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Sample records for angling commercial

  1. Investigation of digestion Kinetics in commercial starches using in-situ small-angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazek, Jaroslav; Gilbert, Elliot Paul

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The digestion of starch has been the subject of many investigations, mostly involving in vitro measurement of the susceptibility of starches to attack by different enzymes, rather than measuring actual digestibility in vivo. The rate and extent of amylolytic hydrolysis of granular starches is known to vary according to botanical origin. Granule characteristics considered to influence susceptibility to attack by alpha-amylase include crystallinity, granule size and available specific surface, amylose content, porosity, structural inhomogeneities and degree of integrity. Most in-vitro studies of granular starch digestion have been limited to samples for which aliquots have been removed from the reaction mixture at various time intervals and freeze-dried to be subsequently characterized using a range of techniques. It remains unclear whether sample preparation creates artefacts in the samples. In this study, we have studied the kinetics of starch digestion of several commercial granular starches by time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering using an in-situ digestion chamber allowing, for the first time, to follow structural changes of starch in the course of digestion directly in the digestion mixture. Additionally, samples before and after digestion were studied by x-ray diffraction, small-angle x-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and microscopy. Microscopy revealed that studied starches, which varied in their amylose content and digestion kinetics, followed different modes of attack The multidisciplinary approach allowed the nanostructural changes detected by small-angle scattering in the course of enzymic breakdown to be correlated with changes in crystallinity and functional properties.

  2. Anglų kalbos vartojimas ir kodų kaita Lietuvos televizijų reklamose. Use of English and code-mixing in TV commercials in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Vaicekauskienė

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the problem of language domain loss and sets out to examine the relationship between Lithuanian and English in TV commercials in Lithuania. The aim of the research is to determine the spread of English, together with the functions of English elements in the commercials and code-mixing. The data consists of a corpus of TV commercials recorded in 2003 and in 2009; in total, more than 1200 commercials, broadcasted during the most popular TV programs in one week each year. The analysis has shown that TV advertising as a domain of Lithuanian language use is not being lost and the situation hasn’t changed over the years. There are almost no only English commercials. Most of the commercials are a mix of Lithuanian and English codes, while English is mostly used in the product names. There are few English slogans and not much other information in English in the corpus. It turned out that there might be a special strategy for the localization of commercials in Lithuania. The oral form of the commercials is more Lithuanized than the written form. The slogans and the product names are presented in translation or explained in Lithuanian. At the same time, the written part of the commercials can have more information in English. Some English insertions most likely have a symbolic function to make an impression that the product advertised is valuable or modern. The use of English in commercials may have the purpose of communicating prestige and especially targeting at an audience with a high social status or young people.------ Straipsnyje keliama Lietuvoje iki šiol labai mažai tirta kalbos domenų praradimo problema ir analizuojami anglų ir lietuvių kalbų santykiai televizijos reklamoje. Tyrimo tikslas – nustatyti anglų kalbos vartojimo apimtis ir plitimą, angliškų elementų funkcijas bei kodų kaitos pobūdį. Medžiaga rinkta 2003 m. ir 2009 m., vieną savaitę įrašinėjant Lietuvos televizijų transliuojamų

  3. Scoliosis angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, T.

    1978-01-01

    The most commonly used methods of assessing the scoliotic deviation measure angles that are not clearly defined in relation to the anatomy of the patient. In order to give an anatomic basis for such measurements it is proposed to define the scoliotic deviation as the deviation the vertebral column makes with the sagittal plane. Both the Cobb and the Ferguson angles may be based on this definition. The present methods of measurement are then attempts to measure these angles. If the plane of these angles is parallel to the film, the measurement will be correct. Errors in the measurements may be incurred by the projection. A hypothetical projection, called a 'rectified orthogonal projection', is presented, which correctly represents all scoliotic angles in accordance with these principles. It can be constructed in practice with the aid of a computer and by performing measurements on two projections of the vertebral column; a scoliotic curve can be represented independent of the kyphosis and lordosis. (Auth.)

  4. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  5. Commercial Toilets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whether you are looking to reduce water use in a new facility or replace old, inefficient toilets in commercial restrooms, a WaterSense labeled flushometer-valve toilet is a high-performance, water-efficient option worth considering.

  6. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  7. The HBN Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Bhagvatiprasad Dave

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to establish a new cephalometric measurement, named the Harsh Bhagvatiprasad Nita angle (HBN, to assess the sagittal jaw relationship with accuracy and reproducibility. Materials and Methods: Three hundred pretreatment lateral cephalograms (100 each of Class I, II, and III were taken from the Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics of Rajasthan Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur (Rajasthan and were subdivided into skeletal Class I, II, and III based on ANB, Wits appraisal, and Beta angle. This angle uses 3 skeletal landmarks the "C" (apparent axis of the condyle, "M" (midpoint of the premaxilla, and "G" (center of the largest circle that is tangent to the internal inferior, anterior, and posterior surfaces of the mandibular symphysis. Results: The result of the mean and standard deviation for the HBN angle were calculated in all three skeletal groups. After using one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc multiple comparisons by using Tukey′s honestly significant difference, homogeneous subsets, receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve - to differentiate Class II with Class I, ROC curve - to differentiate Class III with Class I, Reliability analysis with interclass correlation of HBN angle with other angles, we obtained results that showed that a patient with a HBN angle 40° and 46° can be considered to have a Class I skeletal pattern. Conclusions: A new angle, the HBN angle, was developed as a diagnostic aid to evaluate the sagittal jaw relationship more consistently. HBN angle 40° and 46° can be considered to have a Class I skeletal pattern, a more acute HBN angle indicates a Class II skeletal pattern, and a more obtuse HBN angle indicates a Class III skeletal pattern.

  8. Reading Angles in Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

  9. Optimal reconstruction angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, G.O. Jr.; Knight, L.

    1979-07-01

    The question of optimal projection angles has recently become of interest in the field of reconstruction from projections. Here, studies are concentrated on the n x n pixel space, where literative algorithms such as ART and direct matrix techniques due to Katz are considered. The best angles are determined in a Gauss--Markov statistical sense as well as with respect to a function-theoretical error bound. The possibility of making photon intensity a function of angle is also examined. Finally, the best angles to use in an ART-like algorithm are studied. A certain set of unequally spaced angles was found to be preferred in several contexts. 15 figures, 6 tables

  10. Photoelectric angle converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podzharenko, Volodymyr A.; Kulakov, Pavlo I.

    2001-06-01

    The photo-electric angle transmitter of rotation is offered, at which the output voltage is linear function of entering magnitude. In a transmitter the linear phototransducer is used on the basis of pair photo diode -- operating amplifier, which output voltage is linear function of the area of an illuminated photosensitive stratum, and modulator of a light stream of the special shape, which ensures a linear dependence of this area from an angle of rotation. The transmitter has good frequent properties and can be used for dynamic measurements of an angular velocity and angle of rotation, in systems of exact drives and systems of autocontrol.

  11. Angles in hyperbolic lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Morten S.; Södergren, Carl Anders

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior of the den......It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior...... of the density function in both the small and large variable limits. This extends earlier results by Boca, Pasol, Popa and Zaharescu and Kelmer and Kontorovich in dimension 2 to general dimension n . Our proofs use the decay of matrix coefficients together with a number of careful estimates, and lead...

  12. Commercial applications of neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The fact that industry is now willing to pay the full commercial cost for certain neutron scattering experiments aimed at solving its urgent materials - related problems is a true testimony to the usefulness of neutrons as microscopic probes. This paper gives examples of such use of three techniques drawn mainly from our experience at AEA Technology Harwell Laboratory. These are diffraction to measure residual stress, small angle neutron scattering to examine hardening precipitates in ferritic steels brought about by irradiation, and reflectivity to study amorphous diamond layers deposited on silicon. In most cases it is the penetrative power of the neutron which proves to be its best asset for commercial industrial applicaitons. (author)

  13. Commercial LANDSAT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Private industry should assume responsibility either for the United States' land satellite (LANDSAT) system or for both the land and the weather satellite systems, recommends the Land Remote Sensing Satellite Advisory Committee. The committee (Eos, June 29, 1982, p. 553), composed of representatives from academia, industry, and government, has a working group that is evaluating the potential for commercialization of remote sensing satellites.The recommendations call for industry ownership or operation of either or both of the remote sensing systems, but only up to and including the holding of raw, unprocessed data. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) currently operates LANDSAT but will be relinquishing its responsibility to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) on January 31. NOAA already operates the U.S. civilian weather satellite service, which includes the NOAA-5, NOAA-6, and the Geostationary Operational Environmental (GOES) satellites (Eos, June 2, 1981, p. 522).

  14. open angle glaucoma (poag)?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    there is a build up of pressure due to poor outflow of aqueous humor. The outflow obstruction could occur at the trabecular meshwork of the anterior chamber angle or subsequently in the episcleral vein due to raised venous pressure. Such build up of pressure results in glaucoma . Elevated intraocular pressure remains the ...

  15. The quadriceps angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Frederiksen, Jane V.; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2012-01-01

    : Pelvic limbs from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). METHODS: Q angles were measured on hip dysplasia (HD) and whole limb (WL) view radiographs of each limb between the acetabular rim, mid-point (Q1: patellar center, Q2: femoral trochlea), and tibial tuberosity. Errors of 0.5-2.0 mm at measurement landmarks...

  16. At Right Angles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 9. At Right Angles. Shailesh A Shirali. Information and Announcements Volume 17 Issue 9 September 2012 pp 920-920. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/09/0920-0920 ...

  17. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a validation study of a previously published method of sex determination from the temporal bone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lateral angle method for the internal acoustic canal for accurately determining the sex of human skeletal remains usi...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology....

  18. Small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sanjay

    1982-01-01

    The technique of small angle neutron scattering was first used in Germany less than two decades ago. Since then it has developed very rapidly, and today it is regarded as one of the most powerful techniques in materials, chemical and biological research. During the last decade the combination of high flux reactors and sophisticated instrumentation has revolutionized the technique. This paper endeavours to present a brief but comprehensive review of small angle scattering of neutrons and its applications in solid state research. The domain in which small angle neutron scattering is particularly useful is delineated and some of the methods used in the analysis of data are discussed with special emphasis on recent developments. Typical small angle neutron scattering cameras are described. Finally some experimental results on heterogeneities in metallic systems (both static and dynamic studies), radiation damage in materials, superconductivity, magnetic materials and the technologically very important area of non-destructive testing are reviewed in order to illustrate the wide range of applicability of this technique to problems in solid state research. (author)

  19. Neutron small angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibel, K.

    1975-01-01

    The neutron small-angle scattering system at the High-Flux Reactor in Grenoble consists of three major parts: the supply of cold neutrons via bent neutron guides; the small angle camera D11; and the data handling facilities. The camera D11 has an overall length of 80 m. The effective length of the camera is variable. The length of the collimator before the fixed sample position can be reduced by movable neutron guides; the secondary flight path of 40 m full length contains detector sites in various positions. Thus, a large domain of momentum transfers can be exploited. Scattering angles between 5.10 -4 and 0.5 rad and neutron wavelengths from 0.2 to 2.0 nm are available with the same instrument and the same relative resolution. A large-area position-sensitive detector is used which allows simultaneous recording of intensities scattered into different angles; it is a multiwire proportional chamber. 3808 elements of 1 cm 2 are arranged in a two-dimensional matrix. Future development comprises an increase of the limit in the count rate due to the electronic interface between the detector and on-line computer, actually at 5.10 4 per sec. by one order of magnitude

  20. At Right Angles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 9. At Right Angles. Shailesh A Shirali. Information and Announcements Volume 17 Issue 9 September 2012 pp 920-920. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/09/0920-0920 ...

  1. Commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  2. Relationship between the angle of repose and angle of internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Click on the link to view the abstract. Keywords: Angle of repose, angle of internal friction, granular materials, triaxial compression machine, moisture content. Tanzania J. Agric. Sc. (1998) Vol.1 No.2, 187-194 ...

  3. Camber Angle Inspection for Vehicle Wheel Alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jieh-Shian; Hsu, Hong-Yi; Chuang, Chih-Yuan

    2017-02-03

    This paper introduces an alternative approach to the camber angle measurement for vehicle wheel alignment. Instead of current commercial approaches that apply computation vision techniques, this study aims at realizing a micro-control-unit (MCU)-based camber inspection system with a 3-axis accelerometer. We analyze the precision of the inspection system for the axis misalignments of the accelerometer. The results show that the axes of the accelerometer can be aligned to the axes of the camber inspection system imperfectly. The calibrations that can amend these axis misalignments between the camber inspection system and the accelerometer are also originally proposed since misalignments will usually happen in fabrications of the inspection systems. During camber angle measurements, the x -axis or z -axis of the camber inspection system and the wheel need not be perfectly aligned in the proposed approach. We accomplished two typical authentic camber angle measurements. The results show that the proposed approach is applicable with a precision of ± 0.015 ∘ and therefore facilitates the camber measurement process without downgrading the precision by employing an appropriate 3-axis accelerometer. In addition, the measured results of camber angles can be transmitted via the medium such as RS232, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi.

  4. Camber Angle Inspection for Vehicle Wheel Alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieh-Shian Young

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an alternative approach to the camber angle measurement for vehicle wheel alignment. Instead of current commercial approaches that apply computation vision techniques, this study aims at realizing a micro-control-unit (MCU-based camber inspection system with a 3-axis accelerometer. We analyze the precision of the inspection system for the axis misalignments of the accelerometer. The results show that the axes of the accelerometer can be aligned to the axes of the camber inspection system imperfectly. The calibrations that can amend these axis misalignments between the camber inspection system and the accelerometer are also originally proposed since misalignments will usually happen in fabrications of the inspection systems. During camber angle measurements, the x-axis or z-axis of the camber inspection system and the wheel need not be perfectly aligned in the proposed approach. We accomplished two typical authentic camber angle measurements. The results show that the proposed approach is applicable with a precision of ± 0.015 ∘ and therefore facilitates the camber measurement process without downgrading the precision by employing an appropriate 3-axis accelerometer. In addition, the measured results of camber angles can be transmitted via the medium such as RS232, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi.

  5. Contact angle measurement with a smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Muros-Cobos, Jesus L.; Amirfazli, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a smartphone-based contact angle measurement instrument was developed. Compared with the traditional measurement instruments, this instrument has the advantage of simplicity, compact size, and portability. An automatic contact point detection algorithm was developed to allow the instrument to correctly detect the drop contact points. Two different contact angle calculation methods, Young-Laplace and polynomial fitting methods, were implemented in this instrument. The performance of this instrument was tested first with ideal synthetic drop profiles. It was shown that the accuracy of the new system with ideal synthetic drop profiles can reach 0.01% with both Young-Laplace and polynomial fitting methods. Conducting experiments to measure both static and dynamic (advancing and receding) contact angles with the developed instrument, we found that the smartphone-based instrument can provide accurate and practical measurement results as the traditional commercial instruments. The successful demonstration of use of a smartphone (mobile phone) to conduct contact angle measurement is a significant advancement in the field as it breaks the dominate mold of use of a computer and a bench bound setup for such systems since their appearance in 1980s.

  6. Contact angle measurement with a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Muros-Cobos, Jesus L; Amirfazli, A

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a smartphone-based contact angle measurement instrument was developed. Compared with the traditional measurement instruments, this instrument has the advantage of simplicity, compact size, and portability. An automatic contact point detection algorithm was developed to allow the instrument to correctly detect the drop contact points. Two different contact angle calculation methods, Young-Laplace and polynomial fitting methods, were implemented in this instrument. The performance of this instrument was tested first with ideal synthetic drop profiles. It was shown that the accuracy of the new system with ideal synthetic drop profiles can reach 0.01% with both Young-Laplace and polynomial fitting methods. Conducting experiments to measure both static and dynamic (advancing and receding) contact angles with the developed instrument, we found that the smartphone-based instrument can provide accurate and practical measurement results as the traditional commercial instruments. The successful demonstration of use of a smartphone (mobile phone) to conduct contact angle measurement is a significant advancement in the field as it breaks the dominate mold of use of a computer and a bench bound setup for such systems since their appearance in 1980s.

  7. Critical angle laser refractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castrejon-Pita, J.R.; Morales, A.; Castrejon-Garcia, R.

    2006-01-01

    A simple laser refractometer based on the detection of the critical angle for liquids is presented. The calibrated refractometer presents up to 0.000 11 of uncertainty when the refractive index is in the range between 1.300 00 and 1.340 00. The experimental setup is easy to construct and the material needed is available at most optics laboratories. The calibration method is simple and can be used in other devices. The refractive index measurements in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride were carried out to test the device and a linear dependence between the refractive index and the salt concentration was found

  8. Scaling of misorientation angle distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, D.A.; Chrzan, D.C.; Liu, Q.

    1998-01-01

    The measurement of misorientation angle distributions following different amounts of deformation in cold-rolled aluminum and nickel and compressed stainless steel is reported. The sealing of the dislocation cell boundary misorientation angle distributions is studied. Surprisingly, the distributio...

  9. Angle performance on optima MDxt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Jonathan; Kamenitsa, Dennis [Axcelis Technologies, Inc., 108 Cherry Hill Dr, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

    2012-11-06

    Angle control on medium current implanters is important due to the high angle-sensitivity of typical medium current implants, such as halo implants. On the Optima MDxt, beam-to-wafer angles are controlled in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In the horizontal direction, the beam angle is measured through six narrow slits, and any angle adjustment is made by electrostatically steering the beam, while cross-wafer beam parallelism is adjusted by changing the focus of the electrostatic parallelizing lens (P-lens). In the vertical direction, the beam angle is measured through a high aspect ratio mask, and any angle adjustment is made by slightly tilting the wafer platen prior to implant. A variety of tests were run to measure the accuracy and repeatability of Optima MDxt's angle control. SIMS profiles of a high energy, channeling sensitive condition show both the cross-wafer angle uniformity, along with the small-angle resolution of the system. Angle repeatability was quantified by running a channeling sensitive implant as a regular monitor over a seven month period and measuring the sheet resistance-to-angle sensitivity. Even though crystal cut error was not controlled for in this case, when attributing all Rs variation to angle changes, the overall angle repeatability was measured as 0.16 Degree-Sign (1{sigma}). A separate angle repeatability test involved running a series of V-curves tests over a four month period using low crystal cut wafers selected from the same boule. The results of this test showed the angle repeatability to be <0.1 Degree-Sign (1{sigma}).

  10. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.K.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with 13 C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system

  11. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Kyo [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with 13C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system.

  12. Small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasannacharya, B.A.; Goyal, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is one of the most popular neutron scattering technique both for the basic research and as a tool in the hands of applied scientist. SANS is used for studying the structure of a material on a length scale of 10 - 1000 A. SANS is a diffraction experiment that involves scattering of a monocromatic beam of neutrons in order to obtain structural information about macromolecules and heterogeneities. This paper will discuss the design of SANS spectrometers with a special emphasis on the instruments which are better suited for medium flux reactors. The design of several different types of SANS spectrometers will be given. The optimization procedures and appropriate modifications to suit the budget and the space will be discussed. As an example, the design of a SANS spectrometer at CIRUS reactor Trombay will be given. (author)

  13. Small angle neutron scattering study on the aggregation behaviour ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on aqueous solutions of four polyethylene oxide–polypropylene oxide–polyethylene oxide block copolymers (commercially known as Pluronic®)F88, P85, F127 and P123 in the presence of hydrophobic C14Diol (also known as Surfynol® 104) reveal information on ...

  14. Generalization of the Euler Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Shuster, Malcolm D.; Markley, F. Landis

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the Euler angles can be generalized to axes other than members of an orthonormal triad. As first shown by Davenport, the three generalized Euler axes, hereafter: Davenport axes, must still satisfy the constraint that the first two and the last two axes be mutually perpendicular if these axes are to define a universal set of attitude parameters. Expressions are given which relate the generalized Euler angles, hereafter: Davenport angles, to the 3-1-3 Euler angles of an associated direction-cosine matrix. The computation of the Davenport angles from the attitude matrix and their kinematic equation are presented. The present work offers a more direct development of the Davenport angles than Davenport's original publication and offers additional results.

  15. Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuefer, Martin [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Bailey, J. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) takes 9- to 37-micron resolution stereographic photographs of free-falling hydrometers from three angles, while simultaneously measuring their fall speed. Information about hydrometeor size, shape orientation, and aspect ratio is derived from MASC photographs. The instrument consists of three commercial cameras separated by angles of 36º. Each camera field of view is aligned to have a common single focus point about 10 cm distant from the cameras. Two near-infrared emitter pairs are aligned with the camera’s field of view within a 10-angular ring and detect hydrometeor passage, with the lower emitters configured to trigger the MASC cameras. The sensitive IR motion sensors are designed to filter out slow variations in ambient light. Fall speed is derived from successive triggers along the fall path. The camera exposure times are extremely short, in the range of 1/25,000th of a second, enabling the MASC to capture snowflake sizes ranging from 30 micrometers to 3 cm.

  16. Off-Angle Iris Correction Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph T [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In many real world iris recognition systems obtaining consistent frontal images is problematic do to inexperienced or uncooperative users, untrained operators, or distracting environments. As a result many collected images are unusable by modern iris matchers. In this chapter we present four methods for correcting off-angle iris images to appear frontal which makes them compatible with existing iris matchers. The methods include an affine correction, a retraced model of the human eye, measured displacements, and a genetic algorithm optimized correction. The affine correction represents a simple way to create an iris image that appears frontal but it does not account for refractive distortions of the cornea. The other method account for refraction. The retraced model simulates the optical properties of the cornea. The other two methods are data driven. The first uses optical flow to measure the displacements of the iris texture when compared to frontal images of the same subject. The second uses a genetic algorithm to learn a mapping that optimizes the Hamming Distance scores between off-angle and frontal images. In this paper we hypothesize that the biological model presented in our earlier work does not adequately account for all variations in eye anatomy and therefore the two data-driven approaches should yield better performance. Results are presented using the commercial VeriEye matcher that show that the genetic algorithm method clearly improves over prior work and makes iris recognition possible up to 50 degrees off-angle.

  17. Angle Performance on Optima XE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Jonathan; Satoh, Shu

    2011-01-01

    Angle control on high energy implanters is important due to shrinking device dimensions, and sensitivity to channeling at high beam energies. On Optima XE, beam-to-wafer angles are controlled in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In the horizontal direction, the beam angle is measured through a series of narrow slits, and any angle adjustment is made by steering the beam with the corrector magnet. In the vertical direction, the beam angle is measured through a high aspect ratio mask, and any angle adjustment is made by slightly tilting the wafer platen during implant.Using a sensitive channeling condition, we were able to quantify the angle repeatability of Optima XE. By quantifying the sheet resistance sensitivity to both horizontal and vertical angle variation, the total angle variation was calculated as 0.04 deg. (1σ). Implants were run over a five week period, with all of the wafers selected from a single boule, in order to control for any crystal cut variation.

  18. Relationship between the Angle of Repose and Angle of Internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ghum and rice. The angles have a big influence on the design offlow and storage structures of ... the angles of internal friction for the same grains and same moisture contents. The data ob- tained were fed into SAS statistical software for step-wise regression analysis. A model of the ..... tion, Application and Validation of En-.

  19. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  20. Ultra small angle neutron scattering from superconducting filament structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amenitsch, H.

