Sample records for angstrom euv region

  1. Emission Line Spectra in the Soft X-ray Region 20 - 75 Angstroms (United States)

    Lepson, J. K.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Behar, E.; Kahn, S. M.


    As part of a project to complete a comprehensive catalogue of astrophysically relevant emission lines in support of new-generation X-ray observatories using the Lawrence Livermore electron beam ion traps EBIT-I and EDIT-II, emission lines of argon and sulfur in the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet region were studied. Observations of Ar IX through Ar XVI and S VII through S XIV between 20 and 75 Angstrom are presented to illustrate our work.

  2. Microwave, EUV, and X-ray observations of active region loops and filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmahl, E.


    Until the advent of X-ray and EUV observations of coronal structures, radio observers were forced to rely on eclipse and coronagraph observations in white light and forbidden coronal lines for additional diagnostics of the high temperature microwave sources. While these data provided enough material for theoretical insight into the physics of active regions, there was no way to make direct, simultaneous comparison of coronal structures on the disk as seen at microwave and optical wavelengths. This is now possible, and therefore the author summarizes the EUV and X-ray observations indicating at each point the relevance to microwaves. (Auth.)

  3. Influence of configuration interaction on satellite lines of xenon and tin in the EUV region (United States)

    de Gaufridy de Dortan, F.


    Theoretical line strengths and positions of satellite lines of xenon and tin ions are computed in the EUV region (transitions from doubly excited configurations or between singly excited configurations). Calculations are conducted with HULLAC parametric multi-configuration relativistic code. Influence of configuration interaction is investigated for doubly excited configurations of ions from Pd- to Rb-like. The emission close to 13.5 nm, which is of interest to the EUV lithography, is detailed. A strong narrowing of 4d-4f/4d-4p group of satellite lines is observed, compared to the calculation without configuration interaction. The emissivity is strongly enhanced in the centre of this group of lines. This strongly increases the EUV emission at 13.5 nm for tin at moderate to high densities. The EUV emission of xenon at 13.5 nm is enhanced by 4d-5p satellite lines of Xe 9+ and 10+. Radiative transitions between singly excited configurations and between doubly excited configurations also enhance the emission at 13.5 nm, especially 6g-4f transitions of Xe 9+, 10+ and 5g-4f transitions of Xe 11+.

  4. Exploration of the Transition Region-Corona Interface With the Multi-Order Solar EUV Spectrograph Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to observe the solar upper transition region and lower corona in Ne VII 46.5 nm with the Multi-Order Solar EUV Spectrograph (MOSES) rocket payload. The...

  5. Optical constants of materials in the EUV/soft x-ray region for multilayer mirror applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soufli, Regina [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The response of a given material to an incident electromagnetic wave is described by the energy dependent complex index of refraction n = 1 - δ + iβ. In the extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/soft x-ray spectral region, the need for accurate determination of n is driven by activity in areas such as synchrotron based research, EUV/x-ray lithography, x-ray astronomy and plasma applications. Knowledge of the refractive index is essential for the design of the optical components of instruments used in experiments and applications. Moreover, measured values of n may be used to evaluate solid state models for the optical behavior of materials. The refractive index n of Si, Mo and Be is investigated in the EUV/soft x-ray region. In the case of Si, angle dependent reflectance measurements are performed in the energy range 50-180 eV. The optical constants δ, β are both determined by fitting to the Fresnel equations. The results of this method are compared to the values in the 1993 atomic tables. Photoabsorption measurements for the optical constants of Mo are performed on C/Mo/C foils, in the energy range 60-930 eV. Photoabsorption measurements on Be thin films supported on silicon nitride membranes are performed, and the results are applied in the determination of the absorption coefficient of Be in the energy region 111.5-250 eV. The new results for Si and Mo are applied to the calculation of normal incidence reflectivities of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer mirrors. These calculations show the importance of accurate knowledge of δ and β in the prediction and modeling of the performance of multilayer optics.

  6. Eta Carinae: Linelist for the Emission Spectrum of the Weigelt Blobs in the 1700-10400Angstrom Wavelength Region (United States)

    Zethson, T.; Johansson, S.; Hartman, H.; Gull, T. R.


    Aims. We present line identifications in the 1700 to 10400A region for the Weigelt Blobs B and D, located 0.1 to 0.3" NNW of Eta Carinae. The aim of this work is to characterize the behavior of these luminous, dense gas condensations in response to the broad maximum and short minimum states of Eta Carinae during its 5.54-year spectroscopic period. Methods. The observations were carried out during March 1998, the minimum spectrum, and in February 1999, early maximum spectrum, with the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) from 1640 to 10400A using the 52"x0.1" aperture centered on Eta Carinae at position angle -28 degrees. Extractions of the reduced spectrum centered on Weigelt B and D, 0.28: in length along the slit, were used to identify the narrow, nebular emission lines, measure their wavelengths and estimate their fluxes. Results. A linelist of 1500 lines is presented for the maximum and minimum states of combined Weigelt blobs B and D. The spectra are dominated by emission lines from the iron-group elements, but include lines from lighter elements. They include parity permitted and forbidden lines. A number of lines are fluorescent lines pumped by H Ly alpha. Other lines show anomalous excitation.

  7. The basic characteristics of EUV post-eruptive arcades and their role as tracers of coronal mass ejection source regions (United States)

    Tripathi, D.; Bothmer, V.; Cremades, H.


    The Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft provides unique observations of dynamic processes in the low corona. The EIT 195 Å data taken from 1997 to the end of 2002 were investigated to study the basic physical properties of post-eruptive arcades (PEAs) and their relationship with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) as detected by SOHO/LASCO (Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph). Over the investigated time period, 236 PEA events have been identified in total. For each PEA, its EUV lifetime as derived from the emission time at 195 Å, its heliographic position and length, and its corresponding photospheric source region inferred from SOHO/MDI (Michelson Doppler Imager) data has been studied, as well as the variation of these parameters over the investigated phase of solar cycle 23. An almost one to one correspondence is found between EUV PEAs and white-light CMEs. Based on this finding, PEAs can be considered as reliable tracers of CME events even without simultaneous coronagraph observations. A detailed comparison of the white-light, soft X-ray and EUV observation for some of the events shows, that PEAs form in the aftermath of CMEs likely in the course of the magnetic restructurings taking place at the coronal source sites. The average EUV emission life-time for the selected events ranged from 2 to 20 h, with an average of 7 h. The heliographic length of the PEAs was in the range of 2 to 40 degrees, with an average of 15 degrees. The length increased by a factor of 3 to 4 in the latitude range of 20 to 40 degrees in the northern and southern hemispheres, with longer PEAs being observed preferentially at higher latitudes. The PEAs were located mainly in the activity belts in both hemispheres, with the southern hemispheric ones being shifted by about 15 degree in latitude further away from the solar equator during 1997-2002. The decrease in latitude of the PEA positions was 10 to 15 degrees in the

  8. Mg IX emission lines in an active region spectrum obtained with the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS) (United States)

    Keenan, F. P.; Thomas, R. J.; Neupert, W. M.; Conlon, E. S.


    Theoretical electron-temperature-sensitive Mg IX emission line ratios are presented for R(sub 1) = I(443.96 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 2) = I(439.17 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 3) = I(443.37 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 4) = I(441.22 A)/I(368.06 A), and R(sub 5) = I(448.28 A)/I(368.06 A). A comparison of these with observational data for a solar active region, obtained during a rocket flight by the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS), reveals excellent agreement between theory and observation for R(sub 1) through R(sub 4), with discrepancies that average only 9%. This provides experimental support for the accuracy of the atomic data adopted in the line ratio calculations, and also resolves discrepancies found previously when the theoretical results were compared with solar data from the S082A instrument on board Skylab. However in the case of R(sub 5), the theoretical and observed ratios differ by almost a factor of 2. This may be due to the measured intensity of the 448.28 A line being seriously affected by instrumental effects, as it lies very close to the long wavelength edge of the SERTS spectral coverage (235.46-448.76 A).

  9. The EUVE Right Angle Program (RAP) (United States)

    Sommers, J.; Christian, D.; Craig, N.; Jessop, H.; Stroozas, B.


    The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE ) has three scanning telescopes that observe in a direction perpendicular to that of the primary guest observer (GO) telescope---the Deep Survey/Spectrometer (DS/S). During the first 6 months of the EUVE mission, the scanning telescopes were used to conduct an all-sky survey consisting of short exposures ( ~ 500 s) of the entire sky between 58--740 Angstroms . These telescopes are now being used during GO observations to conduct simultaneous long exposure (typically 40+ ks) observations as part of the very successful---and publicly accessible---EUVE Right Angle Program (RAP). To date, the EUVE RAP has provided photometric and timing data on late-type stars and CVs and has been responsible for detecting dozens of previously unknown extreme ultraviolet sources, including many stars without optical counterparts. This poster presents some of the exciting results found with EUVE RAP data, along with general information about the program and instructions for submitting RAP proposals. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS5-29298.

  10. Snapshot imaging spectroscopy of the solar transition region: The Multi-Order Solar EUV Spectrograph (MOSES) sounding rocket mission (United States)

    Fox, James Lewis

    We have developed a revolutionary spectroscopic technique for solar research in the extreme ultraviolet. This slitless spectrographic technique allows snapshot imaging spectroscopy with data exactly cotemporal and cospectral. I have contributed to the successful realization of an application of this technique in the Multi-Order Solar EUV Spectrograph, MOSES . This instrument launched 2006 Feb 8 as a NASA sounding rocket payload and successfully returned remarkable data of the solar transition region in the He II 304Å spectral line. The unique design of this spectrometer allows the study of transient phenomena in the solar atmosphere, with spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution heretofore unachievable in concert, over a wide field of view. The fundamental concepts behind the MOSES spectrometer are broadly applicable to many solar spectral lines and phenomena and the instrument thus represents a new instrumentation technology. The early fruits of this labor are here reported: the first scientific discovery with the MOSES sounding rocket instrument, our observation of a transition region explosive event, phenomena observed with slit spectrographs since at least 1975, most commonly in lines of C IV (1548Å 1550Å) and Si IV (1393Å, 1402Å). This explosive event is the first seen in He II 304Å. With our novel slitless imaging spectrograph, we are able to see the spatial structure of the event. We observe a bright core expelling two jets that are distinctly non-collinear, in directions that are not anti-parallel, in contradiction to standard models of explosive events, which give collinear jets. The jets have sky-plane velocities of order 75 km s -1 and line-of-sight velocities of +75 km s-1 (blue) and -30 km s-1 (red). The core is a region of high non-thermal doppler broadening, characteristic of explosive events, with maximal broadening 380 km s-1 FWHM. It is possible to resolve the core broadening into red and blue line-of-sight components of maximum doppler

  11. EUV optics in photoionization experiments (United States)

    Bartnik, Andrzej; Wachulak, Przemysław; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Fok, Tomasz; Jarocki, Roman; Kostecki, Jerzy; Szczurek, Anna; Szczurek, Mirosław; Pina, Ladislav; Sveda, Libor


    In this work photoionized plasmas were created by irradiation of He, Ne and Ar gases with a focused EUV beam from one of two laser-plasma sources employing Nd:YAG laser systems of different parameters. First of them was a 10-Hz laser-plasma EUV source, based on a double-stream gas-puff target, irradiated with the 3-ns/0.8J laser pulse. EUV radiation in this case was focused using a gold-plated grazing incidence ellipsoidal collector in the wavelength range λ = 9÷70 nm. The most intense emission was in the relatively narrow spectral region centred at λ = 11 +/- 1 nm. The second source was based on a 10 ns/10 J/10 Hz laser system. In this case EUV radiation was focused using a gold-plated grazing incidence multifoil collector or a Mo-coated ellipsoidal collector. The most intense emission in this case was in the 5 ÷ 15 nm spectral region. Radiation fluence ranged from 60 mJ/cm2 to 400 mJ/cm2. Different gases were injected into the interaction region, perpendicularly to an optical axis of the irradiation system, using an auxiliary gas puff valve. Irradiation of the gases resulted in ionization and excitation of atoms and ions. Spectra in EUV range were measured using a grazing incidence, flat-field spectrometer (McPherson Model 251), equipped with a 450 lines/mm toroidal grating. In all cases the most intense emission lines were assigned to singly charged ions. The other emission lines belong to atoms or doubly charged ions. The spectra were excited in low density gases of the order of 1 ÷ 10% atmospheric density.

  12. EUV polarimetry for thin film and surface characterization and EUV phase retarder reflector development. (United States)

    Gaballah, A E H; Nicolosi, P; Ahmed, Nadeem; Jimenez, K; Pettinari, G; Gerardino, A; Zuppella, P


    The knowledge and the manipulation of light polarization state in the vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral regions play a crucial role from materials science analysis to optical component improvements. In this paper, we present an EUV spectroscopic ellipsometer facility for polarimetry in the 90-160 nm spectral range. A single layer aluminum mirror to be used as a quarter wave retarder has been fully characterized by deriving the optical and structural properties from the amplitude component and phase difference δ measurements. The system can be suitable to investigate the properties of thin films and optical coatings and optics in the EUV region.

  13. Uses of microchannel plate intensified detectors for imaging applications in the X-ray, EUV and visible wavelength regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, P.D.; Carter, M.K.; Pike, C.D.; Harrison, R.A.; Kent, B.J.; Swinyard, B.M.; Patchett, B.E.; Redfern, R.M.; Shearer, A.; Colhoun, M.


    The Rutherford Appleton laboratory photon counting detector (RALPCD) has been refined to meet project requirements for a flexible imaging arrangement with applications at X-ray, EUV and visible wavelengths. The basic detector design comprises commercially available high gain microchannel plate intensifiers fibre optically coupled to CID or CCD cameras, to form a modular detector arrangement with the appropriate RAL detection and centroiding software. Frames of data from the cameras are detected and centroided in a transputer or C40 parallel processor array where correction algorithms use look up tables to produce pattern free images at high resolution. Data from completed applications are used to illustrate the performance and future advances are discussed. (orig.)

  14. An EUV Wide-Field Imager and Spectrometer for the ISS (United States)

    Golub, Leon; Savage, Sabrina


    The Coronal Spectrographic Imager in the EUV, COSIE, combines a wide-field solar coronal EUV imager (EUVC) and an on-disk EUV imaging spectrometer (EUVS). Located on the International Space Station (ISS), the goal of the mission is to enhance our understanding of the dynamics of the Transition Corona (the region in which the coronal magnetic field transitions from closed to open), and to provide improved detection and tracking of solar eruptive events for space weather research.

  15. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO. (United States)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.


    Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) by using a 7-channel aethalometer (Thermo- Anderson) during the month of March, 2006. The absorption measurements obtained in the field at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm were used to determine the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression. Since, unlike other absorbing aerosol species (e.g. humic like substances, nitrated PAHs), black carbon absorption is relatively constant from the ultraviolet to the infrared with an Angstrom absorption exponent of -1 (1), a comparison of the Angstrom exponents can indicate the presence of aerosol components with an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from BC content alone. The Angstrom exponents determined from the aerosol absorption measurements obtained in the field varied from - 0.7 to - 1.3 during the study and was generally lower in the afternoon than the morning hours, indicating an increase in secondary aerosol formation and photochemically generated UV absorbing species in the afternoon. Twelve-hour integrated samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  16. Flexibility of the myosin heavy chain: direct evidence that the region containing SH/sub 1/ and SH/sub 2/ can move 10 /Angstrom/ under the influence of nucleotide binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huston, E.E.; Grammer, J.C.; Yount, R.G.


    Previous experiments demonstrated that two thiols of skeletal myosin subfragment 1 (SF/sub 1/) could be oxidized to a disulfide bond by treatment with a 2-fold excess of 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) in the presence of MgADP. The resulting characteristic changes in the ATPase activities of SF/sub 1/ and the fact that MgADP was stably trapped at the active site, suggested that the two thiols cross-linked were SH/sub 1/ (Cys-707) and SH/sub 2/ (Cys-697) from the myosin heavy chain. To verify this suggestion, SF/sub 1/, after DTNB treatment as above, was treated with an excess of N-ethylmaleimide to block all accessible thiols. The single protein disulfide produced by DTNB oxidation was reduced with dithioerythritol and the modified SF/sub 1/ internally cross-linked with equimolar (/sup 14/C)p-phenylenedimaleimide (pPDM) in the presence of MgADP. After extensive trypsinization, the major /sup 14/C-labeled peptide was isolated, characterized, and shown to be Cys-Asn-Gly-Val-Leu-Gly-Ile-Arg-Ile-Cys-Arg, in which the two cysteines were cross-linked by pPDM. This peptide is known to contain SH/sub 2/ and SH/sub 1/ in this order and to come from residues 697-708 in the rabbit skeletal myosin heavy chain. Parallel experiments with (/sup 14/C)pPDM and unmodified SF/sub 1/ similar to those above gave an identical SH/sub 1/, SH/sub 2/ tryptic peptide, verifying earlier labeling results. These combined results demonstrate that SH/sub 1/ and SH/sub 2/ cross-linked by pPDM (12-13 /Angstrom/, S to S) or by oxidation with DTNB (2 /Angstrom/, S to S) can move a minimum of 10 /Angstrom/ under the influence of nucleotide binding. Because these residues are separated by only nine amino acids in the primary sequence, this small section of the heavy chain must possess extraordinary flexibility.

  17. Radiometry for the EUV lithography; Radiometrie fuer die EUV-Lithographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholze, Frank [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' EUV-Radiometrie' ; Laubis, Christian; Barboutis, Annett; Buchholz, Christian; Fischer, Andreas; Puls, Jana; Stadelhoff, Christian


    The EUV reflectrometry at the PTB storage BESSY I and BESSY II is described. Results on the reflectivities of some EUV mirrors are presented. Finally the spectral sensitivities of different photodiodes used as EUV detectors are presented. (HSI)

  18. EUV multilayer mirror, optical system including a multilayer mirror and method of manufacturing a multilayer mirror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Qiushi; Louis, Eric; Bijkerk, Frederik; de Boer, Meint J.; von Blanckenhagen, G.


    A multilayer mirror (M) reflecting extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from a first wave-length range in a EUV spectral region comprises a substrate (SUB) and a stack of layers (SL) on the substrate, the stack of layers comprising layers comprising a low index material and a high index material, the

  19. Highly ionized xenon spectra (95-260 Angstroms) excited in TFR Tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, C.; Demichelis, C.; Hecq, W.; Mattioli, M.; Ramette, J.; Saoutic, B.; Bauche-Arnoult, C.; Bauche, J.; Wyart, J.F.


    The Xe spectrum in the 95-260 Angstroms spectral region, excited in TFR Tokamak plasmas, has been recorded by a grazing incidence multichannel spectrometer. Several lines in the Cu- and Zn-like isoelectronic sequences as well as a broad band (due to the superposition of unresolved transition arrays strongly mixed by configuration interaction) have been identified

  20. Actinic inspection of multilayer defects on EUV masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barty, A; Liu, Y; Gullikson, E; Taylor, J S; Wood, O


    The production of defect-free mask blanks, and the development of techniques for inspecting and qualifying EUV mask blanks, remains a key challenge for EUV lithography. In order to ensure a reliable supply of defect-free mask blanks, it is necessary to develop techniques to reliably and accurately detect defects on un-patterned mask blanks. These inspection tools must be able to accurately detect all critical defects whilst simultaneously having the minimum possible false-positive detection rate. There continues to be improvement in high-speed non-actinic mask blank inspection tools, and it is anticipated that these tools can and will be used by industry to qualify EUV mask blanks. However, the outstanding question remains one of validating that non-actinic inspection techniques are capable of detecting all printable EUV defects. To qualify the performance of non-actinic inspection tools, a unique dual-mode EUV mask inspection system has been installed at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In high-speed inspection mode, whole mask blanks are scanned for defects using 13.5-nm wavelength light to identify and map all locations on the mask that scatter a significant amount of EUV light. In imaging, or defect review mode, a zone plate is placed in the reflected beam path to image a region of interest onto a CCD detector with an effective resolution on the mask of 100-nm or better. Combining the capabilities of the two inspection tools into one system provides the unique capability to determine the coordinates of native defects that can be used to compare actinic defect inspection with visible light defect inspection tools under commercial development, and to provide data for comparing scattering models for EUV mask defects

  1. Variations of aerosol optical depth and Angstrom parameters at a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, aerosol optical properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent () and Angstrom turbidity coefficient () have been investigated during December 2009 to October 2010, in a suburban area of Zanjan (36°N, 43°E, 1700 m), in the north–west of Iran, using meteorological and sun ...

  2. Solar quiescent Active Region temperature distribution inferred from the Miniature Solar X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat soft X-ray spectra, Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT) soft X-ray filter images and EUV measurements. (United States)

    Moore, C. S.; Woods, T. N.; Caspi, A.; Mason, J. P.


    Soft X-rays serve as an important diagnostic tool for hot (T > 106 K) solar coronal plasma elemental composition, elemental ionization states, density of emitting plasma and dynamical events triggered by magnetic field structures. Spectrally resolved, solar disc averaged, soft X-ray spectra from the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat combined with spatially resolved soft X-ray filter images from the Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT) and complimentary EUV data can yield unique inferences of the quiescent (non-flaring) active regions' emitting plasma temperature distribution and chemical composition. This talk will discuss how the MinXSS spectra and Hinode XRT images from the sparsely measured 0.7 - 10 keV ( 0.124 - 1.77 nm) region, can augment estimations of active region temperature distribution and elemental abundance variations that are currently being assessed primarily from typical EUV and hard X-ray observations.

  3. Worldwide Status of EUV Astronomy (United States)

    Kowalski, Michael P.; Wood, K. S.; Barstow, M. A.


    The bulk of radiation from million-degree plasmas is emitted at EUV wavelengths, which include critical spectral features containing diagnostic information often not available at other wavelengths (e.g., He II Ly series 228-304 Å). Thus, EUV astrophysics (Barstow & Holberg 2003) presents opportunities for intriguing results obtainable with sensitive high-resolution spectroscopy and particularly applicable to hot plasmas in stellar coronae, white dwarfs and the interstellar medium. The US-built J-PEX spectrometer has flown twice on sounding rockets, observing and publishing results on two white dwarf targets (Cruddace et al. 2002, Barstow et al. 2005, Kowalski et al. 2011). Using multilayer-grating technology, J-PEX delivers both high effective area and the world's highest resolution in EUV, greater than Chandra at adjacent energies, but in a waveband Chandra cannot reach. However, the US program has been stalled by inability to obtain further NASA sounding rocket flights. A high level of technology readiness, plus important questions answerable solely with that technology, does not seem sufficient to win support. Nor is the substantial amount of resources invested into technology development over two decades, supported by NASA, DoD, and European partners. Proposals to turn the instrument or its technology into small satellite-based surveys have been made (results to be described) in the US and Europe, but the overall situation is precarious. The entire EUV astrophysics field is losing out on an opportunity, and is at risk of fading away, with forced discard of established assets. Only mobilization of the international EUV community -- unifying European, US, and perhaps others -- can reverse this situation. Our poster summarizes science quests within reach of proven technology, gives a current snapshot of that technology, and provides a summary of worldwide efforts to obtain necessary space access in NASA, ESA, and elsewhere. A process for building and maintaining

  4. Realisation of a vacuum system of an EUV Exposure System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molkenboer, F.T.


    EBL2 is not a setup for producing semiconductor devices. The experiments for which EBL2 is intended are: accelerated lifetime tests for EUV Mirrors; EUV Reticles and pellicles; and Materials used in EUV lithography. This kind of research is needed due to the harsh EUV environment, and EUV

  5. Study of Modis satellite derived aerosol angstrom exponent and in-situ measured values using Sun photometer in part of the west coast of Indian Peninsula

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SunilKumar R.K.; Suresh, T.; Govindaraju; SureshKumar, B.V.

    . The AAE has been evaluated at Malvan, Dona Paula, Murdeshwara and Karwar coastal regions of the west coast of Indian Peninsula. The correlation of satellite derived aerosol angstrom exponent with the in-situ measured values (using Sun photometer...

  6. A study on enhancing EUV resist sensitivity (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Harada, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Takeo


    Studies have been carried out on developing a method for improving EUV resist sensitivity by enhancing EUV light absorption through the addition of metals having high EUV light absorption to the resist polymer in order to increase secondary electron emission, thereby enhancing PAG reactivity and improving acid generation efficiency[1-3]. To confirm whether the addition of metals having high EUV light absorption actually does enhance sensitivity, study efforts included transmittance measurements and sensitivity evaluations of resist samples doped with ZrO2 or TeO2 nanoparticles, which have low and high EUV light absorption, respectively, in molar quantities of 0-2 relative to PAG. The samples were subjected to EUV exposure at the NewSUBARU synchrotron radiation facility. While the ZrO2-doped resist showed no evident enhancement of sensitivity or transmittance, the TeO2-doped resist showed enhancement in both properties. Based on these results, we confirmed that the addition of metals having high EUV light absorption to the EUV resist enhances its EUV light absorption and increases secondary electron emission, thereby enhancing PAG reactivity and improving acid generation efficiency.

  7. Universal EUV in-band intensity detector (United States)

    Berger, Kurt W.


    Extreme ultraviolet light is detected using a universal in-band detector for detecting extreme ultraviolet radiation that includes: (a) an EUV sensitive photodiode having a diode active area that generates a current responsive to EUV radiation; (b) one or more mirrors that reflects EUV radiation having a defined wavelength(s) to the diode active area; and (c) a mask defining a pinhole that is positioned above the diode active area, wherein EUV radiation passing through the pinhole is restricted substantially to illuminating the diode active area.

  8. EUV mirror based absolute incident flux detector (United States)

    Berger, Kurt W.


    A device for the in-situ monitoring of EUV radiation flux includes an integrated reflective multilayer stack. This device operates on the principle that a finite amount of in-band EUV radiation is transmitted through the entire multilayer stack. This device offers improvements over existing vacuum photo-detector devices since its calibration does not change with surface contamination.

  9. Variations of aerosol optical depth and Angstrom parameters at a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solar irradiance is attenuated spectrally when passing through the earth's atmosphere and it is strongly dependent on sky conditions, cleanliness of the atmosphere, composition of aerosols and gaseous constituents. In this paper, aerosol optical properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent () and ...

  10. Variations of aerosol optical depth and Angstrom parameters at a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The relationship between AOD and. Angstrom exponent is also used in order to explain ..... Cheng T, Wang H, Xu Y, Li H and Tian L 2006 Climatology of aerosol optical properties in Northern China; Atmos. Environ. ... Hussain M, Khatun S and Rasul N G 2000 Determination of atmospheric turbidity in Bangladesh; Renew.

  11. Efficient simulation of EUV pellicles (United States)

    Evanschitzky, P.; Erdmann, A.


    The paper presents a new simulation model for the efficient simulation of EUV pellicles. Different pellicle stacks, pellicle deformations and particles on the pellicle can be considered. The model is based on properly designed pupil filters representing all pellicle and particle properties to be investigated. The filters are combined with an adapted image simulation. Due to the double transition of the EUV light through the pellicle, two different models for the pupil filter computation have been developed: A model for the forward light propagation from the source to the mask and a model for the backward light propagation from the mask to the entrance pupil of the system. Furthermore, for the accurate representation of particles on the pellicle, a model has been developed, which is able to combine the different size dimensions of particles, of the entrance pupil and of the illumination source. Finally, some specific assumptions on the light propagation make the pellicle model independent from the illumination source and speed up the simulations significantly without introducing an important error. Typically, the consideration of a pellicle increases the overall image simulation time only by a few seconds on a standard personal computer. Furthermore, a simulation study on the printing impact of pellicles on lithographic performance data of a high NA anamorphic EUV system is presented. Typical illumination conditions, a typical mask stack and different mask line features are considered in the study. The general impact of a pellicle as well as the impact of pellicle transmission variations, of pellicle deformations and of particles on the pellicle on typical lithographic performance criteria is investigated.

  12. An EUV spectrometer for atmospheric remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Cotton, D.M.; Lampton, M.; Siegmund, O.H.W.; Link, R.


    This paper describes the Berkeley EUV Airglow Rocket Spectrometer (BEARS) experiment, designed to investigate the interactions between the solar ionizing radiation and the earth's upper atmosphere. The primary objective of this experiment is the verification the feasibility of using EUV observations as a quantitative diagnostic of the terrestrial atmosphere and its plasma environment. The expected information provided by spectroscopic measurements of EUV emission will include data on the excitation mechanisms, excitation rates, and branching ratios. The BEARS experimental package consists of a high-resolution EUV airglow spectrometer, a hydrogen Lyman-alpha photometer to measure both the solar radiations and the geocoronal emissions, and a moderate-resolution solar EUV spectrometer. In a test experiment, the instruments were carried aboard a four-stage sounding rocket to a peak altitude of about 960 km and obtained airglow spectra in the 980-1060 A range and in the 1300-1360 range. 34 refs

  13. Observation of EUVL mask using coherent EUV scatterometry microscope with high-harmonic-generation EUV source (United States)

    Mamezaki, Daiki; Harada, Tetsuo; Nagata, Yutaka; Watanabe, Takeo


    In extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, development of review tools for EUV mask pattern and phase defect at working wavelength of 13.5 nm is required. The EUV mask is composed of an absorber pattern (50 - 70 nm thick) and Mo/Si multilayer (280 nm thick) on a glass substrate. This mask pattern seems three-dimensional (3D) structure. This 3D structure would modulate EUV reflection phase, which would cause focus and pattern shifts. Thus, EUV phase imaging is important to evaluate this phase modulation. We have developed coherent EUV scatterometry microscope (CSM), which is a simple microscope without objective optics. EUV phase and intensity image are reconstructed with diffraction images by ptychography with coherent EUV illumination. The high-harmonic-generation (HHG) EUV source was employed for standalone CSM system. In this study, we updated HHG system of pump-laser reduction and gas-pressure control. Two types of EUV mask absorber patterns were observed. An 88-nm lines-and-spaces and a cross-line patterns were clearly reconstructed by ptychography. In addition, a natural defect with 2-μm diameter on the cross-line was well reconstructed. This demonstrated the high capability of the standalone CSM, which system will be used in the factories, such as mask shops and semiconductor fabrication plants.

  14. EUV mask process specifics and development challenges (United States)

    Nesladek, Pavel


    EUV lithography is currently the favorite and most promising candidate among the next generation lithography (NGL) technologies. Decade ago the NGL was supposed to be used for 45 nm technology node. Due to introduction of immersion 193nm lithography, double/triple patterning and further techniques, the 193 nm lithography capabilities was greatly improved, so it is expected to be used successfully depending on business decision of the end user down to 10 nm logic. Subsequent technology node will require EUV or DSA alternative technology. Manufacturing and especially process development for EUV technology requires significant number of unique processes, in several cases performed at dedicated tools. Currently several of these tools as e.g. EUV AIMS or actinic reflectometer are not available on site yet. The process development is done using external services /tools with impact on the single unit process development timeline and the uncertainty of the process performance estimation, therefore compromises in process development, caused by assumption about similarities between optical and EUV mask made in experiment planning and omitting of tests are further reasons for challenges to unit process development. Increased defect risk and uncertainty in process qualification are just two examples, which can impact mask quality / process development. The aim of this paper is to identify critical aspects of the EUV mask manufacturing with respect to defects on the mask with focus on mask cleaning and defect repair and discuss the impact of the EUV specific requirements on the experiments needed.

  15. Soft x-ray amplification in lithium-like Al XI (154 /angstrom/) and Si XII (129 /angstrom/)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.; Skinner, C.H.; Wouters, A.; Valeo, E.; Voorhees, D.; Suckewer, S.


    Recent experiments on soft x-ray amplification in lithium-like ions in a CO 2 laser-produced recombining plasma confined in a magnetic field are presented. The maximum gain-length products observed are GL ≅ 3 to 4 for the 154 /angstrom/, 4f-3d transition in Al XI and GL (approxreverse arrowequal/ 1 to 2 for the 129 /angstrom/, 4f-3d transition in Si XII, respectively. A one-dimensional hydrodynamic code with a collisional-radiative atomic model was used to model the plasma and the theoretical predictions of gain agree well with the observations. Descriptions of both hydrodynamic and atomic physics code are given. 36 refs., 10 figs

  16. TESIS experiment on EUV imaging spectroscopy of the Sun (United States)

    Kuzin, S. V.; Bogachev, S. A.; Zhitnik, I. A.; Pertsov, A. A.; Ignatiev, A. P.; Mitrofanov, A. M.; Slemzin, V. A.; Shestov, S. V.; Sukhodrev, N. K.; Bugaenko, O. I.


    TESIS is a set of solar imaging instruments in development by the Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, to be launched aboard the Russian spacecraft CORONAS-PHOTON in December 2008. The main goal of TESIS is to provide complex observations of solar active phenomena from the transition region to the inner and outer solar corona with high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution in the EUV and Soft X-ray spectral bands. TESIS includes five unique space instruments: the MgXII Imaging Spectroheliometer (MISH) with spherical bent crystal mirror, for observations of the Sun in the monochromatic MgXII 8.42 Å line; the EUV Spectoheliometer (EUSH) with grazing incidence difraction grating, for the registration of the full solar disc in monochromatic lines of the spectral band 280-330 Å; two Full-disk EUV Telescopes (FET) with multilayer mirrors covering the band 130-136 and 290-320 Å; and the Solar EUV Coronagraph (SEC), based on the Ritchey-Chretien scheme, to observe the inner and outer solar corona from 0.2 to 4 solar radii in spectral band 290-320 Å. TESIS experiment will start at the rising phase of the 24th cycle of solar activity. With the advanced capabilities of its instruments, TESIS will help better understand the physics of solar flares and high-energy phenomena and provide new data on parameters of solar plasma in the temperature range 10-10K. This paper gives a brief description of the experiment, its equipment, and its scientific objectives.

  17. EUV lithography imaging using novel pellicle membranes (United States)

    Pollentier, Ivan; Vanpaemel, Johannes; Lee, Jae Uk; Adelmann, Christoph; Zahedmanesh, Houman; Huyghebaert, Cedric; Gallagher, Emily E.


    EUV mask protection against defects during use remains a challenge for EUV lithography. A stand-off protective membrane - a pellicle - is targeted to prevent yield losses in high volume manufacturing during handling and exposure, just as it is for 193nm lithography. The pellicle is thin enough to transmit EUV exposure light, yet strong enough to remain intact and hold any particles out of focus during exposure. The development of pellicles for EUV is much more challenging than for 193nm lithography for multiple reasons including: high absorption of most materials at EUV wavelength, pump-down sequences in the EUV vacuum system, and exposure to high intensity EUV light. To solve the problems of transmission and film durability, various options have been explored. In most cases a thin core film is considered, since the deposition process for this is well established and because it is the simplest option. The transmission specification typically dictates that membranes are very thin (~50nm or less), which makes both fabrication and film mechanical integrity difficult. As an alternative, low density films (e.g. including porosity) will allow thicker membranes for a given transmission specification, which is likely to improve film durability. The risk is that the porosity could influence the imaging. At imec, two cases of pellicle concepts based on reducing density have been assessed : (1) 3D-patterned SiN by directed self-assembly (DSA), and (2) carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanosheets (CNS). The first case is based on SiN membranes that are 3D-patterned by Directed Self Assembly (DSA). The materials are tested relative to the primary specifications: EUV transmission and film durability. A risk assessment of printing performance is provided based on simulations of scattered energy. General conclusions on the efficacy of various approaches will provided.

  18. Prospects for high power Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) development in the 1000 angstrom - 1 angstrom wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchyn, R.; Bane, K.; Boyce, R.


    Electron bunch requirements for single-pass saturation of a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) operating at full transverse coherence in the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) mode include: (1) a high peak current, (2) a sufficiently low relative energy spread, and (3) a transverse emittance var-epsilon[r-m] satisfying the condition var-epsilon ≤ λA/4π, where λ[m] is the output wavelength of the FEL. In the insertion device that induces the coherent amplification, the prepared electron bunch must be kept on a trajectory sufficiently collinear with the amplified photons without significant dilution of its transverse density. In this paper we discuss a Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) based on a high energy accelerator such as, e.g., the 3km S-band structure at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), followed by a long high-precision undulator with superimposed quadrupole (FODO) focusing, to fulfill the given requirements for SASE operation in the 1000 Angstrom--1 Angstrom range. The electron source for the linac, an RF gun with a laser-excited photocathode featuring a normalized emittance in the 1--3 mm-mrad range, a longitudinal bunch duration of the order of 3 ps, and approximately 10 -9 C/bunch, is a primary determinant of the required low transverse and longitudinal emittances. Acceleration of the injected bunch to energies in the 5--25 GeV range is used to reduce the relative longitudinal energy spread in the bunch, as well as to reduce the transverse emittance to values consistent with the cited wavelength regime. Two longitudinal compression stages are employed to increase the peak bunch current to the 2--5 kA levels required for sufficiently rapid saturation. The output radiation is delivered, via a grazing-incidence mirror bank, to optical instrumentation and a multi-user beam line system. Technological requirements for LCLS operation at 40 Angstrom, 4.5 Angstrom, and 1.5 Angstrom are examined

  19. Compact laser-produced plasma EUV sources for processing polymers and nanoimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, M.; Wachulak, P.


    Complete text of publication follows. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) can be produced form a high-temperature plasma generated by interaction of high power laser pulses with matter. Laser plasma EUV sources are considered to be used in various applications in physics, material science, biomedicine, and technology. In the paper new compact laser plasma EUV sources developed for processing polymers and imaging are presented. The sources are based on a gas puff target formed by pulsed injection of a small amount of gas under high-pressure into a laser focus region. The use of the gas puff target instead of a solid target allows for efficient generation of EUV radiation without debris production. The compact laser plasma EUV source based on a gas puff target was developed for metrology applications. The EUV source developed for processing polymers is equipped with a grazing incidence axisymmetrical ellipsoidal mirror to focus EUV radiation in the relatively broad spectral range with the strong maximum near 10 nm. The size of the focal spot is about 1.3 mm in diameter with the maximum fluence up to 70 mJ/cm 2 . EUV radiation in the wavelength range of about 5 to 50 nm is produced by irradiation of xenon or krypton gas puff target with a Nd:YAG laser operating at 10 Hz and delivering 4 ns pulses of energy up to 0.8 J per pulse. The experiments on EUV irradiation of various polymers have been performed. Modification of polymer surfaces was achieved, primarily due to direct photo-etching with EUV photons and formation of micro- and nanostructures onto the surface. The mechanism of the interaction is similar to the UV laser ablation where energetic photons cause chemical bonds of the polymer chain to be broken. However, because of very low penetration depth of EUV radiation, the interaction region is limited to a very thin surface layer (<100 nm). This makes it possible to avoid degradation of bulk material caused by deeply penetrating UV radiation. The results of the studies

  20. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source and ultra-high vacuum chamber for studying EUV-induced processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolgov, A.; Yakushev, O.; Abrikosov, A.; Snegirev, E.; Krivtsun, V.M.; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik


    An experimental setup that directly reproduces extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography relevant conditions for detailed component exposure tests is described. The EUV setup includes a pulsed plasma radiation source, operating at 13.5 nm; a debris mitigation system; collection and filtering optics; and

  1. On a Small-scale EUV Wave: The Driving Mechanism and the Associated Oscillating Filament (United States)

    Shen, Yuandeng; Liu, Yu; Tian, Zhanjun; Qu, Zhining


    We present observations of a small-scale extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave that was associated with a mini-filament eruption and a GOES B1.9 micro-flare in the quiet-Sun region. The initiation of the event was due to the photospheric magnetic emergence and cancellation in the eruption source region, which first caused the ejection of a small plasma ejecta, then the ejecta impacted a nearby mini-filament and thereby led to the filament’s eruption and the associated flare. During the filament eruption, an EUV wave at a speed of 182{--}317 {km} {{{s}}}-1 was formed ahead of an expanding coronal loop, which propagated faster than the expanding loop and showed obvious deceleration and reflection during the propagation. In addition, the EUV wave further resulted in the transverse oscillation of a remote filament whose period and damping time are 15 and 60 minutes, respectively. Based on the observational results, we propose that the small-scale EUV wave should be a fast-mode magnetosonic wave that was driven by the expanding coronal loop. Moreover, with the application of filament seismology, it is estimated that the radial magnetic field strength is about 7 Gauss. The observations also suggest that small-scale EUV waves associated with miniature solar eruptions share similar driving mechanisms and observational characteristics with their large-scale counterparts.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Young, C. A., E-mail: [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 670, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    We describe a simple image processing technique that is useful for the visualization and depiction of gradually evolving or intermittent structures in solar physics extreme-ultraviolet imagery. The technique is an application of image segmentation, which we call “Persistence Mapping,” to isolate extreme values in a data set, and is particularly useful for the problem of capturing phenomena that are evolving in both space and time. While integration or “time-lapse” imaging uses the full sample (of size N ), Persistence Mapping rejects ( N − 1)/ N of the data set and identifies the most relevant 1/ N values using the following rule: if a pixel reaches an extreme value, it retains that value until that value is exceeded. The simplest examples isolate minima and maxima, but any quantile or statistic can be used. This paper demonstrates how the technique has been used to extract the dynamics in long-term evolution of comet tails, erupting material, and EUV dimming regions.

  3. First measurements of aerosol optical depth and Angstrom exponent number from AERONET's Kuching site (United States)

    Salinas, Santo V.; Chew, Boon N.; Mohamad, M.; Mahmud, M.; Liew, Soo C.


    We report our first measurements, over the 2011 dry season period, of aerosol optical depth, Angstrom exponent number and its fine mode counterpart obtained from photometric measurements at AERONET's newest site located at the city of Kuching, Sarawak, East Malaysia. This site was set up as part of the collaborative efforts of the Seven South East Asian Studies (7SEAS) regional aerosol measurements initiative. Located at the converging zone between peninsular Malaysia and the land masses of Sumatra, Borneo, Java and Sulawesi, this site is expected to provide first hand evidence about the physical and optical characteristics of the regional aerosol environment, specially during the biomass burning months. Moreover, given its relative proximity to our Singapore radiation measurement super-site, Kuching is expected to provide further insight on aerosol transport pathways caused by seasonal winds transporting smoke to other parts of the maritime continent and the South Asia region.

  4. Sub-Angstrom microscopy through incoherent imaging and image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennycook, S.J.; Jesson, D.E.; Chisholm, M.F.; Ferridge, A.G.; Seddon, M.J.


    Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with a high-angle annular detector breaks the coherence of the imaging process, and provides an incoherent image of a crystal projection. Even in the presence of strong dynamical diffraction, the image can be accurately described as a convolution between an object function, sharply peaked at the projected atomic sites, and the probe intensity profile. Such an image can be inverted intuitively without the need for model structures, and therefore provides the important capability to reveal unanticipated interfacial arrangements. It represents a direct image of the crystal projection, revealing the location of the atomic columns and their relative high-angle scattering power. Since no phase is associated with a peak in the object function or the contrast transfer function, extension to higher resolution is also straightforward. Image restoration techniques such as maximum entropy, in conjunction with the 1.3 Angstrom probe anticipated for a 300 kV STEM, appear to provide a simple and robust route to the achievement of sub-Angstrom resolution electron microscopy

  5. The EUV Helium Spectrum in the Quiet Sun: A By-Product of Coronal Emission? (United States)

    Andretta, Vincenzo; DelZanna, Giulio; Jordan, Stuart D.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)


    In this paper we test one of the mechanisms proposed to explain the intensities and other observed properties of the solar helium spectrum, and in particular of its Extreme-Ultraviolet (EUV) resonance lines. The so-called Photoionisation-Recombination (P-R) mechanism involves photoionisation of helium atoms and ions by EUV coronal radiation, followed by recombination cascades. We present calibrated measurements of EUV flux obtained with the two CDS spectrometers on board SOHO, in quiescent solar regions. We were able to obtain an essentially complete estimate of the total photoionizing flux in the wavelength range below 504 A (the photoionisation threshold for He(I)), as well as simultaneous measurements with the same instruments of the intensities of the strongest EUV helium lines: He(II) lambda304, He(I) lambda584, and He(I) lambda537. We find that there are not enough EUV photons to account for the observed helium line intensities. More specifically, we conclude that He(II) intensities cannot be explained by the P-R mechanism. Our results, however, leave open the possibility that the He(I) spectrum could be formed by the P-R mechanism, with the He(II) lambda304 line as a significant photoionizating source.

  6. Slow dynamics in glycerol: collective de Gennes narrowing and independent angstrom motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Makina, E-mail:; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Masuda, Ryo; Kurokuzu, Masayuki; Kitao, Shinji [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute (Japan); Yoda, Yoshitaka [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (Japan); Seto, Makoto [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute (Japan)


    The slow dynamics of microscopic density correlations in supercooled glycerol was studied by time-domain interferometry using {sup 57}Fe-nuclear resonant scattering gamma rays of synchrotron radiation. The dependence of the relaxation time at 250 K on the momentum transfer q is maximum near the first peak of the static structure factor S(q) at q ∼ 15 nm {sup −1}. The q-dependent behavior of the relaxation time known as de Gennes narrowing was confirmed in glycerol. Conversely, de Gennes narrowing around the second and third peaks of S(q) at q ∼ 26 nm {sup −1} and 54 nm {sup −1} was not detected. The q dependence of the relaxation time was found to follow a power-law equation with power-law index of 1.9(2) in the q region well above the first peak of S(q) up to ∼ 60 nm {sup −1}, which corresponds to angstrom scale, within experimental error. This suggests that in the angstrom-scale dynamics of supercooled glycerol, independent motions dominate over collective motion.

  7. LID: Computer code for identifying atomic and ionic lines below 3500 Angstroms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peek, J.M.; Dukart, R.J.


    An interactive computer code has been written to search a data base containing information useful for identifying lines in experimentally-observed spectra or for designing experiments. The data base was the basis for the Kelly and Palumbo critical review of well-resolved lines below 2000 Angstroms, includes lines below 3500 Angstroms for atoms and ions of hydrogen through krypton, and was obtained from R.L. Kelly. This code allows the user to search the data base for a user-specified wavelength region, with this search either limited to atoms or ions of the user's choice for all atoms and ions contained in the data base. The line information found in the search is stored in a local file for later reference. A plotting capability is provided to graphically display the lines resulting from the search. Several options are available to control the nature of these graphs. It is also possible to bring in data from another source, such as an experimental spectra, for display along with the lines from the data-base search. Options for manipulating the experimental spectra's background intensity and wavelength scale are also available to the user. The intensities for the lines from each ion found in the data-base search can be scaled by a multiplicative constant to better simulate the observed spectrum

  8. Design and fabrication of advanced EUV diffractive elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Salmassi, Farhad; Anderson, Erik H.; Gullikson, Eric M.


    As extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography approaches commercial reality, the development of EUV-compatible diffractive structures becomes increasingly important. Such devices are relevant to many aspects of EUV technology including interferometry, illumination, and spectral filtering. Moreover, the current scarcity of high power EUV sources makes the optical efficiency of these diffractive structures a paramount concern. This fact has led to a strong interest in phase-enhanced diffractive structures. Here we describe recent advancements made in the fabrication of such devices.

  9. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Angstrom exponent of aerosols observed by the Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network from August 2004 to September 2005 (United States)

    Jinyuan Xin; Yuesi Wang; Zhanqing Li; Pucai Wang; Wei Min Hao; Bryce L. Nordgren; Shigong Wang; Guangren Lui; Lili Wang; Tianxue Wen; Yang Sun; Bo Hu


    To reduce uncertainties in the quantitative assessment of aerosol effects on regional climate and environmental changes, extensive measurements of aerosol optical properties were made with handheld Sun photometers in the Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network (CSHNET) starting in August 2004. Regional characteristics of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm and Angstrom...

  10. Normal incidence spectrophotometer using high density transmission grating technology and highly efficiency silicon photodiodes for absolute solar EUV irradiance measurements (United States)

    Ogawa, H. S.; Mcmullin, D.; Judge, D. L.; Korde, R.


    New developments in transmission grating and photodiode technology now make it possible to realize spectrometers in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region (wavelengths less than 1000 A) which are expected to be virtually constant in their diffraction and detector properties. Time dependent effects associated with reflection gratings are eliminated through the use of free standing transmission gratings. These gratings together with recently developed and highly stable EUV photodiodes have been utilized to construct a highly stable normal incidence spectrophotometer to monitor the variability and absolute intensity of the solar 304 A line. Owing to its low weight and compactness, such a spectrometer will be a valuable tool for providing absolute solar irradiance throughout the EUV. This novel instrument will also be useful for cross-calibrating other EUV flight instruments and will be flown on a series of Hitchhiker Shuttle Flights and on SOHO. A preliminary version of this instrument has been fabricated and characterized, and the results are described.

  11. Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Photoresists for EUV Patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jing


    © 2014SPST. Previous studies of methacrylate based nanoparticle have demonstrated the excellent pattern forming capability of these hybrid materials when used as photoresists under 13.5 nm EUV exposure. HfO2 and ZrO2 methacrylate resists have achieved high resolution (∼22 nm) at a very high EUV sensitivity (4.2 mJ/cm2). Further investigations into the patterning process suggests a ligand displacement mechanism, wherein, any combination of a metal oxide with the correct ligand could generate patterns in the presence of the suitable photoactive compound. The current investigation extends this study by developing new nanoparticle compositions with transdimethylacrylic acid and o-toluic acid ligands. This study describes their synthesis and patterning performance under 248 nm KrF laser (DUV) and also under 13.5 nm EUV exposures (dimethylacrylate nanoparticles) for the new resist compositions.

  12. Spatially and temporally resolved EUV emissions from SATURN z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, T.J.; Breeze, S.; Mock, R.; Jobe, D.


    EUV emissions can be used to measure several z-pinch parameters. The authors have measured implosion velocity from Doppler splitting of lines and estimated electron temperature during run-in from the mean ionization state of line emissions. In an argon pinch they measure an electron temperature of 100 eV before stagnation. To date Doppler split lines have measured implosion velocities less than 40 cm/microsecond. They are presently attempting to measure magnetic field or load current from Zeeman splitting and it may be possible to measure electron density from a Stark-broadened line. Opacity and ion thermal broadening may also contribute to line width information. The spectrometer utilizes a variable line space grating to give a flat focal field. Spectral resolution with a 60 micron detector resolution is up to 3,000 and generally increases with wavelength. This is sufficient to detect several plasma line broadening mechanisms. The spectrometer may detect lines above 100 angstrom and below 1,400 angstrom. Spectral range across a microchannel plate stripline detector decreases with increasing wavelength setting. The authors may gate two striplines with 1 to 12 nsec gates at any time during the pinch discharge. Each stripline spatially images the pinch diameter perpendicular to the direction of dispersion. Spatial resolution in the pinch diameter is 1 mm. Spatial acquisition along the z axis is also 1 mm. Data are presented from argon, krypton, and aluminum z-pinch discharges on the SATURN accelerator

  13. Coronal magnetic fields inferred from IR wavelength and comparison with EUV observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu


    Full Text Available Spectropolarimetry using IR wavelength of 1075 nm has been proved to be a powerful tool for directly mapping solar coronal magnetic fields including transverse component directions and line-of-sight component intensities. Solar tomography, or stereoscopy based on EUV observations, can supply 3-D information for some magnetic field lines in bright EUV loops. In a previous paper \\citep{liu08} the locations of the IR emission sources in the 3-D coordinate system were inferred from the comparison between the polarization data and the potential-field-source-surface (PFSS model, for one of five west limb regions in the corona (Lin et al., 2004. The paper shows that the region with the loop system in the active region over the photospheric area with strong magnetic field intensity is the region with a dominant contribution to the observed Stokes signals. So, the inversion of the measured Stokes parameters could be done assuming that most of the signals come from a relatively thin layer over the area with a large photospheric magnetic field strength. Here, the five limb coronal regions are studied together in order to study the spatial correlation between the bright EUV loop features and the inferred IR emission sources. It is found that, for the coronal regions above the stronger photospheric magnetic fields, the locations of the IR emission sources are closer to or more consistent with the bright EUV loop locations than those above weaker photospheric fields. This result suggests that the structures of the coronal magnetic fields observed at IR and EUV wavelengths may be different when weak magnetic fields present there.

  14. Objective for EUV microscopy, EUV lithography, and x-ray imaging (United States)

    Bitter, Manfred; Hill, Kenneth W.; Efthimion, Philip


    Disclosed is an imaging apparatus for EUV spectroscopy, EUV microscopy, EUV lithography, and x-ray imaging. This new imaging apparatus could, in particular, make significant contributions to EUV lithography at wavelengths in the range from 10 to 15 nm, which is presently being developed for the manufacturing of the next-generation integrated circuits. The disclosure provides a novel adjustable imaging apparatus that allows for the production of stigmatic images in x-ray imaging, EUV imaging, and EUVL. The imaging apparatus of the present invention incorporates additional properties compared to previously described objectives. The use of a pair of spherical reflectors containing a concave and convex arrangement has been applied to a EUV imaging system to allow for the image and optics to all be placed on the same side of a vacuum chamber. Additionally, the two spherical reflector segments previously described have been replaced by two full spheres or, more precisely, two spherical annuli, so that the total photon throughput is largely increased. Finally, the range of permissible Bragg angles and possible magnifications of the objective has been largely increased.

  15. Optimizing an EUV source for 13.5 nm (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Gerry D.; Cummings, Anthony; Duffy, Grainne; Dunne, Padraig A.; Fitzpatrick, Andrew; Hayden, Paddy; McKinney, Luke; Murphy, Nicola; O'Reilly, Dave; Sokell, Emma J.; White, John


    The emission spectra of laser produced plasmas of pure tin targets are dominated by recombination continuum emission throughout the entire EUV spectral region with intense structure due to line emission dominating the spectra in the 13 - 14 nm region. This feature arises from resonant 4p64dn - 4p54dn+1 + 4p64dn-14f emission lines that are generally concentrated in a narrow band, 5 - 10 eV wide, which overlaps considerably in adjacent ion stages to form an intense unresolved transition array (UTA). Such plasmas are optically thick; the strongest lines are attenuated and frequently appear in absorption. However, if tin comprises a few percent of a predominantly low-Z matrix, the recombination is suppressed and the plasmas can become optically thin to resonance radiation. Under these conditions, resonance line emission can dominate the spectra. The application of a collisional radiative (CR) model, combined with ab initio atomic structure calculations, allows one to estimate the laser plasma parameters that will optimize the UTA as efficient narrow bandwidth emitters of EUV radiation. The dependence on laser power density of both in-band emission and debris generation from pure tin targets is presented. The influence of a pre-pulse on the plasma output is also investigated.

  16. EUV and coronagraphic observations of coronal mass ejections (United States)

    Tripathi, Durgesh


    To identify the exact source regions of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and to understand the basic physical mechanisms involved in their initiation are amongst the major challenges of modern day solar physics. The Extreme-ultraviolet Imgaing Telescope (EIT) and Large Angle Spectrometric COronagraph (LASCO) aboard Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO) provides unique opportunity to study CMEs from 1.1 to 30 R⊙ since launch in December 1995. This thesis provides basic physical properties of EUV post-eruptive arcades (PEAs) observed by EIT at 195 Å and their role as tracers of source regions of CMEs. A detailed study of a specific EUV PEA event led to the discovery of a bright coronal inflow above the PEA. For specific PEA events line-of-sight magnetograms are analyzed to study the basic mechanism involved in CME initiation. Different varieties of evolutions in the photospheric magnetic field was detected during the time of CME eruption. We expect that the upcoming missions like STEREO and SOLAR-B will work in conjunction, helping us to understand the coupling between the photosphere and the corona.

  17. Oxidation and metal contamination of EUV optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Liu, Feng; Pachecka, Malgorzata; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik


    The next generation photolithography will use 13.5 nm Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) for printing smaller features on chips. One of the hallenges is to optimally control the contamination of the multilayer mirrors used in the imaging system. The aim of this project is generating fundamental understanding

  18. EUV micropatterning for biocompatibility control of PET (United States)

    Reisinger, B.; Fahrner, M.; Frischauf, I.; Yakunin, S.; Svorcik, V.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Romanin, C.; Heitz, J.


    We have investigated the influence of oriented microstructures at modified polyethylene terephthalate (PET) on the adhesion and alignment of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. For surface modification, the PET foils were exposed to the radiation of a laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source based on a double-stream gas-puff target. The emission of the plasma was focused onto the samples by means of a gold-plated ellipsoidal collector. The spectrum of the focused radiation covered the wavelength range from 9 to 70 nm. The PET samples were irradiated with the EUV pulses at a repetition rate of 10 Hz in a high vacuum. For control experiments, PET samples were also irradiated in air with the light of a 193 nm ArF-excimer laser. Different kinds of surface microstructures were obtained depending on the EUV or laser fluence and pulse number, including oriented wall- and ripple-type structures with lateral structure periods of a few µm. The surface morphology of polymer samples after the irradiation was investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Changes in chemical surface structure of the irradiated samples were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We demonstrated that the cells show good adhesion and align along oriented wall- and ripple-type microstructures on PET surfaces produced by the EUV irradiation.

  19. Sub-Angstrom oscillation amplitude non-contact atomic force microscopy for lateral force gradient measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atabak, Mehrdad; Unverdi, Ozhan; Ozer, H. Ozguer; Oral, Ahmet


    We report the first results from novel sub-Angstrom oscillation amplitude non-contact atomic force microscopy developed for lateral force gradient measurements. Quantitative lateral force gradients between a tungsten tip and Si(1 1 1)-(7 x 7) surface can be measured using this microscope. Simultaneous lateral force gradient and scanning tunnelling microscope images of single and multi atomic steps are obtained. In our measurement, tunnel current is used as feedback. The lateral stiffness contrast has been observed to be 2.5 N/m at single atomic step, in contrast to 13 N/m at multi atomic step on Si(1 1 1) surface. We also carried out a series of lateral stiffness-distance spectroscopy. We observed lateral stiffness-distance curves exhibit sharp increase in the stiffness as the sample is approached towards the surface. We usually observed positive stiffness and sometimes going into slightly negative region.

  20. Feasibility of compensating for EUV field edge effects through OPC (United States)

    Maloney, Chris; Word, James; Fenger, Germain L.; Niroomand, Ardavan; Lorusso, Gian F.; Jonckheere, Rik; Hendrickx, Eric; Smith, Bruce W.


    As EUV Lithography (EUVL) continues to evolve, it offers a possible solution to the problems of additional masks and lithography steps that drive up the cost and complexity of 193i multiple patterning. EUVL requires a non-telecentric reflective optical system for operation. This requirement causes EUV specific effects such as shadowing. The absorber physically shadows the reflective multilayer (ML) on an EUV reticle resulting in pattern fidelity degradation. To reduce this degradation, a thinner absorber may help. Yet, as the absorber thickness decreases, reflectivity increases in the `dark' region around the image field, resulting in a loss of contrast. The region around the edge of the die on the mask of unpatterned absorber material deposited on top of ML, known as the image border, is also susceptible to undesirable reflections in an ideally dark region. For EUVL to be enabled for high-volume manufacturing (HVM), reticle masking (REMA) blades are used to shield light from the image border to allow for the printing of densely spaced die. When die are printed densely, the image border of each neighboring die will overlap with the edge of a given die resulting in an increase of dose that overexposes features at the edge of the field. This effect is convolved with a fingerprint from the edge of the REMA blades. This phenomenon will be referred to as a field edge effect. One such mitigation strategy that has been investigated to reduce the field edge effect is to fully remove the ML along the image border to ensure that no actinic-EUV radiation can be reflected onto neighboring die. This has proven to suppress the effect, but residual out-of-band radiation still provides additional dose to features near the image border, especially in the corners where three neighboring fields overlap. Measurements of dense contact holes (CHs) have been made along the image border with and without a ML-etched border at IMEC in collaboration with Micron using the ASML NXE:3100. The

  1. A study on enhancing EUV resist sensitivity (2) (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Yoko; Naito, Michiya; Utsumi, Yoshiyuki; Harada, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Takeo


    To improve EUV resist sensitivity, studies have sought to enhance EUV light absorption by adding metals characterized by high EUV light absorption to the resist polymer. This approach is intended to increase secondary electron emission, thereby enhancing PAG reactivity and improving acid generation efficiency [1-3]. As reported in our previous report, to determine whether adding metals characterized by high EUV light absorption actually enhances sensitivity, we performed transmittance measurements and sensitivity evaluations of resist samples doped with ZrO2 or TeO2 nanoparticles, which have low and high EUV light absorption, respectively, in molar quantities of 0-2 relative to PAG. The samples were subjected to EUV exposure at the NewSUBARU synchrotron radiation facility. The results of transmittance measurements and sensitivity evaluations showed that, while the ZrO2-doped resist showed no changes in absorption or sensitivity, the TeO2-doped resist showed enhancement in both properties. Based on these results, we confirmed that adding metals characterized by high EUV light absorption to the EUV resist enhances its EUV light absorption and increases secondary electron emission, thereby enhancing PAG reactivity and improving acid generation efficiency [4-5]. In the efforts discussed in the present report, we examined whether adding metals directly to PAG could further enhance sensitivity by increasing the EUV light absorption of PAG itself, thereby efficiently heightening the effect of the secondary electron emission on PAG.

