as well as other orbital distributions considered in the literature. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Quark orbital-angular-momentum distribution in the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce gauge-invariant quark and gluon angular momentum distributions after making a generalization of the angular momentum density operators. From the quark angular momentum distribution, we define the gauge-invariant and leading-twist quark orbital angular momentum distribution Lq(x). The latter can be extracted from data on the polarized and unpolarized quark distributions and the off-forward distribution E(x) in the forward limit. We comment upon the evolution equations obeyed by this as well as other orbital distributions considered in the literature. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  16. Phase-space distributions and orbital angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquini B.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We review the concept of Wigner distributions to describe the phase-space distributions of quarks in the nucleon, emphasizing the information encoded in these functions about the quark orbital angular momentum.

  17. Phase-space distributions and orbital angular momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquini B.; Lorcé C.

    2014-01-01

    We review the concept of Wigner distributions to describe the phase-space distributions of quarks in the nucleon, emphasizing the information encoded in these functions about the quark orbital angular momentum.

  18. Imaging the Earth's Interior: the Angular Distribution of Terrestrial Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Fields, Brian D

    2004-01-01

    Decays of radionuclides throughout the Earth's interior produce geothermal heat, but also are a source of antineutrinos. The (angle-integrated) geoneutrino flux places an integral constraint on the terrestrial radionuclide distribution. In this paper, we calculate the angular distribution of geoneutrinos, which opens a window on the differential radionuclide distribution. We develop the general formalism for the neutrino angular distribution, and we present the inverse transformation which recovers the terrestrial radioisotope distribution given a measurement of the neutrino angular distribution. Thus, geoneutrinos not only allow a means to image the Earth's interior, but offering a direct measure of the radioactive Earth, both (1) revealing the Earth's inner structure as probed by radionuclides, and (2) allowing for a complete determination of the radioactive heat generation as a function of radius. We present the geoneutrino angular distribution for the favored Earth model which has been used to calculate g...

  19. Orbital Angular Momentum Parton Distributions in Light-Front Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Cano, F.; Faccioli, P.; Scopetta, S.; Traini, M.(Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli studi di Trento and INFN — TIFPA, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123, Povo (Trento), Italy)

    2000-01-01

    We study the quark angular momentum distribution in the nucleon within a light-front covariant quark model. Special emphasis is put into the orbital angular momentum: a quantity which is very sensitive to the relativistic treatment of the spin in a light-front dynamical approach. Discrepancies with the predictions of the low-energy traditional quark models where relativistic spin effects are neglected, are visible also after perturbative evolution to higher momentum scales. Orbital angular mo...

  20. Observables for Quarks and Gluons Orbital Angular Momentum Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuti, Simonetta; Courtoy, Aurore; Goldstein, Gary R.; Hernandez, J. Osvaldo Gonzalez; Rajan, Abha

    2015-02-01

    We discuss the observables that have been recently put forth to describe quarks and gluons orbital angular momentum distributions. Starting from a standard parameterization of the energy momentum tensor in QCD one can single out two forms of angular momentum, a so-called kinetic term - Ji decomposition - or a canonical term - Jaffe-Manohar decomposition. Orbital angular momentum has been connected in each decomposition to a different observable, a Generalized Transverse Momentum Distribution (GTMD), for the canonical term, and a twist three Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD) for the kinetic term. While the latter appears as an azimuthal angular modulation in the longitudinal target spin asymmetry in deeply virtual Compton scattering, due to parity constraints, the GTMD associated with canonical angular momentum cannot be measured in a similar set of experiments.

  1. Evolution Equations for Higher Moments of Angular Momentum Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Haegler, P.; Schaefer, A

    1998-01-01

    Based on a sumrule for the nucleon spin we expand quark and gluon orbital angular momentum operators and derive an evolution matrix for higher moments of the corresponding distributions. In combination with the spin-dependent DGLAP-matrix we find a complete set of spin and orbital angular momentum evolution equations.

  2. Quantum optimal control of photoelectron spectra and angular distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Goetz, R Esteban; Santra, Robin; Koch, Christiane P

    2016-01-01

    Photoelectron spectra and photoelectron angular distributions obtained in photoionization reveal important information on e.g. charge transfer or hole coherence in the parent ion. Here we show that optimal control of the underlying quantum dynamics can be used to enhance desired features in the photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. To this end, we combine Krotov's method for optimal control theory with the time-dependent configuration interaction singles formalism and a splitting approach to calculate photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. The optimization target can account for specific desired properties in the photoelectron angular distribution alone, in the photoelectron spectrum, or in both. We demonstrate the method for hydrogen and then apply it to argon under strong XUV radiation, maximizing the difference of emission into the upper and lower hemispheres, in order to realize directed electron emission in the XUV regime.

  3. Quantum optimal control of photoelectron spectra and angular distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, R. Esteban; Karamatskou, Antonia; Santra, Robin; Koch, Christiane P.

    2016-01-01

    Photoelectron spectra and photoelectron angular distributions obtained in photoionization reveal important information on, e.g., charge transfer or hole coherence in the parent ion. Here we show that optimal control of the underlying quantum dynamics can be used to enhance desired features in the photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. To this end, we combine Krotov's method for optimal control theory with the time-dependent configuration interaction singles formalism and a splitting approach to calculate photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. The optimization target can account for specific desired properties in the photoelectron angular distribution alone, in the photoelectron spectrum, or in both. We demonstrate the method for hydrogen and then apply it to argon under strong XUV radiation, maximizing the difference of emission into the upper and lower hemispheres, in order to realize directed electron emission in the XUV regime.

  4. A detection system with broad angular acceptance for particle identification and angular distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new detection system for time-optimized heavy-ion angular distribution measurements has been designed and constructed. This device is composed by an ionization chamber with a segmented-grid anode and three position-sensitive silicon detectors. This particular arrangement allows identifying reaction products emitted within a 30° wide angular range with better than 1° angular resolution. As a demonstration of its capabilities, angular distributions of the elastic scattering cross-section and the production of alpha particles in the 7Li+27Al system, at an energy above the Coulomb barrier, are presented. -- Highlights: • We constructed a detection system for time-optimized heavy-ion angular distribution measurements. • We characterized this device and obtained an energy resolution of 3% and an angular resolution of 1°. • We measured elastic scattering cross-sections in 7Li+27Al finding good agreement with previous data. • The performed tests included the measurement of alpha particle production cross-sections in 7Li+27Al

  5. Asymmetry in the angular distributions of spectator-nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The asymmetry in the angular distributions of spectator-nucleons has been studied in dp interactions, and it has been found that the sign of the asymmetry depends on the reaction channel. It is shown that in the momentum interval 0-200 MeV/c of spectators basic features of the angular distributions can be reproduced in the framework of the spectator model taking into account the energy dependence of the NN cross section and the flux-factor

  6. Quark Wigner Distributions and Orbital Angular Momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Lorce, Cédric; Pasquini, B.

    2011-01-01

    We study the Wigner functions of the nucleon which provide multidimensional images of the quark distributions in phase space. These functions can be obtained through a Fourier transform in the transverse space of the generalized transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. They depend on both the transverse position and the three-momentum of the quark relative to the nucleon, and therefore combine in a single picture all the information contained in the generalized parton distributions...

  7. Angular distributions by the conventional and the Doppler shift method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distribution of elastically scattered metastable Ne*(3P2) has been measured by the conventional and the Doppler shift method. The conventional method shows a good angular resolution and signal to noise ratio. For the Doppler shift method, the angular resolution and the signal to noise ratio are much worse. By Monte Carlo-calculations it is shown that the influence of the residual velocity profiles of the supersonic atomic beams is large for the Doppler method, but can nearly be neglected for the conventional method. For nonsymmetric systems (such as Na2-Xe) and for inelastic processes the Doppler method is expected to be more successful. (Auth.)

  8. Orbital Angular Momentum and Generalized Transverse Momentum Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yong; Liu, Keh-Fei; Yang, Yibo

    2015-01-01

    We show that, when boosted to the infinite momentum frame, the quark and gluon orbital angular momentum operators defined in the nucleon spin sum rule of X. S. Chen et al. are the same as those derived from generalized transverse momentum distributions. This completes the connection between the infinite momentum limit of each term in that sum rule and experimentally measurable observables. We also show that these orbital angular momentum operators can be defined locally, and discuss the strat...

  9. Angular distributions and total yield of laser ablated silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Nordskov, A.; Schou, Jørgen; Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte; Ellegaard, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The angular distribution of laser ablated silver has been measured in situ with a newly constructed setup with an array of microbalances. The distribution is strongly peaked in the forward direction corresponding to cospθ, where p varies between 5 and 9 for laser fluences from 2 to 7 J/cm2 at 355...

  10. Measurements of angular distributions of degraded protons in thick absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter examines the behavior of a proton beam with a kinetic energy corresponding to the lower energy limit of the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR), which is degraded by thick absorbers suffering an energy loss comparable to its initial energy. Angular distributions of protons are measured with an initial energy around 3.5 MeV, degraded by thick aluminium, polyethylene, and lead absorbers. Using the Erlangen Tandem accelerator, the measurements indicate that in all cases the variation of the width of the straggling distribution (fwhm) and of their mean energy as a function of the scattering angle was found to be small in the angular region between 00 and 150. It is concluded that degraders with low proton number are superior to those with high proton number, due to their narrower angular distributions

  11. On the Observability of the Quark Orbital Angular Momentum Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Courtoy, Aurore; Hernandez, J Osvaldo Gonzalez; Liuti, Simonetta; Rajan, Abha

    2013-01-01

    We argue that due to Parity constraints, the helicity combination of the purely momentum space counterparts of the Wigner distributions -- the generalized transverse momentum distributions -- that describes the configuration of an unpolarized quark in a longitudinally polarized nucleon, can enter the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude only through matrix elements involving a final state interaction. The relevant matrix elements in turn involve light cone operators projections in the transverse direction, or they appear in the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude at twist three. Orbital angular momentum or the spin structure of the nucleon was a major reason for these various distributions and amplitudes to have been introduced. We show that the twist three contributions associated to orbital angular momentum %to deeply virtual Compton scattering provide observables related to orbital angular momentum and are related to the target-spin asymmetry in deeply virtual Compton scattering, already mea...

  12. Generalized Parton Distributions Describing Partonic Orbital Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuti, Simonetta; Engelhardt, Michael; Rajan, Abha; Courtoy, Aurore

    2015-04-01

    We discuss orbital angular momentum in QCD, in particular, its observability, and its partonic interpretation. Orbital momentum can be defined in QCD using two different decomposition schemes that yield a kinetic and a canonical definition, respectively. We argue that kinetic orbital angular momentum is intrinsically associated with twist three Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), and it is therefore readily observable in Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering experiments. On the other hand, canonical angular momentum is defined in terms of a Generalized Transverse Momentum Distribution (GTMD) and it can be therefore observed in scattering processes involving an additional hadronic reaction plane. A comparison between the two definitions can be performed by extending to GTMDs the techniques previously developed for lattice calculations of Transverse Momentum Distributions (TMDs) evaluating the matrix elements of quark bilocal operators containing a staple-shaped Wilson connection. This work was funded in part by U.S. D.O.E. Grant DE-FG02-01ER4120.

  13. Practical derivation of Moliere angular distribution with ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximation methods for practical and efficient derivations of Moliere angular distribution are attempted. The scale factor ν characterizing the ionization process, solved in numerical integrals, is well approximated by a series expansion of the solution with rest-mass up to the second order. Moliere screening model is found well approximated by a simpler Born-type model for wide variety of substances, so that the characteristic constants B and θM of angular distribution for mixed or compound substances are derived far simply and enough accurately from the Kamata-Nishimura constants for mixture without taking as many integrations as the number of mixed substances for stochastic means. These confirmations will be valuable for rapid derivations of Moliere angular distribution, especially in tracing tracks of charged particle in Monte Carlo simulations. (author)

  14. Angular Distribution of Clustersin Skewed CDM Models

    CERN Document Server

    Borgani, S; Plionis, M

    1994-01-01

    We perform a detailed investigation of the statistical properties of the projected distribution of galaxy clusters obtained in Cold Dark Matter (CDM) models with both Gaussian and skewed primordial density fluctuations. We use N-body simulations to construct a set artificial Lick maps. An objective cluster--finding algorithm is used to identify clusters of different richness. For Gaussian models, the overall number of clusters is too small in the standard CDM case, but a model with higher normalisation fares much better; non--Gaussian models with negative skewness also fit faily well. We apply several statistical tests to compare real and simulated cluster samples, such as the 2-point correlation function, the minimal spanning tree construction, the multifractal analysis and the skewness of cell counts. The emerging picture is that Gaussian models, even with a higher normalization, are in trouble. Skew-positive models are also ruled out, while skew-negative models can reproduce the observed clustering of gala...

  15. Distributed MIMO Radar Monopulse Angular Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The linear zone of the S-curve, which is formed with the digital beamforming (DBF method, is extremely narrow for monopulse angle measurements with distributed Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO radar. Based on the transmitting-receiving beam pattern without gratelobe, the DBF method is proposed to form the ΣΔ-beam by using the absolute value of the echo signal. The ideal null depth can be achieved and the linear zone of the S-curve is expanded because the main lobe of the Δ-beam is enveloped by the Σ-beam. The monopulse angle for a target with high angle velocity was estimated. When the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR was higher than −15 dB , the accuracy of the proposed method was better than that of conventional methods. When the SNR was equal to −15 dB , the accuracy of the proposed method was similar to

  16. The calculation of angular and energy-angular distributions for n+D reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy-angular distributions for secondary neutrons and protons of breakup reactions and the elastic angular distributions of n+D were calculated by the computer code TSD which was developed by Chu and his co-workers from the three-body integral equations based on Faddeev-AGS theory. The results are compiled in the ENDF/B-6 format, and they are stored in the second version of Chinese Evaluated Nuclear DAta Library, CENDL-2. Their errors of energy conservation for breakup are less than one percent. The differential cross sections of the elastic scattering and the double-differential cross sections for secondary neutrons and protons of breakup reactions were calculated from CENDL-2, the results are in good agreement with the experimental data

  17. Predicted angular distribution of fast charged particles with ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moliere theory of angular distribution for fast charged particles is improved to take into account ionization loss, by using Kamata-Nishimura formulation of the theory. Decrease of the particle energy along the passage hence increase of the screening angle brings a slight different results from those derived by Moliere-Bethe formulation for fixed energies. The present results are reduced to the same Moliere distribution with modified values of the expansion parameter and the unit of Moliere angle. Properties of the new distribution and differences from the traditional one are discussed. Angular distributions of particles penetrating through the mixed or compound substances are also investigated both under the relativistic and the nonrelativistic conditions, together with the Kamata-Nishimura constants characterizing their formulation. (author)

  18. Orbital angular momentum and generalized transverse momentum distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Liu, Keh-Fei; Yang, Yi-Bo

    2016-03-01

    We show that, when boosted to the infinite momentum frame, the quark and gluon orbital angular momentum operators defined in the nucleon spin sum rule of Chen et al. are the same as those whose matrix elements correspond to the moments of generalized transverse momentum distributions. This completes the connection between the infinite momentum limit of each term in that sum rule and experimentally measurable observables. We also show that these orbital angular momentum operators can be defined locally and discuss the strategies of calculating them in lattice QCD.

  19. Orbital Angular Momentum and Generalized Transverse Momentum Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yong; Yang, Yibo

    2015-01-01

    We show that, when boosted to the infinite momentum frame, the quark and gluon orbital angular momentum operators defined in the nucleon spin sum rule of X. S. Chen et al. are the same as those derived from generalized transverse momentum distributions. This completes the connection between the infinite momentum limit of each term in that sum rule and experimentally measurable observables. We also show that these orbital angular momentum operators can be defined locally, and discuss the strategies of calculating them in lattice QCD.

  20. Spin and Orbital Angular Momentum Distribution Functions of the Nucleon

    OpenAIRE

    Wakamatsu, M.; Watabe, T

    1999-01-01

    A theoretical prediction is given for the spin and orbital angular momentum distribution functions of the nucleon within the framework of an effective quark model of QCD, i.e. the chiral quark soliton model. An outstanding feature of the model is that it predicts fairly small quark spin fraction of the nucleon $\\Delta \\Sigma \\simeq 0.35$, which in turn dictates that the remaining 65% of the nucleon spin is carried by the orbital angular momentum of quarks and antiquarks at the model energy sc...

  1. Experimental orbital angular momentum based quantum key distribution through turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Goyal, Sandeep; Roux, Filippus S; Konrad, Thomas; Forbes, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Using an experimental setup that simulates a turbulent atmosphere, we study the secret key rate for quantum key distribution protocols in orbital angular momentum based free space quantum communication. The quantum key distribution protocols under consideration include the Ekert 91 protocol for different choices of mutually unbiased bases and the six-state protocol. We find that the secret key rate of these protocols decay to zero roughly at the same scale where the entanglement of formation decays to zero.

  2. Parton Transverse Momentum and Orbital Angular Momentum Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Abha; Courtoy, Aurore; Engelhardt, Michael; Liuti, Simonetta

    2016-01-01

    The quark orbital angular momentum component of proton spin, $L_q$, can be defined in QCD as the integral of a Wigner phase space distribution weighting the cross product of the quark's transverse position and momentum. It can also be independently defined from the operator product expansion for the off-forward Compton amplitude in terms of a twist-three generalized parton distribution. We provide an explicit link between the two definitions, connecting them through their dependence on parton...

  3. Experimental orbital angular momentum based quantum key distribution through turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Sandeep; Ibrahim, Alpha Hamadou; Roux, Filippus S.; Konrad, Thomas; Forbes, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Using an experimental setup that simulates a turbulent atmosphere, we study the secret key rate for quantum key distribution protocols in orbital angular momentum based free space quantum communication. The quantum key distribution protocols under consideration include the Ekert 91 protocol for different choices of mutually unbiased bases and the six-state protocol. We find that the secret key rate of these protocols decay to zero roughly at the same scale where the entanglement of formation ...

  4. Energy and angular distributions of atmospheric muons at the Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    A fair knowledge of the atmospheric muon distributions at Earth is a prerequisite for the simulations of cosmic ray setups and rare event search detectors. A modified power law is proposed for atmospheric muon energy distribution which gives good description of the cosmic muon data in low as well as high energy regime. Using this distribution, analytical forms for zenith angle ($\\theta$) distribution are obtained. Assuming a flat Earth, it leads to the $\\cos^{n-1}\\theta$ form where it is shown that the parameter $n$ is nothing but the power of the energy distribution. A new analytical form for zenith angle distribution is obtained without assuming a flat Earth which gives an improved description of the data at all angles even above $70^o$. These distributions are tested with the available atmospheric muon data of energy and angular distributions. The parameters of these distributions can be used to characterize the cosmic muon data as a function of energy, angle and altitude.

  5. On the observability of the quark orbital angular momentum distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtoy, Aurore, E-mail: aurore.courtoy@ulg.be [IFPA, AGO Department, Université de Liège, Bât. B5, Sart Tilman, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati (Italy); Goldstein, Gary R., E-mail: gary.goldstein@tufts.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Osvaldo Gonzalez Hernandez, J., E-mail: jog4m@virginia.edu [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) – Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria, 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Liuti, Simonetta, E-mail: sl4y@virginia.edu [University of Virginia – Physics Department, 382 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati (Italy); Rajan, Abha, E-mail: ar5xc@virginia.edu [University of Virginia – Physics Department, 382 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2014-04-04

    We argue that due to parity constraints, the helicity combination of the purely momentum space counterparts of the Wigner distributions – the generalized transverse momentum distributions – that describes the configuration of an unpolarized quark in a longitudinally polarized nucleon can enter the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude only through matrix elements involving a final state interaction. The relevant matrix elements in turn involve light-cone operators projections in the transverse direction, or they appear in the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude at twist three. Orbital angular momentum or the spin structure of the nucleon was a major reason for these various distributions and amplitudes to have been introduced. We show that the twist three contributions associated with orbital angular momentum are related to the target-spin asymmetry in deeply virtual Compton scattering, already measured at HERMES.

  6. On the observability of the quark orbital angular momentum distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We argue that due to parity constraints, the helicity combination of the purely momentum space counterparts of the Wigner distributions – the generalized transverse momentum distributions – that describes the configuration of an unpolarized quark in a longitudinally polarized nucleon can enter the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude only through matrix elements involving a final state interaction. The relevant matrix elements in turn involve light-cone operators projections in the transverse direction, or they appear in the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude at twist three. Orbital angular momentum or the spin structure of the nucleon was a major reason for these various distributions and amplitudes to have been introduced. We show that the twist three contributions associated with orbital angular momentum are related to the target-spin asymmetry in deeply virtual Compton scattering, already measured at HERMES.

  7. On the observability of the quark orbital angular momentum distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtoy, Aurore; Goldstein, Gary R.; Osvaldo Gonzalez Hernandez, J.; Liuti, Simonetta; Rajan, Abha

    2014-04-01

    We argue that due to parity constraints, the helicity combination of the purely momentum space counterparts of the Wigner distributions - the generalized transverse momentum distributions - that describes the configuration of an unpolarized quark in a longitudinally polarized nucleon can enter the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude only through matrix elements involving a final state interaction. The relevant matrix elements in turn involve light-cone operators projections in the transverse direction, or they appear in the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude at twist three. Orbital angular momentum or the spin structure of the nucleon was a major reason for these various distributions and amplitudes to have been introduced. We show that the twist three contributions associated with orbital angular momentum are related to the target-spin asymmetry in deeply virtual Compton scattering, already measured at HERMES.

  8. Twist Three Generalized Parton Distributions for Orbital Angular Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Rajan, Abha

    2016-01-01

    We study the orbital angular momentum contribution to the spin structure of the proton. It is well known that the quark and gluon spin contributions do not add up to the proton spin. We motivate the connection between the Generalized Transverse Momentum Distribution (GTMD) $F_{14}$, and orbital angular momentum by exploring the underlying quark proton helicity amplitude structure. The twist three Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD) $\\tilde{E}_{2T}$, was shown to connect to OAM. We study these functions using a diquark model calculation. The GTMD $F_{14}$ is unique in that it can describe both Jaffe-Manohar and Ji OAM depending on choice of gauge link, i.e. whether final state interactions are included or not. We perform a calculation of $F_{14}$ in both scenarios.

  9. Parton Transverse Momentum and Orbital Angular Momentum Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Rajan, Abha; Engelhardt, Michael; Liuti, Simonetta

    2016-01-01

    The quark orbital angular momentum component of proton spin, $L_q$, can be defined in QCD as the integral of a Wigner phase space distribution weighting the cross product of the quark's transverse position and momentum. It can also be independently defined from the operator product expansion for the off-forward Compton amplitude in terms of a twist-three generalized parton distribution. We provide an explicit link between the two definitions, connecting them through their dependence on partonic intrinsic transverse momentum. Connecting the definitions provides the key for correlating direct experimental determinations of $L_q$, and evaluations through Lattice QCD calculations. The direct observation of quark orbital angular momentum does not require transverse spin polarization, but can occur using longitudinally polarized targets.

  10. Dijet angular distributions in direct and resolved photoproduction at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jet photoproduction, where the two highest transverse energy (ETjet) jets have ETjet above 6 GeV and a jet-jet invariant mass above 23 GeV, has been studied with the ZEUS detector at the HERA ep collider. Resolved and direct photoproduction samples have been separated. The cross section as a function of the angle between the jet-jet axis and the beam direction in the dijet rest frame has been measured for the two samples. The measured angular distributions differ markedly from each other. They agree with the predictions of QCD calculations, where the different angular distributions reflect the different spins of the quark and gluon exchanged in the hard subprocess. (orig.)

  11. Angular distribution and atomic effects in condensed phase photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general concept of condensed phase photoelectron spectroscopy is that angular distribution and atomic effects in the photoemission intensity are determined by different mechanisms, the former being determined largely by ordering phenomena such as crystal momentum conservation and photoelectron diffraction while the latter are manifested in the total (angle-integrated) cross section. In this work, the physics of the photoemission process is investigated in several very different experiments to elucidate the mechanisms of, and correlation between, atomic and angular distribution effects. Theoretical models are discussed and the connection betweeen the two effects is clearly established. The remainder of this thesis, which describes experiments utilizing both angle-resolved and angle-integrated photoemission in conjunction with synchrotron radiation in the energy range 6 eV less than or equal to h ν less than or equal to 360 eV and laboratory sources, is divided into three parts

  12. Statistical mechanics of collisionless orbits. IV. Distribution of angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been shown in previous work that DARKexp, which is a theoretically derived, maximum entropy, one shape parameter model for isotropic collisionless systems, provides very good fits to simulated and observed dark matter halos. Specifically, it fits the energy distribution, N(E), and the density profiles, including the central cusp. Here, we extend DARKexp N(E) to include the distribution in angular momentum, L 2, for spherically symmetric systems. First, we argue, based on theoretical, semi-analytical, and simulation results, that while dark matter halos are relaxed in energy, they are not nearly as relaxed in angular momentum, which precludes using maximum entropy to uniquely derive N(E, L 2). Instead, we require that when integrating N(E, L 2) over squared angular momenta one retrieves the DARKexp N(E). Starting with a general expression for N(E, L 2) we show how the distribution of particles in L 2 is related to the shape of the velocity distribution function, VDF, and velocity anisotropy profile, β(r). We then demonstrate that astrophysically realistic halos, as judged by the VDF shape and β(r), must have linear or convex distributions in L 2, for each separate energy bin. The distribution in energy of the most bound particles must be nearly flat, and become more tilted in favor of radial orbits for less bound particles. These results are consistent with numerical simulations and represent an important step toward deriving the full distribution function for spherically symmetric dark matter halos.

  13. Statistical mechanics of collisionless orbits. IV. Distribution of angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Liliya L. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Hjorth, Jens; Wojtak, Radosław, E-mail: llrw@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: jens@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: wojtak@dark-cosmology.dk [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2014-03-01

    It has been shown in previous work that DARKexp, which is a theoretically derived, maximum entropy, one shape parameter model for isotropic collisionless systems, provides very good fits to simulated and observed dark matter halos. Specifically, it fits the energy distribution, N(E), and the density profiles, including the central cusp. Here, we extend DARKexp N(E) to include the distribution in angular momentum, L {sup 2}, for spherically symmetric systems. First, we argue, based on theoretical, semi-analytical, and simulation results, that while dark matter halos are relaxed in energy, they are not nearly as relaxed in angular momentum, which precludes using maximum entropy to uniquely derive N(E, L {sup 2}). Instead, we require that when integrating N(E, L {sup 2}) over squared angular momenta one retrieves the DARKexp N(E). Starting with a general expression for N(E, L {sup 2}) we show how the distribution of particles in L {sup 2} is related to the shape of the velocity distribution function, VDF, and velocity anisotropy profile, β(r). We then demonstrate that astrophysically realistic halos, as judged by the VDF shape and β(r), must have linear or convex distributions in L {sup 2}, for each separate energy bin. The distribution in energy of the most bound particles must be nearly flat, and become more tilted in favor of radial orbits for less bound particles. These results are consistent with numerical simulations and represent an important step toward deriving the full distribution function for spherically symmetric dark matter halos.

  14. Reconstructing the galaxy redshift distribution from angular cross power spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, L; Tao, C

    2015-01-01

    The control of photometric redshift (photo-$z$) errors is a crucial and challenging task for precision weak lensing cosmology. The spacial cross-correlations (equivalently, the angular cross power spectra) of galaxies between tomographic photo-$z$ bins are sensitive to the true redshift distribution $n_i(z)$ of each bin and hence can help calibrate the photo-$z$ error distribution for weak lensing surveys. Using Fisher matrix analysis, we investigate the contributions of various components of the angular power spectra to the constraints of $n_i(z)$ parameters and demonstrate the importance of the cross power spectra therein, especially when catastrophic photo-$z$ errors are present. We further study the feasibility of reconstructing $n_i(z)$ from galaxy angular power spectra using Markov Chain Monte Carlo estimation. Considering an LSST-like survey with $10$ photo-$z$ bins, we find that the underlying redshift distribution can be determined with a fractional precision ($\\sigma(\\theta)/\\theta$ for parameter $\\...

  15. Accessing the quark orbital angular momentum with Wigner distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorce, Cedric [IPNO, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, 91406 Orsay, France and LPT, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91406 Orsay (France); Pasquini, Barbara [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Pavia, Italy and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    The quark orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been recognized as an important piece of the proton spin puzzle. A lot of effort has been invested in trying to extract it quantitatively from the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs), which are accessed in high-energy processes and provide three-dimensional pictures of the nucleon. Recently, we have shown that it is more natural to access the quark OAM from the phase-space or Wigner distributions. We discuss the concept of Wigner distributions in the context of quantum field theory and show how they are related to the GPDs and the TMDs. We summarize the different definitions discussed in the literature for the quark OAM and show how they can in principle be extracted from the Wigner distributions.

  16. Accessing the quark orbital angular momentum with Wigner distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Cedric, Lorce

    2012-01-01

    The quark orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been recognized as an important piece of the proton spin puzzle. A lot of effort has been invested in trying to extract it quantitatively from the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs), which are accessed in high-energy processes and provide three-dimensional pictures of the nucleon. Recently, we have shown that it is more natural to access the quark OAM from the phase-space or Wigner distributions. We discuss the concept of Wigner distributions in the context of quantum field theory and show how they are related to the GPDs and the TMDs. We summarize the different definitions discussed in the literature for the quark OAM and show how they can in principle be extracted from the Wigner distributions.

  17. Accessing the quark orbital angular momentum with Wigner distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quark orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been recognized as an important piece of the proton spin puzzle. A lot of effort has been invested in trying to extract it quantitatively from the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs), which are accessed in high-energy processes and provide three-dimensional pictures of the nucleon. Recently, we have shown that it is more natural to access the quark OAM from the phase-space or Wigner distributions. We discuss the concept of Wigner distributions in the context of quantum field theory and show how they are related to the GPDs and the TMDs. We summarize the different definitions discussed in the literature for the quark OAM and show how they can in principle be extracted from the Wigner distributions.

  18. Wigner distribution and orbital angular momentum of a proton

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, D.; Maji, T.; Mondal, C.; Mukherjee, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Wigner distributions for u and d quarks in a proton are calculated using the light front wave functions (LFWFs) of the scalar quark-diquark model for nucleon constructed from the soft-wall AdS/QCD correspondence. We present a detail study of the quark orbital angular momentum(OAM) and its correlation with quark spin and proton spin. The quark density distributions, considering the different polarizations of quarks and proton, in transverse momentum plane as well as in transverse impact pa...

  19. Accessing the quark orbital angular momentum with Wigner distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Cedric LorceIPNO and LPT, Orsay; Barbara Pasquini(Pavia U. and INFN, Pavia)

    2015-01-01

    The quark orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been recognized as an important piece of the proton spin puzzle. A lot of effort has been invested in trying to extract it quantitatively from the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs), which are accessed in high-energy processes and provide three-dimensional pictures of the nucleon. Recently, we have shown that it is more natural to access the quark OAM from the phase-space or Wig...

  20. Wigner distribution and orbital angular momentum of a proton

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, D; Mondal, C; Mukherjee, A

    2016-01-01

    The Wigner distributions for u and d quarks in a proton are calculated using the light front wave functions (LFWFs) of the scalar quark-diquark model for nucleon constructed from the soft-wall AdS/QCD correspondence. We present a detail study of the quark orbital angular momentum(OAM) and its correlation with quark spin and proton spin. The quark density distributions, considering the different polarizations of quarks and proton, in transverse momentum plane as well as in transverse impact parameter plane are presented for both u and d quarks.

  1. Proton angular distribution following multiphoton dissociative ionization of H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distribution of protons ejected following resonant (2+1)-photon dissociative ionization of H2 by 193-nm radiation through the E,F state has been obtained. The analysis shows that the Π character of the degenerate continuum states is approximately eight times larger than the Σ character, which is consistent with previous single-photon measurements. The analysis presented here, together with a previous analysis of the proton energy distribution, reveals the ionization channel to be significantly stronger than both the dissociation and dissociative ionization channels

  2. On the angular distribution and spin polarization of the photoelectrons from semi-filled shell atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Amusia, M Ya

    2007-01-01

    We present here the results of calculations of photoelectrons' angular anisotropy and spin-polarization parameters for a number of semi-filled shell atoms. We consider ionization of outer or in some cases next to the outer electrons in a number of elements from I, V, and VI groups of the Periodic Table. All calculations are performed with account of multi-electron correlations in the frame of the Spin Polarized version of the Random Phase Approximation with Exchange - SP RPAE. We consider the dipole angular distribution and spin polarization of photoelectrons from semi-filled subshells and from closed shells that are neighbors to the semi-filled shells. We have considered also angular anisotropy and spin-polarization of photoelectrons from some excited atoms that are formed by spin-flip of one of the outer electrons. To check the accuracy and consistency of the applied SP RPAE approach and to see the role of the nuclear charge variation only, we have calculated the dipole angular anisotropy and spin-polarizat...

  3. Precision angular velocity response of a fiber-optic gyroscope using a piezo-nano-rotation table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern fiber-optic gyroscopes are calibrated using the Earth's rotation or stepper motor actuated rotation tables. We investigated the angular velocity resolution of the Optolink SRS-1000 fiber-optic gyroscope using a piezo-activated rotation table down to angular velocity steps of 1 × 10−7 rad s−1 with an accuracy of 1.5 × 10−8 rad s−1. To our knowledge, these are the smallest velocity steps resolved and reported in the literature so far. Our results show that such a gyroscope may be also used for nanopositioning purposes in addition to its usual navigation application. (technical design note)

  4. Partons Transverse Momentum and Orbital Angular Momentum Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuti, Simonetta; Rajan, Abha; Courtoy, Aurore; Engelhardt, Michael

    2015-10-01

    We discuss the two definitions of partonic orbital angular momentum given by Ji and by Jaffe and Manohar, respectively. It is by now established that the two definitions are described by the same generalized transverse momentum distribution, F14, while they differ through their gauge link structure. They can also be both described in terms of a twist three generalized parton distribution, G2 which can be measured in DVCS type experiments. Here, starting from nonlocal, kT unintegrated, off-forward matrix elements, instead of the standard OPE, we show how G2 can be written as the sum of twist two, quark mass, and interaction dependent (twist three) terms, thus emphasizing the role of quark intrinsic transverse momentum and off-shellness. The twist two term in particular is given by the kT2 moment of F14. We therefore uncover a relation/sum rule connecting the two definitions of orbital angular momentum, F14 and G2. We explore both the spin and the intrinsic transverse momentum/transverse space correlations as well as the gauge link structure behind the two decomposition frameworks, which are necessary to extract orbital angular momentum from experiment.

  5. Electric octupole contribution to the angular distribution of the krypton 4p photoelectrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distribution of Kr 4p photoelectrons was measured with linearly polarized synchrotron radiation in the function of the photon energy. The shape of the measured angular distributions indicates the presence of octupol interaction.

  6. Angular Distribution and Angular Dispersion in Collision of 19F+27A1 at 114 MeV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; Li Zhi-Chang; LU Xiu-Qin; ZHAO Kui; LIU Jian-Cheng; SERGEY Yu-Kun; DONG Yu-Chuan; LI Song-Lin; DUAN Li-Min; XU Hu-Shan; XU Hua-Gen; CHEN Ruo-Fu; WU He-Yu; HAN Jian-Long

    2004-01-01

    Angular distributions of fragments B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg and Al induced by the collision of 19F+27 A1 at 114MeV have been measured. Angular dispersion parameters are extracted from the experimental data and compared with the theoretical ones. The dynamic dispersions for dissipative products depend strongly on the charge number Z of the fragments.

  7. Probes of initial-state interactions in dilepton angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the angular distribution of dileptons d sigma/d4Qd OMEGA, emphasizing phase sensitivity as a probe of initial-state interactions in QCD. The coherent nature of Sudakov effects is discussed, along with the presence of imaginary parts related by analyticity. Angular-distribution structure functions which describe interference between longitudinal and transverse virtual photons, e.g., can be used to probe phase differences that depend on large momenta. These evolve according to exp(ic ln ln(Q2/lambda/sub QCD2)) where Q2 is a large scale. We report on a complete calculation at O(α/sub s/2) of the q anti q → #betta#* + gluons channel which confirms the cancellation of small (cutoff) scales, and describe a complementary experiment involving spin. We discuss the limit x → 1 of the distribution d sigma/dQ2dxdcos theta, and point out an unusual and interesting effect that a momentum-dependent phase can produce here

  8. Dijet Angular Distributions in Direct and Resolved Photoproduction at HERA

    OpenAIRE

    ZEUS Collaboration

    1996-01-01

    Jet photoproduction, where the two highest transverse energy ($\\ETJ$) jets have $\\ETJ$ above 6 GeV and a jet-jet invariant mass above 23~GeV, has been studied with the ZEUS detector at the HERA $ep$ collider. Resolved and direct photoproduction samples have been separated. The cross section as a function of the angle between the jet-jet axis and the beam direction in the dijet rest frame has been measured for the two samples. The measured angular distributions differ markedly from each other....

  9. Measurements of the angular distribution of diffuse irradiance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Nielsen, Kristian Pagh; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Advanced solar resource assessment and forecasting is necessary for optimal solar energy utilization. In order to investigate the short-term resource variability, for instance caused by clouds it is necessary to investigate how clouds affect the solar irradiance, including the angular distributio...... the solar irradiance from 8 different parts of the sky as well as horizontal measurements of the total beam and total diffuse irradiance....... of the solar irradiance. The investigation is part of the Danish contribution to the taskforce 46 within the International Energy Agency and financed by the Danish Energy Agency. The investigation focuses on the distribution of the diffuse solar irradiance and is based on horizontal measurements of...

  10. Photon Angular Distribution and Polarization of Radiative Recombination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Wei-Ying; SHEN Tian-Ming; CHEN Chong-Yang; Roger Hutton; ZOU Ya-Ming

    2005-01-01

    @@ A systematic study is carried out on the angular distribution and polarization of photons emitted following radiative-recombination of bare and He-like ions of Ne, Ar, Ni and Mo with a unidirectional electron beam. In order to incorporate the screening effect due to inner-shell electrons, a distorted wave method is used. Scaling rules for polarization of the photon following radiative recombination to both bare and He-like ions are given for the incident energy regions up to six times the ionization threshold energy of the final state.

  11. Orbital Angular Momentum Parton Distributions in Quark Models

    OpenAIRE

    Scopetta, S.; Vento, V.

    1999-01-01

    At the low energy, {\\sl hadronic}, scale we calculate Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) twist-two parton distributions for the relativistic MIT bag model and for non-relativistic quark models. We reach the scale of the data by leading order evolution in perturbative QCD. We confirm that the contribution of quarks and gluons OAM to the nucleon spin grows with $Q^2$, and it can be relevant at the experimental scale, even if it is negligible at the hadronic scale, irrespective of the model used. Th...

  12. Angular Distribution of Photons in Coherent Bremsstrahlung in Deformed Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Parazian, V V

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the angular distribution of photons in the coherent bremsstrahlung process by high-energy electrons in a periodically deformed single crystal with a complex base. The formula for the corresponding differential cross-section is derived for an arbitrary deformation field. The case is considered in detail when the electron enters into the crystal at small angles with respect to a crystallographic axis. The results of the numerical calculations are presented for SiO2 single crystal and Moliere parameterization of the screened atomic potentials in the case of the deformation field generated by the acoustic wave of S -type.

  13. Theoretical Manifestation of the Broadening Effect on Photoelectron Angular Distributions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-Tao(张敬涛); ZHOU Lan(周岚); ZHANG Wen-Qi(张文琦); XU Zhi-Zhan(徐至展); GUO Dong-Sheng(郭东升); R.R.Freeman

    2003-01-01

    The broadening effect in photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) observed by Freeman et al. Is studied theoretically. Using a nonperturbative scattering theory developed for multiphoton ionization with the inclusion of spontaneous emission, we calculate the PADs for above-threshold ionization (ATI) peaks. The numerical calculations from our theory reproduce the kinetic-energy dependence and the laser-intensity dependence of PADs of ATI peaks observed by Freeman et al., [Phys. Rev. Lett. 57 (1986) 3156] and provide an evidence for the existence of the ponderomotive momentum of intense laser fields.

  14. Nucleon form factors, generalized parton distributions and quark angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extract the individual contributions from u and d quarks to the Dirac and Pauli form factors of the proton, after a critical examination of the available measurements of electromagnetic nucleon form factors. From this data we determine generalized parton distributions for valence quarks, assuming a particular form for their functional dependence. The result allows us to study various aspects of nucleon structure in the valence region. In particular, we evaluate Ji's sum rule and estimate the total angular momentum carried by valence quarks at the scale μ=2 GeV to be Juv=0.230+0.009-0.024 and Jdv=-0.004+0.010-0.016.

  15. Angular distribution of 6He+p elastic scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; SU Jun; ZENG Sheng; YAN Sheng-Quan; LIAN Gang; HUANG Wu-Zhen; LIU Wei-Ping; WANG You-Bao; LI Zhi-Hong; JIN Sun-Jun; WANG Bao-Xiang; LI Yun-Ju; LI Er-Tao; BAI Xi-Xiang; GUO Bing

    2012-01-01

    The angular distribution of 1H(6He,p)6He elastic scattering has been measured at Ec.m.=4.3 MeV by using a thick-target inverse kinematic method.The experimental differential cross sections are reproduced by the distorted-wave Born approximation calculation utilizing the CH89 global optical potential parameter set.The real part of CH89 is reduced comparing with other potentials,which may be attributed to the couplings necessary for the weakly bound nuclei.

  16. Angular distribution in the neutron-induced fission of actinides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong L.S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Above 1 MeV of incident neutron energy the fission fragment angular distribution (FFAD has generally a strong anisotropic behavior due to the combination of the incident orbital momentum and the intrinsic spin of the fissioning nucleus. This effect has to be taken into account for the efficiency estimation of devices used for fission cross section measurements. In addition it bears information on the spin deposition mechanism and on the structure of transitional states. We designed and constructed a detection device, based on Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC, for measuring the fission fragment angular distributions of several isotopes, in particular 232Th. The measurement has been performed at n_TOF at CERN taking advantage of the very broad energy spectrum of the neutron beam. Fission events were recognized by back to back detection in coincidence in two position-sensitive detectors surrounding the targets. The detection efficiency, depending mostly on the stopping of fission fragments in backings and electrodes, has been computed with a Geant4 simulation and validated by the comparison to the measured case of 235U below 3 keV where the emission is isotropic. In the case of 232Th, the result is in good agreement with previous data below 10 MeV, with a good reproduction of the structures associated to vibrational states and the opening of second chance fission. In the 14 MeV region our data are much more accurate than previous ones which are broadly scattered.

  17. Spin O decay angular distribution for interfering mesons in electroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self analyzing meson electroproduction experiments are currently being planned for the CEBAF CLAS detector. These experiments deduce the spin polarization of outgoing unstable spin s (?)0 mesons from their decay angular distribution, W(θ,ψ). The large angular acceptance of the CLAS detector permits kinematic tracking of a sufficient number of these events to accurately determine electroproduction amplitudes from the deduced polarization. Maximum polarization information is obtained from W(θ,ψ) for decay into spin 0 daughters. The helicity of the decaying meson is transferred to the daughter's relative orbital angular momentum m-projection; none is open-quotes absorbedclose quotes into daughter helicities. The decaying meson's helicity maximally appears in W(θ,ψ). W(θ,ψ) for spin 0 daughters has been derived for (1) vector meson electroproduction and (2) general interfering mesons produced by incident pions. This paper derives W(θ,ψ) for electroproduction of two interfering mesons that decay into spin 0 daughters. An application is made to the case of interfering scalar and vector mesons. The derivation is an extension of work by Schil using the general decay formalism of Martin. The expressions can be easily extended to the case of N interfering mesons since interference occurs pairwise in the observable W (θ,ψ), a quadratic function of the meson amplitudes. The derivation uses the virtual photon density matrix of Schil which is transformed by a meson electroproduction transition operator, T. The resulting density matrix for the interfering mesons is then converted into a corresponding statistical tensor and contracted into the efficiency tensor for spin 0 daughters

  18. DISTRIBUTION OF ACCRETING GAS AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM ONTO CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate gas accretion flow onto a circumplanetary disk from a protoplanetary disk in detail by using high-resolution three-dimensional nested-grid hydrodynamic simulations, in order to provide a basis of formation processes of satellites around giant planets. Based on detailed analyses of gas accretion flow, we find that most of gas accretion onto circumplanetary disks occurs nearly vertically toward the disk surface from high altitude, which generates a shock surface at several scale heights of the circumplanetary disk. The gas that has passed through the shock surface moves inward because its specific angular momentum is smaller than that of the local Keplerian rotation, while gas near the midplane in the protoplanetary disk cannot accrete to the circumplanetary disk. Gas near the midplane within the planet's Hill sphere spirals outward and escapes from the Hill sphere through the two Lagrangian points L1 and L2. We also analyze fluxes of accreting mass and angular momentum in detail and find that the distributions of the fluxes onto the disk surface are well described by power-law functions and that a large fraction of gas accretion occurs at the outer region of the disk, i.e., at about 0.1 times the Hill radius. The nature of power-law functions indicates that, other than the outer edge, there is no specific radius where gas accretion is concentrated. These source functions of mass and angular momentum in the circumplanetary disk would provide us with useful constraints on the structure and evolution of the circumplanetary disk, which is important for satellite formation.

  19. Spin O decay angular distribution for interfering mesons in electroproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funsten, H.; Gilfoyle, G.

    1994-04-01

    Self analyzing meson electroproduction experiments are currently being planned for the CEBAF CLAS detector. These experiments deduce the spin polarization of outgoing unstable spin s (?)0 mesons from their decay angular distribution, W({theta},{psi}). The large angular acceptance of the CLAS detector permits kinematic tracking of a sufficient number of these events to accurately determine electroproduction amplitudes from the deduced polarization. Maximum polarization information is obtained from W({theta},{psi}) for decay into spin 0 daughters. The helicity of the decaying meson is transferred to the daughter`s relative orbital angular momentum m-projection; none is {open_quotes}absorbed{close_quotes} into daughter helicities. The decaying meson`s helicity maximally appears in W({theta},{psi}). W({theta},{psi}) for spin 0 daughters has been derived for (1) vector meson electroproduction and (2) general interfering mesons produced by incident pions. This paper derives W({theta},{psi}) for electroproduction of two interfering mesons that decay into spin 0 daughters. An application is made to the case of interfering scalar and vector mesons. The derivation is an extension of work by Schil using the general decay formalism of Martin. The expressions can be easily extended to the case of N interfering mesons since interference occurs pairwise in the observable W ({theta},{psi}), a quadratic function of the meson amplitudes. The derivation uses the virtual photon density matrix of Schil which is transformed by a meson electroproduction transition operator, T. The resulting density matrix for the interfering mesons is then converted into a corresponding statistical tensor and contracted into the efficiency tensor for spin 0 daughters.

  20. Angular momentum of disc galaxies with a lognormal density distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Marr, John Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Whilst most galaxy properties scale with galaxy mass, similar scaling relations for angular momentum are harder to demonstrate. A lognormal (LN) density distribution for disc mass provides a good overall fit to the observational data for disc rotation curves for a wide variety of galaxy types and luminosities. In this paper, the total angular momentum J and energy $\\vert{}$E$\\vert{}$ were computed for 38 disc galaxies from the published rotation curves and plotted against the derived disc masses, with best fit slopes of 1.683$\\pm{}$0.018 and 1.643$\\pm{}$0.038 respectively, using a theoretical model with a LN density profile. The derived mean disc spin parameter was $\\lambda{}$=0.423$\\pm{}$0.014. Using the rotation curve parameters V$_{max}$ and R$_{max}$ as surrogates for the virial velocity and radius, the virial mass estimator $M_{disc}\\propto{}R_{max}V_{max}^2$ was also generated, with a log-log slope of 1.024$\\pm{}$0.014 for the 38 galaxies, and a proportionality constant ${\\lambda{}}^*=1.47\\pm{}0.20\\time...

  1. Drell-Yan Lepton Angular Distribution at Small Transverse Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Boer, D; Boer, Daniel; Vogelsang, Werner

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the dependence of the Drell-Yan cross section on lepton polar and azimuthal angles, as generated by the lowest-order QCD annihilation and Compton processes. We focus in particular on the azimuthal-angular distributions, which are of the form cos(phi) and cos(2phi). At small transverse momentum q_T of the lepton pair, q_T << Q, with Q the pair mass, these terms are known to be suppressed relative to the phi-independent part of the Drell-Yan cross section by one or two powers of the transverse momentum. Nonetheless, as we show, like the phi-independent part they are subject to large logarithmic corrections, whose precise form however depends on the reference frame chosen. These logarithmic contributions ultimately require resummation to all orders in the strong coupling. We discuss the potential effects of resummation on the various angular terms in the cross section and on the Lam-Tung relation.