    1999-01-01

    With a perfect crystal camera, ultra small-angle scattering measurements were performed to investigate the internal diffusion process of tin inside a superconducting multi-filament wire caused by a temperature treatment. Commercially available Nb 3 Sn superconducting multi-filament wires were treated at 700 C with varying ageing times up to 144 h. A theoretical model taking into account the geometrical form, the size distribution, the interference term and the multiple scattering has been developed to understand and to describe the small angle diffraction pattern. Additionally, the diffusion of H and D into the filament wires was used to vary the scattering length density inside the wires. The results show a direct relationship between the different technological treatments and the characteristic small-angle scattering parameters, like Guinier radius and small-angle scattering probability. (orig.) [de

  1. Measurement of the angle gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.; Sphicas, P.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA

    1993-12-01

    The angle γ as defined in the Wolfenstein approximation is not completely out of reach of current or proposed dedicated B experiments. This work represents but a first step in the direction of extracting the third angle of the unitarity triangle by study the feasibility of using new decay modes in a hadronic machine. (A.B.). 11 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  2. Nucleation of small angle boundaries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The internal stresses induced by the strain gradients in an array of lattice cells delineated by low-angle dislocation boundaries are partially relieved by the creation of new low-angle boundaries. This is shown to be a first-order transition...

  3. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  4. On commercial media bias

    OpenAIRE

    Germano, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    Within the spokes model of Chen and Riordan (2007) that allows for non-localized competition among arbitrary numbers of media outlets, we quantify the effect of concentration of ownership on quality and bias of media content. A main result shows that too few commercial outlets, or better, too few separate owners of commercial outlets can lead to substantial bias in equilibrium. Increasing the number of outlets (commercial and non-commercial) tends to bring down this bias; but the strongest ef...

  5. Commercialization in Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Ritter, Thomas; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    For any firm, the ultimate purpose of new product development is the commercialization of the new offerings. Despite its regular use in the product innovation and general management science literature, commercialization is only loosely defined and applied. This lack of conceptual clarity about...... definitions and interpretations of commercialization. We offer a process-oriented definition of commercialization that is theoretically founded in the capability-based view of the firm. We also outline an agenda for future theoretical development and empirical research on commercialization aimed at advancing...

  6. Observations at large zenith angles

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeder, F

    2000-01-01

    Cherenkov telescope observations at zenith angles >70 deg. are capable of providing large collection areas for high energy gamma-induced air showers. In order to provide a full Monte Carlo simulation of the large zenith angle observations the air shower simulation code CORSIKA was modified to treat particles in a curved geometry. First results of studies with the stand alone telescope HEGRA CT1 are presented.

  7. Effects of slant angle and illumination angle on MTF estimations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vhengani, LM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available angle d(?) was not constant. It was also noted that the iris of the imaging system was in most cases adjusted during initial setups of each measurements. After each measurement, the knife-edge target was replaced with the ISO 12233 MTF target (shown....085 0.09 0.095 K:\\Working Folder\\Project_On_orbit MTF\\edgetargets\\MTF_Lab_Measurements _20120302_Edge Slant Angle (degrees) Ny qu ist MT F (c yc le/p ixe l) Data Regression -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0.05 0.055 0.06 0...

  8. Surface tension and contact angles of molten cadmium telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, R.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1990-01-01

    The surface tension and contact angle of molten cadmium telluride (CdTe) were measured as a function of temperature by the sessile drop technique. A FORTRAN code was developed to calculate the surface tension of sessile drops, with the contact angle ranging from O to 180°. The wetting of cadmium telluride melt was studied on different surfaces. The surface tension of cadmium telluride was about 160 ±5 dynes · cm-1[1.6 m-1] at the melting point of 1093°C. The contact angle of CdTe melt was about 65° on a quartz optical flat, 75° on commercial fused quartz, and 125° on boron nitride coated quartz.

  9. Bioinspired Surface Treatments for Improved Decontamination: Commercial Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-28

    with scientists in academia and industry was used to identify technologies that offered potentially useful characteristics. This report details...were identified through interaction with academic and industrial scientists familiar with the technologies and with the goals of this ongoing effort...produce the same changes to contact angle as the commercial coatings, it does increase the water contact angle and that for heptane. In fact , this

  10. Frequency scaling for angle gathers

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A H

    2014-01-01

    Angle gathers provide an extra dimension to analyze the velocity after migration. Space-shift and time shift-imaging conditions are two methods used to obtain angle gathers, but both are reasonably expensive. By scaling the time-lag axis of the time-shifted images, the computational cost of the time shift imaging condition can be considerably reduced. In imaging and more so Full waveform inversion, frequencydomain Helmholtz solvers are used more often to solve for the wavefields than conventional time domain extrapolators. In such cases, we do not need to extend the image, instead we scale the frequency axis of the frequency domain image to obtain the angle gathers more efficiently. Application on synthetic data demonstrate such features.

  11. Temperature dependence of Brewster's angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a dielectric at a finite temperature is modeled as an ensemble of identical atoms moving randomly around where they are trapped. Light reflection from the dielectric is then discussed in terms of atomic radiation. Specific calculation demonstrates that because of the atoms' thermal motion, Brewster's angle is, in principle, temperature-dependent, and the dependence is weak in the low-temperature limit. What is also found is that the Brewster's angle is nothing but a result of destructive superposition of electromagnetic radiation from the atoms.

  12. Angle independent velocity spectrum determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasound imaging system (100) includes a transducer array (102) that emits an ultrasound beam and produces at least one transverse pulse-echo field that oscillates in a direction transverse to the emitted ultrasound beam and that receive echoes produced in response thereto and a spectral vel...... velocity estimator (110) that determines a velocity spectrum for flowing structure, which flows at an angle of 90 degrees and flows at angles less than 90 degrees with respect to the emitted ultrasound beam, based on the received echoes....

  13. Tiny incident light angle sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrenga, D.; Schädel, M.; Winzer, A. T.; Völlmeke, S.; Preuß, K. D.; Freitag, J.; Brodersen, O.

    2017-05-01

    A novel device for detecting the intensity and the angles of incoming light is presented. The silicon chip with 1 mm edge length comprises a segmented photo diode with four active areas within the inclined surfaces of a deep etched cavity. Simple signal difference analysis of these signals allow for accurate azimuth and inclination measurement in the range of 0 to 360° and 0 to 55°, respectively. Using an artificial neural network (ANN) calibration strategy the operation range of inclination can be increased up to 85° with typical angle errors below 2°. In this report we present details on design, fabrication, signal analysis and calibration strategies.

  14. Commercialism in Intercollegiate Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the history of intercollegiate athletics and the evolution of commercialization in college sports, particularly through television. Argues that few Division I programs could be self-sufficient; the issue is the degree to which sports are commercialized for revenue, and the challenge to balance schools' needs, private sector interests, and…

  15. Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin

    2001-01-01

    During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

  16. A Hitch Angle Measurement Device

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Von

    1998-01-01

    As part of a project to demonstrate that an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) could remotely back up with a trailer, a simple proof-of-concept device was designed to measure the angle between a high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV...

  17. Recycling Sounds in Commercials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte Rørdam

    2012-01-01

    remained the same for 70 years. Together these identifiers make OMA an interesting Danish case to study. With reference to Ann Rigney’s memorial practices or mechanisms, the study aims to demonstrate how the auditory aspects of Danish margarine commercials for frying tend to be limited in variety......Commercials offer the opportunity for intergenerational memory and impinge on cultural memory. TV commercials for foodstuffs often make reference to past times as a way of authenticating products. This is frequently achieved using visual cues, but in this paper I would like to demonstrate how...

  18. Measurement of the angle gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.; Kayser, B.; Sphicas, P.

    1993-01-01

    The angle γ at least as defined in the Wolfenstein approximation is not completely out of reach of current or proposed dedicated B experiments. This conclusion certainly depends crucially on the assumed trigger and tagging efficiencies and also on the expected backgrounds. The work summarized here represents but a first step in the direction of extracting the third angle of the unitarity triangle. The theoretical developments during the workshop have resulted in a clearer understanding of the quantities studied. On the experimental side, new decay modes (i.e. in addition to the traditional ρK s decay) have resulted in expections for observing CP violation in B s decays which are not unreasonable. It is conceivable that a dedicated B experiment can probe a fundamental aspect of the Standard Model, the CKM matrix, in multiple ways. In the process, new physics can appear anywhere along the line

  19. Contact angles on stretched solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Liz; Snoeijer, Jacco

    2017-11-01

    The surface energy of solid interfaces plays a central role in wetting, as they dictate the liquid contact angle. Yet, it has been challenging to measure the solid surface energies independently, without making use of Young's law. Here we present Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations by which we measure the surface properties for all interfaces, including the solids. We observe change in contact angles upon stretching the solid substrates, showing that the surface energy is actually strain dependent. This is clear evidence of the so-called Shuttleworth effect, making it necessary to distinguish surface energy from surface tension. We discuss how this effect gives rise to a new class of elasto-capillary phenomena. ERC Consolidator Grant No. 616918.

  20. Commercial Landing System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fisheries Statistics Division of the NOAA Fisheries has automated data summary programs that anyone can use to rapidly and easily summarize U.S. commercial...

  1. Commercial Manure Applicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This layer represents the office location for Commercial Manure Services (CMS). They transport, handle, store or apply manure for a fee. The company must be licensed...

  2. NASA commercial programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Highlights of NASA-sponsored and assisted commercial space activities of 1989 are presented. Industrial R and D in space, centers for the commercial development of space, and new cooperative agreements are addressed in the U.S. private sector in space section. In the building U.S. competitiveness through technology section, the following topics are presented: (1) technology utilization as a national priority; (2) an exploration of benefits; and (3) honoring Apollo-Era spinoffs. International and domestic R and D trends, and the space sector are discussed in the section on selected economic indicators. Other subjects included in this report are: (1) small business innovation; (2) budget highlights and trends; (3) commercial programs management; and (4) the commercial programs advisory committee.

  3. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...

  4. EFFECTS OF COMMERCIAL CONTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Maria Florea; Constantin Giurca

    2014-01-01

    The contract is a legal instrument used to organize economic and social life. International trade agreement has certain features in order to ensure the international exchange of goods and services between the Contracting Parties. In terms of commercial contract, there is a foreign origin element, that gives the parties the right to determine the law to govern the contract. A fundamental aspect of commercial contract, in addition to that of determining the law applicable to judicial report est...

  5. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  6. LHC Report: playing with angles

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC team

    2016-01-01

    Ready (after a machine development period), steady (running), go (for a special run)!   The crossing angles are an essential feature of the machine set-up. They have to be big enough to reduce the long-range beam-beam effect. The LHC has recently enjoyed a period of steady running and managed to set a new record for “Maximum Stable Luminosity Delivered in 7 days” of 3.29 fb-1 between 29 August and 4 September. The number of bunches per beam remains pegged at 2220 because of the limitations imposed by the SPS beam dump. The bunch population is also somewhat reduced due to outgassing near one of the injection kickers at point 8. Both limitations will be addressed during the year-end technical stop, opening the way for increased performance in 2017. On 10 and 11 September, a two day machine development (MD) period took place. The MD programme included a look at the possibility of reducing the crossing angle at the high-luminosity interaction points. The crossing angles are an ess...

  7. Ocular biometry in angle closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghinejad, Mohammad Reza; Banifatemi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    To compare ocular biometric parameters in primary angle closure suspects (PACS), primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and acute primary angle closure (APAC). This cross-sectional study was performed on 113 patients including 33 cases of PACS, 45 patients with PACG and 35 subjects with APAC. Central corneal thickness (CCT), axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and lens thickness (LT) were measured with an ultrasonic biometer. Lens-axial length factor (LAF), relative lens position, corrected ACD (CACD) and corrected lens position were calculated. The parameters were measured bilaterally but only data from the right eyes were compared. In the APAC group, biometric parameters were also compared between affected and unaffected fellow eyes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors. No statistically significant difference was observed in biometric parameters between PACS and PACG eyes, or between affected and fellow eyes in the APAC group (P>0.05 for all comparisons). However, eyes with APAC had thicker cornea (P=0.001), thicker lens (PAPAC. In the APAC group, LAF (PAPAC.

  8. Light Scattering at Various Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Paul; Pyle, B. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Mie theory of scattering is used to provide new information on how changes in particle volume, with no change in dry weight, should influence light scattering for various scattering angles and particle sizes. Many biological cells (e.g., algal cells, erythrocytes) and large subcellular structures (e.g., chloroplasts, mitochondria) in suspension undergo this type of reversible volume change, a change which is related to changes in the rates of cellular processes. A previous study examined the effects of such volume changes on total scattering. In this paper scattering at 10° is found to follow total scattering closely, but scattering at 45°, 90°, 135°, and 170° behaves differently. Small volume changes can cause very large observable changes in large angle scattering if the sample particles are uniform in size; however, the natural particle size heterogeneity of most samples would mask this effect. For heterogeneous samples of most particle size ranges, particle shrink-age is found to increase large angle scattering. PMID:4556610

  9. Angle comparison using an autocollimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geckeler, Ralf D.; Just, Andreas; Vasilev, Valentin; Prieto, Emilio; Dvorácek, František; Zelenika, Slobodan; Przybylska, Joanna; Duta, Alexandru; Victorov, Ilya; Pisani, Marco; Saraiva, Fernanda; Salgado, Jose-Antonio; Gao, Sitian; Anusorn, Tonmueanwai; Leng Tan, Siew; Cox, Peter; Watanabe, Tsukasa; Lewis, Andrew; Chaudhary, K. P.; Thalmann, Ruedi; Banreti, Edit; Nurul, Alfiyati; Fira, Roman; Yandayan, Tanfer; Chekirda, Konstantin; Bergmans, Rob; Lassila, Antti

    2018-01-01

    Autocollimators are versatile optical devices for the contactless measurement of the tilt angles of reflecting surfaces. An international key comparison (KC) on autocollimator calibration, EURAMET.L-K3.2009, was initiated by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET) to provide information on the capabilities in this field. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) acted as the pilot laboratory, with a total of 25 international participants from EURAMET and from the Asia Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP) providing measurements. This KC was the first one to utilise a high-resolution electronic autocollimator as a standard. In contrast to KCs in angle metrology which usually involve the full plane angle, it focused on relatively small angular ranges (+/-10 arcsec and +/-1000 arcsec) and step sizes (10 arcsec and 0.1 arcsec, respectively). This document represents the approved final report on the results of the KC. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  10. Commercialization of animal biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, D C; Molina, J A; Ohlrichs, C L; Vander Zwaag, D F; Ferré, L B

    2003-01-01

    Commercialization of animal biotechnology is a wide-ranging topic for discussion. In this paper, we will attempt to review embryo transfer (ET) and related technologies that relate to food-producing mammals. A brief review of the history of advances in biotechnology will provide a glimpse to present and future applications. Commercialization of animal biotechnology is presently taking two pathways. The first application involves the use of animals for biomedical purposes. Very few companies have developed all of the core competencies and intellectual properties to complete the bridge from lab bench to product. The second pathway of application is for the production of animals used for food. Artificial insemination (AI), embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization (IVF), cloning, transgenics, and genomics all are components of the toolbox for present and future applications. Individually, these are powerful tools capable of providing significant improvements in productivity. Combinations of these technologies coupled with information systems and data analysis, will provide even more significant change in the next decade. Any strategies for the commercial application of animal biotechnology must include a careful review of regulatory and social concerns. Careful review of industry infrastructure is also important. Our colleagues in plant biotechnology have helped highlight some of these pitfalls and provide us with a retrospective review. In summary, today we have core competencies that provide a wealth of opportunities for the members of this society, commercial companies, producers, and the general population. Successful commercialization will benefit all of the above stakeholders. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  11. Ocular Biometry in Angle Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Razeghinejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare ocular biometric parameters in primary angle closure suspects (PACS, primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG and acute primary angle closure (APAC. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 113 patients including 33 cases of PACS, 45 patients with PACG and 35 subjects with APAC. Central corneal thickness (CCT, axial length (AL, anterior chamber depth (ACD and lens thickness (LT were measured with an ultrasonic biometer. Lens-axial length factor (LAF, relative lens position, corrected ACD (CACD and corrected lens position were calculated. The parameters were measured bilaterally but only data from the right eyes were compared. In the APAC group, biometric parameters were also compared between affected and unaffected fellow eyes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed in biometric parameters between PACS and PACG eyes, or between affected and fellow eyes in the APAC group (P>0.05 for all comparisons. However, eyes with APAC had thicker cornea (P=0.001, thicker lens (P<0.0001, shallower ACD (P=0.009, shallower CACD (P=0.003 and larger LAF (P<0.0001. Based on ROC curve analysis, lower ACD, and larger LT, LAF and CCT values were associated with APAC. In the APAC group, LAF (P<0.0001 and CCT (P=0.001 were significant risk factors. Conclusion: This study revealed no significant difference in biometric characteristics in eyes with PACS and PACG. However, larger LAF and CCT were predictive of APAC.

  12. Small angle scattering and polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, J.P. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB) - Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1996-12-31

    The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs.

  13. Commercial Conspiracy Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eFurnham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to categorise conspiracy theories. In the present study, we examined individual and demographic predictors of beliefs in commercial conspiracy theories among a British sample of over 300 women and men. Results showed people were cynical and sceptical with regard to advertising tricks, as well as the tactics of organisations like banks and alcohol, drug and tobacco companies. Beliefs sorted into four identifiable clusters, labelled sneakiness, manipulative, change-the-rules and suppression/prevention. The high alpha for the overall scale suggested general beliefs in commercial conspiracy. Regressions suggested that those people who were less religious, more left-wing, more pessimistic, less (self-defined as wealthy, less Neurotic and less Open-to-Experience believed there was more commercial conspiracy. Overall the individual difference variables explained relatively little of the variance in these beliefs.The implications of these findings for the literature on conspiracy theories are discussed.

  14. Vacuum variable-angle far-infrared ellipsometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friš, Pavel; Dubroka, Adam

    2017-11-01

    We present the design and performance of a vacuum far-infrared (∼50-680 cm-1) ellipsometer with a rotating analyser. The system is based on a Fourier transform spectrometer, an in-house built ellipsometer chamber and a closed-cycle bolometer. The ellipsometer chamber is equipped with a computer controlled θ-2θ goniometer for automated measurements at various angles of incidence. We compare our measurements on SrTiO3 crystal with the results acquired above 300 cm-1 with a commercially available ellipsometer system. After the calibration of the angle of incidence and after taking into account the finite reflectivity of mirrors in the detector part we obtain a very good agreement between the data from the two instruments. The system can be supplemented with a closed-cycle He cryostat for measurements between 5 and 400 K.

  15. The Use of Accelerometers and Gyroscopes to Estimate Hip and Knee Angles on Gait Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Alonge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the performance of a sensor system, which has been developed to estimate hip and knee angles and the beginning of the gait phase, have been investigated. The sensor system consists of accelerometers and gyroscopes. A new algorithm was developed in order to avoid the error accumulation due to the gyroscopes drift and vibrations due to the ground contact at the beginning of the stance phase. The proposed algorithm have been tested and compared to some existing algorithms on over-ground walking trials with a commercial device for assisted gait. The results have shown the good accuracy of the angles estimation, also in high angle rate movement.

  16. The use of accelerometers and gyroscopes to estimate hip and knee angles on gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonge, Francesco; Cucco, Elisa; D'Ippolito, Filippo; Pulizzotto, Alessio

    2014-05-13

    In this paper the performance of a sensor system, which has been developed to estimate hip and knee angles and the beginning of the gait phase, have been investigated. The sensor system consists of accelerometers and gyroscopes. A new algorithm was developed in order to avoid the error accumulation due to the gyroscopes drift and vibrations due to the ground contact at the beginning of the stance phase. The proposed algorithm have been tested and compared to some existing algorithms on over-ground walking trials with a commercial device for assisted gait. The results have shown the good accuracy of the angles estimation, also in high angle rate movement.

  17. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  18. Moderate biomanipulation for eutrophication control in reservoirs using fish captured in angling competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral S.D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angling competitions are a popular leisure activity in reservoirs of Southern Portugal. These competitions can gather more than 100 anglers aiming to catch the maximum fish weight. Groundbaiting and catch-and-release angling are two common practices for anglers in competition. In this study, the loads of nutrients from commercial groundbait powders used in angling competitions in the Maranhão reservoir and the possible balance out of those nutrients through a moderate biomanipulation of the fish biomass caught in competitions were analysed. In order to achieve this aim, chemical analyses to groundbait powders most purchased by Portuguese anglers and to fish species most captured in competitions were made. Mass balances on inputs and outputs of nutrients considering some biomanipulation scenarios were evaluated. Results demonstrated that an effective management on angling competitions implementing a moderate biomanipulation of fish in reservoirs could promote the control of fish fauna and eutrophication, balancing out nutrients from angling.

  19. Measurement of contact angles in a simulated microgravity environment generated by a large gradient magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Ming; Chen, Rui-Qing; Wu, Zi-Qing; Zhu, Jing; Shi, Jian-Yu; Lu, Hui-Meng; Shang, Peng; Yin, Da-Chuan

    2016-09-01

    The contact angle is an important parameter that is essential for studying interfacial phenomena. The contact angle can be measured using commercially available instruments. However, these well-developed instruments may not function or may be unsuitable for use in some special environments. A simulated microgravity generated by a large gradient magnetic field is such an environment in which the current measurement instruments cannot be installed. To measure the contact angle in this environment, new tools must be designed and manufactured to be compatible with the size and physical environment. In this study, we report the development and construction of a new setup that was specifically designed for use in a strong magnetic field to measure the contact angle between a levitated droplet and a solid surface. The application of the setup in a large gradient magnetic field was tested, and the contact angles were readily measured.

  20. Fine Particle Sensor Based on Multi-Angle Light Scattering and Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjia Shao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological parameters such as relative humidity have a significant impact on the precision of PM2.5 measurement instruments based on light scattering. Instead of adding meteorological sensors or dehumidification devices used widely in commercial PM2.5 measurement instruments, a novel particle sensor based on multi-angle light scattering and data fusion is proposed to eliminate the effect of meteorological factors. Three photodiodes are employed to collect the scattered light flux at three distinct angles. Weather index is defined as the ratio of scattered light fluxes collected at the 40° and 55° angles, which can be used to distinguish the mass median diameter variation caused by different meteorological parameters. Simulations based on Lorenz-Mie theory and field experiments establish the feasibility of this scheme. Experimental results indicate that mass median diameter has less effect on the photodiode at the 55° angle in comparison with photodiodes at the 40° angle and 140° angle. After correction using the weather index, the photodiode at the 40° angle yielded the best results followed by photodiodes at the 55° angle and the 140° angle.

  1. Contact Angle Measurement in Lattice Boltzmann Method

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Binghai; Huang, Bingfang; Qin, Zhangrong; Wang, Chunlei; Zhang, Chaoying

    2017-01-01

    Contact angle is an essential characteristic in wetting, capillarity and moving contact line; however, although contact angle phenomena are effectively simulated, an accurate and real-time measurement for contact angle has not been well studied in computational fluid dynamics, especially in dynamic environments. Here, we design a geometry-based mesoscopic scheme to onthesport measure the contact angle in the lattice Boltzmann method. The computational results without gravity effect are in exc...

  2. 30 CFR 56.19037 - Fleet angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 56.19037 Section 56.19037 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Sheaves § 56.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979, shall not be...

  3. 30 CFR 57.19037 - Fleet angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 57.19037 Section 57.19037 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Sheaves § 57.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979, shall not be...

  4. Lateral angle and cranial base sexual dimorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duquesnel Mana, Mathilde; Adalian, Pascal; Lynnerup, Niels

    2016-01-01

    , to examine sexual dimorphism in the relationship between the lateral angle and cranial base shape. The lateral angle method was tested using a forensic sample of 102 CT scans of the head with known sex. We measured the angle using two methods: measurements directly on the CT slide, the method usually applied...

  5. Small-angle scattering, topography and radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelten, J.

    1978-01-01

    A table is given showing scattering and imaging methods for X-rays and neutrons, followed, by a discussion of such topics as 1. Radiography 2. Topography 3. Small-angle scattering 3.1. The differential cross section 3.2. Comparison of X-ray and neutron small-angle scattering 3.3. Examples of small-angle scattering. (orig.) [de

  6. Commercial Crew Medical Ops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  7. Commercial Baking. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Nancy

    A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

  8. Automatic Commercial Permit Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grana, Paul [Folsom Labs, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-12-21

    Final report for Folsom Labs’ Solar Permit Generator project, which has successfully completed, resulting in the development and commercialization of a software toolkit within the cloud-based HelioScope software environment that enables solar engineers to automatically generate and manage draft documents for permit submission.