  2. Thermomechanical behavior of EUV pellicle under dynamic exposure conditions (United States)

    Goldfarb, Dario L.; Bloomfield, Max O.; Colburn, Matthew


    The utilization of EUV pellicles as protective layers for EUV masks requires the use of refractory materials that can tolerate large temperature excursions due to the non-negligible absorption of EUV radiation during exposure. Additionally, the mechanical stress induced on the EUV pellicle by the thermal load is dependent on the thermal expansion of the material which can be responsible for transient wrinkling. In this study, an ultrathin (20 nm), free-standing membrane based on silicon nitride is utilized as a learning vehicle to understand the material requirements of EUV pellicles under dynamic exposure conditions that are typical of commercial EUV scanners. First, the nanoscale radiative properties (emissivity) and thermo-mechanical failure temperature of the dielectric film under vacuum conditions are experimentally investigated utilizing a pulsed ArF (193 nm) probing laser. The silicon nitride membrane is found to be marginally compatible with an equivalent 80W EUV source power under steady state illumination conditions. Next, the thermal behavior of the EUV pellicle under dynamic exposure conditions is simulated using a finite element solver. The transient temperature profile and stress distribution across the membrane under stationary state conditions are extracted for an equivalent 60W EUV power source and the pellicle wrinkling due to heating and consequent impact on CD uniformity is estimated. The present work provides a generalized methodology to anticipate the thermal response of a EUV pellicle under realistic exposure conditions.

  3. An angstrom equation analysis of solar insolation data in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Fai Tsen


    Solar energy systems rely extensively on the availability of global solar radiation for optimum performances. Standard method of measurements involves the use of sunshine recorders to record the sunshine hours, solarimeters and chart recorders to record the diffuse and direct solar radiation. The method tends to be expensive and time consuming. As a result, fewer stations may be set up to monitor the solar insulation data Linear regression method using Angstrom equation of the type G = G 0 (a +bn/N) has been used extensively to analyze global radiation at the site of the station. The equation gives the linear regression coefficients a and h which are characteristics of the station. The equation may therefore be used to predict global radiation at and around the station, if the area surrounding the station is geographically similar, or if it is not characteristically changed due to developments over the years. We present here an analysis of the solar insulation data of several meteorological stations in West Malaysia to obtain the linear regression coefficient a and b base on yearly analysis. It is interesting to find that the values of a and b have changed over the years. This may have been due to the global warming effect, or extensive land clearing for local developments which have resulted in haze and pollution that could affect the solar insulation data received at the station. (Author)

  4. Inferring Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Exponent using satellite observations (United States)

    Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.; Jethva, H. T.; Ahn, C.


    The Angstrom Absorption Exponent (AAE) is a parameter commonly used to characterize the wavelength-dependence of aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD). It is closely related to aerosol composition. Black carbon (BC) containing aerosols yield AAE values near unity whereas Organic carbon (OC) aerosol particles are associated with values larger than 2. Even larger AAE values have been reported for desert dust aerosol particles. Knowledge of spectral AAOD is necessary for the calculation of direct radiative forcing effect of aerosols and for inferring aerosol composition. We have developed a satellite-based method of determining the spectral AAOD of absorbing aerosols. The technique uses multi-spectral measurements of upwelling radiation from scenes where absorbing aerosols are present above clouds. The upwelling reflectance at the cloud top is attenuated by the absorption effects of the overlying aerosol layer. This attenuation effect can be described using an approximations of Beer's Law. The upwelling reflectance at the cloud-top in an aerosol-free atmospheric column is mainly a function of cloud optical depth (COD). In the proposed method of AAE derivation, the first step is determining COD which is retrieved using a previously developed color-ratio based approach. In the second step, the spectral AAOD is derived by an inversion of the measured spectral reflectance. The proposed technique will be discussed and application results making use of OMI multi-spectral measurements in the UV-Vis. will be presented.

  5. Plasma-based EUV light source (United States)

    Shumlak, Uri; Golingo, Raymond; Nelson, Brian A.


    Various mechanisms are provided relating to plasma-based light source that may be used for lithography as well as other applications. For example, a device is disclosed for producing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light based on a sheared plasma flow. The device can produce a plasma pinch that can last several orders of magnitude longer than what is typically sustained in a Z-pinch, thus enabling the device to provide more power output than what has been hitherto predicted in theory or attained in practice. Such power output may be used in a lithography system for manufacturing integrated circuits, enabling the use of EUV wavelengths on the order of about 13.5 nm. Lastly, the process of manufacturing such a plasma pinch is discussed, where the process includes providing a sheared flow of plasma in order to stabilize it for long periods of time.

  6. Zero-Shift EUVE Science Payload Operations (United States)

    Stroozas, B. A.; Ringrose, P.; Kaplan, G. C.; Biroscak, D.; Vallerga, J. V.; Malina, R. F.


    The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE ) Project at the Center for EUV Astrophysics (CEA) at the University of California, Berkeley, is now functioning in a ``zero-shift" science payload operations scenario. Whereas traditional satellite mission operations are conducted by human controllers working in three separate shifts on a 24 hour/day basis, zero-shift payload operations completely eliminate the need for human operators to support routine console activities. This poster discusses the transition from a single- to a zero-shift payload operations environment: its purpose, the goals and benefits, the instrument health and safety considerations, the multiphased implementation approach, and the lessons learned along the way. This work has been funded by NASA contract NAS5-29298.

  7. EUV sources for the alpha-tools (United States)

    Pankert, Joseph; Apetz, Rolf; Bergmann, Klaus; Damen, Marcel; Derra, Günther; Franken, Oliver; Janssen, Maurice; Jonkers, Jeroen; Klein, Jürgen; Kraus, Helmar; Krücken, Thomas; List, Andreas; Loeken, Micheal; Mader, Arnaud; Metzmacher, Christof; Neff, Willi; Probst, Sven; Prümmer, Ralph; Rosier, Oliver; Schwabe, Stefan; Seiwert, Stefan; Siemons, Guido; Vaudrevange, Dominik; Wagemann, Dirk; Weber, Achim; Zink, Peter; Zitzen, Oliver


    In this paper, we report on the recent progress of the Philips Extreme UV source. The Philips source concept is based on a discharge plasma ignited in a Sn vapor plume that is ablated by a laser pulse. Using rotating electrodes covered with a regenerating tin surface, the problems of electrode erosion and power scaling are fundamentally solved. Most of the work of the past year has been dedicated to develop a lamp system which is operating very reliably and stable under full scanner remote control. Topics addressed were the development of the scanner interface, a dose control system, thermo-mechanical design, positional stability of the source, tin handling, and many more. The resulting EUV source-the Philips NovaTin(R) source-can operate at more than 10kW electrical input power and delivers 200W in-band EUV into 2π continuously. The source is very small, so nearly 100% of the EUV radiation can be collected within etendue limits. The lamp system is fully automated and can operate unattended under full scanner remote control. 500 Million shots of continuous operation without interruption have been realized, electrode lifetime is at least 2 Billion shots. Three sources are currently being prepared, two of them will be integrated into the first EUV Alpha Demonstration tools of ASML. The debris problem was reduced to a level which is well acceptable for scanner operation. First, a considerable reduction of the Sn emission of the source has been realized. The debris mitigation system is based on a two-step concept using a foil trap based stage and a chemical cleaning stage. Both steps were improved considerably. A collector lifetime of 1 Billion shots is achieved, after this operating time a cleaning would be applied. The cleaning step has been verified to work with tolerable Sn residues. From the experimental results, a total collector lifetime of more than 10 Billion shots can be expected.

  8. EUV lithography: NXE platform performance overview (United States)

    Peeters, Rudy; Lok, Sjoerd; Mallman, Joerg; van Noordenburg, Martijn; Harned, Noreen; Kuerz, Peter; Lowisch, Martin; van Setten, Eelco; Schiffelers, Guido; Pirati, Alberto; Stoeldraijer, Judon; Brandt, David; Farrar, Nigel; Fomenkov, Igor; Boom, Herman; Meiling, Hans; Kool, Ron


    The first NXE3300B systems have been qualified and shipped to customers. The NXE:3300B is ASML's third generation EUV system and has an NA of 0.33. It succeeds the NXE:3100 system (NA of 0.25), which has allowed customers to gain valuable EUV experience. Good overlay and imaging performance has been shown on the NXE:3300B system in line with 22nm device requirements. Full wafer CDU performance of Manufacturing. With the development of the MOPA+prepulse operation of the source, steps in power have been made, and with automated control the sources have been prepared to be used in a preproduction fab environment. Flexible pupil formation is under development for the NXE:3300B which will extend the usage of the system in HVM, and the resolution for the full system performance can be extended to 16nm. Further improvements in defectivity performance have been made, while in parallel full-scale pellicles are being developed. In this paper we will discuss the current NXE:3300B performance, its future enhancements and the recent progress in EUV source performance.

  9. Highly Stable, Large Format EUV Imager, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Higher detection efficiency and better radiation tolerance imagers are needed for the next generation of EUV instruments. Previously, CCD technology has demonstrated...

  10. EUV Doppler Imaging for CubeSat Platforms Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mature the design and fabricate the Flare Initiation Doppler Imager (FIDI) instrument to demonstrate low-spacecraft-resource EUV technology (most notably,...

  11. X-ray study of the structure of polyethylene at the scale of 100-200 Angstrom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belbeoch nee Goldsztein, B.


    Information on the structure of polyethylene is deduced from a comparison of the results obtained by central diffusion and by other X-ray methods. The structure depends on the thermal and mechanical treatment to which the samples are subjected, as well as on the observation temperature. The central diffusion due to the heterogeneity of the material at the scale of 100-200 Angstrom is bound up with the presence of both the amorphous and crystalline phases. Stretched polythene shows a more or less regular succession of orderly and disorderly regions. When released it has a structure of recrystallisation preceded by 'amorphization'. (author) [fr

  12. Surface roughness control by extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation (United States)

    Ahad, Inam Ul; Obeidi, Muhannad Ahmed; Budner, Bogusław; Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Brabazon, Dermot


    Surface roughness control of polymeric materials is often desirable in various biomedical engineering applications related to biocompatibility control, separation science and surface wettability control. In this study, Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer films were irradiated with Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons in nitrogen environment and investigations were performed on surface roughness modification via EUV exposure. The samples were irradiated at 3 mm and 4 mm distance from the focal spot to investigate the effect of EUV fluence on topography. The topography of the EUV treated PET samples were studied by AFM. The detailed scanning was also performed on the sample irradiated at 3 mm. It was observed that the average surface roughness of PET samples was increased from 9 nm (pristine sample) to 280 nm and 253 nm for EUV irradiated samples. Detailed AFM studies confirmed the presence of 1.8 mm wide period U-shaped channels in EUV exposed PET samples. The walls of the channels were having FWHM of about 0.4 mm. The channels were created due to translatory movements of the sample in horizontal and transverse directions during the EUV exposure. The increased surface roughness is useful for many applications. The nanoscale channels fabricated by EUV exposure could be interesting for microfluidic applications based on lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices.

  13. Plasma sources for EUV lithography exposure tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banine, Vadim; Moors, Roel


    The source is an integral part of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) tool. Such a source, as well as the EUVL tool, has to fulfil extremely high demands both technical and cost oriented. The EUVL tool operates at a wavelength in the range 13-14 nm, which requires a major re-thinking of state-of-the-art lithography systems operating in the DUV range. The light production mechanism changes from conventional lamps and lasers to relatively high temperature emitting plasmas. The light transport, mainly refractive for DUV, should become reflective for EUV. The source specifications are derived from the customer requirements for the complete tool, which are: throughput, cost of ownership (CoO) and imaging quality. The EUVL system is considered as a follow up of the existing DUV based lithography technology and, while improving the feature resolution, it has to maintain high wafer throughput performance, which is driven by the overall CoO picture. This in turn puts quite high requirements on the collectable in-band power produced by an EUV source. Increased, due to improved feature resolution, critical dimension (CD) control requirements, together with reflective optics restrictions, necessitate pulse-to-pulse repeatability, spatial stability control and repetition rates, which are substantially better than those of current optical systems. All together the following aspects of the source specification will be addressed: the operating wavelength, the EUV power, the hot spot size, the collectable angle, the repetition rate, the pulse-to-pulse repeatability and the debris induced lifetime of components

  14. Investigation of the dynamics of the Z-pinch imploding plasma for a laser-assisted discharge-produced Sn plasma EUV source (United States)

    Zhu, Q.; Yamada, J.; Kishi, N.; Watanabe, M.; Okino, A.; Horioka, K.; Hotta, E.


    Dynamics of the imploding plasma and its relations to the 13.5 nm EUV emissions have been experimentally investigated for a laser-assisted Sn based discharge-produced plasma EUV source. The behaviours and two-dimensional electron density distributions of the EUV-emitting plasma were obtained using the time-resolved shadowgraph and Nomarski interferometric techniques. Observation of the plasma piston in the prepinch phase justified the validity of the zero-dimensional thin-shell model, from which the ion charge state of the prepinch plasma in the cathode region was estimated. The sausage (m = 0) instability that usually enhances the EUV emission was observed, with the radial electron density distribution that displays a concave shape at the crest of the plasma and a bell shape at the neck; the maximum of the electron density is located at one peak of the concave distribution at the crest instead of the neck. Intense EUV emission was produced by the Z-pinch plasma with the electron density (2.0-3.0) × 1018 cm-3. Moreover, the shock waves generated in the anode region can also produce in-band EUV emission with the intensity of 30% of that from the Z-pinch plasma.

  15. Oxide nanoparticle EUV resists: toward understanding the mechanism of positive and negative tone patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Chakrabarty, Souvik


    DUV, EUV and e-beam patterning of hybrid nanoparticle photoresists have been reported previously by Ober and coworkers. The present work explores the underlying mechanism that is responsible for the dual tone patterning capability of these photoresist materials. Spectroscopic results correlated with mass loss and dissolution studies suggest a ligand exchange mechanism responsible for altering the solubility between the exposed and unexposed regions. © 2013 SPIE.

  16. Mechanisms of EUV Exposure: Photons, Electrons and Holes (United States)

    Narasimhan, Amrit

    The microelectronics industry's movement toward smaller and smaller feature sizes has necessitated a shift to Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) lithography to be able to pattern sub 20-nm features, much like earlier shifts from i-line to 248 nm. However, this shift from 193-nm lithography to EUV (13.5 nm) poses significant obstacles. EUV is the first optical lithography to operate in an energy range (92 eV per photon vs. 6.4 eV per photon for 193 nm lithography) above the electron binding energies of common resist atomic species. This significant energy increase complicates resist design. For exposures of equal dose, resists receive 14 times fewer photons in EUV relative to 193 nm. Thus, for EUV photoresists to be able to reap the benefits of smaller resolution they must also maximize absorption while still maintaining photo-reactivity. In order to design EUV resists for manufacturing, the first step is to understand the mechanisms of exposure involved in EUV photochemistry. In this Thesis, we present three studies performed to understand the behavior and reactivity of electrons and holes in chemically amplified photoresists. These three studies can be characterized by their approaches--computational and experimental, and serve to develop better resist models for EUV reactions and mechanisms. The first study discusses the adaptation and improvement of a Monte Carlo electron-resist simulation program to understand EUV photochemistry by modeling total electron yield, thickness loss, and sub-10 eV electron-resist interactions. The second study evaluates the mechanism of internal excitation as a possible pathway for acid generation in EUV resists by the investigation of electron-induced fluorescence. The third study aims to investigate the reactivity of electrons and holes in chemically amplified resists and determine their relative contributions to acid production.

  17. EUV mask manufacturing readiness in the merchant mask industry (United States)

    Green, Michael; Choi, Yohan; Ham, Young; Kamberian, Henry; Progler, Chris; Tseng, Shih-En; Chiou, Tsann-Bim; Miyazaki, Junji; Lammers, Ad; Chen, Alek


    As nodes progress into the 7nm and below regime, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) becomes critical for all industry participants interested in remaining at the leading edge. One key cost driver for EUV in the supply chain is the reflective EUV mask. As of today, the relatively few end users of EUV consist primarily of integrated device manufactures (IDMs) and foundries that have internal (captive) mask manufacturing capability. At the same time, strong and early participation in EUV by the merchant mask industry should bring value to these chip makers, aiding the wide-scale adoption of EUV in the future. For this, merchants need access to high quality, representative test vehicles to develop and validate their own processes. This business circumstance provides the motivation for merchants to form Joint Development Partnerships (JDPs) with IDMs, foundries, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and other members of the EUV supplier ecosystem that leverage complementary strengths. In this paper, we will show how, through a collaborative supplier JDP model between a merchant and OEM, a novel, test chip driven strategy is applied to guide and validate mask level process development. We demonstrate how an EUV test vehicle (TV) is generated for mask process characterization in advance of receiving chip maker-specific designs. We utilize the TV to carry out mask process "stress testing" to define process boundary conditions which can be used to create Mask Rule Check (MRC) rules as well as serve as baseline conditions for future process improvement. We utilize Advanced Mask Characterization (AMC) techniques to understand process capability on designs of varying complexity that include EUV OPC models with and without sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs). Through these collaborations, we demonstrate ways to develop EUV processes and reduce implementation risks for eventual mass production. By reducing these risks, we hope to expand access to EUV mask capability for

  18. Measurements of EUV coronal holes and open magnetic flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowder, C.; Qiu, J.; Leamon, R.; Liu, Y.


    Coronal holes are regions on the Sun's surface that map the footprints of open magnetic field lines. We have developed an automated routine to detect and track boundaries of long-lived coronal holes using full-disk extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images obtained by SOHO/EIT, SDO/AIA, and STEREO/EUVI. We measure coronal hole areas and magnetic flux in these holes, and compare the measurements with calculations by the potential field source surface (PFSS) model. It is shown that, from 1996 through 2010, the total area of coronal holes measured with EIT images varies between 5% and 17% of the total solar surface area, and the total unsigned open flux varies between (2-5)× 10 22 Mx. The solar cycle dependence of these measurements is similar to the PFSS results, but the model yields larger hole areas and greater open flux than observed by EIT. The AIA/EUVI measurements from 2010-2013 show coronal hole area coverage of 5%-10% of the total surface area, with significant contribution from low latitudes, which is under-represented by EIT. AIA/EUVI have measured much enhanced open magnetic flux in the range of (2-4)× 10 22 Mx, which is about twice the flux measured by EIT, and matches with the PFSS calculated open flux, with discrepancies in the location and strength of coronal holes. A detailed comparison between the three measurements (by EIT, AIA-EUVI, and PFSS) indicates that coronal holes in low latitudes contribute significantly to the total open magnetic flux. These low-latitude coronal holes are not well measured with either the He I 10830 line in previous studies, or EIT EUV images; neither are they well captured by the static PFSS model. The enhanced observations from AIA/EUVI allow a more accurate measure of these low-latitude coronal holes and their contribution to open magnetic flux.

  19. Analysis of a Failed Eclipse Plasma Ejection Using EUV Observations (United States)

    Tavabi, E.; Koutchmy, S.; Bazin, C.


    The photometry of eclipse white-light (W-L) images showing a moving blob is interpreted for the first time together with observations from space with the PRoject for On Board Autonomy (PROBA-2) mission (ESA). An off-limb event seen with great details in W-L was analyzed with the SWAP imager ( Sun Watcher using Active pixel system detector and image Processing) working in the EUV near 174 Å. It is an elongated plasma blob structure of 25 Mm diameter moving above the east limb with coronal loops under. Summed and co-aligned SWAP images are evaluated using a 20-h sequence, in addition to the 11 July, 2010 eclipse W-L images taken from several sites. The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) recorded the event suggesting a magnetic reconnection near a high neutral point; accordingly, we also call it a magnetic plasmoid. The measured proper motion of the blob shows a velocity up to 12 km s^{-1}. Electron densities of the isolated condensation (cloud or blob or plasmoid) are photometrically evaluated. The typical value is 108 cm^{-3} at r=1.7 R_{⊙}, superposed on a background corona of 107 cm^{-3} density. The mass of the cloud near its maximum brightness is found to be 1.6×10^{13} g, which is typically 0.6×10^{-4} of the overall mass of the corona. From the extrapolated magnetic field the cloud evolves inside a rather broad open region but decelerates, after reaching its maximum brightness. The influence of such small events for supplying material to the ubiquitous slow wind is noticed. A precise evaluation of the EUV photometric data, after accurately removing the stray light, suggests an interpretation of the weak 174 Å radiation of the cloud as due to resonance scattering in the Fe IX/X lines.

  20. Observed aerosol optical depth and angstrom exponent in urban area of Nanjing, China (United States)

    Li, Shu; Wang, Tijian; Xie, Min; Han, Yong; Zhuang, Bingliang


    Aerosol optical properties at Gulou station in Nanjing, China were measured and analyzed from April 2011 to April 2012. The annual median of aerosol optical depth (hereafter called as AOD) at 440 nm was 0.73 and the corresponding annual median of angstrom exponent (hereafter called as AE) between 440 nm and 870 nm was 1.28. The monthly median of AOD440nm presented a seasonal variation, which revealed a maximum in August (1.22) and a minimum in February (0.51), while the monthly median of AE showed a minimum in May (0.79) and a maximum in December (1.42). AOD and AE accumulated mainly between 0.40-0.90 (68%) and 1.20-1.50 (68%) respectively in Nanjing. The observation data showed that high AODs (>1.00) were clustered in the fine mode growth wing and the coarse mode. Comparison was made between two typical cases under different weather conditions and the results showed that Nanjing is influenced by the dust aerosol from Northwest China and Mongolia under dust weather in spring and the anthropogenic aerosol from local emission and surrounding industrialization region under haze weather.

  1. Electron beam inspection of 16nm HP node EUV masks (United States)

    Shimomura, Takeya; Narukawa, Shogo; Abe, Tsukasa; Takikawa, Tadahiko; Hayashi, Naoya; Wang, Fei; Ma, Long; Lin, Chia-Wen; Zhao, Yan; Kuan, Chiyan; Jau, Jack


    EUV lithography (EUVL) is the most promising solution for 16nm HP node semiconductor device manufacturing and beyond. The fabrication of defect free EUV mask is one of the most challenging roadblocks to insert EUVL into high volume manufacturing (HVM). To fabricate and assure the defect free EUV masks, electron beam inspection (EBI) tool will be likely the necessary tool since optical mask inspection systems using 193nm and 199nm light are reaching a practical resolution limit around 16nm HP node EUV mask. For production use of EBI, several challenges and potential issues are expected. Firstly, required defect detection sensitivity is quite high. According to ITRS roadmap updated in 2011, the smallest defect size needed to detect is about 18nm for 15nm NAND Flash HP node EUV mask. Secondly, small pixel size is likely required to obtain the high sensitivity. Thus, it might damage Ru capped Mo/Si multilayer due to accumulated high density electron beam bombardments. It also has potential of elevation of nuisance defects and reduction of throughput. These challenges must be solved before inserting EBI system into EUV mask HVM line. In this paper, we share our initial inspection results for 16nm HP node EUV mask (64nm HP absorber pattern on the EUV mask) using an EBI system eXplore® 5400 developed by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI). In particularly, defect detection sensitivity, inspectability and damage to EUV mask were assessed. As conclusions, we found that the EBI system has capability to capture 16nm defects on 64nm absorber pattern EUV mask, satisfying the sensitivity requirement of 15nm NAND Flash HP node EUV mask. Furthermore, we confirmed there is no significant damage to susceptible Ru capped Mo/Si multilayer. We also identified that low throughput and high nuisance defect rate are critical challenges needed to address for the 16nm HP node EUV mask inspection. The high nuisance defect rate could be generated by poor LWR and stitching errors during EB writing

  2. Absorption and Emission of EUV Radiation by the Local ISM (United States)

    Paresce, F.


    The Berkeley extreme ultraviolet radiation (EUV) telescope flown on the Apollo Soyuz mission in July, 1975 established the existence of a measurable flux of EUV (100 lambda or = or = 1000 A) originating from sources outside the solar system. White dwarfs, flare stars and cataclysmic variables were dicovered to be relatively intense compact sources of EUV photons. Moreover, this and other subsequent experiments have strongly suggested the presence of a truly diffuse component of the FUV radiation field possibly due to thermal emission from hot interstellar gas located in the general vicinity of the Sun. Closer to the H1, 912 A edge, the effect of a few hot O and B stars has been shown to be very important in establishing the interstellar flux density. All these results imply that the local interstellar medium (ISM) is immersed in a non-negligible EUV radiation field which, because of the strong coupling between EUV photons and matter, will play a crucial role in determining its physical structure. The available information on the local ISM derived from the limited EUV observations carried out so far is assembled and analyzed. These include measurements of the spectra of bright EUV sources that reveal clear evidence of H photo absorption at lambda 400 A and of the He ionization edge at 228 A.

  3. Development of Laser-Produced Tin Plasma-Based EUV Light Source Technology for HVM EUV Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Fujimoto


    Full Text Available Since 2002, we have been developing a carbon dioxide (CO2 laser-produced tin (Sn plasma (LPP extreme ultraviolet (EUV light source, which is the most promising solution because of the 13.5 nm wavelength high power (>200 W light source for high volume manufacturing. EUV lithography is used for its high efficiency, power scalability, and spatial freedom around plasma. We believe that the LPP scheme is the most feasible candidate for the EUV light source for industrial use. We have several engineering data from our test tools, which include 93% Sn ionization rate, 98% Sn debris mitigation by a magnetic field, and 68% CO2 laser energy absorption rate. The way of dispersion of Sn by prepulse laser is key to improve conversion efficiency (CE. We focus on prepulsed laser pulsed duration. When we have optimized pulse duration from nanosecond to picosecond, we have obtained maximum 4.7% CE (CO2 laser to EUV; our previous data was 3.8% at 2 mJ EUV pulse energy. Based on these data we are developing our first light source as our product: “GL200E.” The latest data and the overview of EUV light source for the industrial EUV lithography are reviewed in this paper.

  4. 1D goes 2D: A Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in superconducting arrays of 4-Angstrom carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhe


    We report superconducting resistive transition characteristics for array(s) of coupled 4-Angstrom single wall carbon nanotubes embedded in aluminophosphate-five zeolite. The transition was observed to initiate at 15 K with a slow resistance decrease switching to a sharp, order of magnitude drop between 7.5 and 6.0 K with strong (anisotropic) magnetic field dependence. Both the sharp resistance drop and its attendant nonlinear IV characteristics are consistent with the manifestations of a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition that establishes quasi long range order in the plane transverse to the c-axis of the nanotubes, leading to an inhomogeneous system comprising 3D superconducting regions connected by weak links. Global coherence is established at below 5 K with the appearance of a well-defined supercurrent gap/low resistance region at 2 K. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Characterization of highly transient EUV emitting discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, Joost van der; Kieft, Erik; Broks, Bart [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    The method of disturbed Bilateral Relations (dBR) is used to characterize highly transient plasmas that are used for the generation of Extreme Ultra Violet (EUV), i.e. radiation with a wavelength around 13.5 nm. This dBR method relates equilibrium disturbing to equilibrium restoring processes and follows the degree of equilibrium departure from the global down to the elementary plasma-level. The study gives global values of the electron density and electron temperature. Moreover, it gives a method to construct the atomic state distribution function (ASDF). This ASDF, which is responsible for the spectrum generated by the discharge, is found to be far from equilibrium. There are two reasons for this: first, systems with high charge numbers radiate strongly, second the highly transient behaviour makes that the distribution over the various ionization stages lags behind the temperature evolution.

  6. Characterization of highly transient EUV emitting discharges (United States)

    van der Mullen, Joost; Kieft, Erik; Broks, Bart


    The method of disturbed Bilateral Relations (dBR) is used to characterize highly transient plasmas that are used for the generation of Extreme Ultra Violet (EUV), i.e. radiation with a wavelength around 13.5 nm. This dBR method relates equilibrium disturbing to equilibrium restoring processes and follows the degree of equilibrium departure from the global down to the elementary plasma-level. The study gives global values of the electron density and electron temperature. Moreover, it gives a method to construct the atomic state distribution function (ASDF). This ASDF, which is responsible for the spectrum generated by the discharge, is found to be far from equilibrium. There are two reasons for this: first, systems with high charge numbers radiate strongly, second the highly transient behaviour makes that the distribution over the various ionization stages lags behind the temperature evolution.

  7. The EUV spectrophotometer on Atmosphere Explorer. (United States)

    Hinteregger, H. E.; Bedo, D. E.; Manson, J. E.


    An extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrophotometer for measurements of solar radiation at wavelengths ranging from 140 to 1850 A will be included in the payload of each of the three Atmosphere-Explorer (AE) missions, AE-C, -D, and -E. The instrument consists of 24 grating monochromators, 12 of which can be telecommanded either to execute 128-step scans each covering a relatively small section of the total spectrophotometer wavelength range or to maintain fixed (command-selected) wavelength positions. The remaining 12 nonscan monochromators operate at permanently fixed wavelengths and view only a small fraction of the solar disk except for one viewing the whole sun in H Lyman alpha. Ten of the 12 scan-capable monochromators also view the entire solar disk since their primary function is to measure the total fluxes independent of the distribution of sources across the solar disk.

  8. Spectroscopic modeling for tungsten EUV spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Suzuki, Chihiro; Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi; Sasaki, Akira; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Koike, Fumihiro


    We have constructed an atomic model for tungsten extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra to reconstruct characteristic spectral feature of unresolved transition array (UTA) observed at 4-7 nm for tungsten ions. In the tungsten atomic modeling, we considered fine-structure levels with the quantum principal number n up to 6 as the atomic structure and calculated the electron-impact collision cross sections by relativistic distorted-wave method, using HULLAC atomic code. We measured tungsten EUV spectra in Large Helical Device (LHD) and Compact Electron Beam Ion Trap device (CoBIT) and compared them with the model calculation. The model successfully explain series of emission peaks at 1.5-3.5 nm as n=5-4 and 6-4 transitions of W 24+ - W 32+ measured in CoBIT and LHD and the charge state distributions were estimated for LHD plasma. The UTA feature observed at 4-7 nm was also successfully reconstructed with our model. The peak at ∼5 nm is produced mainly by many 4f-4d transition of W 22+ - W 35+ ions, and the second peak at ∼6 nm is produced by 4f-4d transition of W 25+ - W 28+ ions, and 4d-4p inner-shell transitions, 4p 5 4d n+1 - 4p 6 4d n , of W 29+ - W 35+ ions. These 4d-4p inner-shell transitions become strong since we included higher excited states such as 4p 5 4d n 4f state, which ADAS atomic data set does not include for spectroscopic modeling with fine structure levels. (author)

  9. Variations of aerosol optical depth and Angstrom parameters at a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    parts of the world (America and Europe) have been performed .... peak in June. The variations of AOD in this region may be at- tributed to different weather conditions. Zanjan is affected by continental airmass coming from North. Africa, Saudi Arabia and ..... SSW winds could be the main reason of the highest β around 0.28.

  10. Laser-plasma SXR/EUV sources: adjustment of radiation parameters for specific applications (United States)

    Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Fok, T.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, A.; Szczurek, M.; Wachulak, P.; Wegrzyński, Ł.


    In this work soft X-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources employing Nd:YAG laser systems of different parameters are presented. First of them is a 10-Hz EUV source, based on a double-stream gaspuff target, irradiated with the 3-ns/0.8J laser pulse. In the second one a 10 ns/10 J/10 Hz laser system is employed and the third one utilizes the laser system with the pulse shorten to approximately 1 ns. Using various gases in the gas puff targets it is possible to obtain intense radiation in different wavelength ranges. This way intense continuous radiation in a wide spectral range as well as quasi-monochromatic radiation was produced. To obtain high EUV or SXR fluence the radiation was focused using three types of grazing incidence collectors and a multilayer Mo/Si collector. First of them is a multfoil gold plated collector consisted of two orthogonal stacks of ellipsoidal mirrors forming a double-focusing device. The second one is the ellipsoidal collector being part of the axisymmetrical ellipsoidal surface. Third of the collectors is composed of two aligned axisymmetrical paraboloidal mirrors optimized for focusing of SXR radiation. The last collector is an off-axis ellipsoidal multilayer Mo/Si mirror allowing for efficient focusing of the radiation in the spectral region centered at λ = 13.5 ± 0.5 nm. In this paper spectra of unaltered EUV or SXR radiation produced in different LPP source configurations together with spectra and fluence values of focused radiation are presented. Specific configurations of the sources were assigned to various applications.

  11. Evaluation of novel hydrophilic derivatives for chemically amplified EUV resists (United States)

    Tanagi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Hiroyasu; Hayakawa, Shoichi; Furukawa, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Kozawa, Takahiro


    EUV lithography is the most favorable process for high volume manufacturing of semiconductor devices beyond 1X nm half-pitch. Many efforts have revealed effective proton sources in acid generation in EUV resists, and the effective proton generation and the control of the generated acid diffusion are required to improve the breakthrough of the resolution - line width roughness - sensitivity(RLS) trade-off. To clarify the lithographic performance of these derivatives, we synthesized the acrylic terpolymers containing novel hydrophilic derivatives as model photopolymers and exposed the resist samples based on these polymers to EUV and EB radiation. On the basis of the lithographic performances of these resist samples, we evaluated the characteristics of hydrophilic derivatives upon exposure to EUV radiation. We discuss the relationship between the chemical structures of these derivatives and lithographic performance.

  12. Evaluation of novel lactone derivatives for chemically amplified EUV resists (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroyasu; Mizusaka, Tetsuhiko; Tanagi, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Kozawa, Takahiro


    EUV lithography is the most favorable process for high volume manufacturing of semiconductor devices beyond 1X nm half-pitch at present. Many efforts have revealed effective proton sources in acid generation in EUV resists, and the effective proton generation and the control of the generated acid diffusion are required to improve the breakthrough of the resolution ? line width roughness ? sensitivity(RLS) trade-off. To clarify the lithographic performance of these derivatives, we synthesized the acrylic ter/tetrapolymers containing novel lactone derivatives - LCHO and LAATB - as model photopolymers and exposed the resist samples based on these polymers to EUV and EB radiation. On the basis of the lithographic performances of these photoresists, we evaluated the characteristics of lactone derivatives upon exposure to EUV radiation. We discuss the relationship between the chemical structures of these derivatives and lithographic performance.

  13. Gadolinium EUV Multilayers for Solar Imaging Near 60 nm Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and commercialize a new class of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) multilayer coatings containing the rare-earth element gadolinium (Gd), designed as...

  14. EUV resists based on tin-oxo clusters (United States)

    Cardineau, Brian; Del Re, Ryan; Al-Mashat, Hashim; Marnell, Miles; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin; Sarma, Chandra; Neisser, Mark; Freedman, Daniel A.; Brainard, Robert L.


    We have studied the photolysis of tin clusters of the type [(RSn)12O14(OH)6] X2 using extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 13.5 nm) light, and developed these clusters into novel high-resolution photoresists. A thin film of [(BuSn)12O14(OH)6][p-toluenesulfonate]2 (1) was prepared by spin coating a solution of (1) in 2-butanone onto a silicon wafer. Exposure to EUV light caused the compound (1) to be converted into a substance that was markedly less soluble in aqueous isopropanol. To optimize the EUV lithographic performance of resists using tin-oxo clusters, and to gain insight into the mechanism of their photochemical reactions, we prepared several compounds based on [(RSn)12O14(OH)6] X2. The sensitivity of tin-oxide films to EUV light were studied as a function of variations in the structure of the counter-anions (X, primarily carboxylates) and organic ligands bound to tin (R). Correlations were sought between the EUV sensitivity of these complexes vs. the strength of the carbon-carboxylate bonds in the counteranions and vs. the strength of the carbon-tin bonds. No correlation was observed between the strength of the carboncarboxylate bonds in the counter-anions (X) and the EUV photosensitivity. However, the EUV sensitivity of the tinoxide films appears to be well-correlated with the strength of the carbon-tin bonds. We hypothesize this correlation indicates a mechanism of carbon-tin bond homolysis during exposure. Using these tin clusters, 18-nm lines were printed showcasing the high resolution capabilities of these materials as photoresists for EUV lithography.

  15. Automated Identification of Coronal Holes from Synoptic EUV Maps (United States)

    Hamada, Amr; Asikainen, Timo; Virtanen, Ilpo; Mursula, Kalevi


    Coronal holes (CHs) are regions of open magnetic field lines in the solar corona and the source of the fast solar wind. Understanding the evolution of coronal holes is critical for solar magnetism as well as for accurate space weather forecasts. We study the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) synoptic maps at three wavelengths (195 Å/193 Å, 171 Å and 304 Å) measured by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (SOHO/EIT) and the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) instruments. The two datasets are first homogenized by scaling the SDO/AIA data to the SOHO/EIT level by means of histogram equalization. We then develop a novel automated method to identify CHs from these homogenized maps by determining the intensity threshold of CH regions separately for each synoptic map. This is done by identifying the best location and size of an image segment, which optimally contains portions of coronal holes and the surrounding quiet Sun allowing us to detect the momentary intensity threshold. Our method is thus able to adjust itself to the changing scale size of coronal holes and to temporally varying intensities. To make full use of the information in the three wavelengths we construct a composite CH distribution, which is more robust than distributions based on one wavelength. Using the composite CH dataset we discuss the temporal evolution of CHs during the Solar Cycles 23 and 24.

  16. Consequences of high-frequency operation on EUV source efficiency (United States)

    Sizyuk, Tatyana


    A potential problem of future extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sources, required for high volume manufacture regimes, can be related to the contamination of the chamber environment by products of preceding laser pulse/droplet interactions. Implementation of high, 100 kHz and higher, repetition rate of EUV sources using Sn droplets ignited with laser pulses can cause high accumulation of tin in the chamber in the form of vapor, fine mist, or fragmented clusters. In this work, the effects of the residual tin accumulation in the EUV chamber in dependence on laser parameters and mitigation system efficiency were studied. The effect of various pressures of tin vapor on the CO2 and Nd:YAG laser beam propagation and on the size, the intensity, and the resulting efficiency of the EUV sources was analyzed. The HEIGHTS 3D package was used for this analysis to study the effect of residual background pressure and spatial distribution on EUV photon emission and collection. It was found that background pressure in the range of 1-5 Pa does not significantly influence the EUV source produced by CO2 lasers. A larger volume with this pressure condition, however, can reduce the efficiency of the source. However, an optimized volume of mix with proper density could increase the efficiency of the sources produced by CO2 lasers.

  17. Protection efficiency of a standard compliant EUV reticle handling solution (United States)

    He, Long; Lystad, John; Wurm, Stefan; Orvek, Kevin; Sohn, Jaewoong; Ma, Andy; Kearney, Patrick; Kolbow, Steve; Halbmaier, David


    For successful implementation of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technology for late cycle insertion at 32 nm half-pitch (hp) and full introduction for 22 nm hp high volume production, the mask development infrastructure must be in place by 2010. The central element of the mask infrastructure is contamination-free reticle handling and protection. Today, the industry has already developed and balloted an EUV pod standard for shipping, transporting, transferring, and storing EUV masks. We have previously demonstrated that the EUV pod reticle handling method represents the best approach in meeting EUVL high volume production requirements, based on then state-of-the-art inspection capability at ~53nm polystyrene latex (PSL) equivalent sensitivity. In this paper, we will present our latest data to show defect-free reticle handling is achievable down to 40 nm particle sizes, using the same EUV pod carriers as in the previous study and the recently established world's most advanced defect inspection capability of ~40 nm SiO2 equivalent sensitivity. The EUV pod is a worthy solution to meet EUVL pilot line and pre-production exposure tool development requirements. We will also discuss the technical challenges facing the industry in refining the EUV pod solution to meet 22 nm hp EUVL production requirements and beyond.

  18. Classification and printability of EUV mask defects from SEM images (United States)

    Cho, Wonil; Price, Daniel; Morgan, Paul A.; Rost, Daniel; Satake, Masaki; Tolani, Vikram L.


    Classification and Printability of EUV Mask Defects from SEM images EUV lithography is starting to show more promise for patterning some critical layers at 5nm technology node and beyond. However, there still are many key technical obstacles to overcome before bringing EUV Lithography into high volume manufacturing (HVM). One of the greatest obstacles is manufacturing defect-free masks. For pattern defect inspections in the mask-shop, cutting-edge 193nm optical inspection tools have been used so far due to lacking any e-beam mask inspection (EBMI) or EUV actinic pattern inspection (API) tools. The main issue with current 193nm inspection tools is the limited resolution for mask dimensions targeted for EUV patterning. The theoretical resolution limit for 193nm mask inspection tools is about 60nm HP on masks, which means that main feature sizes on EUV masks will be well beyond the practical resolution of 193nm inspection tools. Nevertheless, 193nm inspection tools with various illumination conditions that maximize defect sensitivity and/or main-pattern modulation are being explored for initial EUV defect detection. Due to the generally low signal-to-noise in the 193nm inspection imaging at EUV patterning dimensions, these inspections often result in hundreds and thousands of defects which then need to be accurately reviewed and dispositioned. Manually reviewing each defect is difficult due to poor resolution. In addition, the lack of a reliable aerial dispositioning system makes it very challenging to disposition for printability. In this paper, we present the use of SEM images of EUV masks for higher resolution review and disposition of defects. In this approach, most of the defects detected by the 193nm inspection tools are first imaged on a mask SEM tool. These images together with the corresponding post-OPC design clips are provided to KLA-Tencor's Reticle Decision Center (RDC) platform which provides ADC (Automated Defect Classification) and S2A (SEM

  19. Grazing incidence EUV study of the Alcator tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castracane, J.


    The use of impurity radiation to examine plasma conditions is a well known technique. To gain access, however, to the hot, central portion of the plasma created in the present confinement machines it is necessary to be able to observe radiation from medium and heavy elements such as molybdenum and iron. These impurities radiate primarily in the extreme ultra violet region of the spectrum and can play a role in the power balance of the tokamak. Radiation from highly ionized molybdenum was examined on the Alcator A and C tokamaks using a photometrically calibrated one meter grazing incidence monochromator. On Alcator A, a pseudo-continuum of Mo emissions in the 60 to 100 A ranges were seen to comprise 17% of the radiative losses from the plasma. This value closely matched measurements by a broad band bolometer array. Following these preliminary measurements, the monochromator was transferred to Alcator C for a more thorough examination of EUV emissions. Deviations from predicted scaling laws for energy confinement time vs density were observed on this machine


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reva, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Shestov, S. V.; Kuzin, S. V., E-mail: [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)


    We present experimental evidence of the coronal mass ejection (CME) breakout reconnection, observed by the TESIS EUV telescope. The telescope could observe solar corona up to 2 R{sub ⊙} from the Sun center in the Fe 171 Å line. Starting from 2009 April 8, TESIS observed an active region (AR) that had a quadrupolar structure with an X-point 0.5 R{sub ⊙} above photosphere. A magnetic field reconstructed from the Michelson Doppler Imager data also has a multipolar structure with an X-point above the AR. At 21:45 UT on April 9, the loops near the X-point started to move away from each other with a velocity of ≈7 km s{sup −1}. At 01:15 UT on April 10, a bright stripe appeared between the loops, and the flux in the GOES 0.5–4 Å channel increased. We interpret the loops’ sideways motion and the bright stripe as evidence of the breakout reconnection. At 01:45 UT, the loops below the X-point started to slowly move up. At 15:10 UT, the CME started to accelerate impulsively, while at the same time a flare arcade formed below the CME. After 15:50 UT, the CME moved with constant velocity. The CME evolution precisely followed the breakout model scenario.

  1. Breakout Reconnection Observed by the TESIS EUV Telescope (United States)

    Reva, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Shestov, S. V.; Kuzin, S. V.


    We present experimental evidence of the coronal mass ejection (CME) breakout reconnection, observed by the TESIS EUV telescope. The telescope could observe solar corona up to 2 R⊙ from the Sun center in the Fe 171 Å line. Starting from 2009 April 8, TESIS observed an active region (AR) that had a quadrupolar structure with an X-point 0.5 R⊙ above photosphere. A magnetic field reconstructed from the Michelson Doppler Imager data also has a multipolar structure with an X-point above the AR. At 21:45 UT on April 9, the loops near the X-point started to move away from each other with a velocity of ≈7 km s-1. At 01:15 UT on April 10, a bright stripe appeared between the loops, and the flux in the GOES 0.5-4 Å channel increased. We interpret the loops’ sideways motion and the bright stripe as evidence of the breakout reconnection. At 01:45 UT, the loops below the X-point started to slowly move up. At 15:10 UT, the CME started to accelerate impulsively, while at the same time a flare arcade formed below the CME. After 15:50 UT, the CME moved with constant velocity. The CME evolution precisely followed the breakout model scenario.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reva, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Shestov, S. V.; Kuzin, S. V.


    We present experimental evidence of the coronal mass ejection (CME) breakout reconnection, observed by the TESIS EUV telescope. The telescope could observe solar corona up to 2 R ⊙ from the Sun center in the Fe 171 Å line. Starting from 2009 April 8, TESIS observed an active region (AR) that had a quadrupolar structure with an X-point 0.5 R ⊙ above photosphere. A magnetic field reconstructed from the Michelson Doppler Imager data also has a multipolar structure with an X-point above the AR. At 21:45 UT on April 9, the loops near the X-point started to move away from each other with a velocity of ≈7 km s −1 . At 01:15 UT on April 10, a bright stripe appeared between the loops, and the flux in the GOES 0.5–4 Å channel increased. We interpret the loops’ sideways motion and the bright stripe as evidence of the breakout reconnection. At 01:45 UT, the loops below the X-point started to slowly move up. At 15:10 UT, the CME started to accelerate impulsively, while at the same time a flare arcade formed below the CME. After 15:50 UT, the CME moved with constant velocity. The CME evolution precisely followed the breakout model scenario

  3. Modeling of EUV photoresists with a resist point spread function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, Jason P.; Naulleau, Patrick; Spanos, Costas J.


    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is under development for possible deployment at the 32-nm technology node. One active area of research in this field is the development of photoresists that can meet the stringent requirements (high resolution, high sensitivity, low LER, etc.) of lithography in this regime. In order to facilitate research in this and other areas related to EUV lithography, a printing station based upon the 0.3-NA Micro Exposure Tool (MET) optic was established at the Advanced Light Source, a synchrotron facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. A resist modeling technique using a resist point spread function has been shown to have good agreement with experiments for certain EUV resists such as Shipley EUV-2D [2]. The resist point spread function is a two-dimensional function that, when convolved with the simulated aerial image for a given mask pattern and applied to a threshold function, gives a representation of the photoresist pattern remaining after development. The simplicity of this modeling approach makes it attractive for rapid modeling of photoresists for process development applications. In this work, the resist point spread functions for three current high-resolution EUV photoresists [Rohm and Haas EUV-2D, Rohm and Haas MET-1K (XP 3454C), and KRS] are extracted experimentally. This model is then used in combination with aerial image simulations (including effects of projection optic aberrations) to predict the resist pattern for a variety of test patterns. A comparison is made between these predictions and experimental results to evaluate the effectiveness of this modeling technique for newer high-resolution EUV resists

  4. Pattern inspection of etched multilayer EUV mask (United States)

    Iida, Susumu; Hirano, Ryoichi; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Hidehiro


    Patterned mask inspection for an etched multilayer (ML) EUV mask was investigated. In order to optimize the mask structure from the standpoint of not only a pattern inspection by using a projection electron microscope (PEM), but also by considering the other fabrication processes using electron beam (EB) techniques such as CD metrology and mask repair, we employed a conductive layer between the ML and substrate. By measuring the secondary electron emission coefficients (SEECs) of the candidate materials for conductive layer, we evaluated the image contrast and the influence of charging effect. In the cases of 40-pair-ML, 16 nm sized extrusion and intrusion defects were found to be detectable more than 10 sigma in hp 44 nm, 40 nm, and 32 nm line and space (L/S) patterns. Reducing 40-pair-ML to 20-pair-ML degraded the image contrast and the defect detectability. However, by selecting B4C as a conductive layer, 16 nm sized defects remained detectable. These defects were also detected after the etched part was refilled with Si. Moreover, the simulation shows a high sensitivity for detecting the residual-type defects (etching residues). A double layer structure with 2.5-nm-thik B4C on metal film used as a conductive layer was found to have sufficient conductivity and also was found to be free from the surface charging effect and influence of native oxide.

  5. EUV photochemical production of unsaturated hydrocarbons: implications to EUV photochemistry in Titan and Jovian planets. (United States)

    Imanaka, Hiroshi; Smith, Mark A


    The EUV photochemistry of methane is one of the dominant chemical processes in the upper atmospheres of Titan and Jovian planets. The dilution of CH(4) with N(2) significantly changes the subsequent hydrocarbon chemistry initiated by EUV photoionization. At wavelengths below 80 nm, the presence of the dominant N(2) species in a N(2)/CH(4) gas mixture (=95/5) selectively enhances the formation of unsaturated hydrocarbons, such as benzene and toluene, while pure CH(4) gas leads to a wide mixture of saturated/unsaturated hydrocarbon species. This enhanced formation of unsaturated hydrocarbons is most likely initiated by the generation of CH(3)(+) via a dissociative charge-transfer reaction between N(2)(+) and CH(4). This mechanism was further confirmed with the dilution of CH(4) with Ar, which shows similarly enhanced formation of unsaturated species from an Ar/CH(4) (=95/5) gas mixture. In contrast, the depleted generation of unsaturated species from a H(2)/CH(4) gas mixture (=95/5) suggests that the CH(5)(+) ion generated via a proton-transfer reaction is not an important precursor in the production of complex unsaturated hydrocarbons. Therefore, it is the dissociative charge-transfer reaction of CH(4) that initiates the formation of unsaturated complex hydrocarbons through production of C(2)H(5)(+) with subsequent dissociative recombination. Implications regarding photochemistry in the upper atmospheres of Titan and the Jovian planets are discussed.

  6. Dynamics of radical ions of fluorinated polymer for Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) lithography (United States)

    Nomura, Naoya; Okamoto, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Kozawa, Takahiro; Fujiyoshi, Ryoko; Umegaki, Kikuo


    To realize extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography for mass production of semiconductor devices, enhancements of performance of chemically amplified resist have been still important issue. In EUV resist, radiation chemical reactions occur after irradiations of the EUV light. Dynamics of chemical intermediates of EUV resist after exposure to the ionizing radiations is important for understanding new resist design. Fluorinated resists have been developed for ArF, F2, and EUV lithography. Fluorinated polymers are effective to enhance the sensitivity of the EUV resist because F atom has higher absorptivity of EUV photons. However, the fluorination effect on the radiation chemical reactions in the resist has not been clarified in detail. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of radical ions of fluorinated polymers (FPs) by pulse radiolysis method and quantum chemical calculations to clarify the reaction mechanism for EUV lithography.

  7. Influence of post exposure bake time on EUV photoresist RLS trade-off (United States)

    Vesters, Yannick; De Simone, Danilo; De Gendt, Stefan


    To achieve high volume manufacturing, EUV photoresists need to push back the "RLS trade-off" by simultaneously improving Resolution, Line-Width Roughness and Sensitivity (exposure dose). Acid diffusion in chemically amplified resist is known to impact these performances. This work studies the diffusion of acid in chemically amplified resist by varying the post exposure bake duration while monitoring the evolution of CD and LWR for 6 chemically amplified EUV photoresists (CAR). We observed a first regime where both CD and LWR quickly decrease during the first 30s of post exposure bake (PEB). This can be related to the deprotection reaction taking place in the exposed part of the resist. After 60s the decrease in CD and LWR slows down significantly, likely related to a regime of acid diffusion from exposed to unexposed region, and acid-quencher neutralization at the interface of these two regions. We tested two resists with different protecting group and the one having lower activation energy shows a faster CD change in the second regime, resulting in a worsening of LWR for longer PEB time. On the contrary, a resist with a high quencher loading shows reduced net diffusion of acid towards the unexposed region and controls the resist edge profile. In other words longer PEB does not degrade LWR, but as it reduces the line CD, sensitivity is impacted. With an appropriate ratio selection of quencher to PAG, an EUV dose reduction of up to 12% can be achieved with a change from a standard 60 second to a 240 second PEB time, while keeping LWR and resolution constant and therefore pushing the RLS performances. Finally, we confirmed that the observations on positive tone development (PTD) resist could be applied to negative tone development (NTD) resist: with a high quencher NTD resist we observed a dose reduction of 8% for longer PEB time, keeping LWR and resolution constant.

  8. Design and Performance of the ICON EUV Spectrograph (United States)

    Sirk, Martin M.; Korpela, Eric J.; Ishikawa, Yuzo; Edelstein, Jerry; Wishnow, Edward H.; Smith, Christopher; McCauley, Jeremy; McPhate, Jason B.; Curtis, James; Curtis, Travis; Gibson, Steven R.; Jelinsky, Sharon; Lynn, Jeffrey A.; Marckwordt, Mario; Miller, Nathan; Raffanti, Michael; Van Shourt, William; Stephan, Andrew W.; Immel, Thomas J.


    We present the design, implementation, and on-ground performance measurements of the Ionospheric Connection Explorer EUV spectrometer, ICON EUV, a wide field (17°× 12°) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging spectrograph designed to observe the lower ionosphere at tangent altitudes between 100 and 500 km. The primary targets of the spectrometer, which has a spectral range of 54-88 nm, are the O ii emission lines at 61.6 nm and 83.4 nm. Its design, using a single optical element, permits a imaging resolution perpendicular to the spectral dispersion direction with a large (12° ) acceptance parallel to the dispersion direction while providing a slit-width dominated spectral resolution of R˜25 at 58.4 nm. Pre-flight calibration shows that the instrument has met all of the science performance requirements.

  9. LPP EUV source readiness for NXE 3300B (United States)

    Brandt, David C.; Fomenkov, Igor V.; Farrar, Nigel R.; La Fontaine, Bruno; Myers, David W.; Brown, Daniel J.; Ershov, Alex I.; Böwering, Norbert R.; Riggs, Daniel J.; Rafac, Robert J.; De Dea, Silvia; Peeters, Rudy; Meiling, Hans; Harned, Noreen; Smith, Daniel; Pirati, Alberto; Kazinczi, Robert


    Laser produced plasma (LPP) light sources have been developed as the primary approach for EUV scanner imaging of circuit features in sub-20nm devices in high volume manufacturing (HVM). This paper provides a review of development progress and readiness status for the LPP extreme-ultra-violet (EUV) source. We present the latest performance results from second generation sources, including Prepulse operation for high power, collector protection for long lifetime and low cost of ownership, and dose stability for high yield. Increased EUV power is provided by a more powerful drive laser and the use of Prepulse operation for higher conversion efficiciency. Advanced automation and controls have been developed to provide the power and energy stability performance required during production fab operation. We will also discuss lifetesting of the collector in Prepulse mode and show the ability of the debris mitigation systems to keep the collector multi-layer coating free from damage and maintain high reflectivity.

  10. EUVE spectroscopy of epsilon Canis Majoris (B2 II) from 70 to 730 A (United States)

    Cassinelli, J. P.; Cohen, D. H.; Macfarlane, J. J.; Drew, J. E.; Lynas-Gray, A. E.; Hoare, M. G.; Vallerga, J. V.; Welsh, B. Y.; Vedder, P. W.; Hubeny, I.


    We present spectra of the brightest stellar source of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation longward of 400 A, the B2 II star, epsilon CMa. These data were taken with the three spectrometers aboard the NASA Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite (EUVE) during the first cycle of pointed observations. We report on our initial studies of the continuum and line spectrum of the stellar photosphere in the 320 to 730 A region, and on the wind emission lines observed in the 170-375 A region. This is the first EUV spectrum of an early-type star, and thus makes epsilon CMa the most comprehensively observed B star from the X-ray to infrared regimes. The radiation in both the H Lyman continuum and He I continuum (shortward of 504 A) are found to be significantly greater than predicted by both Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE model atmospheres. Since epsilon CMa also exhibits a mid-infrared excess, this points to the outer layers being warmer than the models indicate. The anomalously large Lyman continuum flux, combined with the very low column density measured in the direction toward this star implies that it is the dominant source of hydrogen ionization of the local interstellar medium in the immediate vicinity of the sun. All of the lines predicted to be strong from model atmospheres are present and several wind absorption features are also identified. We have detected emission lines from highly ionized iron that are consistent with the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) observations if a multi-temperature emission model is used, and the assumption is made that there is significant absorption beyond that of the neutral phase of the ISM. The spectrum shows strong O III 374 A line emission produced by the Bowen flourescence mechanism, which has not previously been observed in the spectra of hot stars.

  11. Crystal Structure of VC0702 at 2.0 Angstrom: Conserved Hypothetical Protein from Vibrio Cholerae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni,S.; Forouhar, F.; Bussiere, D.; Robinson, H.; Kennedy, M.


    VC0702, a conserved hypothetical protein of unknown function from Vibrio cholerae, resides in a three-gene operon containing the MbaA gene that encodes for a GGDEF and EAL domain-containing protein which is involved in regulating formation of the extracellular matrix of biofilms in Vibrio cholerae. The VC0702 crystal structure has been determined at 2.0 Angstroms and refined to R{sub work} = 22.8% and R{sub free} = 26.3%. VC0702 crystallized in an orthorhombic crystal lattice in the C2221 space group with dimensions of a = 66.61 Angstroms, b = 88.118 Angstroms, and c = 118.35 Angstroms with a homodimer in the asymmetric unit. VC0702, which forms a mixed {alpha} + {beta} three-layered {alpha}{beta}{alpha} sandwich, belongs to the Pfam DUF84 and COG1986 families of proteins. Sequence conservation within the DUF84 and COG1986 families was used to identify a conserved patch of surface residues that define a cleft and potential substrate-binding site in VC0702. The three-dimensional structure of VC0702 is similar to that of Mj0226 from Methanococcus janeschii, which has been identified as a novel NTPase that binds NTP in a deep cleft similarly located to the conserved patch of surface residues that define an analogous cleft in VC0702. Collectively, the data suggest that VC0702 may have a biochemical function that involves NTP binding and phosphatase activity of some kind, and is likely involved in regulation of the signaling pathway that controls biofilm formation and maintenance in Vibrio cholerae.

  12. Crystal Structure of VC0702 at 2.0 Angstrom: Conserved Hypothetical Protein from Vibrio Cholerae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, S.; Forouhar, F.; Bussiere, D.; Robinson, H.; Kennedy, M.


    VC0702, a conserved hypothetical protein of unknown function from Vibrio cholerae, resides in a three-gene operon containing the MbaA gene that encodes for a GGDEF and EAL domain-containing protein which is involved in regulating formation of the extracellular matrix of biofilms in Vibrio cholerae. The VC0702 crystal structure has been determined at 2.0 Angstroms and refined to R work = 22.8% and R free = 26.3%. VC0702 crystallized in an orthorhombic crystal lattice in the C2221 space group with dimensions of a = 66.61 Angstroms, b = 88.118 Angstroms, and c = 118.35 Angstroms with a homodimer in the asymmetric unit. VC0702, which forms a mixed α + β three-layered αβα sandwich, belongs to the Pfam DUF84 and COG1986 families of proteins. Sequence conservation within the DUF84 and COG1986 families was used to identify a conserved patch of surface residues that define a cleft and potential substrate-binding site in VC0702. The three-dimensional structure of VC0702 is similar to that of Mj0226 from Methanococcus janeschii, which has been identified as a novel NTPase that binds NTP in a deep cleft similarly located to the conserved patch of surface residues that define an analogous cleft in VC0702. Collectively, the data suggest that VC0702 may have a biochemical function that involves NTP binding and phosphatase activity of some kind, and is likely involved in regulation of the signaling pathway that controls biofilm formation and maintenance in Vibrio cholerae

  13. Black Carbon, Aerosol optical depth and Angstrom Exponent in São Paulo, Brazil (United States)

    Miranda, R. M.; Perez-Martinez, P. J.; Andrade, M. D. F.


    Black carbon (BC) is a major absorber of solar radiation, and its impact on the radiative balance is therefore considered important. Fossil fuel combustion processes and biomass burning result in the emission of BC. Black carbon is being monitored since 2014 with a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer-MAAP (5012; Thermo Scientific) in the East Zone of São Paulo, Brazil. São Paulo Metropolitan Area with more than 19 million inhabitants, 7 million vehicles, has high concentrations of air pollutants, especially in the winter. Vehicles can be considered the principal source of particles emitted to the atmosphere. Concentration of the pollutant had an average of 1.95 ug.m-3 ± 2.06 and a maximum value of 19.93 ug.m-3. These large variations were due to meteorological effects and to the influence of anthropogenic activities, since samples were collected close to important highways. Winds coming from the East part predominate. Higher concentrations were found in the winter months (June, July and August). Optical data from AERONET (Aerosol Optical Depth-AOD 550 nm and Angstrom Exponent 440-675 nm) were related to BC concentrations for the period from August, 2016. Average values of AOD at 500 nm and Angstrom Parameter (440-675nm) were 0.16±0.11 and 1.44±0.23, respectively. Higher BC concentrations were related to lower Angstrom values.

  14. Design decisions from the history of the EUVE science payload (United States)

    Marchant, W.