  2. Nucleon form factors, generalized parton distributions and quark angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kroll, Peter [Bergische Univ., Wuppertal (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-02-15

    We extract the individual contributions from u and d quarks to the Dirac and Pauli form factors of the proton, after a critical examination of the available measurements of electromagnetic nucleon form factors. From this data we determine generalized parton distributions for valence quarks, assuming a particular form for their functional dependence. The result allows us to study various aspects of nucleon structure in the valence region. In particular, we evaluate Ji's sum rule and estimate the total angular momentum carried by valence quarks at the scale {mu}=2 GeV to be J{sup u}{sub v}=0.230{sup +0.009}{sub -0.024} and J{sup d}{sub v}=-0.004{sup +0.010}{sub -0.016}.

  3. Low energy level spacing distribution in the atomic table ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have analysed the nearest neighbour spacing distributions for the atomic table ensemble. The analysis carried out indicates that the random matrix theory arguments extend even to the ground state domain of atoms. (orig.)

  4. Non-dipole effects in photoelectron angular distributions for rare gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present a theoretical study of O(ka) and O(k2a2) corrections to the dipole approximation in photoionization of rare gas atoms, where k is the magnitude of the photon wave vector and a is the radius of the ionized subshell. In the dipole approximation, the photoelectron angular distribution is characterized by the single parameter Β. The O(ka) corrections are characterized by two parameters γ and delta, and the O(k2a2) corrections are characterized by three parameters λ, μ, and ν, constrained by the relation λ + μ + ν = 0 and a correction ΔΒ to the dipole parameter Β. Formulas are given for the non-dipole parameters in terms of reduced matrix elements of electric and magnetic multipole operators. Tables and graphs of the seven angular distribution parameters, calculated in the relativistic independent-particle approximation (IPA), are given for electron energies ranging from 20 to 5,000 eV for all 41 subshells of the rare gas atoms He,NE,Ar,Kr, and Xe. Tables and graphs of the O(ka) parameters are also given in the energy range 2--60 eV for the n = 3 and 4 shells of Kr, and for the n = 4 and 5 shells of Xe, where interesting non-dipole effects are found. Comparisons of the IPA calculations with correlated relativistic random-phase approximation calculations are made for selected subshells of Ar and Kr, illustrating the influence of correlation on the non-dipole parameters

  5. Angular distribution anisotropy of fragments ejected from methyl iodide clusters: Dependence on fs laser intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karras, G.; Kosmidis, C.

    2010-10-01

    The angular distribution of the fragment ions ejected from the interaction of methyl iodide clusters with 20 fs strong laser pulses is studied by means of a mass spectrometer. Three types of angular distributions, one isotropic and two anisotropic, have been observed and their dependence on the laser intensity has been studied. There is strong evidence that the ions exhibiting anisotropic angular distribution with a maximum in the direction parallel to the laser polarization vector are produced via an electron impact ionization process.

  6. Orbital angular momentum from marginals of quadrature distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Soto, L. L.; Klimov, A. B.; de la Hoz, P.; Rigas, I.; J. Rehacek; Hradil, Z.; Leuchs, G.

    2013-01-01

    We set forth a method to analyze the orbital angular momentum of a light field. Instead of using the canonical formalism for the conjugate pair angle-angular momentum, we model this latter variable by the superposition of two independent harmonic oscillators along two orthogonal axes. By describing each oscillator by a standard Wigner function, we derive, via a consistent change of variables, a comprehensive picture of the orbital angular momentum. We compare with previous approaches and show...

  7. Fission fragment angular distribution in heavy ion induced fission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Soheyli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available   We have calculated the fission fragment angular anisotropy for 16O + 232Th,12C + 236U , 11B + 237 Np , 14 N + 232 Th , 11B + 235U , 12C + 232Th systems with the saddle point statistical model and compared the fission fragment angular anisotropy for these systems. This comparison was done with two methods a without neutron correction and b with neutron correction. Also we studied normal and anomalous behavior of the fission fragment angular anisotropy. Finally, we have predicted the average emitted neutron from compound nuclei considering the best fit for each system.

  8. Fission fragment angular distribution in heavy ion induced fission

    OpenAIRE

    S. Soheyli; I. Ziaeian

    2006-01-01

      We have calculated the fission fragment angular anisotropy for 16O + 232Th,12C + 236U , 11B + 237 Np , 14 N + 232 Th , 11B + 235U , 12C + 232Th systems with the saddle point statistical model and compared the fission fragment angular anisotropy for these systems. This comparison was done with two methods a) without neutron correction and b) with neutron correction. Also we studied normal and anomalous behavior of the fission fragment angular anisotropy. Finally, we have predicted the averag...

  9. Angular distributions of four neutron groups from the 10B(d, n)11C reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paris, C.H.; Endt, P.M.

    1954-01-01

    Measurements are described of the angular distributions of the four most energetic neutron groups from the 10B(d, n)11C reaction at a deuteron energy of 0.6 MeV. Neutrons were detected by their recoil protons in nuclear emulsions. The angular distributions have been analyzed in terms of a stripping

  10. Fission fragment angular distribution measurements in 18O+194Pt reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission fragment angular distributions were measured for 18O + 194Pt in energy range 78.2 - 87.3 MeV. The normal nature of angular anisotropy suggests that the reaction proceeded through true CN formation. The present results are consistent with result obtained from fission fragment mass distribution measurements carried out for reaction using other isotopes of platinum

  11. Angular distributions of target black fragments in nucleus–nucleus collisions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental results of space, azimuthal, and projected angular distributions of target black fragments produced in silicon-emulsion collisions at 4.5A GeV/c (the Dubna energy) are reported. A multi-source ideal gas model is suggested to describe the experimental angular distributions. The Monte Carlo calculated results are in agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  12. Velocity dependence of angular distributions in gas/solid--surface collisions: Relationship to the interaction potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, J.W. Jr.; Doll, J.D.; Thompson, D.L.

    1978-10-15

    The angular and velocity distributions for gas/solid-surface collisions are examined. It is shown that the envelope of the scattered phase-space distribution is quite sensitive to the gas/surface interaction potential.

  13. Fission fragment angular distributions and fission cross section validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present knowledge of angular distributions of neutron-induced fission is limited to a maximal energy of 15 MeV, with large discrepancies around 14 MeV. Only 238U and 232Th have been investigated up to 100 MeV in a single experiment. The n-TOF Collaboration performed the fission cross section measurement of several actinides (232Th, 235U, 238U, 234U, 237Np) at the n-TOF facility using an experimental set-up made of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC), extending the energy domain of the incident neutron above hundreds of MeV. The method based on the detection of the 2 fragments in coincidence allowed to clearly disentangle the fission reactions among other types of reactions occurring in the spallation domain. I will show the methods we used to reconstruct the full angular resolution by the tracking of fission fragments. Below 10 MeV our results are consistent with existing data. For example in the case of 232Th, below 10 MeV the results show clearly the variation occurring at the first (1 MeV) and second (7 MeV) chance fission, corresponding to transition states of given J and K (total spin and its projection on the fission axis), and a much more accurate energy dependence at the 3. chance threshold (14 MeV) has been obtained. In the spallation domain, above 30 MeV we confirm the high anisotropy revealed in 232Th by the single existing data set. I'll discuss the implications of this finding, related to the low anisotropy exhibited in proton-induced fission. I also explore the critical experiments which is valuable checks of nuclear data. The 237Np neutron-induced fission cross section has recently been measured in a large energy range (from eV to GeV) at the n-TOF facility at CERN. When compared to previous measurements, the n-TOF fission cross section appears to be higher by 5-7 % beyond the fission threshold. To check the relevance of n-TOF data, we simulate a criticality experiment performed at Los Alamos with a 6 kg sphere of 237Np. This sphere was

  14. Defining the Observables for Quarks and Gluons Orbital Angular Momentum Distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a critical discussion of the observables that have been recently put forth to describe quarks and gluons orbital angular momentum distributions. Starting from a standard parameterization of the energy momentum tensor in QCD one can single out two forms of angular momentum, a so-called kinetic term, generally associated with the Ji decomposition, and a canonical term from the Jaffe Manohar decomposition. Orbital angular momentum has been connected to a Generalized Transverse Momentum Distribution (GTMD), for the canonical term, and to a twist three Generalized Parton Distribution for the kinetic term. We argue that while the latter appears as an azimuthal angular modulation in the longitudinal target spin asymmetry in deeply virtual Compton scattering, due to parity constraints, the GTMD associated with canonical angular momentum cannot be measured in a similar set of experiments. (author)

  15. Defining the Observables for Quarks and Gluons Orbital Angular Momentum Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuti, S.; Courtoy, A.; Goldstein, G. R.; Gonzalez Hernandez, J. O.; Rajan, A.

    2015-09-01

    We present a critical discussion of the observables that have been recently put forth to describe quarks and gluons orbital angular momentum distributions. Starting from a standard parameterization of the energy momentum tensor in QCD one can single out two forms of angular momentum, a so-called kinetic term, generally associated with the Ji decomposition, and a canonical term from the Jaffe Manohar decomposition. Orbital angular momentum has been connected to a Generalized Transverse Momentum Distribution (GTMD), for the canonical term, and to a twist three Generalized Parton Distribution for the kinetic term. We argue that while the latter appears as an azymuthal angular modulation in the longitudinal target spin asymmetry in deeply virtual Compton scattering, due to parity constraints, the GTMD associated with canonical angular momentum cannot be measured in a similar set of experiments.

  16. On the theories of angular distribution and correlation of beta and gamma radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.R. de

    1952-01-01

    In both phenomena of angular distribution and angular correlation, one has nuclear radiation from ensembles of nuclei with an unequal population of the magnetic sub-levels. This population is described by appropriate “orientation parameters”. On this basis the theories of the directional as well as

  17. Measurement of the angular distribution of neutron-proton scattering at 10 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative angular distribution of neutrons scattered from protons was measured at an incident neutron energy of 10 MeV at the Ohio University Accelerator Laboratory. An array of 11 detector telescopes at laboratory angles of 0 to 60 degrees was used to detect recoil protons from neutron interactions with a CH2 (polypropylene) target. Data for 7 of these telescopes were obtained with one set of electronics and are presented here. These data, from 108 to 180 degrees for the center-of-mass scattering angles, have a small slope which agrees better with angular distributions predicted by the Arndt phase shifts than with the ENDF/B-VI angular distribution

  18. Continuum angular distributions in nuclear reactions: Physical basis for the Kalbach systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show how the conservation of linear momentum is fundamental to the description of angular distributions in preequilibrium nuclear reactions. By using state densities with linear momentum to describe the phase space during the preequilibrium cascade, angular distributions can be derived in a transparent way. Fermi-motion and Pauli-blocking effects are included, and correlations between the emission particle's energy and angle are obtained for all orders of scattering. Our model provides a physical basis for the widely-used phenomenological systematics of Kalbach, and provides a framework for understanding the systematical properties of continuum angular distributions

  19. Spectral dependence of angular distribution halfwidths of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular distributions of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation have been measured. This radiaiton is excited during 210 keV electron propagation in a mica 2.5 mm thick target in a spectral range from 2500 up to 5000 A. A formula for diffraction halfwidth of angular distribution has been derived, its applicability limits are pointed out. Experimental halfwidth agrees with the calculated ones. The deviation of angular distribution maximum from Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation angle is analyzed. This deviation is due to radiator boundaries and multiple scattering of electrons

  20. Angular distribution of photofission fragments in 238U at 5.43 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distribution of photofission fragments of 238U, produced by 5.43 MeV monochromatic photons from the η,γ reaction in sulphur, has been measured using glass plates as detectors. In the analysis of the results only the contributions from the (Jπ, K) 1= (1-,0), (1-,1) and (2+,0) terms were considered. The coefficients of the angular distributions of the fission fragments were obtained. An analysis of the data available in the literature on the angular distribution near the photofission threshold is also presented. (author)

  1. Role of electron-molecule angular scattering in shaping the electron-velocity distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunhardt, E.E.; Tzeng, Y.

    1986-09-01

    Five models has been studied to elucidate the role of electron-molecule angular scattering in shaping the velocity distribution for electrons in nitrogen at E/N values of 300 and 1500 Td. The angular dependence of the differential scattering cross sections for elastic and inelastic collisions has been observed to have significant effects on the shape of the velocity distribution, the rate coefficients, and the transport parameters. The velocity distribution is most sensitive to the angular dependence of elastic scattering. Moreover, for a given elastic differential scattering cross section, variations in the angular dependence of inelastic scattering cause significant changes in the distribution. The magnitude of these changes depends on the relative action of the inelastic collisions with respect to the elastic collisions for a given energy interval, i.e., whether the scattering by the inelastic collisions is isotropic, forward, or backward in a given energy interval.

  2. Imprints of molecular orbitals using photoelectron angular distribution by strong laser pulses of circular polarization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Xiang-He; Wu Yan; Zhang Jing-Tao; Ma Hui; Xu Yu-Long

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the strong-field ionization of H2+ molecules in four different electronic states by calculating photoelectron angular distributions in circularly polarized fields.We find that the structure of photoelectron angular distribution depends on the molecular orbital as well as the energy of the photoelectron.The location of main lobes changes with the symmetric property of the molecular orbital.Generally,for molecules with bonding electronic states,the photoelectron's angular distribution shows a rotation of π/2 with respect to the molecular axis,while for molecules with antibonding electronic states,no rotation occurs.We use an interference scenario to interpret these phenomena.We also find that,due to the interference effect,a new pair of jets appears in the waist of the main lobes,and the main lobes or jets of the photoelectron's angular distribution are split into two parts if the photoelectron energy is sufficiently high.

  3. Sensitivity of the Shielding Benchmarks on Variance-covariance Data for Scattering Angular Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouanne, C.

    2014-04-01

    This article is intended to present the use of the covariance matrices of cross section and of angular distributions for 56Fe scattering reactions using a benchmark on neutron propagation in an iron bulk.

  4. Molecular above-threshold-ionization angular distributions with attosecond bichromatic intense XUV laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, André D.

    2012-01-01

    Angular distributions of molecular above-threshold ionization (MATI) in bichromatic attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) linear polarization laser pulses have been theoretically investigated. Multiphoton ionization in a prealigned molecular ion H2+ produces clear MATI spectra which show a forward-backward asymmetry in angular and momentum distributions which is critically sensitive to the carrier envelope phase (CEP) φ, the time delay Δτ between the two laser pulses, and the photoelectron kinetic energies Ee. The features of the asymmetry in MATI angular distributions are described well by multiphoton perturbative ionization models. Phase differences of continuum electron wave functions can be extracted from the CEP φ and time delay Δτ dependent ionization asymmetry ratio created by interfering multiphoton ionization pathways. At large internuclear distances MATI angular distributions exhibit more complex features due to laser-induced electron diffraction where continuum electron wavelengths are less than the internuclear distance.

  5. Angular distribution and azimuthal asymmetry for pentaquark production in proton-proton collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular distributions for production of the Θ+ pentaquark are calculated for the collisions of polarized protons with polarized target protons. We compare calculations based on different assumptions concerning spin and parity (J=1/2±,3/2±) of the Θ+ state. For a wide class of interactions the spin correlation parameters describing the asymmetric angular distributions are calculated up to 250 MeV above production threshold. The deviations from the near-threshold behavior are investigated

  6. 3He(e,d)e'p isochromats and angular distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An angular distribution and isochromats for the reaction 3He(e,d)e'p were measured to determine the importance of E2 strength near the peak of the 3He(#betta#,d)p cross section. The angular distribution was analyzed using both a complete and approximate virtual photon spectrum. The isochromats were compared to a plane wave model prediction and least squares fitted to determine the relative amounts of E1 and E2 strength

  7. Fission fragment angular distribution in 24Mg induced reactions on 192Os and 197Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular distributions of fission fragments have been measured in 24Mg + 192Os and 24Mg + 197Au reactions at Elab = 128 MeV which is close to entrance channel Coulomb barrier. Experimental angular anisotropies were in reasonably good agreement with those calculated using the statistical theory. Analysis of the angular distribution data of the present study and of our earlier measurement in 19F + 197Au reaction has shown that contribution from non-compound nucleus fission in these systems is not significant. (author)

  8. The quark orbital angular momentum from Wigner distributions and light-cone wave functions

    OpenAIRE

    Lorce, Cédric; Pasquini, Barbara; Xiong, Xiaonu; Yuan, Feng

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the quark orbital angular momentum of the nucleon in the absence of gauge-field degrees of freedom, by using the concept of the Wigner distribution and the light-cone wave functions of the Fock state expansion of the nucleon. The quark orbital angular momentum is obtained from the phase-space average of the orbital angular momentum operator weighted with the Wigner distribution of unpolarized quarks in a longitudinally polarized nucleon. We also derive the light-cone wave funct...

  9. Deflections in computed dose distribution of I-125 seed implant due to angularly averaged approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose rate distribution of commercially available I-125 seeds is strongly anisotropic due to self absorption. Effects of this anisotropy to dose distribution of linear, planar and volume implants are studied. Results suggest that this anisotropy should be taken into account especially when one is considering dose distribution near the seeds. Angularly averaged distribution of single seed is found to cause serious deflections to isodoses of the implant in high dose region. To use true anisotropic dose rate distribution one must be able to evaluate angular orientation of seeds in the implant. A method is presented to compute this orientation also when seeds are poorly visible in radiographs. (orig.)

  10. ELECTRON ANGULAR DISTRIBUTIONS IN DISSOCIATIVE PHOTOIONIZATION OF THE HYDROGEN MOLECULE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon F. Pérez-Torres

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se propone un método para calcular distribuciones angulares de electrones ionizados en la molécula de hidrógeno fija en el espacio sometida a pulsos láser intensos y ultracortos, basado en la solución desde primeros principios de la ecuación de Schrödinger dependiente del tiempo. Esta solución nos permite tener una visión temporal de la interferencias generadas en el canal de ionización disociativa (en el espectro de energía cinética de los protones debido a la presencia de la autoionización de estados doblemente excitados de la molécula de hidrógeno. Se muestra específicamente cómo la autoionización durante el proceso de fotoionización disociativa también puede inducir una asimetría en la distribución angular del electrón ionizado con respecto a la inversión nuclear, un efecto no intuitivo a pesar de estar tratando con un sistema homonuclear. 

  11. Quark phase-space distributions and orbital angular momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Cédric LorcéOrsay, IPN and Orsay, LPT; Barbara Pasquini(Pavia U. and INFN, Pavia)

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the Wigner functions of the nucleon which provide multi-dimensional images of the quark distributions in phase space. They combine in a single picture all the information contained in the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs). In particular, we present results for the distribution of unpolarized quarks in a longitudinally polarized nucleon obtained in a light-cone constituent quark model. We show how quark orbital ...

  12. Energy and angular distributions of atmospheric muons at the Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    A fair knowledge of the atmospheric muon distributions at Earth is a prerequisite for the simulations of cosmic ray setups and rare event search detectors. A modified power law is proposed for atmospheric muon energy distribution which gives good description of the cosmic muon data in low as well as high energy regime. Using this distribution, analytical forms for zenith angle ($\\theta$) distribution are obtained. Assuming a flat Earth, it leads to the $\\cos^{n-1}\\theta$ form where it is show...

  13. Measurement of anisotropic angular distributions of photon energy spectra for I-125 brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distribution of photon energy spectra emitted from an I-125 brachytherapy source was measured using a specially designed jig in the range of ±70° in the plane of the long axis of the source. It is important to investigate the angular dependence of photon emissions from these sources for the calibration of the air kerma rate. The results show that the influence of the distributions between 0° and ±8° is small enough to allow a calibration using current primary instruments which have a large entrance window. - Highlights: ► Angular energy distribution for an I-125 brachytherapy source was measured. ► Variation of the distribution is sufficiently small. ► It is acceptable for primary calibration of the source strength. ► Distributions should be taken into consideration in some instruments.

  14. Angular distributions of higher order splitting functions in the vacuum and in dense QCD matter

    CERN Document Server

    Fickinger, Michael; Vitev, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    We study the collinear splitting functions needed for next-to-next-to-leading order calculations of jet production in the vacuum and in dense QCD matter. These splitting functions describe the probability of a parton to evolve into three-parton final state and are generalizations of the traditional DGLAP splitting kernels to a higher perturbative order. Of particular interest are the angular distributions of such splitting functions, which can elucidate the significance of multiple parton branching for jet observables and guide the construction of parton shower Monte Carlo generators. We find that to ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s^2)$ both the vacuum and the in-medium collinear splitting functions are neither angular ordered nor anti-angular ordered. Specifically, in dense QCD matter they retain the characteristic broad angular distribution already found in the ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s)$ result.

  15. Power law in the angular velocity distribution of a granular needle

    OpenAIRE

    Piasecki, J.; Viot, P.

    2005-01-01

    We show how inelastic collisions induce a power law with exponent -3 in the decay of the angular velocity distribution of anisotropic particles with sufficiently small moment of inertia. We investigate this question within the Boltzmann kinetic theory for an elongated granular particle immersed in a bath. The power law persists so long as the collisions are inelastic for a large range of angular velocities provided the mass ratio of the anisotropic particle and the bath particles remains smal...

  16. Measurement of the angular distribution of dielectronic recombination into highly charged krypton ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular distribution of x-rays emitted in the process of Dielectronic Recombination (DR) was studied at the Electron Beam Ion Trap. For this the photon emission spectra were observed along and perpendicular the electron beam propagation direction. X-ray line intensities differ drastically between the two acquired spectra. This indicates a strong alignment of the total angular momentum vector of the excited states populated by DR with respect to the electron beam propagation direction.

  17. L-subshell resolved photon angular distribution of radiative electron capture into He-like uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photon angular distributions for radiative electron capture (REC) into the j=1/2 and j=3/2 L-subshell levels were measured and calculated for U90+→C collisions at 89 MeV/u. The experiment provides the first study of the photon angular distribution of REC into a projectile p-state (j=3/2) which was found to exhibit a slight backward peaking in the laboratory frame. For radiative capture to the j=1/2 states the measured angular distribution deviates considerably from symmetry around 90 . The results demonstrate that the usual sin2θlab distribution is not valid in the high-Z regime. (orig.)

  18. The angular distribution of neutron scattering from hydrogen at 27.3 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distribution for np scattering at 27.3 MeV has been measured at 7 angles between 170 and 57.90 in the lab system. The neutrons scattered by a small plastic scintillator were detected in another plastic scintillator whose absolute efficiency had been measured between 5 and 25 MeV by use of the associated particle method. It was found to be necessary to investigate the effect on the angular distribution of the 12C(n,n'y) reaction occurring in the target scintillator. The data overlap, and are combined with, existing distribution data at the same energy obtained by detecting recoil protons. The asymmetry about 1/2π of the resulting angular distribution is in better agreement with predictions from phase-shift analyses than with those from meson-theoretical models. (Auth.)

  19. Angular distribution of ions and extreme ultraviolet emission in laser-produced tin droplet plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hong; Duan, Lian; Lan, Hui [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Xinbing, E-mail: xbwang@hust.edu.cn; Chen, Ziqi; Zuo, Duluo [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lu, Peixiang [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-05-21

    Angular-resolved ion time-of-flight spectra as well as extreme ultraviolet radiation in laser-produced tin droplet plasma are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Tin droplets with a diameter of 150 μm are irradiated by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The ion time-of-flight spectra measured from the plasma formed by laser irradiation of the tin droplets are interpreted in terms of a theoretical elliptical Druyvesteyn distribution to deduce ion density distributions including kinetic temperatures of the plasma. The opacity of the plasma for extreme ultraviolet radiation is calculated based on the deduced ion densities and temperatures, and the angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is expressed as a function of the opacity using the Beer–Lambert law. Our results show that the calculated angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  20. The influence of surface structures on sputtering: angular distributions from pyramid-covered single crystal copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distribution of 40 keV argon sputtered copper has been measured. Comparison is made of the distributions from a flat surface (featureless at 10.000X) and from a pyramid-covered surface. Three different orientations of the single crystal have been used to bring the low index directions and as well as the into the plane of the collector foil. Enhanced ejections from the low index directions are seen to decrease in the order , low index directions not in but near the collector plane can also influence the angular distributions. Generally, the total yield is higher from the pyramid-covered surface than from the flat. (Auth.)

  1. Measured multipole moments of continuum electron transfer angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The velocity space distribution of electrons emitted near the forward direction from collisions involving fast, highly stripped oxygen ions with gaseous and solid targets is presented and described in terms of multipole moments of the ejected charge distribution, which permits direct comparison with recent theory. The measurements are produced by employing position-sensitive electron detection to combine emission angle definition with conventional electrostatic spectrometry. Agreement obtained between theory and distributions observed for binary continuum electron loss processes coupled with a similar multipole content observed with solid targets suggests a model of convoy electron production dominated by electron loss from the projectile within the bulk of the target. Further, the connection between multipoles of the projectile electron emission distribution in single collisions and the state of excitation of that projectile excited states may provide the basis for a probe of the state of ions traversing bulk solid matter. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. On the observability of the quark orbital angular momentum distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Courtoy, Aurore; Goldstein, Gary R.; Hernandez, J. Osvaldo Gonzalez; Liuti, Simonetta; Rajan, Abha(University of Virginia – Physics Department, 382 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA)

    2014-01-01

    We argue that due to Parity constraints, the helicity combination of the purely momentum space counterparts of the Wigner distributions -- the generalized transverse momentum distributions -- that describes the configuration of an unpolarized quark in a longitudinally polarized nucleon, can enter the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude only through matrix elements involving a final state interaction. The relevant matrix elements in turn involve light cone operators projections in the ...

  3. Angular distribution of ions axially channeled in a very thin crystal: Experimental and theoretical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the angular distributions for 6--30-MeV Cq+ (q=4--6) and 2--9-MeV H+ ions axially channeled in the [001] direction of a thin silicon crystal (1792 and 1900 A). We report highly structured two-dimensional angular distributions that depend sensitively on the projectile's velocity and incident charge state and the target's thickness and azimuthal orientation. Some structure in the angular contour maps is the result of a rainbow effect in axial channeling (i.e., extrema in the classical deflection function). State-to-state charge-state distributions, which are required to interpret the data accurately, have also been measured. All measured angular distributions have been explained via Monte Carlo trajectory calculations using Moliere's approximation to the Thomas-Fermi screening function and a screening length given by target electrons alone. The calculations indicate that all projectile velocity and charge-state effects and the target-thickness effects observed are the result of the projectile's transverse oscillatory motion in the channel. Using this information, we show that swift heavy-ion and proton angular distributions are simply related using a scaling law that depends only on the projectile's velocity and charge-to-mass ratio and on the crystal thickness

  4. Angular distribution of atoms ejected by laser ablation of different metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular distributions of 13 different metals ejected by laser ablation using fourth harmonics (wavelength=266 nm) of neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser and a fluence close to near-threshold value (2.3 J/cm2) have been investigated with a high angular resolution. The angular distribution which is characterized by the exponent n of cosn θ distribution showed very broad range of values between 3 and 24 for different metals. A simple relation that the exponent n is proportional to the square root of particle atomic weight as reported previously has not been observed. Instead, a general trend has been found that the metals with higher sublimation energy such as Ta and Zr show narrower angular distribution than those with lower sublimation energy such as Sn and In. While the sublimation energy of metals has a great influence on the angular distribution of ejected atoms, a simple consideration suggests that their thermal conductivity and specific heat have little effect on it.

  5. Angular distributions of emitted particles by laser ablation of silver at 355 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Schou, Jørgen; Hansen, T.; Ellegaard, Ole

    1998-01-01

    The angular distribution of laser ablated silver in vacuum has been measured in situ with an array of quartz-crystal microbalances. The silver surface was irradiated by ns pulses from a Nd:YAG laser operating at 355 nm for fluences ranging from 0.7 J/cm2 to 8 J/cm2. The distribution is strongly...

  6. Computerized method for X-ray angular distribution simulation in radiological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to simulate the changes in X-ray angular distribution (the Heel effect) for radiologic imaging systems is presented. This simulation method is described as to predict images for any exposure technique considering that the distribution is the cause of the intensity variation along the radiation field

  7. Dynamic approach to description of entrance channel effects in angular distributions of fission fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremenko, D. O.; Drozdov, V. A.; Fotina, O. V.; Platonov, S. Yu.; Yuminov, O. A.

    2016-07-01

    Background: It is well known that the anomalous behavior of angular anisotropies of fission fragments at sub- and near-barrier energies is associated with a memory of conditions in the entrance channel of the heavy-ion reactions, particularly, deformations and spins of colliding nuclei that determine the initial distributions for the components of the total angular momentum over the symmetry axis of the fissioning system and the beam axis. Purpose: We develop a new dynamic approach, which allows the description of the memory effects in the fission fragment angular distributions and provides new information on fusion and fission dynamics. Methods: The approach is based on the dynamic model of the fission fragment angular distributions which takes into account stochastic aspects of nuclear fission and thermal fluctuations for the tilting mode that is characterized by the projection of the total angular momentum onto the symmetry axis of the fissioning system. Another base of our approach is the quantum mechanical method to calculate the initial distributions over the components of the total angular momentum of the nuclear system immediately following complete fusion. Results: A method is suggested for calculating the initial distributions of the total angular momentum projection onto the symmetry axis for the nuclear systems formed in the reactions of complete fusion of deformed nuclei with spins. The angular distributions of fission fragments for the 16O+232Th,12C+235,236,238, and 13C+235U reactions have been analyzed within the dynamic approach over a range of sub- and above-barrier energies. The analysis allowed us to determine the relaxation time for the tilting mode and the fraction of fission events occurring in times not larger than the relaxation time for the tilting mode. Conclusions: It is shown that the memory effects play an important role in the formation of the angular distributions of fission fragments for the reactions induced by heavy ions. The

  8. Crossed molecular beam studies of unimolecular reaction dynamics. [Angular and velocity distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buss, R.J.

    1979-04-01

    The study of seven radical-molecule reactions using the crossed molecular beam technique with supersonic nozzle beams is reported. Product angular and velocity distributions were obtained and compared with statistical calculations in order to identify dynamical features of the reactions. In the reaction of chlorine and fluorine atoms with vinyl bromide, the product energy distributions are found to deviate from predictions of the statistical model. A similar effect is observed in the reaction of chlorine atoms with 1, 2 and 3-bromopropene. The reaction of oxygen atoms with ICl and CF/sub 3/I has been used to obtain an improved value of the IO bond energy, 55.0 +- 2.0 kcal mol/sup -1/. In all reactions studied, the product energy and angular distributions are found to be coupled, and this is attributed to a kinematic effect of the conservation of angular momentum.

  9. Effects of laser polarization on photoelectron angular distribution through laser-induced continuum structure

    CERN Document Server

    Buica, Gabriela; 10.1103/PhysRevA.72.053416

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the effects of laser polarization on photoelectron angular distribution through laser-induced continuum structure. We focus on a polarization geometry where the probe and dressing lasers are both linearly polarized, and change the relative polarization angle between them. We find that the total ionization yield and the branching ratio into different ionization channels change as a function of the relative polarization angle, and accordingly the photoelectron angular distribution is altered. We present specific results for the $4p_{1/2}$-$6p_{1/2}$ and $4p_{3/2}$-$6p_{3/2}$ systems of the K atom, and show that the change of the polarization angle leads to the significant modification of photoelectron angular distribution.

  10. Carbon K-shell photoelectron angular distribution from fixed-in-space CO2 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of photoelectron angular distributions for carbon K-shell ionization of fixed-in-space CO2 molecules with the molecular axis oriented along, perpendicular and at 45 degrees to the electric vector of the light are reported. The major features of these measured spectra are fairly well reproduced by calculations employing a relaxed-core Hartree-Fock approach. In contrast to the angular distribution for K-shell ionization of N2, which exhibits a rich structure dominated by the f-wave (l=3) at the shape resonance, the angular distribution for carbon K-shell photoionization of CO2 is quite unstructured over the entire observed range across the shape resonance. (letter to the editor)

  11. Measurement of the dijet angular distributions and search for quark compositeness with the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire (CERN) allows to study the interactions of quarks and gluons in a yet unexplored energy regime. In 2010, the LHC delivered an integrated luminosity of more than 36 pb-1 of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √(s)=7 TeV. In these proton-proton collisions, the interactions of the constituent quarks and gluons produced a considerable amount of jets of particles with transverse momenta above 1 TeV. Well suited for the study of these jet processes is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment situated at the LHC point 5 as it can measure jets with the necessary energy and angular resolutions over a large range of transverse momentum (∝30 GeVTdijet = e verticalstrokey1-y2verticalstroke, where y1 and y2 are the rapidities of the two jets, y ≡ (1)/(2)ln [(E+pz)/(E-pz)], and pz is the projection of the jet momentum along the beam axis. The choice of the variable χdijet is motivated by the fact that the normalized differential cross section (1)/(σ) (dσ)/(dχdijet) (the dijet angular distribution) is flat in this variable for Rutherford scattering, characteristic for spin-1 particle exchange. In contrast to QCD which predicts a dijet angular distribution similar to Rutherford scattering, new physics, such as quark compositeness, that might have a more isotropic dijet angular distribution would produce an excess at low values of χdijet. Since the shapes of the dijet angular distributions for the qg →qg, qq' →qq' and gg →gg scattering processes are similar, the QCD prediction does not strongly depend on the parton distribution functions (PDFs) which describe the momentum distribution of the partons inside the protons. Due to the normalization, the dijet angular distribution has a reduced sensitivity to several predominant experimental uncertainties (e.g. the jet energy scale and luminosity uncertainties). The dijet angular distribution is therefore well suited

  12. Angular momentum distributions for {sup 16}O + {sup 144}Nd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchene, G.; Romain, P.; Beck, F.A.; Benet, P.; Disdier, D.; Haas, B.; Lott, B.; Rauch, V.; Scheibling, F.; Vivien, J.P. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires]|[Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France); Basu, S.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Calcutta (India). Variable Energy Cyclotron Project; Bozek, E.; Zuber, K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Di Gregorio, D.E.; Fernandez-Niello, J. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica

    1992-12-31

    Fusion cross sections have been measured for the system {sup 16} O + {sup 144} Nd at bombarding energies in the range 67 MeV {<=}E{sub lab} {<=} 90 MeV by detecting directly evaporation residues in Si detectors and in the range 60 MeV {<=}E{sub lab}{<=} 75 MeV by off-line detection of the K X-rays emitted by the radioactive evaporation residues and daughters. In order to obtain the spin distributions in the compound system gamma-ray multiplicity distributions for the most important neutron evaporation channels were also measured using a 4{pi} - BaF{sub 2} array, in conjunction with Ge detectors. Results are compared with calculations based on models that consider fluctuations in barrier height due to ground state zero point vibrations as well as couplings to various inelastic and transfer channels.

  13. Angular momentum distributions for 16O+144Nd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion cross sections have been measured for the system 16O+144Nd at bombarding energies in the range 67 MeV≤Elab≤90 MeV by detecting directly evaporation residues in Si detectors and in the range 60 MeV≤Elab≤75 MeV by off-line detection of the K x rays emitted by the radioactive evaporation residues and daughters. In order to obtain the spin distributions in the compound system gamma-ray multiplicity distributions for the most important neutron evaporation channels were also measured using a 4π BaF2 array, in conjunction with Ge detectors. Results are compared with calculations based on models that consider fluctuations in barrier height due to ground-state zero-point vibrations as well as couplings to various inelastic and transfer channels

  14. Angular Distribution of the 12C(6He, 7Li)11B Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Er-Tao; LI Zhi-Hong; LI Yun-Ju; YAN Sheng-Quan; BAI Xi-Xiang; GUO Bing; SU Jun; WANG You-Bao; WANG Bao-Xiang; LIAN Gang; ZENG Sheng; FANG Xiao; ZHAO Wei-Juan; LIU Wei-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Angular distribution of the 12C(6He, 7Li)11B transfer reaction is measured with a secondary 6He beam of 36.4 Me V for the first time. The experimental angular distribution is well reproduced by the distorted-wave Born approxima-tion (DWBA) calculation. The success of the present experiment shows that it is feasible to measure one-nucleon transfer reaction on a light nucleus target with the secondary beam facility of the HI-13 tandem accelerator at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Beifing.

  15. Angular and velocity distributions of NO scattered from the Pt(111) crystal surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, W.L.; Lin, T.; Ceyer, S.T.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1982-06-15

    The angular and velocity distributions of NO scattered from the Pt(111) surface have been measured for a crystal temperature range of 475--1200 K and for an incident beam energy range of 265--1390 K. Both angular and velocity distributions confirm the coexistence of inelastic and trapping-desorption scattering processes. For beams with a kinetic energy of /2k equal to 265 and 615 K, the molecules scattered into angles near the surface normal were found to be equilibrated with the surface for T/sub s/ between 475 and 900 K.

  16. Near-field angular distributions of high velocity ions for low-power hall thrusters

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Regina M.; Yost, Allison; Johnson, Lee K.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental angular distributions of high-energy primary ions in the near-field region of a small Hall thruster between 50-200 mm downstream of the thruster exit plane at a range of centerline angles have been determined using a highly-collimated, energy-selective diagnostic probe. The measurements reveal a wide angular distribution of ions exiting the thruster channel and the formation of a strong, axially-directed jet of ions along the thruster centerline. Comparisons are made to other exp...

  17. The angular and spatial distributions of the thermal neutron source description of the THOR BNCT beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a way to determine the angular and spatial distributions of the thermal neutron source strength of a boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) beam. The experiments applied 1) the indirect neutron radiography, 2) the cadmium difference method, and 3) the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The measured data were processed by the spectrum deconvolution technique to resolve into a proper set of angular and spatial distributions. This paper took the epithermal neutron beam of the BNCT facility at the Tsing Hua Open-pool Reactor as an example.

  18. Energy-loss effects in multiple-scattering angular distributions of ions in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard theory of multiple scattering of ions traversing matter assumes that the energy loss of a particle, during transit through a medium, is very small compared with its initial energy. Here we consider the effect of finite-energy losses on the multiple-scattering angular distributions, by taking into account the variation of the energy-dependent scattering cross section as a function of the depth penetrated into the material. The theory is generalized to account for a continuous slowing down of the beam particles. We study in particular, for the case of slow ions, the increased spread of the angular distributions due to the energy-loss effect

  19. Twofold angular distributions in two-color, two-photon ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ejected electron angular distributions for two-color ionization of hydrogen are studied using a new approach which takes into account the radiative corrections to both the bound and the continuous states. One considers ionization processes in which one high frequency, linearly polarized photon has enough energy to ionize the atom, meanwhile, one extra-photon is exchanged between the atomic system and the low frequency, circularly polarized field. Asymmetric angular distributions are predicted for this case and their origin is discussed. Numerical evaluations, made for the Nd:YAG laser and high frequencies which are near the value of the ionization threshold are presented. (author). 34 refs, 2 figs

  20. Effect of Orbital Angular Momentum on Valence-Quark Helicity Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Avakian, Harut; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Deur, Alexandre; Yuan, Feng

    2007-01-01

    We study the quark helicity distributions at large x in perturbative QCD, taking into account contributions from the valence Fock states of the nucleon which have nonzero orbital angular momentum. These states are necessary to have a nonzero anomalous magnetic moment. We find that the quark orbital angular momentum contributes a large logarithm to the negative helicity quark distributions in addition to its power behavior, scaling as (1-x)^5\\log^2(1-x) in the limit of x\\to 1. Our analysis sho...

  1. Molecular above-threshold-ionization angular distributions with intense circularly polarized attosecond XUV laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, André D.

    2012-05-01

    Photoionization of aligned and fixed nuclei three-dimensional H2+ and two-dimensional H2 by intense circularly polarized attosecond extreme ultraviolet laser pulses is investigated from numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. Molecular above-threshold-ionization angular distributions are found to be rotated with respect to the two laser perpendicular polarizations or, equivalently the symmetry axes of the molecule. The angle of rotation is critically sensitive to laser wavelength λ, photoelectron energy Een, and molecular internuclear distance R. The correlated interaction of the two electrons in H2 is shown to also influence such angular distribution rotations in different electronic states.

  2. Radiative angular distributions from charmonium states directly produced by bar pp annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the combined angular distributions of the photon and the electron in the cascade process p bar p→χJ→ψγ→(e+e-)γ (J=2,1,0), in terms of the helicity or the multipole transition amplitudes in χJ→ψγ. Our expressions for them differ from those found previously. We describe the origin of these differences. The effect of the motion of ψ in the χJ rest frame on the angular-distribution functions is taken into account

  3. Angular distribution of electron temperature and density in a laser-ablation plume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftmann, B.; Schou, Jørgen; Hansen, T.N.; Lunney, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    The angular distribution of electron temperature and density in a laser-ablation plume has been studied for the first time. The electron temperature ranges from 0.1 to 0.5 eV and is only weakly dependent on the angle in the low-intensity range studied here. In contrast, the typical ion energy is ...... about 2 orders of magnitude larger, and its angular distribution is mon peaked about the target normal. The derived Values of the electron density are in agreement with the measured values of ion density....

  4. Quark Wigner Distributions and Orbital Angular Momentum in Light-front Dressed Quark Model

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Asmita; Ojha, Vikash Kumar

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the Wigner functions for a quark target dressed with a gluon. These give a combined position and momentum space information of the quark distributions and are related to both generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and transverse momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs). We calculate and compare the different definitions of quark orbital angular momentum in this model. We compare our results with other model calculations.

  5. Compton scattering of twisted light: angular distribution and polarization of scattered photons

    CERN Document Server

    Stock, S; Fritzsche, S; Seipt, D

    2015-01-01

    Compton scattering of twisted photons is investigated within a non-relativistic framework using first-order perturbation theory. We formulate the problem in the density matrix theory, which enables one to gain new insights into scattering processes of twisted particles by exploiting the symmetries of the system. In particular, we analyze how the angular distribution and polarization of the scattered photons are affected by the parameters of the initial beam such as the opening angle and the projection of orbital angular momentum. We present analytical and numerical results for the angular distribution and the polarization of Compton scattered photons for initially twisted light and compare them with the standard case of plane-wave light.

  6. Compton scattering of twisted light: Angular distribution and polarization of scattered photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, S.; Surzhykov, A.; Fritzsche, S.; Seipt, D.

    2015-07-01

    Compton scattering of twisted photons is investigated within a nonrelativistic framework using first-order perturbation theory. We formulate the problem in the density-matrix theory, which enables one to gain new insights into scattering processes of twisted particles by exploiting the symmetries of the system. In particular, we analyze how the angular distribution and polarization of the scattered photons are affected by the parameters of the initial beam such as the opening angle and the projection of orbital angular momentum. We present analytical and numerical results for the angular distribution and the polarization of Compton scattered photons for initially twisted light and compare them with the standard case of plane-wave light.

  7. Measurement of fission cross sections and fragment angular distributions using solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission cross sections and angular distributions of fission fragments from fissions induced by 14.1 and 15.8 MeV neutrons, respectively, in 232Th, 231Pa, 233U, 235U, 238U, 237Np, 239Pu and 241Am have been studied using Lexan plastic track detectors. A novel experimental set-up evolved from considerations of neutron economy allows simultaneous measurement of angular distribution of fission fragments from five independently fissioning nuclides at a time. The data on angular anistropy were analysed in the perspective of different chances of fissions taking place simultaneously in this energy region. Third-chance fission thresholds for 231Pa and 241Am were estimated from the measured anisotropy values to be 13.2 and 11.1 MeV, respectively. (author)

  8. Energy and angular distribution of secondary particles in the detection media after the interaction of ionizing radiation. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the angular distribution of particles or radiation produced as a result of interaction processes of primary radiation with matter. Equally important as the angular distribution of the particles or radiation is their energy distribution and energy losses or the mean path in the matter. (author)

  9. Quasifission role in the anisotropy of fragment angular distribution of 19F+208Pb reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Role of quasifission was analyzed in the angular anisotropy of the fission-like reaction fragments in the framework of the model based on the conception of dinuclear system (DNS) and used to calculate the partial capture and complete fusion cross sections [1,2,3]. This model allows us to calculate the entrance channel dynamics of the nuclei to be captured with different orientation angles of their axes. We theoretically analyzed the experimental data for mean square values 2> and the angular anisotropy A for the 19F+208Pb reaction which was studied in Ref. [4, 5]. The experimental studies of fission angular distributions in heavy ion reactions show distinct deviation from the SSM theory. Our results of the reaction cross sections showed the presence of quasifission process. Considering the quasifission as 'fission' of the dinuclear system from a non compact shape we estimated mean square values of the angular momentum and anisotropy of the angular distribution of reaction fragments. This was possible with the known angular momentum distributions of complete fusion and quasifission calculated in our model. Comparison of the results with the experimental data shows that the fission data presented in Ref. [4, 5] are in good agreement with our fusion cross sections at energies near the barrier and contain contributions of quasifission at higher energies. Our results of the mean square values of the angular momentum and anisotropy of the angular distributions of reaction fragments are in good agreement with the experimental data if we include quasifission contributions. From a fit of the experimental data for fusion-fission cross section we found which part of quasifission fragments is mixed with the fragments from the compound nucleus fission. So, we conclude that the main reason of the failure of the standard statistical model for the description of the angular anisotropy of the fission fragments at higher than Coulomb barrier is the presence of the

  10. Photoelectron angular distribution and photoionization cross sections for H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoionization of H2 from its ground 1μ/sub g/+ state is studied theoretically. The rotational quantization is introduced in addition to the conventional vibrational-electronic transitions during the photoionization process. The photoionization differential cross section of this rotating system is derived and proved to be expressible in the simple form of [sigma(v')/4π][1 + #betta#(v')P2(cos theta)] for H2+ in the vibrational level v' or in the well-known form of (sigma/sub T//4π) [1 + #betta#P2(cos theta)] after summing over all of the vibrational levels of H2+. The angle theta of the ejected electron is measured from the polarization direction of the radiation for the linearly polarized light or measured from the light propagation direction for the unpolarized light. The asymmetry parameters #betta#(v') and #betta#, which are expressed explicitly here in terms of Racah and Clebsch-Gordan coefficients and electronic transition moments, are shown to equal approximately to 2 for the case of linearly polarized light and -1 for the case of unpolarized light. The differential cross section is also proved to be independent of the initial rotational quantum number N'' (of H2) by neglecting vibrational-rotational interactions. Using single-center electronic wave functions for both the molecular system and the outgoing electron and including partial waves l = 1, 3 and 5 in the continuum (Coulomb) wave functions, sigma(v') and #betta#(v') are computed as a function of v' at 584 A. The calculated ratios sigma(v')/sigma(v'=2) agree with the measured vibrational intensity distributions. sigma/sub T/ and #betta# are computed in the incident photon energy range of 600 A to 440 A and the results compare favorably with previous calculations

  11. The dijet mass spectrum and angular distributions with the D0 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present preliminary results from an analysis of dijet data collected during the 1994-95 Tevatron Collider run with an integrated luminosity of 91 pb-1. Measurements of dijet mass spectra and dijet angular distributions in anti pp collisions at √s- = 1.8 TeV are compared with next-to-leading order QCD theory

  12. Angular Ion and Neutral Energy-Distribution in a Collisional Rf Sheath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manenschijn, A.; W. J. Goedheer,

    1991-01-01

    A numerical study on the ion and neutral angular impact energy distribution at the rf-driven electrode of a reactive ion etcher is presented. The calculations for the ions are performed using a Monte Carlo method that includes charge exchange and elastic scattering. The contribution of both collisio

  13. State-selective velocity and angular distributions of NO molecules scattered from a graphite surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hager, J.; Shen, Y.R.; Walther, H.

    1985-03-01

    Laser ionization was used to measure the state-selective angular and velocity distributions of NO molecules scattered from a graphite surface. The data showed that at sufficiently low surface temperatures, the scattered molecules were generally composed of quasispecular reflected part and a diffusive scattered part with different translational and rotational behavior.

  14. Time-Resolved Photoelectron Angular Distributions from Strong-Field Ionization of Rotating Naphthalene Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas Lerche; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Dimitrovski, Darko;

    2011-01-01

    A nanosecond laser pulse confines the spatial orientation of naphthalene in 1D or 3D while a femtosecond kick pulse initiates rotation of the molecular plane around the fixed long axis. Time-dependent photoelectron angular distributions (PADs), resulting from ionization by an intense femtosecond...

  15. Angular distribution of neutral hydrogen following collisional electron detachment from H-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distribution of neutral hydrogen following electron detachment from H- has been measured for H- on nitrogen and hydrogen gas, both for neutral atoms left in the 2S state, and for all neutrals independent of the state of excitation. The results are essentially in agreement with calculations based on the Born approximation, although there is some disagreement in detail

  16. Alpha particle angular distribution of oriented 189,191,193Bi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular distribution data for α particles emitted in the enhanced decay of on-line oriented neutron deficient isotopes 189,191,193Bi near mid-shell (N=104) are presented. They give additional support for the recent finding that anisotropic α emission in enhanced decays from near-spherical nuclei is mainly determined by nuclear structure effects. (authors)

  17. Dependence of electric potentials at trench surfaces on ion angular distribution in plasma etching processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palov, A. P.; Mankelevich, Yu A.; Rakhimova, T. V.; Baklanov, M. R.