  9. Commercial applications of telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natiello, Thomas A.

    1991-01-01

    Telemedicine Systems Corporation was established in 1976 and is a private commercial supplier of telemedicine systems. These systems are various combinations of communications and diagnostic technology, designed to allow the delivery of health care services to remote facilities. The technology and the health care services are paid for by the remote facilities, such as prisons.

  10. Lunar Commercial Mining Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob; Taylor, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Innovative commercial logistics is required for supporting lunar resource recovery operations and assisting larger consortiums in lunar mining, base operations, camp consumables and the future commercial sales of propellant over the next 50 years. To assist in lowering overall development costs, ``reuse'' innovation is suggested in reusing modified LTS in-space hardware for use on the moon's surface, developing product lines for recovered gases, regolith construction materials, surface logistics services, and other services as they evolve, (Kistler, Citron and Taylor, 2005) Surface logistics architecture is designed to have sustainable growth over 50 years, financed by private sector partners and capable of cargo transportation in both directions in support of lunar development and resource recovery development. The author's perspective on the importance of logistics is based on five years experience at remote sites on Earth, where remote base supply chain logistics didn't always work, (Taylor, 1975a). The planning and control of the flow of goods and materials to and from the moon's surface may be the most complicated logistics challenges yet to be attempted. Affordability is tied to the innovation and ingenuity used to keep the transportation and surface operations costs as low as practical. Eleven innovations are proposed and discussed by an entrepreneurial commercial space startup team that has had success in introducing commercial space innovation and reducing the cost of space operations in the past. This logistics architecture offers NASA and other exploring nations a commercial alternative for non-essential cargo. Five transportation technologies and eleven surface innovations create the logistics transportation system discussed.

  11. The Q-angle and sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Quadriceps muscle contraction tends to straighten the Q angle. We expected that sports comprising a high amount of quadriceps training could be associated with low Q angles. The aim of the present study was to estimate the Q angle in athletes and to investigate its potential associations with par......Quadriceps muscle contraction tends to straighten the Q angle. We expected that sports comprising a high amount of quadriceps training could be associated with low Q angles. The aim of the present study was to estimate the Q angle in athletes and to investigate its potential associations...... with participation in sport. Three hundred and thirty-nine athletes had their Q angle measured. The mean of right-side Q angles was higher than left side, and the mean Q angle was higher in women than in men. The Q angle was positively associated with years of jogging, and negatively with years of soccer, swimming...... and sports participation at all. It is concluded that the use of Q angle measurements is questionable....

  12. Individualized optimal release angles in discus throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Steve; Liu, Hui; Hubbard, Mont; Yu, Bing

    2010-02-10

    The purpose of this study was to determine individualized optimal release angles for elite discus throwers. Three-dimensional coordinate data were obtained for at least 10 competitive trials for each subject. Regression relationships between release speed and release angle, and between aerodynamic distance and release angle were determined for each subject. These relationships were linear with subject-specific characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between release speed and release angle may be due to subjects' technical and physical characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between aerodynamic distance and release angle may be due to interactions between the release angle, the angle of attack, and the aerodynamic distance. Optimal release angles were estimated for each subject using the regression relationships and equations of projectile motion. The estimated optimal release angle was different for different subjects, and ranged from 35 degrees to 44 degrees . The results of this study demonstrate that the optimal release angle for discus throwing is thrower-specific. The release angles used by elite discus throwers in competition are not necessarily optimal for all discus throwers, or even themselves. The results of this study provide significant information for understanding the biomechanics of discus throwing techniques. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Wafer scale oblique angle plasma etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckel, David Bruce; Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.; Finnegan, Patrick Sean

    2017-05-23

    Wafer scale oblique angle etching of a semiconductor substrate is performed in a conventional plasma etch chamber by using a fixture that supports a multiple number of separate Faraday cages. Each cage is formed to include an angled grid surface and is positioned such that it will be positioned over a separate one of the die locations on the wafer surface when the fixture is placed over the wafer. The presence of the Faraday cages influences the local electric field surrounding each wafer die, re-shaping the local field to be disposed in alignment with the angled grid surface. The re-shaped plasma causes the reactive ions to follow a linear trajectory through the plasma sheath and angled grid surface, ultimately impinging the wafer surface at an angle. The selected geometry of the Faraday cage angled grid surface thus determines the angle at with the reactive ions will impinge the wafer.

  14. Methanol commercial aviation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.O.

    1992-01-01

    Southern California's heavy reliance on petroleum-fueled transportation has resulted in significant air pollution problems within the south Coast Air Basin (Basin) which stem directly from this near total dependence on fossil fuels. To deal with this pressing issue, recently enacted state legislation has proposed mandatory introduction of clean alternative fuels into ground transportation fleets operating within this area. The commercial air transportation sector, however, also exerts a significant impact on regional air quality which may exceed emission gains achieved in the ground transportation sector. This paper addresses the potential, through the implementation of methanol as a commercial aviation fuel, to improve regional air quality within the Basin and the need to flight test and demonstrate methanol as an environmentally preferable fuel in aircraft turbine engines

  15. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  16. Commercial Jet Transport Crashworthiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    symmetrically or asymetrically located and may be applied to landing gear, engi e as, wings, and fuselage separately or in combination. BASIC...crashworthiness in general. Specific application of the guidelines to commercial aircraft has been asses3ed. Appendix D presents a detailed synthesis ...synthesized across the five volumes to integrate the information into one single abstract summary. This summary is a synthesis and critique of the U.S

  17. Commercialization of microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpatti, Lisa R; Yetisen, Ali K

    2014-07-01

    Microfluidic devices offer automation and high-throughput screening, and operate at low volumes of consumables. Although microfluidics has the potential to reduce turnaround times and costs for analytical devices, particularly in medical, veterinary, and environmental sciences, this enabling technology has had limited diffusion into consumer products. This article analyzes the microfluidics market, identifies issues, and highlights successful commercialization strategies. Addressing niche markets and establishing compatibility with existing workflows will accelerate market penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Commercial nuclear power 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents historical data on commercial nuclear power in the United States, with projections of domestic nuclear capacity and generation through the year 2020. The report also gives country-specific projections of nuclear capacity and generation through the year 2010 for other countries in the world outside centrally planned economic areas (WOCA). Information is also presented regarding operable reactors and those under construction in countries with centrally planned economies. 39 tabs

  19. International Commercial Arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    Hlušička, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of my thesis is to analyse one of the most used type of extrajudicial procedures, the International commercial arbitration. The reason for my research is the progress and elevation of use of the arbitration and not only on international field. The thesis is composed of six chapters, each of them dealing with different aspects of Arbitration. Chapter One is introductory and defines basic terminology used in the thesis. The chapter is subdivided into two parts. Part One describes in...

  20. Commercializing Academic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge produced by academic scientists has been identified as a potential key driver of technological progress. Recent policies in Europe aim at increasing commercially orientated activities in academe. Based on a sample of German scientists across all fields of science, we investigate the......, a preliminary evaluation of the effects of the abolishment of the “professor privilege” (the German counterpart of the US Bayh-Dole Act) reveals that this legal disposition led to an acceleration of this apparent decline....

  1. Commercialization of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, David W

    2009-01-01

    The emerging and potential commercial applications of nanotechnologies clearly have great potential to significantly advance and even potentially revolutionize various aspects of medical practice and medical product development. Nanotechnology is already touching upon many aspects of medicine, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, clinical diagnostics, nanomedicines, and the use of nanomaterials in medical devices. This technology is already having an impact; many products are on the market and a growing number is in the pipeline. Momentum is steadily building for the successful development of additional nanotech products to diagnose and treat disease; the most active areas of product development are drug delivery and in vivo imaging. Nanotechnology is also addressing many unmet needs in the pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their bioavailability or toxicity profiles. The advancement of medical nanotechnology is expected to advance over at least three different generations or phases, beginning with the introduction of simple nanoparticulate and nanostructural improvements to current product and process types, then eventually moving on to nanoproducts and nanodevices that are limited only by the imagination and limits of the technology itself. This review looks at some recent developments in the commercialization of nanotechnology for various medical applications as well as general trends in the industry, and explores the nanotechnology industry that is involved in developing medical products and procedures with a view toward technology commercialization. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Angle closure glaucoma secondary to psychotropic medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ross Rocke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Psychotropic medications are commonly associated anticholinergic side-effects. In susceptible patients, this can result in angle closure induced permanent loss of vision Aims To review the mechanism of angle closure and which psychotropics are most likely to precipitate this complication. Methods Literature review surrounding the mechanism of angle closure and pharmacology of various psychotropics Results Mydriasis, forward-displacement of the lens-iris diaphragm and ciliary body swelling are the mechanisms by which angle closure occurs. Anticholinergic side effects of psychotropic medications are most implicated in causing this. Conclusion Screening patients for risk factors of angle closure and either having them formally assessed or choosing psychotropics with minimal anticholinergic effects may avoid inducing angle closure.

  3. Large area optical mapping of surface contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Guilherme; Canning, John; Padden, Whayne; Martelli, Cicero; Dligatch, Svetlana

    2017-09-04

    Top-down contact angle measurements have been validated and confirmed to be as good if not more reliable than side-based measurements. A range of samples, including industrially relevant materials for roofing and printing, has been compared. Using the top-down approach, mapping in both 1-D and 2-D has been demonstrated. The method was applied to study the change in contact angle as a function of change in silver (Ag) nanoparticle size controlled by thermal evaporation. Large area mapping reveals good uniformity for commercial Aspen paper coated with black laser printer ink. A demonstration of the forensic and chemical analysis potential in 2-D is shown by uncovering the hidden CsF initials made with mineral oil on the coated Aspen paper. The method promises to revolutionize nanoscale characterization and industrial monitoring as well as chemical analyses by allowing rapid contact angle measurements over large areas or large numbers of samples in ways and times that have not been possible before.

  4. Small angle neutron scattering from high impact polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pringle, O.A.

    1981-01-01

    High impact polystyrene (HIPS) is a toughened plastic composed of a polystyrene matrix containing a few percent rubber in the form of dispersed 0.1 to 10 micron diameter rubber particles. Some commercial formulations of HIPS include the addition of a few percent mineral oil, which improves the toughness of the plastic. Little is known about the mechanism by which the mineral oil helps toughen the plastic. It is hypothesized that the oil is distributed only in the rubber particles, but whether this hypothesis is correct was not known prior to this work. The size of the rubber particles in HIPS and their neutron scattering length density contrast with the polystyrene matrix cause HIPS samples to scatter neutrons at small angles. The variation of this small angle neutron scattering (SANS) signal with mineral oil content has been used to determine the location of the oil in HIPS. The SANS spectrometer at the University of Missouri Research Reactor Facility (MURR) was used to study plastic samples similar in composition to commercial HIPS. The MURR SANS spectrometer is used to study the small angle scattering of a vertical beam of 4.75 A neutrons from solid and liquid samples. The scattered neutrons are detected in a 54 x 60 cm 2 position sensitive detector designed and built at MURR. A series of plastic samples of varying rubber and oil content and different rubber domain sizes and shapes were examined on the MURR SANS spectrometer. Analysis of the scattering patterns showed that the mineral oil is about eight to ten times more likely to be found in the rubber particles than in the polystyrene matrix. This result confirmed the hypothesis that the mineral oil is distributed primarily in the rubber particles

  5. Direct angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Condensed matter physics; high-c superconductivity; electronic properties; photoemission spectroscopy; angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy; cuprates; films; strain; pulsed laser deposition.

  6. The qualitative criterion of transient angle stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyu, R.; Xue, Y.; Xue, F.

    2015-01-01

    In almost all the literatures, the qualitative assessment of transient angle stability extracts the angle information of generators based on the swing curve. As the angle (or angle difference) of concern and the threshold value rely strongly on the engineering experience, the validity and robust...... of these criterions are weak. Based on the stability mechanism from the extended equal area criterion (EEAC) theory and combining with abundant simulations of real system, this paper analyzes the criterions in most literatures and finds that the results could be too conservative or too optimistic. It is concluded...

  7. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs

  8. Commercial microwave space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siambis, J.; Gregorwich, W.; Walmsley, S.; Shockey, K.; Chang, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on central commercial space power, generating power via large scale solar arrays, and distributing power to satellites via docking, tethering or beamed power such as microwave or laser beams, that is being investigated as a potentially advantageous alternative to present day technology where each satellite carries its own power generating capability. The cost, size and weight for electrical power service, together with overall mission requirements and flexibility are the principal selection criteria, with the case of standard solar array panels based on the satellite, as the reference point. This paper presents and investigates a current technology design point for beamed microwave commercial space power. The design point requires that 25 kW be delivered to the user load with 30% overall system efficiency. The key elements of the design point are: An efficient rectenna at the user end; a high gain, low beam width, efficient antenna at the central space power station end, a reliable and efficient cw microwave tube. Design trades to optimize the proposed near term design point and to explore characteristics of future systems were performed. Future development for making the beamed microwave space power approach more competitive against docking and tethering are discussed

  9. Aerocapacitor commercialization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-12

    The purpose of the Power-One Aerocapacitor Commercialization Plan is to communicate to members of management and to all employees the overall objectives of the corporation. Power-One, Inc., has participated in a US Federal Government Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), entitled {open_quotes}Advanced Power Conversion based on the Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}: the project is a group effort, with Lawrence Livermore National Labs, GenCorp/Aerojet, PolyStor Corp. (a start-up company), and Power-One forming the consortium. The expected resulting technology is the {open_quotes}Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}, which possesses much higher performance levels than the usual capacitors on the market today. Power-One hopes to incorporate the Aerocapacitor into some of its products, hence enhancing their performance, as well as market privately-labeled aerocapacitors through its distribution channels. This document describes the details of Power-One`s plan to bring to market and commercialize the Aerocapacitor and Aerocapacitor-based products. This plan was formulated while Power-One was part of the Oerocap project. It has since pulled out of this project. What is presented in this plan is the work which was developed prior to the business decision to terminate this work.

  10. Gaugings at angles from orientifold reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roest, Diederik

    2009-01-01

    We consider orientifold reductions to N= 4 gauged supergravity in four dimensions. A special feature of this theory is that different factors of the gauge group can have relative angles with respect to the electro-magnetic SL(2) symmetry. These are crucial for moduli stabilization and de Sitter vacua. We show how such gaugings at angles generically arise in orientifold reductions.

  11. Custom total occlusal convergence angle sticker fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seok-Hwan; Nagy, William W

    2015-09-01

    This article describes a method of fabricating a custom total occlusal convergence angle sticker with photo editing software and label stickers. The custom total occlusal convergence angle sticker can help clinicians achieve an accurate degree of taper during axial wall reduction of tooth preparation. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Practical evaluation of action-angle variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1984-02-01

    A practical method is described for establishing action-angle variables for a Hamiltonian system. That is, a given nearly integrable Hamiltonian is divided into an exactly integrable system plus a perturbation in action-angle form. The transformation of variables, which is carried out using a few short trajectory integrations, permits a rapid determination of trajectory properties throughout a phase space volume

  13. Acute angle closure glaucoma following ileostomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Meirelles Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Angle-closure glaucoma can be induced by drugs that may cause pupillary dilatation. We report a case of a patient that developed bilateral angle closure glaucoma after an ileostomy surgery because of systemic atropine injection. This case report highlights the importance of a fast ophthalmologic evaluation in diseases with ocular involvement in order to make accurate diagnoses and appropriate treatments.

  14. Solid angles III. The role of conformers in solid angle calculations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    White, D

    1995-06-14

    Full Text Available The values of the solid angles Omega for a range of commonly encountered ligands in organometallic chemistry (phosphines, phosphites, amines, arsines and cyclopentadienyl rings) have been determined. The solid angles were derived from a single...

  15. Laser peripheral iridoplasty for angle-closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai Siene; Ang, Ghee Soon; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto

    2012-02-15

    Angle-closure glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Treatment is aimed at opening the anterior chamber angle and lowering the IOP with medical and/or surgical treatment (e.g. trabeculectomy, lens extraction). Laser iridotomy works by eliminating pupillary block and widens the anterior chamber angle in the majority of patients. When laser iridotomy fails to open the anterior chamber angle, laser iridoplasty may be recommended as one of the options in current standard treatment for angle-closure. Laser peripheral iridoplasty works by shrinking and pulling the peripheral iris tissue away from the trabecular meshwork. Laser peripheral iridoplasty can be used for crisis of acute angle-closure and also in non-acute situations.   To assess the effectiveness of laser peripheral iridoplasty in the treatment of narrow angles (i.e. primary angle-closure suspect), primary angle-closure (PAC) or primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in non-acute situations when compared with any other intervention. In this review, angle-closure will refer to patients with narrow angles (PACs), PAC and PACG. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 12), MEDLINE (January 1950 to January 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to January 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 5 January 2012. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this review. Patients with narrow angles, PAC or PACG were eligible. We excluded studies that included only patients with acute presentations

  16. Year 2000 commercial issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers' obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs

  17. Commercial Alcohols Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janes, M.

    1998-01-01

    The production of ethanol from corn, and the growth of ethanol production in Canada were discussed, along with the environmental advantages and the role it plays in supporting the rural economy. Commercial Alcohols Inc. is the largest ethanol producer in Canada. Its plant in Chatham, Ontario, which opened in December 1997, is one of the largest in the world. Since 1990, sales of ethanol have increased ten fold. Total sales exceed $100 million. The company has five plants in Canada which produce ethanol fuel, industrial alcohol, grain neutral spirits, packaged alcohol, distillers grains, and carbon dioxide for use in carbonization of beverages. Plans are underway for construction of a new plant in Varennes, Quebec. The company is also working with the Ukraine for development of an ethanol facility in that country. 3 figs

  18. Nanovate commercializing disruptive nanotechnologies

    CERN Document Server

    Anis, Mohab; Sarhan, Wesam; Elsemary, Mona

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers from diverse backgrounds to the principles underlying nanotechnology, from devices to systems, while also describing in detail how businesses can use nanotechnology to redesign their products and processes, in order to have a clear edge over their competition. The authors include 75 case studies, describing in a highly-accessible manner, real nanotechnology innovations from 15 different industrial sectors. For each case study, the technology or business challenges faced by the company are highlighted, the type of nanotechnology adopted is defined, and the eventual economic and social impact is described. Introduces fundamentals of nanotechnology and its applications in a highly-accessible manner Includes 75 case studies of commercializing nanotechnology from 15 industrial sectors, including Automotive, Consumer Electronics, and Renewable Energy Enables nanotechnology experts to learn simple and important business concepts to facilitate the transfer of science to the market Introdu...

  19. Precision machining commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    To accelerate precision machining development so as to realize more of the potential savings within the next few years of known Department of Defense (DOD) part procurement, the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) is sponsoring the Precision Machining Commercialization Project (PMC). PMC is part of the Tri-Service Precision Machine Tool Program of the DOD Manufacturing Technology Five-Year Plan. The technical resources supporting PMC are provided under sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of PMC is to minimize precision machining development time and cost risk for interested vendors. PMC will do this by making available the high precision machining technology as developed in two DOE contractor facilities, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California and the Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Y-12 Plant, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  20. Limited flip angle MR imaging: Hemorrhagic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drayer, B.P.; Rigamonti, D.; Johnson, P.C.; Spetzler, R.F.; Keller, P.J.; Flom, R.A.; Bird, C.R.; Hodak, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied 64 patients with hemorrhagic brain lesions, including vascular malformations (n = 29), hemorrhagic infarctions (n = 9), chronic slit hemorrhagic residua of hypertensive hematoma (n = 10), trauma (n = 8), and gliobastoma multiforme (n = 8). With a 1.5-T MR imaging system, 5-mm sections were obtained at a repetition time of 300 msec (or 500), an echo time of 12.3 msec (or 10 and 40), and a flip angle of 60 0 (or 20 0 ). The limited flip angle study was always extremely sensitive for the detection of hemosiderin. With multiple cavernous angiomas, additional small lesions (in five of 18 patients) were detected only with the limited flip angle technique. The hemosiderin-laden macrophage residua of hemorrhagic infarction and hypertensive hematoma were better seen on limited flip angle images than on T2-weighted spin-echo images. The detection of blood on limited flip angle images permitted the grading of glioma as glioblastoma multiforme

  1. Experimental study of crossing angle collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.; Rice, D.; Rubin, D.; Sagan, D.; Tigner, M.

    1993-05-01

    The non-linear coupling due to the beam-beam interaction with crossing angle has been studied. The major effect of a small (∼12mrad) crossing angle is to excite 5Q x ±Q s =integer coupling resonance family on large amplitude particles, which results in bad lifetime. On the CESR, a small crossing angle (∼2.4mr) was created at the IP and a reasonable beam-beam tune-shift was achieved. The decay rate of the beam is measured as a function of horizontal tune with and without crossing angle. The theoretical analysis, simulation and experimental measurements have a good agreement. The resonance strength as a function of crossing angle is also measured

  2. Experimental study of crossing angle collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.; Rice, D.; Rubin, D.; Sagan, D.; Tigner, M.

    1993-01-01

    The non-linear coupling due to the beam-beam interaction with crossing angle has been studied. The major effect of a small (∼12mrad) crossing angle is to excite 5Q x ±Q s =integer coupling resonance family on large amplitude particles, which results in bad lifetime. On the CESR, a small crossing angle (∼2.4mr) was created at the IP and a reasonable beam-beam tune-shift was achieved. The decay rate of the beam is measured as a function of horizontal tune with and without crossing angle. The theoretical analysis, simulation and experimental measurements have a good agreement. The resonance strength as a function of crossing angle is also measured

  3. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  4. NASA Solar Array Demonstrates Commercial Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Gray

    2006-01-01

    two fixed-angle solar arrays and one single-axis Sun-tracking array. One of the fixed arrays contains typical less-efficient commercial solar cells and is being used as a baseline for comparison of the other fixed array, which contains the advanced cells. The Sun-tracking array tilts to follow the Sun, using an advanced, real-time tracking device rather than customary pre-programmed mechanisms. Part of the purpose served by the demonstration is to enable determination of any potential advantage of a tracking array over a fixed array. The arrays are monitored remotely on a computer that displays pertinent information regarding the functioning of the arrays.

  5. Modified angle's classification for primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Narendra Chandranee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to propose a modification of Angle's classification for primary dentition and to assess its applicability in children from Central India, Nagpur. Methods: Modification in Angle's classification has been proposed for application in primary dentition. Small roman numbers i/ii/iii are used for primary dentition notation to represent Angle's Class I/II/III molar relationships as in permanent dentition, respectively. To assess applicability of modified Angle's classification a cross-sectional preschool 2000 children population from central India; 3–6 years of age residing in Nagpur metropolitan city of Maharashtra state were selected randomly as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Majority 93.35% children were found to have bilateral Class i followed by 2.5% bilateral Class ii and 0.2% bilateral half cusp Class iii molar relationships as per the modified Angle's classification for primary dentition. About 3.75% children had various combinations of Class ii relationships and 0.2% children were having Class iii subdivision relationship. Conclusions: Modification of Angle's classification for application in primary dentition has been proposed. A cross-sectional investigation using new classification revealed various 6.25% Class ii and 0.4% Class iii molar relationships cases in preschool children population in a metropolitan city of Nagpur. Application of the modified Angle's classification to other population groups is warranted to validate its routine application in clinical pediatric dentistry.

  6. Patellar angle in Osgood-Schlatter disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, R K; Sharma, L R; Thakur, S R; Lakhanpal, V P

    1989-02-01

    A new patellar angle is described in lateral radiographs of the knee joint. One line is drawn along the articular surface of the patella and another from the end of the inferior articular cartilage to the patellar apex. The angle formed by these two lines averaged 33 degrees in 68 knees joints afflicted with Osgood-Schlatter disease and 47 degrees in 71 age-matched controls and 198 adult controls. The small angle in Osgood-Schlatter disease is proposed to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of the traction apophysitis.