    Some of the design issues that arose during the development of the EUVE science payload and solutions to the problems involved are examined. In particular, attention is given to the use of parallel and serial busses, the selection of the the ROM approach for software storage and execution, implementation of memory error detection and correction, and the selection of command structures. The early design decisions paid off in the timely delivery of the scientific payload and in the successful completion of the survey phase of the EUVE science mission.

  15. Energy effective dual-pulse bispectral laser for EUV lithography (United States)

    Zhevlakov, A. P.; Seisyan, R. P.; Bespalov, V. G.; Elizarov, V. V.; Grishkanich, A. S.; Kascheev, S. V.; Sidorov, I. S.


    The power consumption in the two-pulse bispectral primary source could be substantially decreased by replacing the SRS converters from 1.06 μm into 10.6 μm wavelength as the preamplifier cascades in CO2 laser channel at the same efficiency radiation of EUV source. The creation of high volume manufacturing lithography facilities with the technological standard of 10-20 nm is related to the implementation of resist exposure modes with pulse repetition rate of 100 kHz. Low power consumption of the proposed scheme makes it promising for the creation of LPP EUV sources.

  16. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) degradation of poly(olefin sulfone)s: Towards applications as EUV photoresists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, Kirsten; Blakey, Idriss; Blinco, James; Gronheid, Roel; Jack, Kevin; Pollentier, Ivan; Leeson, Michael J.; Younkin, Todd R.; Whittaker, Andrew K.


    Poly(olefin sulfone)s, formed by the reaction of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and an olefin, are known to be highly susceptible to degradation by radiation and thus have been identified as candidate materials for chain scission-based extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) resist materials. In order to investigate this further, the synthesis and characterisation of two poly(olefin sulfone)s namely poly(1-pentene sulfone) (PPS) and poly(2-methyl-1-pentene sulfone) (PMPS), was achieved and the two materials were evaluated for possible chain scission EUVL resist applications. It was found that both materials possess high sensitivities to EUV photons; however; the rates of outgassing were extremely high. The only observed degradation products were found to be SO 2 and the respective olefin suggesting that depolymerisation takes place under irradiation in a vacuum environment. In addition to depolymerisation, a concurrent conversion of SO 2 moieties to a sulfide phase was observed using XPS.

  17. Application of AERONET Single Scattering Albedo and Absorption Angstrom Exponent to Classify Dominant Aerosol Types during DRAGON Campaigns (United States)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Schafer, J.; Crawford, J. H.; Kim, J.; Sano, I.; Liew, S.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Chew, B. N.; Lim, H.; Smirnov, A.; Sorokin, M.; Kenny, P.; Slutsker, I.


    Aerosols can have major implications on human health by inducing respiratory diseases due to inhalation of fine particles from biomass burning smoke or industrial pollution and on radiative forcing whereby the presence of absorbing aerosol particles (e.g., black carbon) increases atmospheric heating. Aerosol classification techniques have utilized aerosol loading and aerosol properties derived from multi-spectral and multi-angle observations by ground-based (e.g., AERONET) and satellite instrumentation (e.g., MISR). Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data have been utilized to determine aerosol types by implementing various combinations of measured aerosol optical depth or retrieved size and absorption aerosol properties (e.g., Gobbi et al., 2007; Russell et al., 2010). Giles et al. [2012] showed single scattering albedo (SSA) relationship with extinction Angstrom exponent (EAE) can provide an estimate of the general classification of dominant aerosol types (i.e., desert dust, urban/industrial pollution, biomass burning smoke, and mixtures) based on data from ~20 AERONET sites located in known aerosol source regions. In addition, the absorption Angstrom exponent relationship with EAE can provide an indication of the dominant absorbing aerosol type such as dust, black carbon, brown carbon, or mixtures of them. These classification techniques are applied to the AERONET Level 2.0 quality assured data sets collected during Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observational Network (DRAGON) campaigns in Maryland (USA), Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Penang (Malaysia), and California (USA). An analysis of aerosol type classification for DRAGON sites is performed as well as an assessment of the spatial variability of the aerosol types for selected DRAGON campaigns. Giles, D. M., B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Sinyuk, A. Smirnov, I. Slutsker, R. R. Dickerson, A. M. Thompson, and J. S. Schafer (2012), An analysis of AERONET aerosol absorption properties and classifications

  18. Oxide Nanoparticle EUV (ONE) Photoresists: Current Understanding of the Unusual Patterning Mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jing


    © 2015 SPST. In the past few years, industry has made significant progress to deliver a stable high power EUV scanner and a 100 W light source is now being tested on the manufacuring scale. The success of a high power EUV source demands a fast and high resolution EUV resist. However, chemcially amplied resists encounter unprecedented challenges beyond the 22 nm node due to resolution, roughness and sensitivity tradeoffs. Unless novel solutions for EUV resists are proposed and further optimzed, breakthroughs can hardly be achieved. Oxide nanoparticle EUV (ONE) resists stablized by organic ligands were originally proposed by Ober et al. Recently this work attracts more and more attention due to its extraordinanry EUV sensitivity. This new class of photoresist utilizes ligand cleavage with a ligand exchange mechanism to switch its solubilty for dual-tone patterning. Therefore, ligand selection of the nanoparticles is extremely important to its EUV performance.

  19. CME Expansion as the Driver of Metric Type II Shock Emission as Revealed by Self-consistent Analysis of High-Cadence EUV Images and Radio Spectrograms (United States)

    Kouloumvakos, A.; Patsourakos, S.; Hillaris, A.; Vourlidas, A.; Preka-Papadema, P.; Moussas, X.; Caroubalos, C.; Tsitsipis, P.; Kontogeorgos, A.


    On 13 June 2010, an eruptive event occurred near the solar limb. It included a small filament eruption and the onset of a relatively narrow coronal mass ejection (CME) surrounded by an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wave front recorded by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) at high cadence. The ejection was accompanied by a GOES M1.0 soft X-ray flare and a Type-II radio burst; high-resolution dynamic spectra of the latter were obtained by the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l'Enregistrement Magnetique de l'Information Spectral (ARTEMIS IV) radio spectrograph. The combined observations enabled a study of the evolution of the ejecta and the EUV wave front and its relationship with the coronal shock manifesting itself as metric Type-II burst. By introducing a novel technique, which deduces a proxy of the EUV compression ratio from AIA imaging data and compares it with the compression ratio deduced from the band-split of the Type-II metric radio burst, we are able to infer the potential source locations of the radio emission of the shock on that AIA images. Our results indicate that the expansion of the CME ejecta is the source for both EUV and radio shock emissions. Early in the CME expansion phase, the Type-II burst seems to originate in the sheath region between the EUV bubble and the EUV shock front in both radial and lateral directions. This suggests that both the nose and the flanks of the expanding bubble could have driven the shock.

  20. SDO-EVE multiple EUV grating spectrograph (MEGS) optical design (United States)

    Crotser, David A.; Woods, Thomas N.; Eparvier, Francis G.; Ucker, Greg; Kohnert, Richard A.; Berthiaume, Gregory D.; Weitz, David M.


    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in 2008, incorporates a suite of instruments including the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE). The EVE instrument package contains grating spectrographs used to measure the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance from 0.1 to 105 nm. The Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph (MEGS) channels use concave reflection gratings to image solar spectra onto CCDs that are operated at -100°C. MEGS provides 0.1nm spectral resolution between 5-105nm every 10 seconds with an absolute accuracy of better than 25% over the SDO 5-year mission. MEGS-A utilizes a unique grazing-incidence, off-Rowland circle (RC) design to minimize angle of incidence at the detector while meeting high resolution requirements. MEGS-B utilizes a double-pass, cross-dispersed double-Rowland circle design. MEGS-P, a Ly-α monitor, will provide a proxy model calibration in the 60-105 nm range. Finally, the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM) channel will provide continual pointing information for EVE as well as low-resolution X-ray images of the sun. In-flight calibrations for MEGS will be provided by the on-board EUV Spectrophotometer (ESP) in the 0.1-7nm and 17-37nm ranges, as well as from annual under-flight rocket experiments. We present the methodology used to develop the MEGS optical design.

  1. Modular EUV Source for the next generation lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sublemontier, O.; Rosset-Kos, M.; Ceccotti, T.; Hergott, J.F.; Auguste, Th.; Normand, D.; Schmidt, M.; Beaumont, F.; Farcage, D.; Cheymol, G.; Le Caro, J.M.; Cormont, Ph.; Mauchien, P.; Thro, P.Y.; Skrzypczak, J.; Muller, S.; Marquis, E.; Barthod, B.; Gaurand, I.; Davenet, M.; Bernard, R.


    The present work, performed in the frame of the EXULITE project, was dedicated to the design and characterization of a laser-plasma-produced extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source prototype at 13.5 nm for the next generation lithography. It was conducted in cooperation with two laboratories from CEA, ALCATEL and THALES. One of our approach originalities was the laser scheme modularity. Six Nd:YAG laser beams were focused at the same time on a xenon filament jet to generate the EUV emitting plasma. Multiplexing has important industrial advantages and led to interesting source performances in terms of in-band power, stability and angular emission properties with the filament jet target. A maximum conversion efficiency (CE) value of 0.44% in 2π sr and 2% bandwidth was measured, which corresponds to a maximum in band EUV mean power of 7.7 W at a repetition rate of 6 kHz. The EUV emission was found to be stable and isotropic in these conditions. (authors)

  2. Study of EUV induced defects on few-layer graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, An; Rizo, P.J.; Zoethout, E.; Scaccabarozzi, L.; Lee, Christopher James; Banine, V.; Bijkerk, Frederik


    Defects in graphene greatly affect its properties1-3. Radiation induced-defects may reduce the long-term survivability of graphene-based nano-devices. Here, we expose few-layer graphene to extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 13.5nm) radiation and show there is a power-dependent increase in defect density. We

  3. Sub 20nm particle inspection on EUV mask blanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussink, P.G.W.; Volatier, J.B.; Walle, P. van der; Fritz, E.C.; Donck, J.C.J. van der


    The Rapid Nano is a particle inspection system developed by TNO for the qualification of EUV reticle handling equipment. The detection principle of this system is dark-field microscopy. The performance of the system has been improved via model-based design. Through our model of the scattering

  4. The EUV Spectrum of Sunspot Plumes Observed by SUMER on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. We present results from sunspot observations obtained by. SUMER on SOHO. In sunspot plumes the EUV spectrum differs from the quiet Sun; continua are observed with different slopes and intensities; emission lines from molecular hydrogen and many unidentified species indicate unique plasma conditions ...

  5. Intense X-ray and EUV light source (United States)

    Coleman, Joshua; Ekdahl, Carl; Oertel, John


    An intense X-ray or EUV light source may be driven by the Smith-Purcell effect. The intense light source may utilize intense electron beams and Bragg crystals. This may allow the intense light source to range from the extreme UV range up to the hard X-ray range.

  6. The EUV Spectrum of Sunspot Plumes Observed by SUMER on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2000) 21, .397-401. The EUV Spectrum of Sunspot Plumes Observed by SUMER on. SOHO. W. Curdt,. 1. B. N. Dwivedi. 2. & U. Feldman. 3. 1. Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie, D-37191, Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. 2. Department of Applied Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India.

  7. Benchmarking EUV mask inspection beyond 0.25 NA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Anderson, Erik H.; Rekawa, Seno B.; Kemp, Charles D.; Huh, S.; Han, H.-S.; Naulleau, P.; Gunion, R.F.


    The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is an EUV-wavelength mask inspection microscope designed for direct aerial image measurements, and pre-commercial EUV mask research. Operating on a synchrotron bending magnet beamline, the AIT uses an off-axis Fresnel zoneplate lens to project a high-magnification EUV image directly onto a CCD camera. We present the results of recent system upgrades that have improved the imaging resolution, illumination uniformity, and partial coherence. Benchmarking tests show image contrast above 75% for 100-nm mask features, and significant improvements and across the full range of measured sizes. The zoneplate lens has been replaced by an array of user-selectable zoneplates with higher magnification and NA values up to 0.0875, emulating the spatial resolution of a 0.35-NA 4 x EUV stepper. Illumination uniformity is above 90% for mask areas 2-(micro)m-wide and smaller. An angle-scanning mirror reduces the high coherence of the synchrotron beamline light source giving measured σ values of approximately 0.125 at 0.0875 NA

  8. Understanding the ion beam in EUV mask blank production (United States)

    Kearney, Patrick; Jindal, Vibhu; Weaver, Alfred; Teora, Pat; Sporre, John; Ruzic, David; Goodwin, Frank


    One of the major technical hurdles to be overcome before EUV lithography can enter high volume manufacturing is the amount of defects in EUV mask blanks, many of which occur during the EUV reflector deposition process. The technology currently used to deposit this reflector is ion beam sputter deposition. Understanding the properties of the ion beam and the nature of the plasma in the deposition chamber is therefore critical to understanding defect production mechanisms and subsequently eliminating them. In this work, we have studied how the source parameters influence ion beam divergence, its footprint on the target, and the amount of beam that misses the target and hits the shielding. By optimizing the source parameters, we can modulate certain target- and shield-specific defect types. We have compared our data with models of source performance and found general agreement, enabling the theory to be fine-tuned based on the results of the measurements. Models are being developed to better describe actual source performance. We have also investigated the plasma conditions the ion beam creates in the tool, which is crucial to understanding the transport of defects from their source to the mask. A well characterized ion beam and plasma will lead to process and tool changes that will ultimately reduce defect levels in EUV mask blanks.

  9. The EUVE Mission at UCB: Squeezing More From Less (United States)

    Stroozas, B. A.; Cullison, J. L.; McDonald, K. E.; Nevitt, R.; Malina, R. F.


    With 8 years on orbit, and over three years in an outsourced mode at U.C. Berkeley (UCB), NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) continues to be a highly mature and productive scientific mission. The EUVE satellite is extremely stable and exhibits little degradation in its original scientific capabilities, and science data return continues to be at the >99% level. The Project's very small, dedicated, innovative, and relatively cheap ( \\$1 million/year) support team at UCB continues to validate the success of NASA's outsourcing "experiment" while providing a very high science-per-dollar return on NASA's investment with no significant additional risk to the flight systems. The EUVE mission still has much more to offer in terms of important and exciting scientific discoveries as well as mission operations innovations. To highlight this belief the EUVE team at UCB continues to find creative ways to do more with less -- to squeeze the maximum out of available funds -- in NASA's "cheaper, better, faster" environment. This paper provides an overview of the EUVE mission's past, current, and potential future efforts toward automating and integrating its multi-functional data processing systems in proposal management, observation planning, mission operations and engineering, and the processing, archival, and delivery of raw telemetry and science data products. The paper will also discuss the creative allocation of the Project's few remaining personnel resources who support both core mission functions and new innovations, while at the same time minimizing overall risk and stretching the available budget. This work is funded through NASA/UCB Cooperative Agreement NCC5-138.

  10. [AOD and angstrom parameters of aerosols observed by the Chinese sun hazemeter network from August to December 2004]. (United States)

    Wang, Yue-si; Xin, Jin-yuan; Li, Zhan-qing; Wang, Pu-cai; Wang, Shi-gong; Wen, Tian-xue; Sun, Yang


    Atmospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD(lamda=500 nm)), Angstrom turbidity coefficient (beta) and Angstrom wavelength exponent (alpha) are obtained using the CERN sun hazemeter network from Aug to Dec, 2004. The results are as follows: At the Tibetan Plateau, Haibei and Lhasa, the mean of AOD is 0.09, 0.12; the mean of beta is 0.05, 0.13; the mean of a is 1.09, 0.06, respectively. At the Northeast of China, Hailun and Sanjiang, the mean of AOD is 0.14, 0.15; the mean of beta is 0.04, 0.06; the mean of a is 2.32, 1.58, respectively. At the desert region of North China, e.g., Fukang, Shapotou and Eerduosi, the range of averaged AOD is from 0.17 to 0.32; the range of averaged beta is from 0.09 to 0.19; the range of averaged a is from 1.28. At the forest areas, e.g. Changbai Mountain, Beijing forest and Xishuangbanna, the range of averaged AOD is from 0.19 to 0.42; the range of averaged beta is from 0.12 to 0.19; the range of averaged a is from 1.11 to 1.25. At agriculture areas, e.g. Shenyang, Fengqiu, Taoyuan and Yanting, the range of averaged AOD is from 0.34 to 0.68; the range of averaged beta is from 0.18 to 0.38; the range of averaged a is from 0.97 to 1.39. At the littoral areas and the lake of East China, e.g. Jiaozhou Bay, Shanghai City and Tai Lake, the range of averaged AOD is from 0.49 to 0.68; the range of averaged beta is from 0.21 to 0.29; the range of averaged a is from 1.24 to 1.37. At the inland cities, Beijing City and Lanzhou City, the mean of AOD is 0.47, 0.81; the mean of beta is 0.20, 0.45; the mean of a is 1.66, 0.89, respectively. The variations of aerosol properties at nineteen stations are explained in the paper.

  11. Experimental and theoretical study on emission spectra of a nitrogen photoionized plasma induced by intense EUV pulses (United States)

    Saber, Ismail; Bartnik, Andrzej; Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Jarocki, Roman; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Limpouch, Jiri


    Spectral lines of low-temperature nitrogen photoionized plasma were investigated. The photoionized plasma was created in the result of irradiation N2 gas using laser plasma EUV radiation pulses. The source was based on a 10J/10ns Nd:YAG (λ = 1064 nm) laser system and a gas puff target. The EUV radiation pulses were collected and focused using a grazing incidence multifoil EUV collector. The emission spectra were measured in the ultraviolet and visible (UV/Vis) range. It was found that the plasma emission lines in the lower region of the UV range are relativley weak. Nonetheless, a part of the spectra contains strong molecular band in the 300 - 430 nm originated from second positive and first negative systems band transitions of nitrogen. These molecular band transitions were identified using a code for study the diatomic molecules, LIFBASE. The vibrational band of Δv = 0 and ±1 transitions were significantly populated than of that with Δv = ±2 and 3 transitions. A comparison of the calculated and measured spectrum is presented. With an assumption of a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), the vibrational temperature was determined from the integrated band intensities with the help of the Boltzmann plot method and compared to the temperature predicted by SPECAIR and LIFBASE simulations. A summary of the results and the variations in the vibrational temperatures was discussed.

  12. Experimental and theoretical study on emission spectra of a nitrogen photoionized plasma induced by intense EUV pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Ismail


    Full Text Available Spectral lines of low-temperature nitrogen photoionized plasma were investigated. The photoionized plasma was created in the result of irradiation N2 gas using laser plasma EUV radiation pulses. The source was based on a 10J/10ns Nd:YAG (λ = 1064 nm laser system and a gas puff target. The EUV radiation pulses were collected and focused using a grazing incidence multifoil EUV collector. The emission spectra were measured in the ultraviolet and visible (UV/Vis range. It was found that the plasma emission lines in the lower region of the UV range are relativley weak. Nonetheless, a part of the spectra contains strong molecular band in the 300 - 430 nm originated from second positive and first negative systems band transitions of nitrogen. These molecular band transitions were identified using a code for study the diatomic molecules, LIFBASE. The vibrational band of Δv = 0 and ±1 transitions were significantly populated than of that with Δv = ±2 and 3 transitions. A comparison of the calculated and measured spectrum is presented. With an assumption of a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE, the vibrational temperature was determined from the integrated band intensities with the help of the Boltzmann plot method and compared to the temperature predicted by SPECAIR and LIFBASE simulations. A summary of the results and the variations in the vibrational temperatures was discussed.

  13. The EUV-observatory TESIS on board Coronas-Photon: scientific goals and initial plan of observations (United States)

    Bogachev, Sergey

    The TESIS a EUV-observatory for solar research from space will be launched in 2008 September on board the satellite Coronas-Photon from cosmodrome Plesetsk. TESIS is a project of Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Science with contribution from Space Research Center of Polish Academy of Science (the spectrometer SphinX). The experiment will focus on quasi-monochromatic imaging of the Sun and XUV spectroscopy of solar plasma. The scientific payload of TESIS contains five instruments: (1) Bragg crystal spectroheliometer for Sun monochromatic imaging in the line MgXII 8.42 A, (2) the normal-incidence Herschelian EUV telescopes with a resolution of 1.7 arc sec operated in lines FeXXII 133 A, FeIX 171 A and HeII 304 A, (3) the EUV imaging spectrometer, (4) the wide-field Ritchey-Chretien coronograph and (5) the X-ray spectrometer SphinX. The TESIS will focus on coordinated study of solar activity from the transition region to the outer corona up to 4 solar radii in wide temperature range from 5*104 to 2*107 K. We describe the scientific goals of the TESIS and its initial plan of observations.

  14. Mask characterization for CDU budget breakdown in advanced EUV lithography (United States)

    Nikolsky, Peter; Strolenberg, Chris; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nooitgedacht, Tjitte; Davydova, Natalia; Yang, Greg; Lee, Shawn; Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Insung; Yeo, Jeong-Ho


    As the ITRS Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) specification shrinks, semiconductor companies need to maintain a high yield of good wafers per day and a high performance (and hence market value) of finished products. This cannot be achieved without continuous analysis and improvement of on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for process control and optimization with better understanding of main contributors from the litho cluster: mask, process, metrology and scanner. In this paper we will demonstrate a study of mask CDU characterization and its impact on CDU Budget Breakdown (CDU BB) performed for an advanced EUV lithography with 1D and 2D feature cases. We will show that this CDU contributor is one of the main differentiators between well-known ArFi and new EUV CDU budgeting principles. We found that reticle contribution to intrafield CDU should be characterized in a specific way: mask absorber thickness fingerprints play a role comparable with reticle CDU in the total reticle part of the CDU budget. Wafer CD fingerprints, introduced by this contributor, may or may not compensate variations of mask CD's and hence influence on total mask impact on intrafield CDU at the wafer level. This will be shown on 1D and 2D feature examples in this paper. Also mask stack reflectivity variations should be taken into account: these fingerprints have visible impact on intrafield CDs at the wafer level and should be considered as another contributor to the reticle part of EUV CDU budget. We observed also MEEF-through-field fingerprints in the studied EUV cases. Variations of MEEF may also play a role for the total intrafield CDU and may be taken into account for EUV Lithography. We characterized MEEF-through-field for the reviewed features, the results to be discussed in our paper, but further analysis of this phenomenon is required. This comprehensive approach to characterization of the mask part of EUV CDU characterization delivers an accurate and integral CDU Budget

  15. Breaking the Attosecond, Angstrom and TV/M Field Barriers with Ultra-Fast Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenzweig, James; Andonian, Gerard; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Hemsing, Erik; Marcus, Gabriel; Marinelli, Agostino; Musumeci, Pietro; O' Shea, Brendan; O' Shea, Finn; Pellegrini, Claudio; Schiller, David; Travish, Gil; /UCLA; Bucksbaum, Philip; Hogan, Mark; Krejcik, Patrick; /SLAC; Ferrario, Massimo; /INFN, Rome; Full, Steven; /Penn State U.; Muggli, Patric; /Southern California U.


    Recent initiatives at UCLA concerning ultra-short, GeV electron beam generation have been aimed at achieving sub-fs pulses capable of driving X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) in single-spike mode. This use of very low Q beams may allow existing FEL injectors to produce few-100 attosecond pulses, with very high brightness. Towards this end, recent experiments at the LCLS have produced {approx}2 fs, 20 pC electron pulses. We discuss here extensions of this work, in which we seek to exploit the beam brightness in FELs, in tandem with new developments in cryogenic undulator technology, to create compact accelerator-undulator systems that can lase below 0.15 {angstrom}, or be used to permit 1.5 {angstrom} operation at 4.5 GeV. In addition, we are now developing experiments which use the present LCLS fs pulses to excite plasma wakefields exceeding 1 TV/m, permitting a table-top TeV accelerator for frontier high energy physics applications.

  16. Contribution of EUV mask CD variability on LCDU (United States)

    Qi, Zhengqing John; Rankin, Jed; Sun, Lei; Levinson, Harry


    The shrink in feature sizes enabled by EUV lithography introduces a regime where stochastic limits to resolution can manifest in the form of line edge roughness (LER) for line/space patterns and local critical dimension uniformity (LCDU) for contact/holes. To meet increasing tolerances on edge placement error (EPE) and suppression of stochastic effects, an understanding of EUV mask contributions on lithographic patterning variability is essential. The work here explores stochastic noise originating from the mask patterning process and attempts to quantify its contributions towards on-wafer LCDU. A semiempirical approach was used to statistically decompose the mask variability component from the measured LCDU and provide a first-order understanding of the mask's impact on wafer. Taking a more direct approach, a one-to-one correlation of local CD variation between mask and wafer was also experimentally shown, presenting the possibility for predicting the contributions and impact of mask LCDU on wafer prior to exposure.

  17. EUV source development for high-volume chip manufacturing tools (United States)

    Stamm, Uwe; Yoshioka, Masaki; Kleinschmidt, Jürgen; Ziener, Christian; Schriever, Guido; Schürmann, Max C.; Hergenhan, Guido; Borisov, Vladimir M.


    Xenon-fueled gas discharge produced plasma (DPP) sources were integrated into Micro Exposure Tools already in 2004. Operation of these tools in a research environment gave early learning for the development of EUV sources for Alpha and Beta-Tools. Further experiments with these sources were performed for basic understanding on EUV source technology and limits, especially the achievable power and reliability. The intermediate focus power of Alpha-Tool sources under development is measured to values above 10 W. Debris mitigation schemes were successfully integrated into the sources leading to reasonable collector mirror lifetimes with target of 10 billion pulses due to the effective debris flux reduction. Source collector mirrors, which withstand the radiation and temperature load of Xenon-fueled sources, have been developed in cooperation with MediaLario Technologies to support intermediate focus power well above 10 W. To fulfill the requirements for High Volume chip Manufacturing (HVM) applications, a new concept for HVM EUV sources with higher efficiency has been developed at XTREME technologies. The discharge produced plasma (DPP) source concept combines the use of rotating disk electrodes (RDE) with laser exited droplet targets. The source concept is called laser assisted droplet RDE source. The fuel of these sources has been selected to be Tin. The conversion efficiency achieved with the laser assisted droplet RDE source is 2-3x higher compared to Xenon. Very high pulse energies well above 200 mJ / 2π sr have been measured with first prototypes of the laser assisted droplet RDE source. If it is possible to maintain these high pulse energies at higher repetition rates a 10 kHz EUV source could deliver 2000 W / 2π sr. According to the first experimental data the new concept is expected to be scalable to an intermediate focus power on the 300 W level.

  18. A simple technique for estimating EUVE sky survey exposure times (United States)

    Carlisle, G. L.


    A simple way to estimate accumulated exposure time over the celestial sphere for a scanning telescope in earth orbit is described. Primary constraints on observation time, such as earth blockage, solar occultation, and passage through the South Atlantic Anomaly, are modeled using relatively straightforward, mainly closed-form geometrical solutions. The resulting algorithm is implemented on a desktop microcomputer. Though not rigorously precise, the algorithm is sufficient for conducting preliminary mission design studies for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE).

  19. The Diagnostics of the kappa-Distributions from EUV Spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dzifčáková, Elena; Kulinová, Alena


    Roč. 263, 1-2 (2010), s. 25-41 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1705 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/0069/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : EUV spectra * non- thermal distributions * plasma diagnostics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.386, year: 2010

  20. Anti-parallel filament flows and bright dots observed in the EUV with Hi-C (United States)

    Alexander, C. E.; Regnier, S.; Walsh, R. W.; Winebarger, A. R.; Cirtain, J. W.


    The Hi-C instrument imaged the million degree corona at the highest spatial and temporal resolution to date. The instrument imaged a complicated active region which contained several interesting features. Scientists at UCLan in the UK, in collaboration with other members of the Hi-C science team, studied two of these festures: anti-parallel filament flows and bright EUV dots. Plasma flows within prominences/filaments have been observed for many years and hold valuable clues concerning the mass and energy balance within these structures. Evidence of ';counter-steaming' flows has previously been inferred from these cool plasma observations but now, for the first time, these flows have been directly imaged along fundamental filament threads within the million degree corona (at 193 Å). We present observations of an active region filament observed with Hi-C that exhibits anti-parallel flows along adjacent filament threads. The ultra-high spatial and temporal resolution of Hi-C allow the anti-parallel flow velocities to be measured (70 - 80 km/s) and gives an indication of the resolvable thickness of the individual strands (0.8' × 0.1'). The temperature distribution of the plasma flows was estimated to be log T(K) = 5.45 × 0.10 using EM loci analysis. Short-lived, small brightenings sparkling at the edge of the active region, calle EUV Bright Dots (EBDs) were also investigated. EBDs have a characteristic duration of 25 s with a characteristic length of 680 km. These brightenings are not fully resolved by the SDO/AIA instrument at the same wavelength, but can however be identified with respect to the Hi-C location of the EBDs. In addition, EBDs are seen in other chromospheric/coronal channels of SDO/AIA suggesting a temperature between 0.5 and 1.5 MK. Based on a potential field extrapolation from an SDO/HMI magnetogram, the EBDs appear at the footpoints of large-scale trans-equatorial coronal loops. The Hi-C observations provide the first evidence of small-scale EUV

  1. EUV: induced ablation and surface modifications of solids (United States)

    Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, M.; Szczurek, A.; Wachulak, P.


    In this work results of investigations concerning ablation and surface modification of polymers and some other solids using a laser-plasma EUV source are presented. The plasma radiation was produced using a gas puff target and was focused with a gold-plated grazing incidence ellipsoidal collector. The ablation process was investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS). The chemical changes were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Different kinds of micro- and nanostructures created in nearsurface layers of the materials were obtained. Forms of the structures depend on a particular material and the EUV exposure. In case of some polymers even a single shot was sufficient for creation of the visible changes in surface morphology. In case of inorganic solids visible changes required usually the exposure with tens or hundreds of EUV pulses. XPS investigations revealed chemical changes in near surface layers of polymers. Significant differences were revealed in the XPS spectra acquired for irradiated and not-irradiated polymers. Significant decrease of functional groups containing oxygen was indicated. Analysis of QMS spectra indicate emission of different kinds of fragments of the polymer chains including the repeating structural units. In case of some polymers only fragments of the repeating unit were detected.

  2. Solar Tornadoes Triggered by Interaction between Filaments and EUV Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Huadong; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Suli [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yan, Xiaoli [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Xue, Jianchao, E-mail:, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Dark Matter and Space Science, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)


    We investigate the formations and evolutions of two successive solar tornadoes in/near AR 12297 during 2015 March 19–20. Recurrent EUV jets close to two filaments were detected along a large-scale coronal loop prior to the appearances of the tornadoes. Under the disturbances from the activities, the filaments continually ascended and finally interacted with the loops tracked by the jets. Subsequently, the structures of the filaments and the loop were merged together, probably via magnetic reconnections, and formed tornado-like structures with a long spiral arm. Our observations suggest that solar tornadoes can be triggered by the interaction between filaments and nearby coronal jets, which has rarely been reported before. At the earlier development phase of the first tornado, about 30 small-scale sub-jets appeared in the tornado’s arm, accompanied by local EUV brightenings. They have an ejection direction approximately vertical to the axis of the arm and a typical maximum speed of ∼280 km s{sup −1}. During the ruinations of the two tornadoes, fast plasma outflows from the strong EUV brightenings inside tornadoes are observed, in company with the untangling or unwinding of the highly twisted tornado structures. These observational features indicate that self reconnections probably occurred between the tangled magnetic fields of the tornadoes and resulted in the rapid disintegrations and disappearances of the tornadoes. According to the reconnection theory, we also derive the field strength of the tornado core to be ∼8 G.

  3. Solar Tornadoes Triggered by Interaction between Filaments and EUV Jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Huadong; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Suli; Yan, Xiaoli; Xue, Jianchao


    We investigate the formations and evolutions of two successive solar tornadoes in/near AR 12297 during 2015 March 19–20. Recurrent EUV jets close to two filaments were detected along a large-scale coronal loop prior to the appearances of the tornadoes. Under the disturbances from the activities, the filaments continually ascended and finally interacted with the loops tracked by the jets. Subsequently, the structures of the filaments and the loop were merged together, probably via magnetic reconnections, and formed tornado-like structures with a long spiral arm. Our observations suggest that solar tornadoes can be triggered by the interaction between filaments and nearby coronal jets, which has rarely been reported before. At the earlier development phase of the first tornado, about 30 small-scale sub-jets appeared in the tornado’s arm, accompanied by local EUV brightenings. They have an ejection direction approximately vertical to the axis of the arm and a typical maximum speed of ∼280 km s −1 . During the ruinations of the two tornadoes, fast plasma outflows from the strong EUV brightenings inside tornadoes are observed, in company with the untangling or unwinding of the highly twisted tornado structures. These observational features indicate that self reconnections probably occurred between the tangled magnetic fields of the tornadoes and resulted in the rapid disintegrations and disappearances of the tornadoes. According to the reconnection theory, we also derive the field strength of the tornado core to be ∼8 G.

  4. Solar Tornadoes Triggered by Interaction between Filaments and EUV Jets (United States)

    Chen, Huadong; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Suli; Yan, Xiaoli; Xue, Jianchao


    We investigate the formations and evolutions of two successive solar tornadoes in/near AR 12297 during 2015 March 19-20. Recurrent EUV jets close to two filaments were detected along a large-scale coronal loop prior to the appearances of the tornadoes. Under the disturbances from the activities, the filaments continually ascended and finally interacted with the loops tracked by the jets. Subsequently, the structures of the filaments and the loop were merged together, probably via magnetic reconnections, and formed tornado-like structures with a long spiral arm. Our observations suggest that solar tornadoes can be triggered by the interaction between filaments and nearby coronal jets, which has rarely been reported before. At the earlier development phase of the first tornado, about 30 small-scale sub-jets appeared in the tornado’s arm, accompanied by local EUV brightenings. They have an ejection direction approximately vertical to the axis of the arm and a typical maximum speed of ˜280 km s-1. During the ruinations of the two tornadoes, fast plasma outflows from the strong EUV brightenings inside tornadoes are observed, in company with the untangling or unwinding of the highly twisted tornado structures. These observational features indicate that self reconnections probably occurred between the tangled magnetic fields of the tornadoes and resulted in the rapid disintegrations and disappearances of the tornadoes. According to the reconnection theory, we also derive the field strength of the tornado core to be ˜8 G.

  5. Development of a EUV Test Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (United States)

    West, Edward; Pavelitz, Steve; Kobayashi, Ken; Robinson, Brian; Cirtain, Johnathan; Gaskin, Jessica; Winebarger, Amy


    This paper will describe a new EUV test facility that is being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to test EUV telescopes. Two flight programs, HiC - high resolution coronal imager (sounding rocket) and SUVI - Solar Ultraviolet Imager (GOES-R), set the requirements for this new facility. This paper will discuss those requirements, the EUV source characteristics, the wavelength resolution that is expected and the vacuum chambers (Stray Light Facility, Xray Calibration Facility and the EUV test chamber) where this facility will be used.

  6. Inner-Shell Photon-Ionized X-Ray Laser at 45(Angstrom)

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, F; Da Silva, A; Moon, S; Snavely, R


    This report summarizes the major accomplishments of this three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Lab Wide (LW) project entitled, ''An Inner-Shell Photo-Ionized X-Ray Laser at 45 (angstrom)'', tracking code 99-LW-042. The most significant accomplishments of this project include the design of a suitable x-ray laser target, the invention of a measurement technique for the determination of rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 femtoseconds, and a novel setup for generating a traveling wave with an ultrashort optical laser pulse. The pump probe technique for rise time measurement will allow us to detect ultrashort x-ray pulses, whose generation by means of a variety of 4th generation light sources is currently under planning elsewhere.

  7. Inner-Shell Photon-Ionized X-Ray Laser at 45(Angstrom)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, F; Celliers, P; Moon, S; Snavely, R; Da Silva, L


    This report summarizes the major accomplishments of this three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Lab Wide (LW) project entitled, ''An Inner-Shell Photo-Ionized X-Ray Laser at 45 (angstrom)'', tracking code 99-LW-042. The most significant accomplishments of this project include the design of a suitable x-ray laser target, the invention of a measurement technique for the determination of rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 femtoseconds, and a novel setup for generating a traveling wave with an ultrashort optical laser pulse. The pump probe technique for rise time measurement will allow us to detect ultrashort x-ray pulses, whose generation by means of a variety of 4th generation light sources is currently under planning elsewhere

  8. Near-ideal theoretical strength in gold nanowires containing angstrom scale twins (United States)

    Wang, Jiangwei; Sansoz, Frederic; Huang, Jianyu; Liu, Yi; Sun, Shouheng; Zhang, Ze; Mao, Scott X.


    Although nanoscale twinning is an effective means to enhance yield strength and tensile ductility in metals, nanotwinned metals generally fail well below their theoretical strength limit due to heterogeneous dislocation nucleation from boundaries or surface imperfections. Here we show that Au nanowires containing angstrom-scaled twins (0.7 nm in thickness) exhibit tensile strengths up to 3.12 GPa, near the ideal limit, with a remarkable ductile-to-brittle transition with decreasing twin size. This is opposite to the behaviour of metallic nanowires with lower-density twins reported thus far. Ultrahigh-density twins (twin thicknessdeformation represent a new type of size effect distinct from the sample size effects described previously. PMID:23612283

  9. Angstrom analysis with dynamic in-situ aberration corrected electron microscopy (United States)

    Gai, P. L.; Boyes, E. D.


    Following the pioneering development of atomic resolution in-situ environmental TEM (ETEM) for direct probing of gas-solid reactions, recent developments are presented of dynamic real time in-situ studies at the Angstrom level in an aberration corrected electron microscope. The in-situ data from Pt-Pd nanoparticles on carbon with the corresponding FFT/optical diffractogram (OD) illustrate an achieved resolution of biofuel catalysts under controlled calcinations conditions and quantified with catalytic reactivity and physico-chemical studies show the benefits in-situ aberration correction in unveiling the evolution of surface active sites necessary for the development efficient heterogeneous catalysts. The new results open up opportunities for dynamic studies of materials in an aberration corrected environment and direct future development activities.

  10. Quartz Microbalance Study of 400-angstrom Thick Films near the lambda Point (United States)

    Chan, Moses H. W.


    In a recent measurement we observed the thinning of an adsorbed helium film induced by the confinement of critical fluctuations a few millikelvin below the lambda point. A capacitor set-up was used to measure this Casimir effect. In this poster we will present our measurement of an adsorbed helium film of 400 angstroms near the lambda point with a quartz microbalance. For films this thick, we must take into account the non-linear dynamics of the shear waves in the fluid. In spite of the added complications, we were able to confirm the thinning of the film due to the Casimir effect and the onset of the superfluid transition. In addition, we observe a sharp anomaly at the bulk lambda point, most likely related to critical dissipation of the first sound. This work is carried out in collaboration with Rafael Garcia, Stephen Jordon and John Lazzaretti. This work is funded by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research under grant.

  11. Angstrom analysis with dynamic in-situ aberration corrected electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, P L; Boyes, E D


    Following the pioneering development of atomic resolution in-situ environmental TEM (ETEM) for direct probing of gas-solid reactions, recent developments are presented of dynamic real time in-situ studies at the Angstrom level in an aberration corrected electron microscope. The in-situ data from Pt-Pd nanoparticles on carbon with the corresponding FFT/optical diffractogram (OD) illustrate an achieved resolution of 0 C and higher, in a double aberration corrected JEOL 2200 FS TEM/STEM employing a wider gap objective pole piece and gas tolerant TMP column pumping system. Direct observations of dynamic biofuel catalysts under controlled calcinations conditions and quantified with catalytic reactivity and physico-chemical studies show the benefits in-situ aberration correction in unveiling the evolution of surface active sites necessary for the development efficient heterogeneous catalysts. The new results open up opportunities for dynamic studies of materials in an aberration corrected environment and direct future development activities.

  12. Absorption Angstrom Exponent in AERONET and related data as an indicator of aerosol composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Russell


    Full Text Available Recent results from diverse air, ground, and laboratory studies using both radiometric and in situ techniques show that the fractions of black carbon, organic matter, and mineral dust in atmospheric aerosols determine the wavelength dependence of absorption (often expressed as Absorption Angstrom Exponent, or AAE. Taken together, these results hold promise of improving information on aerosol composition from remote measurements. The main purpose of this paper is to show that AAE values for an Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET set of retrievals from Sun-sky measurements describing full aerosol vertical columns are also strongly correlated with aerosol composition or type. In particular, we find AAE values near 1 (the theoretical value for black carbon for AERONET-measured aerosol columns dominated by urban-industrial aerosol, larger AAE values for biomass burning aerosols, and the largest AAE values for Sahara dust aerosols. These AERONET results are consistent with results from other, very different, techniques, including solar flux-aerosol optical depth (AOD analyses and airborne in situ analyses examined in this paper, as well as many other previous results. Ambiguities in aerosol composition or mixtures thereof, resulting from intermediate AAE values, can be reduced via cluster analyses that supplement AAE with other variables, for example Extinction Angstrom Exponent (EAE, which is an indicator of particle size. Together with previous results, these results strengthen prospects for determining aerosol composition from space, for example using the Glory Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS, which seeks to provide retrievals of multiwavelength single-scattering albedo (SSA and aerosol optical depth (and therefore aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD and AAE, as well as shape and other aerosol properties. Multidimensional cluster analyses promise additional information content, for example by using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI to add AAOD

  13. Beam-foil study of neon in the EUV with foils of carbon, silver and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarest, J.A.; Watson, R.L.; Texas A and M Univ., College Station


    A beam-foil study of 40 MeV neon was conducted in the EUV with a 1-meter grazing incidence spectrometer configured with a position sensitive microchannel plate detector. A number of new lines of Ne IX, mainly from transitions to n = 3 levels, were detected in the wavelength region covering 50-350 A. Comparison of the spectra obtained using the different foils revealed that the average charge state of the neon projectiles was nearly one unit higher with carbon than with either of the two metals. Measurements of line intensities versus distance from the foils showed that cascade contributions were greatly reduced for the metals. It was also found that n = 3 states of low l were overpopulated relative to a statistical distribution, irrespective of the foil material. (orig.)

  14. Estimation and control of large-scale systems with an application to adaptive optics for EUV lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haber, A.


    Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) lithography is a new technology for production of integrated circuits. In EUV lithographic machines, optical elements are heated by absorption of exposure energy. Heating induces thermoelastic deformations of optical elements and consequently, it creates wavefront

  15. Diurnal variation of aerosol optical depth and angstrom exponent from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) Yonsei AErosol Retrieval (YAER) algorithm (United States)

    Choi, Myungje; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa


    Over the East Asia, aerosol optical properties (AOPs) can be changed very quickly and diversely during a day because mineral dust or heavy anthropogenic aerosol events occur sporadically and frequently. When severe aerosol event occurs from source region, long-range transported can be appeared over East Asia within one day so that multi-temporal satellite observation during a day is essential to detect aerosol diurnal variation in East Asia. Although it has been possible from previous meteorological sensors in geostationary earth orbit, only aerosol optical depth (AOD) at one channel can be retrieved and accuracy of retrieved AOD is worse than those of multi-channel sensors such as MODIS, SeaWiFS, or VIIRS because appropriate aerosol model selection is difficult using single channel information. The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) is one of sensor onboard COMS geostationary satellite. It has 8 channels in visible, which are similar with SeaWiFS and MODIS ocean color channels. It observes East Asia, including East China, Korean Peninsula, and Japan, hourly during the daytime (8 times observation in daytime). Because of geostationary and multi-channel characteristics, accurate AOPs such as AOD and Angstrom exponent (AE) can be retrieved from GOCI Yonsei Aerosol retrieval (YAER) algorithm as high spatial (6 km x 6 km) and temporal (1 hour) resolution. In this study, GOCI YAER AOD and AE are compared with those from AERONET (ground-based observation) and MODIS Collection 6 Dark Target and Deep Blue algorithm (satellite-based observation) as high frequency time series during a day and few days over AERONET sites. This can show the accuracy of GOCI YAER algorithm in compare with AERONET. In specific transport cases such as dust or haze, instantaneous increase of AOD and change of aerosol size from AE can be also detect from GOCI. These GOCI YEAR products can be used effectively as input observation data of air-quality monitoring and forecasting.

  16. Enhancing EUV mask blanks usability through smart shift and blank-design pairing optimization (United States)

    Soni, Rakesh Kumar; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Pereira, Mark; Buck, Peter; Thwaite, Peter


    EUV Defect avoidance techniques will play a vital role in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) photomask fabrication with the anticipation that defect free mask blanks won't be available and that cost effective techniques will not be available for defect repairing. In addition, mask shops may not have a large inventory of expensive EUV mask blanks. Given these facts, defect avoidance can be used as cost effective technique to optimize the mask blank and design data (mask data) pair selection across mask blank manufacturers and mask shops so that overall mask blank utilization can be enhanced. In previous work, it was determined that the pattern shift based solution increases the chance that a defective mask blank can be used that would otherwise be discarded [1]. In pattern shift, design data is shifted such that defects are either moved to isolated regions or hidden under the patterns that are written. However pattern shifts techniques don't perform well with masks with higher defect counts. Pattern shift techniques in this form assume all defects to be equally critical. In addition, a defect is critical or important only if it lands on the main pattern. A defect landing on fill, sub-resolution assist feature (SRAF) or fiducial areas may not be critical. In this paper we assess the performance of pattern shift techniques assuming defects that are not critical based upon size or type, as well as defects landing in non-critical areas (smart shift) can be ignored. In a production mask manufacturing environment it is necessary to co-optimize and prioritize blank-design pairing for multiple mask layouts in the queue with the available blanks. A blank-design pairing tool maximizes the utilization of blanks by finding the best pairing between blanks and design data so that the maximum number of mask blanks can be used. In this paper we also propose a novel process which would optimize the usage of costly EUV mask blanks across mask blank manufacturers and mask shops

  17. EUV spectrum of highly charged tungsten ions in electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaue, H.A.; Kato, D.; Murakami, I.; Nakamura, N.


    We present spectra of highly charged tungsten ions in the extreme ultra-violet (EUV) by using electron beam ion traps. The electron energy dependence of spectra was investigated for electron energy from 540 to 1370 eV. Previously unreported lines were presented in the EUV range, and comparing the wavelengths with theoretical calculations identified them. (author)

  18. Multichannel euv spectroscopy of high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, R.J.


    Spectroscopy of magnetically confined high temperature plasmas in the visible through x-ray spectral ranges deals primarily with the study of impurity line radiation or continuum radiation. Detailed knowledge of absolute intensities, temporal behavior, and spatial distributions of the emitted radiation is desired. As tokamak facilities become more complex, larger, and less accessible, there has been an increased emphasis on developing new instrumentation to provide such information in a minimum number of discharges. The availability of spatially-imaging detectors for use in the vacuum ultraviolet region (especially the intensified photodiode array) has generated the development of a variety of multichannel spectrometers for applications on tokamak facilities


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    We list wavelengths, statistical weigths and oscillator strengths for 2249 spectral lines arising from the ground states of atoms and ions. The compilation covers all wavelengths longward of the HeII Lyman limit at 227.838 Angstrom and all the ion states of all elements from hydrogen to bismuth (Z =

  20. EUV lithography for 22nm half pitch and beyond: exploring resolution, LWR, and sensitivity tradeoffs (United States)

    Putna, E. Steve; Younkin, Todd R.; Leeson, Michael; Caudillo, Roman; Bacuita, Terence; Shah, Uday; Chandhok, Manish


    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) denotes Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) lithography as a leading technology option for realizing the 22nm half pitch node and beyond. According to recent assessments made at the 2010 EUVL Symposium, the readiness of EUV materials remains one of the top risk items for EUV adoption. The main development issue regarding EUV resists has been how to simultaneously achieve high resolution, high sensitivity, and low line width roughness (LWR). This paper describes our strategy, the current status of EUV materials, and the integrated post-development LWR reduction efforts made at Intel Corporation. Data collected utilizing Intel's Micro- Exposure Tool (MET) is presented in order to examine the feasibility of establishing a resist process that simultaneously exhibits <=22nm half-pitch (HP) L/S resolution at <=11.3mJ/cm2 with <=3nm LWR.

  1. From powerful research platform for industrial EUV photoresist development, to world record resolution by photolithography: EUV interference lithography at the Paul Scherrer Institute (United States)

    Buitrago, Elizabeth; Fallica, Roberto; Fan, Daniel; Karim, Waiz; Vockenhuber, Michaela; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A.; Ekinci, Yasin


    Extreme ultraviolet interference lithography (EUV-IL, λ = 13.5 nm) has been shown to be a powerful technique not only for academic, but also for industrial research and development of EUV materials due to its relative simplicity yet record high-resolution patterning capabilities. With EUV-IL, it is possible to pattern high-resolution periodic images to create highly ordered nanostructures that are difficult or time consuming to pattern by electron beam lithography (EBL) yet interesting for a wide range of applications such as catalysis, electronic and photonic devices, and fundamental materials analysis, among others. Here, we will show state-of the-art research performed using the EUV-IL tool at the Swiss Light Source (SLS) synchrotron facility in the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). For example, using a grating period doubling method, a diffraction mask capable of patterning a world record in photolithography of 6 nm half-pitch (HP), was produced. In addition to the description of the method, we will give a few examples of applications of the technique. Well-ordered arrays of suspended silicon nanowires down to 6.5 nm linewidths have been fabricated and are to be studied as field effect transistors (FETs) or biosensors, for instance. EUV achromatic Talbot lithography (ATL), another interference scheme that utilizes a single grating, was shown to yield well-defined nanoparticles over large-areas with high uniformity presenting great opportunities in the field of nanocatalysis. EUV-IL is in addition, playing a key role in the future introduction of EUV lithography into high volume manufacturing (HVM) of semiconductor devices for the 7 and 5 nm logic node (16 nm and 13 nm HP, respectively) and beyond while the availability of commercial EUV-tools is still very much limited for research.

  2. EUV ablation of organic polymers at a high fluence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liberatore, Chiara; Mann, K.; Müller, M.; Pina, L.; Juha, Libor; Rocca, J.J.; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomáš


    Roč. 2, e26 (2014), s. 1-5 ISSN 2095-4719 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0143 Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : EUV ablation * organic polymer * photo-erosion mechanisms * wavelength effect Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  3. Optimized qualification protocol on particle cleanliness for EUV mask infrastructure (United States)

    van der Donck, J. C. J.; Stortelder, J. K.; Derksen, G. B.


    With the market introduction of the NXE:3100, Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography (EUVL) enters a new stage. Now infrastructure in the wafer fabs must be prepared for new processes and new materials. Especially the infrastructure for masks poses a challenge. Because of the absence of a pellicle reticle front sides are exceptionally vulnerable to particles. It was also shown that particles on the backside of a reticle may cause tool down time. These effects set extreme requirements to the cleanliness level of the fab infrastructure for EUV masks. The cost of EUV masks justifies the use of equipment that is qualified on particle cleanliness. Until now equipment qualification on particle cleanliness have not been carried out with statistically based qualification procedures. Since we are dealing with extreme clean equipment the number of observed particles is expected to be very low. These particle levels can only be measured by repetitively cycling a mask substrate in the equipment. Recent work in the EUV AD-tool presents data on added particles during load/unload cycles, reported as number of Particles per Reticle Pass (PRP). In the interpretation of the data, variation by deposition statistics is not taken into account. In measurements with low numbers of added particles the standard deviation in PRP number can be large. An additional issue is that particles which are added in the routing outside the equipment may have a large impact on the testing result. The number mismatch between a single handling step outside the tool and the multiple cycling in the equipment makes accuracy of measurements rather complex. The low number of expected particles, the large variation in results and the combined effect of added particles inside and outside the equipment justifies putting good effort in making a test plan. Without a proper statistical background, tests may not be suitable for proving that equipment qualifies for the limiting cleanliness levels. Other risks are that a

  4. Erosion resistant nozzles for laser plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sources (United States)

    Kubiak, Glenn D.; Bernardez, II, Luis J.


    A gas nozzle having an increased resistance to erosion from energetic plasma particles generated by laser plasma sources. By reducing the area of the plasma-facing portion of the nozzle below a critical dimension and fabricating the nozzle from a material that has a high EUV transmission as well as a low sputtering coefficient such as Be, C, or Si, it has been shown that a significant reduction in reflectance loss of nearby optical components can be achieved even after exposing the nozzle to at least 10.sup.7 Xe plasma pulses.

  5. Discharge plasmas as EUV Sources for Future Micro Lithography (United States)

    Kruecken, Thomas


    Future extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography will require very high radiation intensities in a narrow wavelength range around 13.5 nm, which is most efficiently emitted as line radiation by highly ionized heavy particles. Currently the most intense EUV sources are based on xenon or tin gas discharges. After having investigated the limits of a hollow cathode triggered xenon pinch discharge Philips Extreme UV favors a laser triggered tin vacuum spark discharge. Plasma and radiation properties of these highly transient discharges will be compared. Besides simple MHD-models the ADAS software package has been used to generate important atomic and spectral data of the relevant ion stages. To compute excitation and radiation properties, collisional radiative equilibria of individual ion stages are computed. For many lines opacity effects cannot be neglected. In the xenon discharges the optical depths allow for a treatment based on escape factors. Due to the rapid change of plasma parameters the abundancies of the different ionization stages must be computed dynamically. This requires effective ionization and recombination rates, which can also be supplied by ADAS. Due to very steep gradients (up to a couple orders of magnitude per mm) the plasma of tin vacuum spark discharges is very complicated. Therefore we shall describe here only some technological aspects of our tin EUV lamp: The electrode system consists of two rotating which are pulled through baths of molten tin such that a tin film remains on their surfaces. With a laser pulse some tin is ablated from one of the wheels and travels rapidly through vacuum towards the other rotating wheel. When the tin plasma reaches the other electrodes it ignites and the high current phase starts, i.e. the capacitor bank is unloaded, the plasma is pinched and EUV is radiated. Besides the good spectral properties of tin this concept has some other advantages: Erosion of electrodes is no severe problem as the tin film is

  6. Oxidation resistance of Ru-capped EUV multilayers (United States)

    Bajt, Sasa; Dai, Zu Rong; Nelson, Erik J.; Wall, Mark A.; Alameda, Jennifer; Nguyen, Nhan; Baker, Sherry; Robinson, Jeffrey C.; Taylor, John S.; Clift, Miles; Aquila, Andy; Gullikson, Eric M.; Edwards, N. V. Ginger


    Differently prepared Ru-capping layers, deposited on Mo/Si EUV multilayers, have been characterized using a suite of metrologies to establish their baseline structural, optical, and surface properties in as-deposited state. The same capping layer structures were tested for their thermal stability and oxidation resistance. Post-mortem characterization identified changes due to accelerated tests. The best performing Ru-capping layer structure was studied in detail with transmission electron microscopy to identify the grain microstructure and texture. This information is essential for modeling and performance optimization of EUVL multilayers.

  7. Surface modification by EUV laser beam based on capillary discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, Oleksandr; Koláček, Karel; Schmidt, Jiří; Štraus, Jaroslav; Prukner, Václav; Shukurov, A.

    -, č. 58 (2011), s. 484-487 ISSN 2010-376X. [International Conference on Fusion and Plasma Physics. Bali, Indonésie, 26.10.2011-28.10.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100702; GA MŠk LA08024; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : soft x-ray * EUV * laser * radiation * source * capillary * discharge * plasma * ablation * surface modification Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  8. Estimation of monthly Angstrom-Prescott equation coefficients from measured daily data in Toledo, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almorox, J.; Hontoria, C. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Dpto. De Edafologia; Benito, M. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Dpto. De Silvopasicultura


    In this study, daily global radiation for Toledo (39{sup o}53'05''N, 4{sup o}02'58''W, Spain) were utilized to determine monthly-specific equations for estimating global solar radiation from sunshine hours and to obtain improved fits to monthly Angstrom-Prescott's coefficients. Models were compared using the root mean square error (RMSE), the mean bias error (MBE) and the t-statistic. According to our results, all the models fitted the data adequately and can be used to estimate the specific monthly global solar radiation. Average RMSE and MBE for comparison between observed and estimated global radiation were 1.260 and -0.002 MJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, respectively. The t-statistic was used as the best indicator, this indicator depends on both, and is more effective for determining the model performance. The agreement between the estimated and the measured data were remarkable and the method was recommended for use in Toledo (Spain). (author)

  9. The 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of cholera toxin B subunit pentamer: Choleragenoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rong-Guang; Westbrook, M.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Maulik, P.R.; Reed, R.A.; Shipley, G. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). School of Medicine; Westbrook, E.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Scott, D.L.; Otwinowski, Z. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)


    Cholera toxin, a heterohexameric AB{sub 5} enterotoxin released by Vibrio cholera, induces a profuse secretory diarrhea in susceptible hosts. Choleragenoid, the B subunit pentamer of cholera toxin, directs the enzymatic A subunit to its target by binding to GM{sub 1} gangliosides exposed on the luminal surface of intestinal epithelial cells. We have solved the crystal structure of choleragenoid at 2.3 {Angstrom} resolution by combining single isomorphous replacement with non-crystallographic symmetry averaging. The structure of the B subunits, and their pentameric arrangement, closely resembles that reported for the intact holotoxin (choleragen), the heat-labile enterotoxin from E. coli, and for a choleragenoid-GM{sub 1} pentasaccharide complex. In the absence of the A subunit the central cavity of the B pentamer is a highly solvated channel. The binding of the A subunit or the receptor pentasaccharide to choleragenoid has only a modest effect on the local stereochemistry and does not perceptibly alter the subunit interface.

  10. Contrast matching of line gratings obtained with NXE3XXX and EUV- interference lithography (United States)

    Tasdemir, Zuhal; Mochi, Iacopo; Olvera, Karen Garrido; Meeuwissen, Marieke; Yildirim, Oktay; Custers, Rolf; Hoefnagels, Rik; Rispens, Gijsbert; Fallica, Roberto; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin


    Extreme UV lithography (EUVL) has gained considerable attention for several decades as a potential technology for the semiconductor industry and it is now close to being adopted in high-volume manufacturing. At Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), we have focused our attention on EUV resist performance issues by testing available high-performance EUV resists in the framework of a joint collaboration with ASML. For this purpose, we use the grating-based EUV-IL setup installed at the Swiss Light Source (SLS) at PSI, in which a coherent beam with 13.5 nm wavelength is used to produce a periodic aerial image with virtually 100% contrast and large depth of focus. Interference lithography is a relatively simple technique and it does not require many optical components, therefore the unintended flare is minimized and the aerial image is well-defined sinusoidal pattern. For the collaborative work between PSI and ASML, exposures are being performed on the EUV-IL exposure tool at PSI. For better quantitative comparison to the NXE scanner results, it is targeted to determine the actual NILS of the EUV-IL exposure tool at PSI. Ultimately, any resist-related metrology must be aligned and compared with the performance of EUV scanners. Moreover, EUV-IL is a powerful method for evaluating the resist performance and a resist which performs well with EUV-IL, shows, in general, also good performance with NXE scanners. However, a quantitative prediction of the performance based on EUV-IL measurements has not been possible due to the differences in aerial image formation. In this work, we aim to study the performance of EUV resists with different aerial images. For this purpose, after the real interference pattern exposure, we overlay a flat field exposure to emulate different levels of contrast. Finally, the results are compared with data obtained from EUV scanner. This study will enable not only match the data obtained from EUV- IL at PSI with the performance of NXE scanners, but also a

  11. Segmentation of photospheric magnetic elements corresponding to coronal features to understand the EUV and UV irradiance variability (United States)

    Zender, J. J.; Kariyappa, R.; Giono, G.; Bergmann, M.; Delouille, V.; Damé, L.; Hochedez, J.-F.; Kumara, S. T.


    Context. The magnetic field plays a dominant role in the solar irradiance variability. Determining the contribution of various magnetic features to this variability is important in the context of heliospheric studies and Sun-Earth connection. Aims: We studied the solar irradiance variability and its association with the underlying magnetic field for a period of five years (January 2011-January 2016). We used observations from the Large Yield Radiometer (LYRA), the Sun Watcher with Active Pixel System detector and Image Processing (SWAP) on board PROBA2, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Methods: The Spatial Possibilistic Clustering Algorithm (SPoCA) is applied to the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations obtained from the AIA to segregate coronal features by creating segmentation maps of active regions (ARs), coronal holes (CHs) and the quiet sun (QS). Further, these maps are applied to the full-disk SWAP intensity images and the full-disk (FD) HMI line-of-sight (LOS) magnetograms to isolate the SWAP coronal features and photospheric magnetic counterparts, respectively. We then computed full-disk and feature-wise averages of EUV intensity and line of sight (LOS) magnetic flux density over ARs/CHs/QS/FD. The variability in these quantities is compared with that of LYRA irradiance values. Results: Variations in the quantities resulting from the segmentation, namely the integrated intensity and the total magnetic flux density of ARs/CHs/QS/FD regions, are compared with the LYRA irradiance variations. We find that the EUV intensity over ARs/CHs/QS/FD is well correlated with the underlying magnetic field. In addition, variations in the full-disk integrated intensity and magnetic flux density values are correlated with the LYRA irradiance variations. Conclusions: Using the segmented coronal features observed in the EUV wavelengths as proxies to isolate the underlying

  12. EUV observation from the Earth-orbiting satellite, EXCEED (United States)

    Yoshioka, K.; Murakami, G.; Yoshikawa, I.; Ueno, M.; Uemizu, K.; Yamazaki, A.