    2016-03-01

    Ion-stimulated etching of dielectrics in radio frequency plasma results in positive charging of a trench bottom because of the significant difference in the angular distribution functions of ions and electrons. They are anisotropic for ions and quasi-isotropic for electrons. The charging leads to a decrease in the energy of the ions bombarding the trench bottom and to undesirable sputtering of the walls near the trench bottom because of the curving of the ion trajectories. This process is normally investigated by Monte Carlo methods in the absence of experimental data. In this paper the analytical dependence of the ion flux bombarding the trench bottom on a trench aspect ratio and ion angular distribution function is obtained. Numerical calculations of the electric potential on the trench bottom for a set of trench aspect ratios and angles of the ion angular distribution function were performed based on a Monte Carlo method to demonstrate the ion flux and electric potential correlated well with each other. The proposed formula for an ion flux is suggested to be helpful for analyzing charging the trenches with different aspect ratios in plasma with an arbitrary angular ion distribution function.

  18. Polarization and angular distributions in elastic pp scattering at 100 and 300 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the polarization parameter and angular distributions in pp elastic scattering at incident energies of 100 and 300 GeV are reported. The data cover the kinematic range 0.18 2. They are found to be consistent with absorption-model predictions

  19. Angular distribution of electron temperature and density in a laser-ablation plume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftmann, B.; Schou, Jørgen; Hansen, T.N.; Lunney, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    The angular distribution of electron temperature and density in a laser-ablation plume has been studied for the first time. The electron temperature ranges from 0.1 to 0.5 eV and is only weakly dependent on the angle in the low-intensity range studied here. In contrast, the typical ion energy is...

  20. Quiescence and late time activity in collapsars due to critical angular momentum distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Camara, D

    2010-01-01

    Even thought a large amount of long gamma ray bursts (LGRBs) present quiescent periods, their origin remains unclear. In this talk, it is shown how different angular momentum distributions, as a function of the stellar radius), can lead to neutrino luminosity variability and the possibility of quiescent epochs in LGRBs.

  1. The statistical properties of the angular distribution of beta delayed protons from oriented nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, N J; Wöhr, A

    2000-01-01

    Statistical model of beta -delayed proton emission is briefly reviewed. Theory of angular distribution of beta -delayed proton emission from nuclear states oriented at low temperatures is discussed and the design of the first trial experiment using /sup 118 /Cs oriented at low temperature at the ISOLDE/NICOLE facility at CERN is described. (14 refs).

  2. Different approach to calculating average angular distributions of elastically scattered neutrons in the resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relatively simple formalism for calculating the average neutron elastic angular distribution dσel/dΩ in the resonance region below several hundred keV is presented. The expression for dσel/dΩ depends mainly on the R-matrix parameters S0, R', S1, and R1∞. Comparisons between calculated and experimental angular distributions are presented for 103Rh, 139La, 232Th, and 238U. A fit to 238U data at 75 keV led to a value of the p-wave strength function of S1=1.81±0.35x10-4. Except for measuring a complete set of individual l=1 resonances, determining the p-wave strength function by fitting low-energy angular distributions is probably more reliable than, or competitive with, other techniques which are available. An analysis of elastic angular distributions as a function of neutron energy is also well suited to a search for intermediate structure in the s- or p-wave strength function. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. On the possibility of universal description of angular distribution in interactions of hadrons with nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validity of the hypothesis that the angular distribution of shower particles produced in hadron - nucleus interactions can be parametrized by the number of slow particles emitted from the struck nucleus is tested. Relation between the mean number of slow particles and the mass number A of the target nucleus or the corresponding average number of collisions inside the target nucleus is found. (author)

  4. Angular distribution of species in pulsed energy beam deposition of oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nistor, M., E-mail: mnistor@infim.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasmas and Radiation Physics, L22 P.O. Box MG-36, 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Gherendi, F.; Mandache, N.B. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasmas and Radiation Physics, L22 P.O. Box MG-36, 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thickness profiles of Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3} thin films were measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between pulsed laser (PLD) and pulsed electron beam deposition (PED). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The film thicknesses profile of PED has a slightly broader shape than that of PLD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The film stoichiometry is preserved at all angles. - Abstract: Pulsed energy beam deposition methods like pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) or pulsed-electron beam deposition (PED) allow the formation of smooth, dense and crystalline oxide thin films. The angular distribution of the ablated flux from the target and the thin film thickness profile were extensively studied for PLD for a wide range of materials and growth conditions. In the case of complex oxide compounds, the angular distribution of the various species emitted by the target will determine the precise composition of the films. In this work we report on the determination of the angular distributions of the species emitted from a Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3} (BST) target. A comparison between these results obtained by PED and PLD methods is presented and discussed in the frame of Anisimov's model. A slightly broader shape of the angular distribution for PED than that for PLD is explained taking into account the differences in the spot size and fluence between the pulsed electron beam and laser beam and a small collisional broadening of the angular distribution in the case of PED. The stoichiometry is preserved at all angles.

  5. Calculation of the angular distribution of delay times in neutron scattering on 58Ni nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular distributions of average delay times and time variances are calculated for resonance-neutron scattering on 58Ni nuclei at neutron energies in the range E = 600−700 keV. The effect of the energy spectrum and polarization of the beam on the scattering-process time is discussed. The angular dependence of the time law is also considered for the decay of an intermediate compound nuclear system. It is shown that the results of stationary and nonstationary calculations are in good agreement.

  6. Calculation of the angular distribution of delay times in neutron scattering on {sup 58}Ni nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopets, G. A., E-mail: gaprok@uos.net.ua [National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (Ukraine)

    2011-05-15

    Angular distributions of average delay times and time variances are calculated for resonance-neutron scattering on {sup 58}Ni nuclei at neutron energies in the range E = 600-700 keV. The effect of the energy spectrum and polarization of the beam on the scattering-process time is discussed. The angular dependence of the time law is also considered for the decay of an intermediate compound nuclear system. It is shown that the results of stationary and nonstationary calculations are in good agreement.

  7. Towards a Direct Measurement of the Quark Orbital Angular Momentum Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Liuti, Simonetta; Engelhardt, Michael; Rajan, Abha

    2015-01-01

    We discuss two different definitions of partonic orbital angular momentum given in the literature in terms of the Fourier transform of a Wigner distribution, $F_{14}$, and a twist three generalized parton distribution, $\\tilde{E}_{2T}$, respectively. We derive a relation between the two definitions which reflects their specific spin and intrinsic transverse momentum/transverse space correlations as well as their gauge link structure.

  8. Angular Distribution of Protons Measured by the Energetic Particle Telescope on PROBA-V

    OpenAIRE

    Borisov, Stanislav; Benck, Sylvie; Cyamukungu, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Angular distribution and contamination of proton spectra measured at LEO are considered as possible sources of discrepancies between fluxes obtained by different instruments. In particular, not accounted for pitch angle distribution and East/West asymmetry of energetic proton fluxes have been suspected of leading to the reported underestimates of these fluxes by the NASA Model AP8. The Energetic Particle Telescope (EPT) was designed as a science-class instrument aimed at providing uncontamina...

  9. Calculation of the backscattered ion energy and angular distributions during the grazing implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulation of ion implantation into deep trenches demands the exact evaluation of ion fluxes backscattered from the sidewalls. In this paper an application of Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE) to backscattered ion energy and angular distribution calculations is presented. Characteristic examples of grazing implantation of Sb, As and P in Si are considered and good agreement with Monte-Carlo (MC) calculations are found. It was also found that BTE gives a more smooth distribution without statistical fluctuations and essentially saves computational time. (author)

  10. Angular distributions of photoelectrons and non-thermal photoions from atoms and molecules. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmer, Joseph L.

    1977-01-01

    During the last ten years, photoelectron angular distributions have been used extensively to study the dynamics of the photoionization process in atoms and molecules. Some major advances in this body of work are reviewed with special emphasis on results emerging since the last Conference on VUV Radiation Physics three years ago. By far the greatest progress has occurred for atoms, where interest is focussed on improving zero-order (Hartree-Slater, Cooper-Zare) understanding of the asymmetry parameter β(ϵ), by considering electron correlations, relativistic effects, and anisotropic final-state interactions. The study of the rare gases has benefitted from extensive coordination between experiment and theory, whereas work on nonspherical atoms has been mainly theoretical, with the only measurements being performed very recently on atomic oxygen. Angular distribution studies on molecules are in a much earlier stage of development. Progress has been impeded by the lack of practical, realistic theoretical methods and wavelength-dependent measurements, both of which are becoming available only now. This recent work, together with selected topics from earlier resonance-line work on molecules will be reviewed. In addition, a new class of angular-dependent studies of molecules will be discussed--the angular distribution of nonthermal ions formed by dissociative photoionization--which provides information complementary to the related measurements on photoelectrons.

  11. Modelling of atmospheric effects on the angular distribution of a backscattering peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If off-nadir satellite sensing of vegetative surfaces is considered, understanding the angular distribution of the radiance exiting the atmosphere in all upward directions is of interest. Of particular interest is the discovery of those reflectance features which are invariant to atmospheric perturbations. When mono-directional radiation is incident on a vegetative scene a characteristic angular signature called the hot-spot is produced in the solar retro-direction. The remotely sensed hot-spot is modified by atmospheric extinction of the direct and reflected solar radiation, atmospheric backscattering, and the diffuse sky irradiance incident on the surface. It is demonstrated, however, by radiative transfer calculations through model atmospheres that at least one parameter which characterizes the canopy hot-spot, namely its angular half width, is invariant to atmospheric perturbations. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Effect of Orbital Angular Momentum on Valence-Quark Helicity Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harut Avakian; Stanley J. Brodsky; Alexandre Deur; Feng Yuan

    2007-08-01

    We study the quark helicity distributions at large x in perturbative QCD, taking into account contributions from the valence Fock states of the nucleon which have nonzero orbital angular momentum. These states are necessary to have a nonzero anomalous magnetic moment. We find that the quark orbital angular momentum contributes a large logarithm to the negative helicity quark distributions in addition to its power behavior, scaling as (1-x)^5\\log^2(1-x) in the limit of x\\to 1. Our analysis shows that the ratio of the polarized over unpolarized down quark distributions, \\Delta d/d, will still approach 1 in this limit. By comparing with the experimental data, we find that this ratio should cross zero at x\\approx 0.75.

  13. Probability distribution of primordial angular momentum and formation of massive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Susa, H; Tanaka, T; Hajime Susa; Misao Sasaki; Takahiro Tanaka

    1994-01-01

    Abstract{ We consider the joint probability distribution function for the mass contrast and angular momentum of over-density regions on the proto- galactic scale and investigate the formation of massive black holes at redshift z\\gsim10. We estimate the growth rate of the angular momentum by the linear perturbation theory and the decay rate by the Compton drag and apply the Press-Schechter theory to obtain the formation rate of massive black holes, assuming the full reionization of the universe at z=z_{ion}\\gg 10. We find the correlation between the mass contrast and angular momentum vanishes in the linear theory. However, application of the Press-Schechter theory introduces a correlation between the mass contrast and angular momentum of bound objects. Using thus obtained probability distribution, we calculate the mass fraction of black holes with M\\sim10^6-10^8M_{\\odot} in the universe. We find that it crucially depends on the reionization epoch z_{ion}. Specifically, for the standard CDM power spectrum with ...

  14. Angular distribution of Cherenkov radiation from relativistic heavy ions taking into account deceleration in the radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, O. V.; Fiks, E. I.; Pivovarov, Yu. L.

    2012-09-01

    Numerical methods are used to study the dependence of the structure and the width of the angular distribution of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation with a fixed wavelength in the vicinity of the Cherenkov cone on the radiator parameters (thickness and refractive index), as well as on the parameters of the relativistic heavy ion beam (charge and initial energy). The deceleration of relativistic heavy ions in the radiator, which decreases the velocity of ions, modifies the condition of structural interference of the waves emitted from various segments of the trajectory; as a result, a complex distribution of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation appears. The main quantity is the stopping power of a thin layer of the radiator (average loss of the ion energy), which is calculated by the Bethe-Bloch formula and using the SRIM code package. A simple formula is obtained to estimate the angular distribution width of Cherenkov radiation (with a fixed wavelength) from relativistic heavy ions taking into account the deceleration in the radiator. The measurement of this width can provide direct information on the charge of the ion that passes through the radiator, which extends the potentialities of Cherenkov detectors. The isotopic effect (dependence of the angular distribution of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation on the ion mass) is also considered.

  15. Influence of the halo upon angular distributions for elastic scattering and breakup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distributions for elastic scattering and breakup of halo nuclei are analysed using a near-side/far-side decomposition within the framework of the dynamical eikonal approximation. This analysis is performed for 11Be impinging on Pb at 69 MeV/nucleon. These distributions exhibit very similar features. In particular they are both near-side dominated, as expected from Coulomb-dominated reactions. The general shape of these distributions is sensitive mostly to the projectile-target interactions, but is also affected by the extension of the halo. This suggests the elastic scattering not to be affected by a loss of flux towards the breakup channel.

  16. Measurement of the dijet angular distributions and search for quark compositeness with the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzmann, Andreas Dominik

    2011-10-07

    {sub 2}} {sup vertical} {sup stroke}, where y{sub 1} and y{sub 2} are the rapidities of the two jets, y {identical_to} (1)/(2)ln [(E+p{sub z})/(E-p{sub z})], and p{sub z} is the projection of the jet momentum along the beam axis. The choice of the variable {chi}{sub dijet} is motivated by the fact that the normalized differential cross section (1)/({sigma}) (d{sigma})/(d{chi}{sub dijet}) (the dijet angular distribution) is flat in this variable for Rutherford scattering, characteristic for spin-1 particle exchange. In contrast to QCD which predicts a dijet angular distribution similar to Rutherford scattering, new physics, such as quark compositeness, that might have a more isotropic dijet angular distribution would produce an excess at low values of {chi}{sub dijet}. Since the shapes of the dijet angular distributions for the qg {yields}qg, qq{sup '} {yields}qq{sup '} and gg {yields}gg scattering processes are similar, the QCD prediction does not strongly depend on the parton distribution functions (PDFs) which describe the momentum distribution of the partons inside the protons. Due to the normalization, the dijet angular distribution has a reduced sensitivity to several predominant experimental uncertainties (e.g. the jet energy scale and luminosity uncertainties). The dijet angular distribution is therefore well suited to test the predictions of QCD and to search for signals of new physics, in particular for signs of quark compositeness. In the following a measurement of the dijet angular distributions and a search for quark compositeness with the CMS experiment is presented. (orig.)

  17. The angular distribution of sputtered particles measured by RBS analysis of the collected patticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distributions of sputtered polycrystalline Ag and W have been measured. The ion beams were He+ or Ar+ in the energy range 15-80 keV. The sputtered particles were collected on a band in the form of a half-circle, in order to avoid projection distortions. The collector was made of high purity Al and was analysed by backscattering technique. The sensitivity of this method makes it possible to determine less than one monolayer, and one can therefore assume that the sticking probability does not change during a run. The results show that the angular distribution varies from a cos2theta to a costheta function for different targets. For the interpretation of the results, it is important to discuss the influence of the work function and the beam energy. (Auth.)

  18. Neutron angular distribution in a plasma focus obtained using nuclear track detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Mejía, F; Herrera, J J E; Rangel, J; Golzarri, J I; Espinosa, G

    2002-01-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) is a coaxial plasma gun in which a high-density, high-temperature plasma is obtained in a focused column for a few nanoseconds. When the filling gas is deuterium, neutrons can be obtained from fusion reactions. These are partially due to a beam of deuterons which are accelerated against the background hot plasma by large electric fields originating from plasma instabilities. Due to a beam-target effect, the angular distribution of the neutron emission is anisotropic, peaked in the forward direction along the axis of the gun. The purpose of this work is to illustrate the use of CR-39 nuclear track detectors as a diagnostic tool in the determination of the time-integrated neutron angular distribution. For the case studied in this work, neutron emission is found to have a 70% contribution from isotropic radiation and a 30% contribution from anisotropic radiation. PMID:12382811

  19. Sideways-peaked angular distributions in hadron-induced multifragmentation: Shock waves, geometry, or kinematics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsi, W.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Wang, G.; Bracken, D.S.; Cornell, E.; Ginger, D.S.; Viola, V.E.; Yoder, N.R. [Department of Chemistry and IUCF, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); Korteling, R.G. [Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6 (CANADA); Gimeno-Nogues, F.; Ramakrishnan, E.; Rowland, D.; Yennello, S.J. [Department of Chemistry and Cyclotron Institute, Texas AM University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Huang, R.; Lynch, W.G.; Tsang, M.B.; Xi, H. [Department of Physics and NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 44824 (United States); Breuer, H. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Morley, K.B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Gushue, S.; Remsberg, L.P. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Friedman, W.A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Botvina, A. [Department of Physics, Bologna University, Bologna 40126 (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    Exclusive studies of sideways-peaked angular distributions for intermediate-mass fragments (IMFs) produced in hadron-induced reactions have been performed with the Indiana silicon sphere (ISiS) detector array. The effect becomes prominent for beam momenta above about 10thinspGeV/c. Both the magnitude of the effect and the peak angle increase as a function of fragment multiplicity and charge. When gated on IMF kinetic energy, the angular distributions evolve from forward peaked to nearly isotropic as the fragment energy decreases. Fragment-fragment correlation studies show no evidence for a preferred angle that might signal a fast dynamic breakup mechanism. Moving-source and intranuclear cascade simulations suggest a possible kinematic origin arising from significant transverse momentum imparted to the recoil nucleus during the fast cascade. A two-step cascade and statistical multifragmentation calculation is consistent with the data. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Angular distributions of electrons emitted from free and deposited Na{sub 8} clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Matthias [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Erlangen (Germany); Dinh, Phuong Mai; Suraud, Eric [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, IRSAMC, UPS and CNRS, Universite de Toulouse (France); Moskaleva, Lyudmila V.; Roesch, Notker [Department Chemie and Catalysis Research Center, Theoretische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Reinhard, Paul-Gerhard [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Erlangen (Germany); Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, IRSAMC, UPS and CNRS, Universite de Toulouse (France)

    2010-05-15

    We explore from a theoretical perspective angular distributions of electrons emitted from a Na{sub 8} cluster after excitation by a short laser pulse. The tool of the study is time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) at the level of the local-density approximation (LDA) augmented by a self-interaction correction (SIC) to put emission properties in order. We consider free Na{sub 8} and Na{sub 8} deposited on the surfaces MgO(001) or Ar(001). For the case of free Na{sub 8}, we distinguish between a hypothetical situation of known cluster orientation and a more realistic ensemble of orientations. We also consider the angular distributions for emission from separate single-electron levels. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Analysis of angular distribution of fragments in relativistic heavy-ion collisions by quantum molecular dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogawa Tatsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To predict angular distribution of fragments produced in nucleusnucleus collisions, JAERI quantum molecular dynamics model (JQMD was improved. Because JQMD underestimated fragments in the forward angle, which were mainly produced by peripheral collisions, JQMD was revised so as to simulate peripheral collisions accurately. Density-dependent in-medium effect and relativistic effect on nucleonnucleon interactions were incorporated for this purpose. The revised version of JQMD coupled with a statistical decay model was used to calculate differential fragment production cross sections measured in earlier studies. Comparison of the measured data and calculation by the revised and old JQMD showed that the revised JQMD can predict fragment angular distribution better than old JQMD. Particularly, agreement of fragment yield in the forward angle is substantially improved.

  2. Measurement of the Angular Distribution of Electrons from $W\\to e\

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B

    2001-01-01

    We present a preliminary measurement of the electron angular distribution parameter alpha2 in W to e nu events using data collected by the D0 detector during the 1994--1995 Tevatron run. We compare our results with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD, which predicts an angular distribution of 1 +/- alpha1 cos theta* +alpha_2 cos^2 theta*, where theta* is the angle between the charged lepton and the antiproton in the Collins-Soper frame. In the presence of QCD corrections, the parameters alpha1 and alpha2 become functions of pT(W), the W boson transverse momentum. We present the first measurement of alpha_2 as a function of pT(W). This measurement is of importance, because it provides a test of next-to-leading order QCD corrections which are a non-negligible contribution to the W mass measurement.

  3. 2p-2h excitations in neutrino scattering: angular distribution and frozen approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Simo, I Ruiz; Amaro, J E; Barbaro, M B; Caballero, J A; Donnelly, T W

    2015-01-01

    We study the phase-space dependence of 2p-2h excitations in neutrino scattering using the relativistic Fermi gas model. We follow a similar approach to other authors, but focusing in the phase-space properties, comparing with the non-relativistic model. A careful mathematical analysis of the angular distribution function for the outgoing nucleons is performed. Our goals are to optimize the CPU time of the 7D integral to compute the hadron tensor in neutrino scattering, and to conciliate the different relativistic and non relativistic models by describing general properties independently of the two-body current. For some emission angles the angular distribution becomes infinite in the Lab system, and we derive a method to integrate analytically around the divergence. Our results show that the frozen approximation, obtained by neglecting the momenta of the two initial nucleons inside the integral of the hadron tensor, reproduces fairly the exact response functions for constant current matrix elements.

  4. Depth dose and angular dose distribution experiments with high energy electron-photon radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India's first synchrotron radiation source, Indus-1, is commissioned at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore. Radiation environment of this facility is quite different in comparison to that of nuclear or irradiator facilities and proton or heavy ion accelerator facilities. The primary particle accelerated being the electron, the radiation environment mainly comprises of Bremsstrahlung photons followed by photo-neutrons, whereas electron contamination too exists within the containment area. Due to the complex nature of the radiation viz. high energy, broad energy spectrum, pulsed, mixed field, sharp angular distribution etc. quantification of radiation dose becomes a difficult task. In this paper, experiments on depth dose and angular dose distribution done with 450 MeV electron-photon radiation are described

  5. Uncertainty files for neutron cross sections and elastic angular scattering distributions on 56Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a consistent theory calculation by means of UNF code, a evaluation of neutron induced reaction data on 56Fe, including cross section, angular distribution, double differential cross section and gamma ray production data, has been completed. The evaluations on covariance files for the data above are going on and some of the evaluation methods and results are reported. Five methods are used to evaluate the uncertainty files for cross sections and angular distributions. The comparisons between these results and other evaluations for uncertainty files are carried out. The agreements is good in the case of plenty measured data available as a basis of the evaluation. 56Fe(n,p) cross section is a typical example

  6. Monte Carlo Calculation of Sensitivities to Secondary Angular Distributions. Theory and Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic methods for solution of the transport equation that are in practical use today are the discrete ordinates (SN) method, and the Monte Carlo (Monte Carlo) method. While the SN method is typically less computation time consuming, the Monte Carlo method is often preferred for detailed and general description of three-dimensional geometries, and for calculations using cross sections that are point-wise energy dependent. For analysis of experimental and calculated results, sensitivities are needed. Sensitivities to material parameters in general, and to the angular distribution of the secondary (scattered) neutrons in particular, can be calculated by well known SN methods, using the fluxes obtained from solution of the direct and the adjoint transport equations. Algorithms to calculate sensitivities to cross-sections with Monte Carlo methods have been known for quite a time. However, only just recently we have developed a general Monte Carlo algorithm for the calculation of sensitivities to the angular distribution of the secondary neutrons

  7. Second order classical perturbation theory for atom surface scattering: Analysis of asymmetry in the angular distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yun, E-mail: zhou.yun.x@gmail.com; Pollak, Eli, E-mail: eli.pollak@weizmann.ac.il [Chemical Physics Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Miret-Artés, Salvador, E-mail: s.miret@iff.csic.es [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-14

    A second order classical perturbation theory is developed and applied to elastic atom corrugated surface scattering. The resulting theory accounts for experimentally observed asymmetry in the final angular distributions. These include qualitative features, such as reduction of the asymmetry in the intensity of the rainbow peaks with increased incidence energy as well as the asymmetry in the location of the rainbow peaks with respect to the specular scattering angle. The theory is especially applicable to “soft” corrugated potentials. Expressions for the angular distribution are derived for the exponential repulsive and Morse potential models. The theory is implemented numerically to a simplified model of the scattering of an Ar atom from a LiF(100) surface.

  8. Angular distribution of species in pulsed laser deposition of LaxCa1−xMnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The angular distribution of species was analyzed for different pressures. • Results show a non-congruent transfer of composition from target to substrate. • Film thickness and composition show different angular distributions. - Abstract: The angular distribution of species from a La0.4Ca0.6MnO3 target irradiated with a 248 nm nanosecond pulsed laser was investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry for four different Ar pressures. The film thickness angular distribution was also analyzed using profilometry. Depending on the background gas pressure, the target to substrate distance, and the angular location the film thickness and composition varies considerably. In particular the film composition could vary by up to 17% with respect to the composition of the target material

  9. Testing the anisotropy in the angular distribution of $Fermi$/GBM gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Tarnopolski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) were confirmed to be of extragalactic origin due to their isotropic angular distribution, combined with the fact that they exhibited an intensity distribution that deviated strongly from the $-3/2$ power law. This finding was later confirmed with the first redshift, equal to at least $z=0.835$, measured for GRB970508. Despite this result, the data from $CGRO$/BATSE and $Swift$/BAT indicate that long GRBs are indeed distributed isotropically, but the distribution of short GRBs is anisotropic. $Fermi$/GBM has detected 1669 GRBs up to date, and their sky distribution is examined in this paper. A number of statistical tests is applied: nearest neighbour analysis, fractal dimension, dipole and quadrupole moments of the distribution function decomposed into spherical harmonics, binomial test, and the two point angular correlation function. Monte Carlo benchmark testing of each test is performed in order to evaluate its reliability. It is found that short GRBs are distributed anisotropically ...

  10. Photoelectron angular distributions from strong-field ionization of oriented molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Holmegaard, L.; Hansen, J.; Kalhøj, L.; Kragh, S.; Stapelfeldt, H.; Filsinger, F.; Küpper, J.; Meijer, G.; Dimitrovski, D.; Abu-samha, M.; Martiny, C.; Madsen, L.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of photoelectron spectroscopy and ultrafast light sources is on track to set new standards for detailed interrogation of dynamics and reactivity of molecules. A crucial prerequisite for further progress is the ability to not only detect the electron kinetic energy, as done in traditional photoelectron spectroscopy, but also the photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) in the molecular frame. Here carbonylsulfide (OCS) and benzonitrile molecules, fixed in space by combined la...

  11. On the use of Makrofol KG to study fission fragment angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makrofol KG nuclear track detector processing and analysis is carefully regulated and assessed to reveal fission fragments' tracks and their angular distributions. For this purpose, foils of this detector are irradiated by a thin 252Cf source and are subjected to chemical etching followed by a two-step sparking process. The detector efficiency as a function of fission fragment incidence angle and different etching parameters is carried out with a good reproducibility

  12. Angular velocity distribution of a granular planar rotator in a thermalized bath

    OpenAIRE

    Piasecki, J.; Talbot, J.; Viot, P.

    2006-01-01

    The kinetics of a granular planar rotator with a fixed center undergoing inelastic collisions with bath particles is analyzed both numerically and analytically by means of the Boltzmann equation. The angular velocity distribution evolves from quasi-gaussian in the Brownian limit to an algebraic decay in the limit of an infinitely light particle. In addition, we compare this model with a planar rotator with a free center. We propose experimental tests that might confirm the predicted behaviors.

  13. Angular velocity distribution of a granular planar rotator in a thermalized bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, J; Talbot, J; Viot, P

    2007-05-01

    The kinetics of a granular planar rotator with a fixed center undergoing inelastic collisions with bath particles is analyzed both numerically and analytically by means of the Boltzmann equation. The angular velocity distribution evolves from quasi-Gaussian in the Brownian limit to an algebraic decay in the limit of an infinitely light particle. In addition, we compare this model to that of a planar rotator with a free center and discuss the prospects for experimental confirmation of these results. PMID:17677054

  14. Angular distribution of hypersatellite and satellite radiation emitted after resonant and excitation into $U^{91+}$ ions

    CERN Document Server

    Zakowicz, S; Harman, Z; Scheid, W

    2003-01-01

    In collisions of heavy few-electron projectile ions with light targets, an electron can be transferred from the target with the simultaneous excitation of a projectile electron. We study the angular distribution of de-excitation X rays following the resonant capture process. Our results are compared to experimental values of Ma et al. [Phys. Rev. A (joint to this issue)] for collisions of U91+ ions with a hydrogen gas target.

  15. Dynamic polarization effects on the angular distributions of protons channeled through carbon nanotubes in dielectric media

    OpenAIRE

    Borka, D.; Mowbray, D. J.; Mišković, Z. L.; Petrović, S.; Nešković, N.

    2008-01-01

    The best level of ordering and straightening of carbon nanotube arrays is often achieved when they are grown in a dielectric matrix, so such structures present the most suitable candidates for future channeling experiments with carbon nanotubes. Consequently, we investigate here how the dynamic polarization of carbon valence electrons in the presence of various surrounding dielectric media affects the angular distributions of protons channeled through (11,~9) single-wall carbon nanotubes. Pro...

  16. The angular distribution of neutron-proton scattering at 27.3 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of experimental investigations are presented to study a forward-backward asymmetry in the n-p scattering angular distribution for angles from 34 deg to 116 deg. To improve the precision of the measurements the neutron detector efficiency factor was analyzed in the 5-25 MeV energy range. Features of the time-of-flight spectrum are discussed. The data obtained confirm the asymmetry predicted by the phase shift evaluations

  17. Compton scattering of twisted light: angular distribution and polarization of scattered photons

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, S; SURZHYKOV, A.; Fritzsche, S.; Seipt, D.

    2015-01-01

    Compton scattering of twisted photons is investigated within a non-relativistic framework using first-order perturbation theory. We formulate the problem in the density matrix theory, which enables one to gain new insights into scattering processes of twisted particles by exploiting the symmetries of the system. In particular, we analyze how the angular distribution and polarization of the scattered photons are affected by the parameters of the initial beam such as the opening angle and the p...

  18. The Angular Distribution of Gamma-Rays from the Fission of U235

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distribution of gamma-rays from thermal-neutron-induced fission has been measured with respect to the axis of fission. The gamma radiation intensities were found to be higher in the direction of fission-fragment motion than in that normal to it. The anisotropy proved to be nearly the same for photon threshold energies of 120 keV and 600 keV. (author)

  19. Program for calculation of gamma-ray angular distributions following statistical compound nucleus reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAWSER is a computer program which calculates gamma-ray angular distributions. A revised version of HAWSER, called MANANU is now available. This program calculates population parameters correctly and uses the Rose and Brink sign convention for mixing ratios (due to a programming error, HAWSER uses the opposite convention). In addition, the new version requires less input data, and has a more convenient output format. (author)

  20. chi_{c1} and chi_{c2} decay angular distributions at the Fermilab Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Kniehl, Bernd A; Palisoc, C P

    2003-01-01

    We consider the hadroproduction of chi_{c1} and chi_{c2} mesons and their subsequent radiative decays to J/psi mesons and photons in the factorization formalism of nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics, and study the decay angular distributions, by means of helicity density matrices, in view of their sensitivity to color-octet processes. We present numerical results appropriate for the Fermilab Tevatron.

  1. Angular distribution of cosmic muons using INO–ICAL prototype detector at TIFR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Pal; G Majumder; M K Mondal; D Samuel; B Satyanarayana

    2012-11-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory Collaboration is planning to set up a magnetized 50 kt iron calorimeter (ICAL) with resistive plate chambers (RPC) as active detectors to study neutrino oscillations and precisely measure its parameters. A prototype detector stack is set up at TIFR (18°54'N, 72°48'E) to track cosmic ray muons. Using the muon data, angular distribution of cosmic ray muons at the sea level is studied here.

  2. Application of in-beam perturbed angular distribution to the study of high-Tc oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time differential perturbed angular distribution method was applied to the study of high-Tc oxides. Spin rotation signals of the 19F isomer (τ = 128 nsec) produced from oxygen nuclei via 16O(α,p)19F were observed in various high-Tc oxides above Tc. The internal field was determined with the accuracy of about 1%. This method is an alternative to the 17O substituted NMR. (author)

  3. Retrieving orbital angular momentum distribution of light with plasmonic vortex lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hailong; Dong, Jianji; Zhang, Jihua; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-06-01

    We utilize a plasmonic vortex lens (PVL) to retrieve the orbital angular momentum (OAM) distribution of light. The OAM modes are coupled to the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in the form of various Bessel functions respectively. By decomposing the interference pattern of SPPs into these Bessel functions, we can retrieve the relative amplitude and the relative phase of input OAM modes simultaneously. Our scheme shows advantage in integration and can measure hybrid OAM states by one measurement.

  4. Angular distribution of GaAs sputtered under oblique Cs{sup +} bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdeil, C. [Department ' Science and Analysis of Materials' (SAM), Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Wirtz, T. [Department ' Science and Analysis of Materials' (SAM), Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)], E-mail: wirtz@lippmann.lu; Scherrer, H. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Ecole des Mines, Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy Cedex (France)

    2009-08-15

    The angular distribution of Ga and As sputtered from Gallium Arsenide (1 0 0) by a Cs{sup +} ion beam was experimentally measured through a collector technique allowing modifications of the energy and incidence angle of the ion beam. The impact energy was varied in the range of 2-10 keV and the angle of incidence from 30 deg. to 60 deg. The angular distributions of emitted matter are determined by means of SIMS depth profiles. Our series of experiments show an evolution of the preferential direction of emission as well as the spreading around this direction in function of the characteristics of the ion beam. The second objective is the study of the evolution of the stoichiometry of the deposit in function of the emission angle. A decrease of the As/Ga ratio around the preferential direction of emission and an increase of this ratio for oblique emission are observed for different conditions of primary bombardment. Considering that the angular distribution depends on the depth of origin, our results suggest that the Cs{sup +} bombardment changes the stoichiometry of the near-surface layers of the sample with an enrichment of As in the outmost layers while the sub-surface region is impoverished in As due to preferential sputtering.

  5. Angular distribution of GaAs sputtered under oblique Cs+ bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distribution of Ga and As sputtered from Gallium Arsenide (1 0 0) by a Cs+ ion beam was experimentally measured through a collector technique allowing modifications of the energy and incidence angle of the ion beam. The impact energy was varied in the range of 2-10 keV and the angle of incidence from 30 deg. to 60 deg. The angular distributions of emitted matter are determined by means of SIMS depth profiles. Our series of experiments show an evolution of the preferential direction of emission as well as the spreading around this direction in function of the characteristics of the ion beam. The second objective is the study of the evolution of the stoichiometry of the deposit in function of the emission angle. A decrease of the As/Ga ratio around the preferential direction of emission and an increase of this ratio for oblique emission are observed for different conditions of primary bombardment. Considering that the angular distribution depends on the depth of origin, our results suggest that the Cs+ bombardment changes the stoichiometry of the near-surface layers of the sample with an enrichment of As in the outmost layers while the sub-surface region is impoverished in As due to preferential sputtering.

  6. Inner Engine Shutdown from Transitions in the Angular Momentum Distribution in Collapsars

    CERN Document Server

    Batta, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    For the collapsar scenario to be effective in the production of Gamma Ray Bursts, the infalling star's angular momentum $J(r)$ must be larger than the critical angular momentum needed to form an accretion disk around a blackhole (BH), namely $J_{\\rm crit} = 2r_{g}c$ for a Schwarzschild BH. By means of 3D SPH simulations, here we study the collapse and accretion onto black holes of spherical rotating envelopes, whose angular momentum distribution has transitions between supercritical ($J>J_{\\rm crit}$) and subcritical ($Jangular momentum in the subcritical material increases the time spent at the accretion disk, and only when the bulk of this subcritical material is accreted before it is replenished by a massive outermost supe...

  7. Inner engine shutdown from transitions in the angular momentum distribution in collapsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batta, Aldo; Lee, William H.

    2016-06-01

    For the collapsar scenario to be effective in the production of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), the infalling star's angular momentum J(r) must be larger than the critical angular momentum needed to form an accretion disc around a black hole (BH), namely Jcrit = 2rgc for a Schwarzschild BH. By means of 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations, here we study the collapse and accretion on to BHs of spherical rotating envelopes, whose angular momentum distribution has transitions between supercritical (J > Jcrit) and subcritical (J 2D hydrodynamical simulations, we find that a substantial amount of subcritical material fed to the accretion disc, lingers around long enough to contribute significantly to the energy loss rate. Increasing the amount of angular momentum in the subcritical material increases the time spent at the accretion disc, and only when the bulk of this subcritical material is accreted before it is replenished by a massive outermost supercritical shell, the inner engine experiences a shutdown. Once the muffled accretion disc is provided again with enough supercritical material, the shutdown will be over and a quiescent time in the long GRB produced afterwards could be observed.

  8. Design of a molecular beam surface scattering apparatus for velocity and angular distribution measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceyer, S.T.; Siekhaus, W.J.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1981-09-01

    A molecular beam surface scattering apparatus designed for the study of corrosion and catalytic surface reactions is described. The apparatus incorporates two molecular or atomic beams aimed at a surface characterized by low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), a rotatable, differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer, and a versatile manipulator. Angular distributions and energy distributions as a function of angle and independent of the surface residence time can be measured. Typical data for the oxidation of deuterium to D/sub 2/O on a Pt(111) crystal surface are presented.

  9. DESIGN OF A MOLECULAR BEAM SURFACE SCATTERING APPARATUS FOR VELOCITY AND ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceyer, S. T.; Siekhaus, W. J.; Somorjai, G. A.

    1980-11-01

    A molecular beam surface scattering apparatus designed for the study of corrosion and catalyticsurfacereactions is described. The apparatus incorporates two molecular or atomic beams aimed at a surface characterized by low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), a rotatable, differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer, and a versatile manipulator. Angular distributions and energy distributions as a funcion of angle and independent of the surface residence time can be measured. Typical data for the oxidation of deuterium to D{sub 2}O on a Pt(lll) crystal surface are presented.

  10. Measurement of angular distributions of intensity of gamma radiation in the zones of works on 'Shelter' stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Aleshin, A M; Egorov, V V; Zakrevskij, Y A

    2002-01-01

    The procedures, designed for measuring angular distributions a gamma radiation from aggregations of radioactive materials located in object 'Shelter' are described. The first procedure is based on application of the original multidetector device DB1, permitting to get the data on an angular distribution in a complete solid angle (4 pi). The second procedure is based on application of the modernized dosimeter DKS-04 with the collimated detector. The main observed data on the angular distributions of intensity of gamma radiation in the zones of the works on 'Shelter' stabilization (the measurements have been carried out in frameworks of the exploratory design) are presented. 9 refs., 49 figs.

  11. Cosmic ray angular distribution employing plastic scintillation detectors and flash-ADC/FPGA-based readout systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that secondary cosmic rays are high energetic particles which are products of shower particles, when primary cosmic rays from outer space hit the atmosphere molecules. Many studies of cosmic rays show that cosmic flux depends on the depth of atmosphere. At ground level, most secondary cosmic rays are muons, a type of charged particle, and have angular dependence. The purpose of this article was to develop the telescope with two plastic scintillation detectors to investigate the angular distribution of cosmic rays at ground level. Directions of investigation were carried out vertical, 45-degree oblique and horizontal directions with respect to earth surface, approximately from North to South. Electronic readout system was developed from Flash Analog Digital Converter (Flash-ADC) of 8 bits-250Ms/sec, and Embedded Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based trigger. LabVIEW trademark interface was written for controlling trigger system and taking data. For each direction measurement, the deposited energy spectra in the scintillators were obtained. The interest of cosmic-ray events was analyzed for counting. Angular distribution was obtained quantitatively. The experiment has been done at University of Science-HCMC. (orig.)

  12. Angular momentum distribution during the collapse of primordial star-forming clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    It is generally believed that angular momentum is distributed during the gravitational collapse of the primordial star forming cloud. However, so far there has been little understanding of the exact details of the distribution. We use the modified version of the Gadget-2 code, a three-dimensional smoothed-particle hydrodynamics simulation, to follow the evolution of the collapsing gas in both idealized as well as more realistic minihalos. We find that, despite the lack of any initial turbulence and magnetic fields in the clouds the angular momentum profile follows the same characteristic power-law that has been reported in studies that employed fully self-consistent cosmological initial conditions. The fit of the power-law appears to be roughly constant regardless of the initial rotation of the cloud. We conclude that the specific angular momentum of the self-gravitating rotating gas in the primordial minihalos maintains a scaling relation with the gas mass as $L \\propto M^{1.125}$. We also discuss the plausi...

  13. Slowing-down of relativistic heavy ions and its influence on angular distributions of Vavilov–Cherenkov radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed calculations of Vavilov–Cherenkov radiation (VChR) angular distributions from relativistic heavy ions (RHI) taking account of their slowing-down in a radiator. The results of calculations show that the slowing-down of RHI in radiator leads to specific broadening of VChR ring thus forming specific VChR angular distribution which is different compared to well-known Tamm–Frank distribution. The key parameters which change drastically the VChR angular distribution from RHI are: energy, charge and mass of an ion; emission wave length and corresponding refractive index; stopping power and radiator thickness. The theory developed has been applied to the analysis of the earlier experiments (1996–2001) devoted to studies of the VChR angular distribution from Au RHI beam with energies ∼0.9 GeV/u at SIS-18 heavy ion accelerator (GSI, Darmstadt, Germany)

  14. Photoelectron angular distributions from photodetachment of negative ions in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a nonperturbative scattering theory, the photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) of negative ions irradiated by intense laser fields are studied. Various PADs are obtained. Similar to that of atoms, PADs of negative ions show main lobes and jet-like structures. Here, the main lobe means the formation of the detached photoelectrons around the direction of laser polarization, while the jet-like structure means a peaked-out formation of photoelectrons emitted from the waist between the two main lobes. For a set of above-threshold-detachment peaks, with one-more-photon absorption, the number of the jet-like structures is not always increased by one, which verifies that the jet-like structures are irrelevant to photoelectron angular momentum.

  15. Photoelectron angular distributions from photodetachment of negative ions in strong laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai Lihua; Liu Yuheng; Cui Tingting; Wang Yan; Zhang Huifang; Deng Dongmei [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Ren Xianghe, E-mail: lhbai@163.com [Institute of Advance Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-02-01

    Using a nonperturbative scattering theory, the photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) of negative ions irradiated by intense laser fields are studied. Various PADs are obtained. Similar to that of atoms, PADs of negative ions show main lobes and jet-like structures. Here, the main lobe means the formation of the detached photoelectrons around the direction of laser polarization, while the jet-like structure means a peaked-out formation of photoelectrons emitted from the waist between the two main lobes. For a set of above-threshold-detachment peaks, with one-more-photon absorption, the number of the jet-like structures is not always increased by one, which verifies that the jet-like structures are irrelevant to photoelectron angular momentum.

  16. Fast neutrino flavor conversions near the supernova core with realistic flavor-dependent angular distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Sen, Manibrata

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently pointed out that neutrino fluxes from a supernova can show substantial flavor conversions almost immediately above the core. Using linear stability analyses and numerical solutions of the fully nonlinear equations of motion, we perform a detailed study of these fast conversions, focussing on the region just above the supernova core. We carefully specify the instabilities for evolution in space or time, and find that neutrinos travelling towards the core make fast conversions more generic, i.e., possible for a wider range of flux ratios and angular asymmetries. Using fluxes and angular distributions predicted by supernova simulations, we find that fast conversions can occur within tens of nanoseconds, only a few meters away from the putative neutrinospheres. If these fast flavor conversions indeed take place, they would have important implications for the supernova explosion mechanism and nucleosynthesis.

  17. Inquiry into antineutrino angular distribution in the experiments on polarized neutron β-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So far as γ-radiation unescapably accompanies β-decay and thereby the final state of neutron β-decay involves photon beside proton, electron and antineutrino, i.e., not three but four particles, the antineutrino kinematics cannot be reconstructed unambiguously when the proton and electron momenta are given only, the γ-radiation momenta being unknown. Consequently, in the experiments on the polarized neutron β-decay where the electron and proton momentum distributions are observed only, without registering the γ-radiation, the asymmetry factor B of the antineutrino angular distribution cannot be acquired rigorously, but the B value is to be estimated only on the average by drawing into consideration the expectation (mean) value and the dispersion ΔB. The correspondent unavoidable ambiguities in B attainment amount to several percent which is significant for the now-a-days experimental attempts to obtain the B value with the very high precision ∼ (0.1 - 1) %. With allowance for the electromagnetic interaction, experimental measurement of the electron and proton momentum distributions is seen also to be instructive to verify with high accuracy the gA value obtained previously from the electron angular distribution

  18. Angular distribution of fission fragments from 236U(d,pf)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. 236U is the only isotope in the actinide region in which transmission fission resonances observed and at the same time a superdeformed fission isomer is well-established. We have been investigating these transmission resonances for several years. The aim of our latest experiment was to measure the angular distribution of the fission fragments in order to determine the spin and K-values of the resonances and to improve the statistics compared to the previous experiment. An experiment was performed to study the fission resonances of 236U at the Munich Tandem Laboratory using 235U(d,p) reaction at 13 MeV. A 235U2O3 target was used with a thickness of 90 μg/cm2. The outgoing proton energy was determined by a Q3D magnetic spectrometer at an angle 139.4 deg. An energy resolution of ΔE = 5keV was achieved. Fission fragments were detected by two position sensitive avalanche detectors (PSAD) consisting of two wire planes corresponding to horizontal and vertical directions. Thus, the spatial positions of the fragments and their angular correlation with respect to the recoil axis could be determined. High resolution measurement of the angular distribution allowed us to determine the spin and K-values of the observed resonances individually. The angular correlation was parametrized with coefficients a2 and a4 of even Legendre polynomials. Fig. 1b) shows the a2 coefficient belonging to the different resonances. The a2 values are agree with the values of Ref. [4], which were used to determine the K-values in the data analysis of the previous experiment. The most interesting energy region is around 5.1 MeV, where hyperdeformed resonances were identified recently in contrast to the superdeformed interpretation published so far. The high-resolution excitation energy spectrum, which was deduced from the proton kinetic energy is shown in Fig. 1a). A combined analysis of the energy spectrum and the angular distribution confirms that the

  19. Full-spectrum k-distribution look-up table for nonhomogeneous gas-soot mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaojun; Modest, Michael F.; He, Boshu

    2016-06-01

    Full-spectrum k-distribution (FSK) look-up tables provide great accuracy combined with outstanding numerical efficiency for the evaluation of radiative transfer in nonhomogeneous gaseous media. However, previously published tables cannot be used for gas-soot mixtures that are found in most combustion scenarios since it is impossible to assemble k-distributions for a gas mixed with nongray absorbing particles from gas-only full-spectrum k-distributions. Consequently, a new FSK look-up table has been constructed by optimizing the previous table recently published by the authors and then adding one soot volume fraction to this optimized table. Two steps comprise the optimization scheme: (1) direct calculation of the nongray stretching factors (a-values) using the k-distributions (k-values) rather than tabulating them; (2) deletion of unnecessary mole fractions at many thermodynamic states. Results show that after optimization, the size of the new table is reduced from 5 GB (including the k-values and the a-values for gases only) to 3.2 GB (including the k-values for both gases and soot) while both accuracy and efficiency remain the same. Two scaled flames are used to validate the new table. It is shown that the new table gives results of excellent accuracy for those benchmark results together with cheap computational cost for both gas mixtures and gas-soot mixtures.

  20. Higher Order Moments of the Angular Distribution of Galaxies from Early SDSS Data

    CERN Document Server

    Szapudi, I; Scoccimarro, R; Szalay, A S; Connolly, A J; Dodelson, S; Eisenstein, D J; Gunn, J E; Johnston, D; Kent, S; Loveday, J; Meiksin, A; Nichol, R C; Scranton, R; Stebbins, A; Vogeley, M S; Szapudi, Istv\\'an; Frieman, Joshua A.; Scoccimarro, Roman; Szalay, Alexander S.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Dodelson, Scott; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Gunn, James E.; Johnston, David; Kent, Stephen; Loveday, Jon; Meiksin, Avery; Nichol, Robert C.; Scranton, Ryan; Stebbins, Albert; Vogeley, Michael S.

    2002-01-01

    We present initial results for counts in cells statistics of the angular distribution of galaxies in early data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We analyze a rectangular stripe $2.5^\\circ$ wide, covering approximately 160 sq. degrees, containing over $10^6$ galaxies in the apparent magnitude range $18 < r^\\prime < 22$, with areas of bad seeing, contamination from bright stars, ghosts, and high galactic extinction masked out. This survey region, which forms part of the SDSS Early Data Release, is the same as that for which two-point angular clustering statistics have recently been computed. The third and fourth moments of the cell counts, $s_3$ (skewness) and $s_4$ (kurtosis), constitute the most accurate measurements to date of these quantities (for $r^\\prime < 21$) over angular scales $0.015^\\circ-0.3^\\circ$. They display the approximate hierarchical scaling expected from non-linear structure formation models and are in reasonable agreement with the predictions of $\\Lambda$-dominated cold d...

  1. A Monte-Carlo method for calculations of the distribution of angular deflections due to multiple scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Monte Carlo method for calculation of the distribution of angular deflections of fast charged particles passing through thin layer of matter is described on the basis of Moliere theory of multiple scattering. The distribution of the angular deflections obtained as the result of calculations is compared with Moliere theory. The method proposed is useful to calculate the electron transport in matter by Monte Carlo method. (author)

  2. Calculation of photon angular distribution and polarization for radiative recombination for high-charged hydrogen-like ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Tian-Ming; Chen Chong-Yang; Wang Yan-Sen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a systematic study is carried out on the angular distribution and polarization of photons emitted following radiative recombination of H-like ions by a non-relativistic dipole approximation. In order to incorporate the screening effect due to inner-shell electrons, a distorted wave approach is used. The dependences of the calculated angular distribution and polarization on the reduced energy and nuclear charge are fitted by the corresponding empirical formulas respectively.