  7. Small-angle scattering on soft materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, K.

    1994-01-01

    Small angle x-ray and neutron scattering provides tools for investigation of structures on the length scale 10 to 1000 A. This is the length scale which is relevant for many topics within soft materials, like biological macromolecules, polymers, colloids, etc. The very large difference between the scattering amplitude of neutrons by regular hydrogen and deuterium makes neutron scattering a very important technique within soft condensed matter. The basic theory for small angle scattering is reviewed. Experimental results obtained by small angle scattering are shown, with emphasis on soft materials. (author). 33 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  8. Computing angle of arrival of radio signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, John J.; Steele, David K.

    2017-11-07

    Various technologies pertaining to computing angle of arrival of radio signals are described. A system that is configured for computing the angle of arrival of a radio signal includes a cylindrical sheath wrapped around a cylindrical object, where the cylindrical sheath acts as a ground plane. The system further includes a plurality of antennas that are positioned about an exterior surface of the cylindrical sheath, and receivers respectively coupled to the antennas. The receivers output measurements pertaining to the radio signal. A processing circuit receives the measurements and computes the angle of arrival of the radio signal based upon the measurements.

  9. ETHICS AND COMMERCIAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviu MEGHIŞAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern economic science was built around the concept of efficiency. In economy the notion of equality is strongly correlated with the notion of balance, such as the market balance when the demand equals the offer. In a broader view, the economy cannot contribute to a reflection on equity unless it re-became a moral and political science or even a philosophical economy. At present, when there is an effervescence of international transactions, we all adulate the need for morality. Everyday, all around the world, regular people are affected by the costs of ethical issues. The profit and social responsibility do not exclude reciprocally. The social value of a company is given by the well-being and the work-places generated, by the products and services offered to the consumers at a fair price in correlation with the quality. The sentimental value represents the value that a person is giving to a good, based on feelings and emotions and not on monetary values. In many cases the passions and the interests are more powerful than the moral value that animates us. A lot of commercials, if they are to say the truth, would recognize that, for them, not the clients are important but the profits.

  10. Angles-Only Navigation System for Nanosatellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposed work is to develop and implement an angles-only relative navigation system on hardware suitable for deployment on nanosatellites or...

  11. Directional Wide-Angle Range Finder (DWARF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation, the Directional Wide-Angle Range Finder (DWARF) is the creation of a laser range-finder with a wide field-of-view (FOV) and a directional...

  12. Low angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrianni, I.L.

    1983-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental problems appearing in diffraction experiments at very low angles by several kinds of materials are discussed. The importance of synchrotron radiation in such problems is shown. (L.C.) [pt

  13. Effect of injection angle, density ratio, and viscosity on droplet formation in a microfluidic T-junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yaghoub Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The T-junction microchannel device makes available a sharp edge to form micro-droplets from bio-material solutions. This article investigates the effects of injection angle, flow rate ratio, density ratio, viscosity ratio, contact angle, and slip length in the process of formation of uniform droplets in microfluidic T-junctions. The governing equations were solved by the commercial software. The results show that contact angle, slip length, and injection angles near the perpendicular and parallel conditions have an increasing effect on the diameter of generated droplets, while flow rate, density and viscosity ratios, and other injection angles had a decreasing effect on the diameter. Keywords: Microfluidics, Droplet formation, Flow rate ratio, Density ratio

  14. Stroke in Commercial Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Velasco, Rodrigo; Masjuan, Jaime; DeFelipe, Alicia; Corral, Iñigo; Estévez-Fraga, Carlos; Crespo, Leticia; Alonso-Cánovas, Araceli

    2016-04-01

    Stroke on board aircraft has been reported in retrospective case series, mainly focusing on economy class stroke syndrome. Data on the actual incidence, pathogenesis, and prognosis of stroke in commercial flights are lacking. A prospective registry was designed to include all consecutive patients referred from an international airport (40 million passengers a year) to our hospital with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and onset of symptoms during a flight or immediately after landing. Forty-four patients (32 ischemic strokes and 12 transient ischemic attacks) were included over a 76-month period (January 2008 to April 2014). The estimated incidence of stroke was 1 stroke in 35 000 flights. Pathogeneses of stroke or transient ischemic attack were atherothrombotic in 16 (36%), economy class stroke syndrome in 8 (18%), cardioembolic in 7 (16%), arterial dissection in 4 (9%), lacunar stroke in 4 (9%), and undetermined in 5 (12%) patients. Carotid stenosis >70% was found in 12 (27%) of the patients. Overall prognosis was good, and thrombolysis was applied in 44% of the cases. The most common reason for not treating patients who had experienced stroke onset midflight was the delay in reaching the hospital. Only 1 patient with symptom onset during the flight prompted a flight diversion. We found a low incidence of stroke in the setting of air travel. Economy class stroke syndrome and arterial dissection were well represented in our sample. However, the main pathogenesis was atherothrombosis with a high proportion of patients with high carotid stenosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Prompt angle measurements with large aperture scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneid, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    A technique is described for the measurement of particle trajectory angle through a pair of scintillator tiles. Signal processing provides an analog signal proportional to the tangent of the angle between the particle trajectory and the axis normal to the pair of tiles. This signal is readily available for use in fast decision logic if required: i.e., sorting energy loss signals from the tiles according to geometrical factors or restricting the events to be analyzed on the basis of incident direction

  16. Small-angle neutron-scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, A.D.; Thomas, M.W.; Rouse, K.D.

    1981-04-01

    A brief introduction to the technique of small-angle neutron scattering is given. The layout and operation of the small-angle scattering spectrometer, mounted on the AERE PLUTO reactor, is also described. Results obtained using the spectrometer are presented for three materials (doped uranium dioxide, Magnox cladding and nitrided steel) of interest to Springfields Nuclear Power Development Laboratories. The results obtained are discussed in relation to other known data for these materials. (author)

  17. Axial vector mass spectrum and mixing angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffarelli, R.V.; Kang, K.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral sum rules of the axial-vector current and axial-vector current-pseudoscalar field are used to study the axial-vector mass spectrum and mixing angles, as well as the decay constants and mixing angles of the pseudoscalar mesons. In general, the result is quite persuasive for the existence of the Jsup(PC) = 1 ++ multiplet in which one has a canonical D-E mixing. (Auth.)

  18. Sharper angle, higher risk? The effect of cutting angle on knee mechanics in invasion sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Mervin J; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2017-10-03

    Cutting is an important skill in team-sports, but unfortunately is also related to non-contact ACL injuries. The purpose was to examine knee kinetics and kinematics at different cutting angles. 13 males and 16 females performed cuts at different angles (45°, 90°, 135° and 180°) at maximum speed. 3D kinematics and kinetics were collected. To determine differences across cutting angles (45°, 90°, 135° and 180°) and sex (female, male), a 4×2 repeated measures ANOVA was conducted followed by post hoc comparisons (Bonferroni) with alpha level set at α≤0.05a priori. At all cutting angles, males showed greater knee flexion angles than females (pknee flexion -42.53°±8.95°, females decreased their knee flexion angle from -40.6°±7.2° when cutting at 45° to -36.81°±9.10° when cutting at 90°, 135° and 180° (pKnee flexion moment decreased for both sexes when cutting towards sharper angles (pknee valgus moments than females. For both sexes, knee valgus moment increased towards the sharper cutting angles and then stabilized compared to the 45° cutting angle (pknee kinematics and kinetics. Sharper cutting angles place the knee more at risk. However, females and males handle this differently, which has implications for injury prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Uncertainty in multispectral lidar signals caused by incidence angle effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasalainen, Sanna; Åkerblom, Markku; Nevalainen, Olli; Hakala, Teemu; Kaasalainen, Mikko

    2018-04-06

    Multispectral terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is an emerging technology. Several manufacturers already offer commercial dual or three wavelength airborne laser scanners, while multispectral TLS is still carried out mainly with research instruments. Many of these research efforts have focused on the study of vegetation. The aim of this paper is to study the uncertainty of the measurement of spectral indices of vegetation with multispectral lidar. Using two spectral indices as examples, we find that the uncertainty is due to systematic errors caused by the wavelength dependency of laser incidence angle effects. This finding is empirical, and the error cannot be removed by modelling or instrument modification. The discovery and study of these effects has been enabled by hyperspectral and multispectral TLS, and it has become a subject of active research within the past few years. We summarize the most recent studies on multi-wavelength incidence angle effects and present new results on the effect of specular reflection from the leaf surface, and the surface structure, which have been suggested to play a key role. We also discuss the consequences to the measurement of spectral indices with multispectral TLS, and a possible correction scheme using a synthetic laser footprint.

  20. Solar cell angle of incidence corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Dale R.; Mueller, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Literature on solar array angle of incidence corrections was found to be sparse and contained no tabular data for support. This lack along with recent data on 27 GaAs/Ge 4 cm by 4 cm cells initiated the analysis presented in this paper. The literature cites seven possible contributors to angle of incidence effects: cosine, optical front surface, edge, shadowing, UV degradation, particulate soiling, and background color. Only the first three are covered in this paper due to lack of sufficient data. The cosine correction is commonly used but is not sufficient when the incident angle is large. Fresnel reflection calculations require knowledge of the index of refraction of the coverglass front surface. The absolute index of refraction for the coverglass front surface was not known nor was it measured due to lack of funds. However, a value for the index of refraction was obtained by examining how the prediction errors varied with different assumed indices and selecting the best fit to the set of measured values. Corrections using front surface Fresnel reflection along with the cosine correction give very good predictive results when compared to measured data, except there is a definite trend away from predicted values at the larger incident angles. This trend could be related to edge effects and is illustrated by a use of a box plot of the errors and by plotting the deviation of the mean against incidence angle. The trend is for larger deviations at larger incidence angles and there may be a fourth order effect involved in the trend. A chi-squared test was used to determine if the measurement errors were normally distributed. At 10 degrees the chi-squared test failed, probably due to the very small numbers involved or a bias from the measurement procedure. All other angles showed a good fit to the normal distribution with increasing goodness-of-fit as the angles increased which reinforces the very small numbers hypothesis. The contributed data only went to 65 degrees

  1. Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration is a case-oriented study of the key rules and procedures which regulate the resolution of commercial disputes arising in a transnational context. The study explains and compares European and American rules of private international and procedural...

  2. Commercially available video motion detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    A market survey of commercially available video motion detection systems was conducted by the Intrusion Detection Systems Technology Division of Sandia Laboratories. The information obtained from this survey is summarized in this report. The cutoff date for this information is May 1978. A list of commercially available video motion detection systems is appended.

  3. Commercially available video motion detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A market survey of commercially available video motion detection systems was conducted by the Intrusion Detection Systems Technology Division of Sandia Laboratories. The information obtained from this survey is summarized in this report. The cutoff date for this information is May 1978. A list of commercially available video motion detection systems is appended

  4. Commercialization of fuel-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.; Appleby, A.J.; Baker, B.S.; Bates, J.L.; Buss, L.B.; Dollard, W.J.; Farris, P.J.; Gillis, E.A.; Gunsher, J.A.; Khandkar, A.; Krumpelt, M.; O' Sullivan, J.B.; Runte, G.; Savinell, R.F.; Selman, J.R.; Shores, D.A.; Tarman, P.

    1995-03-01

    This report is an abbreviated version of the ''Report of the DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Commercialization Working Group (AFC2WG),'' released January 1995. We describe fuel-cell commercialization for stationary power applications of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  5. Comparative biometric study between plateau iris configuration and primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz Filho, Alberto; Cronemberger, Sebastião; Mérula, Rafael Vidal; Calixto, Nassim

    2009-01-01

    To investigate biometrically the differences between plateau iris configuration (PIC) eyes and primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes. A comparative study involving a case series with 20 eyes of 11 plateau iris configuration patients and 45 eyes of 27 primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes patients was done. The following measurements were taken: corneal curvature, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness (LT), axial length (AL), lens thickness and axial length ratio, lens position (LP) and relative lens position (RLP). The plateau iris configuration eyes presented a higher corneal cuvature value than primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes eyes but not with clinical and statistical difference (P=0.090). The plateau iris configuration eyes demonstrated a higher central corneal thickness, with statistical significance, when compared to primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes (P=0.010). Statistical significant difference between plateau iris configuration and primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes was found in axial length (21.69 +/- 0.98 vs. 22.42 +/- 0.89; P=0.003). No significant difference was found when anterior chamber depth (2.62 +/- 0.23 vs. 2.71 +/- 0.31; P=0.078), LT (4.67 +/- 0.36 vs. 4.69 +/- 0.45; P=0.975), LT/AL (2.16 +/- 0.17 vs. 2.10 +/- 0.21; P=0.569), LP (4.95 +/- 0.25 vs. 5.06 +/- 0.34; P=0.164) and RLP (0.23 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.22 +/- 0.14; P=0.348) were evaluated. The eyes with plateau iris configuration presented statistical significantly shorter axial length and higher central corneal thickness than primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes.

  6. Fractal approach in petrology: Combining ultra small angle (USANS), and small angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Celso, F.; Triolo, R.; Triolo, F.; Triolo, A.; Lin, J.S.; Lucido, G.

    2000-01-01

    Ultra small angle neutron scattering instruments have recently covered the gap between the size resolution available with conventional intermediate angle neutron scattering and small angle neutron scattering instruments on one side and optical microscopy on the other side. Rocks showing fractal behavior in over two decades of momentum transfer and seven orders of magnitude of intensity are examined and fractal parameters are extracted from the combined USANS and SANS curves

  7. Fractal Approach in Petrology: Combining Ultra-Small Angle (USANS) and Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LoCelso, F.; Triolo, F.; Triolo, A.; Lin, J.S.; Lucido, G.; Triolo, R.

    1999-01-01

    Ultra small angle neutron scattering instruments have recently covered the gap between the size resolution available with conventional intermediate angle neutron scattering and small angle neutron scattering instruments on one side and optical microscopy on the other side. Rocks showing fractal behavior in over two decades of momentum transfer and seven orders of magnitude of intensity are examined and fractal parameters are extracted from the combined USANS and SANS curves

  8. NASA's approach to space commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, Isaac T., IV

    1986-01-01

    The NASA Office of Commercial Programs fosters private participation in commercially oriented space projects. Five Centers for the Commercial Development of Space encourage new ideas and perform research which may yield commercial processes and products for space ventures. Joint agreements allow companies who present ideas to NASA and provide flight hardware access to a free launch and return from orbit. The experimenters furnish NASA with sufficient data to demonstrate the significance of the results. Ground-based tests are arranged for smaller companies to test the feasibility of concepts before committing to the costs of developing hardware. Joint studies of mutual interest are performed by NASA and private sector researchers, and two companies have signed agreements for a series of flights in which launch costs are stretched out to meet projected income. Although Shuttle flights went on hold following the Challenger disaster, extensive work continues on the preparation of commercial research payloads that will fly when Shuttle flights resume.

  9. Commercialization of sustainable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandra, P.; Kristle Nathan, Hippu Salk; Reddy, B. Sudhakara

    2010-01-01

    Commercialization efforts to diffuse sustainable energy technologies (SETs) have so far remained as the biggest challenge in the field of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Limited success of diffusion through government driven pathways urges the need for market based approaches. This paper reviews the existing state of commercialization of SETs in the backdrop of the basic theory of technology diffusion. The different SETs in India are positioned in the technology diffusion map to reflect their slow state of commercialization. The dynamics of SET market is analysed to identify the issues, barriers and stakeholders in the process of SET commercialization. By upgrading the 'potential adopters' to 'techno-entrepreneurs', the study presents the mechanisms for adopting a private sector driven 'business model' approach for successful diffusion of SETs. This is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development with innovative regulatory, marketing, financing, incentive and delivery mechanisms leading to SET commercialization. (author)

  10. Graphene spin valve: An angle sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir, E-mail: zahir.upc@gmail.com [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan); Hussain, Ghulam [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan); Siddique, Salma [Department of Bioscience & Biotechnology, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas [Department of Physics, Riphah Institute of Computing and Applied Sciences (RICAS), Riphah International University, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-06-15

    Graphene spin valves can be optimized for various spintronic applications by tuning the associated experimental parameters. In this work, we report the angle dependent magnetoresistance (MR) in graphene spin valve for different orientations of applied magnetic field (B). The switching points of spin valve signals show a clear shift towards higher B for each increasing angle of the applied field, thus sensing the response for respective orientation of the magnetic field. The angular variation of B shifts the switching points from ±95 G to ±925 G as the angle is varied from 0° to 90° at 300 K. The observed shifts in switching points become more pronounced (±165 G to ±1450 G) at 4.2 K for similar orientation. A monotonic increase in MR ratio is observed as the angle of magnetic field is varied in the vertical direction at 300 K and 4.2 K temperatures. This variation of B (from 0° to 90°) increases the magnitude of MR ratio from ∼0.08% to ∼0.14% at 300 K, while at 4.2 K it progresses to ∼0.39% from ∼0.14%. The sensitivity related to angular variation of such spin valve structure can be employed for angle sensing applications.

  11. A Viewpoint on the Quantity "Plane Angle"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Properties of the quantity "plane angle" are explored under the hypothesis that it is a dimensional quantity. The exploration proceeds especially with respect to the physical concept, its mathematical treatment, vector concepts, measurement theory, units of related quantities, engineering pragmatism, and SI. An attempt is made to bring these different relations into a rational, logical and consistent framework, and thus to justify the hypothesis. Various types of vectorial quantities are recognized, and their properties described with an outline of the necessary algebraic manipulations. The concept of plane angle is amplified, and its interdependence with the circular arc is explored. The resulting units of plane angle form a class of similar scales of measurement. Consequences of the confirmed hypothesis are developed for mathematical expressions involving trigonometric functions, rotational volumes and areas, mathematical limits, differentiation and series expansion. Consequences for mechanical rotational quantities are developed, with proposals for revisions to a number of expressions for derived units within SI. A revised definition for the quantity "plane angle" is stated to take account of the developed insights. There is a clear need to reconsider the status of plane angle and some other quantities within the international framework of SI.

  12. PRIMARY OPEN ANGLE GLAUCOMA IN THYROID DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Garg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE To assess the association of thyroid profile with open angle glaucoma. DESIGN Cross-sectional observational study. MATERIAL AND METHOD 128 cases of diagnosed thyroid disorder were enrolled. 5 cases dropped out. Ocular examination included applanation tonometry, stereoscopic optic disc photography, and automated perimetry. Correlative association of thyroid disorder and open angle glaucoma was assessed. RESULTS Of 123 patients of thyroid disorder, 87.8% had hypothyroidism and remaining 12.2% had hyperthyroidism. 15.74% of hypothyroidism and 20% of hyperthyroidism patients had open angle glaucoma, which was statistically significant (Pearson chi-square: Value=6.548, df=2, p=0.040. On multivariate analysis with other risk factors like female sex, family history of glaucoma, myopia, hypertension, and diabetes; it was found that hypothyroidism is an independent risk factor for open angle glaucoma. CONCLUSION All patients having thyroid disorder should be investigated for early diagnosis of open angle glaucoma so that if need be antiglaucoma treatment is started at the earliest and the eye maybe saved from any further deterioration.

  13. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  14. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  15. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: ..cap alpha.. = initial photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..cap alpha../sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..beta.. = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV.

  16. On the dip angle of subducting plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsui, Albert T.; Tang, Xiao-Ming; Toksoz, M. Nafi

    1990-01-01

    A new approximate analytic model is developed for the thermal structure of a subducting plate with a finite length. This model provides the capability of easily examining the thermal and mechanical structure of a subducting plate with different lengths and at different angles. Also, the torque balance of a descending plate can be examined, and effects such as the leading edge effect, the adiabatic compression effect, and the phase change effect can be incorporated. A comparison with observed data indicates that short slabs are likely under torque equilibrium at present, while long slabs are probably dominated by their gravitational torques such that their dip angles are transient, moving toward a steeper dip angle similar to that of the Mariana slab.

  17. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: α = initial photon energy in units of m 0 c 2 ; α/sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m 0 c 2 ; β = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV

  18. Precision measurements of the CKM angle gamma

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The level of CP-violation permitted within the Standard Model cannot account for the matter dominated universe in which we live. Within the Standard Model the CKM matrix, which describes the quark couplings, is expected to be unitary. By making precise measurements of the CKM matrix parameters new physics models can be constrained, or with sufficient precision the effects of physics beyond the standard model might become apparent. The CKM angle gamma is the least well known angle of the unitarity triangle. It is the only angle easily accessible at tree-level, and furthermore has almost no theoretical uncertainties. Therefore it provides an invaluable Standard Model benchmark against which other new physics sensitive tests of the CP-violation can be made. I will discuss recent measurements of gamma using the the Run 1 LHCb dataset, which improve our knowledge of this key parameter.

  19. Flocking and invariance of velocity angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Le; Huang, Lihong; Wu, Jianhong

    2016-04-01

    Motsch and Tadmor considered an extended Cucker-Smale model to investigate the flocking behavior of self-organized systems of interacting species. In this extended model, a cone of the vision was introduced so that outside the cone the influence of one agent on the other is lost and hence the corresponding influence function takes the value zero. This creates a problem to apply the Motsch-Tadmor and Cucker-Smale method to prove the flocking property of the system. Here, we examine the variation of the velocity angles between two arbitrary agents, and obtain a monotonicity property for the maximum cone of velocity angles. This monotonicity permits us to utilize existing arguments to show the flocking property of the system under consideration, when the initial velocity angles satisfy some minor technical constraints.

  20. A heterodyne interferometer for angle metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Inseob; Weilert, M.; Wang, X.; Goullioud, R.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a compact, high-resolution, angle measurement instrument based on a heterodyne interferometer. Common-path heterodyne interferometer metrology is used to measure displacements of a reflective target surface. In the interferometer set up, an optical mask is used to sample the laser beam reflecting back from four areas on a target surface. From the relative displacement measurements of the target surface areas, we can simultaneously determine angular rotations around two orthogonal axes in a plane perpendicular to the measurement beam propagation direction. The device is used in a testbed for a tracking telescope system where pitch and yaw angle measurements of a flat mirror are performed. Angle noise measurement of the device shows 0.1 nrad/√(Hz) at 1 Hz, at a working distance of 1 m. The operation range and nonlinearity of the device when used with a flat mirror is approximately ±0.15 mrad, and 3 μrad rms, respectively.

  1. Positron Emission Mammography with Multiple Angle Acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Raymond R. Raylman

    2002-11-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in breast tumors with dedicated detectors typically has been accomplished with two planar detectors in a fixed position with the breast under compression. The potential use of PEM imaging at two detector positions to guide stereotactic breast biopsy has motivated us to use PEM coincidence data acquired at two or more detector positions together in a single image reconstruction. Multiple angle PEM acquisition and iterative image reconstruction were investigated using point source and compressed breast phantom acquisitions with 5, 9, 12 and 15 mm diameter spheres and a simulated tumor:background activity concentration ratio of 6:1. Image reconstruction was performed with an iterative MLEM algorithm that used coincidence events between any two detector pixels on opposed detector heads at each detector position. This present study compared two acquisition protocols: 2 angle acquisition with detector angular positions of -15 and +15 degrees and 11 angle acquisition with detector positions spaced at 3 degree increments over the range -15 to +15 degrees. Three- dimensional image resolution was assessed for the point source acquisitions, and contrast and signal-to-noise metrics were evaluated for the compressed breast phantom with different simulated tumor sizes. Radial and tangential resolutions were similar for the two protocols, while normal resolution was better for the 2 angle acquisition. Analysis is complicated by the asymmetric point spread functions. Signal- to-noise vs. contrast tradeoffs were better for 11 angle acquisition for the smallest visible 9 mm sphere, while tradeoff results were mixed for the larger and more easily visible 12 mm and 15 mm diameter spheres. Additional study is needed to better understand the performance of limited angle tomography for PEM. PEM tomography experiments with complete angular sampling are planned.