    An Earth-orbiting small satellite “EXtreme ultraviolet spectrosCope for ExosphEric Dynamics” (EXCEED) which will be launched in 2012 is under development. The mission will carry out spectroscopic and imaging observation of EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet: 60-145 nm) emissions from tenuous plasmas around the planets (Venus, Mars, Mercury, and Jupiter). It is essential for EUV observation to put on an observing site outside the Earth’s atmosphere to avoid the absorption. It is also essential that the detection efficiency must be very high in order to catch the faint signals from those targets. In this mission, we employ cesium iodide coated microchannel plate as a 2 dimensional photon counting devise which shows 1.5-50 times higher quantum detection efficiency comparing with the bared one. We coat the surface of the grating and entrance mirror with silicon carbides by the chemical vapor deposition method in order to archive the high diffraction efficiency and reflectivity. The whole spectrometer is shielded by the 2 mm thick stainless steel to prevent the contamination caused by the high energy electrons from the inner radiation belt. In this paper, we will introduce the mission overview, its instrument, and their performance.

  13. Development of Al-based multilayer optics for EUV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meltchakov, E.; Hecquet, C.; Rossi, S. de; Menesguen, Y.; Jerome, A.; Bridou, F.; Varniere, F.; Ravet-Krill, M.F.; Delmotte, F. [Institut d' Optique Graduate School, Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Palaiseau (France); Roulliay, M. [Laboratoire d' Interaction du rayonnement X avec la Matiere (LIXAM), Orsay (France)


    We report on the development of multilayer optics for the extreme ultra-violet (EUV) range. The optical performance of Al-based multilayer mirrors is discussed with regard to promising reflectivity and selectivity characteristics and the problems of the interfacial roughness for this type of multilayers. We demonstrate a possibility to reduce the average roughness by introducing additional metal layer (W or Mo) rather than depositing a buffer layer at each interface. We have prepared and tested Al/SiC, Al/W/SiC and Al/Mo/SiC multilayers of various periods for the spectral range from 15 to 40 nm, which is the range of increasing interest for high-order harmonic generation, synchrotron radiation and astrophysics. The structure of the three-component systems has been optimized in order to obtain the best reflectivity for each wavelength within the spectral range. We have shown that introduction of refractory metal in Al-based periodic stack can improve the optical performance of multilayer reflecting coatings designed for the EUV applications. (orig.)

  14. Overcoming etch challenges related to EUV based patterning (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Metz, Andrew W.; Cottle, Hongyun; Honda, Masanobu; Morikita, Shinya; Kumar, Kaushik A.; Biolsi, Peter


    Research and development activities related to Extreme Ultra Violet [EUV] defined patterning continue to grow for plasma etch trade-offs related to traditional approaches of PR smoothing, descum implementation and maintaining 2D aspect ratios of short lines or elliptical contacts concurrent with ultra-high photo resist [PR] selectivity. In this paper we will discuss sources of LER/LWR, impact of material choice, integration, and innovative plasma process techniques and describe how TELTM VigusTM CCP Etchers can enhance PR selectivity, reduce LER/LWR, and maintain 2D aspect ratio of incoming patterns. Beyond traditional process approaches this paper will show the utility of: [1] DC Superposition in enhancing EUV resist hardening and selectivity, increasing resistance to stress induced PR line wiggle caused by CFx passivation, and mitigating organic planarizer wiggle; [2] Quasi Atomic Layer Etch [Q-ALE] for ARC open eliminating the tradeoffs between selectivity, CD, and shrink ratio control; and [3] ALD+Etch FUSION technology for feature independent CD shrink and LER reduction. Applicability of these concepts back transferred to 193i based lithography is also confirmed.

  15. Microfield exposure tool enables advances in EUV lithography development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naulleau, Patrick


    With demonstrated resist resolution of 20 nm half pitch, the SEMATECH Berkeley BUV microfield exposure tool continues to push crucial advances in the areas of BUY resists and masks. The ever progressing shrink in computer chip feature sizes has been fueled over the years by a continual reduction in the wavelength of light used to pattern the chips. Recently, this trend has been threatened by unavailability of lens materials suitable for wavelengths shorter than 193 nm. To circumvent this roadblock, a reflective technology utilizing a significantly shorter extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength (13.5 nm) has been under development for the past decade. The dramatic wavelength shrink was required to compensate for optical design limitations intrinsic in mirror-based systems compared to refractive lens systems. With this significant reduction in wavelength comes a variety of new challenges including developing sources of adequate power, photoresists with suitable resolution, sensitivity, and line-edge roughness characteristics, as well as the fabrication of reflection masks with zero defects. While source development can proceed in the absence of available exposure tools, in order for progress to be made in the areas of resists and masks it is crucial to have access to advanced exposure tools with resolutions equal to or better than that expected from initial production tools. These advanced development tools, however, need not be full field tools. Also, implementing such tools at synchrotron facilities allows them to be developed independent of the availability of reliable stand-alone BUY sources. One such tool is the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool (MET). The most unique attribute of the SEMA TECH Berkeley MET is its use of a custom-coherence illuminator made possible by its implementation on a synchrotron beamline. With only conventional illumination and conventional binary masks, the resolution limit of the 0.3-NA optic is approximately 25 nm, however

  16. Physical and chemical modifications of PET surface using a laser-plasma EUV source (United States)

    Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, M.; Biliński, A.; Chernyayeva, O.; Sobczak, J. W.


    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is the electromagnetic radiation ranging from vacuum ultraviolet to soft X-rays. A single EUV photon carries enough energy to ionize any atom or molecule. The penetration depth of the radiation in any material is very short, ranging from tens to hundreds nanometers. Intense EUV pulses can remove material from the surface or modify its morphology or/and chemical structure. In this work, the radiation from a laser-plasma EUV source based on a double-stream gas-puff target was used for surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The PET samples were irradiated with the EUV pulses emitted from krypton plasma and focused with a gold-plated ellipsoidal collector. The spectrum of the focused radiation covered the wavelength range from 9 to 70 nm. The PET samples were irradiated for 1 s-2 min at a 10-Hz repetition rate. Surface morphology of polymer samples after irradiation was investigated using a scanning electron microscope. Changes in chemical surface structure of the irradiated samples were investigated using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Different kinds of surface microstructures were obtained depending on the EUV fluence in a single pulse and the total EUV fluence. XPS measurements also revealed a modification of the chemical structure.

  17. Advances Toward Inner-Shell Photo-Ionization X-Ray Lasing at 45 (Angstrom)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S. J.; Weber, F. A.; Celliers, P. M.; Eder, D. C.


    The inner-shell photo-ionization (ISPI) scheme requires photon energies at least high enough to photo-ionize the K-shell. ∼286 eV, in the case of carbon. As a consequence of the higher cross-section, the inner-shell are selectively knocked out, leaving a hole state 1s2s 2 2p 2 in the singly charged carbon ion. This generates a population inversion to the radiatively connected state 1s 2 2s 2 2p in C+, leading to gain on the 1s-2p transition at 45 (angstrom). The resonant character of the lasing transition in the single ionization state intrinsically allows much higher quantum efficiency compared to other schemes. Competing processes that deplete the population inversion include auto-ionization, Auger decay, and in particular collisional ionization of the outer-shell electrons by electrons generated during photo-ionization. These competing processes rapidly quench the gain. Consequently, the pump method must be capable of populating the inversion at a rate faster than the competing processes. This can be achieved by an ultra-fast, high intensity laser that is able to generate an ultra-fast, bright x-ray source. With current advances in the development of high-power, ultra-short pulse lasers it is possible to realize fast x-ray sources based that can deliver powerful pulses of light in the multiple hundred terawatt regime and beyond. They will discuss in greater detail concept, target design and a series of x-ray spectroscopy investigations they have conducted in order to optimize the absorber/x-ray converter--filter package

  18. Evaluation of EUV resist performance using interference lithography (United States)

    Buitrago, E.; Yildirim, O.; Verspaget, C.; Tsugama, N.; Hoefnagels, R.; Rispens, G.; Ekinci, Y.


    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) stands as the most promising solution for the fabrication of future technology nodes in the semiconductor industry. Nonetheless, the successful introduction of EUVL into the extremely competitive and stringent high-volume manufacturing (HVM) phase remains uncertain partly because of the still limiting performance of EUV resists below 16 nm half-pitch (HP) resolution. Particularly, there exists a trade-off relationship between resolution (half-pitch), sensitivity (dose) and line-edge roughness (LER) that can be achieved with existing materials. This trade-off ultimately hampers their performance and extendibility towards future technology nodes. Here we present a comparative study of highly promising chemically amplified resists (CARs) that have been evaluated using the EUV interference lithography (EUV-IL) tool at the Swiss Light Source (SLS) synchrotron facility in the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). In this study we have focused on the performance qualification of different resists mainly for 18 nm and 16 nm half-pitch line/space resolution (L/S = 1:1). Among the most promising candidates tested, there are a few choices that allow for 16 nm HP resolution to be achieved with high exposure latitude (up to ~ 33%), low LER (down to 3.3 nm or ~ 20% of critical dimension CD) and low dose-to-size (or best-energy, BE) < 41 mJ/cm2 values. Patterning was even demonstrated down to 12 nm HP with one of CARs (R1UL1) evaluated for their extendibility beyond the 16 nm HP resolution. 11 nm HP patterning with some pattern collapse and well resolved patterns down 12 nm were also demonstrated with another CAR (R15UL1) formulated for 16 nm HP resolution and below. With such resist it was possible even to obtain a small process window for 14 nm HP processing with an EL ~ 8% (BE ~ 37 mJ/cm2, LER ~ 4.5 nm). Though encouraging, fulfilling all of the requirements necessary for high volume production, such as high resolution, low LER, high photon

  19. Study on radiation chemistry of fluorinated polymers for EUV resist (United States)

    Nomura, Naoya; Okamoto, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Kozawa, Takahiro; Fujiyoshi, Ryoko; Umegaki, Kikuo


    The fluorination of a chemically amplified resist is an effective method for use in EUV lithography. However, it has been suggested that the fluorination of the base polymer of the chemically amplified resist induces the electron scavenging reaction by the base polymer and reduces the acid yield. In this study, we clarified the formation of transient species and the acid yields of fluorinated polymers after exposure to the ionizing radiations. The acid yields of fluorinated polymers with hydroxyl groups were lower than that of poly(4-hydroxystyrene) (PHS). The lower acid generation efficiency in fluorinated polymers was due to not only the reaction between fluorinated polymers and electrons but also the lower deprotonation efficiency of the radical cation of the fluorinated polymer.

  20. GOES-R SUVI EUV Flatfields Generated Using Boustrophedon Scans (United States)

    Shing, L.; Edwards, C.; Mathur, D.; Vasudevan, G.; Shaw, M.; Nwachuku, C.


    The Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI) is mounted on the Solar Pointing Platform (SPP) of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, GOES-R. SUVI is a Generalized Cassegrain telescope with a large field of view that employs multilayer coatings optimized to operate in six extreme ultraviolet (EUV) narrow bandpasses centered at 9.4, 13.1, 17.1, 19.5, 28.4 and 30.4 nm. The SUVI CCD flatfield response was determined using two different techniques; The Kuhn-Lin-Lorentz (KLL) Raster and a new technique called, Dynamic Boustrophedon Scans. The new technique requires less time to collect the data and is also less sensitive to Solar features compared with the KLL method. This paper presents the flatfield results of the SUVI using this technique during Post Launch Testing (PLT).

  1. Etch bias inversion during EUV mask ARC etch (United States)

    Lajn, Alexander; Rolff, Haiko; Wistrom, Richard


    The introduction of EUV lithography to high volume manufacturing is now within reach for 7nm technology node and beyond (1), at least for some steps. The scheduling is in transition from long to mid-term. Thus, all contributors need to focus their efforts on the production requirements. For the photo mask industry, these requirements include the control of defectivity, CD performance and lifetime of their masks. The mask CD performance including CD uniformity, CD targeting, and CD linearity/ resolution, is predominantly determined by the photo resist performance and by the litho and etch processes. State-of-the-art chemically amplified resists exhibit an asymmetric resolution for directly and indirectly written features, which usually results in a similarly asymmetric resolution performance on the mask. This resolution gap may reach as high as multiple tens of nanometers on the mask level in dependence of the chosen processes. Depending on the printing requirements of the wafer process, a reduction or even an increase of this gap may be required. A potential way of tuning via the etch process, is to control the lateral CD contribution during etch. Aside from process tuning knobs like pressure, RF powers and gases, which usually also affect CD linearity and CD uniformity, the simplest knob is the etch time itself. An increased over etch time results in an increased CD contribution in the normal case. , We found that the etch CD contribution of ARC layer etch on EUV photo masks is reduced by longer over etch times. Moreover, this effect can be demonstrated to be present for different etch chambers and photo resists.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solar EUV Daily Values File. This file gives the magnitude of the photoemission current from the radial probe, Ipe, (in units of 10-9 amps). Ipe dominates the...

  3. EUV lithography for 30nm half pitch and beyond: exploring resolution, sensitivity, and LWR tradeoffs (United States)

    Putna, E. Steve; Younkin, Todd R.; Chandhok, Manish; Frasure, Kent


    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) denotes Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) lithography as a leading technology option for realizing the 32nm half-pitch node and beyond. Readiness of EUV materials is currently one high risk area according to assessments made at the 2008 EUVL Symposium. The main development issue regarding EUV resist has been how to simultaneously achieve high sensitivity, high resolution, and low line width roughness (LWR). This paper describes the strategy and current status of EUV resist development at Intel Corporation. Data is presented utilizing Intel's Micro-Exposure Tool (MET) examining the feasibility of establishing a resist process that simultaneously exhibits <=30nm half-pitch (HP) L/S resolution at <=10mJ/cm2 with <=4nm LWR.

  4. Study on RLS trade-off resist upgrade for production ready EUV lithography (United States)

    Lee, Junghyung; Kim, Jieun; Jeong, Seunguk; Lim, Mijung; Koo, Sunyoung; Lim, Chang-Moon; Kim, Young-Sik


    Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) is the most promising technology as substitute for multiple patterning based on ArF immersion lithography. If enough productivity can be accomplished, EUV will take main role in the chip manufacturing. Since the introduction of NXE3300, many significant results have been achieved in source power and availability, but lots of improvements are still required in various aspects for the implementation of EUV lithography on high volume manufacturing. Among them, it is especially important to attain high sensitivity resist without degrading other resolution performance. In this paper, performances of various resists were evaluated with real device patterns on NXE3300 scanner and technical progress of up-to-date EUV resists will be shown by comparing with the performance of their predecessors. Finally the prospect of overcoming the triangular trade-off between sensitivity, resolution, line edge roughness (LER) and achieving high volume manufacturing will be discussed.

  5. Computational techniques for determining printability of real defects in EUV mask pilot line (United States)

    Morgan, Paul; Rost, Daniel; Price, Daniel; Li, Ying; Peng, Daniel; Chen, Dongxue; Hu, Peter; Corcoran, Noel; Son, Donghwan; Yonenaga, Dean; Tolani, Vikram


    With EUV lithography on the ITRS roadmap for sub-2X half-pitch patterning, it has become increasingly essential to ramp up efforts in being able to manufacture defect-free reticles or at least ones with minimal defects initially. For this purpose, much of the focus in recent years has been in finding ways to adequately detect, characterize, and reduce defects on both EUV blanks and patterned masks. For detection purposes, the current high-resolution DUV or e-beam inspection platforms are being extended to inspect EUV blanks and patterned masks but being non-actinic, make it very challenging to assess the real impact of the detected defects on EUV plane. Even with the realization of the EUV beta AIMS™ aerial-image based metrology in 2014-2015, the exact nature of each critical defect needs to be determined in order to be able to come up with an appropriate repair strategy. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of computational techniques to non-actinic supplemental metrology data collected on EUV mask defects to effectively determine the nature and also predict printability of these defects. The fundamental EUV simulation engine used in this approach is the EUV Defect Printability Simulator (DPS), which uses simulation and modeling methods designed specifically for the individual EUV mask components, and achieves runtimes several orders of magnitude faster than rigorous FDTD and RCWA methods while maintaining adequate accuracy. The EUV DPS simulator is then coupled with supplemental inspection and metrology measurements of real defects to effectively predict wafer printability of these defects. Several sources of such supplementary data are explored here, and may sometimes be dependent on the actual nature of defect. These sources include AFM height-profile data, SEM top-down images, and 193nm high-NA inspection images of single or multiple focus plane capture. From each of these supplemental data sources, the mask pattern and defect information is first

  6. Hemispherical Nature of EUV Shocks Revealed by SOHO, STEREO, and SDO Observations (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk; Nitta, N.; Akiyama, S.; Makela, P.; Yashiro, S.


    EUV wave transients associated with type II radio bursts are manifestation of CME-driven shocks in the solar corona. We use recent EUV wave observations from SOHO, STEREO, and SDO for a set of CMEs to show that the EUV transients have a spherical shape in the inner corona. We demonstrate this by showing that the radius of the EUV transient on the disk observed by one instrument is approximately equal to the height of the wave above the solar surface in an orthogonal view provided by another instrument. The study also shows that the CME-driven shocks often form very low in the corona at a heliocentric distance of 1.2 Rs, even smaller than the previous estimates from STEREO/CORl data (Gopalswamy et aI., 2009, Solar Phys. 259, 227). These results have important implications for the acceleration of solar energetic particles by CMEs

  7. Gadolinium EUV Multilayers for Solar Imaging Near 60 nm, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and commercialize a new class of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) multilayer coatings containing the rare-earth element gadolinium (Gd), designed as...

  8. Utilizing the EUVE Innovative Technology Testbed to Reduce Operations Cost for Present and Future Orbiting Mission (United States)


    This report summarizes work done under Cooperative Agreement (CA) on the following testbed projects: TERRIERS - The development of the ground systems to support the TERRIERS satellite mission at Boston University (BU). HSTS - The application of ARC's Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS) to the EUVE satellite mission. SELMON - The application of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Selective Monitoring (SELMON) system to the EUVE satellite mission. EVE - The development of the EUVE Virtual Environment (EVE), a prototype three-dimensional (3-D) visualization environment for the EUVE satellite and its sensors, instruments, and communications antennae. FIDO - The development of the Fault-Induced Document Officer (FIDO) system, a prototype application to respond to anomalous conditions by automatically searching for, retrieving, and displaying relevant documentation for an operators use.

  9. Nanoparticle Photoresists: Ligand Exchange as a New, Sensitive EUV Patterning Mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Kryask, Marie


    Hybrid nanoparticle photoresists and their patterning using DUV, EUV, 193 nm lithography and e-beam lithography has been investigated and reported earlier. The nanoparticles have demonstrated very high EUV sensitivity and significant etch resistance compared to other standard photoresists. The current study aims at investigating and establishing the underlying mechanism for dual tone patterning of these nanoparticle photoresist systems. Infrared spectroscopy and UV absorbance studies supported by mass loss and dissolution studies support the current model. © 2013SPST.

  10. A proposed new method for the determination of the solar irradiance at EUV wavelength range (United States)

    Feldman, Uri; Doschek, G. A.; Seely, J. F.; Landi, E.; Dammasch, I.

    The solar irradiance in the far ultraviolet (FUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and its time variability are important inputs to geospace models. It provides the primary mechanism for heating the earth's upper atmosphere and creating the ionosphere. Understanding various space weather phenomena requires reliable detailed knowledge of the solar EUV irradiance. Ideally one would like to have a single well-calibrated, high-resolution spectrometer that can continuously monitor the solar irradiance over the relevant wavelengths range. Since this is much too difficult to accomplish, a number of monitoring instruments were constructed in the past, each covering a fraction of the required wavelength range. Assembling solar irradiance from measurements by a number of instruments is extremely difficult and is usually plagued by large uncertainties. To overcome some of the difficulties resulting from such procedures, empirical models have been developed that rely in large part on solar activity levels as proxies. In recent years a different approach has been established for the determination of the solar irradiance, an approach independent of irradiance observations. The new approach is based on the line intensities calculated from emission measure (EM) distributions across the solar surface. The EM distributions are derived from spatially and spectrally resolved measurements of line intensities and describe the temperature and density structure of the basic large scale features of the solar atmosphere, specifically coronal holes, quiet Sun, and active regions. Recently, as a result of detailed analysis of solar upper atmosphere (SUA) spectra recorded by SUMER/SoHO it was discovered that, in contrast to earlier beliefs, the solar EM in 3x105 -4x106 K plasmas does not appear to vary continuously with temperature as previously assumed. Instead it appears to be composed of isothermal structures where each can attain but one of the following four main temperatures: 5x105 , 9x105

  11. Comparison of EUV Brightness With Line-of-Sight Total Electron Content in the Earth's Plasmasphere. (United States)

    Galvan, D. A.; Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Hajj, G.; Mannucci, T.; Sandel, B.


    Total electron content (TEC) data, obtained from radio signals sent between the Jason-1 satellite in low-Earth- orbit (LEO) and global positioning system (GPS) satellites, are inverted using tomography to infer electron density in Jason-1's orbital plane. We then construct column density traces along the lines of sight of an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) image of the He+ population of the plasmasphere, taken by NASA's IMAGE spacecraft. In this way, we produce column integrated electron density (TEC) values aligned with IMAGE's lines of sight. Since singly-ionized helium in the plasmasphere is optically thin, the radiance of an EUV image pixel is proportional to the column-integrated density of He+ ions along the line of sight. Hence, a TEC measurement gives us a column-integrated electron density, while an EUV image brightness value is proportional to a column-integrated He+ density. By comparing the radial brightness profile from an EUV image to the line-of-sight TEC in Jason's orbital plane, we can gain insight into the behavior of He+ and electron density in the plasmasphere. Future comparisons between TEC and EUV data could lead to an improved, three-dimensional, empirical model of plasmaspheric electron density, and a better understanding of IMAGE EUV images themselves.

  12. Minimizing wafer overlay errors due to EUV mask non-flatness and thickness variations for N7 production (United States)

    Chen, Xuemei; Turley, Christina; Rankin, Jed; Brunner, Tim; Gabor, Allen


    Wafer overlay errors due to EUV mask non-flatness and thickness variations need to be minimized for the successful deployment of EUV lithography at N7 HVM. In this paper, we provide an updated assessment of the overlay impacts from EUV mask blanks as relevant to N7. We then evaluate the effectiveness of high-order scanner correction and mask compensation in minimizing the mask blank induced overlay to meet the allocated N7 overlay budget. Various scenarios for combining the compensation methods are evaluated, and a practical EUV mask flatness and thickness variation specification for N7 production is proposed.

  13. Research and development toward a 4.5-1.5{angstrom} linac coherent light source (LCLS) at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatchyn, R.; Arthur, J.; Baltay, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [and others


    In recent years significant studies have been initiated on the theoretical and technical feasibility of utilizing a portion of the 3km S-band accelerator at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to drive a short wavelength (4.5-1.5 {Angstrom}) Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) operating in the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime. Electron beam requirements for single-pass saturation include: (1) a peak current in the 3-7 kA range, (2) a relative energy spread of <0.05%, ad (3) a transverse emittance, {epsilon}{le}{lambda}/4{pi}, where {lambda}[m] is the output wavelength. Requirements on the insertion device include field error levels of 0.1-0.2% for keeping the electron bunch centered on and in phase with the amplified photons, and a focusing beta of 4-8 m for inhibiting the dilution of its transverse density. Although much progress techniques necessary for LCLS operation down to {approximately}20 {angstrom}, a substantial amount of research and development is still required in a number of theoretical and experimental areas leading to the construction and operation of a 4.5-1.5 {angstrom} LCLS. In this paper we report on a research and development program underway and in planning at SLAC for addressing critical questions in these areas. These include the construction and operation of a linac test stand for developing laser-driven photocathode rf guns with normalized emittances approaching 1 mm-mr; development of advanced beam compression, stability, an emittance control techniques at multi-GeV energies; the construction and operation of a FEL Amplifier Test Experiment (FATE) for theoretical and experimental studies of SASE at IR wavelengths; an undulator development program to investigate superconducting, hybrid/permanent magnet (hybrid/PM), and pulsed-Cu technologies; theoretical and computational studies of high-gain FEL physics and LCLS component designs.

  14. Prospects of DUV OoB suppression techniques in EUV lithography (United States)

    Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Insung; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Wan; Hwang, Myung-Soo; Kang, Soon-Nam; Park, Cheolhong; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Yeo, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Seong-Sue


    Though scaling of source power is still the biggest challenge in EUV lithography (EUVL) technology era, CD and overlay controls for transistor's requirement are also precondition of adopting EUVL in mass production. Two kinds of contributors are identified as risks for CDU and Overlay: Infrared (IR) and deep ultraviolet (DUV) out of band (OOB) radiations from laser produced plasma (LPP) EUV source. IR from plasma generating CO2 laser that causes optics heating and wafer overlay error is well suppressed by introducing grating on collector to diffract IR off the optical axis and is the effect has been confirmed by operation of pre-production tool (NXE3100). EUV and DUV OOB which are reflected from mask black boarder (BB) are root causes of EUV-specific CD error at the boundaries of exposed shots which would result in the problem of CDU out of spec unless sufficiently suppressed. Therefore, control of DUV OOB reflection from the mask BB is one of the key technologies that must be developed prior to EUV mass production. In this paper, quantitative assessment on the advantage and the disadvantage of potential OOB solutions will be discussed. EUV and DUV OOB impacts on wafer CDs are measured from NXE3100 & NXE3300 experiments. Significant increase of DUV OOB impact on CD from NXE3300 compared with NXE3100 is observed. There are three ways of technology being developed to suppress DUV OOB: spectral purity filter (SPF) as a scanner solution, multi-layer etching as a solution on mask, and resist top-coating as a process solution. PROs and CONs of on-scanner, on-mask, and on-resist solution for the mass production of EUV lithography will be discussed.

  15. Solar Spectral Proxy Irradiance from GOES (SSPRING: a model for solar EUV irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suess Katherine


    Full Text Available Several currently operating instruments are able to measure the full EUV spectrum at sufficient wavelength resolution for use in upper-atmosphere modeling, the effects of space weather, and modeling satellite drag. However, no missions are planned at present to succeed the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED and Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO missions, which currently provide these data sources. To develop a suitable replacement for these measurements, we use two broadband EUV channels on the NOAA GOES satellites, the magnesium core-to-wing ratio (Mg II index from the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE as well as EUV and Mg II time averages to model the EUV spectrum from 0.1 to 105 nm at 5-nm spectral resolution and daily time resolution. A Levenberg-Marquardt least squares fitting algorithm is used to determine a coefficient matrix that best reproduces a reference data set when multiplied by input data. The coefficient matrix is then applied to model data outside of the fitting interval. Three different fitting intervals are tested, with a variable fitting interval utilizing all days of data before the prediction date producing the best results. The correlation between the model results and the observed spectrum is found to be above 95% for the 0.1–50 nm range, and between 74% and 95% for the 50–105 nm range. We also find a favorable comparison between our results and the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM. These results provide a promising potential source for an empirical EUV spectral model after direct EUV measurements are no longer available, and utilize a similar EUV modeling technique as the upcoming GOES-R satellites.

  16. Four-mirror extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography projection system (United States)

    Cohen, Simon J; Jeong, Hwan J; Shafer, David R


    The invention is directed to a four-mirror catoptric projection system for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography to transfer a pattern from a reflective reticle to a wafer substrate. In order along the light path followed by light from the reticle to the wafer substrate, the system includes a dominantly hyperbolic convex mirror, a dominantly elliptical concave mirror, spherical convex mirror, and spherical concave mirror. The reticle and wafer substrate are positioned along the system's optical axis on opposite sides of the mirrors. The hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors are positioned on the same side of the system's optical axis as the reticle, and are relatively large in diameter as they are positioned on the high magnification side of the system. The hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors are relatively far off the optical axis and hence they have significant aspherical components in their curvatures. The convex spherical mirror is positioned on the optical axis, and has a substantially or perfectly spherical shape. The spherical concave mirror is positioned substantially on the opposite side of the optical axis from the hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors. Because it is positioned off-axis to a degree, the spherical concave mirror has some asphericity to counter aberrations. The spherical concave mirror forms a relatively large, uniform field on the wafer substrate. The mirrors can be tilted or decentered slightly to achieve further increase in the field size.

  17. Fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J. S., LLNL


    EUV Lithography (EUVL) is a leading candidate as a stepper technology for fabricating the ``0.1 {micro}m generation`` of microelectronic circuits. EUVL is an optical printing technique qualitatively similar to DUV Lithography (DUVL), except that 11-13nm wavelength light is used instead of 193-248nm. The feasibility of creating 0.1{micro}m features has been well-established using small-field EUVL printing tools and development efforts are currently underway to demonstrate that cost-effective production equipment can be engineered to perform full-width ring-field imaging consistent with high wafer throughput rates Ensuring that an industrial supplier base will be available for key components and subsystems is crucial to the success of EUVL. In particular, the projection optics are the heart of the EUVL imaging system, yet they have figure and finish specifications that are beyond the state-of-the-art in optics manufacturing. Thus it is important to demonstrate that industry will be able to fabricate and certify these optics commensurate with EUVL requirements. Indeed, the goal of this paper is to demonstrate that procuring EUVL projection optical substrates is feasible. This conclusion is based on measurements of both commercially-available and developmental substrates. The paper discusses EUVL figure and finish specifications, followed by examples of ultrasmooth and accurate surfaces, and concludes with a discussion of how substrates are measured and evaluated.

  18. Anti­-parallel Filament Flows and Bright Dots Observed in the EUV with Hi-­C (United States)

    Alexander, Caroline E.; Regnier, Stephane; Walsh, Robert; Winebarger, Amy


    Hi-C obtained the highest spatial and temporal resolution observations ever taken in the solar EUV corona. Hi-C reveals dynamics and structure at the limit of its temporal and spatial resolution. Hi-C observed various fine-scale features that SDO/AIA could not pick out. For the first time in the corona, Hi-C revealed magnetic braiding and component reconnection consistent with coronal heating. Hi-C shows evidence of reconnection and heating in several different regions and magnetic configurations with plasma being heated to 0.3 - 8 x 10(exp 6) K temperatures. Surprisingly, many of the first results highlight plasma at temperatures that are not at the peak of the response functions.

  19. Investigation of EUV tapeout flow issues, requirements, and options for volume manufacturing (United States)

    Cobb, Jonathan; Jang, Sunghoon; Ser, Junghoon; Kim, Insung; Yeap, Johnny; Lucas, Kevin; Do, Munhoe; Kim, Young-Chang


    Although technical issues remain to be resolved, EUV lithography is now a serious contender for critical layer patterning of upcoming 2X node memory and 14nm Logic technologies in manufacturing. If improvements continue in defectivity, throughput and resolution, then EUV lithography appears that it will be the most extendable and the cost-effective manufacturing lithography solution for sub-78nm pitch complex patterns. EUV lithography will be able to provide a significant relaxation in lithographic K1 factor (and a corresponding simplification of process complexity) vs. existing 193nm lithography. The increased K1 factor will result in some complexity reduction for mask synthesis flow elements (including illumination source shape optimization, design pre-processing, RET, OPC and OPC verification). However, EUV does add well known additional complexities and issues to mask synthesis flows such as across-lens shadowing variation, across reticle flare variation, new proximity effects to be modeled, significant increase in pre-OPC and fracture file size, etc. In this paper, we investigate the expected EUV-specific issues and new requirements for a production tapeout mask synthesis flow. The production EUV issues and new requirements are in the categories of additional physical effects to be corrected for; additional automation or flow steps needed; and increase in file size at different parts in the flow. For example, OASIS file sizes after OPC of 250GigaBytes (GB) and files sizes after mask data prep of greater than three TeraBytes (TB) are expected to be common. These huge file sizes will place significant stress on post-processing methods, OPC verification, mask data fracture, file read-in/read-out, data transfer between sites (e.g., to the maskshop), etc. With current methods and procedures, it is clear that the hours/days needed to complete EUV mask synthesis mask data flows would significantly increase if steps are not taken to make efficiency improvements

  20. A comparison of the Angstrom-type correlations and the estimation of monthly average daily global irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.; Jain, P.C.


    Linear regression analysis of the monthly average daily global irradiation and the sunshine duration data of 8 Zambian locations has been performed using the least square technique. Good correlation (r>0.95) is obtained in all the cases showing that the Angstrom equation is valid for Zambian locations. The values of the correlation parameters thus obtained show substantial unsystematic scatter. The analysis was repeated after incorporating the effects of (i) multiple reflections of radiation between the ground and the atmosphere, and (ii) not burning of the sunshine recorder chart, into the Angstrom equation. The surface albedo measurements at Lusaka were used. The scatter in the correlation parameters was investigated by graphical representation, by regression analysis of the data of the individual stations as well as the combined data of the 8 stations. The results show that the incorporation of none of the two effects reduces the scatter significantly. A single linear equation obtained from the regression analysis of the combined data of the 8 stations is found to be appropriate for estimating the global irradiation over Zambian locations with reasonable accuracy from the sunshine duration data. (author)

  1. Laser-plasma EUV source dedicated for surface processing of polymers (United States)

    Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, M.; Wachulak, P. W.


    In this work, a 10 Hz laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source built for surface processing of polymers is presented. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target created in a vacuum chamber synchronously with the pumping laser pulse. The target is formed by pulsed injection of Kr, Xe or a KrXe gas mixture into a hollow stream of helium. The EUV radiation is focused using a grazing incidence gold-plated ellipsoidal collector. Spectrum of the reflected radiation consists of a narrow feature with intensity maximum at 10-11 nm wavelength and a long-wavelength spectral tail up to 70 nm. The exact spectral distribution depends on a gas applied for plasma creation. To avoid strong absorption of the EUV radiation in a residual gas present in the chamber during the source operation a two step differential pumping system was employed. The system allows for polymer processing under relatively high vacuum conditions (10 -5 mbar) or in a reactive gas atmosphere. Polymer samples can be irradiated in a focal plane of the EUV collector or at some distance downstream the focal plane. This way fluence of the EUV beam at the polymer surface can be regulated.

  2. Reconstruction of the solar EUV irradiance from 1996 to 2010 based on SOHO/EIT images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haberreiter Margit


    Full Text Available The solar Extreme UltraViolet (EUV spectrum has important effects on the Earth’s upper atmosphere. For a detailed investigation of these effects it is important to have a consistent data series of the EUV spectral irradiance available. We present a reconstruction of the solar EUV irradiance based on SOHO/EIT images, along with synthetic spectra calculated using different coronal features which represent the brightness variation of the solar atmosphere. The EIT images are segmented with the SPoCA2 tool which separates the features based on a fixed brightness classification scheme. With the SOLMOD code we then calculate intensity spectra for the 10–100 nm wavelength range and each of the coronal features. Weighting the intensity spectra with the area covered by each of the features yields the temporal variation of the EUV spectrum. The reconstructed spectrum is then validated against the spectral irradiance as observed with SOHO/SEM. Our approach leads to good agreement between the reconstructed and the observed spectral irradiance. This study is an important step toward understanding variations in the solar EUV spectrum and ultimately its effect on the Earth’s upper atmosphere.

  3. The inner-relationship of hard X-ray and EUV bursts during solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emslie, A.G.; Brown, J.C.; Donnelly, R.F.


    A comparison is made between the flux-versus-time profile in the EUV band and the thick target electron flux profile as inferred from hard X-rays for a number of moderately large solar flares. This complements Kane and Donnelly's (1971) study of small flares. The hard X-ray data are from ESRO TD-1A and the EUV inferred from SFD observations. Use of a chi 2 minimising method shows that the best overall fit between the profile fine structures obtains for synchronism to < approximately 5 s which is within the timing accuracy. This suggests that neither conduction nor convection is fast enough as the primary mechanism of energy transport into the EUV flare and rather favours heating by the electrons themselves or by some MHD wave process much faster than acoustic waves. The electron power deposited, for a thick target model, is however far greater than the EUV luminosity for any reasonable assumptions about the area and depth over which EUV is emitted. This means that either most of the power deposited is conducted away to the optical flare or that only a fraction < approximately 1-10% of the X-ray emitting electrons are injected downwards. Recent work on Hα flare heating strongly favours the latter alternative - i.e. that electrons are mostly confined in the corona. (Auth.)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryans, Paul [High Altitude Observatory, NCAR, Boulder CO 80301 (United States); Pesnell, W. Dean [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt MD 20771 (United States)


    When the sungrazing comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) made its perihelion passage within two solar radii of the Sun’s surface, it was expected to be a bright emitter at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths. However, despite solar EUV telescopes repointing to track the orbit of the comet, no emission was detected. This “null result” is interesting in its own right, offering the possibility of placing limits on the size and composition of the nucleus. We explain the lack of detection by considering the properties of the comet and the solar atmosphere that determine the intensity of EUV emission from sungrazing comets. By comparing these properties with those of sungrazing comet C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy), which did emit in the EUV, we conclude that the primary factor resulting in non-detectable EUV emission from C/2012 S1 (ISON) was an insufficiently large nucleus. We conclude that the radius of C/2012 S1 (ISON) was at least a factor of four less than that of C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy). This is consistent with white-light observations in the days before perihelion that suggested the comet was dramatically reducing in size on approach.

  5. A Comparison of Flares as Observed in SXR and EUV Spectra (United States)

    Mason, J. P.; Woods, T. N.; Caspi, A.; Moore, C. S.


    In the first two operating months of the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat, several flares have been observed, including seven M-class flares. The M-class flares also triggered the autonomous flare campaign observations of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) Variability Experiment (EVE) Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS)-B instrument. The EVE data have been used to characterize the flares' impulsive phase, gradual phase, coronal dimming, and EUV late phase contributions. The MinXSS data are a new data set to study the flares' higher temperature emissions and to also explore the different coronal heating processes. With concurrent flare soft x-ray (SXR) spectra from MinXSS and EUV spectra from SDO/EVE/MEGS-B, it is now possible to study in more detail the processes for releasing energy during an eruption and affecting post-eruption thermal evolution because of the wider range of plasma temperature regimes covered by SXR and EUV. Both the EVE and MinXSS spectral irradiance measurements are observations of the Sun as a star, so their results could potentially be useful in astrophysics applications.

  6. Time Variabilities of Solar Wind Ion Fluxes and of X-ray and EUV Emissions from Comet Hyakutake (United States)

    Neugebauer, M.; Cravens, T.; Lisse, C.; Ipavich, F.; von Steiger, R.; Shah, P.; Armstrong, T.


    Observations of X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emissions from comet C/Hyakutake 1996 B2 made by the Rontgen X-ray satellite (ROSAT) and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) revealed a total X-ray luminosity of about 500 MW.

  7. Solar EUV/FUV line polarimetry. I - Observational parameters and theoretical considerations. II - Instruments and methods (United States)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Hoover, Richard B.; Fontenla, Juan M.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.


    The paper discusses theoretical considerations and presents the observational parameters for the development of reflective FUV coronagraph/polarimeter and EUV imaging polarimeter instruments. New EUV/FUV polarimeter instrument concepts for solar research are described. One of these is a new coronagraph/polarimeter operating at 1215.6 A, which could observe the neutral hydrogen Ly-alpha line in the near solar corona and lead to the first direct measurements of both the strength and the direction of coronal magnetic fields. The other is a new multilayer EUV imaging polarimeter, operating at the wavelengths of strong He emission lines, which could observe impact polarization phenomena and provide information concerning the relative importance of thermal and nonthermal processes in solar flares.

  8. Robust design of broadband EUV multilayer using multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (United States)

    Kuang, Shang-qi; Gong, Xue-peng; Yang, Hai-gui


    Considering the random fluctuations of the layer thickness, a method of robust design of broadband EUV multilayers based on multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is presented. Owing to the optimization of multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, the optical performance and robust quality of broadband Mo/Si multilayer can be optimized simultaneously, and then a set of robust designs of aperiodic EUV multilayers, which are insensitive to the thickness errors can be obtained in one single simulation run. The robust designs of broadband Mo/Si multilayers could be used to reduce the production risks of EUV mirrors, and this research demonstrates a great potential of application of multi-objective evolutionary algorithm on the design of optical thin film.

  9. Wavelength-specific reflections: A decade of EUV actinic mask inspection research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth; Mochi, Iacopo


    Mask inspection is essential for the success of any pattern-transfer lithography technology, and EUV Lithography in particular faces unique challenges. EUV masks resonant-reflective multilayer coatings have a narrow, wavelength-specific response that dramatically affects the way that defects appear, or disappear, at various illuminating wavelengths. Furthermore, the ever-shrinking size of 'critical' defects limits the potential effectiveness of DUV inspection techniques over time. Researchers pursuing numerous ways of finding and characterizing defects on EUV masks and have met with varying degrees of success. Their lessons inform the current, urgent exploration to select the most effective techniques for high-volume manufacturing. Ranging from basic research and demonstration experiments to commercial inspection tool prototypes, we survey the recent history of work in this area, including sixteen projects in Europe, Asia, and America. Solutions range from scanning beams to microscopy, dark field imaging to pattern transfer.

  10. Review on the solar spectral variability in the EUV for space weather purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lilensten


    Full Text Available The solar XUV-EUV flux is the main energy source in the terrestrial diurnal thermosphere: it produces ionization, dissociation, excitation and heating. Accurate knowledge of this flux is of prime importance for space weather. We first list the space weather applications that require nowcasting and forecasting of the solar XUV-EUV flux. We then review present models and discuss how they account for the variability of the solar spectrum. We show why the measurement of the full spectrum is difficult, and why it is illusory to retrieve it from its atmospheric effects. We then address the problem of determining a set of observations that are adapted for space weather purposes, in the frame of ionospheric studies. Finally, we review the existing and future space experiments that are devoted to the observation of the solar XUV-EUV spectrum.

  11. Time resolved EUV pump-probe microscopy of fs-LASER induced nanostructure formation (United States)

    Freiberger, R.; Hauck, J.; Reininghaus, M.; Wortmann, D.; Juschkin, L.


    We report on our efforts in design and construction of a compact Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV)-pump-probe microscope. The goal is the observation of formation of nanostructures, induced by a femtosecond (fs)-laser pulse. The unique interaction processes of fs-laser radiation with matter open up new markets in laser material processing and, therefore, are actively investigated in the last decade. The resulting "sub 100 nm"-structures offer vast potential benefits in photonics, biotechnology, tribological surface design, plasmonic applications and production of nanoparticles. Focused fs-laser radiation causes a local modification resulting in nanostructures of high precision and reproducibility. However the formation dynamics is not well understood. Research in this field requires high temporal and spatial resolution. A combination of fs-laser and EUV-microscope provides a tool for "in situ"-observation of the formation dynamics. As exemplary structures to be investigated, we use nanojets on thin gold films and periodic surface structures (ripples) on dielectrics. In the future, the EUV-pump-probe microscope can become a versatile tool to observe physical or biological processes. Microscopy using EUV-light is capable of detecting structures on a scale down to several tens of nanometers. For detailed investigations a compact EUV-microscope has been realized utilizing OVI Balmer-alpha radiation at 17.3 nm coming from a discharge produced oxygen plasma. As optical elements a grazing incidence elliptical collector and a zone plate with a width of outermost zone of 50 nm and a spectral filter to avoid chromatic aberrations are used. The detector is a fast gated microchannel plate with a pore size of 2 microns contacted by a low impedance transmission line. The expected spatial resolution of the setup is better than 100 nm and the time resolution is better than 1 ns. The newly developed EUV-microscope is a powerful tool for a wide field of investigations that need high time

  12. Particle removal challenges of EUV patterned masks for the sub-22nm HP node (United States)

    Rastegar, Abbas; Eichenlaub, Sean; Kadaksham, Arun John; Lee, Byunghoon; House, Matt; Huh, Sungmin; Cha, Brian; Yun, Henry; Mochi, Iacopo; Goldberg, Kenneth


    The particle removal efficiency (PRE) of cleaning processes diminishes whenever the minimum defect size for a specific technology node becomes smaller. For the sub-22 nm half-pitch (HP) node, it was demonstrated that exposure to high power megasonic up to 200 W/cm2 did not damage 60 nm wide TaBN absorber lines corresponding to the 16 nm HP node on wafer. An ammonium hydroxide mixture and megasonics removes >=50 nm SiO2 particles with a very high PRE. A sulfuric acid hydrogen peroxide mixture (SPM) in addition to ammonium hydroxide mixture (APM) and megasonic is required to remove >=28 nm SiO2 particles with a high PRE. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOFSIMS) studies show that the presence of O2 during a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) (λ=172 nm) surface conditioning step will result in both surface oxidation and Ru removal, which drastically reduce extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask life time under multiple cleanings. New EUV mask cleaning processes show negligible or no EUV reflectivity loss and no increase in surface roughness after up to 15 cleaning cycles. Reviewing of defect with a high current density scanning electron microscope (SEM) drastically reduces PRE and deforms SiO2 particles. 28 nm SiO2 particles on EUV masks age very fast and will deform over time. Care must be taken when reviewing EUV mask defects by SEM. Potentially new particles should be identified to calibrate short wavelength inspection tools. Based on actinic image review, 50 nm SiO2 particles on top of the EUV mask will be printed on the wafer.

  13. Key components development progress updates of the 250W high power LPP-EUV light source (United States)

    Yabu, Takayuki; Kawasuji, Yasufumi; Hori, Tsukasa; Okamoto, Takeshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Miyao, Kenichi; Ishii, Takuya; Watanabe, Yukio; Yanagida, Tatsuya; Shiraishi, Yutaka; Abe, Tamotsu; Kodama, Takeshi; Nakarai, Hiroaki; Yamazaki, Taku; Itou, Noritoshi; Saito, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru


    Gigaphoton Inc. is developing a CO2-Sn-LPP EUV light source based on unique and original technologies including a high power CO2laser with 15 nanosecond pulse duration, a solid-state pre-pulse laser with 10 picosecond pulse duration, a highly stabilized droplet generator, a precise laser-droplet shooting control system and a debris mitigation system using a magnetic field. In this paper, an update of the development progress of our 250W CO2-Sn-LPP EUV light source and of the key components is presented.

  14. On the covering fraction variability in an EUV mini-BAL outflow from PG 1206+459 (United States)

    Muzahid, S.; Srianand, R.; Charlton, J.; Eracleous, M.


    We report on the first detection of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) absorption variability in the Ne VIII λλ770, 780 mini-broad absorption line (mini-BAL) in the spectrum of the quasar (QSO) PG 1206+459. The observed equivalent width (EW) of the Ne VIII doublet shows a ˜4σ variation over a time-scale of 2.8 months in the QSO's rest frame. Both members of the Ne VIII doublet exhibit non-black saturation, indicating partial coverage of the continuum source. An increase in the Ne VIII covering fraction from fc = 0.59 ± 0.05 to 0.72 ± 0.03 is observed over the same period. The Ne VIII profiles are too highly saturated to be susceptible to changes in the ionization state of the absorbing gas. In fact, we do not observe any significant variation in the EW and/or column density after correcting the spectra for partial coverage. We, thus, propose transverse motions of the absorbing gas as the cause of the observed variability. Using a simple model of a transiting cloud we estimate a transverse speed of ˜1800 km s-1. For Keplerian motion, this corresponds to a distance between the absorber and the central engine of ˜1.3 pc, which places the absorber just outside the broad-line region. We further estimate a density of ˜5 × 106 cm-3 and a kinetic luminosity of ˜1043-1044 erg s-1. Such large kinetic powers suggest that outflows detected via EUV lines are potentially major contributors to active galactic nuclei feedback.

  15. Using the Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo and Angstrom Exponent from AERONET to Determine Aerosol Origins and Mixing States over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (United States)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Sinyuk, A.; Slutsker, I.; Smirnov, A.; Schafer, J. S.; Dickerson, R. R.; Thompson, A. M.; Tripathi, S. N.; Singh, R. P.; Ghauri, B.


    Aerosol mixtures—whether dominated by dust, carbon, sulfates, nitrates, sea salt, or mixtures of them—complicate the retrieval of remotely sensed aerosol properties from satellites and possibly increase the uncertainty of the aerosol radiative impact on climate. Major aerosol source regions in South Asia include the Thar Desert as well as agricultural lands, Himalayan foothills, and large urban centers in and near the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). Over India and Pakistan, seasonal changes in meteorology, including the monsoon (June-September), significantly affect the transport, lifetime, and type of aerosols. Strong monsoonal winds can promote long range transport of dust resulting in mixtures of dust and carbonaceous aerosols, while more stagnant synoptic conditions (e.g., November-January) can prolong the occurrence of urban/industrial pollution, biomass burning smoke, or mixtures of them over the IGP. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun/sky radiometer data are analyzed to show the aerosol optical depth (AOD) seasonality and aerosol dominant mixing states. The Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) and extinction Angstrom exponent (EAE) relationship has been shown to provide sound clustering of dominant aerosol types using long term AERONET site data near known source regions [Giles et al., 2012]. In this study, aerosol type partitioning using the SSA (440 nm) and EAE (440-870 nm) relationship is further developed to quantify the occurrence of Dust, Mixed (e.g., dust and carbonaceous aerosols), Urban/Industrial (U/I) pollution, and Biomass Burning (BB) smoke. Based on EAE thresholds derived from the cluster analysis (for AOD440nm>0.4), preliminary results (2001-2010) for Kanpur, India, show the overall contributions of each dominant particle type (rounded to the nearest 10%): 10% for Dust (EAE≤0.25), 60% for Mixed (0.251.25). In the IGP, BB aerosols may have varying sizes (e.g., corresponding to 1.2India and Pakistan are also analyzed using available AERONET

  16. Crystal structure of intercalated four-stranded d(C3T) at 1.4 angstroms resolution (United States)

    Kang, C. H.; Berger, I.; Lockshin, C.; Ratliff, R.; Moyzis, R.; Rich, A.


    The crystal structure of d(C3T), solved at 1.4 angstroms resolution, reveals that the molecule forms a four-stranded intercalated complex. It consists of two parallel-stranded duplexes, each of which is held together by cytosine-protonated cytosine base pairs. The two duplexes are intercalated with each other and have opposite strand orientation. The molecule has a flat, lath-like appearance, and the covalently bonded cytosines have a slow right-handed twist of 17.1 degrees. However, there is considerable asymmetry. On one of the flat sides, the phosphate groups are rotated away from the center of the molecule. They are held in this orientation by bridging water molecules that bind the NH of cytosine and a phosphate group of an opposite chain. There is also considerable microheterogeneity in the structure. The cytosine hemiprotonation occurs even at pH 7 where stable crystals form.

  17. EUV Spectra of High Z Impurities from Large Helical Device and Atomic Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, T.; Suzuki, C.; Funaba, H.; Sato, K.; Murakami, I.; Kato, D.; Sakaue, H.; O’Sullivan, G.; Harte, C.; White, J.; D’Arcy, R.; Tanuma, H.; Nakamura, N.


    The results of experiments on high Z impurity injection in the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science are described. Spectra from Xe, Sn and W ions were recorded in the extreme ultraviolet spectral region. Two different situations were observed in the case of Xe and Sn, depending on whether or not the plasma underwent radiative collapse. If the plasma was stable, the spectrum consisted of a number of strong lines and in both cases the strongest contribution was from 4p - 4d transitions of Cu-like ions. If the plasma underwent radiative collapse in each case it was dominated by an intense unresolved transition array with some strong lines overlapping it resulting from 4p 6 4d m - 4p 5 4d m+1 + 4p 6 4d m-1 4f transitions. For tungsten, radiative collapse was not observed though the spectrum here was dominated by the same array which lies between 4.5 and 7 nm with some additional contribution at the same wavelength from 4d 10 4f m - 4d 9 4f m+1 and 4d 10 4f m - 4d 10 4f m-1 5d transitions in lower stages also. From observation and comparison with other sources, it is shown that the spectra are dominated by resonance transitions to the ground state of the emitting ions, in marked contrast to results from charge exchange spectra that had been recorded to assist with ion stage separation. In the case of tungsten, no sharp lines are seen though the profile of the unresolved array structure changes with plasma temperature and the origin of these changes can be traced to differences in the populations of contributing ions. New assignments for lines of Xe XVIII, Sn XIX and Sn XVII of 4p - 4d transitions are listed in Tables. Strong lines of W, Xe and Sn ions in EUV range are also tabulated. (author)

  18. Reflective optics for effective collection of x-ray and EUV radiation: use for creation of photoionized plasmas and detection of weak signals (United States)

    Bartnik, A.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Wachulak, P.; Saber, I.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Fok, T.; Wegrzyński, Ł.


    In this work different kinds of reflective optical systems were used for creation and investigation of low temperature, photoionized plasmas. The plasmas were created in gases, irradiated with a focused beam of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft X-ray (SXR) radiation, from laser-plasma sources employing 10 Hz Nd:YAG laser systems (0.8 J/ 4 ns and 10 J/ 1-10 ns). In both cases, the EUV radiation was focused using a gold-plated grazing incidence ellipsoidal collector in the wavelength range λ = 9÷70 nm or a gold-plated grazing incidence multifoil collector in the wavelength range λ = 5 ÷ 70 nm. Additionally, in case of the 10 J Nd:YAG laser with the pulse duration 1 ns, a paraboloidal collector optimized for the wavelength range λ >= 1 nm was employed. Different gases were injected into the vacuum chamber, perpendicularly to an optical axis of the irradiation system at the focal region, using an auxillary gas puff valve. Irradiation of the gases resulted in ionization and excitation of atoms/molecules. Spectra in SXR/EUV range were measured using a grazing incidence, flat-field spectrometer (McPherson Model 251), equipped with a 450 lines/mm toroidal grating or a home-made spectrograph based on the 5000 l/mm transmission grating. Optical spectra were recorded using the Echelle Spectra Analyzer ESA 4000. In all cases the most intense emission lines were assigned to singly charged ions, however, lines corresponding to ions with higher charge were also recorded. Based on spectral lines originating from ions electron temperature was estimated.

  19. Thermal energy creation and transport and X-ray/EUV emission in a thermodynamic MHD CME simulation (United States)

    Reeves, K.; Mikic, Z.; Torok, T.; Linker, J.; Murphy, N. A.


    We model a CME using the PSI 3D numerical MHD code that includes coronal heating, thermal conduction and radiative cooling in the energy equation. The magnetic flux distribution at 1 Rs is produced by a localized subsurface dipole superimposed on a global dipole field, mimicking the presence of an active region within the global corona. We introduce transverse electric fields near the neutral line in the active region to form a flux rope, then a converging flow is imposed that causes the eruption. We follow the formation and evolution of the current sheet and find that instabilities set in soon after the reconnection commences. We simulate XRT and AIA EUV emission and find that the instabilities manifest as bright features emanating from the reconnection region. We examine the quantities responsible for plasma heating and cooling during the eruption, including thermal conduction, radiation, adiabatic compression and expansion, coronal heating and ohmic heating due to dissipation of currents. We find that the adiabatic compression plays an important role in heating the plasma around the current sheet, especially in the later stages of the eruption when the instabilities are present. Thermal conduction also plays an important role in the transport of thermal energy away from the current sheet region throughout the reconnection process.

  20. Laser plasma sources of soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) for application in science and technology (United States)

    Bartnik, Andrzej; Wachulak, Przemysław; Jarocki, Roman; Kostecki, Jerzy; Szczurek, Mirosław; Adjei, Daniel; Ahad, Inam Ul; Ayele, Mesfin G.; Fok, Tomasz; Szczurek, Anna; Torrisi, Alfio; Wegrzyński, Łukasz; Fiedorowicz, Henryk


    Laser plasma sources of soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) developed in our laboratory for application in various areas of technology and science are presented. The sources are based on a laser-irradiated gas puff target approach. The targets formed by pulsed injection of gas under high-pressure are irradiated with nanosecond laser pulses from Nd:YAG lasers. We use commercial lasers generating pulses with time duration from 1ns to 10ns and energies from 0.5J to 10J at 10Hz repetition rate. The gas puff targets are produced using a double valve system equipped with a special nozzle to form a double-stream gas puff target which secures high conversion efficiency without degradation of the nozzle. The use of a gas puff target instead of a solid target makes generation of laser plasmas emitting soft x-rays and EUV possible without target debris production. The sources are equipped with various optical systems, including grazing incidence axisymmetric ellipsoidal mirrors, a "lobster eye" type grazing incidence multi-foil mirror, and an ellipsoidal mirror with Mo/Si multilayer coating, to collect soft x-ray and EUV radiation and form the radiation beams. In this paper new applications of these sources in various fields, including soft x-ray and EUV imaging in nanoscale, EUV radiography and tomography, EUV materials processing and modification of polymer surfaces, EUV photoionization of gases, radiobiology and soft x-ray contact microscopy are reviewed.

  1. Nanoimaging using soft X-ray and EUV laser-plasma sources (United States)

    Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Torrisi, Alfio; Ayele, Mesfin; Bartnik, Andrzej; Czwartos, Joanna; Węgrzyński, Łukasz; Fok, Tomasz; Fiedorowicz, Henryk


    In this work we present three experimental, compact desk-top imaging systems: SXR and EUV full field microscopes and the SXR contact microscope. The systems are based on laser-plasma EUV and SXR sources based on a double stream gas puff target. The EUV and SXR full field microscopes, operating at 13.8 nm and 2.88 nm wavelengths are capable of imaging nanostructures with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution and short (seconds) exposure times. The SXR contact microscope operates in the "water-window" spectral range and produces an imprint of the internal structure of the imaged sample in a thin layer of SXR sensitive photoresist. Applications of such desk-top EUV and SXR microscopes, mostly for biological samples (CT26 fibroblast cells and Keratinocytes) are also presented. Details about the sources, the microscopes as well as the imaging results for various objects will be presented and discussed. The development of such compact imaging systems may be important to the new research related to biological, material science and nanotechnology applications.

  2. Spectral purity enhancement for the EUV Lithography Systems by suppressing UV reflection from multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Qiushi; de Boer, Meint J.; Barreaux, J.L.P.; Paardekooper, D.M.; van den Boogaard, Toine; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Zoethout, E.; Louis, Eric; Bijkerk, Frederik; Wood, O.R.; Panning, E.M.


    Plasma based radiation sources optimized to emit 13.5 nm Extreme UV radiation also produce a significant amount of light at longer wavelengths. This so called out-of-band (OoB) radiation is detrimental for the imaging capabilities of an EUV lithographic imaging system, particularly the ultraviolet

  3. EUV mask pattern inspection with an advanced electron beam inspection system (United States)

    Shimomura, Takeya; Inazuki, Yuichi; Tsukasa, Abe; Takikawa, Tadahiko; Morikawa, Yasutaka; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya; Wang, Fei; Ma, Long; Zhao, Yan; Kuan, Chiyan; Xiao, Hong; Jau, Jack


    Readiness of defect-free mask is one of the biggest challenges to insert extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography into semiconductor high volume manufacturing for 22nm half pitch (HP) node and beyond. According to ITRS roadmap updated in 2008, minimum size of defect needed to be removed is 25nm for 22nm HP node in 2013 [1]. It is necessary, therefore, to develop EUV mask pattern inspection tool being capable of detecting 25nm defect. Electron beam inspection (EBI) is one of promising tools which will be able to meet such a tight defect requirement. In this paper, we evaluated defect detection sensitivity of electron beam inspection (EBI) system developed by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI) using 88nm half-pitch (HP) line-and-space (L/S) pattern and 128nm HP contact-hole (C/H) pattern EUV mask. We found the EBI system can detect 25nm defects. We, furthermore, fabricated 4 types of EUV mask structures: 1) w/ anti-reflective (AR) layer and w/ buffer layer, 2) w/ AR layer and w/o buffer layer, 3) w/o AR layer and w/ buffer layer, 4) w/o AR layer and w/o buffer layer. And the sensitivity and inspectability for the EBI were compared. It was observed that w/o AR layer structure introduce higher image contrast and lead to better inspectability, although there is no significant different in sensitivity.

  4. Retrieving the solar EUV spectrum from a reduced set of spectral lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. de Wit


    Full Text Available The solar EUV irradiance is a key input for thermospheric and ionospheric models. Difficulties in continuously measuring the calibrated spectrum has prompted the use of various surrogate quantities. Although most proxies correlate quite well with the spectral variability, their use for modelling purposes becomes increasingly unsatisfactory. A different and data-driven approach is considered here, in which the EUV spectrum is reconstructed from a linear combination of a few, calibrated and carefully selected spectral lines. This approach is based on a statistical analysis of the temporal variability of EUV spectra, as recorded by the TIMED satellite. A basic set of lines is extracted, from which the salient features of the spectral variability can be reconstructed. The best results are achieved with a selection of 5 to 8 of these lines. This study focuses on the methodology for selecting these lines, which can also be used for instrument specification and provides new insight into the comparison of solar proxies against the EUV irradiance.

  5. Investigating the intrinsic cleanliness of automated handling designed for EUV mask Pod-in-Pod systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brux, O.; Walle, P. van der; Donck, J.C.J. van der; Dress, P.