  3. Time resolved energy measurement of the Tesla test facility beam through the analysis of optical transition radiation angular distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study of the energy stability along the macropulse of the Tesla test facility Linac (TTFL) (1) was obtained by the measurement of the angular distribution of the optical transition radiation (OTR). This technique does not require a dispersive section and can be performed at any point of the beam line. Measurements have been performed with different settings of the RF low level control and at different values of the beam current. An energy variation along the macropulse was spread of the whole macrobunch. The analysis of the OTR angular distribution pattern allows also, to some extent, to evaluate the beam angular spread

  4. Relationship between polarization-averaged molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions and geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Plésiat, Etienne; Decleva, Piero; Martín, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of vibrationally resolved and unresolved molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions (MFPADs) resulting from K-shell photoionization of N2, CO, C2H2, NH3, CH4, CF4, BF3, and SF6 in the range of photoelectron energies 0–500 eV. We show that the MFPADs of NH3 and CH4, averaged over the polarization direction, image the molecular geometry at very low energies but also at selected higher energies. For all other molecules, the MFPADs do not image the system’s...

  5. Measurement of angular distribution of neutrons emitted from plasma focus using NTD

    CERN Document Server

    Antanasijevic, R; Banjanac, R; Dragic, A; Stanojevic, J; Dordevic, D; Joksimovic, D; Udovicic, V; Vukovic, J

    1999-01-01

    Mica detectors together with thick uranium foils were used for detection and angular distribution measurement of the neutrons emitted from the d-plasma focus (DPF). The distance between detectors and plasma pinch was 4 cm. For reason of detector protection from the thermal shock, they were covered with the mica layer of 1 mm thickness. Annealing of the detectors were measured after the irradiation with neutrons from an Am-Be source and treated with thermal shock H-plasma focus (HPF). Geometry of detectors in both experiments was the same.

  6. Mechanisms on the photoelectron angular distributions of atoms ionized in mid-infrared laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By solving the time-dependent Schrodinger equation, we show conclusively that low energy/momenta structure in the photoelectron angular distribution originates from multiple scatterings of the tunnel-ionized electron with the ion. We also show that two conditions must be satisfied simultaneously in order to observe prominent low-energy features. First, multiple scattering of the tunnel-ionized electron wave packet is necessary. Second, tunnel ionization must dominate over multiphoton ionization. While the first condition is generally satisfied for all laser wavelengths, the second condition is satisfied only for longer laser wavelengths.

  7. Six-State Quantum Key Distribution Using Photons with Orbital Angular Momentum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun-Lin; WANG Chuan

    2010-01-01

    @@ A new implementation of high-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol is discussed. Using three mutual unbiased bases, we present a d-level six-state QKD protocol that exploits the orbital angular momentum with the spatial mode of the light beam. The protocol shows that the feature of a high capacity since keys are encoded using photon modes in d-level Hilbert space. The devices for state preparation and measurement are also discussed. This protocol has high security and the alignment of shared reference frames is not needed between sender and receiver.

  8. Angular distribution of positrons in coherent pair production in deformed crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Parazian, V V

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the angular distribution of positrons in the coherent process electron-positron pair creation process by high-energy photons in a periodically deformed single crystal with a complex base. The formula for the corresponding differential cross-section is derived for an arbitrary deformation field. The case is considered in detail when the photon enters into the crystal at small angles with respect to a crystallographic axis. The results of the numerical calculations are presented for ${\\mathrm{SiO}}_{2}$ single crystal and Moliere parameterization of the screened atomic potentials in the case of the deformation field generated by the acoustic wave of S -type.

  9. Angular distribution of positrons in coherent pair production in deformed crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazian, V. V.

    2009-05-01

    We investigate the angular distribution of positrons in the coherent process electron-positron pair creation process by high-energy photons in a periodically deformed single crystal with a complex base. The formula for the corresponding differential cross section is derived for an arbitrary deformation field. The case is considered in detail when the photon enters into the crystal at small angles with respect to a crystallographic axis. The results of the numerical calculations are presented for SiO2 and diamond single crystals and Moliere parameterization of the screened atomic potentials in the case of the deformation field generated by an acoustic wave of S-type.

  10. Vibrationally resolved molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions of diatomic and polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vibrationally resolved molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions (MFPADs) of fixed-in-space molecules have been evaluated for diatomic and polyatomic molecules. Calculations have been performed by using an extension of the static-exchange density functional theory formerly developed by P. Decleva [1] and coworkers and extended in order to include the nuclear motion in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The method proved to be very accurate for diatomic molecules [2, 3, 5], particularly at high energy of the photoelectron. In this work, we present the results obtained for the inner shell photoionization of C2H2, NH3, CH4, CF4, BF3 and SF6.

  11. The calculation of photoionization angular distribution parameter β of atomic Na

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锦超; 蒲丰年; 刘汉奎; 郭建军; 程延松; 杨向东

    1999-01-01

    The differential cross sections and angular distribution parameter of the photoionization processes 2p~63s→2p~53skl of atomic Na have been calculated by using many-body perturbation theory. In the calculation, the resonant structure of the excitation process 2s→3p has been included. The electron correlation interaction was analyzed by using the effective diagram method. The summation of specific classes of these diagrams is to an infinite order. The results of calculations are compared with experimental data, which are in good agreement with the experiment.

  12. Angular distributions in J/ψ(ρ0,ω) states near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A resonance X(3872), first observed in the decays B→KX, has been seen to decay to J/ψπ+π-. The π+π- mass spectrum peaks near its kinematic upper limit, prompting speculation that the dipion system may be in a ρ0. The decay X(3872)→J/ψω also has been observed. The reaction γγ→J/ψπ+π- has been studied. Consequently, angular distributions in decays of J/ψ(ρ0,ω) states near threshold are of interest, and results are presented

  13. Photoelectron angular distributions in negative-ion photodetachment from mixed sp states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumbling, Emily R; Sanov, Andrei

    2011-10-28

    We describe an approach for constructing analytical models for the energy-dependence of photoelectron angular distributions in the one-electron, non-relativistic approximation. We construct such a model for electron emission from an orbital described as a superposition of s- and p-type functions, using linearly polarized light. In the limits of pure s or pure p electron photodetachment or photoionization, the model correctly reproduces the familiar Cooper-Zare formula. The model predictions are compared to experimental results for strongly solvated H(-) and NH(2)(-), corresponding to predominantly s and predominantly p character parent states, respectively. PMID:22047234

  14. Molecular photoelectron angular distributions with intense attosecond circularly polarized UV laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Chelkowski, Szczepan; Bandrauk, André D.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate effects of intermediate resonant electronic states on molecular photoelectron angular distributions (MPADs) by intense circularly polarized attosecond UV laser pulses. Simulations are performed on aligned H2+ by numerically solving the corresponding three dimensional time dependent Schrödinger equations. MPADs exhibit signature of rotations, which is shown to be critically sensitive to the symmetry of the intermediate resonant electronic state and the pulse intensity. This sensitivity is attributed to the coherent population transfer in the initial and intermediate resonant states, thus suggesting a method to control molecular photoionization on attosecond time scale.

  15. A Large-alphabet Quantum Key Distribution Protocol Using Orbital Angular Momentum Entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sheng-Mei; Gong, Long-Yan; Li, Yong-Qiang; Yang, Hua; Sheng, Yu-Bo; Cheng, Wei-Wen

    2013-06-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a quantum key distribution protocol using entangled photon pairs in orbital angular momentum (OAM). Here Alice uses a fixed phase hologram to modulate her OAM state on one photon with a spatial light modulator (SLM), while Bob uses the designed N different phase holograms for his N-based keys on the other photon with his SLM. With coincidences, Alice can fully retrieve the keys sent by Bob without reconciliation. We report the experiment results with N = 3 and OAM eigenmodes |l = ±1>, and discuss the security from the light path and typical attacks.

  16. WASP (Wavelet Analysis of Secondary Particles Angular Distributions) package. Version 1.0. User's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WASP package is a C++ program aimed to analyze angular distributions of secondary particles generated in nuclear interactions. (WASP is designed for data analysis of the STAR and ALICE experiments). It uses a wavelet analysis for this purpose and the vanishing momentum or gaussian wavelets are chosen for transformations. WASP provides an user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) which makes it quite simple to use. WASP design, a brief description of the used wavelet transformation algorithm and GUI are presented in this user's guide

  17. Molecular alignment from circular dichroic photoelectron angular distributions in (n+1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory for determination of molecular alignment from circular dichroism in photoelectron angular distributions is generalized to treat the case in which the excitation polarization direction and the laboratory z axis do not coincide. A new method of data analysis is presented here. Alignment created by surface scattering or photofragmentation should be obtainable by these procedures. For studies of orientation with elliptically polarized excitation, differential cross sections at a given collection angle are found to be, to a good approximation, independent of excited-state alignment. Orientation can thus be obtained from differential cross sections by the methods developed by Kummel, Sitz, and Zare [J. Chem. Phys. 88, 6707 (1988)

  18. Measurement of neutron yield and angular distribution for thick natLi(p,n+x) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low energy accelerators have been used to produce intense neutron flux for various applications employing lower threshold reactions involving light targets. Among those p+7Li, 9Be, 13C, D+D,T are the popular ones. In the present work the total neutron yield has been measured for thick Lithium target up to 5.5 proton energy using BF3 counter. Angular distribution of the neutrons at 4.5 and 5.5 MeV also measured to investigate the feasibility of a neutron time of flight facility at FOTIA

  19. Polarized angular distributions of parametric x radiation and vacuum-ultraviolet transition radiation from relativistic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present quantifiable images of the angular distributions (AD's) of parametric x radiation (PXR), and vacuum-ultraviolet transition radiation (vuv TR) from 230 MeV electrons interacting with a silicon crystal. Both AD's are highly polarized. The vuv TR and optical TR data provide measurements of the beam energy and effective divergence angle. Using these quantities and separately known values of the electronic susceptibility |χ0|, we show that the measured PXR AD is in good agreement with the predictions of single crystal theory. Our analysis suggests a method to measure |χ0| using PXR AD's

  20. Angular Distribution of Element Contents in Tree Rings and the Environmental Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KESHANZHE; QIANJUNLONG; 等

    1999-01-01

    Element contents of tree rings and soils near tree roots collected from Deodar cedar (Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G.Don) and Masson pine(Pinus massoniana lamb).were determined to study the relationship between the angular distribution of element contents in tree rings and the environmental information.The chemical composition and properties of soil are very much cmoplicated,which leads to the non-uniform distribution of the element contents in tree rings.The statistical multi-varialbe regression method was used to get the information of the tree-centered distribution of element contents in the environment(soil),(C'),C'(Z,θj),from the distribtuion of element contents in tree rings(C),C(Z,θi),which depends on the plane azimuth angle(θi),i.e.,C=C(Z,θi),where Z is the atomic number of the element,with a satisfactory result though this study is only a primary one.

  1. Angular distributions of high-mass dileptons with finite transverse momentum in high energy hadronic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distributions for dileptons arising from decays of a virtual photon and the Z0 produced in hadronic collisions are calculated at large mass and finite transverse momentum of dileptons in the lowest order of the quantum chromodynamics and the Weinberg-Salam model with three fermion generations. Numerical evaluation for coefficients of the distributions is carried out for anti pp collision at √s=540 GeV and pp at √s=800 GeV in different (helicity, Gottfried-Jackson and Collins-Soper) reference frames. Coefficients of parity violating terms in the distributions exhibit clean signs of the Z0-boson, while those of parity conserving terms are quite insensitive to the presence of the Z0-boson. (author)

  2. Analyzing angular distributions for two-step dissociation mechanisms in velocity map imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Daniel B; Butler, Lynne M; Alligood, Bridget W; Butler, Laurie J

    2013-08-15

    Increasingly, velocity map imaging is becoming the method of choice to study photoinduced molecular dissociation processes. This paper introduces an algorithm to analyze the measured net speed, P(vnet), and angular, β(vnet), distributions of the products from a two-step dissociation mechanism, where the first step but not the second is induced by absorption of linearly polarized laser light. Typically, this might be the photodissociation of a C-X bond (X = halogen or other atom) to produce an atom and a momentum-matched radical that has enough internal energy to subsequently dissociate (without the absorption of an additional photon). It is this second step, the dissociation of the unstable radicals, that one wishes to study, but the measured net velocity of the final products is the vector sum of the velocity imparted to the radical in the primary photodissociation (which is determined by taking data on the momentum-matched atomic cophotofragment) and the additional velocity vector imparted in the subsequent dissociation of the unstable radical. The algorithm allows one to determine, from the forward-convolution fitting of the net velocity distribution, the distribution of velocity vectors imparted in the second step of the mechanism. One can thus deduce the secondary velocity distribution, characterized by a speed distribution P(v1,2°) and an angular distribution I(θ2°), where θ2° is the angle between the dissociating radical's velocity vector and the additional velocity vector imparted to the product detected from the subsequent dissociation of the radical. PMID:23464815

  3. Influence of real photon diffraction on parametric X-ray radiation angular distribution in thin perfect crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the previously proposed method of calculating diffracted photon yields in thin perfect crystals, analyzed a relative contribution of parametric X-ray radiation and diffracted photons in thin crystals. It is shown that for average energy of electrons and the center of the PXR spot diffracted real photon contribution is comparable to the yield of parametric X-ray radiation and determines the shape of the angular distribution of the total emission in this range of observation angles. The possibility of estimating electron beams parameters based on the results of PXR angular distribution measurements is discussed. It is shown that for energy of electrons by far larger than 1 GeV yield of diffracted transition radiation in narrow angular cone becomes predominating and determines the shape of the angular distribution of total emission in the center of radiation spot

  4. Angular distribution in the decay of the singlet D state of charmonium directly produced in unpolarized bar pp collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the combined angular distribution of the final electron, of the γ photon, and of the π0 meson produced in the cascade process bar pp→1D2→1P1+γ→(ψπ0) +γ→(e+e-)+π0+γ, where bar p and p are unpolarized. Our final result is valid in the bar pp c.m. frame and it is expressed in terms of the Wigner DJ functions and the spherical harmonics whose arguments are the angles representing the various directions involved. The coefficients of the terms involving the spherical harmonics and the Wigner DJ functions are functions of the angular momentum helicity amplitudes or equivalently of the multipole amplitudes of the individual processes. Once the combined angular distribution is measured, our expressions will enable one to calculate the relative magnitudes as well as the cosines of the relative phases of all the angular momentum helicity amplitudes or equivalently of all the multipole amplitudes in the decay processes 1D2→1P1+γ and 1P1→ψ+π0. We also derive six different partially integrated angular distribution functions which give the angular distributions of one or two particles in the final state. They can all be expressed entirely in terms of the spherical harmonics. By measuring these simpler angular distributions in the six different cases we get as much information on the helicity amplitudes as we obtained by measuring the combined angular distribution of the three particles, namely, the electron, the γ photon, and the π0 meson

  5. Giant dipole resonance in $^{88}$Mo from phonon damping model's strength functions averaged over temperature and angular momentum distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Dang, N Dinh; Kmiecik, M; Maj, A

    2013-01-01

    The line shapes of giant dipole resonance (GDR) in the decay of the compound nucleus $^{88}$Mo, which is formed after the fusion-evaporation reaction $^{48}$Ti + $^{40}$Ca at various excitation energies $E^{*}$ from 58 to 308 MeV, are generated by averaging the GDR strength functions predicted within the phonon damping model (PDM) using the empirical probabilities for temperature and angular momentum. The average strength functions are compared with the PDM strength functions calculated at the mean temperature and mean angular momentum, which are obtained by averaging the values of temperature and angular momentum using the same temperature and angular-momentum probability distributions, respectively. It is seen that these two ways of generating the GDR linear line shape yield very similar results. It is also shown that the GDR width approaches a saturation at angular momentum $J\\geq$ 50$\\hbar$ at $T=$ 4 MeV and at $J\\geq$ 70$\\hbar$ at any $T$.

  6. Angular Distribution of Electrons in Photoionization of Atoms Adsorbed on a Graphene Sheet

    CERN Document Server

    Baltenkov, A S

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of a model representing the potential of a graphene sheet U(z) as an electro-neutral layer formed by smeared carbon atoms, the effect of this potential on spectral characteristics of atoms adsorbed on a graphene sheet has been studied. Since the distance between the adsorbed atom nucleus and sheet surface significantly exceeds the radii of inner atomic shells the potential U(z) makes influence on the continuum wave functions only. Their behavior in the upper semi-space (z>0) and in the lower one (z<0) where the adsorbed atom is located is defined by a jump of the logarithmic derivative of the wave function for z=0. The photoelectron angular distributions have been calculated for different mutual positions of the polarization vector e and the axis Z normal to the sheet surface. It has been shown that the existence of the electron waves reflected from the potential U(z) leads to evident asymmetry of the angular distribution relative to the plane z=0. The experimental observation of this ...

  7. Anomalous angular distributions in pion and α particle scattering to the 22+ state of 52Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inelastic scattering of 180 MeV π+ and π- from 52Cr shows an angular distribution for the 22+ state at 2.96 MeV that differs greatly from the usual L = 2 shapes for 2+ states. This state is perhaps the only case from pion-inelastic scattering in which standard distorted-wave impulse approximation models (including multistep and single-step responses) fail to reproduce the measured angular distribution. Furthermore, this unique excitation has been shown to have the features expected of a seniority-four proton excitation yet the pion data show charge symmetry. While coupled-channel calculations are not able to reproduce the pion data, they do agree with the shape observed for 42 MeV α particle scattering to this state, but the magnitude of the α scattering data is not consistent with a collective model and known γ ray deexcitations. Scattering to the first and third 2+ states of 52Cr with pions and α particles is also considered, and found to match the usual result for 2+ states in general, accentuating the anomaly of this 22+ transition. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  8. W production at LHC: lepton angular distributions and reference frames for probing hard QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Richter-Was, E

    2016-01-01

    Precision tests of the Standard Model in the Strong and Electroweak sectors play an important role, among the physics goals of LHC experiments. Because of the nature of proton-proton processes, observables based on the measurement of the direction and energy of leptons provide the most precise signatures. In the present paper, we concentrate on the angular distribution of leptons from W to l nu decays in the lepton-pair rest-frame. The vector nature of the intermediate state imposes that distributions are to a good precision described by spherical polynomials of at most second order. We argue, that contrary to general belief often expressed in the literature, the full set of angular coefficients can be measured experimentally, despite the presence in the final state of neutrino escaping detection. There is thus no principle difference with respect to the phenomenology of the Z/gamma to l^+ l^- Drell-Yan process. We show also, that with the proper choice of the coordinate frames, only one coefficient in this p...

  9. Photoelectron angular distributions from two-photon ionization of atoms near ionization threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihua Bai; Tingting Cui; Yuheng Liu; Yan Wang; Dongmei Deng; Jihui Tao

    2011-01-01

    @@ Photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) from two-photon ionization of atoms in linearly polarized strong laser fields are obtained in accordance with the nonperturbative quantum scattering theory. We also study the influence of laser wavelength on PADs. For two-photon ionization very close to the ionization threshold, most of the ionized electrons are vertically ejected to the laser polarization. PADs from twophoton ionization of atoms are determined by the second order generalized phased Bessel function at which the ponderomotive parameter plays a key role. In terms of dependence of PADs on laser wavelength,corresponding variations for the ponderomotive parameter are demonstrated.%Photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) from two-photon ionization of atoms in linearly polarized strong laser fields are obtained in accordance with the nonperturbative quantum scattering theory. We also study the influence of laser wavelength on PADs. For two-photon ionization very close to the ionization threshold, most of the ionized electrons are vertically ejected to the laser polarization. PADs from twophoton ionization of atoms are determined by the second order generalized phased Bessel function at which the ponderomotive parameter plays a key role. In terms of dependence of PADs on laser wavelength,corresponding variations for the ponderomotive parameter are demonstrated.

  10. Simplified neutron detector for angular distribution measurement of p-Li neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is one of the most promising cancer therapies using 10B(n, α)7Li nuclear reaction. Because nuclear reactor is currently used for BNCT, the therapy is much restricted. Many kinds of accelerator based neutron sources for BNCT are being investigated worldwide and p-Li reaction is one of the most promising candidates because the emitted neutron energy is comparatively low and no gamma-ray is produced. To use p-Li neutron source for BNCT, measurement of the angular distribution is important. However, the energy of neutrons changes depending on the angle with respect to the proton beam, e.g., the energy of forward emitted neutrons are about 700 keV and it is 100 keV for backward direction. So a neutron detector, the efficiency of which is not dependent on energy, is needed. Though so-called “Long Counter” is known to be available, its structure is complicated and moreover it is expensive. Thus we have designed and developed a simplified neutron detector using Monte Carlo simulation. We verified the developed detector experimentally and measured the angular distribution in detail for p-Li reaction by using it. The obtained results were compared with analytical calculations. (author)

  11. Angular Distributions of Neutrons from (p,n)-Reactions in some Mirror Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distributions of neutrons from the reactions 13C (p,n) 13N and 19F (p, n) 19Ne have been measured for some energies close to the reactions threshold. For the reaction 9B (p, n) 9C angular distributions have been measured at several proton energies below the reaction threshold of the neutrons to the first excited state in 11C . A 5.5 MeV Van de Graaff has been used for the experiments. The neutrons were detected with a long counter. The measurements were carried out for 16 energies for the B (p,n) reaction, 3 energies for the C (p, n) reaction, and for 7 energies for the F 19(p, n) reaction. One of the main reasons for investigating these (p, n) reactions was to check whether the direct reaction process is important at low proton energies as well as close to reaction thresholds in nuclei consisting of closed shells of neutrons and protons either with an extra nucleon outside the closed shell or a nucleon hole. Comparisons with a theory proposed by Bloom, Glendenning, and Moszkowski have been performed

  12. The discrete representation correspondence between quantum and classical spatial distributions of angular momentum vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work demonstrates that the quantum mechanical moments of a state described by the density matrix correspond to discrete spherical harmonic moments of the classical multipole expansion of the spatial distribution of the angular momentum vectors. For the diagonal density matrix elements, this work exploits the fact that the quantum mechanical vector coupling (Clebsch-Gordan) coefficients become increasingly accurate discrete representations of spherical harmonics as j increases. A Schwinger-type basis accounts for nonaxially symmetric angular distributions, which result in nonzero off-diagonal elements of the density matrix. The resulting discrete minimum uncertainty picture of the classical moments has a stringent equivalence with the quantum mechanical one for all j and provides an unambiguous connection for the classical and quantum moments in the large j limit. The equivalence is numerically tested for simple models, and there is a satisfying equivalence even for small j. Applications, implications, and extensions are indicated, and the relevance of this work for the interpretation of classical mechanical simulations of inelastic and reactive molecular collisions will be documented elsewhere

  13. Interpretation of angular distributions of Z-boson production at colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chieh Peng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High precision data of dilepton angular distributions in γ⁎/Z production were reported recently by the CMS Collaboration covering a broad range of the dilepton transverse momentum, qT, up to ∼300 GeV. Pronounced qT dependencies of the λ and ν parameters, characterizing the cos2⁡θ and cos⁡2ϕ angular distributions, were found. Violation of the Lam–Tung relation was also clearly observed. We show that the qT dependence of λ allows a determination of the relative contributions of the qq¯ annihilation versus the qG Compton process. The violation of the Lam–Tung relation is attributed to the presence of a non-zero component of the q−q¯ axis in the direction normal to the “hadron plane” formed by the colliding hadrons. The magnitude of the violation of the Lam–Tung relation is shown to reflect the amount of this ‘non-coplanarity”. The observed qT dependencies of λ and ν from the CMS and the earlier CDF data can be well described using this approach.

  14. Velocity and angular distributions of evaporation residues from /sup 32/S-induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinnefeld, J.D.; Kolata, J.J.; Henderson, D.J.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Kovar, D.G.; Lesko, K.T.; Rosner, G.; Stephans, G.S.F.; van den Berg, A.M.; Wilkins, B.D.

    1987-09-01

    Velocity distributions of mass-resolved evaporation residues from reactions of /sup 32/S with /sup 12/C, /sup 24/Mg, /sup 27/Al, /sup 28/Si, and /sup 40/Ca have been measured at bombarding energies of 194, 239, and 278 MeV using time-of-flight techniques. In all cases, the observed shifts in the velocity centroids relative to the values expected for complete fusion are consistent with a previously reported parametrization of a threshold for onset of incomplete fusion. Angular distributions were measured and total cross sections extracted for the /sup 32/S+ /sup 24/Mg system at all three energies. A comparison with existing results for /sup 32/S+ /sup 24/Mg at lower energies, and with other systems leading to the /sup 56/Ni compound nucleus, suggests two different types of compound-nuclear limitations to complete fusion at higher energies.

  15. Search for Z'--> e^+e^- Using Dielectron Mass and Angular Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bölla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, Yu A; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chapman, J; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chu, P H; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cresciolo, F; Cruz, A; Cuenca-Almenar, C; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Culbertson, R; Cyr, D; Da Ronco, S; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; De Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Delli Paoli, F; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; Di Turo, P; Dorr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Efron, J; Ehlers, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernández, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; García, J E; García-Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D A; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gómez, G; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Yu; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimarães da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hahn, K; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Höcker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Incandela, J R; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P F; Lu, R S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Mäki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Von der Mey, M; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Miquel, R; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla-Fernández, P A; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Müller, T; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Naganoma, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, Aldo L; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Rakitine, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Van Remortel, N; Renton, P B; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Salto, O; Saltzberg, D; Sánchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T G; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakian, A; Sjölin, J; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Söderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spezziga, M; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; Saint-Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tanimoto, N; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tonnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vaiciulis, A W; Vallecorsa, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobuev, I P; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Wan, Z; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2006-01-01

    We search for Z' bosons in dielectron events produced in ppbar collisions at sqrt{s}=1.96 TeV, using a 0.45 fb^(-1) dataset accumulated with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. To identify the Z' --> e^+e^- signal, both the dielectron invariant mass distribution and the angular distribution of the electron pair are used. No evidence of a signal is found, and 95% confidence level lower limits are set on the Z' mass for several models. Limits are also placed on the mass and gauge coupling of a generic Z', as well as on the contact interaction mass scales for different helicity structure scenarios.

  16. Interpretation of depth-variation of Moliere angular distribution with ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Moliere multiple scattering process with ionization, the shape of angular distribution becomes young again or the expansion parameter B becomes small again just before charged particles dissipate their whole energies. We have investigated the mechanism of depth-variation of the distribution using Kamata-Nishimura formulation of the Moliere theory and found that the variation of the shape can be interpreted by the shifts of frequency component between the central gaussian term and the asymptotic single scattering term or by the variation of discriminating angle between the moderate small angle scattering and the low-frequency large angle scattering. The translation formula between the Kamata-Nishimura formulation and the Moliere-Bethe one giving full compatible results in the nonrelativistic condition is also proposed. (author)

  17. Scattering properties of the interplanetary medium obtained from angular distribution of solar energetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar energetic particles can be used as probes for the turbulence level in the interplanetary medium. We discuss various methods by which the scattering conditions can be determined, (a) overall fits of observed particle intensities and anisotropies to a transport model, (b) evaluation of the steady-state pitch angle distribution, (c) suitably normalized angular distributions during the intensity maximum of a particle event. Results from solar particle events observed on HELIOS 1 and 2 show that the global mean free paths determined by usage of methods (a) and (b) agree well with each other. Large variations in the degree of scattering exist from one event to the other. The assumption λr(r)=const underlying the derivation of a global mean free path will have to be modified

  18. Effect of transverse vibrations of fissile nuclei on the angular and spin distributions of low-energy fission fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunakov, V. E.; Kadmensky, S. G.; Lyubashevsky, D. E.

    2016-05-01

    It is shown that A. Bohr's classic theory of angular distributions of fragments originating from low-energy fission should be supplemented with quantum corrections based on the involvement of a superposition of a very large number of angular momenta L m in the description of the relative motion of fragments flying apart along the straight line coincidentwith the symmetry axis. It is revealed that quantum zero-point wriggling-type vibrations of the fissile system in the vicinity of its scission point are a source of these angular momenta and of high fragment spins observed experimentally.

  19. Angular distributions of evaporation residues from near-barrier fusion of 32,36S on a ≅100 nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distributions of evaporation residues from near-barrier fusion of 32,36S ions with 92,94,96,98,100Mo, 100,101,102,104Ru, 103Rh, and 104,105,106,108,110Pd were measured in the range of 3 to 11 degrees in the laboratory system. The relative yield of the four most abundant exit evaporation channels has been extracted for all target-projectile combination at two bombarding energies, by fitting the angular distributions expected for each channel as obtained from the Monte-Carlo program TRANMI to the measured angular distribution of the evaporation residues. The total detection efficiency for the Munich-RF-Recoil Spectrometer was obtained from the relative yields, taking into account the effect due to multiple scattering, and compared with that obtained previously from the recoil velocity distributions. (orig./HSI)

  20. On using angular cross-correlations to determine source redshift distributions

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how well the redshift distribution of a population of extragalactic objects can be reconstructed using angular cross-correlations with a sample whose redshifts are known. We derive the minimum variance quadratic estimator, which has simple analytic representations in very applicable limits and is significantly more sensitive than earlier proposed estimation procedures. This estimator is straightforward to apply to observations, it robustly finds the likelihood maximum, and it conveniently selects angular scales at which fluctuations are well approximated as independent between redshift bins and at which linear theory applies. We find that the linear bias times number of objects in a redshift bin generally can be constrained with cross-correlations to fractional error (10^2 n/N)^1/2, where N is the total number of spectra per dz and n is the number of redshift bins spanned by the bulk of the unknown population. The error is often independent of the sky area and sampling fraction. Furthermore, we...

  1. Angular momentum analysis of rotational transfer of superthermal relative velocity distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteley, T.W.J.; McCaffery, A.J. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). School of Molecular Sciences

    1996-12-02

    An angular momentum (AM) theory is developed to calculate the relative populations of final rotational states after collision between a diatomic molecule and an atom having a narrow, superthermal velocity distribution as produced by, e.g. photolysis of a precursor species. Probability densities are derived from semiclassical expressions for energy and angular momentum assuming the classically impulsive limit with the repulsive wall modelled by a hard ellipsoid. The treatment given is general and therefore applies to molecules in which the centre-of-mass does not coincide with the centre of the potential coordinates. A transfer function for RT is derived and applied to the H + CO system. Analysis of the data allows the anisotropy to be extracted which is in good agreement with an ab initio potential surface. The method described allows one to rapidly assess the contributions from the elliptical core of the potential and from other features of the potential, and would permit more sophisticated representations of the topology to be incorporated. (Author).

  2. The angular distribution of a dose of neutrons behind a randomly inhomogeneous polyethylene barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collimated beam of neutrons of a reactor spectrum with a divergence of 3 degrees and a diameter of 60 cm was directed onto cylindrical polyethylene assemblies with a diameter of 70 cm. The assemblies were made from blocks of polyethylene having a density of 0.91 g/cm3, in the shape of a parallel piped of height 10 cm, and square cross sections of 2 x 2, 4 x 4, and 6 x 6 cm, so that the corresponding mean dimensions of the inclusions D = 4v/S were equal to 1.82, 3.33 and 4.62 cm. Slugs were arranged in a cylindrical hollow tubular shell by means of nylon thread so as to simulate a randomly inhomogeneous medium with a volume density of 0.1 and 0.3. The height of each assembly for a fixed size of the inclusions was 16.7 cm. Analysis and results are presented in terms of the root mean square dose as a function of the thickness of the polyethylene barrier, root mean square neutron dose as a function of the polyethylene thickness for several angles, and angular dependence of the root mean square neutron dose. An analysis of the results of the angular distribution of the dose of scattered radiation showed that the neutron dose behind a plane randomly inhomogeneous barrier can be estimated using the analytic formulas presented in this paper

  3. Investigation of incomplete fusion dynamics from the measurement of angular distributions at E ≈ 88 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work has been carried out to provide some definite conclusions regarding ICF reaction dynamics below 10 MeV/nucleon energies. We have measured the angular distributions of evaporated residues produced in 12C + 175Lu system at ≈ 88 MeV energy. Moreover, this work is aimed to provide the new experimental data on angular distributions, which is not available in the literature to the best of our knowledge. This is a complementary experiment to support and strengthen the findings of Excitation Functions and Recoil Range Distribution measurements

  4. Effects of Turbulent Aberrations on Probability Distribution of Orbital Angular Momentum for Optical Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-Xin; CANG Ji

    2009-01-01

    Effects of atmospheric turbulence tilt, defocus, astigmatism and coma aberrations on the orbital angular mo-mentum measurement probability of photons propagating in weak turbulent regime are modeled with Rytov approximation. By considering the resulting wave as a superposition of angular momentum eigenstates, the or-bital angular momentum measurement probabilities of the transmitted digit axe presented. Our results show that the effect of turbulent tilt aberration on the orbital angular momentum measurement probabilities of photons is the maximum among these four kinds of aberrations. As the aberration order increases, the effects of turbulence aberrations on the measurement probabilities of orbital angular momentum generally decrease, whereas the effect of turbulence defoens can be ignored. For tilt aberration, as the difference between the measured orbital angular momentum and the original orbital angular momentum increases, the orbital angular momentum measurement probabifity decreases.

  5. Effects of Turbulent Aberrations on Probability Distribution of Orbital Angular Momentum for Optical Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of atmospheric turbulence tilt, defocus, astigmatism and coma aberrations on the orbital angular momentum measurement probability of photons propagating in weak turbulent regime are modeled with Rytov approximation. By considering the resulting wave as a superposition of angular momentum eigenstates, the orbital angular momentum measurement probabilities of the transmitted digit are presented. Our results show that the effect of turbulent tilt aberration on the orbital angular momentum measurement probabilities of photons is the maximum among these four kinds of aberrations. As the aberration order increases, the effects of turbulence aberrations on the measurement probabilities of orbital angular momentum generally decrease, whereas the effect of turbulence defocus can be ignored. For tilt aberration, as the difference between the measured orbital angular momentum and the original orbital angular momentum increases, the orbital angular momentum measurement probability decreases. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  6. Fission fragment mass and angular distribution in 6,7Li+235,238U reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission fragment (FF) angular distributions for 6,7Li+235,238U reactions and mass distributions for 6,7Li+ 238U reactions have been measured at energies near and above the Coulomb barrier. The angle integrated fission cross sections for 6Li induced reactions at sub-barrier energies are found to be higher than 7Li induced reactions possibly due to larger contribution of breakup induced fission in case of the former compared to the latter. The FF anisotropy for 6,7Li+235U was found to be smaller than 6,7Li+238U, manifesting the effect of target ground state spin. The statistical saddle point (SSP) model predictions were found to be consistent with the measured FF anisotropy for 6,7Li+235U, however they were under-estimated for 6,7Li+238U particularly at lower energies. Observation of larger FWHM of FF folding angle distribution and sharp increase in peak to valley ratio for FF mass distribution with the decrease in bombarding energy in 6,7Li+238U reactions confirms the presence of breakup induced fission. (authors)

  7. Fission fragment mass and angular distribution in 6,7Li+235,238U reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santra S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fission fragment (FF angular distributions for 6,7Li+235,238U reactions and mass distributions for 6,7Li+238U reactions have been measured at energies near and above the Coulomb barrier. The angle integrated fission cross sections for 6Li induced reactions at sub-barrier energies are found to be higher than 7Li induced reactions possibly due to larger contribution of breakup induced fission in case of the former compared to the latter. The FF anisotropy for 6,7Li+235U was found to be smaller than 6,7Li+238U, manifesting the effect of target ground state spin. The statistical saddle point (SSP model predictions were found to be consistent with the measured FF anisotropy for 6,7Li+235U, however they were under-estimated for 6,7Li+238U particularly at lower energies. Observation of larger FWHM of FF folding angle distribution and sharp increase in peak to valley ratio for FF mass distribution with the decrease in bombarding energy in 6,7Li+238U reactions confirms the presence of breakup induced fission.

  8. An experimental investigation of angular resolved energy distributions of atoms sputtered from evaporated aluminum films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of angular resolved velocity (energy) distributions of atoms sputtered from in situ prepared metal films is described in this contribution. The velocity resolution of the set-up is based on the pulsed laser-induced fluorescence technique, i.e., scanning the narrow bandwidth dye laser radiation over the Doppler broadened absorption profile of the sputtered particles. The arrangement of the vacuum vessel and fluorescence detection optics provides the means for an independent selection of the observed emission direction and the angle of incidence. A pulsed ion gun is applied to bombard the target with noble gas ions in the energy range between 200 and 500 eV. The target assembly allows the preparation of thin metal films by evaporation on optically polished glass substrates without break of the vacuum. We report on measurements obtained with this arrangement, i.e., the determination of energy distributions of sputtered aluminum atoms. The bombardment at both the normal and the oblique incidence of the ion beam are contained in the investigation. Pronounced anisotropic effects are observed in both cases. In the case of oblique bombardment the shape of the distributions reflects cascade effects as well as single collision properties. The energy distribution is approximated with the aid of an energy spectrum involving a superposition of exponential functions. The experimental results are compared with simulations obtained by the Monte Carlo code TRIM.SP

  9. A Scaling Law of Photoelectron Angular Distributions in One-Cycle Laser Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Li-Hua; ZHANG Jing-Tao; XU Zhi-Zhan

    2005-01-01

    @@ The photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) from above-threshold ionization of atoms irradiated by one-cycle laser pulses satisfy a scaling law.The scaling law denotes that the main features of the PADs are determined by four dimensionless parameters: (1) the ponderomotive number up = Up/hω, the ponderomotive energy Up in units of laser photon energy; (2) the binding number εb = Eb/hω, the atomic binding energy Eb in units of laser photon energy; (3) the number of absorbed photons q; (4) the carrier-envelope phase Φ0, the phase of the carrier wave with respect to the envelope.We verify the scaling law by theoretical analysis and numerical calculation,compared to that in long-pulse case.A possible experimental test to verify the scaling law is suggested.

  10. Photoelectron angular distributions from strong-field ionization of oriented molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Holmegaard, Lotte; Kalhøj, Line; Kragh, Sofie Louise; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Filsinger, Frank; Küpper, Jochen; Meijer, Gerard; Dimitrovski, Darko; Abu-samha, Mahmoud; Martiny, Christian P J; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    The combination of photoelectron spectroscopy and ultrafast light sources is on track to set new standards for detailed interrogation of dynamics and reactivity of molecules. A crucial prerequisite for further progress is the ability to not only detect the electron kinetic energy, as done in traditional photoelectron spectroscopy, but also the photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) in the molecular frame. Here carbonylsulfide (OCS) and benzonitrile molecules, fixed in space by combined laser and electrostatic fields, are ionized with intense, circularly polarized, 30 femtosecond laser pulses. For 1-dimensionally oriented OCS the molecular frame PADs exhibit pronounced anisotropies, perpendicular to the fixed permanent dipole moment, that are absent in PADs from randomly oriented molecules. For 3-dimensionally oriented benzonitrile additional striking structures appear due to suppression of electron emission in nodal planes of the fixed electronic orbitals. Our theoretical analysis, relying on tunneling io...

  11. Angular distributions in J / ψ → p p bar π0 (η) decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, V. F.; Milstein, A. I.; Salnikov, S. G.

    2016-09-01

    The differential decay rates of the processes J / ψ → p p bar π0 and J / ψ → p p bar η close to the p p bar threshold are calculated with the help of the N N bar optical potential. The same calculations are made for the decays of ψ (2 S). We use the potential which has been suggested to fit the cross sections of N N bar scattering together with N N bar and six pion production in e+e- annihilation close to the p p bar threshold. The p p bar invariant mass spectrum is in agreement with the available experimental data. The anisotropy of the angular distributions, which appears due to the tensor forces in the N N bar interaction, is predicted close to the p p bar threshold. This anisotropy is large enough to be investigated experimentally. Such measurements would allow one to check the accuracy of the model of N N bar interaction.

  12. Angular Distributions of U238 Fission Fragments Produced by Mono-Energetic Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distribution of U238 fission fragments has been measured using mica plates as detectors. The fission process was induced by mono-energetic gamma rays of the following discrete energies: 6.07, 6.75, 6.80, 7.38, 7.64, 7.73 and 9.00 MeV. The sources of mono-energetic gamma-rays were (n, γ ) reactions on seven different target elements in the SAPHIR reactor of the E.T.H. in Zurich. The gamma-ray line absolute intensities were of the order of 106 photons/cm2s. The neutron and gamma-ray backgrounds were estimated with a bismuth target. (author)

  13. Photoionization study of Xe 5s: ionization cross sections and photoelectron angular distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarthi, G.; Jose, J.; Deshmukh, S.; Radojevic, V.; Deshmukh, P. C.; Manson, S. T.

    2014-01-01

    We report studies of photoelectron angular distribution and cross-section for photoionization of xenon 5s electrons using the relativistic multiconfiguration Tamm-Dancoff (MCTD) approximation. We find that MCTD provides a significantly improved agreement with experiment, compared to some of the other relativistic many body approximations such as the relativistic random phase approximation and the relativistic random phase approximation with relaxation, over the entire photon energy region bracketing the near-threshold 5s Cooper minimum, from the 5s threshold up to about 70 eV. The MCTD results in the length form are in much better agreement with the experiment than those in the velocity form, suggesting residual correlations that must be of importance.

  14. Photoionization study of Xe 5s: ionization cross sections and photoelectron angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report studies of photoelectron angular distribution and cross-section for photoionization of xenon 5s electrons using the relativistic multiconfiguration Tamm–Dancoff (MCTD) approximation. We find that MCTD provides a significantly improved agreement with experiment, compared to some of the other relativistic many body approximations such as the relativistic random phase approximation and the relativistic random phase approximation with relaxation, over the entire photon energy region bracketing the near-threshold 5s Cooper minimum, from the 5s threshold up to about 70 eV. The MCTD results in the length form are in much better agreement with the experiment than those in the velocity form, suggesting residual correlations that must be of importance. (paper)

  15. On the angular distribution of cosmic rays from an individual source in a turbulent magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Harari, Diego; Roulet, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    We obtain the angular distribution of the cosmic rays reaching an observer from an individual source and after propagation through a turbulent magnetic field, for different ratios between the source distance and the diffusion length. We study both the high-energy quasi-rectilinear regime as well as the transition towards the diffusive regime at lower energies where the deflections become large. We consider the impact of energy losses, showing that they tend to enhance the anisotropy of the source at a given energy. We also discuss lensing effects, in particular those that could result from the regular galactic magnetic field component, and show that the effect of the turbulent extragalactic magnetic fields can smooth out the divergent magnification peaks that would result for point-like sources in the limit of no turbulent deflections.

  16. Calculation of photodetachment cross sections and photoelectron angular distributions of negative ions using density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the development of photoelectron velocity map imaging makes it much easier to obtain the photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) experimentally. However, explanations of PADs are only qualitative in most cases, and very limited works have been reported on how to calculate PAD of anions. In the present work, we report a method using the density-functional-theory Kohn-Sham orbitals to calculate the photodetachment cross sections and the anisotropy parameter β. The spherical average over all random molecular orientation is calculated analytically. A program which can handle both the Gaussian type orbital and the Slater type orbital has been coded. The testing calculations on Li−, C−, O−, F−, CH−, OH−, NH2−, O2−, and S2− show that our method is an efficient way to calculate the photodetachment cross section and anisotropy parameter β for anions, thus promising for large systems

  17. Photoelectron angular distributions in bichromatic atomic ionization induced by circularly polarized VUV femtosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douguet, Nicolas; Grum-Grzhimailo, Alexei N.; Gryzlova, Elena V.; Staroselskaya, Ekaterina I.; Venzke, Joel; Bartschat, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    We investigate two-pathway interferences between nonresonant one-photon and resonant two-photon ionization of atomic hydrogen. In particular, we analyze in detail the photoionization mediated by the fundamental frequency and the second harmonic of a femtosecond VUV pulse when the fundamental is tuned near an intermediate atomic state. Following our recent study [Phys. Rev. A 91, 063418 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.063418] of such effects with linearly polarized light, we analyze a similar situation with circularly polarized radiation. As a consequence of the richer structure in circularly polarized light, characterized by its right-handed or left-handed helicity, we present and discuss various important features associated with the photoelectron angular distribution.

  18. Angular dependence study on dose distribution of MatriXX 2-D chamber array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the gantry angles of 0 degree 80 degree and 280 degree 360 degree (0 degree), the off axis distance (OAR) profiles curves of 6 MV X-ray were obtained by Monte Carlo simulation, 3-D water phantom measurement and MatriXX measurement. Comparing the three types of curves, we analyzed the angular dependence of MatriXX 2-D chamber array. The results revealed that the three types of curves agreed well with the gantry angles of 0 degree 60 degree and 300 degree 360 degree(0 degree). Curves and centre point dose on plane from Monte Carlo simulation differed obviously from those of MatriXX measurement in gantry angles of 70 degree 90 degree and 270 degree 290 degree. It is possible to verify the dose distribution of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan using the Multi-Gantry-Angle Composite (MGAC). (authors)

  19. Angular and mass resolved energy distribution measurements with a gallium liquid metal ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionisation and energy broadening mechanisms relevant to liquid metal ion sources are discussed. A review of experimental results giving a picture of source operation and a discussion of the emission mechanisms thought to occur for the ionic species and droplets emitted is presented. Further work is suggested by this review and an analysis system for angular and mass resolved energy distribution measurements of liquid metal ion source beams has been constructed. The energy analyser has been calibrated and a series of measurements, both on and off the beam axis, of 69Ga+, Ga++ and Ga2+ ions emitted at various currents from a gallium source has been performed. A comparison is made between these results and published work where possible, and the results are discussed with the aim of determining the emission and energy spread mechanisms operating in the gallium liquid metal ion source. (author)

  20. Photoelectron angular distributions from polar molecules probed by intense femtosecond lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    We present numerical calculations of molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions in strong-field ionization of oriented polar HF and LiF molecules by linearly polarized laser pulses with durations of about 20 fs (seven cycles at 800 nm). The calculations are performed within the single......-active-electron and frozen-nuclei approximations. Our analysis shows that for the HF and LiF molecules, anisotropies in the molecular potential and the probed orbital lead to enhanced ionization during laser half cycles with the field pointing antiparallel to the permanent dipole of the dipole term in a multipolar...... (the probed orbital and the molecular potential) and the orientation angle between the molecular axis and the laser polarization....

  1. Rotations of molecular photoelectron angular distributions with intense ultrashort circularly polarized attosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Chelkowski, Szczepan; Bandrauk, André D.

    2013-04-01

    Molecular photoelectron angular distributions (MPADs) by intense (I0 ⩾ 1014 W/cm2) circularly polarized ultrashort, few cycle (attosecond) ultraviolet laser pulses are presented from numerical solutions of time dependent Schrödinger equations. For the aligned molecular ion H_2^+, the MPADs exhibit rotations with respect to the polarization and molecular symmetry axes which are determined by the symmetry of the initial electronics states. It is also found that the rotation angle of MPADs is insensitive to the pulse intensity. We attribute these effects to the asymmetry between the parallel and perpendicular (to the molecular axis) polarization photoionization. Influence of the molecular alignment and ionizing pulse ellipticity on the rotation of MPADs is also shown to allow control of the nonsymmetric ionization.

  2. Should Households Base Asset Decumulation Strategies on Required Minimum Distribution Tables?

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Sun; Anthony Webb

    2013-01-01

    Retired households must trade off the risk of outliving their wealth against the cost of unnecessarily restricting their consumption. Using numerical optimisation techniques, we compare two innovative rules of thumb: (1) consuming the age-related percentage of remaining wealth specified in the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Required Minimum Distribution (RMD) tables, and (2) consuming the age-related percentage of remaining wealth specified in the IRS RMD tables PLUS interest and dividends, w...

  3. 16 CFR Table 4 to Part 1512 - Relative Energy Distribution of Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relative Energy Distribution of Sources 4 Table 4 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS... Distribution of Sources Wave length (nanometers) Relative energy 380 9.79 390 12.09 400 14.71 410 17.68 420...

  4. Angular distribution of reemitted positrons from W(100) with over layers of oxygen and LiF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshan, K.; Samarin, S. N.; Guagliardo, P.; Wilkie, P. J.; Petrov, V. N.; Williams, J. F.

    2016-04-01

    The angular distribution of reemitted positrons has been measured from clean and oxygen exposed W(100), as well as from W(100) with LiF deposited on the surface, at an incident positron energy of 600 eV. Both the deposition of LiF and oxygen adsorption on W(100) caused a drastic reduction in the reemitted positron intensity and broadening of the angular distribution of the remitted positrons from W(100). The angular distribution of reemitted positrons in each case could be best fitted to the sum of two Gaussians, a narrow Gaussian whose width is in the range expected from a one-dimensional step model of positron reemission and an additional broad Gaussian. The area under the narrow Gaussian is more sensitive to surface over layers than the broad Gaussian.