  2. Positron Emission Mammography with Multiple Angle Acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Raymond R. Raylman

    2002-11-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FbG) uptake in breast tumors with dedicated detectors typically has been accomplished with two planar detectors in a fixed position with the breast under compression. The potential use of PEM imaging at two detector positions to guide stereotactic breast biopsy has motivated us to use PEM coincidence data acquired at two or more detector positions together in a single image reconstruction. Multiple angle PEM acquisition and iterative image reconstruction were investigated using point source and compressed breast phantom acquisitions with 5, 9, 12 and 15 mm diameter spheres and a simulated tumor:background activity concentration ratio of 6:1. Image reconstruction was performed with an iterative MLEM algorithm that used coincidence events between any two detector pixels on opposed detector heads at each detector position. This present study compared two acquisition protocols: 2 angle acquisition with detector angular positions of -15 and +15 degrees and 11 angle acquisition with detector positions spaced at 3 degree increments over the range -15 to +15 degrees. Three-dimensional image resolution was assessed for the point source acquisitions, and contrast and signal-to-noise metrics were evaluated for the compressed breast phantom with different simulated tumor sizes. Radial and tangential resolutions were similar for the two protocols, while normal resolution was better for the 2 angle acquisition. Analysis is complicated by the asymmetric point spread functions. Signal- to-noise vs. contrast tradeoffs were better for 11 angle acquisition for the smallest visible 9 mm sphere, while tradeoff results were mixed for the larger and more easily visible 12 mm and 15 mm diameter spheres. Additional study is needed to better understand the performance of limited angle tomography for PEM. PEM tomography experiments with complete angular sampling are planned.

  3. Angles between Curves in Metric Measure Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Bang-Xian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to study the angle between two curves in the framework of metric (and metric measure spaces. More precisely, we give a new notion of angle between two curves in a metric space. Such a notion has a natural interplay with optimal transportation and is particularly well suited for metric measure spaces satisfying the curvature-dimension condition. Indeed one of the main results is the validity of the cosine formula on RCD*(K, N metric measure spaces. As a consequence, the new introduced notions are compatible with the corresponding classical ones for Riemannian manifolds, Ricci limit spaces and Alexandrov spaces.

  4. Small angle neutron scattering and small angle X-ray scattering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The morphology of carbon nanofoam samples comprising platinum nanopar- ticles dispersed in the matrix was characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results show that the structure of pores of carbon matrix exhibits a mass (pore) fractal nature ...

  5. Using Digital Technology to See Angles from Different Angles. Part 2: Openings and Turns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Erin; Baynham, Emily; McMaster, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Ever wondered how to use technology to teach angles? This article follows on from an earlier article published last year, providing a range of ideas for integrating technology and concrete materials with the teaching of angle concepts. The authors also provide a comprehensive list of free online games and learning objects that can be used to teach…

  6. Long-term outcomes after acute primary angle closure of Caucasian chronic angle closure glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fea, Antonio Maria; Dallorto, Laura; Lavia, Carlo; Pignata, Giulia; Rolle, Teresa; Aung, Tin

    2017-07-19

    There is a lack of information about long-term results of chronic angle closure glaucoma following an acute primary angle closure attack in Caucasian patients. The aim of the study was to report morphological and functional long-term data of chronic angle closure eyes following a monolateral primary angle closure attack and to provide a comparison with their fellow eyes. Observational retrospective case series. Fifty-seven consecutive patients (114 eyes) underwent long-term follow-up analysis. Patients underwent ophthalmic assessment more than 5 years since the angle closure attack. Intraocular pressure, best-corrected visual acuity, angle assessment, vertical C/D ratio and standard automated perimetry were the main outcome measures. Comparisons were made between angle closure attack eyes and fellow eyes and between phakic and pseudophakic eyes. Mean follow-up time was 5.86 ± 1.19 years. A significant greater damage in the angle closure eyes compared with fellow eyes in both structural (mean C/D 0.61 ± 0.16; P APAC attack to prevent potential glaucoma damage in both APAC and fellow eye. © 2017 The Authors Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  7. Small angle neutron scattering and small angle X-ray scattering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. *Corresponding author ... ticles dispersed in the matrix was characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle X-ray ... for scattering from rough pore–mass interfaces, α > 3 and the (surface) fractal dimension Ds = 6 ...

  8. Sharper angle, higher risk? The effect of cutting angle on knee mechanics in invasion sport athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, Mervin J.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cutting is an important skill in team-sports, but unfortunately is also related to non-contact ACL injuries. The purpose was to examine knee kinetics and kinematics at different cutting angles. Material and methods: 13 males and 16 females performed cuts at different angles (45°, 90°,

  9. Small angle neutron scattering and small angle X-ray scattering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... Small angle neutron scattering and small angle X-ray scattering studies of platinum-loaded carbon foams. P U Sastry V K Aswal A G Wagh ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November ...

  10. Angle at the Medial Border: The Spinovertebra Angle and Its Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Oladipo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The evolution from quadrupedalism to bipedalism has adjusted the balance of the upper limb to extensive movement at the shoulder. The scapular angles provide the point of attachment and control to various muscles and have been associated with the different movements of the shoulder girdle and joint. This has made the morphometric and anthropometric study of scapula a subject of extensive investigation. Aim. In the present study, the angle at the medial border was measured in the South-Southern Nigerian population and an anatomical name was ascribed to the angle. Method. The study was conducted on 173 scapulae (75 right and 98 left obtained from various Anatomy Department of South-Sothern Nigerian Universities. The angle at medial border was obtained by pinning the edge of the superior and inferior angles, the lined traced out, and the angle measured using a protractor. SPSS version 20 was used to analyse the data. t-test was used to determine mean angular difference in the sides. Result. The mean ± SD of the medial angle was observed to be 136.88 ± 7.70° (R = 138.13 ± 7.06° : L = 135.92 ± 8.05°. Statistical analysis using the Z-test for mean difference showed the medial angle was found to be higher in the right side of the scapula (mean difference of 2.214 ± 1.152°, but the observed difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. The above findings have adjusted the scapula from three to four angles (lateral, superior, inferior, and medial formed from four borders (lateral, superior, inferior, and superomedial and inferomedial. The medial angle because of its anatomical location was named “spinovertebral” angle, owing to its position at the scapulae spine, and located in medial proximity to the vertebra column. Conclusion. The medial angle (now referred to as the spinovertebral angle of the right side of the scapula is wider than the left. The representation of the spinovertebral angle is very important, as

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Boilers that are effective as of...

  12. Intitutional constraints to fusion commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The major thrust of this report is that the long time frame associated with the development of commercial fusion systems in the context of the commercialization and institutional history of an allied technology, fission-power, suggests that fusion commercialization will not occur without active and broad-based support on the part of the Nation's political leaders. Its key recommendation is that DOE fusion planners devote considerable resources to analytical efforts aimed at determining the need for fusion and the timing of that need, in order to convince policymakers that they need do more than preserve fusion as an option for application at some indefinite point in the future. It is the thesis of the report that, in fact, an act of political vision on the part of the Nation's leaders will be required to accomplish fusion commercialization

  13. Allegheny County Commercial Vehicle Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset lists the locations and results of all commercial vehicle inspections performed by the Allegheny County Police Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program...

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Griddles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Griddles that are effective as of May...

  16. SHORT ANALYSIS OF COMMERCIAL ADVERTISING

    OpenAIRE

    VIRGIL - ION POPOVICI

    2015-01-01

    In DEX, commercial advertising is defined as the (commercial) activity which aimes by advertising (by prints, radio, television, movies, etc.), to point out public interest on certain goods, books, show, the use of services etc. A famous, advertised product remains in our memory. Many of us ask somehow annoyed: How some of the brands remain in our memory, although we believe that we are not strongly influenced by advertisements? Interest publicity led to the creation of specialize...

  17. Industry's Commercial Initiatives on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, C. E.; Kessler, C.; Lavitola, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    For more than ten years, private industry has worked to develop a commercial human space market and to create a sustainable ISS commercial utilization customer base. Before ISS assembly was underway - and long before NASA and the international space agencies began to craft ISS commercial business terms and conditions - industry planted and nurtured the seeds of interest in exploiting human space utilization for commerce. These early initiatives have yielded the impetus and framework for industry approaches to ISS commercial utilization today and for NASA's and the International Partners' planned accommodation of private sector interests and desires on the ISS. This paper chronicles major industry initiatives for commercial ISS utilization, emphasizing successful marketing and business approaches and why these approaches have a higher likelihood of success than others. It provides an overview of individual companies' initiatives, as well as collaborative efforts that cross company lines and country borders; and it assesses the relative success of each. Rather than emphasize negative issues and barriers, this paper characterizes and prioritizes actionable success factors for industry and government to make ISS commercial utilization a sustainable reality.

  18. CKM matrix exponential parametrization and Euler angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattoli, G.; Sabia, E.; Torre, A.

    1997-01-01

    They show that the exponential parametrization of the CKM matrix allows to establish exact relations between the Euler weak rotation angles and the entries of the CKM generating matrix, which has already been shown to include the hierarchy features of the Wolfenstein parametrization. The analysis includes CP-violating effects and its usefulness to treat the experimental data is also proved

  19. Gaugings at angles from orientifold reductions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, D.

    2009-01-01

    We consider orientifold reductions to N = 4 gauged supergravity in four dimensions. A special feature of this theory is that different factors of the gauge group can have relative angles with respect to the electro-magnetic SL(2) symmetry. These are crucial for moduli stabilization and de Sitter

  20. Experimental technique of small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Qingzhong; Chen Bo

    2006-03-01

    The main parts of Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) spectrometer, and their function and different parameters are introduced from experimental aspect. Detailed information is also introduced for SANS spectrometer 'Membrana-2'. Based on practical experiments, the fundamental requirements and working condition for SANS experiments, including sample preparation, detector calibration, standard sample selection and data preliminary process are described. (authors)

  1. The resection angle in apical surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Janner, Simone F M; Jensen, Simon S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the present radiographic study was to analyse the resection angle in apical surgery and its correlation with treatment outcome, type of treated tooth, surgical depth and level of root-end filling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the context of a prospective clinical...

  2. A thin film magnetoresistive angle detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, C.J.M.; Wieberdink, Johan W.; Fluitman, J.H.J.; Popma, T.J.A.; Groot, Peter; Leeuwis, Henk

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of the results of our research on a contactless angle detector based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect (AMR effect) in a permalloy thin film. The results of high-temperature annealing treatment of the pemalloy film are discussed. Such a treatment suppresses the effects

  3. A small-angle neutron scattering study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    400Da [9]. Low-angle X-ray scattering [10] and neutron scattering [11] also in- dicated serum albumin to be a prolate ellipsoid. However, studies using 1H NMR indicated that a prolate structure was unlikely; rather a heart-shaped structure was proposed [12]. The shape of albumin reveals a heart-shaped molecule that can.

  4. Solid angle subtended by two circular discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilly, Louis.

    1978-09-01

    Methods of calculation of solid angles, subtended by two circular discs are analysed. Calculus are methodically classified as follow: series development Legendre polynomes, defined integral, elliptic integrals, Bessel integrals, multiple integrals, Monte Carlo method, electrostatic analogy. Applications in Nuclear Physics are added as examples. List of numeric tables completes bibliography [fr

  5. Small Angle Light Scattering by Biological Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdzenishvili, L.; Melikishvili, Z.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the small angle laser radiation scattering by the particles of different shape and size is analyzed. Experimental results and theoretical calculations show that after ejection from bacteriophage DNA forms the scattering medium consisted of quasi-spherical elements with radius of R⁓10λ 0 . (author)

  6. Direct angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since 1997 we systematically perform direct angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) on in-situ grown thin (< 30 nm) cuprate films. Specifically, we probe low-energy electronic structure and properties of high-c superconductors (HTSC) under different degrees of epitaxial (compressive vs. tensile) strain.

  7. Right-Angle Mechanized Electrical Connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Clint A.; Blackler, David T.

    1996-01-01

    Right-angle electrical connector embedded in mechanism accommodates some initial misalignment and aligns itself. Connection and disconnection effected with relatively small forces and torques and simple movements. Actuated by one gloved hand or by robotic manipulator. Useful in underwater, nuclear, hot, cold, or toxic environments in which connections made or broken by heavily clothed technicians or by robots.

  8. A small angle neutron scattering study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nanocrystalline nickel oxide powders were calcined at 300, 600 and 900°C and pore structure evolution was followed by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Pore size distributions at two widely separated size ranges have been revealed. Shrinkage of larger-sized pore with reduction in polydispersity has been observed ...

  9. SANS-1: Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Heinemann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The new small angle scattering instrument SANS-1, jointly operated by the Technische Universität München and GEMS, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, has completed commissioning and is in regular user service (Gilles et al., 2006. SANS-1 is located at the end of neutron guide NL4a in the Neutron Guide Hall West.

  10. SANS-1: Small angle neutron scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, André; Mühlbauer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The new small angle scattering instrument SANS-1, jointly operated by the Technische Universität München and GEMS, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, has completed commissioning and is in regular user service (Gilles et al., 2006). SANS-1 is located at the end of neutron guide NL4a in the Neutron Guide Hall West.

  11. A small-angle neutron scattering investigation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hence, the steel is used in aircraft, nuclear reactor, petrochemical plants and many other industries. However, presence of carbide formers such as Mo and Cr war- rants the possibility of carbide precipitates in the structure and in turn affects the mechanical properties. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is an important ...

  12. Measurement of the angle alpha at BABAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present recent measurements of the CKM angle α using data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e + e - collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, operating at the Υ(4S) resonance. They present constraints on α from B → ππ, B → ρρ and B → ρπ decays.

  13. Evaluation of protein dihedral angle prediction methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harinder Singh

    Full Text Available Tertiary structure prediction of a protein from its amino acid sequence is one of the major challenges in the field of bioinformatics. Hierarchical approach is one of the persuasive techniques used for predicting protein tertiary structure, especially in the absence of homologous protein structures. In hierarchical approach, intermediate states are predicted like secondary structure, dihedral angles, Cα-Cα distance bounds, etc. These intermediate states are used to restraint the protein backbone and assist its correct folding. In the recent years, several methods have been developed for predicting dihedral angles of a protein, but it is difficult to conclude which method is better than others. In this study, we benchmarked the performance of dihedral prediction methods ANGLOR and SPINE X on various datasets, including independent datasets. TANGLE dihedral prediction method was not benchmarked (due to unavailability of its standalone and was compared with SPINE X and ANGLOR on only ANGLOR dataset on which TANGLE has reported its results. It was observed that SPINE X performed better than ANGLOR and TANGLE, especially in case of prediction of dihedral angles of glycine and proline residues. The analysis suggested that angle shifting was the foremost reason of better performance of SPINE X. We further evaluated the performance of the methods on independent ccPDB30 dataset and observed that SPINE X performed better than ANGLOR.

  14. Measurement of critical angle in SSTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, A.; Serra, D.A.B.

    1984-01-01

    A method of measurement of critical angles of etching is described, relying upon the distortion caused in the shape of the distribution in the number of etched tracks of ions emitted from a 'point-like' source. The method is applied to quartz and mica samples. (author)

  15. Experimental verification of gamma-efficiency calculations for scintillation detectors in ANGLE 4 software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabet Abouzeid A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ANGLE software for semiconductor detector efficiency calculations - long existing and widely accepted tool in quantitative gamma spectrometry - has been recently extended to scintillation NaI detectors. The extension features in the latest edition (ANGLE 4 and it is briefly outlined. Discretization of reference efficiency curve, meaning possibility of using ANGLE 4 for particular gamma energies without constructing the complete reference efficiency curve, is particularly emphasized. This yields both in enhanced practicality and higher accuracy, while reducing the potential for systematic errors. The present work is primarily focussed on experimental verification of ANGLE 4 for NaI detectors. Two detectors (2 ´ 2 and 3 x 3 inches were employed in the experiment. Commercially calibrated gamma sources (in the forms of quasi point and cylinder and homemade solutions (diluted from calibrated ones were measured at various distances from the detector(s, ranging 0 cm to 50 cm. Energy range observed was 59 keV to 1408 keV. Versatility of counting conditions, in terms of detectors and sources used, gamma energies observed, source detector separations, etc., was aimed at creating as large experimental evidence as possible for verification purposes. Experimentally obtained efficiencies are compared with those calculated by ANGLE 4. Very good agreement is obtained - well within the experimental uncertainties - thus proving the reliability of the software.

  16. Commercial books under Turkish commercial laws concerning accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batuhan Güvemli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La modernización de las leyes comerciales de Turquía tiene una historia de 160 años (1850-2010. Los movimientos de occidentalización (Imperial Edicto de 1839 dentro del Imperio Otomano trajeron consigo la creación de la primera ley comercial, Kanunname-i Ticaret (1850 a 1926. Desde 1926 otras tres leyes comerciales fueron promulgadas. En este estudio, examinamos los libros de comercio dentro de esas cuatro leyes comerciales en el ámbito de la contabilidad. Nuestro objetivo es entender los efectos de los cambios de reglamentación comercial sobre la evolución de la cultura turca de contabilidad. Los resultados indican que debido a la ley islámica (Sharia, la aplicación de la ley comercial de 1850 no se había extendido. Las disposiciones legales que entraron en vigor con el establecimiento de la República en 1923 han hecho posible la promulgación de nuevas leyes comerciales. Así, el estudio también se ocupa del proyecto de ley de Derecho Mercantil de Turquía de 2005.The modernization of the Turkish commercial laws has a history of 160 years (1850-2010. The westernization movements (Imperial Edict of 1839 within the Ottoman Empire effected the establishment of the first commercial law, Kanunname-i Ticaret (1850-1926. Since 1926, three other commercial laws were enacted. In this study, we examine the commercial books within those four commercial laws under the scope of accounting. Our aim is to understand the effects of the commercial regulatory changes on the evolution of the Turkish accounting culture. Findings indicate that due to the Islamic law (Sharia, the application the commercial law of 1850 was not widespread. The legal regulations which were put into force with the establishment of the Republic in 1923 have made the enactment of new commercial laws possible. Thus, the study also addresses to the bill of Turkish Commercial Law dated 2005.

  17. Intra- and Interobserver Reliability of the Cobb Angle-Vertebral Rotation Angle-Spinous Process Angle for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Amanda C Y; Morrison, Devlin G; Nguyen, Duc V; Hill, Douglas L; Parent, Eric; Lou, Edmond H M

    2014-05-01

    A reliability analysis of Cobb angle, vertebral rotation (VR), and spinous process angle (SPA) measurements in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To determine the intra- and interobserver reliability of semi-automated digital radiograph measurements. Cobb angle measurements on posteroanterior radiographs are commonly used to determine the severity of scoliosis. Vertebral rotation helps assess scoliosis 3-dimensionally and has a role in predicting curve progression. Recent studies have shown that the spinous process angle is a useful parameter in assessing scoliosis when using ultrasound imaging. Because the reliability of SPA measurements on radiographs has yet to be determined, it is important to compare the reliability of these 3 parameters (Cobb angle, VR, and SPA) using a computer assisted semi-automated method. Sixty posteroanterior radiographs of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were obtained and measured twice by 3 observers who were blinded to their previous measurements, using an in-house developed program. Measurements were obtained using a semi-automated method to minimize variability resulting from observer reliability. The intra- and interobserver reliabilities were analyzed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) as well as Bland-Altman's bias and limits of agreement. Over 350 (intra) and 90 (inter) sets of curves with an average Cobb angle of 26° ± 9° (range, 10° to 44°) were compared for each parameter. Intra-observer reliabilities for each parameter were excellent (ICC [2,1] , .82; 1.00), with mean absolute differences under 3° between most measurements. Interobserver reliability (ICC [2,1] , .72; .95) was mostly good to excellent, with mean absolute differences ranging from 2.0° to 5.6°. Both the intra- and interobserver assessment of the Cobb, VR, and SPA from the semi-automated measurements had clinically acceptable reliability ranges and may be considered for clinical implementation. Additional studies will be

  18. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  19. 36 CFR 5.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 5.6... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in... used in connection with any business. (b) The use of government roads within park areas by commercial...

  20. Anatomic predictors for anterior chamber angle opening after laser peripheral iridotomy in narrow angle eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guofu; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Lee, Roland; Osmonavic, Senad; Leeungurasatien, Thidarat; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan C

    2012-07-01

    To investigate anterior chamber parameters and biometric factors associated with degree of angle opening after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) for narrow angles. In this prospective cohort study, patients with narrow angles who were scheduled for LPI were recruited. Anterior chamber parameters by anterior segment coherence tomography (ASOCT) under dark conditions were compared before and after LPI. Only the right eye was used for analysis if both eyes were eligible. Measurements performed by customized software included anterior chamber depth, iris area, angle opening distance at 500 µm (AOD500) anterior to the scleral spur, iris thickness at 750 µm from sclera spur (IT750), trabecular-iris space area 500 (TISA500), and iris curvature (I-Curv). Univariate and multiple regression analyses were performed to determine the predictive factors of angle opening after LPI. Eighty-one patients with narrow angles were prospectively recruited in this study. The AOD500 increased significantly from 0.128 ± 0.081 mm (before) to 0.209 ± 0.087 mm (after) in the nasal quadrant, and from 0.103 ± 0.067 mm (before) to 0.197 ± 0.071 mm (after) in the temporal quadrant (p chamber angle widening after LPI were older age, smaller iris area, and steeper iris.

  1. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  2. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M andO 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  3. Benchmarking Commercial Conformer Ensemble Generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Nils-Ole; de Bruyn Kops, Christina; Flachsenberg, Florian; Sommer, Kai; Rarey, Matthias; Kirchmair, Johannes

    2017-11-27

    We assess and compare the performance of eight commercial conformer ensemble generators (ConfGen, ConfGenX, cxcalc, iCon, MOE LowModeMD, MOE Stochastic, MOE Conformation Import, and OMEGA) and one leading free algorithm, the distance geometry algorithm implemented in RDKit. The comparative study is based on a new version of the Platinum Diverse Dataset, a high-quality benchmarking dataset of 2859 protein-bound ligand conformations extracted from the PDB. Differences in the performance of commercial algorithms are much smaller than those observed for free algorithms in our previous study (J. Chem. Inf. 2017, 57, 529-539). For commercial algorithms, the median minimum root-mean-square deviations measured between protein-bound ligand conformations and ensembles of a maximum of 250 conformers are between 0.46 and 0.61 Å. Commercial conformer ensemble generators are characterized by their high robustness, with at least 99% of all input molecules successfully processed and few or even no substantial geometrical errors detectable in their output conformations. The RDKit distance geometry algorithm (with minimization enabled) appears to be a good free alternative since its performance is comparable to that of the midranked commercial algorithms. Based on a statistical analysis, we elaborate on which algorithms to use and how to parametrize them for best performance in different application scenarios.

  4. Commission of the commercial agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author analyses the commercial agent's commission as the most important type of remuneration for commercial agency. In the European Union the issue of commercial agent's commission is regulated in the Directive 86/653/EEC on self-employed commercial agents, whereas the Serbian Law on Obligations has still not been harmonised with those rules. Such state of law would change if and when the new Serbian Civil Code is enacted, since its latest Draft contains numerous new solutions, which were inspired by the Directive. The first part of the paper is dedicated to defining the term 'commission' and its distinguishing from the wider term 'remuneration'. Thereafter, the main types of commission are explained. The following part investigates whether the commission or its specific type constitutes essentialia or naturalia negotii of the contract on commercial agency. Finally, the last part of the paper deals with the amount and the extent of covering costs by the commission, in the absence of any agreement on that matter.