    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is the most promising solution for technology nodes 16nm (hp) and below. However, several unique EUV mask challenges must be resolved for a successful launch of the technology into the market. Uncontrolled introduction of particles and/or contamination into the

  6. A serendipitous observation of the gamma-ray burst GRB 921013b field with EUVE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Gorosabel, J.; Bowyer, S.


    We report a serendipitous extreme ultraviolet observation by EUVE of the field containing GRB 921013b, similar to 11 hours after its occurrence. This burst was detected on 1992 October 13 by the WATCH and PHEBUS on Granat, and by the GRB experiment on Ulysses. The lack of any transient (or...

  7. Nanoimaging using soft X-ray and EUV laser-plasma sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wachulak Przemyslaw


    Full Text Available In this work we present three experimental, compact desk-top imaging systems: SXR and EUV full field microscopes and the SXR contact microscope. The systems are based on laser-plasma EUV and SXR sources based on a double stream gas puff target. The EUV and SXR full field microscopes, operating at 13.8 nm and 2.88 nm wavelengths are capable of imaging nanostructures with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution and short (seconds exposure times. The SXR contact microscope operates in the “water-window” spectral range and produces an imprint of the internal structure of the imaged sample in a thin layer of SXR sensitive photoresist. Applications of such desk-top EUV and SXR microscopes, mostly for biological samples (CT26 fibroblast cells and Keratinocytes are also presented. Details about the sources, the microscopes as well as the imaging results for various objects will be presented and discussed. The development of such compact imaging systems may be important to the new research related to biological, material science and nanotechnology applications.

  8. Structure and behavior of the imploding plasma in a laser triggered vacuum arc EUV source (United States)

    Zhu, Qiushi; Yamada, Junzaburo; Kishi, Nozomu; Watanabe, Masato; Okino, Akitoshi; Horioka, Kazuhiko; Hotta, Eiki


    Dynamics of the imploding plasma and the relations with 13.5 nm EUV emissions in a laser assisted Sn based discharge produced plasma EUV source under moderate discharge current (17 kA amplitude, 120 ns risetime) have been experimentally investigated using time and spatially resolved laser shadowgraphy and Nomarski interferometry techniques. During compression, the imploding plasma shells and the zippering effect that the pinch collapses first from the anode side, and then along the remaining plasma column to the cathode side were observed. As soon as the plasma reaches the maximum compression, the sausage instability exists. The corresponding electron density map indicates that the radial density distribution displays an annular-shape at the crest of the plasma while a near-parabolic-shape at the neck, the maximum of the electron density is located at one peak of the annular distribution at the crest instead of the neck. It is also found that relatively strong EUV radiation is generated by the Z- pinch plasma with electron density larger than 1.5x10^ 24 m-3. However, shock waves due to the expansion of the plasma attaching on the anode can also cause weak EUV radiation.

  9. RapidNano: towards 20nm Particle Detection on EUV Mask Blanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donck, J.C.J. van der; Bussink, P.G.W.; Fritz, E.C.; Walle, P. van der


    Cleanliness is a prerequisite for obtaining economically feasible yield levels in the semiconductor industry. For the next generation of lithographic equipment, EUV lithography, the size of yield-loss inducing particles for the masks will be smaller than 20 nm. Consequently, equipment for handling

  10. Broadband transmission grating spectrometer for measuring the emission spectrum of EUV sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayraktar, Muharrem; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Bruineman, Caspar; Vratzov, Boris; Bijkerk, Frederik


    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light sources and their optimization for emission within a narrow wavelength band are essential in applications such as photolithography. Most light sources however also emit radiation outside this wavelength band and have a spectrum extending up to deep ultraviolet (DUV)

  11. Multi-wavelength study of a high-latitude EUV filament

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schmieder, B.; Lin, Y.; Heinzel, Petr; Schwartz, Pavol


    Roč. 221, č. 2 (2004), s. 297-323 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : EUV filament * multi-wavelength Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.006, year: 2004

  12. The EUV Spectrum of Sunspot Plumes Observed by SUMER on SOHO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 21; Issue 3-4. The EUV Spectrum of Sunspot Plumes Observed by SUMER on SOHO. W. Curdt B. N. Dwivedi U. Feldman. Session X – Cycle Variation in the Quiet Corona & Coronal Holes Volume 21 Issue 3-4 September-December 2000 pp 397-401 ...

  13. Sub-hundred Watt operation demonstration of HVM LPP-EUV source (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Hakaru; Nakarai, Hiroaki; Abe, Tamotsu; Ohta, Takeshi; Nowak, Krzysztof M.; Kawasuji, Yasufumi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yukio; Hori, Tsukasa; Kodama, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Yutaka; Yanagida, Tatsuya; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Taku; Okazaki, Shinji; Saitou, Takashi


    Since 2002, we have been developing a CO2-Sn-LPP EUV light source, the most promising solution as the 13.5 nm high power (>200 W) light source for HVM EUV lithography. Because of its high efficiency, power scalability and spatial freedom around plasma. Our group has proposed several unique original technologies; 1) CO2 laser driven Sn plasma generation, 2) Double laser pulse shooting for higher Sn ionization rate and higher CE. 3) Sn debris mitigation with a magnetic field, 4) Hybrid CO2 laser system that is scalable with a combination of a short pulse oscillator and commercial cw-CO2 amplifiers. 5) High efficient out of band light reduction with grating structured C1 mirror. In past paper we demonstrated in small size (2Hz) experimental device, this experiment shoed the advantage of combining a laser beam at a wavelength of the CO2 laser system with Sn plasma to achieve high CE>4.7% (in maximum) from driver laser pulse energy to EUV in-band energy 1). In this paper we report the further updated results from last paper. (1) 20um droplets at 100kHz operation was successfully ejected by downsized nozzle and demonstrated dramatical improvement of debris on the collector mirror. We have been developing extension of high CE operation condition at 20kHz range, We have reported component technology progress of EUV light source system. (2)New generation collector mirror with IR reduction technology is equipped in mirror maker. (3)20kW CO2 laser amplifier system is demonstrated cooperate with Mitsubishi electric. (4) We develop new Proto #2 EUV LPP source system and demonstrated 200W EUV plasma power (43W EUV clean power at I/F ) at 100kHz operation was confirmed. (5) High conversion efficiency (CE) of 3.9% at 20kHz operation was confirmed in using pico-second pre-pulse laser. (6)Improvement of CO2 laser power from 8kW to 12kW is now on going by installation of new pre-amplifier. (7)Power-up scenario of HVM source is reported, target shipment of first customer beta LPP

  14. Sensitivity enhancement of chemically amplified resists and performance study using EUV interference lithography (United States)

    Buitrago, Elizabeth; Nagahara, Seiji; Yildirim, Oktay; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Tagawa, Seiichi; Meeuwissen, Marieke; Nagai, Tomoki; Naruoka, Takehiko; Verspaget, Coen; Hoefnagels, Rik; Rispens, Gijsbert; Shiraishi, Gosuke; Terashita, Yuichi; Minekawa, Yukie; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Oshima, Akihiro; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin


    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL, λ = 13.5 nm) is the most promising candidate to manufacture electronic devices for future technology nodes in the semiconductor industry. Nonetheless, EUVL still faces many technological challenges as it moves toward high-volume manufacturing (HVM). A key bottleneck from the tool design and performance point of view has been the development of an efficient, high power EUV light source for high throughput production. Consequently, there has been extensive research on different methodologies to enhance EUV resist sensitivity. Resist performance is measured in terms of its ultimate printing resolution, line width roughness (LWR), sensitivity (S or best energy BE) and exposure latitude (EL). However, there are well-known fundamental trade-off relationships (LRS trade-off) among these parameters for chemically amplified resists (CARs). Here we present early proof-of-principle results for a multi-exposure lithography process that has the potential for high sensitivity enhancement without compromising other important performance characteristics by the use of a Photosensitized Chemically Amplified Resist (PSCAR). With this method, we seek to increase the sensitivity by combining a first EUV pattern exposure with a second UV flood exposure (λ = 365 nm) and the use of a PSCAR. In addition, we have evaluated over 50 different state-of-the-art EUV CARs. Among these, we have identified several promising candidates that simultaneously meet sensitivity, LWR and EL high performance requirements with the aim of resolving line space (L/S) features for the 7 and 5 nm logic node (16 nm and 13 nm half-pitch HP, respectively) for HVM. Several CARs were additionally found to be well resolved down to 12 nm and 11 nm HP with minimal pattern collapse and bridging, a remarkable feat for CARs. Finally, the performance of two negative tone state-of-the-art alternative resist platforms previously investigated was compared to the CAR performance at and

  15. Critical parameters influencing the EUV-induced damage of Ru-capped multilayer mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S B; Ermanoski, I; Tarrio, C; Lucatorto, T B; Madey, T E; Bajt, S; Fang, M; Chandhok, M


    Ongoing endurance testing of Ru-capped multilayer mirrors (MLMs) at the NIST synchrotron facility has revealed that the damage resulting from EUV irradiation does not always depend on the exposure conditions in an intuitive way. Previous exposures of Ru-capped MLMs to EUV radiation in the presence of water vapor demonstrated that the mirror damage rate actually decreases with increasing water pressure. We will present results of recent exposures showing that the reduction in damage for partial pressures of water up to 5 x 10 -6 Torr is not the result of a spatially uniform decrease in damage across the Gaussian intensity distribution of the incident EUV beam. Instead we observe a drop in the damage rate in the center of the exposure spot where the intensity is greatest, while the reflectivity loss in the wings of the intensity distribution appears to be independent of water partial pressure. (See Fig. 1.) We will discuss how the overall damage rate and spatial profile can be influenced by admixtures of carbon-containing species (e.g., CO, CO 2 , C 6 H 6 ) at partial pressures one-to-two orders of magnitude lower than the water vapor partial pressure. An investigation is underway to find the cause of the non-Gaussian damage profile. Preliminary results and hypotheses will be discussed. In addition to high-resolution reflectometry of the EUV-exposure sites, the results of surface analysis such as XPS will be presented. We will also discuss how the bandwidth and time structure of incident EUV radiation may affect the rate of reflectivity degradation. Although the observations presented here are based on exposures of Ru-capped MLMs, unless novel capping layers are similarly characterized, direct application of accelerated testing results could significantly overestimate mirror lifetime in the production environment

  16. Latest developments on EUV reticle and pellicle research and technology at TNO (United States)

    Verberk, Rogier; Koster, Norbert; te Sligte, Edwin; Staring, Wilbert


    At TNO an extensive EUV optics life time program has been running for over 15 years together with our partners ASML and Carl Zeiss. This has contributed to the upcoming introduction of EUV High Volume Manufacturing (HVM). To further help the industry with the introduction of EUV, TNO has worked on extending their facilities with a number of reticle and pellicle research infrastructure facilities. In this paper we will show some of the facilities that are available at TNO and shortly introduce their capabilities. Recently we have opened our EBL2 facility, which is an EUV Beam Line (EBL2) meant for studying the effects of high power EUV illumination on optics, reticles and pellicles up to the power roadmap of 500 W at intermediate Focus (IF). This facility is open to users from all over the world and is beneficial for the industry in helping developing alternative capping layers and contamination control strategies for optics lifetime, new absorber materials, pellicles and resists. The EBL2 system has seen first light in December 2016 and is now in the final stage of acceptance testing and qualification. It is expected that the system will be fully operational in the third quarter of 2017, and available for users. It is possible to transfer reticles to and from the EBL2 by means of the reticle handler using the dual pod interface. This secures backside cleanliness to NXE standards and thus enables wafer printing on a NXE tool in a later stage after the exposures and inspection at EBL2. Besides EBL2, a high performance and ultra-clean reticle handler is available at TNO. This handler incorporates our particle scanner Rapid Nano 4 for front side inspection of reticle blanks with a detection limit down to 20 nm particles. Attached to the handler is also an Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) inspection tool for back-side reticle or pellicle inspection with a resolution down to 1 micron.

  17. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA High-power EUV (13.5 nm) light source (United States)

    Borisov, Vladimir M.; Borisova, Galina N.; Vinokhodov, Aleksandr Yu; Zakharov, S. V.; Ivanov, Aleksandr S.; Kiryukhin, Yurii B.; Mishchenko, Valentin A.; Prokof'ev, Aleksandr V.; Khristoforov, Oleg B.


    Characteristics of a discharge-produced plasma (DPP) light source in the spectral band 13.5±0.135 nm, developed for Extreme Ultra Violet (EUV) lithography, are presented. EUV light is generated by DPP in tin vapour formed between rotating disk electrodes. The discharge is ignited by a focused laser beam. The EUV power 1000 W/(2π sr) in the spectral band 13.5±0.135 nm was achieved with input power about of ~63 kW to the plasma at a pulse repetition rate ~7 kHz . The results of numerical simulation are compared with the experimental data.

  18. The cyclization mechanism of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) as revealed by a gamma-cyclodextrin-CGTase complex at 1.8-angstrom resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitdehaag, JCM; Kalk, KH; Dijkhuizen, L; Dijkstra, BW


    The enzyme cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase is closely related to alpha-amylases but has the unique ability to produce cyclodextrins (circular alpha(1-->4)-linked glucoses) from starch. To characterize this specificity we determined a 1.8-Angstrom structure of an E257Q/D229N mutant cyclodextrin


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The crystal structure of Limulus polyphemus subunit type II hemocyanin in the deoxygenated state has been determined to a resolution of 2.18 angstrom. Phase information for this first structure of a cheliceratan hemocyanin was obtained by molecular replacement using the crustacean hemocyanin

  20. Yohkoh Bragg Crystal Spectrometer - Light Curves for S XV (5.0163 - 5.1143 Angstroms): 1 October 1996 - 30 September 1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mariska, John


    .... This channel nominally observes the Sun in the wavelength range from 5.0163 - 5.1143 Angstroms. These plots are useful for identifying flare data for further analysis and for determining the data file name and tape number that contains the data.

  1. X-ray/EUV optics for astronomy, microscopy, polarimetry, and projection lithography; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 9-13, 1990 (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B. (Editor); Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr. (Editor)


    Topics discussed in this issue include the fabrication of multilayer X-ray/EUV coatings; the design, characterization, and test of multilayer X-ray/EUV coatings; multilayer X-ray/EUV monochromators and imaging microscopes; X-ray/EUV telescopes; the test and calibration performance of X-ray/EUV instruments; XUV/soft X-ray projection lithography; X-ray/EUV space observatories and missions; X-ray/EUV telescopes for solar research; X-ray/EUV polarimetry; X-ray/EUV spectrographs; and X-ray/EUV filters and gratings. Papers are presented on the deposition-controlled uniformity of multilayer mirrors, interfaces in Mo/Si multilayers, the design and analysis of an aspherical multilayer imaging X-ray microscope, recent developments in the production of thin X-ray reflecting foils, and the ultraprecise scanning technology. Consideration is also given to an active sun telescope array, the fabrication and performance at 1.33 nm of a 0.24-micron-period multilayer grating, a cylindrical proportional counter for X-ray polarimetry, and the design and analysis of the reflection grating arrays for the X-Ray Multi-Mirror Mission.

  2. High Quality, Low-Scatter SiC Optics Suitable for Space-based UV & EUV Applications, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSG Precision Optronics proposes the development and demonstration of a new optical fabrication process for the production of EUV quality Silicon Carbide (SiC)...

  3. Uncooled Radiation Hard Large Area SiC X-ray and EUV Detectors and 2D Arrays, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to design, fabricate, characterize and commercialize large area, uncooled and radiative hard 4H-SiC EUV ? soft X-ray detectors capable of ultra...

  4. Advances in Observing Various Coronal EUV Waves in the SDO Era and Their Seismological Applications (Invited Review) (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ofman, Leon


    Global extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) waves are spectacular traveling disturbances in the solar corona associated with energetic eruptions such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and flares. Over the past 15 years, observations from three generations of space-borne EUV telescopes have shaped our understanding of this phenomenon and at the same time led to controversy about its physical nature. Since its launch in 2010, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has observed more than 210 global EUV waves in exquisite detail, thanks to its high spatio-temporal resolution and full-disk, wide-temperature coverage. A combination of statistical analysis of this large sample, more than 30 detailed case studies, and data-driven MHD modeling, has been leading their physical interpretations to a convergence, favoring a bimodal composition of an outer, fast-mode magnetosonic wave component and an inner, non-wave CME component. Adding to this multifaceted picture, AIA has also discovered new EUV wave and wave-like phenomena associated with various eruptions, including quasi-periodic fast propagating (QFP) wave trains, magnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities (KHI) in the corona and associated nonlinear waves, and a variety of mini-EUV waves. Seismological applications using such waves are now being actively pursued, especially for the global corona. We review such advances in EUV wave research focusing on recent SDO/AIA observations, their seismological applications, related data-analysis techniques, and numerical and analytical models.

  5. Performance evaluation of nonchemically amplified negative tone photoresists for e-beam and EUV lithography (United States)

    Singh, Vikram; Satyanarayana, Vardhineedi Sri Venkata; Batina, Nikola; Reyes, Israel Morales; Sharma, Satinder K.; Kessler, Felipe; Scheffer, Francine R.; Weibel, Daniel E.; Ghosh, Subrata; Gonsalves, Kenneth E.


    Although extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is being considered as one of the most promising next-generation lithography techniques for patterning sub-20 nm features, the development of suitable EUV resists remains one of the main challenges confronting the semiconductor industry. The goal is to achieve sub-20 nm line patterns having low line edge roughness (LER) of radiation sensitive sulfonium functionality. Investigations into the effect of several process parameters are reported. These include spinning conditions to obtain film thicknesses resistance. The etch durability of MAPDST homopolymer and MAPDST-MMA copolymer (under SF6 plasma chemistry) with respect to the silicon substrate are 7.2∶1 and 8.3∶1, respectively. This methodical investigation will provide guidance in designing new resist materials with improved efficiency for EUVL through polymer microstructure engineering.

  6. Roughness characterization of EUV multilayer coatings and ultra-smooth surfaces by light scattering (United States)

    Trost, M.; Schröder, S.; Lin, C. C.; Duparré, A.; Tünnermann, A.


    Optical components for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) face stringent requirements for surface finish, because even small amounts of surface and interface roughness can cause significant scattering losses and impair image quality. In this paper, we investigate the roughness evolution of Mo/Si multilayers by analyzing the scattering behavior at a wavelength of 13.5 nm as well as taking atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements before and after coating. Furthermore, a new approach to measure substrate roughness is presented, which is based on light scattering measurements at 405 nm. The high robustness and sensitivity to roughness of this method are illustrated using an EUV mask blank with a highspatial frequency roughness of as low as 0.04 nm.

  7. Embedded top-coat for reducing the effect out of band radiation in EUV lithography (United States)

    Du, Ke; Siauw, Meiliana; Valade, David; Jasieniak, Marek; Voelcker, Nico; Trefonas, Peter; Thackeray, Jim; Blakey, Idriss; Whittaker, Andrew


    Out of band (OOB) radiation from the EUV source has significant implications for the performance of EUVL photoresists. Here we introduce a surface-active polymer additive, capable of partitioning to the top of the resist film during casting and annealing, to protect the underlying photoresist from OOB radiation. Copolymers were prepared using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, and rendered surface active by chain extension with a block of fluoro-monomer. Films were prepared from the EUV resist with added surface-active Embedded Barrier Layer (EBL), and characterized using measurements of contact angles and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Finally, the lithographic performance of the resist containing the EBL was evaluated using Electron Beam Lithography exposure

  8. EUV actinic defect inspection and defect printability at the sub-32 nm half pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Sungmin; Kearney, Patrick; Wurm, Stefan; Goodwin, Frank; Han, Hakseung; Goldberg, Kenneth; Mochi, Iacopp; Gullikson, Eric M.


    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask blanks with embedded phase defects were inspected with a reticle actinic inspection tool (AIT) and the Lasertec M7360. The Lasertec M7360, operated at SEMA TECH's Mask Blank Development Center (MBDC) in Albany, NY, has a sensitivity to multilayer defects down to 40-45 nm, which is not likely sufficient for mask blank development below the 32 nm half-pitch node. Phase defect printability was simulated to calculate the required defect sensitivity for a next generation blank inspection tool to support reticle development for the sub-32 nm half-pitch technology node. Defect mitigation technology is proposed to take advantage of mask blanks with some defects. This technology will reduce the cost of ownership of EUV mask blanks. This paper will also discuss the kind of infrastructure that will be required for the development and mass production stages.

  9. EUV stimulated emission from MgO pumped by FEL pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jonnard


    Full Text Available Stimulated emission is a fundamental process in nature that deserves to be investigated and understood in the extreme ultra-violet (EUV and x-ray regimes. Today, this is definitely possible through high energy density free electron laser (FEL beams. In this context, we give evidence for soft-x-ray stimulated emission from a magnesium oxide solid target pumped by EUV FEL pulses formed in the regime of travelling-wave amplified spontaneous emission in backward geometry. Our results combine two effects separately reported in previous works: emission in a privileged direction and existence of a material-dependent threshold for the stimulated emission. We develop a novel theoretical framework, based on coupled rate and transport equations taking into account the solid-density plasma state of the target. Our model accounts for both observed mechanisms that are the privileged direction for the stimulated emission of the Mg L2,3 characteristic emission and the pumping threshold.

  10. Systematic study of ligand structures of metal oxide EUV nanoparticle photoresists

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jing


    Ligand stabilized metal oxide nanoparticle resists are promising candidates for EUV lithography due to their high sensitivity for high-resolution patterning and high etching resistance. As ligand exchange is responsible for the patterning mechanism, we systematically studied the influence of ligand structures of metal oxide EUV nanoparticles on their sensitivity and dissolution behavior. ZrO2 nanoparticles were protected with various aromatic ligands with electron withdrawing and electron donating groups. These nanoparticles have lower sensitivity compared to those with aliphatic ligands suggesting the structures of these ligands is more important than their pka on resist sensitivity. The influence of ligand structure was further studied by comparing the nanoparticles’ solubility for a single type ligand to mixtures of ligands. The mixture of nanoparticles showed improved pattern quality. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  11. Investigation of the thermal stability of Mg/Co periodic multilayers for EUV applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, M.H.; Le Guen, K.; Andre, J.M.; Jonnard, P. [UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS UMR 7614, Laboratoire Chimie Physique - Matiere Rayonnement, Paris (France); Zhou, S.K.; Li, H.C.; Zhu, J.T.; Wang, Z.S. [Tongji University, Institute of Precision Optical Engineering, Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Meny, C. [CNRS UMR 7504, Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg (France); Mahne, N.; Giglia, A. [CNR-IOM Laboratorio TASC, Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Nannarone, S. [CNR-IOM Laboratorio TASC, Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Universita di Modenae R.E., Dipartimento Ingegneria Materiali, Modena (Italy); Esteve, I. [Univ. Paris 06 et 07, CNRS UMR 7590, Institut de Mineralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condenses, Paris (France); Walls, M. [Univ. Paris Sud, Laboratoire de Physiques des Solides, CNRS UMR 8502, Orsay (France)


    We present the results of the characterization of Mg/Co periodic multilayers and their thermal stability for the EUV range. The annealing study is performed up to a temperature of 400 {sup circle} C. Images obtained by scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy clearly show a good quality of the multilayer structure. The measurements of the EUV reflectivity around 25 nm ({proportional_to}49 eV) indicate that the reflectivity decreases when the annealing temperature increases above 300 {sup circle} C. X-ray emission spectroscopy is performed to determine the chemical state of the Mg atoms within the Mg/Co multilayer. Nuclear magnetic resonance used to determine the chemical state of the Co atoms and scanning electron microscopy images of cross sections of the Mg/Co multilayers reveal changes in the morphology of the stack from an annealing temperature of 305 {sup circle} C. This explains the observed reflectivity loss. (orig.)

  12. Direct phase-shift measurement of an EUV mask with gradient absorber thickness (United States)

    Tanabe, Hiroyoshi; Murachi, Tetsunori; Park, Seh-Jin; Gullikson, Eric M.; Abe, Tsukasa; Hayashi, Naoya


    We directly extracted the phase-shift values of an EUV mask by measuring the reflectance of the mask. The mask had gradient absorber thickness along vertical direction. We measured the reflectance of the open multilayer areas and the absorber areas by using an EUV reflectometer at various absorber thicknesses. We also measured the diffracted 0th order light intensities of grating patterns having several sizes of lines or holes. The phase-shift values were derived from these data assuming a flat mask interference model of the diffracted lights. This model was corrected by including the scattering amplitude from the pattern edges. We recalculated the phase-shift values which was free from the mask topological effect. The extracted phase-shift value was close to 180 degrees at 67 nm and 71 nm absorber thicknesses. The phase measurement error around 180 degree phase shift was 5 degrees (3σ).

  13. Stellar and Laboratory XUV/EUV Line Ratios in Fe XVIII and Fe XIX (United States)

    Träbert, Elmar; Beiersdorfer, P.; Clementson, J.


    A so-called XUV excess has been suspected with the relative fluxes of Fe XVIII and Fe XIX lines in XUV and EUV spectra of the star Capella as observed by the Chandra spacecraft [1] when comparing the observations with simulations of stellar spectra based on APEC or FAC. We have addressed this problem by laboratory studies using the Livermore electron beam ion trap (EBIT). Our understanding of the EBIT spectrum is founded on work by Brown et al. [2]. The electron density of the electron beam in an EBIT is compatible to the density in energetic stellar flares. In our experiments, the relative detection efficiencies of two flat-field grating spectrographs operating in the EUV (near 100 Å) and XUV (near 16 Å) ranges have been determined using the calculated branching ratio of 1-3 and 2-3 transition in the H-like spectrum O VIII. FAC calculations assuming several electron beam energies and electron densities serve to correct the EBIT observations for the Maxwellian excitation in a natural plasma. In the EUV, the line intensity pattern predicted by FAC agrees reasonably well with the laboratory and Capella observations. In the XUV wavelength range, agreement of laboratory and astrophysical line intensities is patchy. The spectral simulation results from FAC are much closer to stellar and laboratory observation than those obtained by APEC. Instead of claiming an XUV excess, the XUV/EUV line intensities can be explained by a somewhat higher temperature of Capella than the previously assumed T=6 MK. This work was performed under the auspices of the USDoE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and was supported by the NASA under work order NNH07AF81I issued by the APRA Program. E.T. acknowledges support by DFG Germany. 1. P. Desai et al., ApJ 625, L59 (2005). 2. G. V. Brown et al., ApJS 140, 589 (2002).

  14. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) in EUV lithography: LER and adhesion improvement (United States)

    Higgins, Craig; Settens, Charles; Wolfe, Patricia; Petrillo, Karen; Auger, Robert; Matyi, Richard; Brainard, Robert


    Spin-on underlayers are currently being employed by the lithographic industry to improve the imaging performance of EUV resists. In this work, multiple examples have shown improved line-edge roughness (LER) of an open-source resist using new open-source underlayers in comparison to a primed silicon substrate. Additionally, several experiments demonstrate better resist adhesion on underlayers that have lower coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE). Both organic and inorganic underlayers provide better resist LER when their CTE is lower.

  15. Modeling and optimization of mass-limited targets for EUV lithography (United States)

    Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A.


    Current challenges in the development of efficient laser produced plasma (LPP) sources for EUV lithography are increasing EUV power at IF and maximizing lifetime and therefore, reducing cost of devices. Mass-limited targets such as small tin droplets are considered among the best choices for cleaner operation of the optical system because of lower mass of atomic debris produced by the laser beam. The small diameter of droplets, however, decreases the conversion efficiency (CE) of EUV photons emission, especially in the case of CO2 laser, where laser wavelength has high reflectivity from the tin surface. We investigated ways of improving CE in mass-limited targets. We considered in our modeling various possible target phases and lasers configurations: from solid/liquid droplets subjected to laser beam energy with different intensities and laser wavelength to dual-beam lasers, i.e., a pre-pulse followed by a main pulse with adjusted delay time in between. We studied the dependence of vapor expansion rate, which can be produced as a result of droplet heating by pre-pulse laser energy, on target configuration, size, and laser beam parameters. As consequence, we studied the influence of these conditions and parameters on the CE and debris mass accumulation. For better understanding and more accurate modeling of all physical processes occurred during various phases of laser beam/target interactions, plasma plume formation and evolution, EUV photons emission and collection, we have implemented in our HEIGHTS package state-of-the art models and methods, verified, and benchmarked against laboratory experiments in our CMUXE center as well as various worldwide experimental results.

  16. EUV multilayer defect compensation (MDC) by absorber pattern modification: from theory to wafer validation (United States)

    Pang, Linyong; Hu, Peter; Satake, Masaki; Tolani, Vikram; Peng, Danping; Li, Ying; Chen, Dongxue


    According to the ITRS roadmap, mask defects are among the top technical challenges to introduce extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography into production. Making a multilayer defect-free extreme ultraviolet (EUV) blank is not possible today, and is unlikely to happen in the next few years. This means that EUV must work with multilayer defects present on the mask. The method proposed by Luminescent is to compensate effects of multilayer defects on images by modifying the absorber patterns. The effect of a multilayer defect is to distort the images of adjacent absorber patterns. Although the defect cannot be repaired, the images may be restored to their desired targets by changing the absorber patterns. This method was first introduced in our paper at BACUS 2010, which described a simple pixel-based compensation algorithm using a fast multilayer model. The fast model made it possible to complete the compensation calculations in seconds, instead of days or weeks required for rigorous Finite Domain Time Difference (FDTD) simulations. Our SPIE 2011 paper introduced an advanced compensation algorithm using the Level Set Method for 2D absorber patterns. In this paper the method is extended to consider process window, and allow repair tool constraints, such as permitting etching but not deposition. The multilayer defect growth model is also enhanced so that the multilayer defect can be "inverted", or recovered from the top layer profile using a calibrated model.

  17. Space-Resolved VUV and EUV Spectrometers in HL-2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Zhengying; Zhou Hangyu; Fu Bingzhong; Sun Ping; Gao Yadong; Xu Yuan; Yang Qingwei; Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Dong Chunfeng


    A normal incidence vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and a grazing incidence extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometers have been developed for the edge and core impurity measurements in HL-2A tokamak. The VUV and the EUV spectrometers cover wavelength ranges of 300∼3200 Å and 50∼500 Å, respectively. A spatial resolution of 2 mm has been achieved for the VUV spectrometer when a space-resolved slit 50 μm in width is used. The space-resolved slit is placed between the entrance slit and the grating of the spectrometer. The spectral resolutions of 0.15 Å for the VUV spectrometer in the wavelength coverage of the concave 1200 grooves/mm grating and of 0.22 Å for the EUV spectrometer at λ=200 Å with a flat-field laminar-type holographic grating are obtained. The sensitivity of the VUV spectrometer was calibrated in situ with the plasma bremsstrahlung radiation. The experimental results from both spectrometers are presented, especially the line intensity radial profiles measured by the VUV spectrometer. (magnetically confined plasma)

  18. Diagnostics of Coronal Heating in Solar Active Regions (United States)

    Fludra, Andrzej; Hornsey, Christopher; Nakariakov, Valery


    We aim to develop a diagnostic method for the coronal heating mechanism in active region loops. Observational constraints on coronal heating models have been sought using measurements in the X-ray and EUV wavelengths. Statistical analysis, using EUV emission from many active regions, was done by Fludra and Ireland (2008) who studied power-law relationships between active region integrated magnetic flux and emission line intensities. A subsequent study by Fludra and Warren (2010) for the first time compared fully resolved images in an EUV spectral line of OV 63.0 nm with the photospheric magnetic field, leading to the identification of a dominant, ubiquitous variable component of the transition region EUV emission and a discovery of a steady basal heating, and deriving the dependence of the basal heating rate on the photospheric magnetic flux density. In this study, we compare models of single coronal loops with EUV observations. We assess to what degree observations of individual coronal loops made in the EUV range are capable of providing constraints on the heating mechanism. We model the coronal magnetic field in an active region using an NLFF extrapolation code applied to a photospheric vector magnetogram from SDO/HMI and select several loops that match an SDO/AIA 171 image of the same active region. We then model the plasma in these loops using a 1D hydrostatic code capable of applying an arbitrary heating rate as a function of magnetic field strength along the loop. From the plasma parameters derived from this model, we calculate the EUV emission along the loop in AIA 171 and 335 bands, and in pure spectral lines of Fe IX 17.1 nm and Fe XVI 33.5 nm. We use different spatial distributions of the heating function: concentrated near the loop top, uniform and concentrated near the footpoints, and investigate their effect on the modelled EUV intensities. We find a diagnostics based on the dependence of the total loop intensity on the shape of the heating function

  19. Structure of Acostatin, a Dimeric Disintegrin From Southern Copperhead (Agkistrodon Contortrix Contortrix), at 1.7 Angstrom Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiseeva, N.; Bau, R.; Swenson, S.D.; Marklund, F.S.; Jr.; Choe, J.-Y.; Liu, Z.-J.; Allaire, M.


    Disintegrins are a family of small (4-14 kDa) proteins that bind to another class of proteins, integrins. Therefore, as integrin inhibitors, they can be exploited as anticancer and antiplatelet agents. Acostatin, an {alpha}{beta} heterodimeric disintegrin, has been isolated from the venom of Southern copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix). The three-dimensional structure of acostatin has been determined by macromolecular crystallography using the molecular-replacement method. The asymmetric unit of the acostatin crystals consists of two heterodimers. The structure has been refined to an R{sub work} and R{sub free} of 18.6% and 21.5%, respectively, using all data in the 20-1.7 {angstrom} resolution range. The structure of all subunits is similar and is well ordered into N-terminal and C-terminal clusters with four intramolecular disulfide bonds. The overall fold consists of short {beta}-sheets, each of which is formed by a pair of antiparallel {beta}-strands connected by {beta}-turns and flexible loops of different lengths. Conformational flexibility is found in the RGD loops and in the C-terminal segment. The interaction of two N-terminal clusters via two intermolecular disulfide bridges anchors the {alpha}{beta}chains of the acostatin dimers. The C-terminal clusters of the heterodimer project in opposite directions and form a larger angle between them in comparison with other dimeric disintegrins. Extensive interactions are observed between two heterodimers, revealing an {alpha}{beta}{beta}{alpha} acostatin tetramer. Further experiments are required to identify whether the {alpha}{beta}{beta}{alpha} acostatin complex plays a functional role in vivo.

  20. Characterization of EUV irradiation effects on polystyrene derivatives studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroki; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi


    The trade-off among resolution, sensitivity, and line edge roughness (LER) is the most serious problem in actualization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV). As feature sizes are reduced, it becomes very strict to simultaneously meet these requirements. Also, reaction in resist materials induced by EUV photon is more complicate. In chemically amplified EUV resists, not acid generator but polymers mainly adsorbed EUV photons. The secondary electrons are generated from polymer upon exposure to ionizing radiation such as EUV radiation and electron beam. Therefore, the increase in secondary electrons generated by EUV photons adsorbed in resist film is very important factor in the resist design. Therefore, it is essential to know the ionization mechanisms of backbone polymers and understand the reaction mechanism in details in order to accomplish high sensitivity and ultra-fine pattern in EUV lithography. We investigated the photoelectron spectra of typical backbone polymers for chemically amplified EUV resists using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). Also, the structure degradations in polystyrene (PS) derivatives thin films induced by EUV radiation were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UPS.

  1. Crystallization of Mitochondrial Respiratory Complex II fromChicken Heart: A Membrane-Protein Complex Diffracting to 2.0Angstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li-shar; Borders, Toni M.; Shen, John T.; Wang, Chung-Jen; Berry, Edward A.


    Procedure is presented for preparation of diffraction-quality crystals of a vertebrate mitochondrial respiratory Complex II. The crystals have the potential to diffract to at least 2.0 Angstrom with optimization of post-crystal-growth treatment and cryoprotection. This should allow determination of the structure of this important and medically relevant membrane protein complex at near-atomic resolution and provide great detail of the mode of binding of substrates and inhibitors at the two substrate-binding sites.

  2. Applications of compact laser-driven EUV/XUV plasma sources (United States)

    Barkusky, Frank; Bayer, Armin; Döring, Stefan; Flöter, Bernhard; Großmann, Peter; Peth, Christian; Reese, Michael; Mann, Klaus


    In recent years, technological developments in the area of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) have experienced great improvements. So far, intense light sources based on discharge or laser plasmas, beam steering and imaging optics as well as sensitive detectors are available. Currently, applications of EUV radiation apart from microlithography, such as metrology, high-resolution microscopy, or surface analysis come more and more into focus. In this contribution we present an overview on the EUV/XUV activities of the Laser-Laboratorium Göttingen based on table-top laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources. As target materials gaseous or liquid jets of noble gases or solid Gold are employed. Depending on the applications, the very clean but low intense gaseous targets are mainly used for metrology, whereas the targets for high brilliances (liquid, solid) are used for microscopy and direct structuring. For the determination of interaction mechanisms between EUV radiation and matter, currently the solid Gold target is used. In order to obtain a small focal spot resulting in high EUV fluence, a modified Schwarzschild objective consisting of two spherical mirrors with Mo/Si multilayer coatings is adapted to this source. By demagnified (10x) imaging of the Au plasma an EUV spot of 3 μm diameter with a maximum energy density of ~1.3 J/cm2 is generated (pulse duration 8.8 ns). First applications of this integrated source and optics system reveal its potential for high-resolution modification and direct structuring of solid surfaces. For chemical analysis of various samples a NEXAFS setup was developed. It consists of a LPP, using gaseous Krypton as a broadband emitter in the water-window range, as well as a flat field spectrograph. The laboratory system is set to the XUV spectral range around the carbon K-edge (4.4 nm). The table-top setup allows measurements with spectral accuracy comparable to synchrotron experiments. NEXAFS-experiments in transmission and reflection are

  3. Demonstration of defect free EUV mask for 22nm NAND flash contact layer using electron beam inspection system (United States)

    Shimomura, Takeya; Kawashima, Satoshi; Inazuki, Yuichi; Abe, Tsukasa; Takikawa, Tadahiko; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya; Wang, Fei; Ma, Long Eric; Zhao, Yan; Kuan, Chiyan; Xiao, Hong; Jau, Jack


    Fabrication of defect free EUV masks including their inspection is the most critical challenge for implementing EUV lithography into semiconductor high volume manufacturing (HVM) beyond 22nm half-pitch (HP) node. The contact to bit-line (CB) layers of NAND flash devices are the most likely the first lithography layers that EUV will be employed for manufacturing due to the aggressive scaling and the difficulty for making the pattern with the current ArF lithography. To assure the defect free EUV mask, we have evaluated electron beam inspection (EBI) system eXplore™ 5200 developed by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI) [1]. As one knows, the main issue of EBI system is the low throughput. To solve this challenge, a function called Lightning Scan™ mode has been recently developed and installed in the system, which allows the system to only inspect the pattern areas while ignoring blanket areas, thus dramatically reduced the overhead time and enable us to inspect CB layers of NAND Flash device with much higher throughput. In this present work, we compared the Lightning scan mode with Normal scan mode on sensitivity and throughput. We found out the Lightning scan mode can improve throughput by a factor of 10 without any sacrifices of sensitivity. Furthermore, using the Lightning scan mode, we demonstrated the possibility to fabricate the defect free EUV masks with moderate inspection time.

  4. Mask process correction (MPC) modeling and its application to EUV mask for electron beam mask writer EBM-7000 (United States)

    Kamikubo, Takashi; Ohnishi, Takayuki; Hara, Shigehiro; Anze, Hirohito; Hattori, Yoshiaki; Tamamushi, Shuichi; Bai, Shufeng; Wang, Jen-Shiang; Howell, Rafael; Chen, George; Li, Jiangwei; Tao, Jun; Wiley, Jim; Kurosawa, Terunobu; Saito, Yasuko; Takigawa, Tadahiro


    In electron beam writing on EUV mask, it has been reported that CD linearity does not show simple signatures as observed with conventional COG (Cr on Glass) masks because they are caused by scattered electrons form EUV mask itself which comprises stacked heavy metals and thick multi-layers. To resolve this issue, Mask Process Correction (MPC) will be ideally applicable. Every pattern is reshaped in MPC. Therefore, the number of shots would not increase and writing time will be kept within reasonable range. In this paper, MPC is extended to modeling for correction of CD linearity errors on EUV mask. And its effectiveness is verified with simulations and experiments through actual writing test.

  5. The comparative effect of FUV, EUV and X-ray disc photoevaporation on gas giant separations (United States)

    Jennings, Jeff; Ercolano, Barbara; Rosotti, Giovanni P.


    Gas giants' early (≲ 5 Myr) orbital evolution occurs in a disc losing mass in part to photoevaporation driven by high energy irradiance from the host star. This process may ultimately overcome viscous accretion to disperse the disc and halt migrating giants by starving their orbits of gas, imprinting on giant planet separations in evolved systems. Inversion of this distribution could then give insight into whether stellar FUV, EUV or X-ray flux dominates photoevaporation, constraining planet formation and disc evolution models. We use a 1D hydrodynamic code in population syntheses for gas giants undergoing Type II migration in a viscously evolving disc subject to either a primarily FUV, EUV or X-ray flux from a pre-solar T Tauri star. The photoevaporative mass loss profile's unique peak location and width in each energetic regime produces characteristic features in the distribution of giant separations: a severe dearth of ≲ 2 MJ planets interior to 5 AU in the FUV scenario, a sharp concentration of ≲ 3 MJ planets between ≈1.5 - 2 AU in the EUV case, and a relative abundance of ≈2 - 3.5 MJ giants interior to 0.5 AU in the X-ray model. These features do not resemble the observational sample of gas giants with mass constraints, though our results do show some weaker qualitative similarities. We thus assess how the differing photoevaporative profiles interact with migrating giants and address the effects of large model uncertainties as a step to better connect disc models with trends in the exoplanet population.

  6. Evaluating Printability of Buried Native EUV Mask Phase Defects through a Modeling and Simulation Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, Mihir; Jindal, Vibhu; Basavalingappa, Adarsh; Herbol, Henry; Harris-Jones, Jenah; Jang, Il-Yong; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Marokkey, Sajan; Demmerle, Wolfgang; Pistor, Thomas V.; Denbeaux, Gregory


    The availability of defect-free masks is considered to be a critical issue for enabling extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) as the next generation technology. Since completely defect-free masks will be hard to achieve, it is essential to have a good understanding of the printability of the native EUV mask defects. In this work, we performed a systematic study of native mask defects to understand the defect printability caused by them. The multilayer growth over native substrate mask blank defects was correlated to the multilayer growth over regular-shaped defects having similar profiles in terms of their width and height. To model the multilayer growth over the defects, a novel level-set multilayer growth model was used that took into account the tool deposition conditions of the Veeco Nexus ion beam deposition tool. The same tool was used for performing the actual deposition of the multilayer stack over the characterized native defects, thus ensuring a fair comparison between the actual multilayer growth over native defects, and modeled multilayer growth over regular-shaped defects. Further, the printability of the characterized native defects was studied with the SEMATECH-Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT), an EUV mask-imaging microscope at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Printability of the modeled regular-shaped defects, which were propagated up the multilayer stack using level-set growth model was studied using defect printability simulations implementing the waveguide algorithm. Good comparison was observed between AIT and the simulation results, thus demonstrating that multilayer growth over a defect is primarily a function of a defect’s width and height, irrespective of its shape. This would allow us to predict printability of the arbitrarily-shaped native EUV mask defects in a systematic and robust manner.

  7. EUV high resolution imager on-board solar orbiter: optical design and detector performances (United States)

    Halain, J. P.; Mazzoli, A.; Rochus, P.; Renotte, E.; Stockman, Y.; Berghmans, D.; BenMoussa, A.; Auchère, F.


    The EUV high resolution imager (HRI) channel of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) on-board Solar Orbiter will observe the solar atmospheric layers at 17.4 nm wavelength with a 200 km resolution. The HRI channel is based on a compact two mirrors off-axis design. The spectral selection is obtained by a multilayer coating deposited on the mirrors and by redundant Aluminum filters rejecting the visible and infrared light. The detector is a 2k x 2k array back-thinned silicon CMOS-APS with 10 μm pixel pitch, sensitive in the EUV wavelength range. Due to the instrument compactness and the constraints on the optical design, the channel performance is very sensitive to the manufacturing, alignments and settling errors. A trade-off between two optical layouts was therefore performed to select the final optical design and to improve the mirror mounts. The effect of diffraction by the filter mesh support and by the mirror diffusion has been included in the overall error budget. Manufacturing of mirror and mounts has started and will result in thermo-mechanical validation on the EUI instrument structural and thermal model (STM). Because of the limited channel entrance aperture and consequently the low input flux, the channel performance also relies on the detector EUV sensitivity, readout noise and dynamic range. Based on the characterization of a CMOS-APS back-side detector prototype, showing promising results, the EUI detector has been specified and is under development. These detectors will undergo a qualification program before being tested and integrated on the EUI instrument.

  8. Atomic structure calculations and identification of EUV and SXR spectral lines in Sr XXX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Arun; Khatri, Indu; Aggarwal, Sunny; Singh, A.K.; Mohan, Man


    We report an extensive theoretical study of atomic data for Sr XXX in a wide range with L-shell electron excitations to the M-shell. We have calculated energy levels, wave-function compositions and lifetimes for lowest 113 fine structure levels and wavelengths of an extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray (SXR) transitions. We have employed multi-configuration Dirac Fock method (MCDF) approach within the framework of Dirac–Coulomb Hamiltonian including quantum electrodynamics (QED) and Breit corrections. We have also presented the radiative data for electric and magnetic dipole (E1, M1) and quadrupole (E2, M2) transitions from the ground state. We have made comparisons with available energy levels compiled by NIST and achieve good agreement. But due to inadequate data in the literature, analogous relativistic distorted wave calculations have also been performed using flexible atomic code (FAC) to assess the reliability and accuracy of our results. Additionally, we have provided new atomic data for Sr XXX which is not published elsewhere in the literature and we believe that our results may be beneficial in fusion plasma research and astrophysical investigations and applications. - Highlights: • 113 Lowest levels for Sr XXX are calculated. • Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and soft-X ray (SXR) spectral lines are identified. • Wavelengths of EUV and SXR spectral lines are reported. • E1, E2, M1 and M2 transition rates, oscillator strengths and lines strengths for lowest 113 levels are presented. • Lifetimes for lowest 113 fine structure levels are provided

  9. Development of the negative-tone molecular resists for EB/EUVL having high EUV absorption capacity and molecular design method (United States)

    Sato, Takashi; Takigawa, Tomoaki; Togashi, Yuta; Toida, Takumi; Echigo, Masatoshi; Harada, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Takeo; Kudo, Hiroto


    In this paper, we designed the synthesis of negative-type molecular resist materials for EB and EUVL exposure tools, and their properties were examined. The resist materials for EUVL have been required showing higher sensitivity for high throughput in the lithographic process, and expecting lower shot noise to improve a roughness. In EUVL process, the resist materials must be ionized by absorbing EUV to emit more secondary electrons. The EUV absorption of the synthesized resist materials was measured using their thin films on the silicon wafer, and it was observed that the ratio of EUV absorption of the synthesized resist was higher than in the comparison of that of PHS as a reference., i.e., 2.4 times higher absorption was shown. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between the ratios of EUV absorptions and functional groups of the resist materials. As the result, the sensitivity of resist materials under EUV exposure tool was consistent with their structures.

  10. EUV-driven ionospheres and electron transport on extrasolar giant planets orbiting active stars (United States)

    Chadney, J. M.; Galand, M.; Koskinen, T. T.; Miller, S.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Unruh, Y. C.; Yelle, R. V.


    The composition and structure of the upper atmospheres of extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) are affected by the high-energy spectrum of their host stars from soft X-rays to the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). This emission depends on the activity level of the star, which is primarily determined by its age. In this study, we focus upon EGPs orbiting K- and M-dwarf stars of different ages - ɛ Eridani, AD Leonis, AU Microscopii - and the Sun. X-ray and EUV (XUV) spectra for these stars are constructed using a coronal model. These spectra are used to drive both a thermospheric model and an ionospheric model, providing densities of neutral and ion species. Ionisation - as a result of stellar radiation deposition - is included through photo-ionisation and electron-impact processes. The former is calculated by solving the Lambert-Beer law, while the latter is calculated from a supra-thermal electron transport model. We find that EGP ionospheres at all orbital distances considered (0.1-1 AU) and around all stars selected are dominated by the long-lived H+ ion. In addition, planets with upper atmospheres where H2 is not substantially dissociated (at large orbital distances) have a layer in which H3+ is the major ion at the base of the ionosphere. For fast-rotating planets, densities of short-lived H3+ undergo significant diurnal variations, with the maximum value being driven by the stellar X-ray flux. In contrast, densities of longer-lived H+ show very little day/night variability and the magnitude is driven by the level of stellar EUV flux. The H3+ peak in EGPs with upper atmospheres where H2 is dissociated (orbiting close to their star) under strong stellar illumination is pushed to altitudes below the homopause, where this ion is likely to be destroyed through reactions with heavy species (e.g. hydrocarbons, water). The inclusion of secondary ionisation processes produces significantly enhanced ion and electron densities at altitudes below the main EUV ionisation peak, as

  11. A rare gas optics-free absolute EUV photon spectrometer for solar system studies (United States)

    Daybell, M. D.; Gruntman, M. A.; Judge, D. L.; Samson, J. A. R.


    We have developed a prototype spectrometer for space applications which require long term absolute EUV photon flux measurements. In this recently developed spectrometer, the energy spectrum of the incoming photons is transformed directly into an electron energy spectrum by taking advantage of the photoelectric effect in one of several rare gases at low pressures. Using an electron energy spectrometer operating at a few eV, and followed by an electron multiplying detector, pulses due to individual electrons are counted. The overall efficiency of this process is essentially independent of gain drifts in the signal path, and the secular degradation of optical components which is often a problem in other techniques is avoided.

  12. A problem to be solved for tungsten diagnostics through EUV spectroscopy in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, S.; Murakami, I.; Sakaue, H.A.; Dong, C.F.; Goto, M.; Kato, D.; Oishi, T.; Huang, X.L.; Wang, E.H.


    Tungsten spectra have been observed from Large Helical Device (LHD) in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength ranges of 10-650Å. When the electron temperature is less than 2keV, the EUV spectra from plasma core are dominated by unresolved transition array (UTA) composing of a lot of spectral lines, e.g., 6g-4f, 5g-4f, 5f-4d and 5p-4d transitions for W +24-+33 in 15-35Å. In order to understand the UTA spectrum, the EUV spectra measured from LHD plasmas are compared to those measured from Compact electron Beam Ion Trap (CoBIT), in which the electron beam is operated with monoenergetic energy of E e ≤ 2keV. The tungsten spectra from LHD are well analyzed based on the knowledge from CoBIT tungsten spectra. The collisional-radiative (C-R) model has been developed to explain the UTA spectra from LHD in details. Radial profiles of EUV spectra from highly ionized tungsten ions have been measured and analyzed by impurity transport simulation code with ADPAK atomic database to examine the ionization balance determined by ionization and recombination rate coefficients. If the electron temperature is higher than 2keV, Zn-like WXLV (W 44+ ) and Cu-like WXLVI (W 45+ ) spectra can be observed in LHD. Such ions of W 44+ and W 45+ can exhibit much simpler atomic configuration compared to other ionization stages of tungsten. Quantitative analysis of the tungsten density is attempted for the first time on the radial profile of Zn-like WXLV (W 44+ ) 4p-4s transition measured at 60.9Å, based on the emission rate coefficient calculated with HULLAC code. As a result, a total tungsten ion density of 3.5x10 10 cm -3 at the plasma center of LHD is reasonably obtained. Finally, the present problem for tungsten diagnostics in fusion plasmas is summarized. (author)

  13. Improving Flare Irradiance Models with the Low Pass Filter Relation Between EUV Flare Emissions with Differing Formation Temperatures (United States)

    Thiemann, Edward M. B.; Eparvier, Francis G.


    Solar flares are the result of magnetic reconnection in the solar corona which converts magnetic energy into kinetic energy resulting in the rapid heating of solar plasma. As this plasma cools, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) line emission intensities evolve as the plasma temperature passes through line formation temperatures, resulting in emission lines with cooler formation temperatures peaking after those with hotter formation temperatures. At the 2016 American Astronomical Society Solar Physics Division Meeting in Boulder (SPD2016), we showed that Fe XVIII solar flare light curves are highly correlated with Fe XXIII light curves that have been subjected to the single-pole Low Pass Filter Equation (LPFE) with a time constant equal to the time difference between the peak emissions. The single-pole (or equivalently, RC) LPFE appears frequently in analyses of systems which both store and dissipate heat, and the flare LPFE effect is believed to be related to the underlying cooling processes. Because the LPFE is constrained by a single parameter, this effect has implications for both operational EUV flare irradiance models and understanding thermal processes that occur in post-flare loops. At the time of SPD2016, it was ambiguous as to whether the LPFE effect relates hot thermal bremsstrahlung soft x-ray (SXR) or EUV line emissions with cooler EUV line emissions since Fe XXIII flare light curves are highly correlated with SXR flare light curves. In this study, we present new results characterizing the LPFE relation between multiple emission lines with differing formation temperatures ranging from 107.2 to 105.7 K observed by SDO/EVE and SXR thermal bremsstrahlung emissions observed by GOES/XRS. We show that the LPFE equation relates Fe XVIII with cooler EUV line emissions, providing unambiguous evidence that the LPFE effect exists between EUV line emissions rather than thermal bremsstrahlung and line emissions exclusively. The exact nature of this effect remains an open

  14. Performance of the Angstrom-Prescott Model (A-P) and SVM and ANN techniques to estimate daily global solar irradiation in Botucatu/SP/Brazil (United States)

    da Silva, Maurício Bruno Prado; Francisco Escobedo, João; Juliana Rossi, Taiza; dos Santos, Cícero Manoel; da Silva, Sílvia Helena Modenese Gorla


    This study describes the comparative study of different methods for estimating daily global solar irradiation (H): Angstrom-Prescott (A-P) model and two Machine Learning techniques (ML) - Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The H database was measured from 1996 to 2011 in Botucatu/SP/Brazil. Different combinations of input variables were adopted. MBE, RMSE, d Willmott, r and r2 statistical indicators obtained in the validation of A-P and SVM and ANN models showed that: SVM technique has better performance in estimating H than A-P and ANN models. A-P model has better performance in estimating H than ANN.

  15. Active region structures in the transition region and corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, D.F.


    Observational aspects of the transition region and coronal structures of the solar active region are reviewed with an emphasis on imaging of the plasma loops which act as tracers of the magnetic flux loops. The study of the basic structure of an active region is discussed in terms of the morphological and thermal classifications of active region loops, including umbral structures, and observational knowledge of the thermal structure of loops is considered in relation to scaling laws, emission measures and the structures of individual loops. The temporal evolution of active region loop structures is reviewed with emphasis on ephemeral regions and the emergence of active regions. Planned future spaceborne observations of active region loop structures in the EUV and soft X-ray regions are also indicated

  16. X-Ray and EUV Spectroscopy of Highly-Charged Ions of Tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralchenko, Yu.; Gillaspy, J. D.; Pomeroy, J. M.; Reader, J.; Tan, J. N.


    We report on recent measurements and collisional-radiative simulations of x-ray and EUV spectra from multiply-charged ions of tungsten produced with the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The spectra were recorded in the ranges of 0.3 nm to 1 nm and 4 nm to 20 nm for beam energies varied between 2 and 4.3 keV. A quantum microcalorimeter was used for x-ray measurements while the EUV spectra were recorded with a grazing incidence spectrometer. of 4.08 keV. The uncertainties of our measured wavelengths range from 0.002 to 0.010 nm. Remarkably good agreement between calculated and measured spectra was obtained without adjustable parameters, highlighting the well-controlled experimental conditions and the sophistication of the kinetic simulation of the non-Maxwellian tungsten plasma. This agreement permitted the identification of new spectral lines from W39+, W44+, W45+, W46+, and W47+ ions, led to the reinterpretation of a previously known line in the Ni-like ion as an overlap of electric-quadrupole and magnetic-octupole lines, and revealed subtle features in the spectra arising from the dominance of forbidden transitions between excited states. The importance of level population mechanisms specific to the EBIT plasmas is discussed as well

  17. Difference in EUV photoresist design towards reduction of LWR and LCDU (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; De Simone, Danilo; Vandenberghe, Geert


    Pattern fidelity of EUV lithography is crucial for high resolution features, since small variation can affect device performance and even cause short or open circuit. For 1D features, dense lines and contact holes are the most common features for active, metal and contact layer, therefore line width roughness (LWR) and local critical dimension uniformity (LCDU) are important indexes to monitor. Both LWR and LCDU are greatly influenced by photon and acid shot noise. In addition, LWR is also affected by resist mechanical properties, like pattern collapse. In this study, we studied the influence of different chemically amplified resist components, such as polymer, PAG and quencher for both types and concentrations in order to understand the relative extent of influences of deprotection, acid diffusion, and base neutralization on pattern fidelity. However, conventional methods to approach higher resolution or low LWR/LCDU by sacrificing the dose are not sustainable. In order to continue to improve resist performance, a new component, metal salt sensitizer, is introduced into the resist system. This metal salt is able to achieve 30% dose reduction by increasing EUV absorption, maintaining LWR. We believe metal sensitizer might give us a new way to challenge the RLS trade-off.

  18. eBeam initiative survey reports confidence in EUV and multi-beam technology (United States)

    Fujimura, Aki; Willis, Jan


    A record 73 industry luminaries representing more than 30 different companies from across the semiconductor ecosystem participated in the 2016 eBeam Initiative perceptions survey. The eBeam Initiative also completed its second annual mask makers' survey with feedback from 10 captive and merchant photomask manufacturers. Among the results of the members' perception survey, respondents remained optimistic in the implementation of EUV lithography for semiconductor high-volume manufacturing (HVM), with confidence in EUV increasing over other next-generation lithography (NGL) techniques compared with last year's survey. In addition, expectations on the use of multi-beam technology for advanced photomask HVM by the end of 2018 continue to remain strong. Results from the eBeam Initiative's second annual mask makers' survey indicate several surprising trends on mask making related to write times, turn-around time (TAT) for mask manufacturing, resists, mask yields and other critical issues. The author will review the key findings and offer his viewpoint on their significance.

  19. Development of amorphous silicon based EUV hardmasks through physical vapor deposition (United States)

    De Silva, Anuja; Mignot, Yann; Meli, Luciana; DeVries, Scott; Xu, Yongan; Seshadri, Indira; Felix, Nelson M.; Zeng, Wilson; Cao, Yong; Phan, Khoi; Dai, Huixiong; Ngai, Christopher S.; Stolfi, Michael; Diehl, Daniel L.


    Extending extreme ultraviolet (EUV) single exposure patterning to its limits requires more than photoresist development. The hardmask film is a key contributor in the patterning stack that offers opportunities to enhance lithographic process window, increase pattern transfer efficiency, and decrease defectivity when utilizing very thin film stacks. This paper introduces the development of amorphous silicon (a-Si) deposited through physical vapor deposited (PVD) as an alternative to a silicon ARC (SiARC) or silicon-oxide-type EUV hardmasks in a typical trilayer patterning scheme. PVD offers benefits such as lower deposition temperature, and higher purity, compared to conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. In this work, sub-36nm pitch line-space features were resolved with a positive-tone organic chemically-amplified resist directly patterned on PVD a-Si, without an adhesion promotion layer and without pattern collapse. Pattern transfer into the underlying hardmask stack was demonstrated, allowing an evaluation of patterning metrics related to resolution, pattern transfer fidelity, and film defectivity for PVD a-Si compared to a conventional tri-layer patterning scheme. Etch selectivity and the scalability of PVD a-Si to reduce the aspect ratio of the patterning stack will also be discussed.

  20. Characterizing and modeling electrical response to light for metal-based EUV photoresists (United States)

    Pret, Alessandro V.; Kocsis, Mike; De Simone, Danilo; Vandenberghe, Geert; Stowers, Jason; Giglia, Angelo; de Schepper, Peter; Mani, Antonio; Biafore, John J.


    Metal-based photoresists are appealing for use in EUV lithography due to their improved etch resistance and absorption compared with organic resists, and due to their resolving power demonstrated with 13.53 nm exposures using synchrotron light. Recently imec has started a new project to study novel photoresists for EUV lithography, with particular attention to metal containing materials, in order to explore alternative approaches that may offer superior characteristics in photoresist imaging and etching performance compared with more mature chemically amplified resists. In order to model these novel resists it is mandatory to understand both the optical properties and the electronic response to photon absorption. As in previous experiments on organic materials, some of the optical properties can be determined by merging analysis from high-energy electron scattering models (e.g. CXRO website), X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and DUV spectroscopic ellipsometry. Dispersion curves can be used to calculate the electronic inelastic and elastic mean-free paths; convolved with the expected spectrum at wafer level it is possible to estimate the electron yield and the secondary electron blur of the photoresist. These material properties can be used to modify the physical models currently used to simulate organic photoresist performance in computational lithography software.