  5. The Angular Distribution Of Electron-positron Pairs From Exclusive Charmonium Decays In Antiproton-proton Annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    McTaggart, R J

    1998-01-01

    The angular distributions of the charmonium resonances J/ Y (3097) and Y (3686) in their exclusive decay to an electron-positron pair are studied. Experiment 835 at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory produced charmonium resonances by annihilating protons with antiprotons in the Fixed Target Mode of the Antiproton Accumulator: A stochastically cooled antiproton beam collides with a hydrogen gas jet, which forms clusters under the right pressure and low temperature. The charmonium decay products are detected out of a large hadronic background with the help of a segmented lead glass sampling calorimeter, which is sensitive to the high mass electron-positron charmonium decay, and a set of Cerenkov threshold detectors that provide good electron/pion separation. Several factors influence the angular distribution parameter l taken from the angular distribution, including the energy scale of the resonance, the coupling strength of the charmonium atom, and how quarks and gluons interact in the dissolution...

  6. Vibrationally resolved photoelectron angular distributions from randomly oriented and fixed-in-space N2 and CO molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vibrationally resolved photoelectron angular distributions from randomly oriented and fixed-in-space N2 and CO molecules have been evaluated by using an extension of the static-exchange density functional theory that includes the nuclear motion. Both K-shell and valence-shell photoionization have been considered. Comparison with the experimental data, only available for randomly oriented molecules, is very good. Our predictions for molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions of N2 show the signature of electron confinement and coherent two-centre interferences as those previously found in H2. For CO, they exhibit diffraction patterns associated with the scattering of the ejected electron by the neighbouring atomic centre. The conclusions reported in this work suggest that vibrationally resolved photoelectron angular distributions can be a useful instrument to determine structure parameters in these simple molecules.

  7. Single decay-lepton angular distributions in polarized +- → $t\\overline{t}$ and simple angular asymmetries as a measure of CP-violating top dipole couplings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saurabh D Rindani

    2003-07-01

    In the presence of an electric dipole coupling of $t\\overline{t}$ to a photon, and an analogous `weak’ dipole coupling to the , CP violation in the process +- → $t\\overline{t}$ results in modified polarization of the top and the anti-top. This polarization can be analyzed by studying the angular distributions of decay charged leptons when the top or anti-top decays leptonically. Analytic expressions are presented for these distributions when either or $\\overline{t}$ decays leptonically, including $\\mathscr{O}(_{s})$ QCD corrections in the soft-gluon approximation. The angular distributions are insensitive to anomalous interactions in top decay. Two types of simple CP-violating polar-angle asymmetries and two azimuthal asymmetries, which do not need the full reconstruction of the or $\\overline{t}$, are studied. Independent 90% CL limits that may be obtained on the real and imaginary parts of the electric and weak dipole couplings at a linear collider operating at $\\sqrt{s}=500$ GeV with integrated luminosity 500 fb-1 and also at $\\sqrt{s} = 1000$ GeV with integrated luminosity 1000 fb-1 have been evaluated. The effect of longitudinal electron and/or positron beam polarizations has been included.

  8. Efficient Indexing of the BitTorrent Distributed Hash Table

    OpenAIRE

    Grunthal, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    The following paper presents various methods and implementation techniques used to harvest metadata efficiently from a Kademlia Distributed Hashtable (DHT) as used in the BitTorrent P2P network to build an index of publicly available files in the BitTorrent ecosystem. The indexer design makes various tradeoffs between throughput and fairness towards other DHT nodes while also being scaleable in a distributed environment.

  9. Angular and velocity distributions of desorbing product carbon dioxide from two reaction sites on platinum(110)(1×2)

    OpenAIRE

    Ohno, Yuichi; Matsushima, Tatsuo; Uetsuka, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    The angular and velocity distributions of desorbing product CO2 were studied on a platinum(110)(1×2) surface over a wide range of CO coverages by means of angle-resolved thermal desorption combined with a cross-correlation time-of-flight (TOF) technique. Heating the coadsorption layer of CO and oxygen yields four CO2 formation peaks P1–CO2 (~400 K), P2–CO2 (300 K), P3–CO2 (250 K), and P4–CO2 (170 K)]. The angular distribution of each CO2 produced at high CO coverages consists of three desorpt...

  10. CFHTLenS and RCSLenS: Testing Photometric Redshift Distributions Using Angular Cross-Correlations with Spectroscopic Galaxy Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Ami; Blake, Chris; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Duncan, Christopher A J; Erben, Thomas; Nakajima, Reiko; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Viola, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    We determine the accuracy of galaxy redshift distributions as estimated from photometric redshift probability distributions $p(z)$. Our method utilises measurements of the angular cross-correlation between photometric galaxies and an overlapping sample of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts. We describe the redshift leakage from a galaxy photometric redshift bin $j$ into a spectroscopic redshift bin $i$ using the sum of the $p(z)$ for the galaxies residing in bin $j$. We can then predict the angular cross-correlation between photometric and spectroscopic galaxies due to intrinsic galaxy clustering when $i \

  11. Challenging measurement of the {sup 16}O+{sup 27}Al elastic and inelastic angular distributions up to large angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallaro, M., E-mail: manuela.cavallaro@lns.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cunsolo, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Foti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Linares, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro 24210-340 (Brazil); Pereira, D.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Lubian, J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Fisica Nuclear, Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chen, R. [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou (China)

    2011-08-21

    The {sup 16}O+{sup 27}Al elastic and inelastic angular distributions have been measured in a broad angular range (13{sup o}<{theta}{sub lab}<52{sup o}) at about 100 MeV incident energy. The use of the MAGNEX large acceptance magnetic spectrometer and of the ray-reconstruction analysis technique has been crucial in order to provide, in the same experiment, high-resolution energy spectra and cross-section measurements distributed over more than seven orders of magnitude down to hundreds of nb/sr.

  12. Distribution of odds ratio in 2 × 2 contingency table: adjustment for correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Atanu; Hwang, Jing-Shiang

    2011-01-01

    The Log-odds ratio for 2 × 2 contingency tables is often approximated by a normal distribution with an approximated variance. Hwang and Biswas (2008) illustrated that the standard expression for the variance should be modified in the presence of correlation. They also provided an adjustment to this variance expression when a single 2 × 2 table is available with matched-pair data. In this present paper, we first provide the required adjustment for multiple 2 × 2 tables, theoretically and also with reference to some data examples. We illustrate that this variance-adjusted normal approximation is a better approximation for such data. We provide two examples, one of which came from a late-phase clinical trial. As the theoretical development of this research depends on the existence of a bivariate binomial distribution, a multivariate (and hence bivariate) binomial distribution is motivated and derived. We then provide a suitably correlation adjusted Mantel-Haenszel test procedure. PMID:21191860

  13. The mass and angular momentum distribution of simulated massive galaxies to large radii

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xufen; Naab, Thorsten; Oser, Ludwig; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Hilz, Michael; Churazov, Eugene; Lyskova, Natalya

    2012-01-01

    We study the mass distributions, circular velocity curves (CVCs), line-of-sight kinematics and angular momenta out to many Re for a sample of 42 cosmological zoom simulations of massive galaxies. In order to reduce the particle noise at large radii, we temporally smooth the observables of the simulated galaxies in a static potential. The mass of the simulated galaxies is parametrised by vcirc at r=5Re. We find: (i) The projected stellar density distributions at large radii can be well fitted by S'ersic functions. The S'ersic indices range from 3 to 13 and correlate with stellar mass and galaxy size (low n, low mass, small size). (ii) The dark matter halo density profiles are consistent with simple power-law models, corresponding to flat dark matter CVCs for lower-mass systems, and rising CVCs for high-mass halos. (iii) The massive systems have nearly flat total CVCs at large radii, while the less massive systems have mildly decreasing CVCs. The slope of the CVC at large radii correlates with S'ersic index and...

  14. On the angular distribution of IceCube high-energy events

    CERN Document Server

    Marcos, R de la Fuente

    2015-01-01

    The detection of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos of extraterrestrial origin by the IceCube neutrino observatory in Antarctica has opened a unique window to the cosmos that may help to probe both the distant Universe and our cosmic backyard. The arrival directions of these high-energy events have been interpreted as uniformly distributed on the celestial sphere. Here, we revisit the topic of the putative isotropic angular distribution of these events applying Monte Carlo techniques to investigate a possible anisotropy. A modest evidence for anisotropy is found. An excess of events appears projected towards a section of the Local Void, where the density of galaxies with radial velocities below 3000 km/s is rather low, suggesting that this particular group of somewhat clustered sources are located either very close to the Milky Way or perhaps beyond 40 Mpc. The results of further analyses of the subsample of southern hemisphere events favour an origin at cosmological distances with the arrival directions of ...

  15. 40 CFR Table E-2 to Subpart E of... - Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests E Table E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods and Class I and Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. E, Table E-2 Table E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53—Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance...

  16. Analytical derivation of higher-order terms of Molière’s series and accuracy of Molière’s angular distribution of fast charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molière’s series functions of higher orders describing angular distributions of charged particle under the multiple scattering process are solved by exactly evaluating Cauchy integral with poles within the contour of integration. The functions of Molière’s series giving higher-order terms are evaluated accurately by Poisson series expansion, both for spatial and projected angular distributions. Molière’s series for the integrated angular distributions are also derived. Accuracy of the Molière’s series expansion of higher orders is examined by comparing the reconstructed angular distributions with those derived exactly through the numerical Hankel transforms

  17. A remodelling metric for angular fibre distributions and its application to diseased carotid bifurcations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Creane, Arthur

    2012-07-01

    Many soft biological tissues contain collagen fibres, which act as major load bearing constituents. The orientation and the dispersion of these fibres influence the macroscopic mechanical properties of the tissue and are therefore of importance in several areas of research including constitutive model development, tissue engineering and mechanobiology. Qualitative comparisons between these fibre architectures can be made using vector plots of mean orientations and contour plots of fibre dispersion but quantitative comparison cannot be achieved using these methods. We propose a \\'remodelling metric\\' between two angular fibre distributions, which represents the mean rotational effort required to transform one into the other. It is an adaptation of the earth mover\\'s distance, a similarity measure between two histograms\\/signatures used in image analysis, which represents the minimal cost of transforming one distribution into the other by moving distribution mass around. In this paper, its utility is demonstrated by considering the change in fibre architecture during a period of plaque growth in finite element models of the carotid bifurcation. The fibre architecture is predicted using a strain-based remodelling algorithm. We investigate the remodelling metric\\'s potential as a clinical indicator of plaque vulnerability by comparing results between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid bifurcations. Fibre remodelling was found to occur at regions of plaque burden. As plaque thickness increased, so did the remodelling metric. A measure of the total predicted fibre remodelling during plaque growth, TRM, was found to be higher in the symptomatic group than in the asymptomatic group. Furthermore, a measure of the total fibre remodelling per plaque size, TRM\\/TPB, was found to be significantly higher in the symptomatic vessels. The remodelling metric may prove to be a useful tool in other soft tissues and engineered scaffolds where fibre adaptation is also present.

  18. Angular distribution and cross section measurements for the reaction 40Ca(n,α)37Ar using gridded ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new-type double gridded ionization chamber (GIC) with a multi-parameters data acquisition and processing system has been established for the study of fast-neutron-induced (n,p) and (n,α) reactions. The system has been applied to measurements of angular distribution, energy spectra and differential cross section of the 40Ca(n,α)37Ar reaction

  19. Relativistic angular distribution of photoelectrons in the tunneling ionization of atoms by a linearly polarized laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the angular distribution of the ejected photoelectrons during relativistic tunneling ionization of atoms by linearly polarized laser field is discussed. The effect of shifted ionization potential has been taken into account. The influence of two different spatial profiles of an intense laser pulse is studied. (author)

  20. Measurement of angular distributions for residues produced in 16O+169Tm system at energy ≅ 81 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of heavy ion (HI) reactions are of current interest. At energies just above the Coulomb barrier, both the complete fusion (CF) and the incomplete fusion (ICF) are found to be the dominant processes. With a view to study relative contribution of CF and ICF in 16O+169Tm system, angular distribution of several residues have been measured in the present work

  1. Anisotropy in the pion angular distribution of the reaction pp -> pp pi0 at 400 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Engblom, P T; Cappellaro, F; Höistad, Bo; Jacewicz, M; Johansson, T; Koch, I; Kullander, Sven; Pettersson, H; Schönning, K; Zlomanczuk, Yu; Calén, H; Fransson, K; Kupsc, A; Marciniewski, P; Wolke, M; Pauly, C; Demirörs, L; Scobel, W; Stepaniak, J; Zabierowski, J; Bashkanov, M; Clement, H; Khakimova, O; Kren, F; Skorodko, T Yu

    2006-01-01

    The reaction pp -> pp pi0 was studied with the WASA detector at the CELSIUS storage ring. The center of mass angular distribution of the pi0 was obtained by detection of the gamma decay products together with the two outgoing protons, and found to be anisotropic with a negative second derivative slope, in agreement with the theoretical predictions from a microscopic calculation.

  2. Relativistic angular distribution of photoelectrons in the tunneling ionization of atoms by a linearly polarized laser field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miladinović, Tatjana B.; Petrović, Violeta M., E-mail: violeta.petrovickg@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kragujevac University, Kragujevac (Serbia)

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the angular distribution of the ejected photoelectrons during relativistic tunneling ionization of atoms by linearly polarized laser field is discussed. The effect of shifted ionization potential has been taken into account. The influence of two different spatial profiles of an intense laser pulse is studied. (author)

  3. WASP (wavelet analysis of secondary particles angular distributions) package. Version 1.2. Long write up and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WASP package is a C++ program aimed to analyze angular distributions of secondary particles generated in nuclear interactions. WASP package is based on wavelet transform algorithms. This work includes the user's guide, description of algorithms and mathematical methods, graphical user interface. We have also analyzed what problems of nuclear physics can be tackled with WASP

  4. Eigenvalue correlations and the distribution of ground state angular momenta for random many-body quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The observed preponderance of ground states with angular momentum L=0 in many-body quantum systems with random two-body interactions is analyzed in terms of correlation coefficients (covariances) among different eigenstates. It is shown that the geometric analysis of Chau et al. can be interpreted in terms of correlations (covariances) between energy eigenvalues, thus providing an entirely statistical explanation of the distribution of ground state angular momenta of randomly interacting quantum systems that, in principle, is valid for both fermionic and bosonic systems. The method is illustrated for the interacting boson model.

  5. Fission Fragment Angular Distribution of 232Th(n,f) at the CERN n_TOF Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Tarrío, D; Audouin, L; Duran, I.; Paradela, C.; Tassan-Got, L; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Gurusamy, P; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Meaze, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondalaers, W; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T J; Žugec, P

    2014-01-01

    The angular distribution of fragments emitted in neutron-induced fission of Th-232 was measured in the white spectrum neutron beam at the n\\_TOF facility at CERN. A reaction chamber based on Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) was used, where the detectors and the targets have been tilted 45 degrees with respect to the neutron beam direction in order to cover the full angular range of the fission fragments. A GEANT4 simulation has been developed to study the setup efficiency. The data analysis and the preliminary results obtained for the Th-232(n,f) between fission threshold and 100 MeV are presented here.

  6. Angular distribution of cosmological parameters as a probe of inhomogeneities: a kinematic parametrisation

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, C Sofia

    2016-01-01

    We use a kinematic parametrisation of the luminosity distance to measure the angular distribution on the sky of time derivatives of the scale factor, in particular the Hubble parameter H_0, the deceleration parameter q_0 and the jerk parameter j_0. We apply the method introduced in Carvalho & Marques (2015) to complement probing the inhomogeneity of the large-scale structure by means of the inhomogeneity in the cosmic expansion. This parametrisation is independent of the cosmological equation of state, which renderes it adequate to test interpretations of the cosmic acceleration alternative to the cosmological constant. We also measure the anisotropy of the parameters by computing the power spectrum of the corresponding parameters' maps up to ell=3. Finally for an analytical toy model of an inhomogeneous ensemble of homogenous pixels, we derive the backreaction term in j_0 due to the fluctuations of {H_0,q_0} and measure it to be of order 0.01 the corresponding average over the pixels in the absence of ba...

  7. Angular distribution of cosmological parameters as a probe of space-time inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, C. Sofia; Marques, Katrine

    2016-08-01

    We develop a method based on the angular distribution on the sky of cosmological parameters to probe the inhomogeneity of large-scale structure and cosmic acceleration. We demonstrate this method on the largest type Ia supernova (SN) data set available to date, as compiled by the Joint Light-curve Analysis (JLA) collaboration and, hence, consider the cosmological parameters that affect the luminosity distance. We divide the SN sample into equal surface area pixels and estimate the cosmological parameters that minimize the chi-square of the fit to the distance modulus in each pixel, hence producing maps of the cosmological parameters {ΩM,ΩΛ,H0} . In poorly sampled pixels, the measured fluctuations are mostly due to an inhomogeneous coverage of the sky by the SN surveys; in contrast, in well-sampled pixels, the measurements are robust enough to suggest a real fluctuation. We also measure the anisotropy of the parameters by computing the power spectrum of the corresponding maps of the parameters up to ℓ = 3. For an analytical toy model of an inhomogeneous ensemble of homogeneous pixels, we derive the backreaction term in the deceleration parameter due to the fluctuations of H0 across the sky and measure it to be of order 10-3 times the corresponding average over the pixels in the absence of backreaction. We conclude that, for the toy model considered, backreaction is not a viable dynamical mechanism to emulate cosmic acceleration.

  8. Calculation of photodetachment cross sections and photoelectron angular distributions of negative ions using density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuan [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ning, Chuangang, E-mail: ningcg@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

    2015-10-14

    Recently, the development of photoelectron velocity map imaging makes it much easier to obtain the photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) experimentally. However, explanations of PADs are only qualitative in most cases, and very limited works have been reported on how to calculate PAD of anions. In the present work, we report a method using the density-functional-theory Kohn-Sham orbitals to calculate the photodetachment cross sections and the anisotropy parameter β. The spherical average over all random molecular orientation is calculated analytically. A program which can handle both the Gaussian type orbital and the Slater type orbital has been coded. The testing calculations on Li{sup −}, C{sup −}, O{sup −}, F{sup −}, CH{sup −}, OH{sup −}, NH{sub 2}{sup −}, O{sub 2}{sup −}, and S{sub 2}{sup −} show that our method is an efficient way to calculate the photodetachment cross section and anisotropy parameter β for anions, thus promising for large systems.

  9. Near threshold angular distributions of the $^2$H$(\\gamma,\\Lambda)$X reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Beckford, B; Chiba, A; Doi, D; Fujii, T; Fujii, Y; Futatsukawa, K; Gogami, T; Hashimoto, O; Honda, R; Hosomi, K; Kanda, H; Kaneta, M; Kaneko, Y; Kato, S; Kawama, D; Kimura, C; Kiyokawa, S; Koike, T; Maeda, K; Makabe, K; Matsubara, M; Miwa, K; Nagao, S; Nakamura, S N; Okuyama, A; Shirotori, K; Sugihara, K; Tamura, H; Tsukada, K; Yagi, K; Yamamoto, F; Yamamoto, T O; Han, Y C; Hirose, K; Ishikawa, T; Suzuki, K; Tamae, T; Yamazaki, H

    2013-01-01

    A study of the $^2$H$({\\gamma},{\\Lambda})$X reaction was performed using a tagged photon beam at the Research Center for Electron Photon Science (ELPH), Tohoku University. The photoproduced $\\Lambda$ was measured in the $p{\\pi^{-}}$ decay channel by the upgraded Neutral Kaon Spectrometer (NKS2+). The momentum integrated differential cross section was determined as a function of the scatting angle of ${\\Lambda}$ in the laboratory frame for five energy bins. Our results indicated a peak in the cross section at angles smaller than cos$\\theta^{LAB}_{\\Lambda}$ = 0.95. The experimentally obtained angular distributions were compared to isobar models, Kaon-Maid (KM) and Saclay-Lyon A (SLA), in addition to the composite Regge-plus-resonance (RPR) model. Both SLA(r$K_{1}K_{\\gamma}$ = -1.4) and RPR describe the tendency of the data quite well in contrast to the KM model that substantially under predicted the cross section. With the anticipated forthcoming data on ${\\Lambda}$ integrated and momentum dependent differentia...

  10. Dynamic polarization effects on the angular distributions of protons channeled through carbon nanotubes in dielectric media

    CERN Document Server

    Borka, D; Mišković, Z L; Petrović, S; Nešković, N

    2008-01-01

    The best level of ordering and straightening of carbon nanotube arrays is often achieved when they are grown in a dielectric matrix, so such structures present the most suitable candidates for future channeling experiments with carbon nanotubes. Consequently, we investigate here how the dynamic polarization of carbon valence electrons in the presence of various surrounding dielectric media affects the angular distributions of protons channeled through (11,~9) single-wall carbon nanotubes. Proton speeds between 3 and 10 a.u., corresponding to energies of 0.223 and 2.49 MeV, are chosen with the nanotube's length varied between 0.1 and 1 $\\mu$m. We describe the repulsive interaction between a proton and the nanotube's atoms in a continuum-potential approximation based on the Doyle-Turner potential, whereas the attractive image force on a proton is calculated using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model for the dynamic response of the nanotube valence electrons, while assigning to the surrounding medium an appropri...

  11. Role of screening and angular distributions in resonant soft-x-ray emission of CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytt, P.; Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    In the present work the authors focus on two particular properties of resonant X-ray emission, namely core hole screening of the excited electron, and anisotropy caused by the polarization of the exciting synchrotron radiation. The screening of the core hole by the excited electron causes energy shifts and intensity variations in resonant spectra compared to the non-resonant case. The linear polarization of the synchrotron radiation and the dipole nature of the absorption process create a preferential alignment selection of the randomly oriented molecules in the case of resonant excitation, producing an anisotropy in the angular distribution of the emitted X-rays. The authors have chosen CO for this study because this molecule has previously served as a showcase for non-resonant X-ray emission, mapping the valence electronic structure differently according to the local selection rules. With the present work they take interest in how this characteristic feature of the spectroscopy is represented in the resonant case.

  12. Angular distribution of cosmological parameters: measurement of inhomogeneities from type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, C Sofia

    2015-01-01

    We measure the inhomogeneity of the large-scale structure and cosmic acceleration by measuring for the first time the angular distribution on the sky of the cosmological parameters that affect the luminosity distance, estimated from supernova data. We used the combination of SDSS-II and SNLS type Ia supernova samples. We divide the supernovae into equal-surface area pixels and estimate the cosmological parameters that minimize the chi-squared of the fit to the distance modulus in each pixel, hence producing maps of the cosmological parameters {Omega_{M}, Omega_{Lambda}, H_{0}}. We measure fluctuations about the average values of order 5-95% for the matter energy density Omega_{M}, of order 1-25% for the dark energy density Omega_{Lambda} and of order up to 5% for the Hubble parameter H_{0}. In poorly sampled pixels, these fluctuations are mostly due to an inhomogeneous coverage of the sky by the SN surveys; in contrast, in well sampled pixels, the measurements are robust enough to suggest a real fluctuation. ...

  13. Angular distributions in $J/\\psi\\to p\\bar{p}\\pi^{0}(\\eta)$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, V F; Salnikov, S G

    2016-01-01

    The differential decay rates of the processes $J/\\psi\\to p\\bar{p}\\pi^{0}$ and $J/\\psi\\to p\\bar{p}\\eta$ close to the $p\\bar{p}$ threshold are calculated with the help of the $N\\bar{N}$ optical potential. The same calculations are made for the decays of $\\psi(2S)$. We use the potential which has been suggested to fit the cross sections of $N\\bar{N}$ scattering together with $N\\bar{N}$ and six pion production in $e^{+}e^{-}$ annihilation close to the $p\\bar{p}$ threshold. The $p\\bar{p}$ invariant mass spectra is in agreement with the available experimental data. The anisotropy of the angular distributions, which appears due to the tensor forces in the $N\\bar{N}$ interaction, is predicted close to the $p\\bar{p}$ threshold. This anisotropy is large enough to be investigated experimentally. Such measurements would allow one to check the accuracy of the model of $N\\bar{N}$ interaction.

  14. Considerations on the determining factors of the angular distribution of emitted particles in laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulations of particles which are emitted in laser ablation have been performed by the method of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo to investigate the deposition profiles of the emitted particles. The influences of the temperature, pressure and stream velocity of the initial evaporated layer formed during laser ablation process on the profile of the deposited film have been examined. It is found that the temperature gives a minor influence on the deposition profile, whereas the stream velocity and the pressure of the initial evaporated layer have a greater impact on the deposition profile. The energy in the direction of surface normal (Eperpendicular) and that in the parallel direction of the surface (E||) are shown to increase and decrease, respectively after the laser irradiation due to collisions between the emitted particles, and this trend is magnified as the pressure increases. As a consequence, the stream velocity in the direction of surface normal increases with the increase in the pressure. A mechanism of the phenomenon that a metal with a lower sublimation energy shows a broader angular distribution of emitted particles is presented. It is suggested that low density of evaporated layer of a metal with a low sublimation energy at its melting point decreases the number of collisions in the layer, leading to the low stream velocity in the direction of surface normal, which results in the broader deposition profile of the emitted particles.

  15. Angular, velocity, rotational, and electronic distributions of vibrationally elastically scattered NO(v = 1) from LiF(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misewich, J.; Zacharias, H.; Loy, M.M.T.

    1985-09-01

    Infrared laser excitation has been utilized to excite part of a molecular beam of NO to a single well-defined quantum state, NO(v = 1, J = 3/2, ..cap omega.. = 1/2), which is scattered from a cleaved LiF(100) surface. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques then allow the determination of rotational and electronic distributions as well as state-specific angular and velocity distributions for scattering from a single initial vibrational-rotational state.

  16. Molecular beam studies of unimolecular reactions: Cl, F + C/sub 2/H/sub 3/Br. [Angular and velocity distributions, mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buss, R.J.; Coggiola, M.J.; Lee, Y.T.

    1978-12-01

    Several methods currently used to study unimolecular decomposition in molecular beams are discussed. Experimental product angular and velocity distributions obtained for the reaction of F, Cl with C/sub 2/H/sub 3/Br are presented. The mechanism by which conservation of angular momemtum can cause coupling of the product angular and velocity distributions in dissociation of long-lived complexes is introduced. 14 references.

  17. Exclusive studies of angular distributions in GeV hadron-induced reactions with [sup 197]Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsi, W.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Wang, G.; Bracken, D.S.; Cornell, E.; Ginger, D.S.; Viola, V.E. (Departments of Chemistry, Physics and IUCF, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)); Korteling, R.G. (Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, (Canada) V5A I56); Morley, K.B. (Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)); Huang, R.; Lynch, W.G.; Tsang, M.B.; Xi, H. (Department of Physics and NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)); Gimeno-Nogues, F.; Ramakrishnan, E.; Rowland, D.; Yennello, S.J. (Department of Chemistry and Cyclotron Institute, Texas A M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)); Breuer, H. (Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)); Gushue, S.; Remsberg, L.P. (Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)); Botvin

    1999-09-01

    Exclusive studies of angular distributions for intermediate-mass fragments (IMFs) produced in GeV hadron-induced reactions have been performed with the Indiana Silicon Sphere (ISiS) 4[pi] detector array. Special emphasis has been given to understanding the origin of sideways peaking, which becomes prominent in the angular distributions for beam momenta above about 10 GeV/c. Both the magnitude of the effect and the peak angle increase as a function of fragment multiplicity and charge. When gated on IMF kinetic energy, the angular distributions evolve from forward-peaked to near isotropy as the fragment kinetic energy decreases. Fragment-fragment angular-correlation analyses show no obvious evidence for a dynamic mechanism that might signal shock wave effects or the breakup of exotic geometric shapes such as bubbles or toroids. Moving-source and intranuclear cascade simulations suggest that the observed sideways peaking is of kinematic origin, arising from significant transverse momentum imparted to the heavy recoil nucleus during the fast cascade stage of the collision. A two-step cascade and statistical multifragmentation calculation is consistent with this assumption. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

  18. Exclusive studies of angular distributions in GeV hadron-induced reactions with {sup 197}Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsi, W.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Wang, G.; Bracken, D.S.; Cornell, E.; Ginger, D.S.; Viola, V.E. [Departments of Chemistry, Physics and IUCF, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); Korteling, R.G. [Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, (Canada) V5A I56; Morley, K.B. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Huang, R.; Lynch, W.G.; Tsang, M.B.; Xi, H. [Department of Physics and NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Gimeno-Nogues, F.; Ramakrishnan, E.; Rowland, D.; Yennello, S.J. [Department of Chemistry and Cyclotron Institute, Texas A M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Breuer, H. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Gushue, S.; Remsberg, L.P. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Botvina, A. [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Bologna I-40126 (Italy); Friedman, W.A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Exclusive studies of angular distributions for intermediate-mass fragments (IMFs) produced in GeV hadron-induced reactions have been performed with the Indiana Silicon Sphere (ISiS) 4{pi} detector array. Special emphasis has been given to understanding the origin of sideways peaking, which becomes prominent in the angular distributions for beam momenta above about 10 GeV/c. Both the magnitude of the effect and the peak angle increase as a function of fragment multiplicity and charge. When gated on IMF kinetic energy, the angular distributions evolve from forward-peaked to near isotropy as the fragment kinetic energy decreases. Fragment-fragment angular-correlation analyses show no obvious evidence for a dynamic mechanism that might signal shock wave effects or the breakup of exotic geometric shapes such as bubbles or toroids. Moving-source and intranuclear cascade simulations suggest that the observed sideways peaking is of kinematic origin, arising from significant transverse momentum imparted to the heavy recoil nucleus during the fast cascade stage of the collision. A two-step cascade and statistical multifragmentation calculation is consistent with this assumption. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Critical angular momentum distributions in collapsars: quiescent periods from accretion state transitions in long gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Camara, D; Ramirez-Ruiz, E

    2009-01-01

    The rotation rate in pre-supernova cores is an important ingredient which can profoundly affect the post-collapse evolution and associated energy release in supernovae and long gamma ray bursts (LGRBs). Previous work has focused on whether the specific angular momentum is above or below the critical value required for the creation of a centrifugally supported disk around a black hole. Here, we explore the effect of the distribution of angular momentum with radius in the star, and show that qualitative transitions between high and low angular momentum flow, corresponding to high and low luminosity accretion states, can effectively be reflected in the energy output through neutrinos, leading to variability and the possibility of quiescent times in LGRBs.

  20. A default prior distribution for contingency tables with dependent factor levels

    OpenAIRE

    Overstall, Antony M.; King, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    A default prior distribution is proposed for the Bayesian analysis of contingency tables. The prior is specified to allow for dependence between levels of the factors. Different dependence structures are considered, including conditional autoregressive and distance correlation structures. To demonstrate the prior distribution, a dataset is considered which involves estimating the number of injecting drug users in the eleven National Health Service board regions of Scotland using an incomplete...

  1. Study of the angular momentum distribution of compound nuclei obtained from fusion reactions close to the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the mass asymmetry of the input channel on the compound nuclei spin distribution. The 16O + 144Nd and 80Se + 80Se reactions produce the same 160Er compound nucleus in the 38 to 68 MeV energy range. In certain cases, the incident energies required to form the compound nucleus, at the same excitation energies, are very close to the Coulomb barrier. In the experimental device, the 'Chateau de Cristal' multidetector and additional sensors are used. The angular momentum distribution of the different evaporation products are measured by gamma spectrometry techniques. The fusion cross sections are measured by the time-of-flight technique. Theoretical predictions and experimental results concerning the distribution of the compound nucleus angular momentum are compared

  2. Angular Distribution of Particles Emerging from a Diffusive Region and its Implications for the Fleck-Canfield Random Walk Algorithm for Implicit Monte Carlo Radiation Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, M A

    2000-01-01

    We present various approximations for the angular distribution of particles emerging from an optically thick, purely isotropically scattering region into a vacuum. Our motivation is to use such a distribution for the Fleck-Canfield random walk method [1] for implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) [2] radiation transport problems. We demonstrate that the cosine distribution recommended in the original random walk paper [1] is a poor approximation to the angular distribution predicted by transport theory. Then we examine other approximations that more closely match the transport angular distribution.

  3. WTR: A Reputation Metric for Distributed Hash Tables Based on a Risk and Credibility Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xavier Bonnaire; Erika Rosas

    2009-01-01

    The growing number of popular peer to peer applications during the last five years has implied for researchers to focus on how to build trust in such very large scale distributed systems Reputation systems have shown to be a very good solution to build trust in presence of malicious nodes.We propose in this paper a new metric for reputation systems on top of a Distributed Hash Table that uses a notion of risk to make the applications aware of certain behaviours of malicious nodes.We show that our metric iS able to significantly reduce the number of malicious transactions.and that it also provides very strong resistance to several traditional attacks of reputations systems.We also show that our solution can easily scale.and can be adapted to various Distributed Hash Tables.

  4. Angular and Linear Velocity Estimation for a Re-Entry Vehicle Using Six Distributed Accelerometers: Theory, Simulation and Feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G

    2003-04-28

    This report describes a feasibility study. We are interested in calculating the angular and linear velocities of a re-entry vehicle using six acceleration signals from a distributed accelerometer inertial measurement unit (DAIMU). Earlier work showed that angular and linear velocity calculation using classic nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) solvers is not practically feasible, due to mathematical and numerical difficulties. This report demonstrates the theoretical feasibility of using model-based nonlinear state estimation techniques to obtain the angular and linear velocities in this problem. Practical numerical and calibration issues require additional work to resolve. We show that the six accelerometers in the DAIMU are not sufficient to provide observability, so additional measurements of the system states are required (e.g. from a Global Positioning System (GPS) unit). Given the constraint that our system cannot use GPS, we propose using the existing on-board 3-axis magnetometer to measure angular velocity. We further show that the six nonlinear ODE's for the vehicle kinematics can be decoupled into three ODE's in the angular velocity and three ODE's in the linear velocity. This allows us to formulate a three-state Gauss-Markov system model for the angular velocities, using the magnetometer signals in the measurement model. This re-formulated model is observable, allowing us to build an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for estimating the angular velocities. Given the angular velocity estimates from the EKF, the three ODE's for the linear velocity become algebraic, and the linear velocity can be calculated by numerical integration. Thus, we do not need direct measurements of the linear velocity to provide observability, and the technique is mathematically feasible. Using a simulation example, we show that the estimator adds value over the numerical ODE solver in the presence of measurement noise. Calculating the velocities in the

  5. Rotations and angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of rotational invariance and the properties of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. In particular, the problem of addition of angular momenta is treated in detail, and tables of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients are included

  6. Polarization Imaging over Sea Surface - A Method for Measurements of Stokes Components Angular Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freda, W.; Piskozub, J.; Toczek, H.

    2015-12-01

    This article describes a method for determining the angular distribution of light polarization over a roughened surface of the sea. Our method relies on measurements of the Stokes vector elements using a polarization imaging camera that operates using the Division of Focal Plane (DoFP) method. It uses special monochrome CCD array in which the neighbouring cells, instead of recording different colours (red green and blue), are equipped with micropolarizers of four directions (0, 45, 90 and 135 degrees). We combined the camera with a fish-eye lens of Field of View (FoV) > 180 deg. Such a large FoV allowed us to crop out the fragment of the frame along the circular horizon, showing a view covering all directions of the hemisphere. Because of complicated optical design of the fish-eye lens (light refraction on surfaces of parts of the lens) connected to the sensor we checked the accuracy of the measurement system. A method to determine the accuracy of measured polarization is based on comparison of the experimentally obtained rotation matrix with its theoretical form. Such a comparison showed that the maximum error of Stokes vector elements depended on zenith angle and reached as much as 24% for light coming from just above the horizon, but decreased rapidly with decreasing zenith angle to the value of 12% for the angles 10° off the edge of FoV. Moreover we present the preliminary results prepared over rough sea surface. These results include total intensity of light, Degree of Linear Polarization (DoLP) and their standard deviations. The results have been averaged over one thousand frames of a movie. These results indicate that the maximum polarization is observed near the reflection of the sun, and the signal coming from below the surface may be observed at zenith angles far from the vertical direction.

  7. Angular Distributions of High-Mass Dilepton Production in Hadron Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClellan, Randall Evan [Illinois U., Urbana

    2016-01-01

    λ has been performed, and the remaining difficulties in extracting ν have been evaluated. Although the results are not yet publishable, significant progress has been made in developing this very challenging angular distributions analysis. A simple scheme for correcting for the angular acceptances of the spectrometer, trigger, and reconstruction has been developed and demonstrated. A generally applicable correction for the kinematically-dependent, rate-dependent reconstruction efficiency has been developed and applied to all current analyses on SeaQuest data. This rate-dependence correction was the first major hurdle in the path to publication of many preliminary SeaQuest results. The last remaining major correction for all analyses, but especially important for the angular parameter extraction, is the full characterization, rate-dependence correction, and subtraction of the combinatoric background contribution to the reconstructed dimuon sample. Independently, an intuitive, kinematic derivation of the single-event definitions of the Drell-Yan angular parameters has been developed under the assumption of unpolarized annihilating quarks within unpolarized nuclei. At O(αs), where the quarks remain co-planar with the hadrons in the photon rest frame, this kinematic method reproduces the Lam-Tung relation and derives an additional equality for µ2, which is only interpretable for single-event parameters. This method has been extended to the case of quark non- coplanarity, and the coplanar equalities become inequalities. A new equality was discovered, which should be obeyed by single-event parameters even in the case of a non-coplanar quark axis. The non-coplanar parameter relations have been used to derive constraints on the experimentally accessible values of λ and ν. These constraints are compared with existing data and have been found consistent, except in the cases where significant contributions from non-zero Boer-Mulders functions are expected. Finally, the

  8. Measurement of the angular distribution of fission fragments using a PPAC assembly at CERN nTOF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fission reaction chamber based on Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPACs) was built for measuring angular distributions of fragments emitted in neutron-induced fission of actinides at the neutron beam available at the Neutron Time-Of-Flight (nTOF) facility at CERN. The detectors and the samples were tilted 45° with respect to the neutron beam direction to cover all the possible values of the emission angle of the fission fragments. The main features of this setup are discussed and results on the fission fragment angular distribution are provided for the 232Th(n,f) reaction around the fission threshold. The results are compared with the available data in the literature, demonstrating the good capabilities of this setup

  9. Measurement of the angular distribution of fission fragments using a PPAC assembly at CERN n_TOF

    CERN Document Server

    Tarrío, D; Audouin, L; Duran, I; Paradela, C; Tassan-Got, L; Le Naour, C; Bacri, C O; Petitbon, V; Mottier, J; Caamano, M; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cértes-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Gurusamy, P; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Meaze, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondalaers, W; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T J; Žugec, P

    2014-01-01

    A fission reaction chamber based on Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPACs) was built for measuring angular distributions of fragments emitted in neutron-induced fission of actinides at the neutron beam available at the Neutron Time-Of-Flight (n_TOF) facility at CERN. The detectors and the samples were tilted 45 1 with respect to the neutron beam direction to cover all the possible values of the emission angle of the fission fragments. The main features of this setup are discussed and results on the fission fragment angular distribution are provided for the 232 Th(n,f) reaction around the fission threshold. The results are compared with the available data in the literature, demonstrating the good capabilities of this setup

  10. Search for quark compositeness in dijet angular distributions from pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Sunil; Benucci, Leonardo; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Ceard, Ludivine; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Siguang; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Falkiewicz, Anna; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Lomidze, David; Anagnostou, Georgios; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Erdmann, Martin; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Lingemann, Joschka; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Davids, Martina; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Olzem, Jan; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Renz, Manuel; Röcker, Steffen; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schmanau, Mike; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Santocchia, Attilio; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Dellacasa, Giulio; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Jo, Hyun Yong; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Seo, Eunsung; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Brona, Grzegorz; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Pela, Joao; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Breuker, Horst; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stoye, Markus; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Chen, Zhiling; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguilo, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Henderson, Conor; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Caulfield, Matthew; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Nelson, Randy; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sfiligoi, Igor; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cooper, William; Eartly, David P; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jensen, Hans; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pivarski, James; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Schwarz, Thomas; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Schmitt, Michael; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kunde, Gerd J; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Silvestre, Catherine; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Peterman, Alison; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Haupt, Jason; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Jindal, Pratima; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Wan, Zongru; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Petrillo, Gianluca; Sakumoto, Willis; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Gurrola, Alfredo; Issah, Michael; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goadhouse, Stephen; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Belknap, Donald; Bellinger, James Nugent; Bernardini, Jacopo; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    A search for quark compositeness using dijet angular distributions from pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV is presented. The search has been carried out using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 inverse femtobarns, recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. Normalized dijet angular distributions have been measured for dijet invariant masses from 0.4 TeV to above 3 TeV and compared with a variety of contact interaction models, including those which take into account the effects of next-to-leading-order QCD corrections. The data are found to be in agreement with the predictions of perturbative QCD, and lower limits are obtained on the contact interaction scale, ranging from 7.5 up to 14.5 TeV at 95% confidence level.

  11. Velocity spectra and angular distributions of evaporation residues from sup 32 S + sup 12 C at 145 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, N.; Cavallaro, S.; Femino' , S.; Figuera, P.; Pirrone, S.; Porto, F.; Sambataro, S. (Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Universita di Messina, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Catania and Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud I-95129 Catania (Italy))

    1991-11-01

    Velocity spectra and angular and mass distributions for the evaporation residues of the {sup 32}S+{sup 12}C system at {ital E}{sup 32}S=145 MeV in the angular range 3{degree}{le}{var theta}{sub {ital L}}{le}12{degree} have been measured. In order to separate compound nucleus evaporation residues from other heavy reaction products, a kinematic analysis based on simple statistical assumptions relative to the velocity spectra was performed. The structures in the mass distribution are compared with the LILITA code predictions. The fusion excitation function of the existing results is compared with theoretical models. The total reaction cross section has been extracted by means of the modified sum of differences method.

  12. Magnetization reversal via a Stoner–Wohlfarth model with bi-dimensional angular distribution of easy axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical extension of the simple Stoner–Wohlfarth model to the case of bi-dimensional angular distributions of easy axis is provided. The results are particularized in case of step-like, Gaussian-like and user defined distributions. In spite of its simplicity, the model can be applied to magnetically textured thin films and multilayers with in-plane magnetic anisotropy, independently on the texture source. Exemplifications are provided for a simple ferromagnetic textured FeCo film as well as for a FeMn/FeCo/Cu/FeCo spin valve structure. - Highlights: • Magnetic texture effects are included in the Stoner–Wohlfarth problem. • Step-like, Gaussian-like and user defined angular EADs are discussed. • The magnetic texture is obtained from the overall magnetization reversal. • Results beyond the OR method can be provided for complex systems

  13. Search for quark compositeness in dijet angular distributions from pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2012-05-01

    A search for quark compositeness using dijet angular distributions from pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV is presented. The search has been carried out using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 inverse femtobarns, recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. Normalized dijet angular distributions have been measured for dijet invariant masses from 0.4 TeV to above 3 TeV and compared with a variety of contact interaction models, including those which take into account the effects of next-to-leading-order QCD corrections. The data are found to be in agreement with the predictions of perturbative QCD, and lower limits are obtained on the contact interaction scale, ranging from 7.5 up to 14.5 TeV at 95% confidence level.

  14. Fission Fragment Angular Distributions in the $^{234}$U(n,f) and $^{236}$U(n,f) reactions

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the fission fragment angular distribution (FFAD) of the $^{234}$U(n,f) and $^{236}$U (n,f) reactions with the PPAC detection setup used in previous n_TOF-14 experiment. This experiment would take advantage of the high resolution of the n_TOF facility to investigate the FFAD behaviour in the pronounced vibrational resonances that have been observed between 0.1 and 2 MeV for the thorium cycle isotopes. In addition, the angular distribution of these isotopes will be measured for the first time beyond 14 MeV. Furthermore, the experiment will also provide the fission cross section with reduced statistical uncertainty, extending the $^{236}$U(n,f) data up to 1 GeV

  15. Angular distribution in two-photon double ionization of helium by intense attosecond soft X-ray pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Barna, I F; Wang, J

    2006-01-01

    We investigate two-photon double ionization of helium by intense ($10^{15} W/cm^2$) ultrashort ($\\approx 300$ as) soft X-ray pulses (E = 91.6 eV). The time-dependent two-electron Schr\\"odinger equation is solved using a coupled channel method. We show that for ultrashort pulses the angular distribution of ejected electrons depends on the pulse duration and provides novel insights into the role of electron correlations in the two-electron photoemission process. The angular distribution at energies near the ``independent electron'' peaks is close to dipolar while it acquires in the ``valley'' of correlated emission a significant quadrupolar component within a few hundred attoseconds.

  16. Angular distribution in two-photon double ionization of helium by intense attosecond soft-x-ray pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, Imre F.; Wang, Jianyi; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2006-02-01

    We investigate two-photon double ionization of helium by intense (≈1015W/cm2) ultrashort (≈300as) soft-x-ray pulses (E=91.6eV) . The time-dependent two-electron Schrödinger equation is solved using a coupled channel method. We show that for ultrashort pulses the angular distribution of ejected electrons depends on the pulse duration and provides insight into the role of electron correlations in the two-electron photoemission process. The angular distribution at energies near the “independent-electron” peaks is close to dipolar while it acquires in the “valley” of correlated emission a significant quadrupolar component within a few hundred attoseconds.

  17. Elastic and inelastic angular distributions of the 7Li+120Sn system for energies near the Coulomb barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Gasques, L. R.; Alcántara-Núñez, J. A.; Duarte, J. G.; Aguiar, V. P.; Medina, N. H.; Seale, W. A.; Pires, K. C. C.; Freitas, A.; Lubian, J.; Shorto, J. M. B.; Genezini, F. A.; Rossi, E. S., Jr.

    2016-06-01

    The reaction of 7Li+120Sn has been measured at bombarding energies of 21, 24 and 27 MeV. The {2}+\\to {0}+ γ -ray transition in 120Sn was observed and the angular distribution for the 2+ excited state was obtained. Coupled channels and coupled-reaction channels calculations, including the dynamical polarization potential due to the projectile break-up, obtained from continuum discretized coupled channel calculations, were performed. The comparison between the existing experimental elastic angular distribution with the coupled-reaction channels calculations indicates that the 1n stripping transfer is the most intense channel to be coupled and the 2n stripping reaction occurs sequentially rather than directly, however, further data must be analyzed to confirm this indication. The experimental elastic and inelastic scattering data were well described by the calculations, but some discrepancies in these channels may indicate the need for corrections to the nuclear potential and/or the necessity to incorporate further channels.

  18. Pion production via proton synchrotron radiation in strong magnetic fields in relativistic field theory: Scaling relations and angular distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.

    2016-06-01

    We study pion production by proton synchrotron radiation in the presence of a strong magnetic field when the Landau numbers of the initial and final protons are ni,f ∼104-105. We find in our relativistic field theory calculations that the pion decay width depends only on the field strength parameter which previously was only conjectured based upon semi-classical arguments. Moreover, we also find new results that the decay width satisfies a robust scaling relation, and that the polar angular distribution of emitted pion momenta is very narrow and can be easily obtained. This scaling implies that one can infer the decay width in more realistic magnetic fields of 1015 G, where ni,f ∼1012-1013, from the results for ni,f ∼104-105. The resultant pion intensity and angular distributions for realistic magnetic field strengths are presented and their physical implications discussed.

  19. Magnetization reversal via a Stoner–Wohlfarth model with bi-dimensional angular distribution of easy axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuncser, A. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, 405 Atomistilor Street, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kuncser, V., E-mail: kuncser@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2015-12-01

    A numerical extension of the simple Stoner–Wohlfarth model to the case of bi-dimensional angular distributions of easy axis is provided. The results are particularized in case of step-like, Gaussian-like and user defined distributions. In spite of its simplicity, the model can be applied to magnetically textured thin films and multilayers with in-plane magnetic anisotropy, independently on the texture source. Exemplifications are provided for a simple ferromagnetic textured FeCo film as well as for a FeMn/FeCo/Cu/FeCo spin valve structure. - Highlights: • Magnetic texture effects are included in the Stoner–Wohlfarth problem. • Step-like, Gaussian-like and user defined angular EADs are discussed. • The magnetic texture is obtained from the overall magnetization reversal. • Results beyond the OR method can be provided for complex systems.

  20. Angular distribution of species in pulsed laser deposition of La{sub x}Ca{sub 1−x}MnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda-G-P, Alejandro [Paul Scherrer Institut, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Schneider, Christof W., E-mail: christof.schneider@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Döbeli, Max [Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Lippert, Thomas; Wokaun, Alexander [Paul Scherrer Institut, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • The angular distribution of species was analyzed for different pressures. • Results show a non-congruent transfer of composition from target to substrate. • Film thickness and composition show different angular distributions. - Abstract: The angular distribution of species from a La{sub 0.4}Ca{sub 0.6}MnO{sub 3} target irradiated with a 248 nm nanosecond pulsed laser was investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry for four different Ar pressures. The film thickness angular distribution was also analyzed using profilometry. Depending on the background gas pressure, the target to substrate distance, and the angular location the film thickness and composition varies considerably. In particular the film composition could vary by up to 17% with respect to the composition of the target material.

  1. Angular distribution and yield of protons from the 10B(d, p)11B reaction (II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paris, C.H.; Valckx, F.P.G.; Endt, P.M.