  5. Contact angle and contact angle hysteresis measurements using the capillary bridge technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restagno, Frédéric; Poulard, Christophe; Cohen, Céline; Vagharchakian, Laurianne; Léger, Liliane

    2009-09-15

    A new experimental technique is proposed to easily measure both advancing and receding contact angles of a liquid on a solid surface, with unprecedented accuracy. The technique is based on the analysis of the evolution of a capillary bridge formed between a liquid bath and a solid surface (which needs to be spherical) when the distance between the surface and the liquid bath is slowly varied. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated using a low-energy perfluorinated surface with two different test liquids (water and hexadecane). A detailed description of both experimental procedures and computational modeling are given, allowing one to determine contact angle values. It is shown that the origin of the high accuracy of this technique relies on the fact that the contact angles are automatically averaged over the whole periphery of the contact. This method appears to be particularly adapted to the characterization of surfaces with very low contact angle hysteresis.

  6. Commercial formalin substitutes for histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, P; Lyon, H

    1997-01-01

    We compared the performance of six commercial fixatives proposed to be formalin substitutes with the performance of buffered formalin, Clarke's ethanol-acetic acid, and ethanol, using rat liver, small intestine, and kidney. We investigated the rate of penetration, mode of fixation, extent...... performed equally well on all tissues tested. While several of the commercial fixatives appeared to preserve liver tissue at 200x, the preservation of kidney, intestinal villi, and smooth muscle was unacceptable. Histological distortion, cell shrinkage and vacuolization were prominent when the substitutes...... was obtained by combining formalin fixation with antigen retrieval. We conclude that none of the proposed commercial substitutes for buffered formalin are adequate for critical histology or histopathology....

  7. New Phenomenon of Commercial Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Nowakowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is about increase corruption in private sector as commercial corruption. This establishes a wide understanding of that phenomenon in social science and law. Corruption and bribery are types of fraud and are linked with the private sector too. Although certain types of corruption will decline as the private sector grows and consolidates, other new types involving private sector firms may increase. The commercial corruption can be described as relation inside of an organization and as relation between firms. Corruption in private sector in Poland is connected with social distrust and specific organizational culture, too. Commercial corruption is a familiar feature of their societies and has been the focus of law enforcement and institutional reform. Many others problems do not change the fact that such corruption is a new important problem and causes lost of competitiveness and creates a substitute for fair market and competition in Polish economy and abroad.

  8. Introduction to small-angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Small angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS) are ideal tools for studying the structure of materials in the size range between 10 and 1000 Angstrom. While imaging methods such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) also have this capability, they provide images in real space, for instance individual grains in a nanocrystalline material. SANS and SAXS, on the other hand, provide (generally) a non-destructive method yielding structural information averaged over all grains with high statistical accuracy due to averaging over the whole sample volume. The use of neutrons and X-rays is also implicitly complementary due to their sensitivity to either nuclear or electron density respectively. This provides several further advantages over real-space techniques such as isotopic sensitivity and contrast variation. In this talk, I will provide an introduction to the technique with a minimum number of equations, emphasising what structural information may be obtained from small-angle scattering

  9. Fan Stagger Angle for Dirt Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Edward J. (Inventor); Rose, Becky E. (Inventor); Brilliant, Lisa I. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A gas turbine engine includes a spool, a turbine coupled to drive the spool, a propulsor coupled to be rotated about an axis by the turbine through the spool, and a gear assembly coupled between the propulsor and the spool such that rotation of the turbine drives the propulsor at a different speed than the spool. The propulsor includes a hub and a row of propulsor blades that extend from the hub. Each of the propulsor blades has a span between a root at the hub and a tip, and a chord between a leading edge and a trailing edge. The chord forms a stagger angle alpha with the axis, and the stagger angle alpha is less than 15 deg. at a position along the propulsor blade that is within an inboard 20% of the span.

  10. The small angle diffractometer SANS at PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    With the start-up of SINQ an instrument for small angle neutron scattering will be operational which compares well with the world`s largest and most powerful facilities of this kind. Following the classical principle of the D11-instrument of ILL, it is equipped with state-of-the-art components as are nowadays available, including options for further upgrading. Great emphasis was laid upon providing a flexible, universal multi-user facility which guarantees a comfortable and reliable operation. In the present paper, the principle layout of the instrument is presented, and the individual components are described in detail. The paper concludes with model application of small angle scattering to a system of dilute CuCo alloys which undergo a phase separation under thermal treatment, forming spherical Co-precipitates dispersed in a Cu-rich matrix. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs.

  11. Didactical Design Enrichment of Angle in Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiadi, D. R.; Suryadi, D.; Mulyana, E.

    2017-09-01

    The underlying problem of this research is the lack of student’s competencies in understanding the concept of angle in geometry as the results of the teaching and learning pattern that only to receive the topic rather than to construct the topic and has not paid attention to the learning trajectory. The purpose of this research is to develop the didactical design of angle in space learning activity. The used research method is a method of qualitative research in the form of a didactical design research through three phases of analysis i.e. didactical situation analysis, metapedadidactical analysis, and retrospective analysis, which conducted in students from 10th grade at one of private schools in Bandung. Based on the results of research and discussion, the didactical design that has been made, is capable to change student’s learning habit and quite capable to develop student’s competencies although not optimal.

  12. Exclusive Backward-Angle Omega Meson Electroproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenliang, Li [Univ. of Regina, Regina, SK (Canada)

    2017-10-01

    Exclusive meson electroproduction at different squared four-momenta of the exchanged virtual photon, Q2 , and at different four-momentum transfers, t and u, can be used to probe QCD's transition from hadronic degrees of freedom at the long distance scale to quark-gluon degrees of freedom at the short distance scale. Backward-angle meson electroproduction was previously ignored, but is anticipated to offer complimentary information to conventional forward-angle meson electroproduction studies on nucleon structure. This work is a pioneering study of backward-angle ω cross sections through the exclusive 1H(e, e'p)ω reaction using the missing mass reconstruction technique. The extracted cross sections are separated into the transverse (T), longitudinal (L), and LT, TT interference terms. The analyzed data were part of experiment E01-004 (Fπ-2), which used 2.6-5.2 GeV electron beams and HMS+SOS spectrometers in Jefferson Lab Hall C. The primary objective was to detect coincidence π in the forward-angle, where the backward-angle omega events were fortuitously detected. The experiment has central Q2 values of 1.60 and 2.45 GeV2 , at W = 2.21 GeV. There was significant coverage in phi and epsilon, which allowed separation of σT,L,LT,TT . The data set has a unique u coverage of -u ~ 0, which corresponds to -t > 4 GeV2 . The separated σT result suggest a flat ~ 1/Q1.33±1.21 dependence, whereas sigma_L seems to hold a stronger 1/Q9.43±6.28 dependence. The σL/σT ratio indicate σT dominance at Q2 = 2.45 GeV2 at the ~90% confidence level. After translating the results into the -t space of the published CLAS data, our data show evidence of a backward-angle omega electroproduction peak at both Q2 settings. Previously, this phenomenon showing both forward and backward-angle peaks was only observed in the meson

  13. What's the angle: a study of the angle bisected in intraoral radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson-Hing, L R

    1980-01-01

    Intraoral radiographs were made via the bisecting-the-angle technique on patients of different ages, sexes, and races. The tooth-film angles for various areas of the mouth were measured and found to be close to 30 degrees for all areas of the mouth except the mandibular posterior regions. The study was conducted to assist in quick positioning of the x-ray beam in difficult cases.

  14. Measurement of the angle alpha at BABAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, A.; /Orsay, LAL

    2009-06-25

    The authors present recent measurements of the CKM angle {alpha} using data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, operating at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. They present constraints on {alpha} from B {yields} {pi}{pi}, B {yields} {rho}{rho} and B {yields} {rho}{pi} decays.

  15. Small-Angle Scattering on Magnetoferritin Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balejčíková Petrenko, L., VI; Avdeev, MV; Garamus, VM; Almásy, L.; Kopčanský, P.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetoferritin is a synthetically prepared magnetic bio-complex, consisting of apoferritin shell and iron-based nanoparticles. Superparamagnetic behaviour, nanoscale size (about 12 nm) and biological origin allow to use magnetoferritin in various applications. In this report, we present a general overview about basic physicochemical properties of magnetoferritin, as determined by small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering experiments and some interesting references on their potential bio-applications.

  16. Neutron Reflectivity and Grazing Angle Diffraction

    OpenAIRE

    Ankner, J. F.; Majkrzak, C. F.; Satija, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, neutron reflectivity has emerged as a powerful technique for the investigation of surface and interfacial phenomena in many different fields. In this paper, a short review of some of the work on neutron reflectivity and grazing-angle diffraction as well as a description of the current and planned neutron rcflectometers at NIST is presented. Specific examples of the characterization of magnetic, superconducting, and polymeric surfaces and interfaces are included.

  17. Neutron Reflectivity and Grazing Angle Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankner, J F; Majkrzak, C F; Satija, S K

    1993-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, neutron reflectivity has emerged as a powerful technique for the investigation of surface and interfacial phenomena in many different fields. In this paper, a short review of some of the work on neutron reflectivity and grazing-angle diffraction as well as a description of the current and planned neutron rcflectometers at NIST is presented. Specific examples of the characterization of magnetic, superconducting, and polymeric surfaces and interfaces are included.

  18. Ultra small angle scattering versus diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, O.; Treimer, W.; Strobl, M.; Feye-Treimer, U.; Beul, N.; Jericha, E.; Seidel, S. O.

    2010-11-01

    In the case of ultra small angle (neutron or x-ray) scattering (USANS, USAXS) it may happen that structures under investigations are not fully coherently illuminated by the incident wave. Despite this fact interference effects are observed similar to SAS data. In this case the measured scattering patterns must be different interpreted. We propose a procedure to calculate and adapt such scattering patterns to experimental data.

  19. Ultra small angle scattering versus diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, O; Treimer, W; Strobl, M; Feye-Treimer, U; Beul, N; Jericha, E; Seidel, S O

    2010-01-01

    In the case of ultra small angle (neutron or x-ray) scattering (USANS, USAXS) it may happen that structures under investigations are not fully coherently illuminated by the incident wave. Despite this fact interference effects are observed similar to SAS data. In this case the measured scattering patterns must be different interpreted. We propose a procedure to calculate and adapt such scattering patterns to experimental data.

  20. Resonances and backward-angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokstad, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    The strong enhancement of elastic scattering at large angles observed for systems such as α + 40 Ca and recently for 12 C + 28 Si and 16 O 28 Si was interpreted in terms of entrance channel resonances having a quasi-molecular character. Alternative explanations in terms of potential scattering were also presented. An overview is given of the experimental data and their interpretations. A consistent procedure for the evaluation of the experimental data is discussed. 50 references

  1. Commercialization project of Ulchin vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Cheon-Woo; Hwang, Tae-Won

    2011-01-01

    The Ulchin Vitrification Facility (UVF), to be used for the vitirification of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) generated by nuclear power plants (NPPs), is the world's first commercial facility using Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technology. The construction of the facility was begun in 2005 and was completed in 2007. From December 2007 to September 2009, all key performance tests, such as the system functional test, the cold test, the hot test, and the real waste test, were successfully carried out. The UVF commenced commercial operation in October 2009 for the vitrification of radioactive waste. (author)

  2. STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an interim status report on the STARFIRE project for the period of May to September 1979. The basic objective of the STARFIRE project is to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. The key technical objective is to develop the best embodiment of the tokamak as a power reactor consistent with credible engineering solutions to design problems. Another key goal of the project is to give careful attention to the safety and environmental features of a commercial fusion reactor

  3. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welt, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent positive developments in regulatory matters involving food irradiation appear to be opening the door to commercial implementation of the technology. Experience gained over five years in operating multi-purpose food irradiation facilities in the United States have demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of the radiation preservation of food for a wide variety of purposes. Public education regarding food irradiation has been intensified especially with the growing favorable involvement of food trade associations, the USDA, and the American Medical Association. After 41 years of development effort, food irradiation will become a commercial reality in 1985. (author)

  4. Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration is a case-oriented study of the key rules and procedures which regulate the resolution of commercial disputes arising in a transnational context. The study explains and compares European and American rules of private international and procedural...... law. Each case is introduced both by a paradigm model, emphasizing and simplifying the key operative facts, as well as by a doctrinal presentation of the main issues and sources of American, European, or international law concerned. The court decisions themselves are all extensively edited...

  5. COMMERCIAL FUND, RECOGNITION AND ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOREL TRIF

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the immaterial investments within companies nowadays urges the specialists in accounting to find the ways to present more in the elements. In their studies researchers face the controversy reinvestments, as an asset in the balance sheet or an expense in the profit or loss account. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the difficulties in commercial fund. In the first part we will analyze various definitions of the problems concerning the commercial fund’s recognition and assessment. The paper also suggests that investments are really social and economic problems.

  6. Pair creation at large inherent angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.; Tauchi, T.; Schroeder, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    In the next-generation linear colliders, the low-energy e + e - pairs created during the collision of high-energy e + e - beams would cause potential deleterious background problems to the detectors. At low collider energies, the pairs are made essentially by the incoherent process, where the pair is created by the interaction of beamstrahlung photons on the individual particles in the oncoming beam. This problem was first identified by Zolotarev, et al. At energies where the beamstrahlung parameter Υ lies approximately in the range 0.6 approx-lt Υ approx-lt 100, pair creation from the beamstrahlung photons is dominated by a coherent process, first noted by Chen. The seriousness of this pair creation problem lies in the transverse momenta that the pair particles carry when leaving the interaction point (IP) with large angles. Since the central issue is the transverse momentum for particles with large angles, the authors notice that there is another source for it. Namely, when the pair particles are created at low energies, the intrinsic angles of these pairs when produced may already be large. In this paper they reinvestigate the problem, following essentially the same equivalent photon approach, but with changes in specific details including the virtual photon spectrum. In addition, various assumptions are made more explicit. The formulas derived are then applied to the collider parameters designed by Palmer

  7. Studies in small angle scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellenbach, K.

    1980-03-01

    Small angle scattering of neutrons, X-rays and γ-rays are found among the spectroscopic methods developed in the recent years. Although these techniques differ from each other in many respects, e.g. radiation sources and technical equipment needed, their power to resolve physical phenomena and areas of application can be discussed in a general scheme. Selected examples are given illustrating the use of specific technical methods. Jahn-Teller driven structural phase transitions in Rare Earth zircons were studied with neutron scattering as well as small angle γ-ray diffraction. The study of neutron scattering from formations of magnetic domains in the Ising ferromagnet LiTbF 4 is a second example. Both these examples represent more than experimental test cases since the theoretical interpretations of the data obtained are discussed as well. As a last example the use of small angle scattering methods for the study of molecular biological samples is discussed. In particular the experimental procedures used in connection with scattering from aqueous solutions of proteins and protein complexes are given. (Auth.)

  8. Head flexion angle while using a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sojeong; Kang, Hwayeong; Shin, Gwanseob

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive or prolonged head flexion posture while using a smartphone is known as one of risk factors for pain symptoms in the neck. To quantitatively assess the amount and range of head flexion of smartphone users, head forward flexion angle was measured from 18 participants when they were conducing three common smartphone tasks (text messaging, web browsing, video watching) while sitting and standing in a laboratory setting. It was found that participants maintained head flexion of 33-45° (50th percentile angle) from vertical when using the smartphone. The head flexion angle was significantly larger (p smartphone, could be a main contributing factor to the occurrence of neck pain of heavy smartphone users. Practitioner Summary: In this laboratory study, the severity of head flexion of smartphone users was quantitatively evaluated when conducting text messaging, web browsing and video watching while sitting and standing. Study results indicate that text messaging while sitting caused the largest head flexion than that of other task conditions.

  9. 19 CFR 113.67 - Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Customs Bond Conditions § 113.67 Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond conditions. Commercial Gauger Bond Conditions (a) Commercial gauger bond...

  10. Research on recognition of ramp angle based on transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao GU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the recognition of ramp angle, the relationship between the signal of vehicle transducer and real ramp angle is studied. The force change of vehicle on the ramp, and the relationship between the body tilt angle and front and rear suspension scale is discussed. According to the suspension and tire deformation, error angle of the ramp angle is deduced. A mathematical model is established with Matlab/Simulink and used for simulation to generate error curve of ramp angle. The results show that the error angle increases with the increasing of the ramp angle, and the limit value can reach 6.5%, while the identification method can effectively eliminate this error, and enhance the accuracy of ramp angle recognition.

  11. The effect of beam angle in abrasive-waterjet machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashish, M.

    1989-01-01

    In the machining of materials, abrasive-waterjets are typically applied at a 90-degree angle to the surface of the workpiece. This paper presents results and observations on machining with abrasive-waterjets at angles other than 90 degrees. Previous visualization studies of the cutting process in transparent materials has shown that there are optimal angles for maximum depth of cut and kerf depth uniformity. Here, observations on the effect of angle in machining applications, such as turning, milling. linear cutting, and drilling, are addressed. The effects of variations in both the impact angle and the rake angle are investigated. Results indicate that the volume removal rate is significantly affected by these angles and that surface finish can be improved by angling the jet. However, shallow angle drilling of small holes in laminated or ceramic-coated materials requires further investigation

  12. Compositional specification of commercial contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Elsborg, Ebbe; Henglein, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    -definable analysis of their state before, during and after execution. We provide several realistic examples of commercial contracts and their analyses. A variety of (real) contracts can be expressed in such a fashion as to support their integration, management and analysis in an operational environment...

  13. Commercialization of technology in MINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud Mohamad; Razali Hamzah

    2005-01-01

    Full text:The Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), was officially established in 1972 (PUSPATI as it was known then) and has progressed leaps and bounds to become one of the country's leading research organization particularly in the field of nuclear science and technology. Primarily set up as a full fledge research and development entity with one of the initial aims was looking into the possibility of embarking in the generation of power via the use of nuclear technology as an alternative source of energy for the nation. MINTs role has somewhat changed in tandem with her stage of development and national priorities. In line with the Government's policy on sustainability and self-reliance and a drive to commercialize R and D findings, the R and D institutions are expected to be self sufficiency at 30% of institutional operating budget. MINT has embarked on the commercialization program since in 1987 even before the the policy was instituted. Unlike other corporate R and D institutions and universities which do have some liberty and flexibility in the management of the organizations, MINT as a full fledge government R and D institute faces a number of challenges in the commercialization exercise. The paper describes the technologies developed at MINT, our product and services, and challenges and limitations in commercializing our R and D endeavors. (Author)

  14. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  15. Recrystallization in Commercially Pure Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bent; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree of defor...

  16. Reflections on Commercializing University Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hum, Derek

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the extent of commercialization of research in Canadian universities, explains why copyright enforcement is difficult, and discusses the benefits and disadvantages of licensing an innovation versus creating a spinoff company to exploit university discoveries. Explores issues related to sharing benefits of university discoveries. (SLD)

  17. NASA's Commercial Communication Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "NASA's Commercial Communication Technology Program" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Coordination/Integration of government program; 2) Achievement of seamless interoperable satellite and terrestrial networks; 3) Establishment of program to enhance Satcom professional and technical workforce; 4) Precompetitive technology development; and 5) Effective utilization of spectrum and orbit assets.

  18. International Commercial Arbitration in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper author evaluates legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Bolivia. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Bolivia activities. Arbitration Act and Conciliation number 1770 (Arbitration Act was enacted in 1997 and based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration 1985 (UNCITRAL Model Law. Arbitration Act contains a few differences from the UNCITRAL Model Law. The Arbitration Act provides that following disputes can not be subject to arbitration: 1 disputes on which a final judgment, except for matters related to the execution of the judgment, 2 disputes regarding civil entity, its legal capacity; 3 disputes in respect of the property or rights of disabled without prior judicial authorization, and 4 disputes regarding the state as a legal entity, and 5 labor disputes. Large commercial disputes are often resolved in two centers: 1 Arbitration and Conciliation Center of the National Chamber of Commerce of Bolivia (CNC; 2 Center for Reconciliation and Commercial Arbitration of the Chamber of Industry, Commerce and Tourism of Santa Cruz (CAINCO. Among other arbitration organizations may be called arbitration and Conciliation center of the Chamber of trade and Services Cochabamba (CADECO.

  19. Commercialization of vein contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal; Vrancken, Carlos; Zhang, Yong; Zeman, Herbert D.; Weinberg, Devin

    2003-07-01

    An ongoing clinical study of an experimental infrared (IR) device, the Vein Contrast Enhancer (VCE) that visualizes surface veins for medical access, indicates that a commercial device with the performance of the existing VCE would have significant clinical utility for even a very skilled phlebotomist. A proof-of-principle prototype VCE device has now been designed and constructed that captures IR images of surface veins with a commercial CCD camera, transfers the images to a PC for real-time software image processing to enhance the vein contrast, and projects the enhanced images back onto the skin with a modified commercial LCD projector. The camera and projector are mounted on precision slides allowing for precise mechanical alignment of the two optical axes and for measuring the effects of axes misalignment. Precision alignment of the captured and projected images over the entire field-of-view is accomplished electronically by software adjustments of the translation, scaling, and rotation of the enhanced images before they are projected back onto the skin. This proof-of-principle prototype will be clinically tested and the experience gained will lead to the development of a commercial device, OnTarget!, that is compact, easy to use, and will visualize accessible veins in almost all subjects needing venipuncture.

  20. From the Weinberg Angle to Cardiac MRI a career change

    CERN Document Server

    ten Have, I.

    1997-01-01

    In summer 1994 I left particle physics to pursue a career in industry. Now three years later I am working for Philips Medical Systems in the Netherlands. I am responsible, both technically and commercially, for adapting the exist-ingMagnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique for cardiology applications. In this seminar I will talk about the interesting challenges my current position holds for me. I will present the substantial added value of my working experience at CERN: the physics research, working at technological frontiers, the international collaboration, expatriate life. Finally I will also describe what I have done to actively support this career change. Speaker: 1985-1989 Ð University of Nijmegen and CERN - Ph.D. on B0-B0bar mixing, Eurojet, top quark cross-sections, test of the O(as3) QCD matrix element, calculations for future hadron colliders, UA1. 1989-1994 Ð University of Glasgow and CERN - ALEPH - Jet charge studies, measurement of the Weinberg Angle. 1994-1996 Ð Master of Business Administr...

  1. [Measurement of the lumbosacral angle and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bene, E

    1981-01-01

    The author reports about the result of a series of investigations and tests concerning the angle of the L-S vertebral column. Different factors influencing the values of L-S angle are analyzed. The clinical importance of the respective angles is small, the statics of the L-S transition is determined by all angles together. The reduced L-S angle cannot be considered as an aetiological factor of the spondylolysthesis. The pathological angle values as well as the positions play a role in the induction of the discopathy

  2. A simple method to obtain consistent and clinically meaningful pelvic angles from euler angles during gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Tishya A L; Mitiguy, Paul C

    2007-08-01

    Clinical gait analysis usually describes joint kinematics using Euler angles, which depend on the sequence of rotation. Studies have shown that pelvic obliquity angles from the traditional tilt-obliquity-rotation (TOR) Euler angle sequence can deviate considerably from clinical expectations and have suggested that a rotation-obliquity-tilt (ROT) Euler angle sequence be used instead. We propose a simple alternate approach in which clinical joint angles are defined and exactly calculated in terms of Euler angles from any rotation sequence. Equations were derived to calculate clinical pelvic elevation, progression, and lean angles from TOR and ROT Euler angles. For the ROT Euler angles, obliquity was exactly the same as the clinical elevation angle, rotation was similar to the clinical progression angle, and tilt was similar to the clinical lean angle. Greater differences were observed for TOR. These results support previous findings that ROT is preferable to TOR for calculating pelvic Euler angles for clinical interpretation. However, we suggest that exact clinical angles can and should be obtained through a few extra calculations as demonstrated in this technical note.