  1. Enhancing native defect sensitivity for EUV actinic blank inspection: optimized pupil engineering and photon noise study (United States)

    Wang, Yow-Gwo; Neureuther, Andrew; Naulleau, Patrick


    In this paper, we discuss the impact of optimized pupil engineering and photon noise on native defect sensitivity in EUV actinic blank inspection. Native defects include phase-dominated defects, absorber defects, and defects with a combination of phase and absorption behavior. First, we extend the idea of the Zernike phase contrast (ZPC) method and study the impact of optimum phase shift in the pupil plane on native defect sensitivity, showing a 23% signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement compare to bright field (BF) for a phase defect with 20% absorption. We also describe the possibility to increase target defect SNR on target defect sizes at the price of losing the sensitivity on smaller (non-critical) defects. Moreover, we show the advantage of the optimized phase contrast (OZPC) method over BF EUV actinic blank inspection. A single focus scan from OZPC has better inspection efficiency over BF. Second, we make a detailed comparison between the phase contrast with apodization (AZPC) method and dark field (DF) method based on defect sensitivity in the presence of both photon shot noise and camera noise. Performance is compared for a variety of photon levels, mask roughness conditions, and combinations of defect phase and absorption.

  2. Modeling of the EUV and X-Ray Emission Spectra Induced by the Solar Winds Ions in the Heliosphere (United States)

    Kharchenko, Vasili


    We have carried out investigation of the EUV and X-ray emission spectra induced in interaction between the Solar Wind (SW) and interstellar neutral gas. The spectra of most important SW ions have been computed for the charge-exchange mechanism of X-ray emission using new accurate spectroscopic data from recent laboratory measurements and theoretical calculations. Total spectra have been constructed as a sum of spectra induced in the charge-exchange collisions by individual O(exp q+), C(exp q+), N(exp q+), Ne(exp q+), Mg (exp q+) and Fe(exp q+) ions. Calculations have been performed for X-ray emission from the heliospheric hydrogen and helium gas. X-ray maps of the heliosphere have been computed. The power density of X-ray sources in the heliospheric ecliptic plane is shown for the H gas and for the He gas. Distances from the Sun (0,0) are given in AU. The helium cone is clear seen in the X-ray map of the charge-exchange emission induced by the solar wind. X-ray emission spectra detected by the Chandra X-ray telescope from the "dark" side of Moon has been identified as a X-ray background emission induced by the solar wind from the geocorona. Spectra and intensities of this charge-exchange X-rays have been compared with the heliospheric component of the X-ray background. Observations and modeling of the SW spectra induced from the geocorona indicate a strong presence of emission lines of highly charged oxygen ions. Anisotropy in distribution of heliospheric X-rays has been predicted and calculated for the regions of the fast and slow solar winds.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maitra, Dipankar; Miller, Jon M.; Reynolds, Mark T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Raymond, John C., E-mail: [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    We report the discovery of a strong emission line near 24.8 Angstrom-Sign (0.5 keV) in the newly discovered X-ray binary system MAXI J0556-332 with the reflection grating spectrometer (RGS) on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The X-ray light curve morphology during these observations is complex and shows occasional dipping behavior. Here we present time- and rate-selected spectra from the RGS and show that this strong emission line is unambiguously present in all the XMM observations. The measured line center is consistent with the Ly{alpha} transition of N VII in the rest frame. While the spectra contain imprints of absorption lines and edges, there appear to be no other significantly prominent narrow line due to the source itself, thus making the identification of the 24.8 Angstrom-Sign line uncertain. We discuss possible physical scenarios, including a gravitationally redshifted O VIII Ly{alpha} line originating at the surface of a neutron star or an unusual donor with an extremely high N/O abundance (>57) relative to solar that may have produced this comparatively strong emission line.

  4. Influence of the electrode wear on the EUV generation of a discharge based extreme ultraviolet light source (United States)

    Vieker, Jochen; Bergmann, Klaus


    Reliability and a long maintenance interval are major requirements for the industrial use of an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. In this paper we present results on the influence of the electrode erosion on the EUV generation and its lifetime limiting characteristics. The geometry of the electrodes and their influence on the gas pressure distribution within the electrode system have been found to be the key variables to characterize the regime of operation. This better understanding allows for an optimization of device parameters (e.g. gas flow or pulse energy) to counteract the erosion process, in order to increase the maintenance interval and EUV output. The EUV source under investigation is based on a hollow cathode triggered pinch plasma. A new trigger concept is introduced that enables free adjustment of the gas pressure during operation, thus enabling the operation with a high conversion efficiency of up to  >0.7 %/2πsr at 13.5 nm and 2% bandwidth. The efficiency for the peak brilliance is up to ~2.6 W kW-1 mm-2sr-1 while the maximum electrical input power of the system is 15 kW.

  5. High-power LPP-EUV source with long collector mirror lifetime for high volume semiconductor manufacturing (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Hakaru; Nakarai, Hiroaki; Abe, Tamotsu; Nowak, Krzysztof M.; Kawasuji, Yasufumi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yukio; Hori, Tsukasa; Kodama, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Yutaka; Yanagida, Tatsuya; Soumagne, Georg; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Taku; Saitou, Takashi


    We have been developing CO2-Sn-LPP EUV light source which is the most promising solution as the 13.5nm high power light source for HVM EUVL. Unique and original technologies such as; combination of pulsed CO2 laser and Sn droplets, dual wavelength laser pulses shooting and mitigation with magnetic field have been developed in Gigaphoton Inc.. We have developed first practical source for HVM; "GL200E" 17) in 2014. We have proved high average power CO2 laser more than 20kW at output power cooperate with Mitsubishi electric cooperation). Pilot#1 is up running and its demonstrates HVM capability; EUV power recorded at111W average (117W in burst stabilized, 95% duty) with 5% conversion efficiency for 22hours operation in October 2016). Recently we have demonstrated, EUV power recorded at113W in burst stabilized (85W in average, 75% duty), with 5% conversion efficiency during 143hours operation. Also the Pilot#1 system recorded 64% availability and idle time was 25%. Availability is potentially achievable at 89% (2weeks average), also superior magnetic mitigation has demonstrated promising mirror degradation rate (= -0.5%/Gp) above 100W level operation with dummy mirror test) . Very low degradation (= - 0.4%/Gp) of actual collector mirror reflectance has been demonstrated above 100W level operation (in burst) with magnetic mitigation EUV source.

  6. Adaptive Optics to Counteract Thermal Aberrations : System Design for EUV-Lithography with Sub-nm Precision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saathof, R.


    In highly precise systems the thermal expansion of system-parts is of increasing concern, since it can severely compromise its performance at sub-nanometre level. An example of such a system is an Extreme UltraViolet (EUV)-lithography machine that is used in the semi-conductor industry to project

  7. Effect of solar UV/EUV heating on the intensity and spatial distribution of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation (United States)

    Kita, H.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Tao, C.; Morioka, A.


    We analyzed the Very Large Array archived data observed in 2000 to determine whether solar ultraviolet (UV)/extreme ultraviolet (EUV) heating of the Jovian thermosphere causes variations in the total flux density and dawn-dusk asymmetry (the characteristic differences between the peak emissions at dawn and dusk) of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation (JSR). The total flux density varied by 10% over 6 days of observations and accorded with theoretical expectations. The average dawn-dusk peak emission ratio indicated that the dawn side emissions were brighter than those on the dusk side and this was expected to have been caused by diurnal wind induced by the solar UV/EUV. The daily variations in the dawn-dusk ratio did not correspond to the solar UV/EUV, and this finding did not support the theoretical expectation that the dawn-dusk ratio and diurnal wind velocity varies in correspondence with the solar UV/EUV. We tried to determine whether the average dawn-dusk ratio could be explained by a reasonable diurnal wind velocity. We constructed an equatorial brightness distribution model of JSR using the revised Divine-Garrett particle distribution model and used it to derive a relation between the dawn-dusk ratio and diurnal wind velocity. The estimated diurnal wind velocity reasonably corresponded to a numerical simulation of the Jovian thermosphere. We also found that realistic changes in the diurnal wind velocity could not cause the daily variations in the dawn-dusk ratio. Hence, we propose that the solar UV/EUV related variations were below the detection limit and some other processes dominated the daily variations in the dawn-dusk ratio.

  8. Edge placement error control and Mask3D effects in High-NA anamorphic EUV lithography (United States)

    van Setten, Eelco; Bottiglieri, Gerardo; de Winter, Laurens; McNamara, John; Rusu, Paul; Lubkoll, Jan; Rispens, Gijsbert; van Schoot, Jan; Neumann, Jens Timo; Roesch, Matthias; Kneer, Bernhard


    To enable cost-effective shrink at the 3nm node and beyond, and to extend Moore's law into the next decade, ASML is developing a new high-NA EUV platform. The high-NA system is targeted to feature a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.55 to extend the single exposure resolution limit to 8nm half pitch. The system is being designed to achieve an on-product-overlay (OPO) performance well below 2nm, a high image contrast to drive down local CD errors and to obtain global CDU at sub-1nm level to be able to meet customer edge placement error (EPE) requirements for the devices of the future. EUV scanners employ reflective Bragg multi-layer mirrors in the mask and in the Projection Optics Box (POB) that is used to project the mask pattern into the photoresist on the silicon wafer. These MoSi multi-layer mirrors are tuned for maximum reflectivity, and thus productivity, at 13.5nm wavelength. The angular range of incident light for which a high reflectivity at the reticle can be obtained is limited to +/- 11o, exceeding the maximum angle occurring in current 0.33NA scanners at 4x demagnification. At 0.55NA the maximum angle at reticle level would extend up to 17o in the critical (scanning) direction and compromise the imaging performance of horizontal features severely. To circumvent this issue a novel anamorphic optics design has been introduced, which has a 4x demagnification in the X- (slit) direction and 8x demagnification in the Y- (scanning) direction as well as a central obscuration in the exit pupil. In this work we will show that the EUV high-NA anamorphic concept can successfully solve the angular reflectivity issues and provide good imaging performance in both directions. Several unique imaging challenges in comparison to the 0.33NA isomorphic baseline are being studied, such as the impact of the central obscuration in the POB and Mask-3D effects at increased NA that seem most pronounced for vertical features. These include M3D induced contrast loss and non

  9. Electrodynamics of the EUV/x-ray bright point and filamentary flux loop complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, W.H.


    The electrodynamic model of generation of electric currents in the solar atmosphere, by means of twisting of emerging magnetic flux loops, is investigated with emphasis on the small-scaled EUV/X-ray bright points. It is found that the corresponding power input from such conversion of kinetic energy of the turbulent photospheric plasma into magnetic energy could amount to about 25% of the total energy flux of the solar wind and solar radiation. However, if similar filamentary structures containing colder material are formed in abundance, the total energy budget would be correspondingly larger and the resulting mass injection phenomena may be related to the so-called coronal bullets observed in UV. These energetic features suggest that the coronal dynamics and heating could be dictated by plasma structures with angular sizes <0.1 -1. The authors argue that the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission will be essential in addressing these issues basic to solar corona and solar wind acceleration

  10. METROPOLE-3D: a three-dimensional electromagnetic field simulator for EUV masks under oblique illumination (United States)

    Zhu, Zhengrong; Lucas, Kevin D.; Cobb, Jonathan L.; Hector, Scott D.; Strojwas, Andrzej J.


    Conventional lithography techniques have been losing their ability to easily support continuous shrinking of feature sizes, especially when the pattern half-pitch is index of refraction. The simulator has been recently modified to handle oblique illumination conditions, and this is the focus of our paper. Aerial images are calculated in the image plane of a typical EUV stepper, and a threshold resist model is used to predict the printed pattern size. We will first compare our work with published results on dense and isolated lines. Then, we will describe the results of our calculations for two-dimensional patterns (e.g., contacts and islands) under oblique illumination. The typical simulation time is less than 10 hours on a desktop workstation for two-dimensional patterns.

  11. Creation and investigation of powerful EUV sources (λ ∼ 13.5 nm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, V. M.; Borisova, G. N.; Vinokhodov, A. Yu.; Ivanov, A. S.; Kiryukhin, Yu. B.; Mishchenko, V. A.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Khristoforov, O. B.


    Results are presented from experimental studies of repetitively pulsed EUV (λ = 13.5 ± 0.135 nm) sources based on a laser-initiated discharge in tin vapor between rotating disk electrodes. Radiative characteristics of two sources with different systems of tin supply onto the electrode surface and different types of power supply have been compared. A number of new effects have been revealed at pulse repetition rates as high as ∼4000 Hz. A mean radiation power of 520 W into the 2π solid angle has been achieved in the spectral band 13.5 ± 0.135 nm at a deposited electrical power of 24 kW.

  12. Creation and investigation of powerful EUV sources (λ ≈ 13.5 nm) (United States)

    Borisov, V. M.; Borisova, G. N.; Vinokhodov, A. Yu.; Ivanov, A. S.; Kiryukhin, Yu. B.; Mishchenko, V. A.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Khristoforov, O. B.


    Results are presented from experimental studies of repetitively pulsed EUV (λ = 13.5 ± 0.135 nm) sources based on a laser-initiated discharge in tin vapor between rotating disk electrodes. Radiative characteristics of two sources with different systems of tin supply onto the electrode surface and different types of power supply have been compared. A number of new effects have been revealed at pulse repetition rates as high as ˜4000 Hz. A mean radiation power of 520 W into the 2π solid angle has been achieved in the spectral band 13.5 ± 0.135 nm at a deposited electrical power of 24 kW.

  13. kW-class picosecond thin-disc prepulse laser Perla for efficient EUV generation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Endo, Akira; Smrž, Martin; Mužík, Jiří; Novák, Ondřej; Chyla, Michal; Mocek, Tomáš


    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2017), s. 1-6, č. článku 041011. ISSN 1932-5150 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1602; GA ČR GA16-12960S; GA MŠk LM2015086 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 739573 - HiLASE CoE Grant - others:OP VVV - HiLASE-CoE(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_006/0000674 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : EUV source * laser produced plasma * FEL * prepulse * thin-disc laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 1.350, year: 2016

  14. A study of defects on EUV mask using blank inspection, patterned mask inspection, and wafer inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, S.; Ren, L.; Chan, D.; Wurm, S.; Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Nakajima, T.; Kishimoto, M.; Ahn, B.; Kang, I.; Park, J.-O.; Cho, K.; Han, S.-I.; Laursen, T.


    The availability of defect-free masks remains one of the key challenges for inserting extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) into high volume manufacturing. yet link data is available for understanding native defects on real masks. In this paper, a full-field EUV mask is fabricated to investigate the printability of various defects on the mask. The printability of defects and identification of their source from mask fabrication to handling were studied using wafer inspection. The printable blank defect density excluding particles and patterns is 0.63 cm{sup 2}. Mask inspection is shown to have better sensitivity than wafer inspection. The sensitivity of wafer inspection must be improved using through-focus analysis and a different wafer stack.

  15. Error analysis of overlay compensation methodologies and proposed functional tolerances for EUV photomask flatness (United States)

    Ballman, Katherine; Lee, Christopher; Dunn, Thomas; Bean, Alexander


    Due to the impact on image placement and overlay errors inherent in all reflective lithography systems, EUV reticles will need to adhere to flatness specifications below 10nm for 2018 production. These single value metrics are near impossible to meet using current tooling infrastructure (current state of the art reticles report P-V flatness ~60nm). In order to focus innovation on areas which lack capability for flatness compensation or correction, this paper redefines flatness metrics as being "correctable" vs. "non-correctable" based on the surface topography's contributions to the final IP budget at wafer, as well as whether data driven corrections (write compensation or at scanner) are available for the reticle's specific shape. To better understand and define the limitations of write compensation and scanner corrections, an error budget for processes contributing to these two methods is presented. Photomask flatness measurement tools are now targeting 6σ reproducibility focused on the flatness errors that are not correctable with compensation.

  16. Implementing flare compensation for EUV masks through localized mask CD resizing (United States)

    Krautschik, Christof G.; Chandhok, Manish; Zhang, Guojing; Lee, Sang Hun; Goldstein, Michael; Panning, Eric M.; Rice, Bryan J.; Bristol, Robert L.; Singh, Vivek


    Early production EUV exposure tools may have difficulty achieving flare requirements in the 5-6% range for the 32nm technology node. In this case, flare compensation may be needed to achieve the necessary CD control budget for production. This paper explores both experimentally as well as computationally wafer CD compensation though mask CD resizing so that proper CD control across the exposure field can be maintained. Experimental resist data collected on POB#2 of the Engineering Test Stand (ETS) suggest that even a simple linear CD compensation model can signifantly improve CD contorl in the presence of flare variation. Extending a similar concpet to a hypothetical full-field 25×33 mm2 mask area containgin 20 nm gate CDs shwos taht CD compensation, while computationally demanding, can be realized through a convolution approach of a 1×1 mm2 mask area using a non-uniform adaptive grid.

  17. Influence of the solar EUV flux on the Martian plasma environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Modolo


    Full Text Available The interaction of the solar wind with the Martian atmosphere and ionosphere is investigated by using three-dimensional, global and multi-species hybrid simulations. In the present work we focus on the influence of the solar EUV flux on the Martian plasma environment by comparing simulations done for conditions representative of the extrema of the solar cycle. The dynamics of four ionic species (H+, He++, O+, O2+, originating either from the solar wind or from the planetary plasma, is treated fully kinetically in the simulation model in order to characterize the distribution of each component of the plasma, both at solar maximum and at solar minimum. The solar EUV flux controls the ionization frequencies of the exospheric species, atomic hydrogen and oxygen, as well as the density, the temperature, and thus the extension of the exosphere. Ionization by photons and by electron impacts, and the main charge exchange reactions are self-consistently included in the simulation model. Simulation results are in reasonable agreement with the observations made by Phobos-2 and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS spacecraft: 1 the interaction creates a cavity, void of solar wind ions (H+, He++, which depends weakly upon the phase of the solar cycle, 2 the motional electric field of the solar wind flow creates strong asymmetries in the Martian environment, 3 the spatial distribution of the different components of the planetary plasma depends strongly upon the phase of the solar cycle. The fluxes of the escaping planetary ions are computed from the simulated data and results for solar maximum are compared with estimates based on the measurements made by experiments ASPERA and TAUS on board Phobos-2.

  18. EUV observation from the Tele-Observatory for Plasma Science (TOPS) (United States)

    Yoshioka, Kazuo; Ichiro, Yoshikawa; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Kagitani, Masato; Misawa, Hiroaki; Yamazaki, Atsushi

    The small satellite "Tele-Observatory for Plasma Science" (TOPS) is now under development. It will be launched in 2012 and injected into the sun synchronized orbit. On board the TOPS, the extreme ultraviolet (65 - 130 [nm]) spectrometer, whose spectral resolution is 0.3 [nm], will be installed. One of the main purposes of this mission is to clear up the mechanisms of electron heating around the Io plasma torahs. For this purpose, we have to attain 1 hour-time resolution, 1 Jovian radius spatial resolution and have to catch all the area around 10 times of Jovian radius in one frame. In order to determine the electron density and temperature around the plasma torahs, we will adopt the line diagnosis by using the EUV lights emitted by the electron impact from the various types of ions (S+, S++, O+, etc.). The lights from the plasma torahs are very faint. So, we have to achieve the high efficiency (more than 0.015 [counts/sec/Rayleigh]) and very low dark count rate (less than 1 [counts/sec/cm2 ). In this mission, we will employ CsI-coated microchannel plate as a 2 dimensional photon counting devise which has about 2 - 3 times higher quantum detection efficiency(20 - 30 %) comparing to the bared one for the EUV light. Furthermore, we will employ CVD-SiC for the primary mirror to enhance the reflectivity. In our presentation, we show the development status of the detectors and the expected outcome from the line diagnosis around the Jupiter, Io plasma torahs.

  19. High-radiance LDP source: clean, reliable, and stable EUV source for mask inspection (United States)

    Teramoto, Yusuke; Santos, Bárbara; Mertens, Guido; Kops, Ralf; Kops, Margarete; von Wezyk, Alexander; Bergmann, Klaus; Yabuta, Hironobu; Nagano, Akihisa; Ashizawa, Noritaka; Taniguchi, Yuta; Shirai, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kiyotada; Aoki, Kazuya; Kasama, Kunihiko


    High-throughput and -resolution actinic mask inspection tools are needed as EUVL begins to enter into volume production phase. To realize such inspection tools, a high-radiance EUV source is necessary. Ushio's laser-assisted discharge-produced plasma (LDP) source is able to meet industry's requirements in radiance, cleanliness, stability and reliability. Ushio's LDP source has shown the peak radiance at plasma of 180 W/mm2/sr and the area-averaged radiance in a 200-μm-diameter circle behind the debris mitigation system of 120 W/mm2/sr. A new version of the debris mitigation system is in testing phase. Its optical transmission was confirmed to be 73 %, which is 4 % lower than that of the previous version and therefore will be improved. Cleanliness of the system is evaluated by exposing Ru mirrors placed behind the debris mitigation system. Ru sputter rate was proven to be sufficiently low as 3~5 nm/Gpulse at 7 kHz, whereas frequency-dependent sputter rate was 1~3 nm/Gpulse at 5~9 kHz as previously reported. Sn deposition remained very low (discharge frequencies. Pulse energy stability was approximately 10 %. Dose energy stability dropped from approximately 2 % to 0.1 % when feedback control was activated. EUV emission position stability was studied at 3 kHz. Deviation of the plasma center of gravity was 6 μm, which is 3 % of plasma diameter and therefore considered to be negligible. Reliability tests were performed on both R and D and prototype machines and up to 200 hours of non-interrupted operation was demonstrated.

  20. EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naulleau, Patrick; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Anderson, Erik; Cain, Jason P.; Denham, Paul; Hoef, Brian; Jackson, Keith; Morlens, Anne-Sophie; Rekawa, Seno; Dean, Kim


    The recent development of high numerical aperture (NA) EUV optics such as the 0.3-NA Micro Exposure Tool (MET) optic has given rise to a new class of ultra-high resolution microexposure stations. Once such printing station has been developed and implemented at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source. This flexible printing station utilizes a programmable coherence illuminator providing real-time pupil-fill control for advanced EUV resist and mask development. The Berkeley exposure system programmable illuminator enables several unique capabilities. Using dipole illumination out to σ=1, the Berkeley tool supports equal-line-space printing down to 12 nm, well beyond the capabilities of similar tools. Using small-sigma illumination combined with the central obscuration of the MET optic enables the system to print feature sizes that are twice as small as those coded on the mask. In this configuration, the effective 10x-demagnification for equal lines and spaces reduces the mask fabrication burden for ultra-high-resolution printing. The illuminator facilitates coherence studies such as the impact of coherence on line-edge roughness (LER) and flare. Finally the illuminator enables novel print-based aberration monitoring techniques as described elsewhere in these proceedings. Here we describe the capabilities of the new MET printing station and present system characterization results. Moreover, we present the latest printing results obtained in experimental resists. Limited by the availability of high-resolution photoresists, equal line-space printing down to 25 nm has been demonstrated as well as isolated line printing down to 29 nm with an LER of approaching 3 nm

  1. Temperature and EUV Intensity in a Coronal Prominence Cavity and Streamer (United States)

    Kucera, T. A.; Gibson, S.E.; Schmit, D. J.; Landi, E.; Tripathi, D.


    We analyze the temperature and EUV line emission of a coronal cavity and surrounding streamer in terms of a morphological forward model. We use a series of iron line ratios observed with the Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on 2007 Aug. 9 to constrain temperature as a function of altitude in a morphological forward model of the streamer and cavity. We also compare model prediction of the EIS EUV line intensities and polarized brightness (pB) data from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) MK4. This work builds on earlier analysis using the same model to determine geometry of and density in the same cavity and streamer. The fit to the data with altitude dependent temperature profiles indicates that both the streamer and cavity have temperatures in the range 1.4-1.7 MK. However, the cavity exhibits substantial substructure such that the altitude dependent temperature profile is not sufficient to completely model conditions in the cavity. Coronal prominence cavities are structured by magnetism so clues to this structure are to be found in their plasma properties. These temperature substructures are likely related to structures in the cavity magnetic field. Furthermore, we find that the model overestimates the line intensities by a factor of 4-10, while overestimating pB data by no more than a factor of 1.4. One possible explanation for this is that there may be a significant amount of material at temperatures outside of the range log T(K) approximately equals 5.8 - 6.7 in both the cavity and the streamer.

  2. Generation of x-ray pulses with rapid rise times to pump inner-shell photo-ionized x-ray lasing in carbon at 45 angstrom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S.J.; Eder, D.C.


    An investigation of the rapid rise time of x-ray emission from targets heated by an ultrashort-pulse high-intensity optical laser was conducted for use as a pump for inner-shell photo-ionized x-ray lasing. Results of x-ray rise times from instantaneously heated Au rod targets show little benefit for using optical pulse widths less than 30 fs. Gain calculations for inner-shell photo-ionized lasing show that large gains can be obtained for pulse widths between 30 and 100 fs. Calculated spectra, using the hydrodynamic/atomic kinetics code LASNEX, from a 1 J, 65 fs FWHM pulse optical laser incident on a structured Au target gave a gain of 1 1.5 cm -1 in C at 45 angstrom

  3. Uncovering New Thermal and Elastic Properties of Nanostructured Materials Using Coherent EUV Light (United States)

    Hernandez Charpak, Jorge Nicolas

    Advances in nanofabrication have pushed the characteristic dimensions of nanosystems well below 100nm, where physical properties are often significantly different from their bulk counterparts, and accurate models are lacking. Critical technologies such as thermoelectrics for energy harvesting, nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapy, nano-enhanced photovoltaics, and efficient thermal management in integrated circuits depend on our increased understanding of the nanoscale. However, traditional microscopic characterization tools face fundamental limits at the nanoscale. Theoretical efforts to build a fundamental picture of nanoscale thermal dynamics lack experimental validation and still struggle to account for newly reported behaviors. Moreover, precise characterization of the elastic behavior of nanostructured systems is needed for understanding the unique physics that become apparent in small-scale systems, such as thickness-dependent or fabrication-dependent elastic properties. In essence, our ability to fabricate nanosystems has outstripped our ability to understand and characterize them. In my PhD thesis, I present the development and refinement of coherent extreme ultraviolet (EUV) nanometrology, a novel tool used to probe material properties at the intrinsic time- and length-scales of nanoscale dynamics. By extending ultrafast photoacoustic and thermal metrology techniques to very short probing wavelengths using tabletop coherent EUV beams from high-harmonic upconversion (HHG) of femtosecond lasers, coherent EUV nanometrology allows for a new window into nanoscale physics, previously unavailable with traditional techniques. Using this technique, I was able to probe both thermal and acoustic dynamics in nanostructured systems with characteristic dimensions below 50nm with high temporal (sub-ps) and spatial (characteristic dimension in both 1D (nanolines) and 2D (nanocubes) geometries, I uncovered a new surprising regime of nanoscale thermal transport called the

  4. High-Density Diffraction Imaging and Non-Imaging Grating Elements for EUV and X-ray Spectroscopy Fabricated by DUV Reduction Photolithography, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a need for lightweight high-density (4000+ lines/mm) novel diffraction grating elements in modern telescopes to advance EUV and X-ray astrophysics. Current...

  5. X-ray/EUV optics for astronomy and microscopy; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 7-11, 1989 (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B. (Editor)


    Topics included in these proceedings are on X-ray/EUV zone plates, filters, and windows; X-ray/EUV microscopes, telescopes, and monochromators; the design, characterization, and test of multilayer optics; the fabrication of X-ray/EUV multilayer optics; and the design, characterization, and test of grazing incidence X-ray optics. Other topics are on the fabrication of grazing incidence X-ray optics, X-ray/EUV space observatories and missions, the test and calibration of X-ray/EUV instruments, X-ray polarimetry, and X-ray/EUV spectroscopy and instruments. Papers are presented on 8-keV X-ray zone plates, a cylindrical X-ray multilayer monochromator, multilayer mirrors for 182 A, advanced flow polishing of exotic optical materials, and optical analysis of grazing incidence ring resonators for free-electron lasers. Attention is also given to X-ray mirrors for the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, the XUV wide-field camera for Rosat, an optical test and alignment method for the XMM mirror module, Bragg crystal polarimeters, and a liftoff process for multilayer phase gratings.

  6. Spectral calibration of filters and detectors of solar EUV telescope for 13.2 nm for the TESIS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, S.V.; Shestov, S.V.; Pertsov, A.A.; Reva, A.A.; Zuev, S.Yu.; Lopatin, A.Ya.; Luchin, V.I.; Zhou, Kh.; Khuo, T.


    The full-sun EUV telescope for 13.2 nm spectral band for the TESIS experiment is designed to produce images of hot coronal plasma (T ∼ 10 MK). Calibration process of optical elements is presented. Spectral transmission of multilayer Zr/Si filters, sensitivity and radiation tolerance of CCD detector have been measured. Peak transmission of EUV filters in working, spectral band reaches 40-50% (filters with 50 and 55 layers are used), spectral dependence of transmission is close to calculated one. Transmission of filters in white light is equal to (1-2)x10 -6 . Sensitivity of CCD ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 ADC units per photon, radiation tolerance is better than 10 9 rad [ru

  7. In orbit degradation of EUV optical components in the wavelength range 10-40 nm AO 138-3 (United States)

    Delaboudiniere, J. P.; Carabetian, C.; Hochedez, J. F.


    A complement of EUV optical components, including mirrors and thin film filters, was flown as part of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) AO 138-3. The most original amongst these components were multilayered interference reflectors for the 10-40 nm wavelength range. Very moderate degradation was observed for those components which were exposed to the sun. The degradation is compatible with the deposition of a few nanometers of absorbing material on the surface of the samples.

  8. Validation of the Earth atmosphere models using the EUV solar occultation data from the CORONAS and PROBA 2 instruments (United States)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Kuzin, Sergey; Berghmans, David; Pertsov, Andrey; Dominique, Marie; Ulyanov, Artyom; Gaikovich, Konstantin

    Absorption in the atmosphere below 500 km results in attenuation of the solar EUV flux, variation of its spectra and distortion of solar images acquired by solar EUV instruments operating on LEO satellites even on solar synchronous orbits. Occultation measurements are important for planning of solar observations from these satellites, and can be used for monitoring the upper atmosphere as well as for studying its response to the solar activity. We present the results of the occultation measurements of the solar EUV radiation obtained by the CORONAS-F/SPIRIT telescope at high solar activity (2002), by the CORONAS-Photon/TESIS telescope at low activity (2009), and by the SWAP telescope and LYRA radiometer onboard the PROBA 2 satellite at moderate activity (2010). The measured attenuation profiles and the retrieved linear extinction coefficients at the heights 200-500 km are compared with simulations by the NRLMSIS-00 and DTM2013 atmospheric models. It was shown that the results of simulations by the DTM2013 model are well agreed with the data of measurements at all stages of solar activity and in presence of the geomagnetic storm, whereas the results of the NRLMSISE-00 model significantly diverge from the measurements, in particular, at high and low activity. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration under Grant Agreement “eHeroes” (project No.284461,

  9. A structural investigation of complex I and I+III2 supercomplex from Zea mays at 11-13 angstrom resolution : Assignment of the carbonic anhydrase domain and evidence for structural heterogeneity within complex I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Katrin; Dudkina, Natalya V.; Jaensch, Lothar; Braun, Hans-Peter; Boekema, Egbert J.; Jänsch, Lothar

    The projection structures of complex I and the I+III2 supercomplex from the C-4 plant Zea mays were determined by electron microscopy and single particle image analysis to a resolution of up to 11 angstrom. Maize complex I has a typical L-shape. Additionally, it has a large hydrophilic, extra-domain

  10. Electron binding energies of aqueous alkali and halide ions: EUV photoelectron spectroscopy of liquid solutions and combined ab initio and molecular dynamics calculations. (United States)

    Winter, Bernd; Weber, Ramona; Hertel, Ingolf V; Faubel, Manfred; Jungwirth, Pavel; Brown, Eric C; Bradforth, Stephen E


    Photoelectron spectroscopy combined with the liquid microjet technique enables the direct probing of the electronic structure of aqueous solutions. We report measured and calculated lowest vertical electron binding energies of aqueous alkali cations and halide anions. In some cases, ejection from deeper electronic levels of the solute could be observed. Electron binding energies of a given aqueous ion are found to be independent of the counterion and the salt concentration. The experimental results are complemented by ab initio calculations, at the MP2 and CCSD(T) level, of the ionization energies of these prototype ions in the aqueous phase. The solvent effect was accounted for in the electronic structure calculations in two ways. An explicit inclusion of discrete water molecules using a set of snapshots from an equilibrium classical molecular dynamics simulations and a fractional charge representation of solvent molecules give good results for halide ions. The electron binding energies of alkali cations computed with this approach tend to be overestimated. On the other hand, the polarizable continuum model, which strictly provides adiabatic binding energies, performs well for the alkali cations but fails for the halides. Photon energies in the experiment were in the EUV region (typically 100 eV) for which the technique is probing the top layers of the liquid sample. Hence, the reported energies of aqueous ions are closely connected with both structures and chemical reactivity at the liquid interface, for example, in atmospheric aerosol particles, as well as fundamental bulk solvation properties.

  11. Technology for defectivity improvement in resist coating and developing process in EUV lithography process (United States)

    Kamei, Yuya; Shiozawa, Takahiro; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Ichinomiya, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Masashi; Nafus, Kathleen; Foubert, Philippe


    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technology is getting closer to high volume manufacturing phase every year. In order to enhance the yield of EUV lithography processing, further improvement of defectivity and CD uniformity is required at the moment. In our previous report in 2017, we have exhibited the defectivity reduction by applying our new rinse and dispense system to a 24nm contact hole (CH) pattern. On the basis of the knowledge received through that evaluation, further study for improvement of the defectivity has been investigated in this paper. As a result of further optimization of the rinse process, 83 % further reduction of residue defect from the result reported previously is achieved. Also, CD uniformity control is a very crucial factor towards EUVL manufacturing phase. We have exposed 15 wafer batches continuously for both line/space and contact hole patterns in order to confirm the current status of wafer to wafer (WTW) as well as field to field (FTF), die to die (DTD), and local uniformity. Now further work for improving CD stability is ongoing based on the results from this first trial.

  12. Configuration interaction calculations and excitation rates of X-ray and EUV transitions in sulfurlike manganese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Maaref, A.A., E-mail:; Saddeek, Y.B.; Abou halaka, M.M.


    Highlights: • Fine-structure calculations of sulfurlike Mn have been performed using configuration interaction technique, CI. • The relativistic effects, Breit-Pauli Hameltonian, have been correlated to the CI calculations. • Excitation rates by electron impact of the Mn X ion have been evaluated up to ionization potential. - Abstract: Fine-structure calculations of energies and transition parameters have been performed using the configuration interaction technique (CI) as implemented in CIV3 code for sulfurlike manganese, Mn X. The calculations are executed in an intermediate coupling scheme using the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. As well as, energy levels and oscillator strengths are calculated using LANL code, where the calculations by LANL have been used to estimate the accuracy of the present CI calculations. The calculated energy levels, oscillator strengths, and lifetimes are in reasonable agreement with the published experimental and theoretical values. Electron impact excitation rates of the transitions emit soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths have been evaluated. The level population densities are calculated using the collisional radiative model (CRM), as well. The collisional excitation rates and collision strengths have been calculated in the electron temperature range ≤ the ionization potential, ∼1–250 eV.

  13. Design, conception, and metrology of Extreme Ultraviolet multilayers mirrors resistant environments of space and EUV sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecquet, Ch.


    The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum (EUV) wavelengths, which range between 13 nm and 40 nm, have many applications in science and technology. These have been developed for example in plasma physics (high order harmonics sources, X ray lasers). The work presented is about the design, the fabrication and the metrology of periodic multilayer mirrors. The main motivation of this study is to establish a cycle of development taking into account both the optical properties of reflective coatings (reflectivity, spectral selectivity, attenuation) and their behaviour under various environments. To improve the spectral selectivity, new multilayer periodic structures have been developed. They are characterized by a bimodal reflectance profile with adjustable attenuation. The effect of environment on the stability of performance is especially critical for the optical collection. The addition of material barriers has stabilized the performance of the peak reflectivity for over 200 h at 400 C deg. and it reduces the influence of other factors of instability on the reflectance. In addition, all structures have been fabricated successfully and evaluated in severe environments. (author)

  14. Scrape-off-layer current and EUV diagnostics and control on the HBT-EP tokamak (United States)

    Levesque, J. P.; Mauel, M. E.; Bialek, J.; Navratil, G. A.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hansen, C. J.


    Non-axisymmetric currents in the scrape-off-layer (SOL) and conducting structure of a tokamak can produce severe forces at high plasma performance, compromising the device's structural integrity. Diagnosing these currents during disruptions is important for extrapolating forces in future machines including ITER. Progress on designing components to measure and control SOL and vessel currents in the HBT-EP tokamak is presented. Movable tiles positioned around limiting surfaces will measure SOL and vessel currents during mode activity and disruptions. Biasable plates at divertor strike points will allow control of field-aligned SOL currents for kink mode control studies and will drive convection in the plasma edge. In-vessel Rogowski coils will measure currents in wall components with high spatial resolution. A planned EUV diagnostic upgrade is also presented. Four sets of 16 poloidal views will allow tomographic reconstruction of plasma emissivity and internal kink mode structure. A separate two-color, 16-chord tangential system will allow reconstruction of temperature profiles versus time. Measurements will be input to HBT-EP's GPU-based feedback system, providing active feedback for kink modes using only optical sensors and both magnetic and edge current actuators. Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.

  15. Atomic structure calculations and identification of EUV and SXR spectral lines in Sr XXX (United States)

    Goyal, Arun; Khatri, Indu; Aggarwal, Sunny; Singh, A. K.; Mohan, Man


    We report an extensive theoretical study of atomic data for Sr XXX in a wide range with L-shell electron excitations to the M-shell. We have calculated energy levels, wave-function compositions and lifetimes for lowest 113 fine structure levels and wavelengths of an extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray (SXR) transitions. We have employed multi-configuration Dirac Fock method (MCDF) approach within the framework of Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian including quantum electrodynamics (QED) and Breit corrections. We have also presented the radiative data for electric and magnetic dipole (E1, M1) and quadrupole (E2, M2) transitions from the ground state. We have made comparisons with available energy levels compiled by NIST and achieve good agreement. But due to inadequate data in the literature, analogous relativistic distorted wave calculations have also been performed using flexible atomic code (FAC) to assess the reliability and accuracy of our results. Additionally, we have provided new atomic data for Sr XXX which is not published elsewhere in the literature and we believe that our results may be beneficial in fusion plasma research and astrophysical investigations and applications.

  16. Bowen fluorescence in the solar transition region (United States)

    Raymond, J. C.


    In Bowen fluorescence, a 304-A photon of He II is converted into two optical photons and an EUV photon of O III. The fluorescent contribution to the intensity of the O III 374-A line is a measure of the column density of O III in the solar transition region. Division of the column density into the emission measure derived from other lines of O III allows determination of the electron density. The accuracy of this technique is roughly a factor of 2, which is comparable to the accuracy of the density diagnostics for the solar transition region.

  17. On the Lack of Correlation Between Mg II 2796, 2803 Angstrom and Lyman alpha Emission in Lensed Star-Forming Galaxies (United States)

    Rigby, Jane Rebecca; Bayliss, M. B.; Gladders, M. D.; Sharon, K.; Wuyts, E.; Dahle, H.


    We examine the Mg II 2796, 2803 Angstrom, Lyman alpha, and nebular line emission in five bright star-forming galaxies at 1.66 less than z less than 1.91 that have been gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxy clusters. All five galaxies show prominent Mg II emission and absorption in a P Cygni profile. We find no correlation between the equivalent widths of Mg II and Lyman alpha emission. The Mg II emission has a broader range of velocities than do the nebular emission line profiles; the Mg II emission is redshifted with respect to systemic by 100 to 200 km s(exp-1). When present, Lyman alpha is even more redshifted. The reddest components of Mg II and Lyman alpha emission have tails to 500-600 km s(exp-1), implying a strong outflow. The lack of correlation in the Mg II and Lyman alpha equivalent widths, the differing velocity profiles, and the high ratios of Mg II to nebular line fluxes together suggest that the bulk of Mg II emission does not ultimately arise as nebular line emission, but may instead be reprocessed stellar continuum emission.

  18. Relationship of EUV Irradiance Coronal Dimming Slope and Depth to Coronal Mass Ejection Speed and Mass (United States)

    Mason, James Paul; Woods, Thomas N.; Webb, David F.; Thompson, Barbara J.; Colaninno, Robin C.; Vourlidas, Angelos


    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) coronal dimmings are often observed in response to solar eruptive events. These phenomena can be generated via several different physical processes. For space weather, the most important of these is the temporary void left behind by a coronal mass ejection (CME). Massive, fast CMEs tend to leave behind a darker void that also usually corresponds to minimum irradiance for the cooler coronal emissions. If the dimming is associated with a solar are, as is often the case, the are component of the irradiance light curve in the cooler coronal emission can be isolated and removed using simultaneous measurements of warmer coronal lines. We apply this technique to 37dimming events identified during two separate two-week periods in 2011, plus an event on 2010 August 7 analyzed in a previous paper, to parameterize dimming in terms of depth and slope. We provide statistics on which combination of wavelengths worked best for the flare-removal method, describe the fitting methods applied to the dimming light curves, and compare the dimming parameters with corresponding CME parameters of mass and speed. The best linear relationships found are nu(sub CME) [km/s] approx. equals 2.36 x 10 6 [km/%] x s(sub dim) [%/s] m(sub CME) [g] approx. equals 2.59 x 10(exp.15 [g/%] x the square root of d(sub dim) [%].These relationships could be used for space weather operations of estimating CME mass and speed using near-real-time irradiance dimming measurements.

  19. High-Resolution, Quantitative, and Three-Dimensional Coherent Diffractive Imaging with a Tabletop EUV Source (United States)

    Shanblatt, Elisabeth Rose

    Imaging is a critical tool used across a broad range of applications in science, technology, medicine, and manufacturing. Microscopy, the type of imaging which allows us to access the elusive yet rich world of what is smaller than we can naturally see--makes it possible to observe and design the nano-world of biological, material, and nanofabricated systems. In this thesis, I describe the development of a new type of microscopy that combines two powerful tools: coherent extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light sources produced by high harmonic generation, and ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging. This microscope produces high-resolution, chemically-specific, phase- and amplitude-contrast images with large fields of view on the order of hundreds of microns, while preserving a high spatial resolution on the scale of tens of nanometers. Recently, we extended this new tabletop microscopy technique to image reflective samples, periodic samples, and to image dynamic nano-scale elastic and thermal processes. I will discuss these advances and in particular demonstrate two new capabilities: first, a new imaging technique with high compositionally- and morphologically-sensitive quantitative information, capable of imaging reactions and diffusion at a buried interface. This capability will open up a new, exquisitely sensitive layer-by-layer imaging that has many applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology, including surface and materials science and metrology. Secondly, I will demonstrate imaging of a thick sample in three dimensions. By accounting for diffraction within a thick sample, it is possible to obtain high-resolution three-dimensional images of biological and meta-material samples non-invasively, and without the use of staining or labeling.

  20. A two-step method for fast and reliable EUV mask metrology (United States)

    Helfenstein, Patrick; Mochi, Iacopo; Rajendran, Rajeev; Yoshitake, Shusuke; Ekinci, Yasin


    One of the major obstacles towards the implementation of extreme ultraviolet lithography for upcoming technology nodes in semiconductor industry remains the realization of a fast and reliable detection methods patterned mask defects. We are developing a reflective EUV mask-scanning lensless imaging tool (RESCAN), installed at the Swiss Light Source synchrotron at the Paul Scherrer Institut. Our system is based on a two-step defect inspection method. In the first step, a low-resolution defect map is generated by die to die comparison of the diffraction patterns from areas with programmed defects, to those from areas that are known to be defect-free on our test sample. In a later stage, a die to database comparison will be implemented in which the measured diffraction patterns will be compared to those calculated directly from the mask layout. This Scattering Scanning Contrast Microscopy technique operates purely in the Fourier domain without the need to obtain the aerial image and, given a sufficient signal to noise ratio, defects are found in a fast and reliable way, albeit with a location accuracy limited by the spot size of the incident illumination. Having thus identified rough locations for the defects, a fine scan is carried out in the vicinity of these locations. Since our source delivers coherent illumination, we can use an iterative phase-retrieval method to reconstruct the aerial image of the scanned area with - in principle - diffraction-limited resolution without the need of an objective lens. Here, we will focus on the aerial image reconstruction technique and give a few examples to illustrate the capability of the method.

  1. High efficiency multilayer blazed gratings for EUV and soft X-rays: Recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronov, Dmitriy; Ahn, Minseung; Anderson, Erik; Cambie, Rossana; Chang, Chih-Hao; Goray, Leonid; Gullikson, Eric; Heilmann, Ralf; Salmassi, Farhad; Schattenburg, Mark; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Padmore, Howard


    Multilayer coated blazed gratings with high groove density are the best candidates for use in high resolution EUV and soft x-ray spectroscopy. Theoretical analysis shows that such a grating can be potentially optimized for high dispersion and spectral resolution in a desired high diffraction order without significant loss of diffraction efficiency. In order to realize this potential, the grating fabrication process should provide a perfect triangular groove profile and an extremely smooth surface of the blazed facets. Here we report on recent progress achieved at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in fabrication of high quality multilayer coated blazed gratings. The blazed gratings were fabricated using scanning beam interference lithography followed by wet anisotropic etching of silicon. A 200 nm period grating coated with a Mo/Si multilayer composed with 30 bi-layers demonstrated an absolute efficiency of 37.6percent in the 3rd diffraction order at 13.6 nm wavelength. The groove profile of the grating was thoroughly characterized with atomic force microscopy before and after the multilayer deposition. The obtained metrology data were used for simulation of the grating efficiency with the vector electromagnetic PCGrate-6.1 code. The simulations showed that smoothing of the grating profile during the multilayer deposition is the main reason for efficiency losses compared to the theoretical maximum. Investigation of the grating with cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed a complex evolution of the groove profile in the course of the multilayer deposition. Impact of the shadowing and smoothing processes on growth of the multilayer on the surface of the sawtooth substrate is discussed.

  2. High-space resolution imaging plate analysis of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light from tin laser-produced plasmas. (United States)

    Musgrave, Christopher S A; Murakami, Takehiro; Ugomori, Teruyuki; Yoshida, Kensuke; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Atarashi, Hironori; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Nagai, Keiji


    With the advent of high volume manufacturing capabilities by extreme ultraviolet lithography, constant improvements in light source design and cost-efficiency are required. Currently, light intensity and conversion efficiency (CE) measurments are obtained by charged couple devices, faraday cups etc, but also phoshpor imaging plates (IPs) (BaFBr:Eu). IPs are sensitive to light and high-energy species, which is ideal for studying extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light from laser produced plasmas (LPPs). In this work, we used IPs to observe a large angular distribution (10°-90°). We ablated a tin target by high-energy lasers (1064 nm Nd:YAG, 10 10 and 10 11 W/cm 2 ) to generate the EUV light. The europium ions in the IP were trapped in a higher energy state from exposure to EUV light and high-energy species. The light intensity was angular dependent; therefore excitation of the IP depends on the angle, and so highly informative about the LPP. We obtained high-space resolution (345 μm, 0.2°) angular distribution and grazing spectrometer (5-20 nm grate) data simultaneously at different target to IP distances (103 mm and 200 mm). Two laser systems and IP types (BAS-TR and BAS-SR) were also compared. The cosine fitting values from the IP data were used to calculate the CE to be 1.6% (SD ± 0.2) at 13.5 nm 2% bandwidth. Finally, a practical assessment of IPs and a damage issue are disclosed.

  3. Is it possible to model observed active region coronal emission simultaneously in EUV and X-ray filters?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudík, J.; Dzifčáková, Elena; Karlický, Marian; Kulinová, Alena


    Roč. 531, July (2011), A115/1-A115/19 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300030701; GA ČR GA205/09/1705; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/09/1469 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Sun corona * Sun UV radiation * Sun X-rays Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.587, year: 2011

  4. A time dependent relation between EUV solar flare light-curves from lines with differing formation temperatures (United States)

    Thiemann, Edward M. B.; Eparvier, Francis G.; Woods, Thomas N.


    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar flare emissions evolve in time as the emitting plasma heats and then cools. Although accurately modeling this evolution has been historically difficult, especially for empirical relationships, it is important for understanding processes at the Sun, as well as for their influence on planetary atmospheres. With a goal to improve empirical flare models, a new simple empirical expression is derived to predict how cool emissions evolve based on the evolution of a hotter emission. This technique is initially developed by studying 12 flares in detail observed by the EUV variability experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Then, over 1100 flares observed by EVE are analyzed to validate these relationships. The Cargill and Enthalpy Based Thermal Evolution of Loops (EBTEL) flare cooling models are used to show that this empirical relationship implies the energy radiated by a population of hotter formed ions is approximately proportional to the energy exciting a population of cooler formed ions emitting when the peak formation temperatures of the two lines are up to 72% of each other and above 2 MK. These results have practical implications for improving flare irradiance empirical modeling and for identifying key emission lines for future monitoring of flares for space weather operations; and also provide insight into the cooling processes of flare plasma.

  5. A time dependent relation between EUV solar flare light-curves from lines with differing formation temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiemann Edward M.B.


    Full Text Available Extreme ultraviolet (EUV solar flare emissions evolve in time as the emitting plasma heats and then cools. Although accurately modeling this evolution has been historically difficult, especially for empirical relationships, it is important for understanding processes at the Sun, as well as for their influence on planetary atmospheres. With a goal to improve empirical flare models, a new simple empirical expression is derived to predict how cool emissions evolve based on the evolution of a hotter emission. This technique is initially developed by studying 12 flares in detail observed by the EUV variability experiment (EVE onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO. Then, over 1100 flares observed by EVE are analyzed to validate these relationships. The Cargill and Enthalpy Based Thermal Evolution of Loops (EBTEL flare cooling models are used to show that this empirical relationship implies the energy radiated by a population of hotter formed ions is approximately proportional to the energy exciting a population of cooler formed ions emitting when the peak formation temperatures of the two lines are up to 72% of each other and above 2 MK. These results have practical implications for improving flare irradiance empirical modeling and for identifying key emission lines for future monitoring of flares for space weather operations; and also provide insight into the cooling processes of flare plasma.

  6. DDR process and materials for NTD photo resist in EUV lithography (United States)

    Shigaki, Shuhei; Takeda, Satoshi; Shibayama, Wataru; Nakajima, Makoto; Sakamoto, Rikimaru


    We developed the novel process and material which can prevent the pattern collapse issue perfectly. The process was Dry Development Rinse (DDR) process, and the material used in this process was DDR material. DDR material was containing siloxane polymer which could be replaced the space area of the photo resist pattern. And finally, the reversed pattern would be created by dry etching process without any pattern collapse issue. This novel process was useful not only in positive tone development (PTD) process but also in negative tone development (NTD) process. We newly developed DDR material for NTD process. Novel DDR material for NTD consists of special polymer and it used organic solvent system. New DDR materials showed no mixing property for NTD PR, so fine pattern of NTD PR could be filled by DDR materials then tone reverse could be achieved by dry etching process. Tone reverse was successfully achieved by combination of NTD PR and DDR process keeping good pattern quality in EUV lithography. Reversed pattern below hp 14nm was obtained without any pattern collapse issue, which couldn't be created by just using normal NTD process. Reversed contact hole could be obtained in NTD-DDR process at 24nm hole size. Reversed C/H made by NTD pillar showed good LCDU compared to PTD C/H. In addition, reversed C/H at 20nm hole size could be achieved in NTD-DDR process. In DDR process, enough etch back is important to obtained fine reversed pattern with lower roughness but long etch back time caused degradation of the reversed pattern. Then etch back time was evaluated with NTD PR and DDR material. Reversed C/H showed minimum LCDU when short etch back time was applied, however degradation of LCDU was observed when long etch back was applied. LCDU of reversed C/H made by NTD-DDR process was 3.2nm. On the other hands, LCDU of normal C/H made by PTD process was 3.5nm, so reversed C/H from NTD pillar showed better LCDU than PTD C/H when suitable etch back was applied.

  7. The first detection of ionized helium in the local ISM - EUVE and IUE spectroscopy of the hot DA white dwarf GD 246 (United States)

    Vennes, Stephane; Dupuis, Jean; Rumph, Todd; Drake, Jeremy; Bowyer, Stuart; Chayer, Pierre; Fontaine, Gilles


    We report observations of the extreme ultraviolet spectrum of the hot degenerate star GD 246 obtained with the EUVE. Our initial attempt at modeling the photospheric emission from the white dwarf reveals a relatively uncontaminated pure H spectrum in the range above 200 A, allowing a study of interstellar continuum absorption features in the line of sight of GD 246. Modeling of the He I autoionization transition discussed by Rumph et al. (1993), and the EUV continuum using the white dwarf as a source of background radiation provides measurements of both neutral and, for the first time, singly ionized He column densities in the local ISM (LISM). We estimate the He ionization fraction He II/(He I + He II) at roughly 25 percent with a total He column of 1.40-1.65 x 10 exp 18/sq cm. We have measured and compared H I column densities from the saturated Ly-alpha ISM absorption in IUE high-dispersion spectroscopy and from EUV continuum absorption: the two measurements are in good agreement with a total H column of 1.2-1.6 x 10 exp 19/sq cm. We discuss some implications for the nature of the LISM, particularly in the context of current models of the EUV radiation field.

  8. A compact, quasi-monochromatic laser-plasma EUV source based on a double-stream gas-puff target at 13.8 nm wavelength

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wachulak, P.W.; Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Feigl, T.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Rudawski, P.; Sawicka, Magdalena; Szczurek, M.; Szczurek, A.; Zawadzki, Z.


    Roč. 100, č. 3 (2010), 461-469 ISSN 0946-2171 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser-plasma * EUV source * gas puff target * elliptical multi- layer * mirror * table-top setup Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.239, year: 2010

  9. Application of Laser Plasma Sources of Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) in Imaging, Processing Materials and Photoionization Studies (United States)

    Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P. W.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, M.; Ahad, I. U.; Fok, T.; Szczurek, A.; Wȩgrzyński, Ł.

    In the paper we present new applications of laser plasma sources of soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) in various areas of plasma physics, nanotechnology and biomedical engineering. The sources are based on a gas puff target irradiated with nanosecond laser pulses from commercial Nd: YAG lasers, generating pulses with time duration from 1 to 10 ns and energies from 0.5 to 10 J at a 10 Hz repetition rate. The targets are produced with the use of a double valve system equipped with a special nozzle to form a double-stream gas puff target which allows for high conversion efficiency of laser energy into soft X-rays and EUV without degradation of the nozzle. The sources are equipped with various optical systems to collect soft X-ray and EUV radiation and form the radiation beam. New applications of these sources in imaging, including EUV tomography and soft X-ray microscopy, processing of materials and photoionization studies are presented.

  10. Correlations Between Variations in Solar EUV and Soft X-Ray Irradiance and Photoelectron Energy Spectra Observed on Mars and Earth (United States)

    Peterson, W. K.; Brain, D. A.; Mitchell, D. L.; Bailey, S. M.; Chamberlin, P. C.


    Solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV; 10-120 nm) and soft X-ray (XUV; 0-10 nm) radiation are major heat sources for the Mars thermosphere as well as the primary source of ionization that creates the ionosphere. In investigations of Mars thermospheric chemistry and dynamics, solar irradiance models are used to account for variations in this radiation. Because of limited proxies, irradiance models do a poor job of tracking the significant variations in irradiance intensity in the EUV and XUV ranges over solar rotation time scales when the Mars-Sun-Earth angle is large. Recent results from Earth observations show that variations in photoelectron energy spectra are useful monitors of EUV and XUV irradiance variability. Here we investigate photoelectron energy spectra observed by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Electron Reflectometer (ER) and the FAST satellite during the interval in 2005 when Earth, Mars, and the Sun were aligned. The Earth photoelectron data in selected bands correlate well with calculations based on 1 nm resolution observations above 27 nm supplemented by broadband observations and a solar model in the 0-27 nm range. At Mars, we find that instrumental and orbital limitations to the identifications of photoelectron energy spectra in MGS/ER data preclude their use as a monitor of solar EUV and XUV variability. However, observations with higher temporal and energy resolution obtained at lower altitudes on Mars might allow the separation of the solar wind and ionospheric components of electron energy spectra so that they could be used as reliable monitors of variations in solar EUV and XUV irradiance than the time shifted, Earth-based, F(10.7) index currently used.

  11. Femtosecond isomerization dynamics in the ethylene cation measured in an EUV-pump NIR-probe configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Tilborg, Jeroen; Allison, Tom; Wright, Travis; Hertlein, Marc; Falcone, Roger; Liu, Yanwei; Merdji, Hamed; Belkacem, Ali


    Dynamics in the excited ethylene cation C{sub 2}H{sub 4}{sup +} lead to isomerization to the ethylidene configuration (HC-CH{sub 3}){sup +}, which is predicted to be a transient configuration for electronic relaxation. With an intense femtosecond EUV (extreme ultraviolet) pump pulse to populate the excited state, and an NIR (near infrared) probe pulse to produce the fragments CH{sup +} and CH{sub 3}{sup +} (which provides a direct signature of ethylidene), we measure optimum fragment yields at a probe delay of 80 fs. Also, an H{sub 2}-stretch transient configuration, yielding H{sub 2}{sup +} upon probing, is found to succeed the ethylidene configuration. We find that a simple single- or double-decay model does not match the data, and we present a modified model (introduction of an isomerization delay of 50 {+-} 25 fs) that does provide agreement.

  12. Neon-like Iron Ion Lines Measured in NIFS/Large Helical Device (LHD) and Hinode /EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Tetsuya; Hara, Hirohisa [National Astronomical Observatory, National Institutes of Natural Sciences 2-21-1 Osawa Mitaka Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Morita, Shigeru [SOKENDAI (Graduate University for Advanced Studies) Hayama, Miura-gun, Kanagawa, 240-0193 (Japan); Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tamura, Naoki [National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Yamamoto, Norimasa [Chubu University 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai Aichi, 487-0027 (Japan); Nakamura, Nobuyuki, E-mail: [The University of Electro-Communications 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu Tokyo, 182-8585 (Japan)


    Line intensities emerging from the Ne-sequence iron ion (Fe xvii) are measured in the laboratory, by the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, and in the solar corona by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board the Hinode mission. The intensity ratios of Fe xvii λ 204.6/ λ 254.8 are derived in the laboratory by unblending the contributions of the Fe xiii and xii line intensities. They are consistent with theoretical predictions and solar observations, the latter of which endorses the in-flight radiometric calibrations of the EIS instrument. The still remaining temperature-dependent behavior of the line ratio suggests the contamination of lower-temperature iron lines that are blended with the λ 204.6 line.

  13. Lithographic measurement of EUV flare in the 0.3-NA Micro Exposure Tool optic at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, Jason P.; Naulleau, Patrick; Spanos, Costas J.


    The level of flare present in a 0.3-NA EUV optic (the MET optic) at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is measured using a lithographic method. Photoresist behavior at high exposure doses makes analysis difficult. Flare measurement analysis under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy is compared, and optical microscopy is found to be a more reliable technique. In addition, the measured results are compared with predictions based on surface roughness measurement of the MET optical elements. When the fields in the exposure matrix are spaced far enough apart to avoid influence from surrounding fields and the data is corrected for imperfect mask contrast and aerial image proximity effects, the results match predicted values quite well. The amount of flare present in this optic ranges from 4.7% for 2 (micro)m features to 6.8% for 500 nm features

  14. On the Combination of Differential Emission Measure Analysis and Rotational Tomography for Three-dimensional Solar EUV Imaging (United States)

    Frazin, R. A.; Kamalabadi, F.; Weber, M. A.


    Conventional differential emission measure (DEM) analysis allows one to determine the amount of plasma as a function of temperature along a given line of sight. A completely different technique called solar rotational tomography (SRT) exploits the view angles provided by solar rotation to determine the spatial distribution of emissivity in three dimensions. These two techniques can be combined in a procedure called differential emission measure tomography (DEMT) to determine the DEM at each point in the corona with the same spatial resolution as can normally be achieved by SRT. In this paper the theory of DEMT is presented, and numerical examples based on the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) are given. The results demonstrate promising potential for the methods to be adapted for use with other EUV and X-ray imaging and/or spectroscopy instruments.