    1954-01-01

    In a previous paper (to be quoted as (I)) angular distribution measurements have been described of four proton groups from the B(d, p)B reaction at a deuteron energy of Ed = 0.31 MeV. In the present investigation measurements were added at Ed = 0.20, 0.45 and 0.60 MeV. The differential cross sectio

  2. Study of heavy ion induced fission fragment angular and mass distribution at near and sub-coulomb barrier energies

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, T.K.

    2005-01-01

    The thesis presents investigations on the angular and mass distribution of fission fragments on heavy ion induced fission reactions. The present investigations address current issues in heavy ion induced fission reactions like finding the optimum entrance channel for the synthesis of super heavy elements (SHE). A double arm time of flight spectrometer over long flight path was used to measure the precise masses of complementary fission fragments. Necessary large area position sensitive gas de...

  3. Angular distribution and inertia parameters i Alpha-induced fission of 232Th, 233U, and 238U

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Farhad M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the selected fission fragment angular distribution from alpha induced fission is made by using an exact theoretical expression. Theoretical anisotropics obtained with transition state modes are compared with their corresponding experimental values. The agreement between the calculated and experimental values is very good. The values of the statistical parameter K02 are used for calculation of the inertia parameters. The results indicate an increase in the moment of inertia.

  4. Dijet angular distribution in p bar p collisions at √s =1.8 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dijet angular distribution is measured in the Collider Detector at Fermilab. This measurement covers higher mass ranges and larger scattering angles than previously possible. Good agreement is observed between the data and both leading-order [O(αs2)] and next-to-leading order [O(αs3)] QCD calculations. A limit on quark compositeness of Λc>1.0 TeV is obtained

  5. The effect of turbulence on entanglement-based free-space quantum key distribution with photonic orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sandeep K.; Hamadou Ibrahim, Alpha; Roux, Filippus S.; Konrad, Thomas; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Using an experimental setup that simulates a turbulent atmosphere, we study the secret key rate for quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols in orbital angular momentum based free space quantum communication. The QKD protocols under consideration include the Ekert 91 protocol for different choices of mutually unbiased bases and the six-state protocol. We find that the secret key rate of these protocols decay to zero, roughly at the same scale where the entanglement of formation decays to zero.

  6. Spectral and angular distributions of charged particles outside biological shielding of the 70 GeV Serpukhov accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Space, angular and energy distributions of the charged particle of radiation field outside the Serpukhov accelerator shielding at different protons beam energies obtained with the ΔE-E spectrometer are presented. The influence of the accelerating complex operation on the charged particles field shaping outside the concrete and heterogeneous steel-concrete shieldings has been analyzed. The ratios between neutrons and charged particles of the radiation field outside the 70 GeV accelerator shielding have been estimated

  7. Electron Scattering from Gaseous Ocs($^1\\Sigma$): Comparing Computed Angular Distributions and Elastic Cross Sections with Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Gianturco, F. A.; Stoecklin, T.

    2007-01-01

    Differential cross sections are computed for the title polar molecule using static interaction, exchange forces and correlation-polarisation effects as described in detail in the main text. The dipole effect is also reported via the dipole Born correction procedure and the final angular distributions are compared with existing experimental data. The shape and location of the prominent low-energy resonance are computed and compared with experiments. The comparison shows that the present treatm...

  8. Next-generation angular distribution models for top-of-atmosphere radiative flux calculation from CERES instruments: methodology

    OpenAIRE

    W. Su; Corbett, J; Z. Eitzen; L. Liang

    2015-01-01

    The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes are critical components to advancing our understanding of the Earth's radiative energy balance, radiative effects of clouds and aerosols, and climate feedback. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments provide broadband shortwave and longwave radiance measurements. These radiances are converted to fluxes by using scene-type-dependent angular distribution models (ADMs). This paper describes the next-gener...

  9. The effect of turbulence on entanglement-based free-space quantum key distribution with photonic orbital angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an experimental setup that simulates a turbulent atmosphere, we study the secret key rate for quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols in orbital angular momentum based free space quantum communication. The QKD protocols under consideration include the Ekert 91 protocol for different choices of mutually unbiased bases and the six-state protocol. We find that the secret key rate of these protocols decay to zero, roughly at the same scale where the entanglement of formation decays to zero. (paper)

  10. Simultaneous measurement of angular distribution of elastic scattering for 6Li, 7Be, and 8B in 58Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental angular distributions of elastic scattering for the projectiles 6Li, 7Be, 8B in 58Ni were obtained. Using the Optical model with a Woods-Saxon potential form, as much for the real part as for the imaginary one, an adjustment to the experimental data varying only the depth of the imaginary part of the potential is made. A comparison of the results obtained for each projectile is made. (Author)

  11. Transverse momentum and angular distributions of hadrons in muon-proton scattering and tests of quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of the transverse momenta and angular distributions of hadrons produced in muon-proton scattering with first-order quantum-chromodynamics calculations. The quantum-chromodynamics prediction for the Q2 dependence of the average hadron transverse momentum squared agrees with the data provided a constant term is added in quadrature to the prediction. This additive term is attributed to the intrinsic transverse momentum of the quarks in the nucleon and to the transverse momentum inherent in quark fragmentation

  12. Angular distribution of light emission from compound-eye cornea with conformal fluorescent coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Miller, Amy E.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2014-09-01

    The complex morphology of the apposition compound eyes of insects of many species provides them a wide angular field of view. This characteristic makes these eyes attractive for bioreplication as artificial sources of light. The cornea of a blowfly eye was conformally coated with a fluorescent thin film with the aim of achieving wide field-of-view emission. On illumination by shortwave-ultraviolet light, the conformally coated eye emitted visible light whose intensity showed a weaker angular dependence than a fluorescent thin film deposited on a flat surface.

  13. Resonant structure of the 3d electron's angular distribution in a free Mn+Ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3d-electron angular anisotropy parameter of the free Mn+ ion is calculated using the open-quotes spin-polarizedclose quotes random-phase approximation with exchange. Strong resonance structure is discovered, which is due to interference with the powerful 3p → 3d discrete excitation. The effect of the 3p → 4s transition is also noticeable. The ordering of these respective resonances with phonon energy increase proved to be opposite in angular anisotropy parameter to that in 3d-photoionization cross section. A paper describing these results was published

  14. Critical heat flux (CHF) data in vertical flows subjected to angular non-uniform heat flux distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research work consists of studying CHF in vertical tubes under non uniform angular heating conditions. Different non uniform angular heat flux distributions were obtained by using different angular wall thickness of the test section. Over 1000 CHF data points were obtained for two different non uniform angular heating conditions and three different heated lengths. In addition, CHF experiments under uniform heating conditions were also carried out. The results obtained from these tests were used as reference values. In all the cases studied, the same tube inside diameter (=22.2 mm) was used and the experiments were repeated by covering the following flow conditions: the inlet subcooling was varied from 5 to 40 oC, the mass flux was varied from 300 to 1600 kg/m2s, and the outlet pressure was varied from 10 to 40 bars. The data were used to show that the prediction of CHF can be greatly improved by introducing the heat balance method approach instead of the direct method frequently used to evaluate the CHF. Therefore, the prediction of CHF can be obtained by solving simultaneously both an empirical CHF correlation and the heat balance equation. This approach was then used to correlate the CHF data as function of the critical thermodynamic quality. In addition a completely new CHF representation is also proposed. It consists of correlating the CHF as a function of the length over which the dispersed annular flow occurs. This new representation in conjunction with the heat balance method allows the dispersion of the data to be considerable reduced. In general we have observed that non uniform angular heating conditions may considerable affect CHF. (author)

  15. Electron-photon shower distribution function tables for lead, copper and air absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Messel, H

    2013-01-01

    Electron-Photon Shower Distribution Function: Tables for Lead, Copper and Air Absorbers presents numerical results of the electron-photon shower distribution function for lead, copper, and air absorbers. Electron or photon interactions, including Compton scattering, elastic Coulomb scattering, and the photo-electric effect, are taken into account in the calculations. This book consists of four chapters and begins with a review of both theoretical and experimental work aimed at deducing the characteristics of the cascade produced from the propagation of high energy electrons and photons through

  16. A full-spectrum k-distribution look-up table for radiative transfer in nonhomogeneous gaseous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaojun; Ge, Wenjun; Modest, Michael F.; He, Boshu

    2016-01-01

    A full-spectrum k-distribution (FSK) look-up table has been constructed for gas mixtures within a certain range of thermodynamic states for three species, i.e., CO2, H2O and CO. The k-distribution of a mixture is assembled directly from the summation of the linear absorption coefficients of three species. The systematic approach to generate the table, including the generation of the pressure-based absorption coefficient and the generation of the k-distribution, is discussed. To efficiently obtain accurate k-values for arbitrary thermodynamic states from tabulated values, a 6-D linear interpolation method is employed. A large number of radiative heat transfer calculations have been carried out to test the accuracy of the FSK look-up table. Results show that, using the FSK look-up table can provide excellent accuracy compared to the exact results. Without the time-consuming process of assembling k-distribution from individual species plus mixing, using the FSK look-up table can save considerable computational cost. To evaluate the accuracy as well as the efficiency of the FSK look-up table, radiative heat transfer via a scaled Sandia D Flame is calculated to compare the CPU execution time using the FSK method based on the narrow-band database, correlations, and the look-up table. Results show that the FSK look-up table can provide a computationally cheap alternative without much sacrifice in accuracy.

  17. SU-E-I-44: Some Preliminary Analysis of Angular Distribution of X-Ray Scattered On Soft Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The angular distribution of x-radiation scattered at small angles (up to 16 degrees) from several different animal soft tissue (skin, fat, muscle, retina, etc) were measured using standard equipment devoted to study of crystal structure which provides excellent geometry conditions of measurements. showed measurable differences for different tissues. In the simplest possible case when measured samples do not differ in structure (different concentration solutions) it can be seen that intensity of scattered radiation is decreasing function of the concentration and the peak of the maximum of scattering distribution depends on the concentration as well. Methods: An x-ray scattering profile usually consists of sharp diffraction peak; however some properties of the spatial profiles of scattered radiation as intensity, the peak position, height, area, FWHM, the ratio of peak heights, etc. Results: The data contained measurable differences for different tissues. In the simplest possible case when measured samples do not differ in structure (different concentration solutions) it can be seen that intensity of scattered radiation is decreasing function of the concentration and the peak of the maximum of scattering distribution depends on the concentration as well. Measurements of different samples in the very preliminary phase showed that simple biological material used in study showed slightly different scattering pattern, especially at higher angles (around 10degrees). Intensity of radiation scattered from same tissue type is very dependent on water content and several more parameters. Conclusion: This preliminary study using animal soft tissues on the angular distributions of scattered x-rays suggests that angular distributions of X-rays scattered off of soft tissues might be useful in distinguishing healthy tissue from malignant soft tissue

  18. SU-E-I-44: Some Preliminary Analysis of Angular Distribution of X-Ray Scattered On Soft Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganezer, K; Krmar, M; Cvejic, Z; Rakic, S; Pajic, B [University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad Serbia (Serbia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The angular distribution of x-radiation scattered at small angles (up to 16 degrees) from several different animal soft tissue (skin, fat, muscle, retina, etc) were measured using standard equipment devoted to study of crystal structure which provides excellent geometry conditions of measurements. showed measurable differences for different tissues. In the simplest possible case when measured samples do not differ in structure (different concentration solutions) it can be seen that intensity of scattered radiation is decreasing function of the concentration and the peak of the maximum of scattering distribution depends on the concentration as well. Methods: An x-ray scattering profile usually consists of sharp diffraction peak; however some properties of the spatial profiles of scattered radiation as intensity, the peak position, height, area, FWHM, the ratio of peak heights, etc. Results: The data contained measurable differences for different tissues. In the simplest possible case when measured samples do not differ in structure (different concentration solutions) it can be seen that intensity of scattered radiation is decreasing function of the concentration and the peak of the maximum of scattering distribution depends on the concentration as well. Measurements of different samples in the very preliminary phase showed that simple biological material used in study showed slightly different scattering pattern, especially at higher angles (around 10degrees). Intensity of radiation scattered from same tissue type is very dependent on water content and several more parameters. Conclusion: This preliminary study using animal soft tissues on the angular distributions of scattered x-rays suggests that angular distributions of X-rays scattered off of soft tissues might be useful in distinguishing healthy tissue from malignant soft tissue.

  19. CFHTLenS and RCSLenS: Testing Photometric Redshift Distributions Using Angular Cross-Correlations with Spectroscopic Galaxy Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, A.; Heymans, C.; Blake, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Duncan, C. A. J.; Erben, T.; Nakajima, R.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Viola, M.

    2016-09-01

    We determine the accuracy of galaxy redshift distributions as estimated from photometric redshift probability distributions p(z). Our method utilises measurements of the angular cross-correlation between photometric galaxies and an overlapping sample of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts. We describe the redshift leakage from a galaxy photometric redshift bin j into a spectroscopic redshift bin i using the sum of the p(z) for the galaxies residing in bin j. We can then predict the angular cross-correlation between photometric and spectroscopic galaxies due to intrinsic galaxy clustering when i ≠ j as a function of the measured angular cross-correlation when i = j. We also account for enhanced clustering arising from lensing magnification using a halo model. The comparison of this prediction with the measured signal provides a consistency check on the validity of using the summed p(z) to determine galaxy redshift distributions in cosmological analyses, as advocated by the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). We present an analysis of the photometric redshifts measured by CFHTLenS, which overlaps the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). We also analyse the Red-sequence Cluster Lensing Survey (RCSLenS), which overlaps both BOSS and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We find that the summed p(z) from both surveys are generally biased with respect to the true underlying distributions. If unaccounted for, this bias would lead to errors in cosmological parameter estimation from CFHTLenS by less than ˜4%. For photometric redshift bins which spatially overlap in 3-D with our spectroscopic sample, we determine redshift bias corrections which can be used in future cosmological analyses that rely on accurate galaxy redshift distributions.

  20. Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization in strong circularly polarized laser fields: counterintuitive angular shifts in the photoelectron momentum distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Lan, Pengfei; Xie, Hui; He, Mingrui; Zhu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang

    2015-11-01

    We perform time-dependent calculation of strong-field ionization of neon, initially prepared in 2p(-1) and 2p(+1) states, with intense near-circularly polarized laser pulses. By solving the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we find clear different offset angles of the maximum in the photoelectron momentum distribution in the polarization plane of the laser pulses for the two states. We provide clear interpretation that this different angular offset is linked to the sign of the magnetic quantum number, thus it can be used to map out the orbital angular momentum of the initial state. Our results provide a potential tool for studying orbital symmetry in atomic and molecular systems. PMID:26561149

  1. Angular distribution effect on the integrated cross section for radiative capture of 14 MeV neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Cvelbar, F; Vidmar, T

    1999-01-01

    In the past, many reported integrated cross sections for the 14 MeV neutron radiative capture were measured at 90 deg. relative to the neutron beam direction and multiplied by 4 pi, so as to obtain a measure of the angle-integrated cross sections. In such a procedure, an isotropic angular distribution of gamma-rays is assumed. We calculated this distribution using the consistent direct-semi-direct model, in which the need for the model-free parameters has been eliminated. The result is that the a sub 1 Legendre polynomial, averaged over the bound state transitions, is practically zero (distribution is forward-backward symmetric) and that the a sub 2 coefficient is a smooth function of the mass number with the values between -0.4 and -0.6, indicating anisotropy of the distribution. Reported integrated cross sections are therefore for about 20% to 30% too high relative to the properly angle integrated cross sections.

  2. Reactive scattering of halogen molecules. [Angular and velocity distributions, stabilities 6. 8 to 17. 7 kcal/mole, FORTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini, J.J.

    1976-11-01

    A study of the endoergic, bimolecular reactions of F/sub 2/ with I/sub 2/, ICl, and HI in a crossed molecular beam experiment is described. The trihalogens IIF, ClIF, and HIF were directly observed as the products of these reactions. At high collision energies a second reactive channel producing IF becomes important. Product angular and velocity distributions show that this IF does not result from a four-center exchange reaction. Measured threshold energies for the formation of IIF, ClIF, and HIF yield lower bounds to the stabilities of these molecules, with respect to the separated atoms, of 69, 81, and 96 kcal/mole, respectively. Analysis of product center-of-mass angular distributions indicates that a slightly nonlinear approach is most effective in bringing about reaction to form the stable triatomic radical. Also described is a crossed molecular beam study of the Cl + Br/sub 2/ ..-->.. BrCl + Br reaction at collision energies from 6.8 to 17.7 kcal/mole. The results indicate that this reaction has the characteristics of an exoergic reaction on an attractive potential energy surface with early energy release. Reagent translational energy is very efficiently channeled into product internal energy. At high collision energy the reaction appears to approach the spectator stripping limit. Finally, a series of computer programs which can be used to carry out the requisite data analysis for crossed molecular beam reactive scattering experiments are described. These programs recover the reactive scattering center-of-mass flux distribution from the measured angular and velocity distributions of the products.

  3. Dependence of Fission-Fragment Total Kinetic-Energy and Mass Distributions on the Excitation Energy and Angular-Momentum Distribution of the Fissioning Nuclide 210Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fission of 210Po, produced by three different nuclear reactions (209Bi + p, 206Pb + α and 198Pt + 12C), has been studied in detail in order to establish the dependence of various scission-point properties on the excitation energy and angular-momentum distribution of the fissioning nucleus. Excitation energies of 31, 44 and 57 MeV were chosen so as to give reasonable fission cross-sections, while avoiding a large contribution from second chance fission. The experiments were conducted on a beam line of the Harwell Variable Energy Cyclotron. The mean-fragment total-kinetic-energy release was found to be dependent on the 210Po excitation energy and angular-momentum distribution. The variances of the total-kinetic energy and mass distributions were found to be a strongly dependent on excitation energy but not on angular momentum. The experimental results of this work were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical liquid-drop-model calculations of Nix and Swiatecki. (author)

  4. Mixed optical Cherenkov-Bremsstrahlung radiation in vicinity of the Cherenkov cone from relativistic heavy ions: Unusual dependence of the angular distribution width on the radiator thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkova, E. I.; Pivovarov, Yu. L.

    2016-07-01

    The Cherenkov radiation (ChR) angular distribution is usually described by the Tamm-Frank (TF) theory, which assumes that relativistic charged particle moves uniformly and rectilinearly in the optically transparent radiator. According to the TF theory, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the ChR angular distribution inversely depends on the radiator thickness. In the case of relativistic heavy ions (RHI) a slowing-down in the radiator may sufficiently change the angular distribution of optical radiation in vicinity of the Cherenkov cone, since there appears a mixed ChR-Bremsstrahlung radiation. As a result, there occurs a drastic transformation of the FWHM of optical radiation angular distribution in dependence on the radiator thickness: from inversely proportional (TF theory) to the linearly proportional one. In our paper we present the first analysis of this transformation taking account of the gradual velocity decrease of RHI penetrating through a radiator.

  5. Angular distributions in the radiative decays of the $^3D_3$ state of charmonium originating from polarized $\\bar{p}p$ collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Cheuk-Ping; Sit, Wai-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Using the helicity formalism, we calculate the combined angular distribution function of the two gamma photons ($\\gamma_1$ and $\\gamma_2$) and the electron ($e^-$) in the triple cascade process $\\bar{p}p\\rightarrow{}^3D_3\\rightarrow{}^3P_2+\\gamma_1\\rightarrow(\\psi+\\gamma_2) +\\gamma_1 \\rightarrow (e^- + e^+) +\\gamma_2 +\\gamma_1$, when $\\bar{p}$ and $p$ are arbitrarily polarized. We also derive six different partially integrated angular distribution functions which give the angular distributions of one or two particles in the final state. Our results show that by measuring the two-particle angular distribution of $\\gamma_1$ and $\\gamma_2$ and that of $\\gamma_2$ and $e^-$, one can determine the relative magnitudes as well as the relative phases of all the helicity amplitudes in the two charmonium radiative transitions ${}^3D_3\\rightarrow{}^3P_2+\\gamma_1$ and $^3P_2\\rightarrow \\psi+\\gamma_2$.

  6. Many-body Systems Interacting via a Two-body Random Ensemble; 1, Angular Momentum distribution in the ground states

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Y M; Yoshinaga, N

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the angular momentum distribution in the ground states of many-body systems interacting via a two-body random ensemble. Beginning with a few simple examples, a simple approach to predict P(I)'s, angular momenta I ground state (g.s.) probabilities, of a few solvable cases, such as fermions in a small single-j shell and d boson systems, is given. This method is generalized to predict P(I)'s of more complicated cases, such as even or odd number of fermions in a large single-j shell or a many-j shell, d-boson, sd-boson or sdg-boson systems, etc. By this method we are able to tell which interactions are essential to produce a sizable P(I) in a many-body system. The g.s. probability of maximum angular momentum $I_{max}$ is discussed. An argument on the microscopic foundation of our approach, and certain matrix elements which are useful to understand the observed regularities, are also given or addressed in detail. The low seniority chain of 0 g.s. by using the same set of two-body interact...

  7. W boson+jet angular distribution in p bar p collisions at √s =1.8 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The W+jet angular distribution is measured using W->eν events recorded with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) during 1988--89 and 1992--93 Tevatron runs. The data agree well with both a leading order and a next-to-leading order theoretical prediction. The shape of the angular distribution is similar to that observed in photon+jet data, and significantly different from that observed in dijet data

  8. 40 CFR Table F-3 to Subpart F of... - Critical Parameters of Idealized Ambient Particle Size Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Particle Size Distributions F Table F-3 to Subpart F of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Ambient Particle Size Distributions Idealized Distribution Fine Particle Mode MMD (µm) Geo. Std. Dev. Conc. (µg/m3) Coarse Particle Mode MMD (µm) Geo. Std. Dev. Conc. (µg/m3) PM2.5/PM10 Ratio FRM...

  9. Asymmetry of the angular distribution of Cherenkov photons of extensive air showers induced by the geomagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Homola, Piotr; Wilczyński, Henryk

    2014-01-01

    The angular distribution of Cherenkov light in an air shower is closely linked to that of the shower electrons and positrons. As charged particles in extensive air showers are deflected by the magnetic field of the Earth, a deformation of the angular distribution of the Cherenkov light, that would be approximately symmetric about the shower axis if no magnetic field were present, is expected. In this work we study the variation of the Cherenkov light distribution as a function of the azimuth angle in the plane perpendicular to shower axis. It is found that the asymmetry induced by the geomagnetic field is most significant for early stages of shower evolution and for showers arriving almost perpendicular to the vector of the local geomagnetic field. Furthermore, it is shown that ignoring the azimuthal asymmetry of Cherenkov light might lead to a significant under- or overestimation of the Cherenkov light signal especially at sites where the local geomagnetic field is strong. Based on CORSIKA simulations, the a...

  10. Angular distortion and through-thickness residual stress distribution in the friction-stir processed 6061-T6 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual stresses were measured through the thickness of friction-stir processed (FSP) 6061-T6 aluminum-alloy plates using neutron diffraction. Two different specimens were prepared to study the relationship between residual stress distributions through the thickness of the plate and angular distortion: (Case 1) a plate processed with both stirring pin and tool shoulder, i.e., a typical FSP plate subjected to both plastic deformation and frictional heat, and (Case 2) a plate processed only with the tool shoulder, i.e., subjected mainly to the frictional heating. The measured residual stress profiles show relatively small through-thickness residual stress variations in Case 1, while there is a significant through-thickness residual stress variations in Case 2. The main cause of the geometric angular distortion could be related to the non-uniform distribution of the frictional heat generated by the tool shoulder leading to the asymmetric distributions of the residual stress through the thickness of the FSP plate

  11. Study of the $^{234}$U(n,f) fission fragment angular distribution at the CERN n_TOF facility

    CERN Document Server

    Cidoncha-Leal, E; Paradela, C; Tarrío, D; Leong, L S; Audouin, L; Tassan-Got, L; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Becvár, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dressler, R; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Gurusamy, P; Hernández-Prieto, A; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Krticka, M; Kroll, J; Lampoudis, C; Langer, C; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Losito, R; Mallick, A; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Meaze, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondalaers, W; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Robles, M S; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sabaté-Gilarte, M; Sarmento, R; Saxena, A; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T; Zugec, P

    2014-01-01

    The angular distribution of the f ssion fragments (FFAD) produced in neutron- induced reactions of actinides have been measured with a f ssion detection setup based on parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPACs) at the Neutron Time- Of-Flight (n_TOF) facility at CERN. The main features of the setup and pre- liminary results are reported here forthe 234 U(n,f)reaction measurement show- ing a high concordance with previous data, while providing new results up to 100 MeV.

  12. Measurement of Angular Distributions and $R = \\sigma_{L}/\\sigma_{T}$ in Diffractive Electroproduction of $\\rho^{0}$ Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K; Akopov, N Z; Amarian, M; Aschenauer, E C; Avakian, H; Avakian, R; Avetisian, A; Bains, B; Beckmann, M; Belostotskii, S; Belz, J E; Benisch, T; Bernreuther, S; Bianchi, N; Blanchard, S; Blouw, J; Böttcher, Helmut B; Borisov, A; Brack, J; Braun, B; Bray, B; Brückner, W; Brüll, A; Bruins, E E W; Bulten, H J; Capitani, G P; Carter, P; Cisbani, E; Court, G R; Delheij, P P J; De Sanctis, E; De Schepper, D; Devitsin, E G; De Witt-Huberts, P K A; Düren, M; Dvoredsky, A P; Elbakian, G M; Emerson, J; Fantoni, A; Feshchenko, A; Ferstl, M; Fiedler, K; Filippone, B W; Fischer, H; Fox, B; Franz, J; Frullani, S; Funk, M A; Gärber, Y; Gagunashvili, N D; Galumian, P I; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gavrilov, G E; Geiger, P; Karibian, V; Golendukhin, A; Graw, G; Grebenyuk, O; Green, P W; Greeniaus, L G; Grosshauser, C; Gute, A; Gyurjyan, V; Haas, J P; Haeberli, W; Häusser, O; Hansen, J O; Hasch, D; Henderson, R; Henkes, T; Hertenberger, R; Holler, Y; Holt, R J; Ihssen, H; Iodice, M; Izotov, A A; Jackson, H E; Jgoun, A; Jones, C; Kaiser, R; Kinney, E R; Kirsch, M; Kiselev, A; Kitching, P; Königsmann, K C; Kolstein, M; Kolster, H; Korsch, W; Kozlov, V; Kramer, L H; Krause, B; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kückes, M; Kyle, G S; Lachnit, W A; Lorenzon, W; Lung, A; Makins, N C R; Manaenkov, S I; Martens, F K; Martin, J W; Mateos, A; McIlhany, K; McKeown, R D; Meissner, F; Menden, F; Mercer, D; Metz, A; Meyners, N; Miklukho, O; Miller, C A; Miller, M A; Milner, R; Mitsyn, V; Most, A; Mozzetti, R; Muccifora, V; Nagaitsev, A P; Naryshkin, Yu; Nathan, A M; Neunreither, F; Niczyporuk, J M; Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; Nupieri, M; Oelwein, P; Ogami, H; O'Neill, T G; Openshaw, R; Ouyang, J; Pate, S F; Pitt, M L; Poolman, H R; Potashov, S Yu; Potterveld, D H; Rakness, G; Redwine, R P; Reolon, A R; Ristinen, R; Rith, K; Roper, G; Roloff, H O; Rossi, P; Ruh, M; Ryckbosch, D; Sakemi, Y; Savin, I A; Schüler, K P; Schwind, A; Shibata, T A; Shin, T; Simon, A; Sinram, K; Smythe, W R; Sowinski, J; Spengos, M; Steffens, E; Stenger, J; Stewart, J; Stock, F; Stösslein, U; Sutter, M F; Tallini, H A; Taroian, S P; Terkulov, A R; Thiessen, D M; Tipton, B; Trudel, A; Tytgat, M; Urciuoli, G M; Van den Brand, J F J; van der Steenhoven, G; Van de Vyver, R; Vetterli, Martin C; Vincter, M G; Volk, E; Wander, W; Welch, T P; Williamson, S E; Wise, T; Zapfe, K; Zohrabyan, H G

    2000-01-01

    Production and decay angular distributions were extracted from measurementsof exclusive electroproduction of the rho^0(770) meson over a range in thevirtual photon negative four-momentum squared 0.5 pi+ pi- decay yieldedmeasurements of eight elements of the spin-density matrix, including one thathad not been measured before. The results are consistent with the dominance ofhelicity-conserving amplitudes and natural parity exchange. The improvedprecision achieved at 47 GeV,reveals evidence for an energy dependence in the ratio R of the longitudinal totransverse cross sections at constant Q^2.

  13. Complete angular distribution measurements of two-body deuteron photodisintegration between 0.5 and 3 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Mirazita; F. Ronchetti; P. Rossi; E. De Sanctis; CLAS Collaboration

    2004-07-12

    Nearly complete angular distributions of the two-body deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section have been measured using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer detector and the tagged photon beam at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The data cover photon energies between 0.5 and 3.0 GeV and center-of-mass proton scattering angles 10{sup o}-160{sup o}. The data show a persistent forward-backward angle asymmetry over the explored energy range, and are well described by the nonperturbative quark gluon string model.

  14. Electron Scattering from Gaseous Ocs($^1\\Sigma$): Comparing Computed Angular Distributions and Elastic Cross Sections with Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gianturco, F A

    2007-01-01

    Differential cross sections are computed for the title polar molecule using static interaction, exchange forces and correlation-polarisation effects as described in detail in the main text. The dipole effect is also reported via the dipole Born correction procedure and the final angular distributions are compared with existing experimental data. The shape and location of the prominent low-energy resonance are computed and compared with experiments. The comparison shows that the present treatment of the interaction forces and of the quantum dynamics can indeed afford good agreement between measured and computed quantities for a multielectron target as OCS.

  15. Measurement of the fission fragment angular distribution for 232Th(n,f) at the CERN n-TOF facility

    CERN Document Server

    Tarrío, D; Audouin, L; Duran, I; Leong, L S; Paradela, C; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; Garcìa, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Gurusamy, P; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martìnez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Meaze, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondalaers, W; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T J; Žugec, P

    2012-01-01

    A fission reaction chamber was designed to measure the angular distribution of the fragments emitted in neutron-induced fission reactions at n_TOF. Up to ten Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters can be included and kept at controlled low-pressure gas. Counters are tilted 45º with respect to the neutron beam direction and up to nine targets can be interleaved in between. A first measurement of the 232Th(n,f) was recently done and preliminary experimental results demonstrating the suitability of the setup are presented here.

  16. Near-threshold photoelectron angular distributions from two-photon resonant ionisation of He and Ne atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an overview of two recent experiments in which photoelectron angular distributions from light-polarised He and Ne atoms are studied, with the emphasis on theoretical description of photoionisation. Polarised He (Ne) atoms are prepared in the 1s4p, 1s5p, or 1s6p (2p53d) states with linearly polarised synchrotron light and ionised with a tunable infrared laser. The asymmetry parameters extracted from the measured velocity map imaging spectra agree well with the calculated asymmetry parameters.

  17. A generalized theory for non-classical transport with angular-dependent path length distributions 1: Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vasques, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper extends a recently introduced theory describing particle transport for random statistically homogeneous systems in which the distribution function p(s) for chord lengths between scattering centers is non-exponential. Here, we relax the previous assumption that p(s) does not depend on the direction of flight \\Omega; this leads to an extended generalized linear Boltzmann equation that includes angular-dependent cross sections, and to an extended generalized diffusion equation that accounts for anisotropic behavior resulting from the statistics of the system.

  18. A Markov Chain-based quantitative study of angular distribution of photons through turbid slabs via isotropic light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuesong; Northrop, William F.

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a quantitative approach to approximate multiple scattering through an isotropic turbid slab based on Markov Chain theorem. There is an increasing need to utilize multiple scattering for optical diagnostic purposes; however, existing methods are either inaccurate or computationally expensive. Here, we develop a novel Markov Chain approximation approach to solve multiple scattering angular distribution (AD) that can accurately calculate AD while significantly reducing computational cost compared to Monte Carlo simulation. We expect this work to stimulate ongoing multiple scattering research and deterministic reconstruction algorithm development with AD measurements.

  19. Influence of Atmospheric Turbulence on a High-Dimensional Quantum Key Distribution System using Orbital Angular Momentum for Encoding

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, Mehul; Rodenburg, Brandon; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Leach, Jonathan; Lavery, Martin P J; Padgett, Miles J; Boyd, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    We describe an experimental implementation of a free-space 11-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD) system using orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes. This QKD system has a maximum theoretical channel capacity of log2(11) = 3.46 bits/photon. The effects of Kolmogorov thin-phase turbulence on the OAM channel capacity of this QKD system are quantified. We find that increasing the turbulence leads to a degradation of the channel capacity of the OAM channel. We are able to mitigate the effects of turbulence by increasing the spacing between detected modes.

  20. Enhanced migratory waterfowl distribution modeling by inclusion of depth to water table data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreakie, Betty J; Fan, Ying; Keitt, Timothy H

    2012-01-01

    In addition to being used as a tool for ecological understanding, management and conservation of migratory waterfowl rely heavily on distribution models; yet these models have poor accuracy when compared to models of other bird groups. The goal of this study is to offer methods to enhance our ability to accurately model the spatial distributions of six migratory waterfowl species. This goal is accomplished by creating models based on species-specific annual cycles and introducing a depth to water table (DWT) data set. The DWT data set, a wetland proxy, is a simulated long-term measure of the point either at or below the surface where climate and geological/topographic water fluxes balance. For species occurrences, the USGS' banding bird data for six relatively common species was used. Distribution models are constructed using Random Forest and MaxEnt. Random Forest classification of habitat and non-habitat provided a measure of DWT variable importance, which indicated that DWT is as important, and often more important, to model accuracy as temperature, precipitation, elevation, and an alternative wetland measure. MaxEnt models that included DWT in addition to traditional predictor variables had a considerable increase in classification accuracy. Also, MaxEnt models created with DWT often had higher accuracy when compared with models created with an alternative measure of wetland habitat. By comparing maps of predicted probability of occurrence and response curves, it is possible to explore how different species respond to water table depth and how a species responds in different seasons. The results of this analysis also illustrate that, as expected, all waterfowl species are tightly affiliated with shallow water table habitat. However, this study illustrates that the intensity of affiliation is not constant between seasons for a species, nor is it consistent between species. PMID:22272288

  1. Multiple-scattering calculations for 1s photoelectron angular distributions from single oriented molecules in the energy region above 50 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazama, Misato, E-mail: misato-k@graduate.chiba-u.jp [Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Shinotsuka, Hiroshi; Fujikawa, Takashi [Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Stener, Mauro; Decleva, Piero [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 1, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Adachi, Jun-ichi; Mizuno, Tomoya; Yagishita, Akira [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We calculate X-ray photoelectron angular distributions for oriented molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compare these results with DFT theory and experimental data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The multiple-scattering theory well reproduces experimental angular distributions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our theory is powerful to describe photoelectron angular distributions above 50 eV. -- Abstract: 1s photoelectron angular distributions from fixed-in-space CO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, BF{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}F molecules have been calculated by X-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) theory with muffin-tin-type molecular potential. For all the molecules, the calculated results show good agreements with those by density functional theory in the energy region Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 100 eV. Furthermore, for all the molecules experimental data on the angular distributions in such energy region are well reproduced by the XPD theory. These intensive studies lead to a rather general rule that the XPD theory is an adequate tool to describe high-energy photoelectron angular distributions for any single oriented molecules.

  2. Structural bionic design for high——speed machine tool working table based on distribution rules of leaf veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING DengHai; CHEN WuYi; ZHAO Ling; MA JianFeng

    2012-01-01

    High-speed machine tool working table restrains the machining accuracy and machining efficiency,so lightweight design of the table is an important issue.In nature,leaf has developed a plate structure that maximizes the surface-to-volume ratio.It can be seen as a plate structure stiffened by veins.Compared with a high-speed machine tool working table,leaf veins play a role of supporting part which is similar to that of stiffening ribs,and they can provide some new design ideas for lightweight design of the table.In this paper,distribution rules of leaf veins were investigated,and a structural bionic design for the table was achieved based on regulation of leaf veins.First,statistical analysis on geometric structure of leaf veins was carried out,and four distribution rules were obtained.Then,relevant mechanical models were developed and analyzed in finite element soft-ware.Based on the results from mechanical analysis on those relevant models,the four distribution rules were translated into the design rules and a structural bionic design for the working table was achieved.Both simulation and experimental verifications were carried out,and results showed that the average displacement of the working table was reduced by about 33.9%.

  3. Fission Fragment Angular Distribution measurements of 235U and 238U at CERN n_TOF facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Durán, I.; Paradela, C.; Tarrío, D.; Leong, L. S.; Tassan-Got, L.; Audouin, L.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dzysiuk, N.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Koehler, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lo Meo, S.; Losito, R.; Mallick, A.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Meaze, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondelaers, W.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Robles, M. S.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2016-03-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections of 238U and 235U are used as standards in the fast neutron region up to 200 MeV. A high accuracy of the standards is relevant to experimentally determine other neutron reaction cross sections. Therefore, the detection effciency should be corrected by using the angular distribution of the fission fragments (FFAD), which are barely known above 20 MeV. In addition, the angular distribution of the fragments produced in the fission of highly excited and deformed nuclei is an important observable to investigate the nuclear fission process. In order to measure the FFAD of neutron-induced reactions, a fission detection setup based on parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPACs) has been developed and successfully used at the CERN-n_TOF facility. In this work, we present the preliminary results on the analysis of new 235U(n,f) and 238U(n,f) data in the extended energy range up to 200 MeV compared to the existing experimental data.

  4. Polarized Parton Distribution, Orbital Angular Momentum, and the Violation of a8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, Firooz; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh

    2009-03-01

    We use the so-called valon model, to describe the spin structure of the nucleon. We show that about 40% of the nucleon spin is carried by the polarized valence quarks. The remaining part comes from the gluon polarization and the orbital angular momentum. It is shown that the sea quark contributions to the spin of any hadron is simply marginal and consistent with zero. We also found that the value of a8 is substantially smaller than the value inferred from hyperon—β decay, suggesting that full SU(3) symmetric assumption needs to be reconsidered. New and emerging experimental data tend to support this finding. Finally, we show that within the model presented here the experimental data on the polarized structure functions g1p,n,d are reproduced.

  5. Effect of the third π ∗ resonance on the angular distributions for electron-pyrimidine scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašín, Zdeněk; Gorfinkiel, Jimena D.

    2016-07-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the effect of the well known third π∗ resonance on the angular behaviour of the elastic cross section in electron scattering from pyrimidine. This resonance, occurring approximately at 4.7 eV, is of mixed shape and core-excited character. Experimental and theoretical results show the presence of a peak/dip behaviour in this energy range, that is absent for other resonances. Our investigations show that the cause of the peak/dip is an interference of background p-wave to p-wave scattering amplitudes with the amplitudes for resonant scattering. The equivalent resonance in pyrazine shows the same behaviour and the effect is therefore likely to appear in other benzene-like molecules. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.

  6. Fourier relationship between angular position and optical orbital angular momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, E.; Franke-Arnold, S.; Courtial, J.; Barnett, S.; Padgett, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate the Fourier relationship between angular position and angular momentum for a light mode. In particular we measure the distribution of orbital angular momentum states of light that has passed through an aperture and verify that the orbital angular momentum distribution is given by the complex Fourier-transform of the aperture function. We use spatial light modulators, configured as diffractive optical components, to define the initial orbital angular momentum state of the beam, ...

  7. The general behavior of $NLO$ unintegrated parton distributions based on the single-scale evolution and the angular ordering constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Hosseinkhani, H

    2010-01-01

    To overcome the complexity of generalized two hard scale ($k_t$,$\\mu$) evolution equation, well known as the $Ciafaloni$, $Catani$, $Fiorani$ and $Marchsini$ ($CCFM$) evolution equations, and calculate the unintegrated parton distribution functions ($UPDF$), $Kimber$, $Martin$ and $Ryskin$ ($KMR$) proposed a procedure based on ($i$) the inclusion of single-scale ($\\mu$) only at the last step of evolution and ($ii$) the angular ordering constraint ($AOC$) on the $DGLAP$ terms (the $DGLAP$ collinear approximation), to bring the second scale, $k_t$ into the $UPDF$ evolution equations. In this work we intend to use the $MSTW 2008$ (Martin et al) parton distribution functions (PDF) and try to calculate $UPDF$ for various values of $x$ (the longitudinal fraction of parton momentum), $\\mu$ (the probe scale) and $k_t$ (the parton transverse momentum) to see the general behavior of three dimensional $UPDF$ at the $NLO$ level up to the $LHC$ working energy scales ($\\mu^2)$. It is shown that there exits some pronounced ...

  8. Deriving the angular variation of ppar-distributions for halo neutrons with robust statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The longitudinal neutron momentum distribution from core breakup of 11Li and 11Be have been measured at 29.9 MeV/u and 38.5 MeV/u, respectively. Separate measurements on 9Li and 10Be allowed extraction of the halo neutron distribution. The shapes of the distributions are analyzed using robust and descriptive statistics. For both isotopes the shape is changing with angle

  9. Distributional equivalence and subcompositional coherence in the analysis of contingency tables, ratio-scale measurements and compositional data

    OpenAIRE

    Greenacre, Michael; Lewi, Paul

    2005-01-01

    We consider two fundamental properties in the analysis of two-way tables of positive data: the principle of distributional equivalence, one of the cornerstones of correspondence analysis of contingency tables, and the principle of subcompositional coherence, which forms the basis of compositional data analysis. For an analysis to be subcompositionally coherent, it suffices to analyse the ratios of the data values. The usual approach to dimension reduction in compositional data analysis is to ...

  10. Dependence of deep-inelastic processes on entrance channel asymmetry and excitation energy. [506 to 732 MeV, angular distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.P.

    1978-05-01

    The dependence of deep-inelastic processes on entrance channel asymmetry and on excitation energy was investigated. Thin targets of /sup nat/At, /sup 159/Tb, /sup 181/Ta and /sup 197/Au were bombarded with 620 MeV /sup 86/Kr ions. Additional measurements were performed on the reactions /sup nat/Ag + /sup 86/Kr and /sup 197/Au + /sup 86/Kr at 506 and 732 MeV incident energy. The energy spectra, the charge distributions and the angular distributions of these fragments were measured. At 620 MeV the energy spectra show that the distinction between quasi-elastic and deep-inelastic processes diminishes as the target mass is increased. The charge distributions, which are peaked at symmetry for /sup nat/Ag, tend to become increasingly asymmetric for the heavier systems. Likewise, the angular distributions exhibit a strong dependence on the entrance channel asymmetry. For the lightest system, /sup nat/Ag + /sup 86/Kr, the angular distributions are essentially forward peaked, aside from a separable quasi-elastic component. For the heaviest system, /sup 197/Au + /sup 86/Kr, the angular distributions are side-peaked. The transition between these two regimes occurs smoothly with increasing target mass. The results at 506 and 732 MeV show that the widths of the charge distributions are strongly dependent on the excitation energy. The angular distributions for the reaction /sup nat/Ag + /sup 86/Kr become increasingly more forward peaked at higher bombarding energies. The angular distributions for /sup 197/Au + /sup 86/Kr, which are strongly focused at 506 MeV, also tend to be more forward peaked at the highest incident energy. The results are interpreted by assuming that the projectile and target form an intermediate complex and that they exchange mass via a diffusion process. Because of the systematic nature of this study, the data should serve as a guide in the development of models of deep-inelastic processes.

  11. Differences in forward angular light scattering distributions between M1 and M2 macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaney, David L.; Zahedivash, Aydin; Phipps, Jennifer E.; Wang, Tianyi; Dwelle, Jordan; Saux, Claude Jourdan Le; Asmis, Reto; Milner, Thomas E.; Feldman, Marc D.

    2015-11-01

    The ability to distinguish macrophage subtypes noninvasively could have diagnostic potential in cancer, atherosclerosis, and diabetes, where polarized M1 and M2 macrophages play critical and often opposing roles. Current methods to distinguish macrophage subtypes rely on tissue biopsy. Optical imaging techniques based on light scattering are of interest as they can be translated into biopsy-free strategies. Because mitochondria are relatively strong subcellular light scattering centers, and M2 macrophages are known to have enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis compared to M1, we hypothesized that M1 and M2 macrophages may have different angular light scattering profiles. To test this, we developed an in vitro angle-resolved forward light scattering measurement system. We found that M1 and M2 macrophage monolayers scatter relatively unequal amounts of light in the forward direction between 1.6 deg and 3.2 deg with M2 forward scattering significantly more light than M1 at increasing angles. The ratio of forward scattering can be used to identify the polarization state of macrophage populations in culture.

  12. Measurements of Branching Fractions and CP Asymmetries and Studies of Angular Distributions for B to phi phi K Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Milanes, D.A.; /INFN, Bari; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas Nuclear Corp., Austin /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2011-08-15

    We present branching fraction and CP asymmetry measurements as well as angular studies of B {yields} {phi}{phi}K decays using 464 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events collected by the BABAR experiment. The branching fractions are measured in the {phi}{phi} invariant mass range below the {eta}{sub c} resonance (m{sub {phi}{phi}} < 2.85 GeV). We find {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {phi}{phi}K{sup +}) = (5.6 {+-} 0.5 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -6} and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}{phi}K{sup 0}) = (4.5 {+-} 0.8 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -6}, where the first uncertaintiy is statistical and the second systematic. The measured direct CP asymmetries for the B{sup {+-}} decays are A{sub CP} = -0.10 {+-} 0.08 {+-} 0.02 below the {eta}{sub c} threshold (m{sub {phi}{phi}} < 2.85 GeV) and A{sub CP} = 0.09 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.02 in the {eta}{sub c} resonance region (m{sub {phi}{phi}} in [2.94,3.02] GeV). Angular distributions are consistent with J{sub P} = 0{sup -} in the {eta}{sub c} resonance region and favor J{sup P} = 0{sup +} below the {eta}{sub c} resonance.

  13. Electron momentum distribution, velocity space instability, and angular momentum in relativistic large aspect ratio diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazak, G.; Zarmi, Y.; Zinamon, Z.

    1981-06-01

    The detailed structure of electron momentum distribution in relativistic diodes is studied. It is proven that in most of the diode region the momentum distribution is isotropic in fluid rest frame, with azimuthal temperature which, in general, is much larger than the cathode temperature. A diode model based on these conclusions is presented. The model allows for a continuum of electron trajectories at each point. In various limits the results are reduced to well-known cold fluid model results.

  14. Measurement of angular distribution of soft X-ray radiation from thin targets in the tabletop storage ring MIRRORCLE-20SX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hironari; Minkov, Dorian; Shimura, Yuki; Scourtis, Chris; Ejike, Okoye Kenneth; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Yamada, Mami; Hanashima, Takayasu; Atkinson, Ken

    2011-09-01

    The only available tabletop electron storage rings are the machines from the MIRRORCLE series. The electrons are accelerated in a microtron and injected into the storage ring. During its circulation, each electron passes through a tiny target many times, emitting a photon beam. Both the spectrum and the angular distribution of the radiation depend on the material, the thickness and the shape of the target. In this paper measured angular distributions of the radiation from several different targets in the magnetic field of the 20 MeV storage ring MIRRORCLE-20SX are presented. The detector comprises a 3 mm × 3 mm × 8.5 µm plastic scintillator (PS) coupled to a photomultiplier by a bundle of optical fibers. The output of the photomultiplier is digitized by an IF converter. This detector is sensitive mostly to soft X-ray radiation, and its PS is moved by a mechanical system in a plane perpendicular to the radiation axis. The measured angular distributions for Mo and Sn targets contain an annulus which is attributed to transition radiation. The angular distributions for Al, carbon nanotube and diamond-like carbon (DLC) targets show some suppression of the radiation along the magnetic field. This is the first evidence of observation of the angular distribution of synchrotron Cherenkov radiation, which represents Cherenkov radiation in a magnetic field. The power radiated from the DLC target is estimated. PMID:21862848

  15. Mass, velocity, angular and charge-state distributions from the fusion of /sup 32/S and /sup 112/Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, C.; Schier, W.A.; Tsoupas, N.; Enge, H.; Salomaa, M.; Sperduto, A.; Graue, A.

    1978-07-01

    Evaporation residues from the fusion of /sup 32/S and /sup 112/Sn at E/sub /sup 32/S/ = 160 meV were studied using an energy-mass spectrometer. The velocity selector of the energy-mass spectrometer was first utilized to measure summed fusion products as a function of velocity setting and reaction angle. In-flight mass separtion of the fusion products with the energy-mass spectrometer identified masses 141, 140, and 139 from the evaporation of three to five nucleons from the /sup 144/Dy compound nucleus. Absolute cross-section measurements are compared to theoretical predictions of the statistical evaporation model. Velocity, angular and charge state distributions of evaporation residues are also compared to calculated values.