  3. Light-dark changes in iris thickness and anterior chamber angle width in eyes with occludable angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Fumitaka; Hata, Masayuki; Ito, Shin-ichiro; Matsuki, Takaaki; Kurimoto, Yasuo

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and measure light-dark changes in iris thickness (IT) and anterior chamber angle width in eyes with occludable angles and open angles by using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). We examined 153 eyes of 153 Japanese patients with primary angle closure suspect, primary angle closure, primary angle closure glaucoma, or primary open angle glaucoma. AS-OCT was used to determine pupil diameter, IT, angle opening distance at 500 μm (AOD₅₀₀), and trabecular-iris space area at 500 μm (TISA₅₀₀) in each quadrant of the anterior chamber angle (superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal) under light and dark conditions. In the angle closure cases, IT, AOD₅₀₀ and TISA₅₀₀ in the dark varied significantly among the four quadrants (P dark did not differ significantly among the four quadrants. In the angle closure cases and the open angle cases, significant negative associations were found between IT difference [IT(light)-IT(dark)] and AOD₅₀₀ difference [AOD₅₀₀(light)-AOD₅₀₀(dark)] (R = -0.411, P dark)] (R = -0.475, P dark conditions is related to the mechanism of primary angle closure. It is important to analyze both the angle structure and peripheral IT in each quadrant.

  4. 36 CFR 272.4 - Commercial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial use. 272.4 Section... OWLâ SYMBOL § 272.4 Commercial use. (a) General. The Chief may authorize the Commercial manufacture... charge, royalty charge, or payment in kind which is reasonably related to the commercial value has been...

  5. 40 CFR 799.2155 - Commercial hexane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Commercial hexane. 799.2155 Section 799... Test Rules § 799.2155 Commercial hexane. (a) Identification of test substance. (1) “Commercial hexane...; CAS No. 96-37-7). ASTM D 1836, formally entitled “Standard Specification for Commercial Hexanes,” is...

  6. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing. 404.10 Section 404.10... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster fishing... species. (1) Notwithstanding the prohibitions in § 404.7(a) and (h), commercial fishing for bottomfish and...

  7. 36 CFR 271.4 - Commercial license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial license. 271.4... BEARâ SYMBOL § 271.4 Commercial license. (a) The Chief may authorize the commercial manufacture... a use or royalty charge which is reasonably related to the commercial enterprise has been...

  8. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6 Section 1005.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but...

  9. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any... commerce or models for the purpose of commercial advertising without a written permit from the...

  10. 27 CFR 10.21 - Commercial bribery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial bribery. 10.21 Section 10.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.21 Commercial bribery. It is...

  11. Angle parameter changes of phacoemulsification and combined phacotrabeculectomy for acute primary angle closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the difference in angle parameters and clinical outcome following phacoemulsification and combined phacotrabeculectomy in patients with acute primary angle closure (APAC using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM.METHODS: Patients (n=23, 31 eyes were randomized to receive phacoemulsification or combined phacotrabeculectomy (n=24, 31 eyes. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, intraocular pressure (IOP, the main complications following surgery, and indentation gonioscopy and angle parameters measured using UBM were documented preoperatively and postoperatively.RESULTS:The improvement in BCVA in the phacoemulsification group was significantly greater than in the combined group (P<0.05. IOP in the phacoemulsification group was slightly higher than in the combined group following 1wk of follow-up (P<0.05, whereas there was no significant difference between the two groups at the latter follow-up (P>0.05. Phacoemulsification alone resulted in a slight increase in the trabecular ciliary processes distance compared with the combined surgery (P<0.05, whereas the other angle parameters showed no significant difference between the groups. Complications in combined group were greater than phacoemulsification only group.CONCLUSION:Both surgeries effectively opened the drainage angle and deepened the anterior chamber, and IOP was well controlled postoperatively. However, phacoemulsification showed better efficacy in improving visual function and showed reduced complications following surgery.

  12. Optimum transfer between hyperbolic asymptotes with turn angle less than the maximum natural turn angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, J. M.; Marchal, C.; Culp, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    The impulsive transfer of minimum characteristic velocity between two given hyperbolic asymptotes associated with a real planet is considered. The constraint of remaining above the surface of the planet introduces a maximum natural turn angle. This divides the problem naively into two categories. The first is the case when the turn angle required by the given asymptotes is less than or equal to the maximum natural turn angle. This is the more reasonable situation for a swingby maneuver, and is the case considered in this paper. The resulting optimal transfers are of five basic types. In boundary conditions space, by far the largest area of transfers are either single impulse transfers or transfers through the parabolic level requiring two finite impulses. In no case has an optimal transfer been found which uses more than two finite impulses and three infinitesimal impulses. Complete results are presented for the case in which the given turn angle is less than or equal to the maximum natural turn angle.

  13. A variable angle slant-hole collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.H.; Alpert, N.M.; Strauss, H.W.

    1983-01-01

    A variable-angle slant-hole (VASH) collimator was constructed to show the feasibility of using multiple sliding plates to achieve a range of collimator channel inclinations. One hundred and sixty tungsten plates, 0.125 mm thick and 14 cm square, were photoetched to produce 3025 1.5-mm2 holes in each plate, separated by 0.8-mm septa. Along with the collimator holes, registration holes and positioning grooves were also etched. The plates were placed in a holder and stacked to form a collimator 2.0 cm high. The holder permitted the plates to be sheared to achieve viewing angles from 0 to 40 degrees from the vertical. Resolution and sensitivity were determined both across and along the shear directions. Resolution of a thin /sup 99m/Tc source, 1.24 mm diam and 7 cm long, located 5 cm from the collimator face in air, was 1.1 cm FWHM at 0 degree shear and remained unchanged with increasing slant. The resolution was similar both across and along the shear plane. Sensitivity was determined with a point source placed 7 cm from the collimator face. At 0 degree slant the sensitivity was 169 cps/MBq (6.24 csp/mu Ci). A general all purpose (GAP) collimator had a FWHM of 1 cm for the line source in air at 5 cm, and a sensitivity of 205 cps/MBq (7.58 cps/mu Ci) for the point source at 7 cm. The data suggest that a variable-angle slant-hole collimator can be constructed of laminated plates

  14. Stratigraphic imaging of sub-basalt sediments using waveform tomography of wide-angle seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sain, K.; Gao, F.; Pratt, G.; Zelt, C. A.

    2003-12-01

    The oil industry is interested in imaging the fine structures of sedimentary formations masked below basalt flows for commercial exploration of hydrocarbons. Seismic exploration of sediments hidden below high-velocity basalt cover is a difficult problem because near-vertical reflection data are contaminated with multiples, converted waves and scattering noise generated by interbeds, breccia and vesicles within the basalt. The noise becomes less prominent as the source-receiver offset increases, and the signals carrying sub-surface information stand out at the wide-angle range. The tomography of first arrival traveltime data can provide little information about the underlying low-velocity sediments. Traveltime inversion of wide-angle seismic data including both first arrivals and identifiable wide-angle reflected phases has been an important tool in the delineation of the large-scale velocity structure of sub-basalt sediments, although it lacks the small-scale velocity details. Here we apply 2-D full-waveform inversion ("waveform tomography") to wide-angle seismic data with a view to extracting the small-scale stratigraphic features of sedimentary formations. Results from both synthetic data, generated for a realistic earth model, and field dataset from the basalt covered Saurashtra peninsula, India, will be presented. This approach has potential to delineate thin sedimentary layers hidden below thick basalt cover also, and may serve as a powerful tool to image sedimentary basins, where they are covered by high-velocity materials like basalts, salts, carbonates, etc. in various parts of the world.

  15. A nested partitions framework for beam angle optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, Warren D; Nazareth, Daryl P; Zhang, Hao H; Shi Leyuan; Meyer, Robert R

    2008-01-01

    Coupling beam angle optimization with dose optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) increases the size and complexity of an already large-scale combinatorial optimization problem. We have developed a novel algorithm, nested partitions (NP), that is capable of finding suitable beam angle sets by guiding the dose optimization process. NP is a metaheuristic that is flexible enough to guide the search of a heuristic or deterministic dose optimization algorithm. The NP method adaptively samples from the entire feasible region, or search space, and coordinates the sampling effort with a systematic partitioning of the feasible region at successive iterations, concentrating the search in promising subsets. We used a 'warm-start' approach by initiating NP with beam angle samples derived from an integer programming (IP) model. In this study, we describe our implementation of the NP framework with a commercial optimization algorithm. We compared the NP framework with equi-spaced beam angle selection, the IP method, greedy heuristic and random sampling heuristic methods. The results of the NP approach were evaluated using two clinical cases (head and neck and whole pelvis) involving the primary tumor and nodal volumes. Our results show that NP produces better quality solutions than the alternative considered methods

  16. A nested partitions framework for beam angle optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Souza, Warren D; Nazareth, Daryl P [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhang, Hao H; Shi Leyuan [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Meyer, Robert R [Computer Sciences Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)], E-mail: dsouzaw@ohsu.edu

    2008-06-21

    Coupling beam angle optimization with dose optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) increases the size and complexity of an already large-scale combinatorial optimization problem. We have developed a novel algorithm, nested partitions (NP), that is capable of finding suitable beam angle sets by guiding the dose optimization process. NP is a metaheuristic that is flexible enough to guide the search of a heuristic or deterministic dose optimization algorithm. The NP method adaptively samples from the entire feasible region, or search space, and coordinates the sampling effort with a systematic partitioning of the feasible region at successive iterations, concentrating the search in promising subsets. We used a 'warm-start' approach by initiating NP with beam angle samples derived from an integer programming (IP) model. In this study, we describe our implementation of the NP framework with a commercial optimization algorithm. We compared the NP framework with equi-spaced beam angle selection, the IP method, greedy heuristic and random sampling heuristic methods. The results of the NP approach were evaluated using two clinical cases (head and neck and whole pelvis) involving the primary tumor and nodal volumes. Our results show that NP produces better quality solutions than the alternative considered methods.

  17. Numerical study of effect of pitch angle on performance characteristics of a HAWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhamshu A.R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is one of the clean renewable forms of energy that can handle the existing global fossil fuel crisis. Although it contributes to 2.5% of the global electricity demand, with diminishing fossil fuel sources, it is important that wind energy is harnessed to a greater extent to meet the energy crisis and problem of pollution. The present work involves study of effect of pitch angle on the performance of a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT, NREL Phase VI. The wind velocities considered for the study are 7, 15.1 and 25.1 m/s. The simulations are performed using a commercial CFD code Fluent. A frozen rotor model is used for simulation, wherein the governing equations are solved in the moving frame of reference rotating with the rotor speed. The SST k-ω turbulence model has been used. It is seen that the thrust increases with increase in wind velocity, and decreases with increase in pitch angle. For a given wind velocity, there is an optimum pitch angle where the power generated by the turbine is maximum. The observed effect of pitch angle on the power produced has been correlated to the stall characteristics of the airfoil blade.

  18. The Sphaleron at finite mixing angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinkhamer, F.R.; Laterveer, R.

    1990-01-01

    The exact Sphaleron solution in the bosonic sector of the electro-weak standard model is only known for weak mixing angle θ W =0. To investigate the behaviour closer to the experimental value θ W exp approx 30 deg a non-contractible loop in configuration space which is sensitive to θ W is constructed. The numerical results for the energy and the magnetic dipole moment indicate that the dependence on θ W is rather weak. (author). 8 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  19. Spin Valve Systems for Angle Sensor Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    A contact-less sensor with the ability to measure over a 360° range has been long sought after in the automotive industry. Such a sensor could be realized by utilizing the angle dependence of the Giant Magneto Resistance (GMR) Effect in a special type of magnetic multilayer called a spin valve arranged in a wheatstone bridge circuit [Spo96]. A spin valve consists of two ferromagnetic layers separated by nonmagnetic spacer layer where the magnetization of one of the ferromagnetic layers is pin...

  20. Pair production in small angle Bhabha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, A.B.; Kuraev, Eh.A.; Merenkov, N.P.; Trentadue, L.

    1995-01-01

    The radiative corrections due to a pair production in the small angle high energy e + e - Bhabha scattering are considered. The corrections due to the production of virtual pairs as well as real soft and hard ones are calculated analytically. The collinear and semi-collinear kinematical regions of the hard pair production are taken into account. The results in the leading and next-to-leading logarithmic approximations provide the accuracy of Ο (0.1%). The results of numerical calculations show that the effects of pairs production are to be taken into account in the precise luminosity determination at LEP. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Joining by plating: optimization of occluded angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Kan, Y.R.

    1978-11-01

    An empirical method has been developed for predicting the minimum angle required for maximum joint strength for materials joined by plating. This is done through a proposed power law failure function, whose coefficients are taken from ring shear and conical head tensile data for plating/substrate combinations and whose exponent is determined from one set of plated-joint data. Experimental results are presented for Al-Ni-Al (7075-T6) and AM363-Ni-AM363 joints, and the failure function is used to predict joint strengths for Al-Ni-Al (2024-T6), UTi-Ni-UTi, and Be-Ti-Be

  2. Rapidly-Indexing Incremental-Angle Encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christon, Philip R.; Meyer, Wallace W.

    1989-01-01

    Optoelectronic system measures relative angular position of shaft or other device to be turned, also measures absolute angular position after device turned through small angle. Relative angular position measured with fine resolution by optoelectronically counting finely- and uniformly-spaced light and dark areas on encoder disk as disk turns past position-sensing device. Also includes track containing coarsely- and nonuniformly-spaced light and dark areas, angular widths varying in proportion to absolute angular position. This second track provides gating and indexing signal.

  3. Weak mixing angles and heavy flavours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, C.

    1984-05-01

    The present status of the weak mixing angles, in the standard six quark model, is reviewed. The implications of the recent measurements of the beauty lifetime and branching ratios are discussed, in the framework of the Kobayashi-Maskawa and the Wolfenstein parametrizations. Expectations for B(sup)o - B(sup)-o mixing and consequences for the collider data are given. Other topics briefly reviewed are CP-violation, top quark mass and possible implications of the existence of a fourth family. (author)

  4. Influence of Contact Angle Boundary Condition on CFD Simulation of T-Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, S.; Montlaur, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we study the influence of the contact angle boundary condition on 3D CFD simulations of the bubble generation process occurring in a capillary T-junction. Numerical simulations have been performed with the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics solver ANSYS Fluent v15.0.7. Experimental results serve as a reference to validate numerical results for four independent parameters: the bubble generation frequency, volume, velocity and length. CFD simulations accurately reproduce experimental results both from qualitative and quantitative points of view. Numerical results are very sensitive to the gas-liquid-wall contact angle boundary conditions, confirming that this is a fundamental parameter to obtain accurate CFD results for simulations of this kind of problems.

  5. Lateral angle: a method for sexing using the petrous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norén, Anna; Lynnerup, Niels; Czarnetzki, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    We report on the results of applying the so-called lateral angle method for sex determination on skeletal remains. The lateral angle denotes the angle of the internal auditory canal in relation to the medial surface of the petrous part of the temporal bone. The method involves making a small cast...... and females (mean angle size of males, 39.3 degrees ; mean angle size of females, 48.2 degrees ; P lateral angle method against an archaeological skeletal...... sample. True sex was not known for this sample; instead, sexing had been carried out by assessing pelvic and cranial morphology in independent trials. We found a higher concordance between the lateral angle and "pelvic" sex than for lateral angle and "cranial" sex. Finally, we note that subadult sexing...

  6. Measurement of Angle Kappa Using Ultrasound Biomicroscopy and Corneal Topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Joon Hyung; Moon, Nam Ju; Lee, Jeong Kyu

    2017-06-01

    To introduce a new convenient and accurate method to measure the angle kappa using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and corneal topography. Data from 42 eyes (13 males and 29 females) were analyzed in this study. The angle kappa was measured using Orbscan II and calculated with UBM and corneal topography. The angle kappa of the dominant eye was compared with measurements by Orbscan II. The mean patient age was 36.4 ± 13.8 years. The average angle kappa measured by Orbscan II was 3.98° ± 1.12°, while the average angle kappa calculated with UBM and corneal topography was 3.19° ± 1.15°. The difference in angle kappa measured by the two methods was statistically significant (p topography to calculate the angle kappa. This method is convenient to use and allows for measurement of the angle kappa without an expensive device. © 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society

  7. Apparatus and method for variable angle slant hole collimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Joon; Kross, Brian J.; McKisson, John E.

    2017-07-18

    A variable angle slant hole (VASH) collimator for providing collimation of high energy photons such as gamma rays during radiological imaging of humans. The VASH collimator includes a stack of multiple collimator leaves and a means of quickly aligning each leaf to provide various projection angles. Rather than rotate the detector around the subject, the VASH collimator enables the detector to remain stationary while the projection angle of the collimator is varied for tomographic acquisition. High collimator efficiency is achieved by maintaining the leaves in accurate alignment through the various projection angles. Individual leaves include unique angled cuts to maintain a precise target collimation angle. Matching wedge blocks driven by two actuators with twin-lead screws accurately position each leaf in the stack resulting in the precise target collimation angle. A computer interface with the actuators enables precise control of the projection angle of the collimator.

  8. Kernel density estimation applied to bond length, bond angle, and torsion angle distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Patrick; Korb, Oliver; Cole, Jason

    2014-05-27

    We describe the method of kernel density estimation (KDE) and apply it to molecular structure data. KDE is a quite general nonparametric statistical method suitable even for multimodal data. The method generates smooth probability density function (PDF) representations and finds application in diverse fields such as signal processing and econometrics. KDE appears to have been under-utilized as a method in molecular geometry analysis, chemo-informatics, and molecular structure optimization. The resulting probability densities have advantages over histograms and, importantly, are also suitable for gradient-based optimization. To illustrate KDE, we describe its application to chemical bond length, bond valence angle, and torsion angle distributions and show the ability of the method to model arbitrary torsion angle distributions.

  9. SHORT ANALYSIS OF COMMERCIAL ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIRGIL - ION POPOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In DEX, commercial advertising is defined as the (commercial activity which aimes by advertising (by prints, radio, television, movies, etc., to point out public interest on certain goods, books, show, the use of services etc. A famous, advertised product remains in our memory. Many of us ask somehow annoyed: How some of the brands remain in our memory, although we believe that we are not strongly influenced by advertisements? Interest publicity led to the creation of specialized agencies and organizations at a very broad diversification methods but advertising means.With advertising, the companies using various methods and means of popularizing notify the assortment of goods offered for sale population, of its quality, how to use and the price. In this regard propaganda to persuade consumers through various forms of advertising seeks not only to ensure its capture attention and conversion of formats such motivations in buying certain actions.

  10. Using commercial amateur astronomical spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Amateur astronomers interested in learning more about astronomical spectroscopy now have the guide they need. It provides detailed information about how to get started inexpensively with low-resolution spectroscopy, and then how to move on to more advanced  high-resolution spectroscopy. Uniquely, the instructions concentrate very much on the practical aspects of using commercially-available spectroscopes, rather than simply explaining how spectroscopes work. The book includes a clear explanation of the laboratory theory behind astronomical spectrographs, and goes on to extensively cover the practical application of astronomical spectroscopy in detail. Four popular and reasonably-priced commercially available diffraction grating spectrographs are used as examples. The first is a low-resolution transmission diffraction grating, the Star Analyser spectrograph. The second is an inexpensive fiber optic coupled bench spectrograph that can be used to learn more about spectroscopy. The third is a newcomer, the ALPY ...

  11. Commercial green energy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalweit, B.

    1998-11-01

    Firms offering a Green electricity product have discovered that residential customers are willing to pay extra for the assurance that their electricity is generated through the use of non-polluting or renewable resources. This research investigated the market potential for Green energy at the next level of the energy consuming chain, commercial establishments at which small and medium sized businesses interface with customers. Green energy is proving to be an attractive proposition to some consumers in the residential marketplace. Is there a possibility that Green energy can also be sold to commercial enterprises? This research project sought to answer this question and to investigate the factors that might lead small business people to opt for Green. Answers to these questions will help energy companies target the businesses most likely to accept Green power with the right product set and product features

  12. Starfire: a commercial tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.; Abdou, M.A.; DeFreece, D.A.; Trachsel, C.A.; Graumann, D.; Kokoszenski, J.

    1979-01-01

    The basic objective of the STARFIRE Project is to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. The key technical objective is to develop the best embodiment of the tokamak as a power reactor consistent with credible engineering solutions to design problems. Another key goal of the project is to give careful attention to the safety and environmental features of a commercial fusion reactor. The STARFIRE Project was initiated in May 1979, with the goal of completing the design study by October 1980. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the major parameters and design features that have been tentatively selected for STARFIRE

  13. Commercial nuclear-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andress, D.A.

    1981-04-01

    This report is primarily concerned with nuclear waste generated by commercial power operations. It is clear, however, that the total generation of commercial nuclear waste does not tell the whole story, there are sizeable stockpiles of defense nuclear wastes which will impact areas such as total nuclide exposure to the biosphere and the overall economics of waste disposal. The effects of these other nuclear waste streams can be factored in as exogenous inputs. Their generation is essentially independent of nuclear power operations. The objective of this report is to assess the real-world problems associated with nuclear waste management and to design the analytical framework, as appropriate, for handling nuclear waste management issues in the International Nuclear Model. As such, some issues that are not inherently quantifiable, such as the development of environmental Impact Statements to satisfy the National Environmental Protection Act requirements, are only briefly mentioned, if at all

  14. Siting commercial fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.R.

    1976-09-01

    This document discusses siting requirements for fusion power plants. The current concept of the reference first commercial reactors was developed from analysis of the characteristics of current design concepts. Because those reactors use the deuterium-tritium fuel reaction, large quantities of activation products and tritium are created and must be considered as potential sources of radiation doses (Young, 1976 and Young and Gore, 1976). However, advanced reactors using fuel reactions that neither consume nor create radionuclides are briefly considered

  15. The 14 Faces of Commercialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Ritter, Thomas

    The ultimate purpose of new product development is commercialization of the results. That is, creating returns for the investment. The authors investigate to what degree research published in Journal of Product Innovation Management has contributed to further our understanding of the concept and ......, a definition, and a further research agenda is developed. A part of the papers contribution is the application of a focus-based view on the classical New Product Development roadmap....

  16. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.

  17. Reference commercial fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.R.; Gore, B.F.

    1976-09-01

    Currently available conceptual designs for commercial fusion power plants are for first generation plants using deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel, and are all functionally similar. This similarity has been used as a basis for defining an envelope of D-T fusion power plant characteristics which encompasses the characteristics of the available designs. A description of this envelope, including general process descriptions, proposed materials uses and a tabulation of numerical ranges of plant parameters is presented in this document.

  18. Commercial imagery archive product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Alysa

    1999-12-01

    The Lockheed Martin (LM) team had garnered over a decade of operational experience in digital imagery management and analysis for the US Government at numerous worldwide sites. Recently, it set out to create a new commercial product to serve the needs of large-scale imagery archiving and analysis markets worldwide. LM decided to provide a turnkey commercial solution to receive, store, retrieve, process, analyze and disseminate in 'push' or 'pull' modes components and adapted and developed its own algorithms to provide added functionality not commercially available elsewhere. The resultant product, Intelligent Library System, satisfies requirements for (a) a potentially unbounded, data archive automated workflow management for increased user productivity; (c) automatic tracking and management of files stored on shelves; (d) ability to ingest, process and disseminate data involves with bandwidths ranging up to multi-gigabit per second; (e) access through a thin client- to-server network environment; (f) multiple interactive users needing retrieval of filters in seconds from both archived images or in real time, and (g) scalability that maintains information throughput performance as the size of the digital library grows.