  15. Dry development rinse (DDR) process and material for ArF/EUV extension technique toward 1Xnm hp and beyond (United States)

    Shigaki, Shuhei; Onishi, Ryuji; Sakamoto, Rikimaru


    Since the pattern pitch is getting smaller and smaller, the pattern collapse issue has been getting sever problem in the lithography process. Pattern collapse is one of the main reasons for minimizing of process margin at fine pitch by ArF-immersion or EUV lithography. The possible major cause of pattern collapse is the surface tension of the rinsing liquid and the shrinkage of resist pattern's surface. These surface tension or shrinkage are occurred in the spin drying process of the rinsing liquid. The influence of surface tension against very small pitch pattern is particularly severe. One of the most effective solution for this problem is thinning of the resist film thickness, however this strategy is reaching to its limits in terms of substrate etching process anymore. Recently the tri-layer resist process or hard mask processes have been used, but there is a limit to the thinning of resist film and there is no essential solution for this problem. On the other hand, dry development process such a supercritical drying method or DSA patterning by dry etching have been known as an ultimate way to suppress the pattern collapse issue. However, these processes are not applied to the mass production process right now because these have some problems such a defect issue, requirement of the special equipment and so on. We newly developed the novel process and material which can prevent the pattern collapse issue perfectly without using any special equipment. The process is Dry Development Rinse process (DDR process), and the material used in the process is Dry Development Rinse material (DDR material). DDR material is containing the special polymer which can replace the exposed and developed part. And finally, the resist pattern is developed by dry etching process without any pattern collapse issue. In this paper, we will discuss the approach for preventing the pattern collapse issue in ArF and EUV lithography process, and propose DDR process and DDR material as the

  16. Small Coronal Holes Near Active Regions as Sources of Slow Solar Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.-M., E-mail: [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)


    We discuss the nature of the small areas of rapidly diverging, open magnetic flux that form in the strong unipolar fields at the peripheries of active regions (ARs), according to coronal extrapolations of photospheric field measurements. Because such regions usually have dark counterparts in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images, we refer to them as coronal holes, even when they appear as narrow lanes or contain sunspots. Revisiting previously identified “AR sources” of slow solar wind from 1998 and 1999, we find that they are all associated with EUV coronal holes; the absence of well-defined He i 1083.0 nm counterparts to some of these holes is attributed to the large flux of photoionizing radiation from neighboring AR loops. Examining a number of AR-associated EUV holes during the 2014 activity maximum, we confirm that they are characterized by wind speeds of ∼300–450 km s{sup −1}, O{sup 7+}/O{sup 6+} ratios of ∼0.05–0.4, and footpoint field strengths typically of order 30 G. The close spacing between ARs at sunspot maximum limits the widths of unipolar regions and their embedded holes, while the continual emergence of new flux leads to rapid changes in the hole boundaries. Because of the highly nonradial nature of AR fields, the smaller EUV holes are often masked by the overlying canopy of loops, and may be more visible toward one solar limb than at central meridian. As sunspot activity declines, the AR remnants merge to form much larger, weaker, and longer-lived unipolar regions, which harbor the “classical” coronal holes that produce recurrent high-speed streams.

  17. Simulated solar wind plasma interaction with the Martian exosphere: influence of the solar EUV flux on the bow shock and the magnetic pile-up boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Modolo


    Full Text Available The solar wind plasma interaction with the Martian exosphere is investigated by means of 3-D multi-species hybrid simulations. The influence of the solar EUV flux on the bow shock and the magnetic pile-up boundary is examined by comparing two simulations describing the two extreme states of the solar cycle. The hybrid formalism allows a kinetic description of each ions species and a fluid description of electrons. The ionization processes (photoionization, electron impact and charge exchange are included self-consistently in the model where the production rate is computed locally, separately for each ionization act and for each neutral species. The results of simulations are in a reasonable agreement with the observations made by Phobos 2 and Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. The position of the bow shock and the magnetic pile-up boundary is weakly dependent of the solar EUV flux. The motional electric field creates strong asymmetries for the two plasma boundaries.

  18. Non-Potential Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Reconnection In Low Collisional Plasmas-Discovery of Solar EUV Mini-Sigmoids and Development of Novel In-Space Propulsion Systems (United States)

    Chesny, David

    Magnetic reconnection is the source of many of the most powerful explosions of astrophysical plasmas in the universe. Blazars, magnetars, stellar atmospheres, and planetary magnetic fields have all been shown to be primary sites of strong reconnection events. For studying the fundamental physics behind this process, the solar atmosphere is our most accessible laboratory setting. Magnetic reconnection resulting from non-potential fields leads to plasma heating and particle acceleration, often in the form of explosive activity, contributing to coronal heating and the solar wind. Large-scale non-potential (sigmoid) fields in the solar atmosphere are poorly understood due to their crowded neighborhoods. For the first time, small-scale, non-potential loop structures have been observed in quiet Sun EUV observations. Fourteen unique mini-sigmoid events and three diffuse non-potential loops have been discovered, suggesting a multi-scaled self-similarity in the sigmoid formation process. These events are on the order of 10 arcseconds in length and do not appear in X-ray emissions, where large-scale sigmoids are well documented. We have discovered the first evidence of sigmoidal structuring in EUV bright point phenomena, which are prolific events in the solar atmosphere. Observations of these mini-sigmoids suggest that they are being formed via tether-cutting reconnection, a process observed to occur at active region scales. Thus, tether-cutting is suggested to be ubiquitous throughout the solar atmosphere. These dynamics are shown to be a function of the free magnetic energy in the quiet Sun network. Recently, the reconnection process has been reproduced in Earth-based laboratory tokamaks. Easily achievable magnetic field configurations can induce reconnection and result in ion acceleration. Here, magnetic reconnection is utilized as the plasma acceleration mechanism for a theoretical propulsion system. The theory of torsional spine reconnection is shown to result in ion

  19. Validation of Earth atmosphere models using solar EUV observations from the CORONAS and PROBA2 satellites in occultation mode (United States)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Ulyanov, Artyom; Gaikovich, Konstantin; Kuzin, Sergey; Pertsov, Andrey; Berghmans, David; Dominique, Marie


    Aims: Knowledge of properties of the Earth's upper atmosphere is important for predicting the lifetime of low-orbit spacecraft as well as for planning operation of space instruments whose data may be distorted by atmospheric effects. The accuracy of the models commonly used for simulating the structure of the atmosphere is limited by the scarcity of the observations they are based on, so improvement of these models requires validation under different atmospheric conditions. Measurements of the absorption of the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation in the upper atmosphere below 500 km by instruments operating on low-Earth orbits (LEO) satellites provide efficient means for such validation as well as for continuous monitoring of the upper atmosphere and for studying its response to the solar and geomagnetic activity. Method: This paper presents results of measurements of the solar EUV radiation in the 17 nm wavelength band made with the SPIRIT and TESIS telescopes on board the CORONAS satellites and the SWAP telescope on board the PROBA2 satellite in the occulted parts of the satellite orbits. The transmittance profiles of the atmosphere at altitudes between 150 and 500 km were derived from different phases of solar activity during solar cycles 23 and 24 in the quiet state of the magnetosphere and during the development of a geomagnetic storm. We developed a mathematical procedure based on the Tikhonov regularization method for solution of ill-posed problems in order to retrieve extinction coefficients from the transmittance profiles. The transmittance profiles derived from the data and the retrieved extinction coefficients are compared with simulations carried out with the NRLMSISE-00 atmosphere model maintained by Naval Research Laboratory (USA) and the DTM-2013 model developed at CNES in the framework of the FP7 project ATMOP. Results: Under quiet and slightly disturbed magnetospheric conditions during high and low solar activity the extinction coefficients

  20. Design, conception, and metrology of Extreme Ultraviolet multilayers mirrors resistant environments of space and EUV sources; Conception, realisation et metrologie de miroirs multicouches pour l'extreme ultraviolet resistants aux environnements du spatial et des sources EUV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecquet, Ch.


    The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum (EUV) wavelengths, which range between 13 nm and 40 nm, have many applications in science and technology. These have been developed for example in plasma physics (high order harmonics sources, X ray lasers). The work presented is about the design, the fabrication and the metrology of periodic multilayer mirrors. The main motivation of this study is to establish a cycle of development taking into account both the optical properties of reflective coatings (reflectivity, spectral selectivity, attenuation) and their behaviour under various environments. To improve the spectral selectivity, new multilayer periodic structures have been developed. They are characterized by a bimodal reflectance profile with adjustable attenuation. The effect of environment on the stability of performance is especially critical for the optical collection. The addition of material barriers has stabilized the performance of the peak reflectivity for over 200 h at 400 C deg. and it reduces the influence of other factors of instability on the reflectance. In addition, all structures have been fabricated successfully and evaluated in severe environments. (author)

  1. SCRIC: a code dedicated to the detailed emission and absorption of heterogeneous NLTE plasmas; application to xenon EUV sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de


    Nearly all spectral opacity codes for LTE and NLTE plasmas rely on configurations approximate modelling or even supra-configurations modelling for mid Z plasmas. But in some cases, configurations interaction (either relativistic and non relativistic) induces dramatic changes in spectral shapes. We propose here a new detailed emissivity code with configuration mixing to allow for a realistic description of complex mid Z plasmas. A collisional radiative calculation. based on HULLAC precise energies and cross sections. determines the populations. Detailed emissivities and opacities are then calculated and radiative transfer equation is resolved for wide inhomogeneous plasmas. This code is able to cope rapidly with very large amount of atomic data. It is therefore possible to use complex hydrodynamic files even on personal computers in a very limited time. We used this code for comparison with Xenon EUV sources within the framework of nano-lithography developments. It appears that configurations mixing strongly shifts satellite lines and must be included in the description of these sources to enhance their efficiency. (author)

  2. Metamagnetism, sign reversal and low temperature magnetocaloric effect in single-crystalline EuV2Al20 (United States)

    Ramesh Kumar, K.; Nair, Harikrishnan S.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Thamizhavel, A.; Strydom, André M.


    The Frank-Kasper cage compound EuV2Al20 crystallizes in the cubic structure with Fd 3 ‾ m space group and exhibits unusual magnetic and transport properties. The system undergoes an antiferromagnetic transition below 5.6 K wherein the Eu2+ moments are aligned anti-parallel along 〈1 1 1〉 direction and the system exhibits a weak metamagetic transition at the field of 1 T. Arrott plots (M2 vs H / M) show a "S" shaped variation in the low fields below TN and the plausible reason for the occurrence of negative slope is discussed. Isothermal magnetic entropy change is estimated from both magnetization and heat capacity measurements invoking the Maxwell's thermodynamic relations. Temperature variation of ΔSm showed a weak negative minimum and a sign reversal at the field value of 1 T due to field induced metamagnetic transition. Universal master curve is constructed by rescaling the ΔSm vs T curves in the context of analysing the nature of the magnetic transition.

  3. Current Sheet Structures Observed by the TESIS EUV Telescope during a Flux Rope Eruption on the Sun (United States)

    Reva, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Kuzin, S. V.


    We use the TESIS EUV telescope to study the current sheet signatures observed during flux rope eruption. The special feature of the TESIS telescope was its ability to image the solar corona up to a distance of 2 {R}⊙ from the Sun’s center in the Fe 171 Å line. The Fe 171 Å line emission illuminates the magnetic field lines, and the TESIS images reveal the coronal magnetic structure at high altitudes. The analyzed coronal mass ejection (CME) had a core with a spiral—flux rope—structure. The spiral shape indicates that the flux rope radius varied along its length. The flux rope had a complex temperature structure: cold legs (70,000 K, observed in He 304 Å line) and a hotter core (0.7 MK, observed in Fe 171 Å line). Such a structure contradicts the common assumption that the CME core is a cold prominence. When the CME impulsively accelerated, a dark double Y-structure appeared below the flux rope. The Y-structure timing, location, and morphology agree with the previously performed MHD simulations of the current sheet. We interpreted the Y-structure as a hot envelope of the current sheet and hot reconnection outflows. The Y-structure had a thickness of 6.0 Mm. Its length increased over time from 79 Mm to more than 411 Mm.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadavid, A. C.; Lawrence, J. K.; Christian, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Rivera, Y. J. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States); Jennings, P. J. [5174 S. Slauson Avenue, Culver City, CA 90230 (United States); Rappazzo, A. F., E-mail: [Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)


    We investigate the scaling properties of the long-range temporal evolution and intermittency of Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/ Solar Dynamics Observatory intensity observations in four solar environments: an active region core, a weak emission region, and two core loops. We use two approaches: the probability distribution function (PDF) of time series increments and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). Noise taints the results, so we focus on the 171 Å waveband, which has the highest signal-to-noise ratio. The lags between pairs of wavebands distinguish between coronal versus transition region (TR) emission. In all physical regions studied, scaling in the range of 15–45 minutes is multifractal, and the time series are anti-persistent on average. The degree of anti-correlation in the TR time series is greater than that for coronal emission. The multifractality stems from long-term correlations in the data rather than the wide distribution of intensities. Observations in the 335 Å waveband can be described in terms of a multifractal with added noise. The multiscaling of the extreme-ultraviolet data agrees qualitatively with the radiance from a phenomenological model of impulsive bursts plus noise, and also from ohmic dissipation in a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model for coronal loop heating. The parameter space must be further explored to seek quantitative agreement. Thus, the observational “signatures” obtained by the combined tests of the PDF of increments and the MF-DFA offer strong constraints that can systematically discriminate among models for coronal heating.

  5. Multifractal Solar EUV Intensity Fluctuations and their Implications for Coronal Heating Models (United States)

    Cadavid, A. C.; Rivera, Y. J.; Lawrence, J. K.; Christian, D. J.; Jennings, P. J.; Rappazzo, A. F.


    We investigate the scaling properties of the long-range temporal evolution and intermittency of Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/Solar Dynamics Observatory intensity observations in four solar environments: an active region core, a weak emission region, and two core loops. We use two approaches: the probability distribution function (PDF) of time series increments and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). Noise taints the results, so we focus on the 171 Å waveband, which has the highest signal-to-noise ratio. The lags between pairs of wavebands distinguish between coronal versus transition region (TR) emission. In all physical regions studied, scaling in the range of 15-45 minutes is multifractal, and the time series are anti-persistent on average. The degree of anti-correlation in the TR time series is greater than that for coronal emission. The multifractality stems from long-term correlations in the data rather than the wide distribution of intensities. Observations in the 335 Å waveband can be described in terms of a multifractal with added noise. The multiscaling of the extreme-ultraviolet data agrees qualitatively with the radiance from a phenomenological model of impulsive bursts plus noise, and also from ohmic dissipation in a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model for coronal loop heating. The parameter space must be further explored to seek quantitative agreement. Thus, the observational “signatures” obtained by the combined tests of the PDF of increments and the MF-DFA offer strong constraints that can systematically discriminate among models for coronal heating.

  6. A Statistical Analysis of the Solar Phenomena Associated with Global EUV Waves (United States)

    Long, D. M.; Murphy, P.; Graham, G.; Carley, E. P.; Pérez-Suárez, D.


    Solar eruptions are the most spectacular events in our solar system and are associated with many different signatures of energy release including solar flares, coronal mass ejections, global waves, radio emission and accelerated particles. Here, we apply the Coronal Pulse Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CorPITA) to the high-cadence synoptic data provided by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to identify and track global waves observed by SDO. 164 of the 362 solar flare events studied (45%) were found to have associated global waves with no waves found for the remaining 198 (55%). A clear linear relationship was found between the median initial velocity and the acceleration of the waves, with faster waves exhibiting a stronger deceleration (consistent with previous results). No clear relationship was found between global waves and type II radio bursts, electrons or protons detected in situ near Earth. While no relationship was found between the wave properties and the associated flare size (with waves produced by flares from B to X-class), more than a quarter of the active regions studied were found to produce more than one wave event. These results suggest that the presence of a global wave in a solar eruption is most likely determined by the structure and connectivity of the erupting active region and the surrounding quiet solar corona rather than by the amount of free energy available within the active region.

  7. Modelling the regional climate and isotopic composition of Svalbard precipitation using REMOiso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Divine..[], D.V.; Sjolte, Jesper; Isaksson, E.


    Simulations of a regional (approx. 50 km resolution) circulation model REMOiso with embedded stable water isotope module covering the period 1958-2001 are compared with the two instrumental climate and four isotope series (d18O) from western Svalbard. We examine the data from ice cores drilled...... on Svalbard ice caps in 1997 (Lomonosovfonna, 1250 m asl) and 2005 (Holtedahlfonna, 1150 m asl) and the GNIP series from Ny-angstrom lesund and Isfjord Radio. The surface air temperature (SAT) and precipitation data from Longyearbyen and Ny-angstrom lesund are used to assess the skill of the model...... in precipitation process potentially limits the accuracy of the past SAT reconstruction from the ice core data. This effect in the study area is, however, diminished by the role of other factors controlling d18O in precipitation, most likely sea ice extent, which is directly related with the SAT anomalies....

  8. Multilayer films with sharp, stable interfaces for use in EUV and soft X-ray application (United States)

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Bajt, Sasa


    The reflectivity and thermal stability of Mo/Si (molybdenum/silicon) multilayer films, used in soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet region, is enhanced by deposition of a thin layer of boron carbide (e.g., B.sub.4 C) between alternating layers of Mo and Si. The invention is useful for reflective coatings for soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet optics, multilayer for masks, coatings for other wavelengths and multilayers for masks that are more thermally stable than pure Mo/Si multilayers

  9. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the carbohydrate-binding region of the Streptococcus gordonii adhesin GspB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyburn, Tasia M.; Yankovskaya, Victoria; Bensing, Barbara A.; Cecchini, Gary; Sullam, Paul M.; Iverson, T.M. (VA); (Vanderbilt); (UCSF)


    The carbohydrate-binding region of the bacterial adhesin GspB from Streptococcus gordonii strain M99 (GspB{sub BR}) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. Separate sparse-matrix screening of GspB{sub BR} buffered in either 20 mM Tris pH 7.4 or 20 mM HEPES pH 7.5 resulted in different crystallographic behavior such that different precipitants, salts and additives supported crystallization of GspB{sub BR} in each buffer. While both sets of conditions supported crystal growth in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, the crystals had distinct unit-cell parameters of a = 33.3, b = 86.7, c = 117.9 {angstrom} for crystal form 1 and a = 34.6, b = 98.3, c = 99.0 {angstrom} for crystal form 2. Additive screening improved the crystals grown in both conditions such that diffraction extended to beyond 2 {angstrom} resolution. A complete data set has been collected to 1.3 {angstrom} resolution with an overall R{sub merge} value of 0.04 and an R{sub merge} value of 0.33 in the highest resolution shell.

  10. Set of instruments for solar EUV and soft X-ray monitoring onboard satellite Coronas-Photon (United States)

    Kotov, Yury; Kochemasov, Alexey; Kuzin, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Sylwester, Janusz; Yurov, Vitaly

    Coronas-Photon mission is the third satellite of the Russian Coronas program on solar activity observation. The main goal of the "Coronas-Photon" is the study of solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the wide energy range from UV up to high energy gamma-radiation (2000MeV). Scientific payload for solar radiation observation consists of three types of instruments: Monitors (Natalya-2M, Konus-RF, RT-2, Penguin-M, BRM, PHOKA, Sphin-X, SOKOL spectral and timing measurements of full solar disk radiation have timing in flare/burst mode up to one msec. Instruments Natalya-2M, Konus-RF, RT-2 will cover the wide energy range of hard X-rays and soft gamma-rays (15keV to 2000MeV) and will together constitute the largest area detectors ever used for solar observations. Detectors of gamma-ray monitors are based on structured inorganic scintillators. For X-ray and EUV monitors the scintillation phoswich detectors, gas proportional counter, CdZnTe assembly and filter-covered Si-diodes are used. Telescope-spectrometer TESIS for imaging solar spectroscopy in X-rays has angular resolution up to 1arcsec in three spectral lines. Satellite platform and scientific payload is under construction to be launched in autumn 2008. Satellite orbit is circular with initial height 550km and inclination 82.5degrees. Accuracy of the spacecraft orientation to the Sun is better 3arcmin. In the report the capability of PHOKA, SphinX, SOKOL and TESIS as well as the observation program are described and discussed.

  11. Variations in EUV Irradiance: Comparison between LYRA, ESP, and SWAP Integrated Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sarp Yalim


    Full Text Available The Sun Watcher Using Active Pixel System Detector and Image Processing (SWAP telescope and Large Yield Radiometer (LYRA are the two Sun observation instruments on-board PROBA2. SWAP extreme ultraviolet images, if presented in terms of the integrated flux over solar disk, in general, correlate well with LYRA channel 2–4 (zirconium filter and channels QD and 18 of EVE/ESP on-board SDO between 2010 and 2013. Hence, SWAP can be considered as an additional radiometric channel. We compare in detail LYRA channel 2–4 and SWAP integrated flux in July 2010 and in particular during the solar eclipse that occurred on July 11, 2010. During this eclipse, the discrepancy between the two data channels can be explained to be related to the occultation of active region 11087 by the Moon. In the second half of July 2010, LYRA channel 2–4 and SWAP integrated flux deviate from each other, but these differences can also be explained in terms of features appearing on the solar disk such as coronal holes and active regions. By additionally comparing with timeline of EVE/ESP, we can preliminarily interpret these differences in terms of the difference between the broad bandpass of LYRA channel 2–4 and the, relatively speaking, narrower bandpass of SWAP.

  12. Experimental study of EUV mirror radiation damage resistance under long-term free-electron laser exposures below the single-shot damage threshold

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makhotkin, I.; Sobierajski, R.; Chalupský, Jaromír; Tiedtke, K.; de Vries, G.; Stoermer, M.; Scholze, F.; Siewert, F.; van de Kruijs, R.W.E.; Milov, I.; Louis, E.; Jacyna, I.; Jurek, M.; Klinger, D.; Nittler, L.; Syryanyy, Y.; Juha, Libor; Hájková, Věra; Vozda, Vojtěch; Burian, Tomáš; Saksl, Karel; Faatz, B.; Keitel, B.; Ploenjes, E.; Schreiber, S.; Toleikis, S.; Loch, R.A.; Hermann, M.; Strobel, S.; Nienhuys, H.-K.; Gwalt, G.; Mey, T.; Enkisch, H.


    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2018), s. 77-84 ISSN 1600-5775. [Workshop on FEL Photon Diagnostics, Instrumentation and Beamline Design (PhotonDiag2017). Stanford, 01.05.2017-03.05.2017] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15013; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05167s; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29772S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : free-electron laser induced damage * EUV optics * thin films * FELs Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.011, year: 2016

  13. Short-wavelength out-of-band EUV emission from Sn laser-produced plasma (United States)

    Torretti, F.; Schupp, R.; Kurilovich, D.; Bayerle, A.; Scheers, J.; Ubachs, W.; Hoekstra, R.; Versolato, O. O.


    We present the results of spectroscopic measurements in the extreme ultraviolet regime (7-17 nm) of molten tin microdroplets illuminated by a high-intensity 3 J, 60 ns Nd:YAG laser pulse. The strong 13.5 nm emission from this laser-produced plasma (LPP) is of relevance for next-generation nanolithography machines. Here, we focus on the shorter wavelength features between 7 and 12 nm which have so far remained poorly investigated despite their diagnostic relevance. Using flexible atomic code calculations and local thermodynamic equilibrium arguments, we show that the line features in this region of the spectrum can be explained by transitions from high-lying configurations within the Sn{}8+-Sn{}15+ ions. The dominant transitions for all ions but Sn{}8+ are found to be electric-dipole transitions towards the n = 4 ground state from the core-excited configuration in which a 4p electron is promoted to the 5s subshell. Our results resolve some long-standing spectroscopic issues and provide reliable charge state identification for Sn LPP, which could be employed as a useful tool for diagnostic purposes.

  14. Some E.U.V. spectra from laser produced plasma of heavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even-Zohar, M.


    The spectra of Al, Mo, Ag, In, Sn, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Ta and W produced by a Nd doped glass laser (energy about 15J, power near 5.10 8 W) were photographed in the region 20-240A utilizing a 3 m grazing incidence spectrograph. The continuum behavior is described. New identifications of Al XI, Mo XVII, Mo XVIII, Ag XII, Ag XVIII, Ag XIX, Ag XX, Ag XXI, In XIV, In XXI, In XXII, In XXIII, Sn XV, Sn XX, Sn XXI, Sn XXII, Sn XXIV, Cs VIII, Cs IX, Cs X, Cs XXVII, Ba IX, Ba X, Ba XI, La X, La XI, La XII and W VII are given. Lists of measured lines of Mo, Ag, Cs, Ba, La, and W are given. The spectra appear as absorption and emission lines where the transition from absorption to emission occurs in the same element for ions with ionization potential of 200 to 350eV. Absorption and emission spectra from the same ion of the same plasma are observed [fr


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontenla, J. M. [NorthWest Research Associates, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); Witbrod, Jesse [University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); France, Kevin [LASP, University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309-0600 (United States); Buccino, A.; Mauas, Pablo; Vieytes, Mariela [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), C.C. 67, Sucursal 28, C1428EHA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Walkowicz, Lucianne M., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [The Adler Planetarium, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States)


    Stellar radiation from X-rays to the visible provides the energy that controls the photochemistry and mass loss from exoplanet atmospheres. The important extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region (10–91.2 nm) is inaccessible and should be computed from a reliable stellar model. It is essential to understand the formation regions and physical processes responsible for the various stellar emission features to predict how the spectral energy distribution varies with age and activity levels. We compute a state-of-the-art semi-empirical atmospheric model and the emergent high-resolution synthetic spectrum of the moderately active M2 V star GJ 832 as the first of a series of models for stars with different activity levels. We construct a one-dimensional simple model for the physical structure of the star’s chromosphere, chromosphere-corona transition region, and corona using non-LTE radiative transfer techniques and many molecular lines. The synthesized spectrum for this model fits the continuum and lines across the UV-to-optical spectrum. Particular emphasis is given to the emission lines at wavelengths that are shorter than 300 nm observed with the Hubble Space Telescope , which have important effects on the photochemistry of the exoplanet atmospheres. The FUV line ratios indicate that the transition region of GJ 832 is more biased to hotter material than that of the quiet Sun. The excellent agreement of our computed EUV luminosity with that obtained by two other techniques indicates that our model predicts reliable EUV emission from GJ 832. We find that the unobserved EUV flux of GJ 832, which heats the outer atmospheres of exoplanets and drives their mass loss, is comparable to the active Sun.

  16. Comparing UV/EUV line parameters and magnetic field in a quiescent prominence with tornadoes (United States)

    Levens, P. J.; Labrosse, N.; Schmieder, B.; López Ariste, A.; Fletcher, L.


    Context. Understanding the relationship between plasma and the magnetic field is important for describing and explaining the observed dynamics of solar prominences. Aims: We determine if a close relationship can be found between plasma and magnetic field parameters, measured at high resolution in a well-observed prominence. Methods: A prominence observed on 15 July 2014 by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), Hinode, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and the Télescope Héliographique pour l'Étude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires (THEMIS) is selected. We perform a robust co-alignment of data sets using a 2D cross-correlation technique. Magnetic field parameters are derived from spectropolarimetric measurements of the He I D3 line from THEMIS. Line ratios and line-of-sight velocities from the Mg II h and k lines observed by IRIS are compared with magnetic field strength, inclination, and azimuth. Electron densities are calculated using Fe xii line ratios from the Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer, which are compared to THEMIS and IRIS data. Results: We find Mg II k/h ratios of around 1.4 everywhere, similar to values found previously in prominences. Also, the magnetic field is strongest ( 30 G) and predominantly horizontal in the tornado-like legs of the prominence. The k3 Doppler shift is found to be between ±10 km s-1 everywhere. Electron densities at a temperature of 1.5 × 106 K are found to be around 109 cm-3. No significant correlations are found between the magnetic field parameters and any of the other plasma parameters inferred from spectroscopy, which may be explained by the large differences in the temperatures of the lines used in this study. Conclusions: This is the first time that a detailed statistical study of plasma and magnetic field parameters has been performed at high spatial resolution in a prominence. Our results provide important constraints on future models of the plasma and magnetic field in

  17. Challenge toward breakage of RLS trade-off for EUV lithography by Photosensitized Chemically Amplified Resist (PSCAR) with flood exposure (United States)

    Nagahara, Seiji; Carcasi, Michael; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Buitrago, Elizabeth; Yildirim, Oktay; Shiraishi, Gosuke; Terashita, Yuichi; Minekawa, Yukie; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Tomono, Masaru; Mizoguchi, Hironori; Estrella, Joel; Nagai, Tomoki; Naruoka, Takehiko; Dei, Satoshi; Hori, Masafumi; Oshima, Akihiro; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin; Meeuwissen, Marieke; Verspaget, Coen; Hoefnagels, Rik; Rispens, Gijsbert; Maas, Raymond; Nakashima, Hideo; Tagawa, Seiichi


    This paper proposes a promising approach to break the resolution (R), line-edge-roughness (LER), and sensitivity (S) trade-off (RLS trade-off) relationships that limit the ultimate lithographic performance of standard chemically amplified resists (CAR). This is accomplished in a process that uses a Photosensitized Chemically Amplified Resist (PSCAR) in combination with a flood-exposure in an in-line track connected to a pattern exposure tool. PSCAR is a modified CAR which contains a photosensitizer precursor (PP) in addition to other standard CAR components such as a protected polymer, a photo acid generator (PAG) and a quencher. In this paper, the PSCAR concept and the required conditions in resist formulation are carefully explained. In the PSCAR process, the sensitivity improvement is accomplished by PAG decomposition to selectively generate more acid at the pattern exposed areas during the flood exposure. The selective photosensitization happens through the excitation of the photosensitizer (PS) generated by the deprotection of the PP at the pattern exposed areas. A higher resist chemical gradient which leads to an improved resolution and lower LER values is also predicted using the PSCAR simulator. In the PSCAR process, the improved chemical gradient can be realized by dual acid quenching steps with the help of increased quencher concentration. Acid quenching first happens simultaneously with acid catalytic PP to PS reactions. As a result, a sharpened PS latent image is created in the PSCAR. This image is subsequently excited by the flood exposure creating additional acid products at the pattern exposed areas only. Much the same as in the standard CAR system, unnecessary acid present in the non-pattern exposed areas can be neutralized by the remaining quencher to therefore produce sharper acid latent images. EUV exposure results down to 15 nm half pitch (HP) line/space (L/S) patterns using a PSCAR resist indicate that the use of PSCAR has the potential to

  18. Initiation and early evolution of a Coronal Mass Ejection on May 13, 2009 from EUV and white-light observations (United States)

    Reva, Anton; Kuzin, Sergey; Bogachev, Sergey; Ulyanov, Artyom

    In this talk we present results of the observations of a CME, which occurred on May 13, 2009. The most important feature of these observations is that the CME was observed from the very beginning stage (the solar surface) up to the distance of 15 solar radii (R_⊙). Below 2 R_⊙ we used the data from the TESIS EUV telescopes obtained in the Fe 171 Å and He 304 Å lines, and above 2 R_⊙ we used the observations of the LASCO C2 and C3 coronagraphs. Using data of these three instruments, we have studied the evolution of the CME in details. The CME had a curved trajectory -- its helio-latitude decreased with time. The mass ejection originated at a latitudes of about 50(°) and reached the ecliptic plane at a distance of 2.5 R_⊙ from the Sun’s center. The CME velocity and acceleration increased as the CME went away from the Sun. At the distance of 15 R_⊙ from the Sun’s center the CME had a velocity of 250 km/s and an acceleration of 5 m/s(2) . The CME was not associated with a flare, and didn’t have an impulsive acceleration phase. The mass ejection had U-shaped structure which was observed both in the 171 Å images and in white-light. The CME was formed at a distance of about 0.2 -- 0.5 R_⊙ from the Sun’s surface. Observations in the line 304 Å showed that the CME was associated with the erupting prominence, which was located in the lowest part of the U-shaped structure close to the X-point of the magnetic reconnection. The prominence disappeared at the height of 0.4 R_⊙ above the solar limb. Some aspects of these observations can’t be explained in the standard CME model, which predicts that the prominence should be located inside the U-shaped structure, and the CME should be associated with a flare and have an impulsive acceleration phase.

  19. Spectral filter for splitting a beam with electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft X-Ray (Soft X) and the infrared (IR) wavelength range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, F.A.; Bijkerk, Frederik; van den Boogaard, Toine; van den Boogaard, A.J.R.; van der Meer, R.


    Spectral filter for splitting the primary radiation from a generated beam with primary electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV radiation) or soft X-ray (soft X) wavelength range and parasitic radiation having a wavelength in the infrared wavelength range (IR

  20. Radiative and magnetic properties of solar active regions. II. Spatially resolved analysis of O V 62.97 nm transition region emission (United States)

    Fludra, A.; Warren, H.


    Context. Global relationships between the photospheric magnetic flux and the extreme ultraviolet emission integrated over active region area have been studied in a previous paper by Fludra & Ireland (2008, A&A, 483, 609). Spatially integrated EUV line intensities are tightly correlated with the total unsigned magnetic flux, and yet these global power laws have been shown to be insufficient for accurately determining the coronal heating mechanism owing to the mathematical ill-conditioning of the inverse problem. Aims: Our aim is to establish a relationship between the EUV line intensities and the photospheric magnetic flux density on small spatial scales in active regions and investigate whether it provides a way of identifying the process that heats the coronal loops. Methods: We compare spatially resolved EUV transition region emission and the photospheric magnetic flux density. This analysis is based on the O V 62.97 nm line recorded by the SOHO Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) and SOHO MDI magnetograms for six solar active regions. The magnetic flux density ϕ is converted to a simulated O V intensity using a model relationship I(ϕ, L) = Cϕδ Lλ, where the loop length L is obtained from potential magnetic field extrapolations. This simulated spatial distribution of O V intensities is convolved with the CDS instrument's point spread function and compared pixel by pixel with the observed O V line intensity. Parameters δ and λ are derived to give the best fit for the observed and simulated intensities. Results: Spatially-resolved analysis of the transition region emission reveals the complex nature of the heating processes in active regions. In some active regions, particularly large, local intensity enhancements up to a factor of five are present. When areas with O V intensities above 3000 erg cm-2 s-1 sr-1 are ignored, a power law has been fitted to the relationship between the local O V line intensity and the photospheric magnetic flux density in each

  1. Neon-like Iron Ion Lines Measured in NIFS/Large Helical Device (LHD) and Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) (United States)

    Watanabe, Tetsuya; Hara, Hirohisa; Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Morita, Shigeru; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tamura, Naoki; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Nakamura, Nobuyuki


    Line intensities emerging from the Ne-sequence iron ion (Fe XVII) are measured in the laboratory, by the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, and in the solar corona by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board the Hinode mission. The intensity ratios of Fe XVII λ 204.6/λ 254.8 are derived in the laboratory by unblending the contributions of the Fe XIII and XII line intensities. They are consistent with theoretical predictions and solar observations, the latter of which endorses the in-flight radiometric calibrations of the EIS instrument. The still remaining temperature-dependent behavior of the line ratio suggests the contamination of lower-temperature iron lines that are blended with the λ 204.6 line.

  2. The smallest source region of an interplanetary magnetic cloud: A mini-sigmoid (United States)

    Mandrini, C. H.; Pohjolainen, S.; Dasso, S.; Green, L. M.; Démoulin, P.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Foley, C.; Copperwheat, C.

    We provide evidence for the smallest sigmoid eruption - CME - interplanetary magnetic cloud event ever observed by combining multi-wavelength remote sensing and in situ observations, as well as computing the coronal and interplanetary magnetic fields. The tiny bipole had 100 times less flux than an average active region (AR). It had a sigmoidal structure in the corona and we detected a very high level of twist in its magnetic field. On 11 May 1998, at about 8 UT, the sigmoid underwent eruption evidenced by expanding elongated EUV loops, dimmings and formation of a cusp. The Wind spacecraft, 4.5 days later, detected one of the smallest magnetic clouds (MC) ever identified (100 times less magnetic flux than an average MC). The link between the EUV bright point eruption and the interplanetary MC is supported by several pieces of evidence: timing, same coronal loop and MC orientation relative to the ecliptic, same magnetic field direction and magnetic helicity sign in the coronal loops and in the MC, comparable magnetic flux measured in the dimming regions and in the interplanetary MC and, most importantly, the pre- to post-event change of magnetic helicity in the solar corona is found to be comparable to the helicity content of the cloud.

  3. Impact of B4C capping layer for EUV mask on the sensitivity of patterned mask inspection using projection electron microscope (United States)

    Iida, Susumu; Hirano, Ryoichi; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Hidehiro


    The inspection sensitivity of a patterned extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask with B4C capped multilayer (ML) was investigated using a simulated projection electron microscope (PEM) image. Extrusion and intrusion defects with 16 nm in size were detected with their intensity of > 10 times the standard deviation of the background level on a half-pitch (hp) 64 nm line and space pattern. The defect detection sensitivity in this case was higher than that of Ru capped ML sample, and has a potential to meet the requirement for beyond 16 nm node generation from the standpoint of patterned mask inspection using the PEM technique. These results indicate that B4C capping layer besides its good durability has an advantage for high sensitivity of patterned mask inspection. The optimal condition of the incident beam energy was found to be 500 and 1000 eV for the samples of B4C capped ML and B4C buffered Ru capped ML, respectively. The sensitivity of defect detection was strongly affected by the difference of secondary electron emission coefficients (SEECs) between the absorber layer and capping layer. However, severely scattered electrons near the pattern edge become a source of noise and then they block the effect of large SEEC difference. Thus, the small incident beam energy was found to be preferable when the SEEC difference was relatively high.

  4. Improvements in the imaging performance of a high volume manufacturing EUV scanner with a special emphasis on the added value of the new illuminator for increased pupil flexibility (United States)

    Bilski, Bartosz; Wang, Ziyang; Wittebrood, Friso; McNamara, John; Oorschot, Dorothe; van de Kerkhof, Mark; Fliervoet, Timon


    With the introduction of the NXE:3400B EUV scanner, ASML brings to the market the next generation NXE system. In this paper we present the results of a subset of a larger investigation that aimed at assessing the imaging performance of the NXE:3400B in various scenarios. The use cases we chose for the presentation here are contact holes, which are typical building blocks for logic and memory applications. In this paper we evaluate typical lithographic metrics. Starting from the exposure latitude, we show that contact holes of already 17nm half-pitch can be printed. Next, we show that the full wafer CD uniformity improvement is mainly driven by a high reticle CD uniformity. After that, we explore the capabilities of the new NXE:3400B illuminator and investigate an improved illumination setting for relaxed staggered contact holes of half pitch >21nm, and show a 20% local CD uniformity improvement (from 4.6 to 3.6nm) for regular contact holes of 18nm half-pitch, without throughput loss.

  5. Analysis of the Gaia RVS Region in ESPaDOnS Spectra of Asteroseismic Calibration Stars (United States)

    Vesa, Oana; Huber, Daniel; Gaidos, Eric


    While surface gravity can be measured from asteroseismology, asteroseismology cannot be applied to every star. Surface gravity is a critical stellar parameter because it can be used to calculate the radii of stars, which is important in the characterization of host stars of exoplanets. Here we present spectroscopic observations from ESPaDOnS on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope of 172 benchmark “gold standard” stars observed by the NASA Kepler Mission for which densities and surface gravities have been precisely measured using asteroseismology. The goal is to discover an empirical correlation between the equivalent width of the spectral lines in the infrared Ca II triplet region (from 8470 to 8710 angstroms) against surface gravity and other stellar parameters, such as effective temperature and metallicity. The Mg I line at 8736 angstroms has the best potential to be an indicator of surface gravity so far out of the spectral lines in this region with equivalent width increasing slightly as a function of surface gravity; however, degeneracies with effective temperature and metallicity need to be explored further. If a true indicator for surface gravity can be found, then it can to be applied to the R~11000 Gaia radial velocity spectra, which will be released for millions of stars over the coming years.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Young, Peter R.; Stenborg, Guillermo


    Spectroscopic observations with the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode have revealed large areas of high-speed outflows at the periphery of many solar active regions. These outflows are of interest because they may connect to the heliosphere and contribute to the solar wind. In this paper, we use slit rasters from EIS in combination with narrowband slot imaging to study the temperature dependence and morphology of an outflow region and show that it is more complicated than previously thought. Outflows are observed primarily in emission lines from Fe XI to Fe XV. Observations at lower temperatures (Si VII), in contrast, show bright fan-like structures that are dominated by inflows. These data also indicate that the morphology of the outflows and the fans is different, outflows are observed in regions where there is no emission in Si VII. This suggests that the fans, which are often associated with outflows in studies involving imaging data, are not directly related to the active region outflows.

  7. High-resolution bent-crystal spectrometer for the ultra-soft x-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; von Goeler, S.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.W.; Hulse, R.A.; Walling, R.S.


    A multichannel vacuum Brag-crystal spectrometer has been developed for high-resolution measurements of the line emission from tokamak plasmas in the wavelength region between 4 and 25 /angstrom/. The spectrometer employs a bent crystal in Johann geometry and a microchannel-plate intensified photodiode array. The instrument is capable of measuring high-resolution spectra (λ/Δλ ∼ 3000) with fast time resolution (4 msec per spectrum) and good spatial resolution (3 cm). The spectral bandwidth is Δλ/λ 0 = 8/angstrom/. A simple tilt mechanism allows access to different wavelength intervals. In order to illustrate the utility of the new spectrometer, time- and space-resolved measurements of the n = 3 to n = 2 spectrum of selenium from the Princeton Large Torus tokamak plasmas are presented. The data are used to determine the plasma transport parameters and to infer the radial distribution of fluorinelike, neonlike, and sodiumlike ions of selenium in the plasma. The new ultra-soft x-ray spectrometer has thus enabled us to demonstrate the utility of high-resolution L-shell spectroscopy of neonlike ions as a fusion diagnostic. 43 refs., 23 figs

  8. Observation of a Short Period Quasi-periodic Pulsation in Solar X-Ray, Microwave, and EUV Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Cho, Kyung-Suk [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Nakariakov, Valery M., E-mail: [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)


    This paper presents the multiwavelength analysis of a 13 s quasi-periodic pulsation (QPP) observed in hard X-ray (12–300 keV) and microwave (4.9–34 GHz) emissions during a C-class flare that occurred on 2015 September 21. Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA) 304 and 171 Å images show an emerging loop/flux tube (L1) moving radially outward, which interacts with the preexisting structures within the active region (AR). The QPP was observed during the expansion of and rising motion of L1. The Nobeyama Radioheliograph microwave images in 17/34 GHz channels reveal a single radio source that was co-spatial with a neighboring loop (L2). In addition, using AIA 304 Å images, we detected intensity oscillations in the legs of L2 with a period of about 26 s. A similar oscillation period was observed in the GOES soft X-ray flux derivative. This oscillation period seems to increase with time. We suggest that the observed QPP is most likely generated by the interaction between L2 and L3 observed in the AIA hot channels (131 and 94 Å). The merging speed of loops L2 and L3 was ∼35 km s{sup −1}. L1 was destroyed possibly by its interaction with preexisting structures in the AR, and produced a cool jet with the speed of ∼106–118 km s{sup −1} associated with a narrow CME (∼770 km s{sup −1}). Another mechanism of the QPP in terms of a sausage oscillation of the loop (L2) is also possible.

  9. SCRIC: a code dedicated to the detailed emission and absorption of heterogeneous NLTE plasmas; application to xenon EUV sources; SCRIC: un code pour calculer l'absorption et l'emission detaillees de plasmas hors equilibre, inhomogenes et etendus; application aux sources EUV a base de xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de


    Nearly all spectral opacity codes for LTE and NLTE plasmas rely on configurations approximate modelling or even supra-configurations modelling for mid Z plasmas. But in some cases, configurations interaction (either relativistic and non relativistic) induces dramatic changes in spectral shapes. We propose here a new detailed emissivity code with configuration mixing to allow for a realistic description of complex mid Z plasmas. A collisional radiative calculation. based on HULLAC precise energies and cross sections. determines the populations. Detailed emissivities and opacities are then calculated and radiative transfer equation is resolved for wide inhomogeneous plasmas. This code is able to cope rapidly with very large amount of atomic data. It is therefore possible to use complex hydrodynamic files even on personal computers in a very limited time. We used this code for comparison with Xenon EUV sources within the framework of nano-lithography developments. It appears that configurations mixing strongly shifts satellite lines and must be included in the description of these sources to enhance their efficiency. (author)

  10. Structural region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Structural region. The two groups had 4 substitutions similar to Yawat strain. The Yawat strain had 5 unique mutations. 3 in the E2 region and 2 in the E1 region. The mutation, I702V (E2), though different from all the recent Indian and Reunion sequences was similar ...

  11. Automated Temperature and Emission Measure Analysis of Coronal Loops and Active Regions Observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO/AIA) (United States)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Boerner, Paul; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Malanushenko, Anna


    We developed numerical codes designed for automated analysis of SDO/AIA image datasets in the six coronal filters, including: i) coalignment test between different wavelengths with measurements of the altitude of the EUV-absorbing chromosphere, ii) self-calibration by empirical correction of instrumental response functions, iii) automated generation of differential emission measure [DEM] distributions with peak-temperature maps [ T p( x, y)] and emission measure maps [ EM p( x, y)] of the full Sun or active region areas, iv) composite DEM distributions [d EM( T)/d T] of active regions or subareas, v) automated detection of coronal loops, and vi) automated background subtraction and thermal analysis of coronal loops, which yields statistics of loop temperatures [ T e], temperature widths [ σ T], emission measures [ EM], electron densities [ n e], and loop widths [ w]. The combination of these numerical codes allows for automated and objective processing of numerous coronal loops. As an example, we present the results of an application to the active region NOAA 11158, observed on 15 February 2011, shortly before it produced the largest (X2.2) flare during the current solar cycle. We detect 570 loop segments at temperatures in the entire range of log( T e)=5.7 - 7.0 K and corroborate previous TRACE and AIA results on their near-isothermality and the validity of the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana (RTV) law at soft X-ray temperatures ( T≳2 MK) and its failure at lower EUV temperatures.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L. [Heliophysics and Planetary Science Office, ZP13, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Chakrapani, Prithi, E-mail: [Hunter College High School, New York, NY (United States)


    We report observations of 10 random on-disk solar quiet-region coronal jets found in high-resolution extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO )/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and having good coverage in magnetograms from the SDO /Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Recent studies show that coronal jets are driven by the eruption of a small-scale filament (called a minifilament ). However, the trigger of these eruptions is still unknown. In the present study, we address the question: what leads to the jet-driving minifilament eruptions? The EUV observations show that there is a cool-transition-region-plasma minifilament present prior to each jet event and the minifilament eruption drives the jet. By examining pre-jet evolutionary changes in the line of sight photospheric magnetic field, we observe that each pre-jet minifilament resides over the neutral line between majority-polarity and minority-polarity patches of magnetic flux. In each of the 10 cases, the opposite-polarity patches approach and merge with each other (flux reduction between 21% and 57%). After several hours, continuous flux cancelation at the neutral line apparently destabilizes the field holding the cool-plasma minifilament to erupt and undergo internal reconnection, and external reconnection with the surrounding coronal field. The external reconnection opens the minifilament field allowing the minifilament material to escape outward, forming part of the jet spire. Thus, we found that each of the 10 jets resulted from eruption of a minifilament following flux cancelation at the neutral line under the minifilament. These observations establish that magnetic flux cancelation is usually the trigger of quiet-region coronal jet eruptions.

  13. Plasma Diagnostics of Coronal Dimming Regions and Relation to Characteristic CME Parameters (United States)

    Veronig, A.; Vanninathan, K.; Dissauer, K.; Temmer, M.


    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are often associated with coronal dimmings, i.e. transient dark regions in the solar corona that are most prominently observed at Extreme Ultra-violet (EUV) wavelengths. Coronal dimmings are thought to be a result of the evacuation of mass related to the erupting CME structure. Using data from the six EUV channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard SDO, we apply Differential Emission Measure (DEM) diagnostics, to study the plasma characteristics of on-disk coronal dimming regions. We analysed in detail seven coronal dimming events associated with CMEs distributed over a speed range from 300 to 1250 km/s. We derived the weighted emission measure, density and temperature as a function of time for both the core and the secondary dimming regions. In the core dimming regions, the plasma parameters reached a minimum within about 30 min after the CME onset, whereas the secondary dimming regions tend to show a more gradual evolution. For most of the events, the values of these parameters remained low within the core dimming region for the entire duration of this study ( 10 hrs after the flare) while the secondary dimming region showed a gradual increase after 1-2 hrs indicating refilling of these regions with plasma. The emission measure decrease in the core dimming region was found to lie in the range from 60-90%, the density decrease from 35-70% and the temperature decrease from 5-30%. In the secondary dimming region, the decreases of the plasma parameters derived are smaller. In addition, we performed a statistical analysis of 76 dimming events during the time range 2010 - 2012, which were observed on-disk by SDO and close to the limb by at least one of the two STEREO spacecraft. Characteristic parameters of the early CME dynamics (initial velocity, peak acceleration, mass and initiation height) are derived and compared with decisive coronal dimming parameters like the magnetic flux involved, the area, the area growth rate



    Krželj-Čolović, Zorica


    Individual city and regional authorities in many countries have themselves taken up the issue of “competitiveness” as part of their own economic development agendas: competitiveness has come to be regarded as critical for understanding and promoting local economic performance. Like their national counterparts, regional and city policy-makers have become preoccupied with knowing the relative competitive standing of their local economies compared with others, not just other regions and cities w...

  15. Znojmo Region


    SANALLA, Merkéta


    This paper presents the main findings which are focusing interdisciplinary on contemporary trends in the regional policy in Central Europe. These findings are illustrated on regional policy activities in Znojmo region which is a pioneer in so called paradiplomacy activities. These deal consequents upon geographical emplacement on the border of the former Eastern Bloc which constitute area of renewed relations in united central Europe nowadays. These results are obtained by using classical the...

  16. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.


    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  17. Regional Planning. (United States)

    Bang, Bryan


    Explores ideas about regional planning and provides a framework for developing a secondary level course on regional planning. Claims that such a course can help students understand more about the world around them and improve their attitude toward contributing to the management of change. (BR)

  18. MAVEN EUV Modelled Data Bundle (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains solar irradiance spectra in 1-nm bins from 0-190 nm. The spectra are generated based upon the Flare Irradiance Spectra Model - Mars (FISM-M)...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Wang, J. C.; Yang, L. H. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Priest, E. R. [Mathematics Institute, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Guo, Q. L., E-mail: [College of Mathematics Physics and Information Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001 (China)


    We present a detailed study of the formation of an inverse S-shaped filament prior to its eruption in active region NOAA 11884 from 2013 October 31 to November 2. In the initial stage, clockwise rotation of a small positive sunspot around the main negative trailing sunspot formed a curved filament. Then the small sunspot cancelled with the negative magnetic flux to create a longer active-region filament with an inverse S-shape. At the cancellation site a brightening was observed in UV and EUV images and bright material was transferred to the filament. Later the filament erupted after cancellation of two opposite polarities below the upper part of the filament. Nonlinear force-free field extrapolation of vector photospheric fields suggests that the filament may have a twisted structure, but this cannot be confirmed from the current observations.

  20. Martian Electron Temperatures in the Sub Solar Region. (United States)

    Fowler, C. M.; Peterson, W. K.; Andersson, L.; Thiemann, E.; Mayyasi, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Benna, M.; Espley, J. R.


    Observations from Viking, and MAVEN have shown that the observed ionospheric electron temperatures are systematically higher than those predicted by many models. Because electron temperature is a balance between heating, cooling, and heat transport, we systematically compare the magnitude of electron heating from photoelectrons, electron cooling and heat transport, as a function of altitude within 30 degrees of the sub solar point. MAVEN observations of electron temperature and density, EUV irradiance, neutral and ion composition are used to evaluate terms in the heat equation following the framework of Matta et al. (Icarus, 2014, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2013.09.006). Our analysis is restricted to inbound orbits where the magnetic field is within 30 degrees of horizontal. MAVEN sampled the sub solar region in May 2015 and again in May 2017, in near northern spring equinoctial conditions. Solar activity was higher and the spacecraft sampled altitudes down to 120 km in 2015, compared to 160 km in 2017. We find that between 160 and 200 km the Maven electron temperatures are in thermal equilibrium, in the sub solar region, on field lines inclined less than 30 degrees to the horizontal. Above 200km the data suggest that heating from other sources, such as wave heating are significant. Below 160 km some of the discrepancy comes from measurement limitations. This is because the MAVEN instrument cannot resolve the lowest electron temperatures, and because some cooling rates scale as the difference between the electron and neutral temperatures.

  1. Signatures of Slow Solar Wind Streams from Active Regions in the Inner Corona (United States)

    Slemzin, V.; Harra, L.; Urnov, A.; Kuzin, S.; Goryaev, F.; Berghmans, D.


    The identification of solar-wind sources is an important question in solar physics. The existing solar-wind models ( e.g., the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model) provide the approximate locations of the solar wind sources based on magnetic field extrapolations. It has been suggested recently that plasma outflows observed at the edges of active regions may be a source of the slow solar wind. To explore this we analyze an isolated active region (AR) adjacent to small coronal hole (CH) in July/August 2009. On 1 August, Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer observations showed two compact outflow regions in the corona. Coronal rays were observed above the active-region coronal hole (ARCH) region on the eastern limb on 31 July by STEREO-A/EUVI and at the western limb on 7 August by CORONAS- Photon/TESIS telescopes. In both cases the coronal rays were co-aligned with open magnetic-field lines given by the potential field source surface model, which expanded into the streamer. The solar-wind parameters measured by STEREO-B, ACE, Wind, and STEREO-A confirmed the identification of the ARCH as a source region of the slow solar wind. The results of the study support the suggestion that coronal rays can represent signatures of outflows from ARs propagating in the inner corona along open field lines into the heliosphere.

  2. desarrollo regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor B. Fletes Ocón


    trabajo se adhiere a tal planteamiento para subrayar la importancia de una perspectiva de cadenas, redes y actores de la agroindustria en el contexto de la globalización. Se analiza la no linealidad y la incertidumbre de los procesos de cambio regional y de transformación de la agroindustria.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    development systematic organization of education is necessary. That is to say that to achieve the desired target, ... centralization, which opposed the currently advocated democratic principles (Neleson et al., 1993). - .... Thus, from the eleven administrative zones of the Amhara region five zones were selected using cluster ...

  4. The Region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and parlance, consists of the four linguistic states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamilnadu. The linguistic specificities are also manifest in the Geological as well as geographical variations which significantly influenced the emergence of human settlements right from the prehistoric times in all these regions.

  5. Atlantic Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elands, B.H.M.; Bell, S.; Blok, J.


    Chapter 2 explores recreation and tourism practices in forest areas in the Atlantic region, which refers to the geographical area close to the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic countries described in this section are Belgium (Flanders and Wallonia), Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, the

  6. Plasma composition in a sigmoidal anemone active region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.; Van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Green, L. M.; Carlyle, J.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.; Steed, K.


    Using spectra obtained by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument onboard Hinode, we present a detailed spatially resolved abundance map of an active region (AR)-coronal hole (CH) complex that covers an area of 359'' × 485''. The abundance map provides first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in various coronal structures within the large EIS field of view. Overall, FIP bias in the small, relatively young AR is 2-3. This modest FIP bias is a consequence of the age of the AR, its weak heating, and its partial reconnection with the surrounding CH. Plasma with a coronal composition is concentrated at AR loop footpoints, close to where fractionation is believed to take place in the chromosphere. In the AR, we found a moderate positive correlation of FIP bias with nonthermal velocity and magnetic flux density, both of which are also strongest at the AR loop footpoints. Pathways of slightly enhanced FIP bias are traced along some of the loops connecting opposite polarities within the AR. We interpret the traces of enhanced FIP bias along these loops to be the beginning of fractionated plasma mixing in the loops. Low FIP bias in a sigmoidal channel above the AR's main polarity inversion line, where ongoing flux cancellation is taking place, provides new evidence of a bald patch magnetic topology of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.

  7. Ca II 8542 angstrom brightenings induced by a solar microflare

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuckein, C.; Diercke, A.; Manrique, T.; Gonzalez Manrique, S. J.; Verma, M.; Loehner-Boettcher, J.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Balthasar, H.; Sobotka, Michal; Denker, C.


    Roč. 608, December (2017), A117/1-A117/13 E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E13003 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 312495 - SOLARNET Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * photosphere * chromosphere Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy , Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  8. Interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The Interaction Region Group addressed the basic questions of how to collide the SLC beams, how to maximize and monitor the luminosity, and how to minimize the detector backgrounds at the interaction region. In practice, five subgroups evolved to study these questions. The final focus group provided three alternative designs to acheive the 1 to 2 micron beam spot size required by the SLC, as well as studying other problems including: eta, eta' matching from the collider arcs, the implementation of soft bends near the interaction region, beam emittance growth, and magnet tolerances in the final focus. The beam position monitor group proposed two devices, a strip line monitor, and a beamstrahlung monitor, to bring the beams into collision. The luminosity monitor group reviewed the possible QED processes that would be insensitive to weak interaction (Z 0 ) effects. The beam dumping group proposed locations for kicker and septum magnets in the final focus that would achieve a high dumping efficiency and would meet the desired beam tolerances at the Moller scattering target in the beam dump line. Working with the Polarization Group, the Moller experiment was designed into the beam dump beam line. A beam dump was proposed that would maintain radiation backgrounds (penetrating muons) at acceptible levels. The detector backgrounds group proposed soft-bend and masking configurations to shield the detector from synchrotron radiation from the hard/soft bends and from the final focus quadrupoles and evaluated the effectiveness of these designs for the three final focus optics designs. Backgrounds were also estimated from: large angle synchrotron radiation, local and distant beam-gas interactions, 2-photon interactions, and from neutrons and backscattered photons from the beamstrahlung dump

  9. Monolithic pattern-sensitive detector (United States)

    Berger, Kurt W.


    Extreme ultraviolet light (EUV) is detected using a precisely defined reference pattern formed over a shallow junction photodiode. The reference pattern is formed in an EUV absorber preferably comprising nickel or other material having EUV- and other spectral region attenuating characteristics. An EUV-transmissive energy filter is disposed between a passivation oxide layer of the photodiode and the EUV transmissive energy filter. The device is monolithically formed to provide robustness and compactness.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.-Y.; Reeves, Katharine K.; Korreck, K. E.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E. E.; Barnes, Graham; Leka, K. D.


    We investigate the evolution of coronal loop emission in the context of the coronal magnetic field topology. New modeling techniques allow us to investigate the magnetic field structure and energy release in active regions (ARs). Using these models and high-resolution multi-wavelength coronal observations from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer and the X-ray Telescope on Hinode, we are able to establish a relationship between the light curves of coronal loops and their associated magnetic topologies for NOAA AR 10963. We examine loops that show both transient and steady emission, and we find that loops that show many transient brightenings are located in domains associated with a high number of separators. This topology provides an environment for continual impulsive heating events through magnetic reconnection at the separators. A loop with relatively constant X-ray and EUV emission, on the other hand, is located in domains that are not associated with separators. This result implies that larger-scale magnetic field reconnections are not involved in heating plasma in these regions, and the heating in these loops must come from another mechanism, such as small-scale reconnections (i.e., nanoflares) or wave heating. Additionally, we find that loops that undergo repeated transient brightenings are associated with separators that have enhanced free energy. In contrast, we find one case of an isolated transient brightening that seems to be associated with separators with a smaller free energy.

  11. Constraining reconnection region conditions using imaging and spectroscopic analysis of a coronal jet (United States)

    Brannon, Sean; Kankelborg, Charles


    Coronal jets typically appear as thin, collimated structures in EUV and X-ray wavelengths, and are understood to be initiated by magnetic reconnection in the lower corona or upper chromosphere. Plasma that is heated and accelerated upward into coronal jets may therefore carry indirect information on conditions in the reconnection region and current sheet located at the jet base. On 2017 October 14, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) observed a series of jet eruptions originating from NOAA AR 12599. The jet structure has a length-to-width ratio that exceeds 50, and remains remarkably straight throughout its evolution. Several times during the observation bright blobs of plasma are seen to erupt upward, ascending and subsequently descending along the structure. These blobs are cotemporal with footpoint and arcade brightenings, which we believe indicates multiple episodes of reconnection at the structure base. Through imaging and spectroscopic analysis of jet and footpoint plasma we determine a number of properties, including the line-of-sight inclination, the temperature and density structure, and lift-off velocities and accelerations of jet eruptions. We use these properties to constrain the geometry of the jet structure and conditions in reconnection region.

  12. 78 FR 41033 - Fisheries of the Northeast Region, Southeast Region, North Pacific Region, Pacific Region... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC399 Fisheries of the Northeast Region, Southeast Region, North Pacific Region, Pacific Region; Western Pacific Region AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA...

  13. Structure of the protein core of the glypican Dally-like and localization of a region important for hedgehog signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Sung; Saunders, Adam M.; Hamaoka, Brent Y.; Beachy, Philip A.; Leahy, Daniel J. (Stanford-MED); (JHU)


    Glypicans are heparan sulfate proteoglycans that modulate the signaling of multiple growth factors active during animal development, and loss of glypican function is associated with widespread developmental abnormalities. Glypicans consist of a conserved, approximately 45-kDa N-terminal protein core region followed by a stalk region that is tethered to the cell membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor. The stalk regions are predicted to be random coil but contain a variable number of attachment sites for heparan sulfate chains. Both the N-terminal protein core and the heparan sulfate attachments are important for glypican function. We report here the 2.4-{angstrom} crystal structure of the N-terminal protein core region of the Drosophila glypican Dally-like (Dlp). This structure reveals an elongated, {alpha}-helical fold for glypican core regions that does not appear homologous to any known structure. The Dlp core protein is required for normal responsiveness to Hedgehog (Hh) signals, and we identify a localized region on the Dlp surface important for mediating its function in Hh signaling. Purified Dlp protein core does not, however, interact appreciably with either Hh or an Hh:Ihog complex.