  16. Ultra-low kinetic energy photoelectron angular distribution measurements in He and Ne using a Velocity Map Imaging spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, A M; Hoyos-Campo, L M [Institute de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca, Mor. 62210 (Mexico); Redt, E; Hoenert, M; Aguilar, A [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA-94720 (United States); Rolles, D [Max Planck Advanced Study Group, CFEL, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Berrah, N, E-mail: aaguilar@lbl.go [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo MI-49008 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    We present photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) in Helium and Neon for electrons with excess energies between 5 and 100 meV. These ultra-low kinetic energy PAD measurements were obtained with a modified Velocity Map Imaging spectrometer (VMI) and VUV light from the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron radiation source. The efficiency and reliability of the spectrometer at this ultra-low kinetic energy range has been tested by determining the variation with energy of the asymmetry, {beta}, parameter of photoelectrons from the s-shell direct ionization in Helium. For Neon, we determined the energy dependent asymmetry parameters across the 's' and 'd' autoionizing resonances between the P{sub 3/2} and P{sub 1/2} ionic states. Furthermore, we measured the asymmetry parameter for photoelectrons produced from the n = 2 to n = 6 satellite states of He. These measurements were performed at values of excess kinetic energy previously unexplored.

  17. Ultra-low kinetic energy photoelectron angular distribution measurements in He and Ne using a Velocity Map Imaging spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) in Helium and Neon for electrons with excess energies between 5 and 100 meV. These ultra-low kinetic energy PAD measurements were obtained with a modified Velocity Map Imaging spectrometer (VMI) and VUV light from the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron radiation source. The efficiency and reliability of the spectrometer at this ultra-low kinetic energy range has been tested by determining the variation with energy of the asymmetry, β, parameter of photoelectrons from the s-shell direct ionization in Helium. For Neon, we determined the energy dependent asymmetry parameters across the 's' and 'd' autoionizing resonances between the P3/2 and P1/2 ionic states. Furthermore, we measured the asymmetry parameter for photoelectrons produced from the n = 2 to n = 6 satellite states of He. These measurements were performed at values of excess kinetic energy previously unexplored.

  18. Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping of High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging based on Riemannian Structure of Orientation Distribution Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Jia; Qiu, Anqi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel large deformation diffeomorphic registration algorithm to align high angular resolution diffusion images (HARDI) characterized by orientation distribution functions (ODFs). Our proposed algorithm seeks an optimal diffeomorphism of large deformation between two ODF fields in a spatial volume domain and at the same time, locally reorients an ODF in a manner such that it remains consistent with the surrounding anatomical structure. To this end, we first review the Riemannian manifold of ODFs. We then define the reorientation of an ODF when an affine transformation is applied and subsequently, define the diffeomorphic group action to be applied on the ODF based on this reorientation. We incorporate the Riemannian metric of ODFs for quantifying the similarity of two HARDI images into a variational problem defined under the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM) framework. We finally derive the gradient of the cost function in both Riemannian spaces of diffeomorphis...

  19. Neutron inelastic scattering studies for lead-204. [Threshold energy to 10 MeV, transitions, cross sections, angular distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Meadows, J.W.

    1977-12-01

    A 9.57-g sample of lead metal, enriched to 99.7 percent /sup 204/Pb, was used in an investigation of neutron inelastic scattering from this rare isotope at the Argonne National Laboratory Fast-Neutron Generator Facility. Neutron excitation of the 66.9-m isomeric state at 2.186 MeV in /sup 204/Pb was measured from near threshold to approximately 10 MeV using activation techniques. Cross sections and a value for the isomeric half life were derived from these data. Time-of-flight techniques were employed to measure spectra of promptly-emitted gamma rays from the /sup 204/Pb(n;n',..gamma..)/sup 204/Pb reaction at neutron energies less than or equal to 3 MeV. Cross sections and angular distributions were derived from these data for several of the stronger transitions. Other available fast-neutron data for this isotope are reviewed briefly.

  20. The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Two-Dimensional Randomly Rough Perfectly Conducting Surfaces: The Full Angular Intensity Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Simonsen, Ingve; Leskova, Tamara A

    2009-01-01

    By a computer simulation approach we study the scattering of $p$- or $s$-polarized light from a two-dimensional, randomly rough, perfectly conducting surface. The pair of coupled inhomogeneous integral equations for two independent tangential components of the magnetic field on the surface are converted into matrix equations by the method of moments, which are then solved by the biconjugate gradient stabilized method. The solutions are used to calculate the mean differential reflection coefficient for given angles of incidence and specified polarizations of the incident and scattered fields. The full angular distribution of the intensity of the scattered light is obtained for strongly randomly rough surfaces by a rigorous computer simulation approach.

  1. Directional effects in albedo and angular distributions of relativistic electrons reflected from single crystals at grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the computer experiment methods directional effects of relativistic electrons' coherent reflection from crystal surface at glancing incidence were studied in conditions when it is due to multiple transversal scattering of particles by atomic chains (axial surface channeling). Directional dependencies of backscattering coefficients, ranges and depths of reflected electrons' penetration in crystal and their angular distributions have been calculated. It has allowed to elicit the directional effects of strings that lead to reflection at grazing angles close to the beam incident angle with respect to atomic chain as well as kinetic effects of surface plane that result in specular reflection and dominate at large beam misalignments with respect to low-index crystallographic directions

  2. Multiphoton ionization of cesium via quadrupole transitions: Photoelectron angular distributions and polarization effects on total ionization rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report measurements of photoelectron angular distributions via electric quadrupole transitions in cesium atoms using multiphoton excitation techniques. Experimental results are presented for the cases of one-photon resonant, two-photon ionization via the 6d 2D/sub 3/2/ and 6d 2D/sub 5/2/ electric quadrupole transitions and for one-photon resonant, three-photon ionization via the 5d 2D/sub 3/2/ and 5d 2D/sub 5/2/ transitions. The ratios of the total ionization rates for linearly and circularly polarized light have also been measured for the 6d 2D/sub 3/2/ and 6d 2D/sub 5/2/ states. A theoretical analysis and detailed comparison with the experimental results are given

  3. Theoretical description of circular dichroism in photoelectron angular distributions of randomly oriented chiral molecules after multi-photon photoionization

    CERN Document Server

    Goetz, R E; Nikoobakht, B; Berger, R; Koch, C P

    2016-01-01

    Photoelectron circular dichroism refers to the forward/backward asymmetry in the photoelectron angular distribution with respect to the propagation axis of circularly polarized light. It has recently been demonstrated in femtosecond multi-photon photoionization experiments with randomly oriented camphor and fenchone molecules [C. Lux et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 5001 (2012);C. S. Lehmann et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234307 (2013)]. A theoretical framework describing this process as (2+1) resonantly enhanced multi-photon ionization is constructed, which consists of two-photon photoselection from randomly oriented molecules and successive one-photon ionisation of the photoselected molecules. It combines perturbation theory for the light-matter interaction with ab initio calculations for the two-photon absorption and a single-center expansion of the photoelectron wavefunction in terms of hydrogenic continuum functions. It is verified that the model correctly reproduces the basic symmetry behavior expected un...

  4. Ion energy and angular distributions onto polymer surfaces delivered by dielectric barrier discharge filaments in air: II. Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Kushner, Mark J, E-mail: nbabaeva@umich.edu, E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science 1301 Beal Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Atmospheric pressure streamers intersecting particles are of interest in the context of plasma aided combustion, where the particle may be a fuel aerosol droplet, or in sterilization of air, where the particle may be a bacterium. The ion energy and angular distributions (IEADs) incident on the particles, small curved dielectric surfaces, then in part determine the propensity for activating chemical reactions or, in the case of bacteria, the plasma's sterilization capability. In this paper, we discuss results from a computational investigation of IEADs on small particles (45 {mu}m radius) produced by atmospheric pressure discharge. Streamers intersecting a particle momentarily generate a large sheath potential as the streamer passes by as the particle charges towards the plasma floating potential. During that time, ions of energies up to 3-10 eV can strike the particle. The permittivity of the particle and the streamer polarity in part determine the character of the IEAD.

  5. Ion energy and angular distributions onto polymer surfaces delivered by dielectric barrier discharge filaments in air: II. Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Kushner, Mark J.

    2011-06-01

    Atmospheric pressure streamers intersecting particles are of interest in the context of plasma aided combustion, where the particle may be a fuel aerosol droplet, or in sterilization of air, where the particle may be a bacterium. The ion energy and angular distributions (IEADs) incident on the particles, small curved dielectric surfaces, then in part determine the propensity for activating chemical reactions or, in the case of bacteria, the plasma's sterilization capability. In this paper, we discuss results from a computational investigation of IEADs on small particles (45 µm radius) produced by atmospheric pressure discharge. Streamers intersecting a particle momentarily generate a large sheath potential as the streamer passes by as the particle charges towards the plasma floating potential. During that time, ions of energies up to 3-10 eV can strike the particle. The permittivity of the particle and the streamer polarity in part determine the character of the IEAD.

  6. Molecular photoelectron angular distribution rotations in multi-photon resonant ionization of H2+ by circularly polarized ultraviolet laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study effects of pulse durations on molecular photoelectron angular distributions (MPADs) in ultrafast circular polarization ultraviolet resonant ionization processes. Simulations performed on aligned H2+ by numerically solving time dependent Schrödinger equations show rotations of MPADs with respect to the molecular symmetry axes. It is found that in multi-photon resonant ionization processes, rotation angles are sensitive to pulse durations, which we attribute to the coherent resonant excitation between the ground state and the intermediate excited electronic state induced by Rabi oscillations. Multi-photon nonresonant and single photon ionization processes are simulated and compared which exhibit a constant rotation angle. An asymmetry parameter is introduced to describe the pulse duration sensitivity by perturbation theory models. Influence of pulse frequency detunings on MPADs is also investigated where oscillations of rotations are absent at long pulse durations due to nonresonance excitation

  7. Studying of angular distribution of the families formed by primary gamma-radiations in the X-ray emulsion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the work the slope of an energy spectrum of primary gamma-radiations in the ultrahigh energies region Eγ ≥ 1014 eV is studied by a method of X-ray emulsion chambers in framework of 'Pamir' collaboration. Data are received on the basis of the analysis of angular distribution and development of selection's criteria of γ-families formed by primary gamma-radiation. In the experiment for selected families a fraction of such families (8±1%) from all events observable in experiment are determined, index of the energy spectrum slope is 1.33 ± 0.02 and value of path of absorption λabs = 36.6 ± 4.0 g/sm2 are certained. (authors)

  8. Energy-dependent photoelectron angular distributions of two-color two-photon above threshold ionization of atomic helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy-dependent photoelectron angular distributions from two-color two-photon above threshold ionizations are investigated to determine the partial-wave characteristics of free-free electronic transitions in helium. Sideband photoelectron energies ranging from 0.18 to 13.0 eV are measured with different wavelengths of the perturbative infrared dressing field as well as different individually selected high-order harmonics. Using the experimentally measured cross-section ratios and anisotropy parameters together with analytical expressions derived from second-order perturbation theory, the partial-wave branching fractions going to the S and D waves in the positive and negative sidebands are determined as a function of photoelectron kinetic energy. The results provide a sensitive test for theoretical models of two-color two-photon above threshold ionization in atoms and molecules.

  9. Interelectronic effects on the photon angular distribution following the radiative electron capture into lithium-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiative electron capture into medium- and high-Z, lithium-like ions is studied in the framework of the density matrix theory. For these few-electron ions, detailed computations have been carried out for the angular distribution of the emitted X-rays following the capture into the low-lying 1s22s2ljLJ1,3 beryllium-like levels, including the 1s22s2S01 ground state. In these computations, emphasis is placed on the many-electron effects which arise especially at low collision energies. For slow projectiles of a few MeV/u, the interelectronic effects may reduce the angle-differential cross-sections by about 5% when compared with effective one-electron calculations

  10. Angular distribution and polarization of the continuum emission in anisotropic plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, M.; Jacquet, L.; Pratt, R. H.

    1989-06-01

    This study illustrates the interest of continuum spectra resolved in angle and polarization for investigating the anisotropy of a plasma. After discussing the validity of two types of relatively simple atomic bremsstrahlung cross sections, we establish easily usable expressions for the continuum emissivity coefficients (emission due to bremsstrahlung and direct radiative recombination) appropriate for electron distributions of a plasma with toroidal symmetry. In the example of a tokamak plasma, the distribution functions for the superthermal electrons were obtained from a Monte Carlo code. The simulated and experimental spectra (measured only in one direction of observation and with no polarization resolution) are in good agreement. The theoretical evaluations show the interest of more detailed measurements. The predicted dependence of the intensity of radiation on the direction of observation and the predicted polarization are large, and they would be a good means to probe the evaluation of the electron distributions in detail and, more generally, to diagnose the anisotropy of the free electrons in plasmas.

  11. Angular distribution of the bremsstrahlung emission during lower-hybrid current drive on PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bremsstrahlung emission from the PLT tokamak during lower-hybrid current drive has been measured as a function of angle between the magnetic field and the emission direction. The emission is peaked strongly in the forward direction, indicating a strong anisotropy of the electron-velocity distribution. The data demonstrate the existence of a nearly flat tail of the velocity distribution, which extends out to approximately 500 keV and which is interpreted as the plateau created by Landau damping of the lower-hybrid waves

  12. Measurement of the n-p elastic scattering angular distribution at En=14.9 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative differential cross section for the elastic scattering of neutrons by protons was measured at an incident neutron energy En=14.9 MeV and for center-of-mass scattering angles ranging from about 60 deg. to 180 deg. Angular distribution values were obtained from the normalization of the integrated data to the n-p total elastic scattering cross section. Comparisons of the normalized data to the predictions of the Arndt et al. phase-shift analysis, those of the Nijmegen group, and with the ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluation are sensitive to the value of the total elastic scattering cross section used to normalize the data. The results of a fit to a first-order Legendre polynomial expansion are in good agreement in the backward scattering hemisphere with the predictions of the Arndt et al. phase-shift analysis, those of the Nijmegen group, and to a lesser extent, with the ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluation. A fit to a second-order expansion is in better agreement with the ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluation than with the other predictions, in particular when the total elastic scattering cross section given by Arndt et al. and the Nijmegen group is used to normalize the data. A Legendre polynomial fit to the existing n-p scattering data in the 14 MeV energy region, excluding the present measurement, showed that a best fit is obtained for a second-order expansion. Furthermore, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test confirms the general agreement in the backward scattering hemisphere and shows that significant differences between the database and the predictions occur in the angular range between 60 deg. and 120 deg. and below 20 deg. Although there is good overall agreement in the backward scattering hemisphere, more precision small-angle scattering data and a better definition of the total elastic cross section are needed for an accurate determination of the shape and magnitude of the angular distribution.

  13. Angular distribution of atoms emitted from a SrZrO3 target by laser ablation under different laser fluences and oxygen pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular distributions of atoms emitted by laser ablation of perovskite-type oxide SrZrO3 have been investigated using electron probe microanalysis with wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy and charge-coupled device photography with an interference filter. Each constituent element has been analyzed as a two-modal distribution composed of a broad cosm θ distribution and a narrow cosn θ distribution. The exponent n characterizes the component of laser ablation while the exponent m characterizes that of thermal evaporation, where a larger n or m means a narrower angular distribution. In vacuum, O (n=6) showed a broader distribution than those of Sr (n=16) and Zr (n=17), and Sr+ exhibited a spatial distribution similar to that of Sr. As the laser fluence was increased from 1.1 to 4.4 J/cm2, the angular distribution of Sr became narrower. In the laser fluence range of 1.1-4.4 J/cm2, broadening of the angular distribution of Sr was observed only at the fluence of 1.1 J/cm2 under the oxygen pressure of 10 Pa. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to estimate approximately the energy of emitted atoms, focusing on the broadening of the angular distribution under the oxygen pressure of 10 Pa. The energies of emitted atoms were estimated to be 1-20 eV for the laser fluence of 1.1 J/cm2, and more than 100 eV for 2.2 and 4.4 J/cm2.

  14. Two-Dimensional Key Table-Based Group Key Distribution in Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong Go

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A smart grid provides two-way communication by using the information and communication technology. In order to establish two-way communication, the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI is used in the smart grid as the core infrastructure. This infrastructure consists of smart meters, data collection units, maintenance data management systems, and so on. However, potential security problems of the AMI increase owing to the application of the public network. This is because the transmitted information is electricity consumption data for charging. Thus, in order to establish a secure connection to transmit electricity consumption data, encryption is necessary, for which key distribution is required. Further, a group key is more efficient than a pairwise key in the hierarchical structure of the AMI. Therefore, we propose a group key distribution scheme using a two-dimensional key table through the analysis result of the sensor network group key distribution scheme. The proposed scheme has three phases: group key predistribution, selection of group key generation element, and generation of group key.

  15. Angular and energy distributions of electrons from 7.5--150-keV proton collisions with oxygen and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections for the ejection of electrons, differential in the angle and energy of emission, were measured for proton collisions with two molecular gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide, over the primary energy range of 7.5--150 keV and an angular range of 10 degree to 160 degree. The energy distributions, obtained by integration over the angle, were fitted by an analytical model. A discrepancy in the angular distributions compared to those of Gibson and Reid [J. Phys. E 17, 1227 (1984); J. Phys. B 19, 3265 (1986); Radiat. Res. 112, 418 (1987); Australian Atomic Energy Commission Report No. AAEC/E659, 1987 (unpublished)] is discussed. At energies up to 50 or 100 keV, the angular distributions were found to be largely independent of the ejected electron energy and very similar for different targets

  16. Distributions of 35S-sulfate and 3H-glucosamine in the angular region of the hamster: light and electron microscopic autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of 35S-sulfate and 3H-glucosamine in the angular region of the hamster was studied by light and electron microscopic autoradiography following intraperitoneal injection of these compounds to hamsters. Exposed silver grains of 35S-sulfate were concentrated in the trabecular meshwork, sclera, and cornea, and grains of 3H-glucosamine were localized in the trabecular region. The radioactivity of both isotopes was observed in the Golgi apparatuses of the endothelial cells of the angular aqueous plexus and the trabecular meshwork. The grains were noted over the entire cytoplasm, except for the nucleus, and then were incorporated into the amorphous substance and collagen fibers in the region adjacent to the angular aqueous sinus. These results suggest that endothelial cells in the angular region synthesize and secrete the sulfated glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid

  17. Angular momentum distributions for [sup 16]O+[sup 144]Nd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchene, G.; Romain, P.; Beck, F.A.; Benet, P.; Disdier, D.; Haas, B.; Lott, B.; Rauch, V.; Scheibling, F.; Vivien, J.P. (Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules, Universite Louis Pasteur, BP 20, 67037 Strasbourg CEDEX (France)); Basu, S.K. (Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, I/AF Bidhan Nagar, Calcutta 700064 (India)); Bozek, E.; Zuber, K. (Institute of Nuclear Physics Krakow, 30-342 Krakow (Poland)); Di Gregorio, D.; Fernandez-Niello, J. (Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1993-05-01

    Fusion cross sections have been measured for the system [sup 16]O+[sup 144]Nd at bombarding energies in the range 67 MeV[le][ital E][sub lab][le]90 MeV by detecting directly evaporation residues in Si detectors and in the range 60 MeV[le][ital E][sub lab][le]75 MeV by off-line detection of the K x rays emitted by the radioactive evaporation residues and daughters. In order to obtain the spin distributions in the compound system gamma-ray multiplicity distributions for the most important neutron evaporation channels were also measured using a 4[pi] BaF[sub 2] array, in conjunction with Ge detectors. Results are compared with calculations based on models that consider fluctuations in barrier height due to ground-state zero-point vibrations as well as couplings to various inelastic and transfer channels.

  18. An intermediate baryon system formation and the angular distributions of the slow particles emitted in hadron-nuclear and nuclear-nuclear interactions at high energies

    OpenAIRE

    Suleymanov, M. K.; Abdinov, O. B.; Aliyev, R. M.; Aliyev, F. M.; Haseeb, M Q; Huseynaliyev, Y. H.; Khan, E. U.; Kravchakova, A; Shahaliev, E. I.; Vokal, S.; Vodopianov, A. S.

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed the angular distributions of the b- particles emitted in Kr+Em -reaction at 0.95 A GeV and in Au+Em -reaction at 10.7 A GeV and compared these with lighter projectile experiments for which some structure in the angular distribution of slow particles was observed. The same structure for the b-particles almost disappears by increasing the projectile mass. We believe that it is connected with increasing rates of internuclear secondary interactions which could lead mainly to disa...

  19. Fission fragment mass and angular distributions: probes to study non-equilibrium fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is found that the experimental observables in non-equilibrium fission are found to crucially depend on the interaction time (sticking time) of the di-nuclear complex with respect to the characteristic relaxation time of various degrees of freedom, before it decays into binary fission like fragments. This interaction time in turn depends on the entrance channel parameters of the colliding nuclei. Recent results on mass-angle correlations and mass distributions in fissile and less fissile systems will be presented. The importance of the sticking time of the dinuclear complex with respect to the equilibration times of various degrees of freedom is emphasized

  20. Mass exchange and angular distribution in a dynamical treatment of heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One presents a first numerical computation of the absolute value of the double differential cross section as a function of mass asymmetry and detection angle including a dynamical coupling between relative motion and mass asymmetry. One applies it to the 63Cu+197Au experiment at two different energies. The equation of motion used is a Fokker-Planck equation for distribution function in classical phase space. The coefficients needed are those known from classical model calculations, besides a friction coefficient introduced for the mass asymmetry degree. Encouraging agreement between the calculated and experimental curves is found

  1. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Burkardt Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asy...

  2. Multiplicities and angular distributions of nucleus-nucleus interactions at SPS energies protons to lead

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, M L; Dabrowska, A; Dugas, J; Holynski, R; Jones, W V; Kudzia, D; Nilsson, B S; Olszewski, A; Szarska, M; Trzupek, A; Waddington, C Jake; Wefel, J P; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H; Wolter, W; Wosiek, B; Wozniak, K

    1997-01-01

    Charged particle multiplicities from high multiplicity interactions of 158 GeV/n Pb ions on Pb targets were measured in nuclear emulsion chambers. These measurements are compared to measurements of central interactions of 200 GeV/n p, O, and S beams on silver or bromine and to simulations from the FRITIOF 7.02 and Venus 4.12 Monte Carlo event generators. Multiplicities in the central region are significantly lower than either simulation predicts. Venus, the only one of the two which attempts to incorporate reinteraction phenomena, predicts a significant narrowing of the pseudorapidity distribution for the highest multiplicity events, which is not observed in the data. However, we do find evidence for unexpectedly high spectator proton transverse momenta. (6 refs).

  3. Separating Electroweak and Strong interactions in Drell-Yan processes at LHC: leptons angular distributions and reference frames

    CERN Document Server

    Richter-Was, E

    2016-01-01

    Among the physics goals of LHC experiments, precision tests of the Standard Model in the Strong and Electroweak sectors play an important role. Because of nature of the proton-proton processes, observables based on the measurement of the direction and energy of leptons provide the most precise signatures. In the present paper, we concentrate on the angular distribution of Drell-Yan process leptons, in the lepton-pair rest-frame. The vector nature of the intermediate state imposes that distributions are to a good precision described by spherical polynomials of at most second order. We show that with the proper choice of the coordinate frames, only one coefficient in this polynomial decomposition remains sizable, even in the presence of one or two high $p_T$ jets. The necessary stochastic choice of the frames relies on probabilities independent from any coupling constants. This remains true when one or two partons accompany the lepton pairs. In this way electroweak effects can be better separated from strong in...

  4. Study of photon angular distribution from a new Best 2300 series 125I source for interstitial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125I seeds employed for permanent and temporary interstitial implants exhibit significant radiation fluence anisotropy due to self absorption in the marker and oblique filtration through the encapsulation jacket. A silver wire 125I seed (Model 6711), introduced in 1983 by 3M Company, failed to improve the photon distribution anisotropy. In addition to the known 125I photon spectrum, the new seed emitted two silver characteristic x-rays, lowering the mean photon energy from 28.4 to 27.4 keV. A double wall uniform thickness encapsulated 125I source, laser welded at one end, has been developed for clinical use. The source uses a carbon coated thin tungsten filament for enhanced radiographic visualization. Measurements made by NaI and intrinsic Ge detectors indicate that the 2300 series 125I source emits a pure 125I spectrum. The angular dependence of individual photon peaks and total photon spectrum as well as the corresponding anisotropy factors were measured. The 4π averaged anisotropy factor for the total radiation fluence is 0.92 compared to 0.87 for model 6711 seed. The dose distribution around the new 125I source in water is very isotropic. (author). 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Ablation yield and angular distribution of ablated particles from laser-irradiated metals: The most fundamental determining factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Ti, and Mo) were irradiated with 150 shots of a Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser in a vacuum of 10-3 torr. The ions projected out of the laser-produced plasma (LPP) plume were detected by CR-39 detectors positioned at -15o, 0o, 30o, 60o, and 90o with respect to the target-surface normal at a distance of 5 cm from the target in each case. The angular distribution of LPP ions, which is characterized by the exponent n of cosn θ distribution, is given by n = 2.5-11 for the five target metals. The value of the exponent n has no systematic correlation with the square-root of atomic mass of the target metals but exhibits systematic dependence on the room temperature Debye-Waller's thermal parameter B or the mean-square amplitude of atomic vibrations 2>. Likewise, the ablation yield (atoms/shot) of the twelve target metals investigated by Thestrup et al. (2002) under identical irradiation conditions is a function of the room temperature B-factor or 2>.

  6. Periodicity property of relativistic Thomson scattering with application to exact calculations of angular and spectral distributions of the scattered field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prove that the analytical expression of the intensity of the relativistic Thomson scattered field for a system composed of an electron interacting with a plane electromagnetic field can be written in the form of a composite periodic function of only one variable, that is, the phase of the incident field. This property is proved without using any approximation in the most general case in which the field is elliptically polarized, the initial phase of the incident field and the initial velocity of the electron are taken into consideration, and the direction in which the radiation is scattered is arbitrary. This property leads to an exact method for calculating the angular and spectral distributions of the scattered field, which reveals a series of physical details of these distributions, such as their dependence on the components of the initial electron velocity. Since the phase of the field is a relativistic invariant, it follows that the periodicity property is also valid when the analysis is made in the inertial system in which the initial velocity of the electron is zero in the case of interactions between very intense electromagnetic fields and relativistic electrons. Consequently, the calculation method can be used for the evaluation of properties of backscattered hard radiations generated by this type of interaction. The theoretical evaluations presented in this paper are in good agreement with the experimental data from literature.

  7. Role of oxygen in the angular distribution of sputtered constituents from Fe/Cr alloy studied by laser post-ionization SNMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hoong-Sun; Ichimura, S.

    1997-02-01

    Laser post-ionization sputtered neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) has been applied to study the angular distribution of the sputtered constituents of Fe-40at%Cr alloys. Preferred Cr ejection was observed in the direction of the target normal under sputtering in atmosphere with a sufficient amount of oxygen gas, while there is no distinct difference in the angular dependence of the ratio of ejected components without oxygen. Comparing the results obtained by this method with those by the thin film deposition method, it is certified that the same results can be attained by both methods, although in-situ measurement of the angular distribution of the sputtered constituents is possible only by the laser SNMS method. This tendency is considered to be due to the formation of Fe segregated layeres on the surface of the alloy by the presence of oxygen.

  8. Molecular beam scattering investigation of the oxidation of CO on Rh(111). II. Angular and velocity distributions of the CO/sub 2/ product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.S.; Sibener, S.J.

    1989-03-01

    Molecular beam and time of flight methods have been used to examine the angular distributions and velocity distributions of the CO/sub 2/ product molecules formed in the catalytic oxidation of CO on a Rh(111) single crystal in the surface temperature range 700--1000 K. The angular distribution was sharply peaked about the surface normal, and cannot be described by a simple cos/sup n/ theta expression. No temperature dependence was observed in the angular distribution over the range of temperatures studied here. Observed velocity distributions were clearly non-Maxwellian and had average translational energies in excess of those expected at the surface temperatures. Furthermore, the average velocity depended strongly on the desorption angle. Molecules desorbing along the surface normal had an average translational energy of approx.8 kcal/mol. The average energy decreased with increasing angle, reaching a value of approx.4 kcal/mol at an angle of 60/sup 0/. All of the observed velocity distributions were narrower than Maxwellian distributions with the same average energies. Product velocity distributions did not appear to vary with surface temperature. The observed excess energies are believed to arise from the crossing of the activation barrier to reaction, with a fraction of the reaction energy being carried away from the surface by the product molecules.

  9. Angular and velocity distributions of secondary particles emitted in interaction of 3. 6-GeV/nucleon. cap alpha. particles and lead nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonenko, V.G.; Vinogradov, A.A.; Galitskii, V.M.; Grigor' yan, Y.I.; Ippolitov, M.S.; Karadzhev, K.V.; Kuz' min, E.A.; Man' ko, V.I.; Ogloblin, A.A.; Paramonov, V.V.; Tsvetkov, A.A.

    1980-04-01

    The technique is described and results presented of measurements of the velocity and angular distributions of pions, protons, and deuterons, and tritons emitted in bombardment of lead nuclei by ..cap alpha.. particles with energy 3.6 GeV/nucleon.

  10. Crossed laser and molecular beam study of multiphoton dissociation of C/sub 2/F/sub 5/Cl. [Rate constants, angular and velocity distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajnovich, D.J.; Giardini-Guidoni, A.; Sudboe, A.S.; Schulz, P.A.; Shen, Y.R.; Lee, Y.T.

    1978-09-01

    Rate constants for the photodissociation of C/sub 2/F/sub 5/Cl as well as the yield of C/sub 2/F/sub 4//sup +/ were measured. The dynamics of the two dissociation channels was studied by measuring the angular and velocity distributions of the products. 2 references. (JFP)

  11. Angular and lateral distributions from small angle multiple scattering including elastic and inelastic energy loss effects based on the Valdes and Arista model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikegami, Seiji, E-mail: double1892@gmail.com

    2013-12-01

    The aims of this work are to compare and to include two energy loss effects in multiple scattering caused by elastic and inelastic collisions in angular and lateral distributions based on Valdes and Arista (VA) theory. VA developed small angle multiple scattering theory including energy loss effects based on the Sigmund and Winterbon model for the first time. However, the energy loss effects on lateral distributions have not yet been estimated. In the VA model, target thickness and energy loss are independently treated. In this study, those effects are successfully introduced on the basis of the VA model. We considered the lateral spread and angular distribution separately and included the nuclear and electronic energy loss effects as a function of target thickness. Our results indicate that discrepancies occur between the two distributions, including nuclear and electronic stopping for several target thickness. Moreover, we constructed a multiple scattering model that includes both elastic and inelastic energy losses.

  12. Next-generation angular distribution models for top-of-atmosphere radiative flux calculation from the CERES instruments: methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Su

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiative fluxes are critical components to advancing our understanding of the Earth's radiative energy balance, radiative effects of clouds and aerosols, and climate feedback. The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES instruments provide broadband shortwave and longwave radiance measurements. These radiances are converted to fluxes by using scene type dependent Angular Distribution Models (ADMs. This paper describes the next-generation ADMs that are developed for Terra and Aqua using all available CERES rotating azimuth plane radiance measurements. Coincident cloud and aerosol retrievals, and radiance measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, and meteorological parameters from Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS data assimilation version 5.4.1 are used to define scene type. CERES radiance measurements are stratified by scene type and by other parameters that are important for determining the anisotropy of the given scene type. Anisotropic factors are then defined either for discrete intervals of relevant parameters or as a continuous functions of combined parameters, depending on the scene type. Compared to the existing ADMs, the new ADMs change the monthly mean instantaneous fluxes by up to 5 W m−2 on a regional scale of 1° latitude × 1° longitude, but the flux changes are less than 0.5 W m−2 on a global scale.

  13. Angular distribution of energetic argon ions emitted by a 90 kJ Filippov-type plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of the energetic argon ions emitted by a 90 kJ Filippov-type plasma focus are studied by employing an array of Faraday cups. The Faraday cups are designed to minimize the secondary electron emission effects on their response. Angular distribution of the ions is measured, and the results indicate a highly anisotropic emission with a dip at the device axis and a local maximum at the angle of 7° with respect to the axis. It has been argued that this kind of anisotropic emission may be related to the surfatron acceleration mechanism and shown that this behavior is independent of the working gas pressure. It has been also demonstrated that this mechanism is responsible for the generation of MeV ions. Measuring the total ion number at different working gas pressures gives an optimum pressure of 0.3 Torr. In addition, the energy spectrum of ions is measured by taking into account of the ambient gas effects on the energy and charge of the ions. The current neutralization effect of electrons trapped in the ion beam as well as the effect of conducting boundaries surrounding the beam, on the detected signals are investigated

  14. Search for new phenomena in dijet angular distributions at √s = 8 and 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00329497; LYTKEN, Else; RATHSMAN, Johan

    2016-02-23

    A new energy regime has recently become accessible in collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Abundant in hadron collisions, the two-jet final state explores the structure of the constituents of matter and the possible emergence of new forces of nature, in the largest momentum transfer collisions produced. The results from searches for phenomena beyond the Standard Model in the dijet angular distributions are presented. The data were collected with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 8 and 13~TeV, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 17.3 fb$^{-1}$ and 3.6 fb$^{-1}$, respectively. No evidence for new phenomena was seen, and the strongest 95\\% confidence level lower limits to date were set on the scale of a range of suggested models. This work details the limits on the compositeness scale of quarks in a contact interaction scenario with two different modes of interference with Standard Model processes, as well as on the threshold mass of quantum black ho...

  15. Disturbance of the gamma angular distribution by correlated radiation damage after nuclear reactions in lead and silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of electric field gradients on the disturbed γ angular distribution after nuclear reactions was investigated using a time differential method in an external magnetic field. Isomeric states of the nuclei 210Po, 109Cd and 113Sn have been used as probes. Measurements in the temperature range from 100 K to close under the melting point of the respective metal have been performed. A temperature-dependent damping of the modulation amplitude prior to the beginning of the observation time was found in all three probes. This damping increases at decreasing temperature and has the following values at 100 K : lead 50%; silver, 70% and 60% respectively. In the systems 210PoPb and 109CdAg, there is during the observation time also a slow damping of the modulation amplitude, which also increases at decreasing temperature. Both effects are discussed with respect to radiation damage in metal correlated to the probe. For that purpose, the dynamic and the static perturbation interaction are compared. It is shown that the static model alone yields a consistent description of the results of the measurement. (orig.)

  16. Non-classical particle transport with angular-dependent path-length distributions. II: Application to pebble bed reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We construct and analyze random and crystal arrangements of pebble bed cores. • We investigate anisotropic diffusion of neutrons in the interior of the cores. • We generate benchmark numerical results using Monte Carlo. • We obtain model estimates for the anisotropic diffusion coefficients. • We find that the new theory is accurate and able to predict anisotropic diffusion. - Abstract: We describe an analysis of neutron transport in the interior of model pebble bed reactor (PBR) cores, considering both crystal and random pebble arrangements. Monte Carlo codes were developed for (i) generating random realizations of the model PBR core, and (ii) performing neutron transport inside the crystal and random heterogeneous cores; numerical results are presented for two different choices of material parameters. These numerical results are used to investigate the anisotropic behavior of neutrons in each case and to assess the accuracy of estimates for the diffusion coefficients obtained with the diffusion approximations of different models: the atomic mix model, the Behrens correction, the Lieberoth correction, the generalized linear Boltzmann equation (GLBE), and the new GLBE with angular-dependent path-length distributions. This new theory utilizes a non-classical form of the Boltzmann equation in which the locations of the scattering centers in the system are correlated and the distance-to-collision is not exponentially distributed; this leads to an anisotropic diffusion equation. We show that the results predicted using the new GLBE theory are extremely accurate, correctly identifying the anisotropic diffusion in each case and greatly outperforming the other models for the case of random systems

  17. Measurement of the weak mixing angle and the spin of the gluon from angular distributions in the reaction pp→ Z/γ*+X→μ+μ-+X with ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the effective weak mixing angle with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is presented. It is extracted from the forward-backward asymmetry in the polar angle distribution of the muons originating from Z boson decays in the reaction pp→Z/γ*+X→ μ+μ-+X. In total 4.7 fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at √(s)=7 TeV are analysed. In addition, the full polar and azimuthal angular distributions are measured as a function of the transverse momentum of the Z/γ* system and are compared to several simulations as well as recent results obtained in p anti p collisions. Finally, the angular distributions are used to confirm the spin of the gluon using the Lam-Tung relation.

  18. Generalized helicity formalism, higher moments, and the B →KJK(→K π )ℓ1 ¯ ℓ2 angular distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratrex, James; Hopfer, Markus; Zwicky, Roman

    2016-03-01

    We generalize the Jacob-Wick helicity formalism, which applies to sequential decays, to effective field theories of rare decays of the type B →KJ K(→K π )ℓ¯1ℓ2. This is achieved by reinterpreting local interaction vertices b ¯ Γμ1…μn 's ℓ ¯ Γμ1…μnℓ as a coherent sum of 1 →2 processes mediated by particles whose spin ranges between zero and n . We illustrate the framework by deriving the full angular distributions for B ¯→K ¯ℓ1ℓ¯2 and B ¯→K¯*(→K ¯π )ℓ1ℓ¯2 for the complete dimension-six effective Hamiltonian for nonequal lepton masses. Amplitudes and decay rates are expressed in terms of Wigner rotation matrices, leading naturally to the method of moments in various forms. We discuss how higher-spin operators and QED corrections alter the standard angular distribution used throughout the literature, potentially leading to differences between the method of moments and the likelihood fits. We propose to diagnose these effects by assessing higher angular moments. These could be relevant in investigating the nature of the current LHCb anomalies in RK=B (B →K μ+μ-)/B (B →K e+e-) as well as angular observables in B →K*μ+μ-.

  19. An improved power flow method based on extended chain-table storage structure for distribution network with PV nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shuheng; Wang, Xiongfei; Su, Chi;

    2014-01-01

    Based on an extended chain-table storage structure, an improved power flow method is presented, which can be applied to a distribution network with multi PV nodes. The extended chain-table storage structure is designed on the basis of address-pointer technology describing the radial topology with a...... reduced memory size. The voltage error of each PV node is adjusted by a reactive power adjusting strategy. The adjusting strategy is based on a multi-variable linear function with an accelerating factor. Finally, this new improved power flow method is realized by the software system developed in VC and...... the corresponding case study has been done. The experimental data and the further analysis have proved that this method can calculate the power flow of a distribution network with multi PV nodes precisely and fast. © 2014 IEEE....

  20. Ion energy and angular distributions onto polymer surfaces delivered by dielectric barrier discharge filaments in air: I. Flat surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Kushner, Mark J, E-mail: nbabaeva@umich.edu, E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science 1301 Beal Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    In atmospheric pressure discharges, ion energies are typically thought to be thermal with values dominantly <1 eV. In the heads of filaments in dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs), electric fields can exceed 200 kV cm{sup -1} when the filament is far from a surface. As the filament approaches and intersects a dielectric surface, much of the applied potential is compressed into the voltage drop across the head of the filament due to the high conductivity of the trailing plasma channel. When the filament strikes the surface, this voltage is transferred to the resulting sheath and into the material of the surface. The degree of electric field compression depends on the dielectric constant {epsilon}/{epsilon}{sub 0} of the surface. Upon intersection of the filament with the surface, the electric fields in the resulting sheath can exceed 400-800 kV cm{sup -1}, with larger values corresponding to larger {epsilon}/{epsilon}{sub 0}. When accelerated in these fields, ions can gain energies across their mean free path (0.5-1 {mu}m) up to 20 eV for dielectrics with low {epsilon}/{epsilon}{sub 0} and up to 150 eV for dielectrics with high {epsilon}/{epsilon}{sub 0}, albeit only for the duration of the intersection of the streamer with the surface of a few ns. In this paper we report on results from a computational investigation of the ion energy and angular distributions (IEADs) incident on dielectric flat surfaces resulting from the intersection of DBD filaments sustained in atmospheric pressure air. We describe the transient and spatially dependent IEADs as the filament spreads across the polymer.

  1. About Equilibrium Distribution Coefficients of Impurities at Elements of the IV-VI Groups in Periodic Table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Communications between the equilibrium distribution coefficients of impurities KA0limB in some elements of the IV-VI group in periodic table and the Rb parameters, containing energies of ionization, charge numbers of atoms and other data are considered. It is shown, that the use of the Rb parameters allows to define the values KA0limB for many impurities in the metals solvents W, V, Zr by known expressions, but without introduction of melting of elements

  2. 40 CFR Table F-6 to Subpart F of... - Estimated Mass Concentration Measurement of PM2.5 for Idealized Fine Aerosol Size Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Estimated Mass Concentration Measurement of PM2.5 for Idealized Fine Aerosol Size Distribution F Table F-6 to Subpart F of Part 53... Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. F, Table F-6 Table F-6 to Subpart F of Part 53—Estimated...

  3. 40 CFR Table F-4 to Subpart F of... - Estimated Mass Concentration Measurement of PM2.5 for Idealized Coarse Aerosol Size Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Estimated Mass Concentration Measurement of PM2.5 for Idealized Coarse Aerosol Size Distribution F Table F-4 to Subpart F of Part 53... Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. F, Table F-4 Table F-4 to Subpart F of Part 53—Estimated...

  4. Search for Quark Contact Interactions in Dijet Angular Distributions in $pp$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV Measured with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Ackers, Mario; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adorisio, Cristina; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmed, Hossain; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov , Andrei; Aktas, Adil; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Aleppo, Mario; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Jose; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Ambrosio, Giorgio; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Antunovic, Bijana; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Theodoros; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arms, Kregg; Armstrong, Stephen Randolph; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Arutinov, David; Asai, Makoto; Asai, Shoji; Silva, José; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asner, David; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bailey , David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Mark; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Baranov, Sergey; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone , Maura; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Bazalova, Magdalena; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Graham; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Ayda; Beddall, Andrew; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Belhorma, Bouchra; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Giovanni; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benincasa, Gianpaolo; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertolucci, Sergio; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Binder , Meta; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bischof, Reinhard; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Boaretto, Christian; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocci, Andrea; Bocian, Dariusz; Bock, Rudolf; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Booth, Richard; Booth, Peter; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Bourdarios, Claire; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Braccini, Saverio; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Brambilla, Elena; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Brett, Nicolas; Bright-Thomas, Paul; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brubaker, Erik; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Buira-Clark, Daniel; Buis, Ernst-Jan; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, Françcois; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Byatt, Tom; Caballero, Jose; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caccia, Massimo; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camard, Arnaud; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Cammin, Jochen; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Caprio, Mario; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carpentieri, Carmen; Carrillo Montoya, German D.; Carron Montero, Sebastian; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavallari, Alvise; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Cazzato, Antonio; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerna, Cedric; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervetto, Mario; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Li; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Tcherniatine, Valeri; Chesneanu, Daniela; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chevallier, Florent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Citterio, Mauro; Clark, Allan G.; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H.; Coe, Paul; Coelli, Simone; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Colas, Jacques; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Coluccia, Rita; Comune, Gianluca; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Correard, Sebastien; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cranshaw, Jack; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cuneo, Stefano; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Rocha Gesualdi Mello, Aline; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dahlhoff, Andrea; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dallison, Steve; Daly, Colin; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dankers, Reinier; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Dauvergne , Jean-Pierre; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; De La Taille, Christophe; De Lotto, Barbara; De Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Oliveira Branco, Miguel; De Pedis, Daniele; de Saintignon, Paul; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dean, Simon; Dedes, George; Dedovich, Dmitri; Defay, Pierre Olivier; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Deile, Mario; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Deng, Wensheng; Denisov, Sergey; Dennis, Chris; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diaz Gomez, Manuel Maria; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietl, Hans; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djilkibaev, Rashid; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson , Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Dogan, Ozgen Berkol; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Drohan, Janice; Dubbert, Jörg; Dubbs, Tim; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen , Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Dushkin, Andrei; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak , Friedrich; Dzahini, Daniel; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckert, Simon; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Egorov, Kirill; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Ely, Robert; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ermoline, Iouri; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Evdokimov, Valery; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Facius, Katrine; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falou, Alain; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fasching, Damon; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Ivan; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferguson, Douglas; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernandes, Bruno; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Ferro, Fabrizio; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer , Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flammer, Joachim; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Föhlisch, Florian; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Fopma, Johan; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; Freestone, Julian; French, Sky; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, K K; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gautard, Valerie; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; Georgatos, Fotios; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gieraltowski, Gerry; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gildemeister, Otto; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Girtler, Peter; Giugni, Danilo; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Gnanvo, Kondo; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goggi, Virginio; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Gollub, Nils Peter; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçcalo, Ricardo; Gonella, Laura; Gong, Chenwei; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Pineiro, Beatrice; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Gorski, Boguslaw Tomasz; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouanère, Michel; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grabski, Varlen; Grafström, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Green, Barry; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grewal, Anish; Griesmayer, Erich; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groer, Leslie; Grognuz, Joel; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Gruwe, Magali; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Haboubi, Gabriel; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haeberli, Christian; Haefner, Petra; Härtel, Roland; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Christian Johan; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansl-Kozanecka, Traudl; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harper, Robert; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hart, John; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hashemi, Kevan; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heldmann, Michael; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Hemperek, Tomasz; Henderson, Robert; Hendriks, Patrick John; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hindson, Daniel; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Hollins, Ivan; Holmes, Alan; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homer, Jim; Homma, Yasuhiro; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hott, Thomas; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howell, David; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Idzik, Marek; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imhaeuser, Martin; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ionescu, Gelu; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishii, Koji; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Isobe, Tadaaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Itoh, Yuki; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jahoda, Miroslav; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jared, Richard; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Mark; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jones, Tegid; Jonsson, Ove; Joo, Kwang; Joos, Dieter; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Jorgensen, Sigrid; Joseph, John; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kastoryano, Michael; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kayumov, Fred; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Kazi, Sandor Istvan; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoriauli, Gia; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kilvington, Graham; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; Kind, Peter; King, Barry; King, Matthew; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kisielewski, Bartlomiej; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Koblitz, Birger; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Stefan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolos, Serguei; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konovalov, Serguei; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Serguei; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotov, Konstantin; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Henri; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasel, Olaf; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Krobath, Gernot; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuykendall, William; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvasnicka, Ondrej; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Rémi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lamanna, Massimo; Lambacher, Marion; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Lapin, Vladimir; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov , Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Wing; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorato, Antonia; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Lazzaro, Alfio; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Le Vine, Micheal; Leahu, Marius; Lebedev, Alexander; Lebel, Céline; Lechowski, Matthieu; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lehto, Mark; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lellouch, Jeremie; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Lepidis , Johannes; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Lim, Heuijin; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Tiankuan; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken , James; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Lovas, Lubomir; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lu, Jiansen; Lu, Liang; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lynn, James; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maaß en, Michael; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; MacQueen, Daniel; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Magrath, Caroline; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahmood, A.; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makouski, Mikhail; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Piotr; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mambelli, Marco; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Manara, Andrea; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Mangin-Brinet, Mariane; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Mann, Anthony; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March , Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchesotti, Marco; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Alex; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martini, Agnese; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Maß , Martin; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maxfield, Stephen; May, Edward; Mayer, John; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Donald, Jeffrey; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; McGarvie, Scott; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; McMahon, Steve; McMahon, Tania; McMahon, Tom; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Merkl, Doris; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Messmer, Ines; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meuser, Stefan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W. Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Migliaccio, Agostino; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikulec, Bettina; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Corrinne; Mills, Bill; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Mima, Satoru; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misawa, Shigeki; Miscetti, Stefano; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitra, Ankush; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mladenov, Dimitar; Moa, Torbjoern; Moch, Markus; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohn, Bjarte; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Moneta, Lorenzo; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morais, Antonio; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgan, Debbie; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morita, Youhei; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morone, Maria-Christina; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Moszczynski, Arkadiusz; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moye, Tamsin; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muijs, Sandra; Muir, Alex; Munar, Toni; Munwes, Yonathan; Murakami, Koichi; Murillo Garcia, Raul; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Naito, Daisuke; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nasteva, Irina; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Nauyock, Farah; Navarro, Gabriela; Nderitu, Simon Kirichu; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neukermans, Lionel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Nicholson, Caitriana; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicoletti, Giovanni; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya , Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norniella Francisco, Olga; Norton, Peter; Notz, Dieter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nožička, Miroslav; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Odino, Gian Andrea; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohska, Tokio Kenneth; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver, Concepcion; Oliver, John; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Ordonez, Gustavo; Oreglia, Mark; Orellana, Frederik; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Ortega, Eduardo; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ottewell, Brian; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Oyarzun, Alejandro; Øye, Ola; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozone, Kenji; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palestini, Sandro; Palla, Jan; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Palmer, Matt; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panin, Vladimir; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Paoloni, Alessandro; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Su-Jung; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parker, Sherwood; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor , Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Peak, Lawrence; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peeters, Simon Jan Marie; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Peric, Ivan; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Petereit, Emil; Peters, Onne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Pfeifer, Bernhard; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Plano, Will; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poffenberger, Paul; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Ponsot, Patrick; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popescu, Razvan; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Popule, Jiri; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Porter, Robert; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potekhin, Maxim; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Potter, Keith; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Prata, Michele; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puigdengoles, Carles; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qi, Ming; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Weiming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Qing, Di; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Raine, Colin; Raith, Boris; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rajek, Silke; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renkel, Peter; Rensch, Bertram; Rescia, Sergio; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richards, Ronald; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieke, Stefan; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Roa Romero, Diego Alejandro; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodier, Stephane; Rodriguez, Diego; Rodriguez Garcia, Yohany; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Maltrana, Diego; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Lucio; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Rothberg, Joseph; Rottländer, Iris; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rulikowska-Zarebska, Elzbieta; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Runolfsson, Ogmundur; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybkin, Grigori; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sala, Paola; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandhu, Pawan; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sanny, Bernd; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Savard, Pierre; Savine, Alexandre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savva , Panagiota; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schaller, Martin; Schamberger, R.~Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmidt, Michael; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitz, Martin; Scholte, Reinder Cornelis; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schreiner, Alexander; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schroers, Marcel; Schroff, Dietrich; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schweiger, Dietmar; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Christian; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shield, Pete; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siebel, Anca-Mirela; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloan, Terrence; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yuri; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Soluk, Richard; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorbi, Massimo; Sosebee, Mark; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Speckmayer, Peter; Spencer, Edwin; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spogli, Luca; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St. Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stancu, Stefan Nicolae; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stastny, Jan; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Stefanidis, Efstathios; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stiller, Wolfram; Stockmanns, Tobias; Stockton, Mark; Stodulski, Marek; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Su, Dong; Soh, Dart-yin; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szczygiel, Robert Roman; Szeless, Balazs; Szymocha, Tadeusz; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Taboada Gameiro, Sonia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taga, Adrian; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; 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Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jürgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomasek, Lukas; Tomasek, Michal; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Daniel; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonazzo, Alessandra; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Traynor, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Treis, Johannes; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; 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Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Qizhi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zilka, Branislav; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu

    2011-01-01

    Dijet angular distributions from the first LHC pp collisions at center-of-mass energy sqrt(s) = 7 TeV have been measured with the ATLAS detector. The dataset used for this analysis represents an integrated luminosity of 3.1 pb-1. Dijet $\\chi$ distributions and centrality ratios have been measured up to dijet masses of 2.8 TeV, and found to be in good agreement with Standard Model predictions. Analysis of the $\\chi$ distributions excludes quark contact interactions with a compositeness scale $\\Lambda$ below 3.4 TeV, at 95% confidence level, significantly exceeding previous limits.

  5. Search for quark contact interactions in dijet angular distributions in pp collisions at √(s)=7 TeV measured with the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijet angular distributions from the first LHC pp collisions at center-of-mass energy √(s)=7 TeV have been measured with the ATLAS detector. The dataset used for this analysis represents an integrated luminosity of 3.1 pb-1. Dijet χ distributions and centrality ratios have been measured up to dijet masses of 2.8 TeV, and found to be in good agreement with Standard Model predictions. Analysis of the χ distributions excludes quark contact interactions with a compositeness scale Λ below 3.4 TeV, at 95% confidence level, significantly exceeding previous limits.

  6. Angular and velocity distributions of HD molecules produced by the H/sub 2/--D/sub 2/ exchange reaction on the stepped Pt(557) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, T.H.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1984-07-15

    The H/sub 2/--D/sub 2/ exchange reaction on Pt(557) crystal surface was investigated using a molecular beam surface scattering technique. The angular and velocity distributions of the HD product were measured at various crystal temperatures (500--1170 K). It was found that the exchange reaction occurred via interactions of adsorbed H and D atoms (Langmuir--Hinshelwood mechanism). Although the HD that is produced desorbs with a cos/sup 2/ theta angular distribution, its translational energy corresponds to a temperature slightly colder than that of the substrate with the mean energy of the desorbing molecules depending on the desorption angle. As the desorbing angle increases away from the surface normal, the mean translational energy decreases. The exchange reactivity was found to be incident azimuthal angle dependent while the translational energy of the product HD is independent of the azimuthal angle of detection.

  7. Measurement of dijet angular distributions at sqrt{s}=1.96TeV and searches for quark compositeness and extra spatial dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration, D0

    2009-06-01

    We present the first measurement of dijet angular distributions in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The measurement is based on a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.7 fb{sup -1} collected with the D0 detector. Dijet angular distributions have been measured over a range of dijet masses, from 0.25 TeV to above 1.1 TeV. The data are in good agreement with the predictions of perturbative QCD and are used to constrain new physics models including quark compositeness, large extra dimensions, and TeV{sup -1} scale extra dimensions. For all models considered, we set the most stringent direct limits to date.

  8. Search for New Phenomena in Dijet Angular Distributions in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV Measured with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

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Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Childers, John Taylor; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire, Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saimpert, Matthias; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simoniello, Rosa; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    A search for new phenomena in LHC proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV was performed with the ATLAS detector using an integrated luminosity of 17.3 fb$^{-1}$. The angular distributions are studied in events with at least two jets; the highest dijet mass observed is 5.5 TeV. All angular distributions are consistent with the predictions of the Standard Model. In a benchmark model of quark contact interactions, a compositeness scale below 8.1 TeV in a destructive interference scenario and 12.0 TeV in a constructive interference scenario is excluded at 95% CL; median expected limits are 8.9 TeV for the destructive interference scenario and 14.1 TeV for the constructive interference scenario.

  9. Angular distribution of 4.43-MeV γ-rays produced in inelastic scattering of 14.1-MeV neutrons by 12C nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystritsky, V. M.; Grozdanov, D. N.; Zontikov, A. O.; Kopach, Yu. N.; Rogov, Yu. N.; Ruskov, I. N.; Sadovsky, A. B.; Skoy, V. R.; Barmakov, Yu. N.; Bogolyubov, E. P.; Ryzhkov, V. I.; Yurkov, D. I.

    2016-07-01

    The work is devoted to measuring the angular distribution of 4.43-MeV γ-rays produced in inelastic scattering of 14.1-MeV neutrons by 12C nuclei. A portable ING-27 neutron generator (designed and fabricated at VNIIA, Moscow) with a built-in 64-pixel silicon α-detector was used as a source of tagged neutrons. The γ-rays of characteristic nuclear radiation from 12C were detected with a spectrometric system that consisted of 22 γ-detectors based on NaI(Tl) crystals arranged around the carbon target. The measured angular distribution of 4.43-MeV γ-rays is analyzed and compared with the results of other published experimental works.

  10. New peculiarities in angular distribution of Cherenkov radiation from relativistic heavy ions caused by their stopping in radiator: numerical and theoretical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiks, E. I.; Bogdanov, O. V.; Pivovarov, Yu L.

    2012-05-01

    A new method and theoretical base for calculation of the Cherenkov Radiation (ChR) angular distribution from relativistic heavy ions (RHI) taking into account stopping in radiator is suggested. Our method is based on the thin radiator approximation and the Bethe-Bloch formula for ionization energy loss (stopping) and provides fast calculations without using any special software. The simple formula for estimation of the ChR angular distribution width in vicinity of the Cherenkov angle taking into account RHI stopping in radiator is obtained. New peculiarities of ChR - dependence on the RHI charge and mass (isotopic effect), emission wavelength (index of refraction) and radiator length - are studied. These new features of ChR from RHI allow for their possible applications to simultaneously reconstruction of both velocity and charge of RHI penetrating through radiator and even to measure the masses of isotopes or radiator stopping power.

  11. An intermediate baryon system formation and the angular distributions of the slow particles emitted in hadron-nuclear and nuclear-nuclear interactions at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Suleymanov, M K; Aliyev, R M; Aliyev, F M; Haseeb, M Q; Huseynaliyev, Y H; Khan, E U; Kravchakova, A; Shahaliev, E I; Vokal, S; Vodopyanov, A S

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed the angular distributions of the b- particles emitted in Kr+Em -reaction at 0.95 A GeV and in Au+Em -reaction at 10.7 A GeV and compared these with lighter projectile experiments for which some structure in the angular distribution of slow particles was observed. The same structure for the b-particles almost disappears by increasing the projectile mass. We believe that it is connected with increasing rates of internuclear secondary interactions which could lead mainly to disappearance of the information about intermediate baryon system formation. We suggest that it should be taken into account at event generation for heavy ion interactions to restore the information on the intermediate baryon system formation.

  12. Search for new physics in dijet mass and angular distributions in collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV measured with the ATLAS detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thorsten Dietzsch; on behalf of the ATLAS Collaboration

    2012-10-01

    We present a search for physics beyond the Standard Model in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV, performed with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). No evidence for new physics is found in dijet mass and angular distributions and stringent limits are set on a variety of models of new physics, including excited quarks, quark contact interactions, axigluons, and quantum black holes.

  13. Fission fragment angular distributions in proton-induced fission of 209 Bi(p,t) and 197 Au(p,f)

    OpenAIRE

    De, S S; N H; M. L.

    2001-01-01

      The fission fragment angular distributions have been measured for proton-induced fission of 209Bi and 197Au nuclei using surface barrier detectors at several energies between 25 MeV and 30 MeV. The experimental anisotropies are found to be in agreement with the predictions of the Standard Saddle-Point Statistical Model (SSPSM). The fission cross sections of 209Bi 197Au nuclei were also measured and compared with the previous works.

  14. Search for new physics in dijet mass and angular distributions in pp collisions at sqrt{s}=7 TeV measured with the ATLAS detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Chudoba, Jiří; Gallus, Petr; Gunther, Jaroslav; Hruška, I.; Juránek, Vojtěch; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Kvasnička, Jiří; Lipinský, L.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Myška, Miroslav; Němeček, Stanislav; Panušková, M.; Růžička, Pavel; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Taševský, Marek; Tic, Tomáš; Valenta, J.; Vrba, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 5 (2011), 1-45. ISSN 1367-2630 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : higher-dimensional * angular distribution * new physics * axigluon * ATLAS * quantum gravity * CERN LHC Coll * experimental results Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.177, year: 2011

  15. Fission fragment angular distributions in proton-induced fission of 209 Bi(p,t and 197 Au(p,f

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available   The fission fragment angular distributions have been measured for proton-induced fission of 209Bi and 197Au nuclei using surface barrier detectors at several energies between 25 MeV and 30 MeV. The experimental anisotropies are found to be in agreement with the predictions of the Standard Saddle-Point Statistical Model (SSPSM. The fission cross sections of 209Bi 197Au nuclei were also measured and compared with the previous works.

  16. Calculation of energy dependence of fusion and total peripheral reaction cross sections in new approach to heavy-ion elastic scattering angular distributions analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for calculation of energy dependence of fusion (in general case the sum of complete and incomplete fusion, quasi fission and deep inelastic collisions) and total peripheral reaction cross sections is developed on the basis of finite set of elastic scattering angular distributions analysis for given pair of nuclei. Predictive possibilities of the method are illustrated for the 16O+208Pb system, for which calculations are made in the laboratory energy interval Elab = 70 - 450 MeV

  17. An unambiguous signature in molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions of core hole localization in fluorine K-edge photoionization of CF4

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, C. W.; Rescigno, T. N.; Trevisan, C. S.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2016-05-01

    Molecular Frame Photoelectron Angular Distributions (MFPADs) are calculated using the Complex Kohn variational method for core-hole ionization of the carbon and fluorines in CF4 at photoelectron energies below 15 eV. The angular distributions for localized versus delocalized core-hole creation on the four equivalent fluorines are radically different. A strong propensity for the dissociation to take place via the mechanism hν +CF4 -->CF 4 + +e- -->CF 3 + +F(1s-1) -->CF 3 + +F+ + 2e- in which a core excited neutral fluorine atom ionizes during or after dissociation creates the conditions for experimental observation of core hole localization. Comparison with recent unpublished experiments at the Advanced Light Source that measured the Recoil Frame Photoelectron Angular Distributions (averaged over CF3 rotations around the recoil axis) for fluorine K-edge ionization gives unambiguous evidence that these experiments directly observed the creation of an almost completely localized core hole on the dissociating fluorine atom when the molecule was initially photoionized. Work supported by USDOE, OBES Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division.

  18. The VMI study on angular distribution of ejected electrons from Eu 4f76p1/26d autoionizing states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张开; 沈礼; 董程; 戴长建

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a velocity mapping imaging technique and mathematical transformation is adopted to study the angular distribution of electrons ejected from the Eu 4f76p1/26d autoionizing states, which are excited with a three-step excitation scheme via different Eu 4f76s6d 8DJ (J=5/2, 7/2, and 9/2) intermediate states. In order to determine the energy dependence of angular distribution of the ejected electrons, the anisotropic parameters are measured in the spectral profile of the 6p1/26d autoionizing states by tuning the wavelength of the third-step laser across the ionic resonance lines of the Eu 6s+→ 6p+. The configuration interaction is discussed by comparing the angular distributions of ejected electrons from the different states. The present study reveals the profound variations of anisotropic parameters in the entire region of autoionization resonance, highlighting the complicated nature of the autoionization process for the lowest member of 6p1/26d autoionization series.

  19. CDCC calculations of elastic scattering for the systems 6Li+144Sm and 6Li+208Pb. Effect of resonances of 6Li on elastic scattering angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations of elastic scattering angular distributions for reactions of the weakly bound projectile 6Li with targets 144Sm and 208Pb at energies above the barrier, are performed with the Continuum Discretized Coupled-Channel method (CDCC). Ground, resonant and nonresonant continuum states of 6Li are included up to some maximum energy εmax for which convergence is achieved. In the three-body system, global interactions are used for the α-target and d - target sub-systems. The effect of continuum resonant states of 6Li, i.e., l = 2, jπ = 3+, 2+ and 1+ on elastic scattering angular distributions is investigated by extracting these states from the continuum space. It is found that the calculated elastic scattering angular distributions are in good agreement with the measurements for most of the cases studied where consideration of couplings to continuum states is essential. It is also found that the resonance character of the continuum states is in some cases important to obtain agreement with the data

  20. Searches for New Physics using Dijet Angular Distributions in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV $collected with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Buckingham, Ryan

    Angular distributions of jet pairs (dijets) produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-ofmass energy ps = 7 TeV have been studied with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider using the full 2011 data set with an integrated luminosity of $4.8 fb^{-1}$, and reaching dijet masses up to 4:5 TeV. All angular distributions are consistent with QCD predictions. Analysis of the dijet angular distribution, using a novel technique simultaneously employing the dijet mass, is employed. This analysis is sensitive to both resonant new physics and phenomena with a slow-onset in mass. Using this technique, new exclusion limits have been set at 95% credibility level for several hypotheses of physics beyond the standard model including: quantum gravity scales, with 6 extra dimensions, below 4.11 TeV, quark contact interactions below a compositeness scale of 7.6 TeV, and excited quarks with a mass below 2.75 TeV. In a large and complex scientic experiment, such as ATLAS, the collection, management and usability of ...

  1. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkardt Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  2. Next-Generation Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Calculation from the CERES Instruments: Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, W.; Corbett, J.; Eitzen, Z.; Liang, L.

    2015-01-01

    The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes are critical components to advancing our understanding of the Earth's radiative energy balance, radiative effects of clouds and aerosols, and climate feedback. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments provide broadband shortwave and longwave radiance measurements. These radiances are converted to fluxes by using scene-type-dependent angular distribution models (ADMs). This paper describes the next-generation ADMs that are developed for Terra and Aqua using all available CERES rotating azimuth plane radiance measurements. Coincident cloud and aerosol retrievals, and radiance measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and meteorological parameters from Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) data assimilation version 5.4.1 are used to define scene type. CERES radiance measurements are stratified by scene type and by other parameters that are important for determining the anisotropy of the given scene type. Anisotropic factors are then defined either for discrete intervals of relevant parameters or as a continuous functions of combined parameters, depending on the scene type. Significant differences between the ADMs described in this paper and the existing ADMs are over clear-sky scene types and polar scene types. Over clear ocean, we developed a set of shortwave (SW) ADMs that explicitly account for aerosols. Over clear land, the SW ADMs are developed for every 1 latitude1 longitude region for every calendar month using a kernel-based bidirectional reflectance model. Over clear Antarctic scenes, SW ADMs are developed by accounting the effects of sastrugi on anisotropy. Over sea ice, a sea-ice brightness index is used to classify the scene type. Under cloudy conditions over all surface types, the longwave (LW) and window (WN) ADMs are developed by combining surface and cloud-top temperature, surface and cloud emissivity, cloud fraction, and precipitable water

  3. Free-space measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol using decoy states with orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Zhao, Sheng-Mei; Gong, Long-Yan; Cheng, Wei-Wen

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol using orbital angular momentum (OAM) in free space links, named the OAM-MDI-QKD protocol. In the proposed protocol, the OAM states of photons, instead of polarization states, are used as the information carriers to avoid the reference frame alignment, the decoy-state is adopted to overcome the security loophole caused by the weak coherent pulse source, and the high efficient OAM-sorter is adopted as the measurement tool for Charlie to obtain the output OAM state. Here, Charlie may be an untrusted third party. The results show that the authorized users, Alice and Bob, could distill a secret key with Charlie’s successful measurements, and the key generation performance is slightly better than that of the polarization-based MDI-QKD protocol in the two-dimensional OAM cases. Simultaneously, Alice and Bob can reduce the number of flipping the bits in the secure key distillation. It is indicated that a higher key generation rate performance could be obtained by a high dimensional OAM-MDI-QKD protocol because of the unlimited degree of freedom on OAM states. Moreover, the results show that the key generation rate and the transmission distance will decrease as the growth of the strength of atmospheric turbulence (AT) and the link attenuation. In addition, the decoy states used in the proposed protocol can get a considerable good performance without the need for an ideal source. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61271238 and 61475075), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20123223110003), the Natural Science Research Foundation for Universities of Jiangsu Province of China (Grant No. 11KJA510002), the Open Research Fund of Key Laboratory of Broadband Wireless Communication and Sensor Network Technology, Ministry of Education, China (Grant No. NYKL2015011), and the

  4. Tables of average distributions of particles emitted by ionized elements (Z = 6--100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tables giving the average division of energy between electrons and x-rays emitted by singly ionized elements undergoing bound-bound transitions are provided. The expected number of particles is also given. This data is tabulated by atomic number and subshell of initial vacancy. A description of the method of calculation is also presented. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Role of unsteady mechanisms in maintaining a nonuniform angular-velocity distribution through the depth of the solar convection zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zherbina, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    Unsteady rotation of a viscous convective layer with friction at its lower boundary is analyzed. Such friction is shown to be capable of maintaining a radial dependence of angular velocity for a long time. It is found, however, that this mechanism cannot be the cause of the sun's equatorial acceleration.

  6. Effects of finite angular steps and extent of profile data on the calculation of rotational x-ray dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer algorithms for rotational therapy beams, in most cases, perform dose calculations by summing stored fixed beam data at finite angular steps. Such an algorithm, based on the Bentley beam model, was evaluated by comparing calculations with measured data for an 18-MV x-ray beam. Measurements were made in a specially constructed cylindrical water phantom of 15-cm radius using a 0.1-cm3 ionization chamber for an arc of 1800 and for a field size of 7.2 x 7.2 cm2 at 100-cm source--axis distance. This study revealed that the Bentley beam model, with fixed beams summed every 100, predicts the dose in the treatment volume, centered about the isocenter, with an accuracy of approximately 2%. However, dose at depths between the phantom surface and the treatment volume could be underestimated by as much as 10% (3% of isocenter). This was shown to be partially due to the truncated tails of the off-axis profiles in the Bentley model, which extend only 8 mm outside the edge of the radiation field, and the large angular increment of integration (100). Using beam profiles extending to 4 cm outside the edge of the radiation field and angular steps of 50 or less for summation of fixed beams reduced errors to less than 5%. Therefore, extended beam profiles and smaller angular steps for summing fixed beams are recommended for photon rotation calculation when increased accuracy is required

  7. An Exploration of Students’ Construction of Meaning through Symbolic Manipulation and Table / Graph Use in Statistical Inference Tasks: The Cases of Normal and t Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Che

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates college students’ use of statistics tables when solving problems on normal distribution and t distribution. Particular attention is given to the way in which students use the graphical representation of the normal curve and the t-curve in their solutions. A review of the literature on the teaching and learning of statistics at undergraduate level reveals that not much work has been carried out to investigate how students use statistics tables. The data i...

  8. Coevolution Between Supermassive Black Holes and Bulges Is Not Via Internal Feedback Regulation But By Rationed Gas Supply Due To Angular Momentum Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Cen, Renyue

    2015-01-01

    We reason that, without physical fine-tuning, neither the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) nor the stellar bulges can self-regulate or inter-regulate by driving away already fallen cold gas to produce the observed correlation between them. We suggest an alternative scenario where the observed mass ratios of the SMBHs to bulges reflect the angular momentum distribution of infallen gas such that the mass reaching the stable accretion disc is a small fraction of that reaching the bulge region, averaged over the cosmological time scales. We test this scenario using high resolution, large-scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations (without AGN feedback), assuming the angular momentum distribution of gas landing in the bulge region to yield a Mestel disc that is supported by independent simulations resolving the Bondi radii of SMBHs. A mass ratio of $0.1-0.3\\%$ between the very low angular momentum gas that free-falls to the sub-parsec region to accrete to the SMBH and the overall star formation rate is found. Thi...

  9. An Anomaly in the Angular Distribution of Quasar Magnitudes: Evidence for a Bubble Universe with a Mass ~10^21 M\\odot

    CERN Document Server

    Longo, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Quasars provide our farthest-reaching view of the Universe. The Sloan Survey now contains over 100,000 quasar candidates. A careful look at the angular distribution of quasar magnitudes shows a surprising intensity enhancement with a "bulls eye" pattern toward (alpha,delta) ~ (195{\\deg}, 0{\\deg}) for all wavelengths from UV through infrared. The angular pattern and size of the enhancement is very similar for all wavelengths, which is inconsistent with a Doppler shift due to a large peculiar velocity toward that direction. The shift is also too large to explain as a systematic error in the quasar magnitudes. The general features of the anomaly can be explained by the gravitational lensing of a massive bubble with Mlens ~ 10^21 M\\odot, a lens radius ~350 Mpc, and with the lens subtending an angle of \\pm15{\\deg} on the sky. It is remarkable that the presence of such a massive bubble universe can explain not only the anomalies in the angular distribution of quasar intensities, but also anomalies in the distributi...

  10. Angular Cheilitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A This image displays a frequent location for candida infection (angular cheilitis), the corners of the mouth. Overview ... infection, those affected may also have thrush (oral candidiasis). The areas are generally slightly painful. The condition ...

  11. A simple approach to the angular momentum distribution in the ground states of many-body systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Y M; Yoshinaga, N

    2002-01-01

    We propose a simple approach to predict the angular momentum I ground state (I g.s.) probabilities of many-body systems that does not require the diagonalization of hamiltonians with random interactions. This method is found to be applicable to {\\bf all} cases that have been discussed: even and odd fermion systems (both in single-j and many-j shells), and boson (both sd and sdg) systems. A simple relation for the highest angular momentum g.s. probability is found. Furthermore, it is suggested for the first time that the 0g.s. dominance in boson systems and in even-fermion systems is given by two-body interactions with specific features.

  12. Combining near-field hyperspectral imaging and far-field spectral-angular distribution to develop mid-field white LED optical models with spatial color deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung-Xian; Lu, Tsung-Lin; Chen, Bo-Song

    2016-07-11

    The integration of spatial distribution of light intensity and color in the midfield is instrumental for LED optical design. On the basis of this rationale, we proposed an accurate and convenient method for developing white LED optical models. Near-field hyperspectral images and far-field spectral-angular distributions were integrated to illustrate changes in spatial light intensity and color distribution in the mid-field, to the exclusion of the absorption, conversion, and scattering of phosphors. The corresponding optical models were developed for three LED samples under different packaging conditions. Their normalized cross-correlation values for spatial light intensity and correlated-color-temperature distribution between simulation and measurement averaged as high as 0.995 and 0.99 respectively, which validated the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed method. PMID:27410897

  13. QCD corrections to decay-lepton polar and azimuthal angular distributions in e+e- → tt-bar in the soft-gluon approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    QCD corrections to order αs in the soft-gluon approximation to angular distributions of decay charged leptons in the process e+ e- → t t-bar, followed by semileptonic decay of t or t-bar, are obtained in the e+e- centre-of-mass frame. As compared to distributions in the top rest frame, these have the advantage that they would allow direct comparison with experiment without the need to reconstruct the top rest frame. The results also do not depend on the choice of a spin quantization axis for t or t-bar. Analytic expression for the triple distribution in the polar angle of t and polar and azimuthal angles of the lepton is obtained. Analytic expression is also derived for the distribution in the charged-lepton polar angle. Numerical values are discussed for √s = 400, 800 and 1500 GeV. (author)

  14. QCD corrections to decay-lepton polar and azimuthal angular distributions in e+e- -> t tbar in the soft-gluon approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Rindani, S D

    2002-01-01

    QCD corrections to order alpha_s in the soft-gluon approximation to angular distributions of decay charged leptons in the process e+e- -> t tbar followed by semileptonic decay of t or tbar, are obtained in the e+e- centre-of-mass frame. As compared to distributions in the top rest frame, these have the advantage that they would allow direct comparison with experiment without the need to reconstruct the top rest frame. The results also do not depend on the choice of a spin quantization axis for t or tbar. Analytic expression for the triple distribution in the polar angle of t and polar and azimuthal angles of the lepton is obtained. Analytic expression is also derived for the distribution in the charged-lepton polar angle. Numerical values are discussed for total c.m. energies of 400 GeV, 800 GeV and 1500 GeV.

  15. QCD corrections to decay-lepton polar and azimuthal angular distributions in $e^{+}e^{-}→ t \\overline{t}$ in the soft-gluon approximation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saurabh D Rindani

    2002-04-01

    QCD corrections to order in the soft-gluon approximation to angular distributions of decay charged leptons in the process $e^{+}e^{-}→ t\\overline{t}$, followed by semileptonic decay of or $\\overline{t}$, are obtained in the $e^{+} e^{-}$ centre-of-mass frame. As compared to distributions in the top rest frame, these have the advantage that they would allow direct comparison with experiment without the need to reconstruct the top rest frame. The results also do not depend on the choice of a spin quantization axis for or $\\overline{t}$. Analytic expression for the triple distribution in the polar angle of and polar and azimuthal angles of the lepton is obtained. Analytic expression is also derived for the distribution in the charged-lepton polar angle. Numerical values are discussed for $\\sqrt{s} = 400$, 800 and 1500 GeV.

  16. Multi-modal study of angular momentum distribution of fission fragments as a result of bending modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average angular momentum of the primary fission fragments as a function of their masses was calculated using the wave function of the bending mode excitation at the scission point. The scission configuration was assumed to be determined by the prescission shapes of fissioning nucleus within the multimodal fission model. Results in 235U(nth, f) is in good agreement with the recent experimental data. (author)

  17. Energy Spectra And Angular Distributions Of Imfs Produced In 8-gev Proton And 12-gev Proton And Ne-20 Induced Multifragmentation Reactions (the First Results Of The Kek-ps E393 And Nirs 11p052 Experiments)

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, K H; Murakami, T; Ito, H; Yasuda, K; Murata, J; Muramatsu, R; Tanaka, Y J; Hirai, Y; Miyazaki, K; Tanaka, Y; Nagasaka, Y; Haseno, M; Okuno, Y; Ushie, K; Hara, H; Tsuji, S; Satake, K; Kimura, K; Kubohara, R; Shibata, Y; Kosuge, F; Nakai, K; Ochiisi, H; Kouda, S; Nakamura, H; Morinobu, S; Sugaya, Y; Ohkuma, Y; Takada, E

    2000-01-01

    Energy Spectra And Angular Distributions Of Imfs Produced In 8-gev Proton And 12-gev Proton And Ne-20 Induced Multifragmentation Reactions (the First Results Of The Kek-ps E393 And Nirs 11p052 Experiments)

  18. The rotation period distributions of 4--10 Myr T Tauri stars in Orion OB1: New constraints on pre-main-sequence angular momentum evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Karim, Md Tanveer; Briceno, Cesar; Vivas, A Katherina; Raetz, Stefanie; Mateu, Cecilia; Downes, Juan Jose; Calvet, Nuria; Hernandez, Jesus; Neuhauser, Ralph; Mugrauer, Markus; Takahashi, Hidenori; Tachihara, Kengo; Chini, Rolf; Cruz-Dias, Gustavo A; Aarnio, Alicia; James, David J; Hackstein, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    Most existing studies of the angular momentum evolution of young stellar populations have focused on the youngest (1-3 Myr) T Tauri stars. In contrast, the angular momentum distributions of older T Tauri stars (4-10 Myr) have been less studied, even though they hold key insight to understanding stellar angular momentum evolution at a time when protoplanetary disks have largely dissipated and when models therefore predict changes in the rotational evolution that can in principle be tested. We present a study of photometric variability among 1,974 confirmed T Tauri members of various sub-regions of the Orion OB1 association, and with ages spanning 4-10 Myr, using optical time-series from three different surveys. For 564 of the stars (~32% of the weak-lined T Tauri stars and ~13% of the classical T Tauri stars in our sample) we detect statistically significant periodic variations which we attribute to the stellar rotation periods, making this one of the largest samples of T Tauri star rotation periods yet publis...

  19. Flood regime and water table determines tree distribution in a forest-savanna gradient in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Júnior, Walnir G; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Cunha, Cátia N; Duarte, Temilze G; Chieregatto, Luiz C; Carmo, Flávia M S

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to recognized the preferential location of species of the tree sinusiae in response to a moisture gradient in Pantanal Matogrossense, Brazil. We established sampling plots of arboreal sinusiae along a soil moisture and flood gradient. Piezometers were installed, allowing monthly measurements of water table depth and flood height during one year. Detrended Correspondence Analysis, Gradient Direct Analysis, Multi-response Permutation Procedures and Indicator Species Analysis were performed to evaluate the effect of moisture gradient on tree distribution. The annual variation of water table is shallower and similar in Seasonally Flooded Forest and Termite Savanna, with increasing depths in Open Savanna, Savanna Forest and Dry Forest. Circa 64% of the species were characterized as having a preferential location in "terrestrial habitats normally not subjected to inundation", while 8% preferentially occur in "wet habitats". Lowest tree richness in flood-affected vegetation types is related to both present-day high climatic seasonality and Late Pleistocene dry paleoclimates in the Pantanal wetland. The tree distribution across different formations in the Pantanal shows a direct relationship with soil moisture gradient. PMID:27142551

  20. ΣN cusp effect and angular distributions in the the CMS frame in the vector pp → pK+Λ reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vector pp → pK+Λ → pK+pπ- reaction has been measured with the COSY-TOF spectrometer with a polarized beam at a momentum of 2.95 GeV/c. Due to the full phase space covered by the COSY-TOF experiment, the Dalitz plot can be analyzed to study the details of the reaction mechanism. The Dalitz plot distribution reveals an influence of pΛ final state interaction (FSI), N* resonances and cusp effects at the Σ0p threshold as an enhancement in the pΛ subsystem. The cusp effects is more pronounced than measured at a beam momentum of 2.7 GeV/c. Moreover, the cusp shape due to the interference with N* resonances is studied in different regions of the KΛ subsystem. The angular distribution of products in the CMS are also studied to determine the coefficients of Legendre polynomials by fitting to angular distribution of the reaction. The preliminary results of this analysis are shown in this presentation.

  1. Angular and internal state distributions of H2 (+) generated by (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization of H2 using time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, William E; Mukherjee, Nandini; Zare, Richard N

    2016-06-01

    We report direct measurement of the anisotropy parameter β for the angular distribution of the photoelectron and photoion in (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization process of H2 X (1)Σg (+) (v = 0, J = 0) molecules through the intermediate H2 E,F (1)Σg (+) (v' = 0, J' = 0) level (λ = 201.684 nm) using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The time-of-flight spectra were recorded as the direction of polarization of the ionizing laser was varied with respect to the flight axis of the H2 molecular beam and were fitted to an angular distribution in an appropriately rotated coordinate system with the z-axis oriented along the time-of-flight axis. The anisotropy parameter β was found to be 1.72 ± 0.13 by fitting the time-of-flight spectra and agreed with previous measurements. Using secondary ionization with a delayed laser pulse of different wavelength, we also determined the vibrational energy distribution of the ions, showing that 98% ± 4% of the ions are generated in their ground vibrational state, in agreement with the calculated Franck-Condon factors between the H2 E,F (1)Σg (+) (v' = 0) and H2 (+) X (1)Σg (+) (v″) vibrational levels. PMID:27276949

  2. Angular and internal state distributions of H2+ generated by (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization of H2 using time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, William E.; Mukherjee, Nandini; Zare, Richard N.

    2016-06-01

    We report direct measurement of the anisotropy parameter β for the angular distribution of the photoelectron and photoion in (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization process of H2 X 1 Σg + (v = 0, J = 0) molecules through the intermediate H2 E,F 1 Σg + (v' = 0, J' = 0) level (λ = 201.684 nm) using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The time-of-flight spectra were recorded as the direction of polarization of the ionizing laser was varied with respect to the flight axis of the H2 molecular beam and were fitted to an angular distribution in an appropriately rotated coordinate system with the z-axis oriented along the time-of-flight axis. The anisotropy parameter β was found to be 1.72 ± 0.13 by fitting the time-of-flight spectra and agreed with previous measurements. Using secondary ionization with a delayed laser pulse of different wavelength, we also determined the vibrational energy distribution of the ions, showing that 98% ± 4% of the ions are generated in their ground vibrational state, in agreement with the calculated Franck-Condon factors between the H2 E,F 1 Σg + (v' = 0) and H 2+ X 1 Σg + (v″) vibrational levels.

  3. A Study of the Angular Distributions of Neutrons from the 9Be (p,n) 9B Reaction at Low Proton Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distributions of neutrons from the reaction 9Be (p, n) 9B have been studied at the proton energies 2.300, 2.335, 2.389, and 2.560 MeV. Time-of-flight techniques have been used. The angular distribution measurements show remarkable differences compared to earlier published results using long-counters as detectors. The new results are ascribed to the different experimental methods. By using time-of-flight techniques it has been possible to eliminate disturbing influences from neutrons obtained from the 9Be (p,p'n) 8Be reaction which has a lower reaction threshold than the 9Be (p, n) 9B reaction as well as other Be-p-reactions emitting neutrons. The experimental distribution at 2.30 MeV has been compared with the simplified theories for direct interaction processes developed by Satchler and Rodberg. It is shown that Rodberg's proposal of using optical model wave functions describes the experiment better than Satchler's original theory. However, a good fitting leads to a nuclear radius as well as an optical potential which is appreciably smaller than ordinarily obtained in scattering experiments

  4. Heavy fragment energies and angular distributions in the reaction of 85 MeV/nucleon 12C with medium-A target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the thin target - thin catchers techniques, masses, mean recoil energies and angular distributions of target residues have been measured for 86 MeV/nucleon 12C induced reactions. Several different nuclear reaction processes, from peripheral to central collisions have been observed. Experimental results are partly reproduced by intra-nuclear cascade + evaporation calculations. Up to now, the production of the lightest masses (44< A<71) recoiling with high kinetic energies is not correctly understood by theoretical models. More exclusive experiments are needful to check if the formation of a highly excited quasi-compound nucleus could be a possible explanation of the phenomena

  5. Ionization of oriented targets by intense circularly polarized laser pulses: Imprints of orbital angular nodes in the two-dimensional momentum distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Christian; Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    We solve the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a few-cycle circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulse that interacts with an oriented target exemplified by an argon atom, initially in a 3px or 3py state. The photoelectron momentum distributions show distinct signatures of....... Furthermore, we show that ionization by a circularly polarized pulse completely maps out the angular nodal structure of the initial state, thus providing a potential tool for studying orbital symmetry in individual systems or during chemical reactions....

  6. Strength, decay branching ratios, and angular distribution of the 0.987 MeV resonance in the {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marta, Michele; Bemmerer, Daniel; Beyer, Roland; Erhard, Martin; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Junghans, Arnd Rudolf; Nair, Chithra; Schwengner, R.; Trompler, Erik; Wagner, Andreas; Yakorev, Dmitry [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Dresden (Germany); Broggini, Carlo; Caciolli, Antonio; Menegazzo, Roberto [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Fueloep, Zsolt; Gyuerky, Gyoergy; Szuecs, Tamas [Atomki, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2009-07-01

    The {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction controls the rate of the hydrogen burning CNO cycle. This reaction has recently been re-studied at E<500 keV at different facilities, including LUNA. However, also data at higher energy play a role in determining the extrapolated cross section in the R-matrix framework. Here we report on a new measurement of the absolute strength, decay branching ratio, and angular distribution of the E=0.987 MeV (E{sub x} = 8.284 MeV) resonance carried out at the high-current FZD Tandetron.

  7. Angular Distributions for 3,4 Lambda H Bound States in the 3,4 He(e,e'K+) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohrmann, Frank; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Armstrong, Christopher; Arrington, John; Asaturyan, Razmik; Avery, Steven; Bailey, Kevin; Hu, Bitao; Breuer, Herbert; Brown, Daniel; Carlini, Roger; Cha, Jinseok; Chant, Nicholas; Christy, Michael; Cochran, Anthony; Cole, Leon; Crowder, J.; Danagoulian, Samuel; Elaasar, Mostafa; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard; Fujii, Yu; Gan, Liping; Garrow, Kenneth; Gueye, Paul; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hinton, Wendy; Juengst, Henry; Keppel, Cynthia; Liang, Yongguang; Liu, Jinghua; Lung, Allison; Mack, David; Markowitz, Pete; Mitchell, Joseph; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Mtingwa, Sekazi; Mueller, Robert; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Potterveld, David; Raue, Brian; Reimer, Paul; Reinhold, Joerg; Roche, Julie; Sarsour, Murad; Sato, Yoshinori; Segel, Ralph; Semenov, Andrei; Stepanyan, Samuel; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Tang, Liguang; Uzzle, Alicia; Wood, Stephen; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yan, Chen; Yuan, Lulin; Zeidman, Benjamin; Zeier, Markus; Zihlmann, Benedikt

    2004-12-01

    The 3Lambda H and 4Lambda H hypernuclear bound states have been observed for the first time in kaon electroproduction on 3,4He targets. The production cross sections have been determined at Q**2= 0.35 GeV**2 and W= 1.91 GeV. For either hypernucleus the nuclear form factor is determined by comparing the angular distribution of the 3,4He(e,e'K+)3,4Lambda H processes to the elementary cross section 1H(e,e'K+) Lambda on the free proton, measured during the same experiment.

  8. Hyperfine structure and isotope shift of transitions in Yb I using UV and deep-UV cw laser light and the angular distribution of fluorescence radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the third harmonic of a cw titanium:sapphire laser, the hyperfine structure (HFS) and isotope shift (IS) of three deep-UV transitions of neutral Yb have been measured for the first time. By exploiting the angular distribution of fluorescence radiation, accurate and complete results are obtained for the HFS and IS of the 398.8 nm transition of Yb. From the measured data, normal and specific mass shift as well as field shift values for all transitions considered have been derived. (author)

  9. Measurement of angular distribution of neutron flux for the 6 MeV race-track microtron based pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 6 MeV race track microtron based pulsed neutron source has been designed specifically for the elemental analysis of short lived activation products, where the low neutron flux requirement is desirable. Electrons impinges on a e-γ target to generate bremsstrahlung radiations, which further produces neutrons by photonuclear reaction in γ-n target. The optimisation of these targets along with their spectra were estimated using FLUKA code. The measurement of neutron flux was carried out by activation of vanadium at different scattering angles. Angular distribution of neutron flux indicates that the flux decreases with increase in the angle and are in good agreement with the FLUKA simulation.

  10. Measurement of Dijet Angular Distributions and Search for Quark Compositeness in pp Collisions at √(s)=7 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijet angular distributions are measured over a wide range of dijet invariant masses in pp collisions at √(s)=7 TeV, at the CERN LHC. The event sample, recorded with the CMS detector, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 36 pb-1. The data are found to be in good agreement with the predictions of perturbative QCD, and yield no evidence of quark compositeness. With a modified frequentist approach, a lower limit on the contact interaction scale for left-handed quarks of Λ+=5.6 TeV (Λ-=6.7 TeV) for destructive (constructive) interference is obtained at the 95% confidence level.

  11. Extracting the cross section angular distributions for 15C high-energy resonance excited via the (18O,16O two-neutron transfer reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbone D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 13C(18O,16O15C reaction has been studied at 84 MeV incident energy. The ejectiles have been momentum analized by the MAGNEX spectrometer and 15C excitation energy spectra have been obtained up to about 20 MeV. In the region above the two-neutron separation energy, a bump has been observed at 13.7 MeV. The extracted cross section angular distribution for this structure, obtained by using different models for background, displays a clear oscillating pattern, typical of resonant state of the residual nucleus.

  12. Photoelectron angular distributions for the two-photon sequential double ionization of xenon by ultrashort extreme ultraviolet free electron laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xenon atoms are double-ionized by sequential two-photon absorption by ultrashort extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser pulses with a photon energy of 23.0 and 24.3 eV, produced by the SPring-8 Compact SASE Source test accelerator. The angular distributions of photoelectrons generated by two-photon double ionization are obtained using velocity map imaging. The results are reproduced reasonably well by the present theoretical calculations within the multi-configurational Dirac–Fock approach. (paper)

  13. Measurements of angular distributions of muons from Υ decays in pp-bar collisions at √s=1.96 TeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aaltonen, T.; Gonzalez, B.A.; Amerio, S.; Lysák, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 15 (2012), "151802-1"-"151802-8". ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : muon: angular distribution * upsilon mesons leptonic decay * spin alignment * anti-p p scattering * Batavia TEVATRON Coll * transverse momentum Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 7.943, year: 2012 http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.151802

  14. Angular distribution and multiplicity of backward hadrons in hFe interactions at 0.5-5.0 TeV energies (PION Experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avakian, V. V.; Azarian, M. O.; Egiyan, K. S.; Mamidjanian, E. A.; Ohanian, G. Z.; Ter-Antonian, S. V.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the analysis of approximates 5 X 1000 events registered on the PION installation, data are obtained on the angular distribution and multiplicity of particles, flying back into the laboratory coordinate system (LCS) that are identified mainly as hadrons produced in the reactions of hFe yield h prime X type. The inclusively produced hadron energy is 200 MeV. The experimental data are compared to the results of the cumulative particle production in hA processes observed on accelerators at lower energies.

  15. Measurement of Dijet Angular Distributions and Search for Quark Compositeness in pp Collisions at $sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, Vardan [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2011-05-01

    Dijet angular distributions are measured over a wide range of dijet invariant masses in pp collisions at s√ = 7 TeV, at the CERN LHC. The event sample, recorded with the CMS detector, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns. The data are found to be in good agreement with the predictions of perturbative QCD, and yield no evidence of quark compositeness. With a modified frequentist approach, a lower limit on the contact interaction scale for left-handed quarks of Lambda = 5.6 TeV is obtained at the 95% confidence level.

  16. Measurement of Dijet Angular Distributions and Search for Quark Compositeness in pp Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hartl, Christian; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; Cerny, Karel; De Wolf, Eddi A.; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Beauceron, Stephanie; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Maes, Michael; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; Ceard, Ludivine; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Demin, Pavel; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Ferreira Dias, Marco Andre; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Novaes, Sergio F.; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dyulendarova, Milena; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Marinova, Evelina; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xu, Ming; Yang, Min; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A.; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr., Michael; Assran, Yasser; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Klem, Jukka; Kortelainen, Matti J.; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Besson, Auguste; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Falkiewicz, Anna; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Xiao, Hong; Megrelidze, Luka; Roinishvili, Vladimir; Lomidze, David; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Ata, Metin; Bender, Walter; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Hof, Carsten; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Magass, Carsten; Masetti, Gianni; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Parenti, Andrea; Raspereza, Alexei; Raval, Amita; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; 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Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A.; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Debreczeni, Gergely; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Laszlo, Andras; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Choudhary, Brajesh C.; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Kumar, Ashok; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Dimitrov, Anton; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; 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Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Berzano, Umberto; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Santocchia, Attilio; Servoli, Leonello; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Volpe, Roberta; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Sarkar, Subir; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; 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Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dohhee; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Seo, Eunsung; Shin, Seungsu; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A.; Allfrey, Philip; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H.; Doesburg, Robert; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R.; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Sá Martins, Pedro; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Silva, Pedro; Varela, Joao; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Bondar, Nikolai; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V.; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M.; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bell, Alan James; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Breuker, Horst; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cano, Eric; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Duarte Ramos, Fernando; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gennai, Simone; Georgiou, Georgios; 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Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stöckli, Fabian; Stoye, Markus; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Tsyganov, Andrey; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Caminada, Lea; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguiló, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Wan-Ting; Dutta, Suchandra; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Ming-Hsiung; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Demir, Zahide; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Nart, Alisah; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Halu, Arda; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bell, Peter; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Hansen, Maria; Hartley, Dominic; Heath, Greg P.; Heath, Helen F.; Huckvale, Benedickt; Jackson, James; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M.; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J.; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W.; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M.; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David J.A.; Coughlan, John A.; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W.; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R.; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R.; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St. John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Cebra, Daniel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Salur, Sevil; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Shen, Benjamin C.; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G.; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Gataullin, Marat; Kcira, Dorian; Litvine, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B.; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Terentyev, Nikolay; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T.; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Fields, Laura Johanna; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Riley, Daniel; Ryd, Anders; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar A.T.; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Demarteau, Marcel; Eartly, David P.; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gunthoti, Kranti; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M.; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; James, Eric; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Limon, Peter; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; McCauley, Thomas; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Popescu, Sorina; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J.; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D.; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Kim, Bockjoo; Klimenko, Sergey; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bandurin, Dmitry; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F.; Prosper, Harrison; Quertenmont, Loic; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M.; Dorney, Brian; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Cankocak, Kerem; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G.; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C.; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Lundstedt, Carl; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R.; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Chasco, Matthew; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Warchol, Jadwiga; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E.; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F.; Gecse, Zoltan; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T.; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank J.M.; Liu, Jinghua H.; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Duggan, Daniel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Buehler, Marc; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Reeder, Don; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H.; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Dijet angular distributions are measured over a wide range of dijet invariant masses in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV, at the CERN LHC. The event sample, recorded with the CMS detector, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns. The data are found to be in good agreement with the predictions of perturbative QCD, and yield no evidence of quark compositeness. With a modified frequentist approach, a lower limit on the contact interaction scale for left-handed quarks of Lambda = 5.6 TeV is obtained at the 95% confidence level.

  17. Orbital angular momentum, spin fractions, and scenarios for the proton's spin-weighted parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, G.P.; Qui, J.; Richards, D.; Sivers, D.

    1989-01-01

    New data from the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) on the spin-spin asymmetry in deep-inelastic lepton-proton scattering suggests that the total spin carried by valence quarks in a polarized proton may be approximately canceled by a strong negative polarization of the sea of q-barq pairs. The evolution in Q/sup 2/ of the fraction of proton spin carried by gluons depends on the initial spin fractions and it is possible to avoid the introduction of large orbital angular momentum by adopting a ''hybrid'' quark-Skyrme picture of the proton suggested by the EMC results.

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF DISTRIBUTED QUERY USED IN SYNCHRONIZING DATA BETWEEN TABLES WITH DIFFERENT STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Horia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Replication can be used to improve local database performance and to improve the availability of applications. An application can access a local database rather than a central database from another site, which minimize network traffic, locking escalation at the central database and achieve maximum performance for current insert, delete or update operations. The application can continue to function if the central database is down, or cannot be contacted due to a communication problem, power or hardware failure. This paper is focused on presenting a synchronization process between a central Microsoft SQL Server database and many remote sites databases. One possible problem in replication can appear when the two databases have different organization of tables and structures.

  19. Handbook of tables for order statistics from lognormal distributions with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, N

    1999-01-01

    Lognormal distributions are one of the most commonly studied models in the sta­ tistical literature while being most frequently used in the applied literature. The lognormal distributions have been used in problems arising from such diverse fields as hydrology, biology, communication engineering, environmental science, reliability, agriculture, medical science, mechanical engineering, material science, and pharma­ cology. Though the lognormal distributions have been around from the beginning of this century (see Chapter 1), much of the work concerning inferential methods for the parameters of lognormal distributions has been done in the recent past. Most of these methods of inference, particUlarly those based on censored samples, involve extensive use of numerical methods to solve some nonlinear equations. Order statistics and their moments have been discussed quite extensively in the literature for many distributions. It is very well known that the moments of order statistics can be derived explicitly only...

  20. Energy and angular distributions of electrons ejected from CH4 and C3H8 under 16.0 keV electron impact

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Mondal; R K Singh; R Shanker

    2003-06-01

    Relative cross sections, differential in energy and angle, for electrons ejected from CH4 and C3H8 molecules under 16.0 keV electron impact have been measured. Electrons were analyzed by a 45° parallel plate electrostatic analyzer at emission angles varying from 60° to 135° with energies from 50 eV to 1000 eV. The angular distributions of electrons exhibit structures which are found to arise from Coulomb and non-Coulomb interactions. Furthermore, the double differential cross sections of electrons ejected from C3H8 molecule are found to be higher in magnitude than those from CH4. This result supports the fact that the number of ejected electrons participating in collisions with C3H8 molecules is more than that in CH4. Also, the angular distributions of C–K-shell Auger electrons emitted from the target molecules have been studied and shown to be isotropic within the experimental uncertainty.