  14. Urban, Regional and Global Impacts of Biomass Burning Emissions (United States)

    Artaxo, P.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Rizzo, L. V.; Setzer, A.; Cirino, G.


    Biomass burning is a major regional and global driver for atmospheric composition. Its effects in regional and global climate are very significant, but still difficult to assess. Even in large urban areas in Latin America such as Mexico City, Sao Paulo and Santiago, and in developed areas such as Paris and Californian cities it is possible to observe significant biomass burning effects air quality. The wood burning components as well as inner city and vicinities burning if agricultural residues impact heavily the concentration of organic aerosol, carbon monoxide and ozone in urban areas. Regionally, regions such as Amazonia and Central America show large plumes of smoke that extend their impact over continental areas, with changes in the radiation balance, air quality and climate. The deforestation rate in Amazonia have dropped strongly from 27,000 Km2 in 2004 to 6,200 Km2 in 2011, a very significant reduction, but this reduction was not observed in Africa and Southeast Asia. Health effects of biomass burning emissions are very significant, and observed in several key regions. Remote sensing techniques for fire detection have progressed significantly and long time series (10-15 years) are now feasible. The black carbon associated with biomass burning has important impacts in formation and development of clouds in Amazonia and other regions. The organic component of biomass burning emissions scatter light and increase diffuse radiation that alters carbon uptake in large regions of Amazonia and certainly other forested areas. Increase of up to 30% in carbon uptake associated with biomass burning emissions was observed in Amazonia, as part of the LBA Experiment. New analytical methods that quantify the absorption angstrom exponent of biomass burning and fossil fuel black carbon (BC) can differentiate BC from different burning sources. In addition, the hygroscopic properties of particles with a core shell of BC coated with organic compounds can be measured and shows

  15. Realistic Modeling of Fast MHD Wave Trains in Coronal Active Regions (United States)

    Ofman, Leon; Sun, Xudong


    Motivated by recent SDO/AIA observations we have developed realistic modeling of quasi-periodic, fast-mode propagating MHD wave trains (QFPs) using 3D MHD model initiated with potential magnetic field extrapolated from the solar coronal boundary. Localized quasi-periodic pulsations associated with C-class flares that drive the waves (as deduced from observations) are modeled with transverse periodic displacement of magnetic field at the lower coronal boundary. The modeled propagating speed and the form of the wave expansions matches the observed fast MHD waves speed >1000 km/s and topology. We study the parametric dependence of the amplitude, propagation, and damping of the waves for a range of key model parameters, such as the background temperature, density, and the location of the flaring site within the active region. We investigate the interaction of multiple QFP wave trains excited by adjacent flaring sources. We use the model results to synthesize EUV intensities in multiple AIA channels and obtain the model parameters that best reproduce the properties of observed QFPs, such as the recent DEM analysis. We discuss the implications of our modeling results for the seismological application of QFPs for the diagnostic of the active region field, flare pulsations, end estimate the energy flux carried by the waves.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleint, L.; Martínez-Sykora, J. [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, 625 2nd Street, Ste. 209, Petaluma, CA (United States); Antolin, P. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tian, H.; Testa, P.; Reeves, K. K.; McKillop, S.; Saar, S.; Golub, L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Judge, P. [High Altitude Observatory/NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); De Pontieu, B.; Wuelser, J. P.; Boerner, P.; Hurlburt, N.; Lemen, J.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover St., Org. ADBS, Bldg. 252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Jaeggli, S., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, P.O. Box 173840, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); and others


    Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph data allow us to study the solar transition region (TR) with an unprecedented spatial resolution of 0.''33. On 2013 August 30, we observed bursts of high Doppler shifts suggesting strong supersonic downflows of up to 200 km s{sup –1} and weaker, slightly slower upflows in the spectral lines Mg II h and k, C II 1336, Si IV 1394 Å, and 1403 Å, that are correlated with brightenings in the slitjaw images (SJIs). The bursty behavior lasts throughout the 2 hr observation, with average burst durations of about 20 s. The locations of these short-lived events appear to be the umbral and penumbral footpoints of EUV loops. Fast apparent downflows are observed along these loops in the SJIs and in the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, suggesting that the loops are thermally unstable. We interpret the observations as cool material falling from coronal heights, and especially coronal rain produced along the thermally unstable loops, which leads to an increase of intensity at the loop footpoints, probably indicating an increase of density and temperature in the TR. The rain speeds are on the higher end of previously reported speeds for this phenomenon, and possibly higher than the free-fall velocity along the loops. On other observing days, similar bright dots are sometimes aligned into ribbons, resembling small flare ribbons. These observations provide a first insight into small-scale heating events in sunspots in the TR.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rui; Wang Yuming; Liu Chang; Wang Haimin; Török, Tibor


    It has recently been noted that solar eruptions can be associated with the contraction of coronal loops that are not involved in magnetic reconnection processes. In this paper, we investigate five coronal eruptions originating from four sigmoidal active regions, using high-cadence, high-resolution narrowband EUV images obtained by the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO). The magnitudes of the flares associated with the eruptions range from GOES class B to class X. Owing to the high-sensitivity and broad temperature coverage of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board SDO, we are able to identify both the contracting and erupting components of the eruptions: the former is observed in cold AIA channels as the contracting coronal loops overlying the elbows of the sigmoid, and the latter is preferentially observed in warm/hot AIA channels as an expanding bubble originating from the center of the sigmoid. The initiation of eruption always precedes the contraction, and in the energetically mild events (B- and C-flares), it also precedes the increase in GOES soft X-ray fluxes. In the more energetic events, the eruption is simultaneous with the impulsive phase of the nonthermal hard X-ray emission. These observations confirm that loop contraction is an integrated process in eruptions with partially opened arcades. The consequence of contraction is a new equilibrium with reduced magnetic energy, as the contracting loops never regain their original positions. The contracting process is a direct consequence of flare energy release, as evidenced by the strong correlation of the maximal contracting speed, and strong anti-correlation of the time delay of contraction relative to expansion, with the peak soft X-ray flux. This is also implied by the relationship between contraction and expansion, i.e., their timing and speed.

  18. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 5 (United States)


    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 3, which is comprised of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michiga...

  19. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - Region 4 (United States)


    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 4, which is comprised of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Geor...

  20. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 2 (United States)


    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe : Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 2, : which is comprised of Arizona, Oklahoma, New Mexic...

  1. Magnetic Flux Cancellation as the Origin of Solar Quiet-region Pre-jet Minifilaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L., E-mail: [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)


    We investigate the origin of 10 solar quiet-region pre-jet minifilaments , using EUV images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO )/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and magnetograms from the SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). We recently found that quiet-region coronal jets are driven by minifilament eruptions, where those eruptions result from flux cancellation at the magnetic neutral line under the minifilament. Here, we study the longer-term origin of the pre-jet minifilaments themselves. We find that they result from flux cancellation between minority-polarity and majority-polarity flux patches. In each of 10 pre-jet regions, we find that opposite-polarity patches of magnetic flux converge and cancel, with a flux reduction of 10%–40% from before to after the minifilament appears. For our 10 events, the minifilaments exist for periods ranging from 1.5 hr to 2 days before erupting to make a jet. Apparently, the flux cancellation builds a highly sheared field that runs above and traces the neutral line, and the cool transition region plasma minifilament forms in this field and is suspended in it. We infer that the convergence of the opposite-polarity patches results in reconnection in the low corona that builds a magnetic arcade enveloping the minifilament in its core, and that the continuing flux cancellation at the neutral line finally destabilizes the minifilament field so that it erupts and drives the production of a coronal jet. Thus, our observations strongly support that quiet-region magnetic flux cancellation results in both the formation of the pre-jet minifilament and its jet-driving eruption.

  2. Observational Analysis of Coronal Fans (United States)

    Talpeanu, D.-C.; Rachmeler, L; Mierla, Marilena


    Coronal fans (see Figure 1) are bright observational structures that extend to large distances above the solar surface and can easily be seen in EUV (174 angstrom) above the limb. They have a very long lifetime and can live up to several Carrington rotations (CR), remaining relatively stationary for many months. Note that they are not off-limb manifestation of similarly-named active region fans. The solar conditions required to create coronal fans are not well understood. The goal of this research was to find as many associations as possible of coronal fans with other solar features and to gain a better understanding of these structures. Therefore, we analyzed many fans and created an overview of their properties. We present the results of this statistical analysis and also a case study on the longest living fan.

  3. The prominence-corona interface compared with the chromosphere-corona transition region (United States)

    Orrall, F. Q.; Schmahl, E. J.


    The intensities of 52 optically thin EUV emission lines formed at temperatures of 350,000 to 2.2 million K in nine hedgerow prominences observed at the limb are compared with the intensities of the same lines formed within network cells at the center of the solar disk in order to compare the prominence-corona interface (PC) with the chromosphere-corona transition region (CC). It is found for all nine prominences that the ratio of the intensity of a line measured in a cell to that in a prominence decreases with increasing temperature approximately as the -0.6 power of temperature. This ratio is used as the basis for comparing the PC with the CC in the framework of two different geometries wherein the prominence consists of one or more identical fully resolved slabs or threads in the line of sight or contains one or more identical unresolved cylindrical threads. It is concluded that three effects may contribute to the systematic difference between the PC and the CC: (1) the pressure within the PC might increase outward; (2) the temperature gradient within the PC might increase more slowly with temperature than in the CC; and (3) the unresolved internal geometry of a prominence can directly explain some, but not all, of the systematic difference.

  4. A Solar Eruption from a Weak Magnetic Field Region with Relatively Strong Geo-Effectiveness (United States)

    Wang, R.


    A moderate flare eruption giving rise to a series of geo-effectiveness on 2015 November 4 caught our attentions, which originated from a relatively weak magnetic field region. The associated characteristics near the Earth are presented, which indicates that the southward magnetic field in the sheath and the ICME induced a geomagnetic storm sequence with a Dst global minimum of 90 nT. The ICME is indicated to have a small inclination angle by using a Grad-Shafranov technique, and corresponds to the flux rope (FR) structure horizontally lying on the solar surface. A small-scale magnetic cancelling feature was detected which is beneath the FR and is co-aligned with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) EUV brightening prior to the eruption. Various magnetic features for space-weather forecasting are computed by using a data product from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) called Space-weather HMI Active Region Patches (SHARPs), which help us identify the changes of the photospheric magnetic fields during the magnetic cancellation process and prove that the magnetic reconnection associated with the flux cancellation is driven by the magnetic shearing motion on the photosphere. An analysis on the distributions at different heights of decay index is carried out. Combining with a filament height estimation method, the configurations of the FR is identified and a decay index critical value n = 1 is considered to be more appropriate for such a weak magnetic field region. Through a comprehensive analysis to the trigger mechanisms and conditions of the eruption, a clearer scenario of a CME from a relatively weak region is presented.

  5. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  6. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 1 (United States)


    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 1, which is comprised of Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and H...

  7. Spectroscopic study of a dark lane and a cool loop in a solar limb active region by Hinode/EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung-Sun; Imada, S.; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Jin-Yi


    We investigated a cool loop and a dark lane over a limb active region on 2007 March 14 using the Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer. The cool loop is clearly seen in the spectral lines formed at the transition region temperature. The dark lane is characterized by an elongated faint structure in the coronal spectral lines and is rooted on a bright point. We examined their electron densities, Doppler velocities, and nonthermal velocities as a function of distance from the limb. We derived electron densities using the density sensitive line pairs of Mg VII, Si X, Fe XII, Fe XIII, and Fe XIV spectra. We also compared the observed density scale heights with the calculated scale heights from each peak formation temperatures of the spectral lines under the hydrostatic equilibrium. We noted that the observed density scale heights of the cool loop are consistent with the calculated heights, with the exception of one observed cooler temperature; we also found that the observed scale heights of the dark lane are much lower than their calculated scale heights. The nonthermal velocity in the cool loop slightly decreases along the loop, while nonthermal velocity in the dark lane sharply falls off with height. Such a decrease in the nonthermal velocity may be explained by wave damping near the solar surface or by turbulence due to magnetic reconnection near the bright point.

  8. A Series of Jets that Drove Streamer-Puff CMEs from Giant Active Region of 2014 (United States)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.


    We investigate characteristics of solar coronal jets that originated from active region NOAA 12192 and produced coronal mass ejections (CMEs). This active region produced many non­-jet major flare eruptions (X and M class) that made no CME. A multitude of jets occurred from the southeast edge of the active region, and in contrast to the major-­flare eruptions in the core, six of these jets resulted in CMEs. Our jet observations are from SDO/AIA EUV channels and from Hinode/XRT, and CME observations are from the SOHO/LASCO C2 coronograph. Each jet-­driven CME was relatively slow-­moving (approx. 200 - 300 km/s) compared to most CMEs; had angular width (20deg - 50deg) comparable to that of the streamer base; and was of the "streamer­-puff" variety, whereby a pre-existing streamer was transiently inflated but not removed (blown out) by the passage of the CME. Much of the chromospheric-­temperature plasma of the jets producing the CMEs escaped from the Sun, whereas relatively more of the chromospheric plasma in the non-CME-producing jets fell back to the solar surface. We also found that the CME-producing jets tended to be faster in speed and longer in duration than the non-CME-­producing jets. We expect that the jets result from eruptions of mini-filaments. We further propose that the CMEs are driven by magnetic twist injected into streamer-­base coronal loops when erupting twisted mini-filament field reconnects with the ambient field at the foot of those loops.

  9. Gasentladungsquelle, insbesondere fuer EUV-Strahlung


    Neff, W.; Pruemmer, R.


    WO 2006123270 A2 UPAB: 20070123 NOVELTY - The source has two electrodes (1) with an approximately circular periphery rotatably mounted for rotation in a vacuum chamber. The electrodes are respectively connected to reservoirs (4) for a liquid via a connecting unit, where the connecting unit is designed in such a way that a gap tapers in a rotation direction of the electrodes. The reservoirs are positioned relatively freely so that the reservoirs no longer impair downward radiation emission. US...

  10. EUV properties of two diffraction gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, D.; Chakrabarti, S.; Edelstein, J.; Pranke, J.; Christensen, A.B.


    The efficiency and scattering characteristics of a mechanically ruled grating (MRG) and a holographically ruled grating (HRG) are presented. One of these gratings will be employed in the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer, an instrument of the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detector System to be flown aboard a TIROS satellite in 1991. The HRG showed much less Lyman alpha scattering, while the MRG had the better efficiency over most of the spectral range covered. 8 refs

  11. Regional Alternative Transportation Evaluation: Region 8 (United States)


    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Federal Lands Highway (FLH), and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) have conducted regional alternative transportation evaluations (RATEs) in almost each of FWSs eight ...

  12. Drycleaner Database - Region 7 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Drycleaner Database (R7DryClnDB) which tracks all Region7 drycleaners who notify...

  13. Regional Seismic Threshold Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kvaerna, Tormod


    ... model to be used for predicting the travel times of regional phases. We have applied these attenuation relations to develop and assess a regional threshold monitoring scheme for selected subregions of the European Arctic...

  14. Regional disparities in Hungary


    Czabán, Vera


    In the past decades, exacerbating regional disparities in the European Union as well as the newly joined Eastern European states have led to a growing interest in examining the spatial embeddedness of development. Hungary, a small and very monocentric country, has experienced rapid growth in the region of its capital city and its surrounding, whereas formerly lagging regions continued to fall behind. This thesis examines growing regional disparities in Hungary in order to provide a more compr...

  15. Regionalization vs. Globalization


    Hideaki Hirata; M. Ayhan Kose; Christopher Otrok


    Abstract: Both global and regional economic linkages have strengthened substantially over the past quarter century. We employ a dynamic factor model to analyze the implications of these linkages for the evolution of global and regional business cycles. Our model allows us to assess the roles played by the global, regional, and country-specific factors in explaining business cycles in a large sample of countries and regions over the period 1960–2010. We find that, since the mid-1980s, the impo...

  16. Globalization and Regional Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, H.J.; Zhang, Y.


    This paper explores the connection between the external opening of China and differences in innovation across Chinese regions. Controlling for locational advantages and fixed regional characteristics, for the period 1995-2010 overall we find that regions that have increased most the connections to

  17. Constructing Regional advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Boschma, Ron; Cooke, Phil


    This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary sect...... economic development within and between regions in action lines appropriate to incorporate the basic principles behind related variety and differentiated knowledge bases.......This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary...

  18. The Relation Between Magnetic Fields and X-ray Emission for Solar Microflares and Active Regions (United States)

    Kirichenko, A. S.; Bogachev, S. A.


    We present the result of a comparison between magnetic field parameters and the intensity of X-ray emission for solar microflares with Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) classes from A0.02 to B5.1. For our study, we used the monochromatic MgXII Imaging Spectroheliometer (MISH), the Full-disk EUV Telescope (FET), and the Solar PHotometer in X-rays (SphinX) instruments onboard the Complex Orbital Observations Near-Earth of Activity of the Sun-Photon CORONAS- Photon spacecraft because of their high sensitivity in soft X-rays. The peak flare flux (PFF) for solar microflares was found to depend on the strength of the magnetic field and on the total unsigned magnetic flux as a power-law function. In the spectral range 2.8 - 36.6 Å, which shows very little increase related to microflares, the power-law index of the relation between the X-ray flux and magnetic flux for active regions is 1.48 ±0.86, which is close to the value obtained previously by Pevtsov et al. ( Astrophys. J. 598, 1387, 2003) for different types of solar and stellar objects. In the spectral range 1 - 8 Å, the power-law indices for PFF(B) and PFF(Φ) for microflares are 3.87 ±2.16 and 3 ±1.6, respectively. We also make suggestions on the heating mechanisms in active regions and microflares under the assumption of loops with constant pressure and heating using the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana scaling laws.

  19. Critical Environmental Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A short etymological interpretation of the notion of regions (Rette Lineatte, etc.. The region is: R= f (S+P, where S is space and P is power. There follows an evaluation of the characteristics of the region and the presentation of different approaches to the region. From the classic ideas (von Humboldt, 1885, Dokuceaev, 1899, Herbertson, 1905, and others we get to a wide interpretative array of what we accept as organizational spatial units of geographical reality. The environmental region has important connotations with regard to the system as a surrounded element (man, society and the adjacent system. Critical environmental regions are areas where there already exists interactive degradation. The critical character may be physical, hence the “geocritical regions” or the result of human impact, hence the “anthropocritical regions.” Critical situations are differentiated at the local, regional, and global level. In order to understand critical regional situations we must refer to the following characteristics: fragility, resilience, and vulnerability. Still there are few environmental studies on critical regions and work must be done in this field.

  20. Regional disparities of unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cismas


    Full Text Available The regional issues include a variety of events that reflect the persistence of imbalances/ disparities in the development of a country’s regions (the trend of regional divergence. The major problem faced by all European regions is the high level of long-term unemployment, interregional disparities in this respect being obvious. The many (negative effects that unemployment generates - both for society and for individuals - fully justify the concerns of the world governments regarding both this reality and the continuous concern for finding solutions on employment at the highest level possible. These are the reasons why, this paper analyzes the issue of regional disparities of unemployment, in the EU countries, focusing on Romanian regions, using statistical data relevant for this purpose.

  1. Building Regional Competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper


    This paper analyzes the foundations of regional knowledge and its long-term impact onthe region's companies' and how a particular knowledge has developed an ability tostay competitive within a specific technological field. The case illustrates how theCopenhagen region has been able to develop...... a dominating position in the global marketfor industrial enzymes from 1870-2004. The case of industrial enzymes shows how aregion has been able to build sustainable competitive advantages from its distinctivecompetencies. This is done through a mixture of outsourcing and in sourcing ofcompetencies, knowledge...... and technologies from other regions in a ramified set ofinteracting networks. The key personnel within the regions firms are deliberatelyallowed to engage in the formations of these non-disclosure network activities so thatprofessional knowledge communities has been established across regional boundariesand...

  2. Entrepreneurship and regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    This literature review examines how entrepreneurship and regional development has been previously addressed theoretically and empirically. Regional Science and Entrepreneurship are two fields with their own distinct literature's. The question is therefore, how do these two fields talk about...... the respective other? What are the commonalities and differences? The purpose of this article is to create an analytical synthesis by combining the insights of the two literature's in order to gain a fuller understanding of the relation between entrepreneurship and regional development....

  3. Local, Regional or Global?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian

    This paper proposes a multidimensional index of regional and global orientation which can be used in confirmatory studies with econometric methodologies. Unlike extant measures, the index is objectively scaled and controls for home country orientation and market size differences. The index is sho...... in fact reflects strong home country biases.Keywords: globalization; regional integration; global strategy; regional strategy; local strategy; triad; liability of foreignness...

  4. Regions in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Čokert


    Full Text Available The reasons behind the need to prepare a law on regions are both internal and external in nature. We need regions as a second level of local government primarily to counter internal development problems and the need for decentralisation in Slovenia. Developmentaly stagnant and depressed areas account for more than 70% of Slovene territory. The share of founds earmarked directly from central government for regional promotion is falling and is lower than the average in European Union countries. Analyses of population and employment, and of the economic, infrastructure and educational capacities of the Slovene regions reveal serious regional differences. The reasons for the establishment of regions in Slovenia also lie in the diversity of regional problems, which are different in Zasavje, Pomurje, Gorenjska or Primorska. Any restriction to an administrative territorial division would blur the special regional features which, even by Europe-wide comparision, are characteristic of Slovenia. And we cannot simplify the tackling of urgent regional problems as being a matter for relations between the central government and a large number of very diverse municipalities.

  5. Regional Innovation Clusters (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  6. Regional Redistribution and Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manasse, Paolo; Schultz, Christian

    We study a model with free migration between a rich and a poor region. Since there is congestion, the rich region has an incentive to give the poor region a transfer in order to reduce immigration. Faced with free migration, the rich region voluntarily chooses a transfer, which turns out...... to be equal to that a social planner would choose. Provided migration occurs in equilibrium, this conclusion holds even in the presence of moderate mobility costs. However, large migration costs will lead to suboptimal transfers in the market solution...

  7. Border region studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan


    The contemporary conditions of academic capitalism exert pressures on researchers to avoid ‘peripheral’ journals and ‘unfashionable’ topics. Here an attempt is made to shed light onto the structure of one such ‘offbeat’ field, namely ‘border region studies’, by discussing its geographical...... distribution, key themes, significance and impact. The review suggests that border region studies can be considered a significant and important ‘branch’ of regional studies, which accounts for a small but increasing proportion of regional studies research particularly in Europe and North America. Four main...

  8. European Regional Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Brian Canizaro


    Full Text Available In recent years, beginning with the publication in 2003 of Liane Lefaivre and Alexander Tzonis’ 'Critical Regionalism', followed by my 'Architectural Regionalism: Collected Writings on Place, Identity, Modernity and Tradition 'in 2007, there has been a quiet resurgence in the discourse of architectural regionalism.' 'Leuven University Press’s 'Regionalism and Modernity: Architecture in Western Europe 1914–1940 'continues in this direction, with eleven chapters devoted to variations of the regionalist tendency in European architecture focused primarily on Belgium and France, but also Great Britain, Italy, and Germany.

  9. Tourism of Khmelnytskyi region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Інна Шоробура


    Full Text Available The peculiarities of tourism in Khmelnytskyi region, its priority areas, types, including cultural-educational, environmental, sportrecreative and others have been revealed in the article. The basic tasks of tourism development in the region, aimed at the formation and protection of the tourism-recreational sector, market of competitive services, attraction of maximum number of tourists to the region, etc. have been cleared out. The attention is focused on the main tourist potential of Khmelnytskyi region, including National Nature Park «Podilski Tovtry», National historical-cultural nature reserve «Kamianets», «Samchyky», Medzhybizh regional historical-ethnographic museum-fortress, sanatorium-resort facilities based on mineral waters and others. The attention is paid to the increase in income from tourism. Traditional hospitality of the population of the region, especially in rural areas, provides the possibility to combine tourists’ accommodation with the study of rural customs and traditions directly in the villages. Tourism in Khmelnytskyi region will be attractive to all tourists who want to eat healthy food, to stay outdoors and enjoy the beauty of the region. Also the article tells us about the development of other directions and familiarizes tourists with other enticements of Khmelnytskyi region using the positive brand of Kamianets-Podilskyi. All three potential areas of tourism development (historical tourism in Kamianets-Podilskyi, recreational tourism on rivers, lakes and in the forests, as well as rural tourism can be combined within the global promotion of nature and traditions of the region. It is indicated that Khmelnytskyi is a promising tourist region of Ukraine. The main problems of the region are inadequate tourism infrastructure, accommodation facilities, food and roads. The experience of the tourism cluster «Oberih» (Protective Charm proves the perspectives of agritourism. Developing these two areas together, we

  10. Measuring regional authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, G.W.; Hooghe, E.A.E.B.; Schakel, A.H.


    This article sets out a conceptual basis for measuring regional authority and engages basic measurement issues. Regional authority is disaggregated into two domains (self-rule and shared rule) and these are operationalised in eight dimensions. The article concludes by examining the robustness of

  11. Regionalism after Regionalisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, Frans


    Throughout Europe regionalist movements claim more autonomy for their region, pointing at cultural and historical distinctiveness and the demands of their populations. In some places violence is used to put pressure on the state, and in many states in Europe and elsewhere the issue of regional

  12. The Scandinavian regional model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torfing, Jacob; Lidström, Anders; Røiseland, Asbjørn


    This article maps how the sub-national regional levels of governance in Denmark, Norway and Sweden have changed from a high degree of institutional convergence to a pattern of institutional divergence. It analyses the similarities and differences in the changes in regional governance and discusse...

  13. Regional final energy consumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report comments the differences observed between the French regions and also between these regions and national data in terms of final energy consumption per inhabitant, per GDP unit, and per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture). It also comments the evolutions during the last decades, identifies the most recent trends

  14. Bridging regional innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis


    collaboration activity in cross-border innovation systems? This paper examines regional integration in the Oresund Region over time. It deals with a specific part of the RIS, as it analyses research collaboration between actors from the Danish and Swedish sides, with a specific emphasis on the biotech industry...

  15. Arkadien. Region og identitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Heine

    Oldtidens Grækenland bestod af et mylder af bystater, grupperet i regioner, og grækerne mente, at de forskellige regioners beboere havde hver deres karakteristika. Bogen undersøger dette emne nærmere i forhold til Arkadien på Peloponnes: Hvad ville det sige at være arkader? Var det et geografisk...

  16. Connecting to Regional Markets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coulibaly, Souleymane; Thomsen, Lotte


    Central Asian food processors face a number of constraints when they attempt to export to the region and beyond. The Central Asian economies in focus here are landlocked, and thus lack easy access to sea transport. In addition, the region's transport network was built to reinforce the interdepend...

  17. Global, Local, or Regional?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Alain; Geisler Asmussen, Christian


    This paper provides an overview of the main insights arising from the ‘regional strategy’ literature. It also develops the contours of a new, rich research agenda for future international strategy scholarship, whereby the region should be introduced as an explicit, third geographic level of analy......This paper provides an overview of the main insights arising from the ‘regional strategy’ literature. It also develops the contours of a new, rich research agenda for future international strategy scholarship, whereby the region should be introduced as an explicit, third geographic level...... of analysis, in addition to the country-level and the global level. Regional strategy analysis requires a fundamental rethink of mainstream theories in the international strategy sphere. This rethink involves, inter alia, internalization theory, with its resource-based view and transaction cost economics...... components, as well as the integration (I) – national responsiveness (NR) framework....

  18. Die Region braucht die Kultur - die Kultur braucht die Region


    Klemm, Ulrich


    Die Region braucht die Kultur - die Kultur braucht die Region. - In: Region in Aktion - oder: Region im Abseits? - Boxberg-Wölchingen : Eigenständige Regionalentwicklung Baden-Württemberg, 1995. - S. 25 f.

  19. Evolved H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchwell, E.


    A probable evolutionary sequence of H II regions based on six distinct types of observed objects is suggested. Two examples which may deviate from this idealized sequence, are discussed. Even though a size-mean density relation of H II regions can be used as a rough indication of whether a nebula is very young or evolved, it is argued that such a relation is not likely to be useful for the quantitative assignment of ages to H II regions. Evolved H II regions appear to fit into one of four structural types: rings, core-halos, smooth structures, and irregular or filamentary structures. Examples of each type are given with their derived physical parameters. The energy balance in these nebulae is considered. The mass of ionized gas in evolved H II regions is in general too large to trace the nebula back to single compact H II regions. Finally, the morphological type of the Galaxy is considered from its H II region content. 2 tables, 2 figs., 29 refs

  20. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.


    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  1. A comparison study of a solar active-region eruptive filament and a neighboring non-eruptive filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Chao-Wei; Feng, Xue-Shang; Wu, Shi-Tsan; Hu, Qiang


    Solar active region (AR) 11283 is a very magnetically complex region and it has produced many eruptions. However, there exists a non-eruptive filament in the plage region just next to an eruptive one in the AR, which gives us an opportunity to perform a comparison analysis of these two filaments. The coronal magnetic field extrapolated using our CESE–MHD–NLFFF code reveals that two magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) exist in the same extrapolation box supporting these two filaments, respectively. Analysis of the magnetic field shows that the eruptive MFR contains a bald-patch separatrix surface (BPSS) cospatial very well with a pre-eruptive EUV sigmoid, which is consistent with the BPSS model for coronal sigmoids. The magnetic dips of the non-eruptive MFRs match Hα observation of the non-eruptive filament strikingly well, which strongly supports the MFR-dip model for filaments. Compared with the non-eruptive MFR/filament (with a length of about 200 Mm), the eruptive MFR/filament is much smaller (with a length of about 20 Mm), but it contains most of the magnetic free energy in the extrapolation box and holds a much higher free energy density than the non-eruptive one. Both the MFRs are weakly twisted and cannot trigger kink instability. The AR eruptive MFR is unstable because its axis reaches above a critical height for torus instability, at which the overlying closed arcades can no longer confine the MFR stably. On the contrary, the quiescent MFR is very firmly held by its overlying field, as its axis apex is far below the torus-instability threshold height. Overall, this comparison investigation supports that an MFR can exist prior to eruption and the ideal MHD instability can trigger an MFR eruption. (paper)

  2. A comparison study of a solar active-region eruptive filament and a neighboring non-eruptive filament (United States)

    Jiang, Chao-Wei; Wu, Shi-Tsan; Feng, Xue-Shang; Hu, Qiang


    Solar active region (AR) 11283 is a very magnetically complex region and it has produced many eruptions. However, there exists a non-eruptive filament in the plage region just next to an eruptive one in the AR, which gives us an opportunity to perform a comparison analysis of these two filaments. The coronal magnetic field extrapolated using our CESE-MHD-NLFFF code reveals that two magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) exist in the same extrapolation box supporting these two filaments, respectively. Analysis of the magnetic field shows that the eruptive MFR contains a bald-patch separatrix surface (BPSS) cospatial very well with a pre-eruptive EUV sigmoid, which is consistent with the BPSS model for coronal sigmoids. The magnetic dips of the non-eruptive MFRs match Hα observation of the non-eruptive filament strikingly well, which strongly supports the MFR-dip model for filaments. Compared with the non-eruptive MFR/filament (with a length of about 200 Mm), the eruptive MFR/filament is much smaller (with a length of about 20 Mm), but it contains most of the magnetic free energy in the extrapolation box and holds a much higher free energy density than the non-eruptive one. Both the MFRs are weakly twisted and cannot trigger kink instability. The AR eruptive MFR is unstable because its axis reaches above a critical height for torus instability, at which the overlying closed arcades can no longer confine the MFR stably. On the contrary, the quiescent MFR is very firmly held by its overlying field, as its axis apex is far below the torus-instability threshold height. Overall, this comparison investigation supports that an MFR can exist prior to eruption and the ideal MHD instability can trigger an MFR eruption.

  3. The NMDA Receptor NR1 C1 Region Bound to Calmodulin: Structural Insights into Functional Differences between Homologous Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ataman, Zeynep Akyol; Gakhar, Lokesh; Sorensen, Brenda R.; Hell, Johannes W.; Shea, Madeline A. (Iowa)


    Calmodulin (CaM) regulates tetrameric N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) by binding tightly to the C0 and C1 regions of its NR1 subunit. A crystal structure (2HQW; 1.96 {angstrom}) of calcium-saturated CaM bound to NR1C1 (peptide spanning 875-898) showed that NR1 S890, whose phosphorylation regulates membrane localization, was solvent protected, whereas the endoplasmic reticulum retention motif was solvent exposed. NR1 F880 filled the CaM C-domain pocket, whereas T886 was closest to the N-domain pocket. This 1-7 pattern was most similar to that in the CaM-MARCKS complex. Comparison of CaM-ligand wrap-around conformations identified a core tetrad of CaM C-domain residues (FLMM{sub C}) that contacted all ligands consistently. An identical tetrad of N-domain residues (FLMM{sub N}) made variable sets of contacts with ligands. This CaM-NR1C1 structure provides a foundation for designing mutants to test the role of CaM in NR1 trafficking as well as insights into how the homologous CaM domains have different roles in molecular recognition.

  4. Correlation of Coronal Plasma Properties and Solar Magnetic Field in a Decaying Active Region (United States)

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Young, Peter R.; Muglach, Karin; Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio


    We present the analysis of a decaying active region observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode during 2009 December 7-11. We investigated the temporal evolution of its structure exhibited by plasma at temperatures from 300,000 to 2.8 million degrees, and derived the electron density, differential emission measure, effective electron temperature, and elemental abundance ratios of Si/S and Fe/S (as a measure of the First Ionization Potential (FIP) Effect). We compared these coronal properties to the temporal evolution of the photospheric magnetic field strength obtained from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms. We find that, while these coronal properties all decreased with time during this decay phase, the largest change was at plasma above 1.5 million degrees. The photospheric magnetic field strength also decreased with time but mainly for field strengths lower than about 70 Gauss. The effective electron temperature and the FIP bias seem to reach a basal state (at 1.5 x 10(exp 6) K and 1.5, respectively) into the quiet Sun when the mean photospheric magnetic field (excluding all areas <10 G) weakened to below 35 G, while the electron density continued to decrease with the weakening field. These physical properties are all positively correlated with each other and the correlation is the strongest in the high-temperature plasma. Such correlation properties should be considered in the quest for our understanding of how the corona is heated. The variations in the elemental abundance should especially be considered together with the electron temperature and density.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vemareddy, P.; Ravindra, B. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore-560034 (India); Cheng, X., E-mail: [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing-210023 (China)


    We studied the development conditions of sigmoid structure under the influence of the magnetic non-potential characteristics of a rotating sunspot in the active region (AR) 12158. Vector magnetic field measurements from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager and coronal EUV observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly reveal that the erupting inverse-S sigmoid had roots at the location of the rotating sunspot. The sunspot rotates at a rate of 0°–5° h{sup −1} with increasing trend in the first half followed by a decrease. The time evolution of many non-potential parameters had a good correspondence with the sunspot rotation. The evolution of the AR magnetic structure is approximated by a time series of force-free equilibria. The non-linear force-free field magnetic structure around the sunspot manifests the observed sigmoid structure. Field lines from the sunspot periphery constitute the body of the sigmoid and those from the interior overlie the sigmoid, similar to a flux rope structure. While the sunspot was rotating, two major coronal mass ejection eruptions occurred in the AR. During the first (second) event, the coronal current concentrations were enhanced (degraded), consistent with the photospheric net vertical current; however, magnetic energy was released during both cases. The analysis results suggest that the magnetic connections of the sigmoid are driven by the slow motion of sunspot rotation, which transforms to a highly twisted flux rope structure in a dynamical scenario. Exceeding the critical twist in the flux rope probably leads to the loss of equilibrium, thus triggering the onset of the two eruptions.

  6. Region 9 Tribal Lands (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada) with some reservation border areas of adjacent states included (adjacent areas...

  7. Southwest DIVER Regional Metadata (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DIVER environmental data holdings are primarily comprised of datasets gathered from regional studies, site specific studies from non-NOAA entities, and NOAA...

  8. Town and Regional Planning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Town and Regional Planning. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 64 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Aeromagnetic Regional Grid Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several regions are represented in this unique collection of earth surface measurements of magnetic field parameters and their related anomalies. The DNAG Magnetics...

  10. Northeast DIVER Regional Metadata (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DIVER environmental data holdings are primarily comprised of datasets gathered from regional studies, site specific studies from non-NOAA entities, and NOAA...

  11. Southeast DIVER Regional Metadata (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DIVER environmental data holdings are primarily comprised of datasets gathered from regional studies, site specific studies from non-NOAA entities, and NOAA...

  12. Regional Response Teams (United States)

    There are thirteen in the U.S., each representing a geographic region (including the Caribbean and the Pacific Basin). Composed of representatives from field offices of the agencies that make up the National Response Team, and state representatives.

  13. Regional Air Quality Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  14. Crisis and Regional Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    ‘Crisis’ has been a word frequently heard of over the last couple of years, both in a global meaning (e.g. the environmental crisis, the financial crisis) and also in a more regional or national meaning, many times related to Africa (Horn of Africa, Ivory Coast, DR Congo, Zimbabwe, Ivory Coast......, Tunisia, Egypt …. ), where the crisis referred to could be humanitarian, environmental, economic, political … Europe, too, has also according to mass media, been a victim of a crisis, the financial one. Could ‘crisis’ be a beginning of enhanced regional integration? This paper will try to look...... at the processes of regional integration in relation to ‘crisis’ in Africa and Europe. First, this paper will look at the concept of ‘crisis’, before it moves on to discuss ‘regional integration’ and the correlation between the two, emphasizing the approaches of neo-functionalism and federal theory...

  15. Promoting regional mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne

    Pricing of transport has been part of EU's common transport policy since this gained momentum in the early 1990s. Since then, it has been closely connected to the trans-European transport network (TEN-T) and to rising demands of efficient mobility systems at a local, regional and Community scale....... Development of pricing policies is contested at Community level and has taken place in a clash between different policy rationalities. Significantly though, the effects of the pricing policies are closely related to regional mobility systems, e.g. through financing large trans-border infrastructure projects...... and establishing common technical charging systems thus changing the conditions for regional mobility. This paper explores how policies of infrastructure pricing shape new ways of governing mobility which influences trans-border, regional policy-making. The key findings are that there is a tendency to include...

  16. Regional National Cooperative Observer (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  17. Regional Snowfall Index (RSI) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Climatic Data Center is now producing the Regional Snowfall Index (RSI) for significant snowstorms that impact the eastern two thirds of the U.S. The...

  18. Regional Hearing Clerk (United States)

    The Regional Hearing Clerk receives filings for proceedings under the Consolidated Rules of Practice Governing the Administrative Assessment of Civil Penalties and the Revocation/Termination or Suspension of Permits, 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 22

  19. The Regional Dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl


    Global perspectives and national approaches have dominated studies of climate-change communication, reflecting the global nature of climate change as well as the traditional research focus on national media systems. In the absence of a global public sphere, however, transnational issue attention ...... climate-change communication and regional media systems. It finds that regional variations in climate-change communication carry important communicative implications concerning perceptions of climate change's relevance and urgency...

  20. Nuclear power regional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parera, María Delia


    In this study, a regional analysis of the Argentine electricity market was carried out considering the effects of regional cooperation, national and international interconnections; additionally, the possibilities of insertion of new nuclear power plants in different regions were evaluated, indicating the most suitable areas for these facilities to increase the penetration of nuclear energy in national energy matrix. The interconnection of electricity markets and natural gas due to the linkage between both energy forms was also studied. With this purpose, MESSAGE program was used (Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts), promoted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This model performs a country-level economic optimization, resulting in the minimum cost for the modelling system. Regionalization executed by the Wholesale Electricity Market Management Company (CAMMESA, by its Spanish acronym) that divides the country into eight regions. The characteristics and the needs of each region, their respective demands and supplies of electricity and natural gas, as well as existing and planned interconnections, consisting of power lines and pipelines were taken into account. According to the results obtained through the model, nuclear is a competitive option. (author) [es

  1. RCA's regional industrial project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.T.


    The Regional Cooperation Agreement (RCA) for Research Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, formulated under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), came into force in June 1972. The overall objective of RCA is to promote technical cooperation among the developing and developed countries in the Asia Pacific region in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and related technology. Currently, the biggest project under RCA is the Regional Project on the Industrial Applications of Isotopes and Radiation Technology for Asia and the Pacific. The project was established in 1982 for a period of five years and was completed in December 1986. The first phase of the project has generated a high degree of awareness on the industrial potential of isotopes and radiation technology throughout the region; produced a cadre of trained manpower in all areas covered by the project; identified the expertise available in the region; and developed in the region, a unique network of people and institutions involved with the utilization of isotope and radiation technology. A Phase II of the project, which cover all but one of the sub-projects under Phase I, was approved in early 1987 for another five years until 1991. (Nogami, K.)

  2. Transient regional osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta


    Full Text Available Transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis are uncommon and probably underdiagnosed bone diseases characterized by pain and functional limitation mainly affecting weight-bearing joints of the lower limbs. These conditions are usually self-limiting and symptoms tend to abate within a few months without sequelae. Routine laboratory investigations are unremarkable. Middle aged men and women during the last months of pregnancy or in the immediate post-partum period are principally affected. Osteopenia with preservation of articular space and transitory edema of the bone marrow provided by magnetic resonance imaging are common to these two conditions, so they are also known by the term regional transitory osteoporosis. The appearance of bone marrow edema is not specific to regional transitory osteoporosis but can be observed in several diseases, i.e. trauma, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, avascular osteonecrosis, infections, tumors from which it must be differentiated. The etiology of this condition is unknown. Pathogenesis is still debated in particular the relationship with reflex sympathetic dystrophy, with which regional transitory osteoporosis is often identified. The purpose of the present review is to remark on the relationship between transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis with particular attention to the bone marrow edema pattern and relative differential diagnosis.

  3. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  4. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.D.


    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  5. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, R.A.


    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project ''Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory

  6. GRTgaz and the regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the regional activities of GRTgaz in France in the form of 12 regional fact sheets summarizing the key data by the end of 2016: network structure, financial indicators (investments, orders), public and industrial gas consumptions, 2017 projects, institutional and environmental partnerships

  7. ASEAN : Extra-Regional Cooperation Triggers Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapohl, S.; Krapohl, S.


    This chapter contains two case studies of regional cooperation within Southeast Asia. The network analysis of ASEAN demonstrates that the region is dependent on extra-regional trade with the EU and the USA, but also with China and Japan. However, the region is not dominated by a single regional

  8. Regional Resource Planning Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Natural gas and electricity commodities are among the most volatile commodities in the world. Spurred on by the recent significant increases in the price of natural gas, the BC Utilities Commission initiated an investigation into factors impacting on natural gas prices, and the validity of the Sumas index (a market trading point, or interchange where multiple pipelines interconnect, allowing the purchase and sale of gas among market participants) as a price setting mechanism. The Commission also sought the opinions and perspectives of the the province's natural gas industry regarding the high volatility of the Sumas gas prices, and as to what could be done to alleviate the wild fluctuations. Following review of the responses from stakeholders, the Commission issued a directive to BC Gas to undertake discussions on regional resource planning with full representation from all stakeholders. This study is the result of the Commission's directive, and is intended to address the issues contained in the directives. Accordingly, the study examined gas demand in the region, demand growth, including power generation, natural gas resource balance in the region, the California impacts on demand and on supply to the region, supply shortfalls on a peak day, and on a seasonal and annual basis, near term remedies, possible resource additions in the longer term, the economic justification for adding major resources and proposed actions to develop needed resource additions. The study confirmed the existence of a growing capacity deficit, which limits the supply of natural gas to the region. Near term options to alleviate the regional capacity deficit were found to be limited to discouraging power generation from serving export markets, demand side management efforts, and expansion of the WEI's systems by 105 mmcf/d. Longer term solutions would involve larger scale expansion of WEI's T-South capacity, the BC Gas' Inland Pacific Connector Project and the Washington Lateral proposed by


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaduva Maria


    Full Text Available Regional development policies in the EU Member States have included tools whoseimportance varied from one country to another. Can be identified by negative incentives forregional development policy towards location in crowded areas or control over the location,the reallocation of economic activities in national territory, creation of adequateinfrastructure, measures to enhance development, financial incentives granted toenterprises. Sustainable business development, rehabilitation of social infrastructure,including social housing and improved social services. Improved regional and localtransportation are key areas of intervention rehabilitation and upgrading of county roads,city streets, including road construction and rehabilitation of belt.

  10. The Wealth of Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nistotskaya, Marina; Charron, Nicholas; Lapuente, Victor


    . Using original survey data on QoG from 172 regions in eighteen European Union countries, we find that regions where governments are perceived by their citizens as impartial and free from corruption have on average significantly more SMEs. We also find that in less corrupt countries the spatial......With this paper we put forward a novel theoretical argument that the individual’s subjective evaluations of the quality of government (QoG) in terms of its impartiality influences his or her complex assessments of the opportunity and feasibility of a business venture, and calculations on expected...... distribution of SMEs is more even than in more corrupt countries...

  11. Cold regions isotope applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, T.E.


    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) started the Cold Regions Isotope Applications Program in FY-1975 to identify special conditions in the Arctic and similar geographic areas (Cold Regions) where radioisotope power, heater, or sterilization systems would be desirable and economically viable. Significant progress was made in the first year of this program and all objectives for this initial 12-month period were achieved. The major conclusions and recommendations resulting for this effort are described below. The areas of interest covered include: radiosterilization of sewage; heating of septic tanks; and radioisotope thermoelectric generators as power sources for meteorological instruments and navigational aids. (TFD)

  12. From corridor to region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne; Jespersen, Per Homann


    The corridor between Oslo and Berlin is by the politicians of the regional authorities in the Scandinavian part of the corridor seen a region with unique qualities and a large innovation and growth potential. In order to explore and develop this potential an In-terreg project has been launched...... this task by applying principles of participative planning and with action research methodology are involving stakeholders in the process of defining, developing and disseminating the idea of the Corridor of Innovation and Cooperation - COINCO....

  13. Crystal Structure of the C-terminal Region of Streptococcus mutans Antigen I/II and Characterization of Salivary Agglutinin Adherence Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Matthew R.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Crowley, Paula J.; Kelly, Charles; Mitchell, Tim J.; Brady, L. Jeannine; Deivanayagam, Champion (King); (Cornell); (UAB); (Glasgow); (Florida)


    The Streptococcus mutans antigen I/II (AgI/II) is a cell surface-localized protein that adheres to salivary components and extracellular matrix molecules. Here we report the 2.5 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the complete C-terminal region of AgI/II. The C-terminal region is comprised of three major domains: C{sub 1}, C{sub 2}, and C{sub 3}. Each domain adopts a DE-variant IgG fold, with two {beta}-sheets whose A and F strands are linked through an intramolecular isopeptide bond. The adherence of the C-terminal AgI/II fragments to the putative tooth surface receptor salivary agglutinin (SAG), as monitored by surface plasmon resonance, indicated that the minimal region of binding was contained within the first and second DE-variant-IgG domains (C{sub 1} and C{sub 2}) of the C terminus. The minimal C-terminal region that could inhibit S. mutans adherence to SAG was also confirmed to be within the C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} domains. Competition experiments demonstrated that the C- and N-terminal regions of AgI/II adhere to distinct sites on SAG. A cleft formed at the intersection between these C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} domains bound glucose molecules from the cryo-protectant solution, revealing a putative binding site for its highly glycosylated receptor SAG. Finally, electron microscopy images confirmed the elongated structure of AgI/II and enabled building a composite tertiary model that encompasses its two distinct binding regions.

  14. Regional Geography is Dead. Long Live Regional Geography!

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Werner, M.


    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2006), s. 2-8 ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : regional geography * regions * geography * methodology * Ostrava region Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  15. The effect of ˜27 day solar rotation on ionospheric F2 region peak densities (NmF2) (United States)

    Ma, Ruiping; Xu, Jiyao; Wang, Wenbin; Lei, Jiuhou


    Ionospheric F2 region peak electron densities (NmF2) observed from 11 ionosonde stations in the East Asian-Australian sector from 1969 to 1986 have been used to investigate the effect of ˜27 day solar rotation on the ionosphere. These stations were located from the magnetically equatorial regions to the middle latitudes in both hemispheres. We found that, averaged over all stations and for 18 years, the normalized standard deviation of the midday ˜27 day variations of NmF2 was 8% and that of the midnight variations was 10%. We applied different data analysis methods, including Fourier transform, band-pass filter, and multiple linear regression analysis, to determine quantitatively the sources of the observed ˜27 day variations of NmF2 and their relative contributions to these variations. Our results show that the ˜27 day variations in solar radiation and geomagnetic activity, caused by solar rotation, are the main drivers of the ionospheric ˜27 day variations. They accounted for more than 85% of the variations seen in the NmF2 ˜27 day variation, and their contributions became about 95% at higher latitudes. At geomagnetically low latitudes, the contribution of the ˜27 day variation in solar EUV radiation was greater than that of the ˜27 day variation in geomagnetic activity. However, the contribution from geomagnetic activity became more significant and was even larger than the contribution of solar radiation at higher latitudes, especially at midnight. At all latitudes the correlation between the ˜27 day variations of NmF2 and solar radiation was evidently positive, whereas that between NmF2 and geomagnetic activity was positive at geomagnetically low latitudes and became negative at higher middle latitudes. We did not found large seasonal or solar cycle changes in the ˜27 day variations of NmF2. These variations, however, did show significant differences between the two hemispheres.

  16. H2 region detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, G.


    The now classical technique of detection of HII regions is by means of photography and/or interferometry through narrow-band interference filters, with a large aperture ratio of the imaging optics. It enables the detailed study of the spiral structure and the repartition of ionized gas in our Galaxy as well as in the external galaxies [fr

  17. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (United States)

    ... 40. It is uncommon in children and rare in the elderly. How is complex regional pain syndrome diagnosed? Your ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family ... Men Seniors In The News Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End- ...

  18. Intersection region I-2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Intersection region I-2 at the ISR showing the small-angle spectrometer at upper left and the large-angle rotating spectrometer on the right. The intersection is behind the wire spark chambers at the centre of the photo. The foil-covered housing appearing above the intersection is part of the "igloo" of the muon spectrometer.

  19. Aid for regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The issue of regional development has captured the attention of researchers long UMA, but some trends in contemporary economy and international division of labor, cooperation, integration and globalization bring it back to the forefront of current theoretical and methodological concerns. Especially the process of European integration requires comprehensive and pragmatic approach, realistic subject (2, 3, 4.

  20. Regional Population Dynamics (United States)

    Andrew Birt


    The population dynamics of the southern pine beetle (SPB) exhibit characteristic fluctuations between relatively long endemic and shorter outbreak periods. Populations exhibit complex and hierarchical spatial structure with beetles and larvae aggregating within individual trees, infestations with multiple infested trees, and regional outbreaks that comprise a large...

  1. Approaching Regional Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Shah, Ali; Kazmi, Atia

    The report contains ideas on enhanced cooperation on both security and economy. It is a particular relevant read for regional political decision makers, institutions, private companies, and researchers that wish to gain insight into the present and future political and economic developments...

  2. Regional native plant strategies (United States)

    Wendell G. Hassell


    Because of increasing public interest in native plants, regional groups have been cooperating to develop native species. The Federal Native Plants Initiative was formed in 1994 to coordinate and encourage the development and use of native plants. The program they developed includes public involvement, organizational structure, technical work groups, implementation...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The management of a regional customs directorate is analyzed. A new approach of the managerial system, in the European integration context, is presented. The customs system is one of the first “doors” to a new economic, social and cultural community. For

  4. Migration and regional inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Lianqing; Swider, Sarah


    rising, regional inequality has actually decreased, and most recently, remained stable. Our study suggests that China’s unique migratory regime is crucial to understanding these findings. We conduct a counterfactual simulation to demonstrate how migration and remittances have mitigated income inequality...

  5. Eastern Baltic Sea Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny Grandjean Gøgsig


    Kort over den østlige Østersøregion i middelalderen med angivelse af lokaliteter omtalt i antologien, placeret på s.8 i bogen "Church and Belief in the Middle Ages", red. Kirsi Salonen & Sari Katajala-Peltomaa (Amsterdam, 2016)....


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 2, 2004 ... It is recommended that deforestation and bush burning that will reduce vegetation cover and enhance evaporation from the soils should be checked through education of the citizens. Northern Region has vast areas of arable land which prospective farmers take advantage off. Such people cultivate the land ...

  7. Regionalizing global climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, A.J.; Arneth, A.; Ganzeveld, L.N.


    Global climate models simulate the Earth's climate impressively at scales of continents and greater. At these scales, large-scale dynamics and physics largely define the climate. At spatial scales relevant to policy makers, and to impacts and adaptation, many other processes may affect regional and

  8. State selective extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photoemission cross sections for excitation and ionization-excitation of helium in fast electron and positive ion collisions: Helg-bullet (1snp) 1Plg-bullet (n=2 to 10) and He+ (np) (n=2 to 10) Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigue, M.; Colegrove, T.; Bailey, M.


    We have analyzed high resolution (EUV) spectra of HeI and HeII originating from e - , H + , H 2 + and H 3 + bombardment of He gas. From these data excitation and ionization-excitation cross sections have been obtained by the HeI (1snp) 1 P o → (1s2) 1 S + hν and HeII (np) 2 P o -(1s) 2 S + hν Rydberg series with main quantum numbers from n=2 to 10, respectively. The determination of the individual line intensities has been accomplished using the IRAF one dimensional spectroscopy package installed on the Physics Department's HP9000 system. The cross sections for n≥4 presented here are reported for the first time. The up manifolds have been studied as a function of the projectile charge and velocity and number of scattering centers. Theoretically we have parametrized the cross sections in terms of first order, second order and interference contributions. We have also tested sum rules, by integrating over all np states. The dynamical Stark mixing among HeII ns and np states has also been investigated. A detailed discussion of the intensity distribution at high np states is presented for different means of excitation

  9. Regional Sediment Budgets for the Haleiwa Region, Oahu, Hawaii (United States)


    ERDC/CHL CHETN-XIV-38 June 2014 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Regional Sediment Budgets for the Haleiwa Region, Oahu ...regional sediment budgets (RSB) for the Haleiwa Region on the island of Oahu , Hawaii, as part of the Hawaii Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program...morphology and coastal processes have on sediment pathways and transport volumes. In the Southeast Oahu Region, Mokapu Point to Makapuu Point RSB

  10. Venus - Phoebe Region (United States)


    This Magellan radar image is of part of the Phoebe region of Venus. It is a mosaic of parts of revolutions 146 and 147 acquired in the first radar test on Aug. 16, 1990. The area in the image is located at 291 degrees east longitude, 19 degrees south latitude. The image shows an area 30 kilometers (19.6 miles) wide and 76 km (47 miles) long. On the basis of Pioneer Venus and Arecibo data, it is known that two major rift zones occur in southern Phoebe Regio and that they terminate at about 20 to 25 degrees south latitude, about 2,000 km (1,240 miles) apart. This image is of an area just north of the southern end of the western rift zone. The region is characterized by a complex geologic history involving both volcanism and faulting. Several of the geologic units show distinctive overlapping or cross cutting relationships that permit identification and separation of geologic events and construction of the geologic history of the region. The oldest rocks in this image form the complexly deformed and faulted, radar bright, hilly terrain in the northern half. Faults of a variety of orientations are observed. A narrow fault trough (about one-half to one km (three tenths to six tenths of a mile) wide is seen crossing the bright hills near the lower part in the middle of the image. This is one of the youngest faults in the faulted, hilly unit as it is seen to cut across many other structures. The fault trough in turn appears to be embayed and flooded by the darker plains that appear in the south half of the image. These plains are interpreted to be of volcanic origin. The dark plains may be formed of a complex of overlapping volcanic flows. For example, the somewhat darker region of plains in the lower left (southwest) corner of the image may be a different age series of plains forming volcanic lava flows. Finally, the narrow bright line crossing the image in its lower part is interpreted to be a fault which cross cuts both plains units and is thus the youngest event in

  11. Midwest regional management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paton, R.F.


    In response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the States of Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio and Wisconsin formed the Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact. One of the top priorities of the Compact Commission is the development of a comprehensive regional waste management plan. The plan consists of five major elements: (1) waste inventory; (2) waste stream projections; (3) analysis of waste management and disposal options; (4) development of a regional waste management system; and (5) selection of a host state(s) for future low-level waste facilities. When completed, the Midwest Management Plan will serve as the framework for future low-level radioactive waste management and disposal decisions

  12. Regional utvikling og partnerskap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, H.; Gjertsen, A.


    of the analytical framework, based primarily on contributions from traditions within policy analysis, network theory and the new institutionalism. The main body of the text examines the changing face of spatial economic policy in Denmark, dealing in turn with the development of policies and initiatives emanating......Since the beginning of the 1990s, Danish regional policy has changed dramatically. As of January 1991, all central government incentive schemes were terminated, and since then the main components of spatial economic policy have been a host of subnational initiatives and the European Structural...... of Danish regions to pursue their own agendas with regard to economic development, and explore the organizational strategies pursued by varies tiers of government in this process of rapid and profound policy change. The text is divided into three parts. The following section provides a brief outline...

  13. Banks, regions and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Alessandrini


    Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards the banking sectors in all the industrialised countries have been experiencing intense restructuring, aggregation and consolidation, radically changing their ownership structures and geography. Whatever the reasons behind such restructuring processes, the globalisation of the credit markets, the consolidation of banking structures, the removal of barriers to the free location of banks and their penetration of peripheral markets pose two main questions. Will integration of the banking systems lead to a narrowing or a widening of the development gap between regions? What relations will there be between financial centres and the periphery, and how will financial labour be divided between national (international banks and local (regional banks? The aim of this paper is to address such questions in the light of recent developments in the theoretical and empirical literature on financial integration.

  14. Active region seismology (United States)

    Bogdan, Tom; Braun, D. C.


    Active region seismology is concerned with the determination and interpretation of the interaction of the solar acoustic oscillations with near-surface target structures, such as magnetic flux concentration, sunspots, and plage. Recent observations made with a high spatial resolution and a long temporal duration enabled measurements of the scattering matrix for sunspots and solar active regions to be carried out as a function of the mode properties. Based on this information, the amount of p-mode absorption, partial-wave phase shift, and mode mixing introduced by the sunspot, could be determined. In addition, the possibility of detecting the presence of completely submerged magnetic fields was raised, and new procedures for performing acoustic holography of the solar interior are being developed. The accumulating evidence points to the mode conversion of p-modes to various magneto-atmospheric waves within the magnetic flux concentration as being the unifying physical mechanism responsible for these diverse phenomena.

  15. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    , culture, history, and natural resources. The insights of this thesis are believed to be vital for understanding why certain types of local entrepreneurship prevail in certain regions. This can further our knowledge of how to foster and enable entrepreneurship in lagging regions. In addition, this study...... reveals that rural entrepreneurship is about appreciating the local, exploiting resource endowments, and engendering community support. Rural context and rural code of conduct influence the extent to which entrepreneurial activities are localized as well as influence the type of value created...... influenced by such interactions? In approaching these questions, this dissertation focuses on why entrepreneurs act (the causes of entrepreneurship, anchored in the context), how they act (the entrepreneurial practices, action, and activities), and what happens when they act (the outcomes and impact...

  16. A region in turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proulx, M.U.; Nicolet, R.; Dufour, J.


    On July 19 and 20 of 1996, torrential rains provoked catastrophic floods in the Saguenay Region of Quebec. The overflowing waters of the region's rivers damaged 3000 residential buildings, completely destroyed another 426, and seriously affected the activities of 850 business establishments. In this comprehensive report, the physical causes and the social, economic, psychological, cultural, political and administrative consequences of this natural catastrophe are discussed by several experts. The report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the actual flooding conditions and the immediate response of local emergency services such as the Red Cross and the Saint-Vincent-de-Paul agencies. Reactions of the various public agencies and governments to the disaster are described in Part Two. Part Three of the document focuses on lessons to be drawn from this natural disaster, in particular the need to improve emergency relief strategies. The legal implications and consequences of the disaster are also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  17. Northwest Regional Climate Assessment (United States)

    Lipschultz, Fred


    Objectives are to establish a continuing, inclusive National process that: 1) synthesizes relevant science and information 2) increases understanding of what is known & not known 3) identifies information needs related to preparing for climate variability and change, and reducing climate impacts and vulnerability 4) evaluates progress of adaptation & mitigation activities 5) informs science priorities 6) builds assessment capacity in regions and sectors 7) builds understanding & skilled use of findings

  18. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.


    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  19. Entropy region and convolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matúš, František; Csirmaz, L.


    Roč. 62, č. 11 (2016), s. 6007-6018 ISSN 0018-9448 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : entropy region * information-theoretic inequality * polymatroid Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.679, year: 2016

  20. Region 9 Tribal Lands (United States)

    Dataset of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada) with some reservation border areas of adjacent states included (adjacent areas of Colorado, New Mexico and Utah). Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name are included with the feature dataset. Public Domain Allotments are not included in this data set.