  19. FIRST STEP towards ICF commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saylor, W.W.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Production of tritium for weapons and fusion R and D programs and successful development of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technologies are important national goals. A conceptual design for an ICF facility to meet these goals is presented. FIRST STEP (Fusion, Inertial, Reduced-Requirements Systems Test for Special Nuclear Material, Tritium, and Energy Production) is a concept for a plant to produce SNM, tritium, and energy while serving as a test bed for ICF technology development. A credible conceptual design for an ICF SNM and tritium production facility that competes favorably with fission technology on the bases of cost, production quality, and safety was sought. FIRST STEP is also designed to be an engineering test facility that integrates systems required for an ICF power plant and that is intermediate in scale between proof-of-principle experiment and commercial power plant. FIRST STEP driver and pellet performance requirements are moderate and represent reasonable intermediate goals in an R and D plan for ICF commercialization. Repetition rate requirements for FIRST STEP are similar to those of commercial size plants and FIRST STEP can be used to integrate systems under realistic ICF conditions

  20. Textual metadiscourse in commercial websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alejo González

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial websites do not only have to catch the attention of the web surfer, who in the end can also become a potential customer, they are also engaged in the crucial task of guiding the reader through the complex maze of semiotic systems which constitutes a web page. Successful sites are those giving the reader assistance to be able to find the relevant information he or she is seeking. Although we assume that this navigation aid is not exclusively verbal, the aim of thispaper is to analyse some of the linguistic means by which this navigation is assisted and, more particularly, to explore the presence of textual metadiscourse. After giving a definition of the concept of metadiscourse, we explore the insights that can be gained from the field of usability, within the area of Computer-Human Interaction, which will help us to detect more clearly metadiscursive devices present in commercial websites. Then we categorize the different typesof textual metadiscourse and try to find some distinctive features of their presence in digital metadiscourse. Finally, we extend the classification to a group of devices which is restricted to digital discourse, hypertextual links or nodes. In so far as they help readers to navigate through digital documents, links play an outstanding role in commercial websites and can be classified according to the metadiscoursive function they carry out.

  1. Thermal storage benefits commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, A. [Institut de Recherche d' Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada)

    2001-06-30

    It is common practice in North America to bill commercial buildings and hotel owners at peak energy rates. Electric utilities are trying to come up with time-of-use rates to incite commercial customers to strive toward better management of their energy consumption, since the utilities are having to cope with increasing energy costs in most of the United States and parts of Canada. As a result, the installation of heat-storage devices is now being considered by a large proportion of residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial customers. A study was conducted to determine the optimal number of heat-storage devices required for each building. It involved the instrumentation and monitoring of the building, as well as the number and type of unit required. In the end, new devices will have to be designed to integrate heating, air-conditioning, and storage. The thermal storage would be integrated into traditional power thermal air conditioning (PTAC) systems. In this manner, the costly additional power demand would be eliminated through load shedding. It is expected that the hotel industry will be targeted first with this new type of thermal storage which represents approximately 80 per cent of the potential PTAC market. The systems could be replaced over the medium term. 1 fig.

  2. Hardness variability in commercial technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Roeske, S.B.; Knoll, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation hardness of commercial Floating Gate 256K E 2 PROMs from a single diffusion lot was observed to vary between 5 to 25 krad(Si) when irradiated at a low dose rate of 64 mrad(Si)/s. Additional variations in E 2 PROM hardness were found to depend on bias condition and failure mode (i.e., inability to read or write the memory), as well as the foundry at which the part was manufactured. This variability is related to system requirements, and it is shown that hardness level and variability affect the allowable mode of operation for E 2 PROMs in space applications. The radiation hardness of commercial 1-Mbit CMOS SRAMs from Micron, Hitachi, and Sony irradiated at 147 rad(Si)/s was approximately 12, 13, and 19 krad(Si), respectively. These failure levels appear to be related to increases in leakage current during irradiation. Hardness of SRAMs from each manufacturer varied by less than 20%, but differences between manufacturers are significant. The Qualified Manufacturer's List approach to radiation hardness assurance is suggested as a way to reduce variability and to improve the hardness level of commercial technologies

  3. The impact of inlet angle and outlet angle of guide vane on pump in reversal based hydraulic turbine performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, F X; Yang, J H; Wang, X H; Zhang, R H; Li, C E

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, in order to research the impact of inlet angle and outlet angle of guide vane on hydraulic turbine performance, a centrifugal pump in reversal is adopted as turbine. A numerical simulation method is adopted for researching outer performance and flow field of turbine. The results show: inlet angle has a crucial role to turbine, to the same flow, there is a noticeable decline for the efficiency and head of turbine with the inlet angle increases. At the best efficiency point(EFP),to a same inlet angle, when the inlet angle greater than inlet angle, velocity circulation in guide vane outlet decreases, which lead the efficiency of turbine to reduce, Contrarily, the efficiency rises. With the increase of inlet angle and outlet angle, the EFP moves to the big flow area and the uniformity of pressure distribution becomes worse. The paper indicates that the inlet angle and outlet angle have great impact on the turbine performance, and the best combination exists for the inlet angle and outlet angle of the guide vane.

  4. Paddle Angle and Ball Spin in Table Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binvant Broca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the impact angle of a table tennis ball with respect to the paddle and angular velocity of the ball leaving the paddle was investigated. A table tennis ball was dropped onto a paddle oriented at impact angles ranging from 10° to 80°. It was found that the sine of the impact angle is proportional to the angular velocity of the ball as it leaves the paddle for all impact angles tested.

  5. Cluster headache or narrow angle glaucoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Palimar

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47 year old man with episodes of attacks of pain, redness and mild blurring of vision was investigated for narrow angle glaucoma in view of shallow anterior chambers and a cupped optic disc. The history was reviewed following a spontaneous attack in hospital, which had features other than acute glaucoma. A diagnosis of cluster headache was made on the basis of tests. Cluster headache has been defined as unilateral intense pain, involving the eye and head on one side, usually associated with flushing, nasal congestion and lacrimation; the attacks recurring one or more times daily and lasting 20 - 120 minutes. Such attacks commonly continue for weeks or months and are separated by an asymptomatic period of months to years. This episodic nature, together with unilaterality and tendency to occur at night, closely mimics narrow angle glaucoma. Further, if patients have shallow anterior chambers and disc cupping, the differentiation becomes more difficult yet critical. Resource to provocative tests is often the only answer as the following case report demonstrates.

  6. Metasurface Enabled Wide-Angle Fourier Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenwei; Li, Zhancheng; Cheng, Hua; Tang, Chengchun; Li, Junjie; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo

    2018-04-19

    Fourier optics, the principle of using Fourier transformation to understand the functionalities of optical elements, lies at the heart of modern optics, and it has been widely applied to optical information processing, imaging, holography, etc. While a simple thin lens is capable of resolving Fourier components of an arbitrary optical wavefront, its operation is limited to near normal light incidence, i.e., the paraxial approximation, which puts a severe constraint on the resolvable Fourier domain. As a result, high-order Fourier components are lost, resulting in extinction of high-resolution information of an image. Other high numerical aperture Fourier lenses usually suffer from the bulky size and costly designs. Here, a dielectric metasurface consisting of high-aspect-ratio silicon waveguide array is demonstrated experimentally, which is capable of performing 1D Fourier transform for a large incident angle range and a broad operating bandwidth. Thus, the device significantly expands the operational Fourier space, benefitting from the large numerical aperture and negligible angular dispersion at large incident angles. The Fourier metasurface will not only facilitate efficient manipulation of spatial spectrum of free-space optical wavefront, but also be readily integrated into micro-optical platforms due to its compact size. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Anomalous and resonance small-angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1988-01-01

    Significant changes in the small-angle scattered intensity can be induced by making measurements with radiation close to an absorption edge of an appropriate atomic species contained in the sample. These changes can be related quantitatively to the real and imaginary anomalous-dispersion terms for the scattering factor (X-rays) or scattering length (neutrons). The physics inherent in these anomalous-dispersion terms is first discussed before consideration of how they enter the relevant scattering theory. Two major areas of anomalous-scattering research have emerged; macromolecules in solution and unmixing of metallic alloys. Research in each area is reviewed, illustrating both the feasibility and potential of these techniques. All the experimental results reported to date have been obtained with X-rays. However, it is pointed out that the formalism is the same for the analog experiment with neutrons, and a number of suitable isotopes exist which exhibit resonance in an accessible range of energy. Potential applications of resonance small-angle neutron scattering are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Anomalous and resonance small angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1987-11-01

    Significant changes in the small angle scattered intensity can be induced by making measurements with radiation close to an absorption edge of an appropriate atomic species contained in the sample. These changes can be related quantitatively to the real and imaginary anomalous dispersion terms for the scattering factor (x-rays) or scattering length (neutrons). The physics inherent in these anomalous dispersion terms is first discussed before considering how they enter the relevant scattering theory. Two major areas of anomalous scattering research have emerged; macromolecules in solution and unmixing of metallic alloys. Research in each area is reviewed, illustrating both the feasibility and potential of these techniques. All the experimental results reported to date have been obtained with x-rays. However, it is pointed out that the formalism is the same or the analogue experiment with neutrons, and a number of suitable isotopes exist which exhibit resonance in an accessible range of energy. Potential applications of resonance small-angle neutron scatterings are discussed. 8 figs

  9. A LEGO Mindstorms Brewster angle microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernsler, Jonathan; Nguyen, Vincent; Wallum, Alison; Benz, Nicholas; Hamlin, Matthew; Pilgram, Jessica; Vanderpoel, Hunter; Lau, Ryan

    2017-09-01

    A Brewster Angle Microscope (BAM) built from a LEGO Mindstorms kit, additional LEGO bricks, and several standard optics components, is described. The BAM was built as part of an undergraduate senior project and was designed, calibrated, and used to image phospholipid, cholesterol, soap, and oil films on the surface of water. A BAM uses p-polarized laser light reflected off a surface at the Brewster angle, which ideally yields zero reflectivity. When a film of different refractive index is added to the surface a small amount of light is reflected, which can be imaged in a microscope camera. Films of only one molecule (approximately 1 nm) thick, a monolayer, can be observed easily in the BAM. The BAM was used in a junior-level Physical Chemistry class to observe phase transitions of a monolayer and the collapse of a monolayer deposited on the water surface in a Langmuir trough. Using a photometric calculation, students observed a change in thickness of a monolayer during a phase transition of 7 Å, which was accurate to within 1 Å of the value determined by more advanced methods. As supplementary material, we provide a detailed manual on how to build the BAM, software to control the BAM and camera, and image processing software.

  10. SU-E-T-446: Group-Sparsity Based Angle Generation Method for Beam Angle Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This work is to develop the effective algorithm for beam angle optimization (BAO), with the emphasis on enabling further improvement from existing treatment-dependent templates based on clinical knowledge and experience. Methods: The proposed BAO algorithm utilizes a priori beam angle templates as the initial guess, and iteratively generates angular updates for this initial set, namely angle generation method, with improved dose conformality that is quantitatively measured by the objective function. That is, during each iteration, we select “the test angle” in the initial set, and use group-sparsity based fluence map optimization to identify “the candidate angle” for updating “the test angle”, for which all the angles in the initial set except “the test angle”, namely “the fixed set”, are set free, i.e., with no group-sparsity penalty, and the rest of angles including “the test angle” during this iteration are in “the working set”. And then “the candidate angle” is selected with the smallest objective function value from the angles in “the working set” with locally maximal group sparsity, and replaces “the test angle” if “the fixed set” with “the candidate angle” has a smaller objective function value by solving the standard fluence map optimization (with no group-sparsity regularization). Similarly other angles in the initial set are in turn selected as “the test angle” for angular updates and this chain of updates is iterated until no further new angular update is identified for a full loop. Results: The tests using the MGH public prostate dataset demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed BAO algorithm. For example, the optimized angular set from the proposed BAO algorithm was better the MGH template. Conclusion: A new BAO algorithm is proposed based on the angle generation method via group sparsity, with improved dose conformality from the given template. Hao Gao was partially supported by the

  11. Evaluation of the normal calcaneal angles in Egyptian population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fahmy Anwar Shoukry

    2012-02-01

    Feb 1, 2012 ... ison of the angles according to the side), independent t-test was used to compare the angles according to the sex), distribution of the angles within different age groups was compared with one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The level of sig- nificance was set at p < 0.05, and compared the results of.

  12. Objectifying the Adjacent and Opposite Angles: A Cultural Historical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh; Musallam, Nadera

    2018-01-01

    The angle topic is central to the development of geometric knowledge. Two of the basic concepts associated with this topic are the adjacent and opposite angles. It is the goal of the present study to analyze, based on the cultural historical semiotics framework, how high-achieving seventh grade students objectify the adjacent and opposite angles'…

  13. Small angle neutron scattering from glassy SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spooner, S.; Hastings, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    The present investigation of neutron scattering from glassy silica was undertaken to resolve whether the small angle scattering observed by Renninger and Uhlmann could also be seen in the bulk samples typically used in neutron-scattering experiments. Within the rather large error bars of this experiment no small angle scattering increase at small angles could be seen. (Auth.)

  14. Goniodysgenesis in familial primary open-angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbraak, F. D.; vd Berg, W.; Delleman, J. W.; Greve, E. L.

    1994-01-01

    Results of a pilot study to evaluate goniodysgenesis as a cause of familial open-angle glaucoma are reported. Patients with a familial high tension open-angle glaucoma and a goniodysgenetic chamber angle (n = 11), a number of their relatives with glaucoma (n = 12), and their relatives without

  15. Cubic Equations and the Ideal Trisection of the Arbitrary Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Marion B.

    2006-01-01

    In the year 1837 mathematical proof was set forth authoritatively stating that it is impossible to trisect an arbitrary angle with a compass and an unmarked straightedge in the classical sense. The famous proof depends on an incompatible cubic equation having the cosine of an angle of 60 and the cube of the cosine of one-third of an angle of 60 as…

  16. Fostering Students' Development of the Concept of Angles Using Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Sue Ellen; Koyunkaya, Melike Yigit

    2017-01-01

    We have used "GeoGebra," a dynamic geometry software environment, to explore how Year 4 students understand definitions of angles. Seven students defined angle and then completed several activities adapted for the dynamic environment. Afterward, students again shared their definitions of angles. We found that even a short investigation…

  17. 47 CFR 25.205 - Minimum angle of antenna elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum angle of antenna elevation. 25.205... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.205 Minimum angle of antenna elevation. (a) Earth station antennas shall not normally be authorized for transmission at angles less than 5° measured from the...

  18. California commercial building energy benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-07-01

    Building energy benchmarking is the comparison of whole-building energy use relative to a set of similar buildings. It provides a useful starting point for individual energy audits and for targeting buildings for energy-saving measures in multiple-site audits. Benchmarking is of interest and practical use to a number of groups. Energy service companies and performance contractors communicate energy savings potential with ''typical'' and ''best-practice'' benchmarks while control companies and utilities can provide direct tracking of energy use and combine data from multiple buildings. Benchmarking is also useful in the design stage of a new building or retrofit to determine if a design is relatively efficient. Energy managers and building owners have an ongoing interest in comparing energy performance to others. Large corporations, schools, and government agencies with numerous facilities also use benchmarking methods to compare their buildings to each other. The primary goal of Task 2.1.1 Web-based Benchmarking was the development of a web-based benchmarking tool, dubbed Cal-Arch, for benchmarking energy use in California commercial buildings. While there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers prior to the development of Cal-Arch, there were none that were based solely on California data. Most available benchmarking information, including the Energy Star performance rating, were developed using DOE's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which does not provide state-level data. Each database and tool has advantages as well as limitations, such as the number of buildings and the coverage by type, climate regions and end uses. There is considerable commercial interest in benchmarking because it provides an inexpensive method of screening buildings for tune-ups and retrofits. However, private companies who collect and manage consumption data are concerned that the

  19. Commercialization of a DOE Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, Barry A.

    2008-01-01

    On April 1, 1998, Materials and Chemistry Laboratory, Inc. (MCLinc) began business as an employee-owned, commercial, applied research laboratory offering services to both government and commercial clients. The laboratory had previously been a support laboratory to DoE's gaseous diffusion plant in Oak Ridge (K-25). When uranium enrichment was halted at the site, the laboratory was expanded to as an environmental demonstration center and served from 1992 until 1997 as a DOE Environmental User Facility. In 1997, after the laboratory was declared surplus, it was made available to the employee group who operated the laboratory for DOE as a government-owned, contractor-operated facility. This paper describes briefly the process of establishing the business. Attributes that contributed to the success of MCLinc are described. Some attention is given to lessons learned and to changes that could facilitate future attempts to make similar transitions. Lessons learnt: as with any business venture, operation over time has revealed that some actions taken by the laboratory founders have contributed to its successful operation while others were not so successful. Observations are offered in hopes that lessons learned may suggest actions that will facilitate future attempts to make similar transitions. First, the decision to vest significant ownership of the business in the core group of professionals operating the business is key to its success. Employee-owners of the laboratory have consistently provided a high level of service to its customers while conducting business in a cost-efficient manner. Secondly, an early decision to provide business support services in-house rather than purchasing them from support contractors on site have proven cost-effective. Laboratory employees do multiple tasks and perform overhead tasks in addition to their chargeable technical responsibilities. Thirdly, assessment of technical capabilities in view of market needs and a decision to offer these

  20. 77 FR 30919 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ..., and 385 [Docket No. FMCSA-2007-27659] Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's... published a final rule titled ``Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit... additional drivers, primarily those transporting certain tanks temporarily attached to the commercial motor...

  1. Using Digital Technology to See Angles from Different Angles. Part 1: Corners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Erin; Baynham, Emily; McMaster, Heather

    2014-01-01

    In Part 1 of their article, Erin Host, Emily Baynham and Heather McMaster use a combination of digital technology and concrete materials to explore the concept of "corners". They provide a practical, easy to follow sequence of activities that builds on students' understandings. [For "Using Digital Technology to See Angles from…

  2. The commercialization of aluminum composites: Technical challenges and commercial realities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, W.R. [Duralcan, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The establishment of a viable commercial business for the production and sale of aluminum composites has been a dream for at least twenty years. Unfortunately, the successful realization of this goal is very complex and frustrating. The development of a viable process for the commercial production of an aluminum composite with attractive physical/mechanical properties and price is only just the beginning, Substantial technical challenges of forming, casting, joining, machining and recycling must be faced along with a myriad of support technologies such as chemical analysis, quality standards and specifications. These technical challenges are complimented with a range of business issues such as price, product standardization, complex customer relationships, competition and product acceptance which often conflict with or influence the technical considerations. Duralcan USA has been working for more than five years to conquer these challenges and success appears to be within sight. A review of Duralcan USA`s technical and business experiences will provide insight into the issues and conflicts, a perspective into the size of the challenges and guidance to other emerging composites companies.

  3. Scattering angle-based filtering via extension in velocity

    KAUST Repository

    Kazei, Vladimir

    2016-09-06

    The scattering angle between the source and receiver wavefields can be utilized in full-waveform inversion (FWI) and in reverse-time migration (RTM) for regularization and quality control or to remove low frequency artifacts. The access to the scattering angle information is costly as the relation between local image features and scattering angles has non-stationary nature. For the purpose of a more efficient scattering angle information extraction, we develop techniques that utilize the simplicity of the scattering angle based filters for constantvelocity background models. We split the background velocity model into several domains with different velocity ranges, generating an

  4. Spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaerd, L.; Hellstroem, M.; Jacobsson, B.; Peterson, L.; Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg; King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh

    1989-01-01

    The frequency of spondylolysis and the relationship between spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in 143 athletes and 30 non-athletes is reported. Athletes had a larger sacro-horizontal angle than non-athletes. The sacro-horizontal angle was larger in athletes with spondylolysis as compared with those without. An increased incidence of spondylolysis with an increased angle was demonstrated. It is suggested that an increased sacro-horizontal angle may predispose to spondylolysis, especially in combination with the high mechanical loads sustained in certain sports. (orig.)

  5. Spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaerd, L.; Hellstroem, M.; Jacobsson, B.; Peterson, L. (Oestra Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopaedics; Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Radiology)

    The frequency of spondylolysis and the relationship between spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in 143 athletes and 30 non-athletes is reported. Athletes had a larger sacro-horizontal angle than non-athletes. The sacro-horizontal angle was larger in athletes with spondylolysis as compared with those without. An increased incidence of spondylolysis with an increased angle was demonstrated. It is suggested that an increased sacro-horizontal angle may predispose to spondylolysis, especially in combination with the high mechanical loads sustained in certain sports. (orig.).

  6. Sinusoidal Order Estimation Using Angles between Subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Holdt Jensen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of determining the order of a parametric model from a noisy signal based on the geometry of the space. More specifically, we do this using the nontrivial angles between the candidate signal subspace model and the noise subspace. The proposed principle is closely related to the subspace orthogonality property known from the MUSIC algorithm, and we study its properties and compare it to other related measures. For the problem of estimating the number of complex sinusoids in white noise, a computationally efficient implementation exists, and this problem is therefore considered in detail. In computer simulations, we compare the proposed method to various well-known methods for order estimation. These show that the proposed method outperforms the other previously published subspace methods and that it is more robust to the noise being colored than the previously published methods.

  7. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    Measurements of the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the S(1s) core level of a c(2 x 2)S/Ni(001) are analyzed to determine the spacing between the S overlayer and the first and second Ni layers. ARPEFS is a type of photoelectron diffraction measurement in which the photoelectron kinetic energy is swept typically from 100 to 600 eV. By using this wide range of intermediate energies we add high precision and theoretical simplification to the advantages of the photoelectron diffraction technique for determining surface structures. We report developments in the theory of photoelectron scattering in the intermediate energy range, measurement of the experimental photoemission spectra, their reduction to ARPEFS, and the surface structure determination from the ARPEFS by combined Fourier and multiple-scattering analyses. 202 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Experimental bounds on sterile neutrino mixing angles

    CERN Document Server

    Ruchayskiy, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    We derive bounds on the mixing between the left-chiral ("active") and the right-chiral ("sterile") neutrinos, provided from the combination of neutrino oscillation data and direct experimental searches for sterile neutrinos. We demonstrate that the mixing of sterile neutrinos with any flavour can be significantly suppressed, provided that the angle theta_13 is non-zero. This means that the lower bounds on sterile neutrino lifetime, coming from the negative results of direct experimental searches can be relaxed (by as much as the order of magnitude at some masses). We also demonstrate that the results of the negative searches of sterile neutrinos with PS191 and CHARM experiments are not applicable directly to the see-saw models. The reinterpretation of these results provides up to the order of magnitude stronger bounds on sterile neutrino lifetime than previously discussed in the literature. We discuss the implications of our results for the Neutrino Minimal Standard Model (the NuMSM).

  9. Vascular anomalies of the cerebellopontine angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Grunwald, I.Q.; Politi, M.; Struffert, T.; Ahlhelm, F.; Reith, W.

    2006-01-01

    Vascular anomalies of the cerebellopontine angle are rare compared to tumors in this area. Irritation of the trigeminal, facial, or vestibulocochlear nerve may cause trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm and vertigo, or tinnitus accordingly. Vessel loops in the cerebellopontine cisterns may cause compression at the root entry or exit zone of the cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII, a phenomenon which is called ''vascular loop syndrome.'' Megadolichobasilar artery and aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar system can also lead to dislocation and compression of the cranial nerves and brain stem. Three-dimensional CISS MR imaging and MR angiography are useful in the detection of neurovascular compression. Microvascular decompression is an effective surgical procedure in the management of compression syndromes of the cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII. (orig.) [de

  10. Foreign Body Embedded in Anterior Chamber Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Graffi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We present a case of a metallic foreign body embedded in the anterior chamber angle. After standing in close proximity to a construction worker breaking a tile, a 26-year-old woman using soft contact lens for the correction of mild myopia presented to emergency department for evaluation of a foreign body sensation of her right eye. Methods and Results. Diagnosis was confirmed by gonioscopic examination and a noncontrast CT scan of head and orbits. The foreign body was removed by an external approach without utilizing a magnet. The patient's final outcome was favorable. Discussion. The above is a rare clinical situation, which is impossible to detect on slit-lamp examination without a gonioscopic view. Proper imaging and a specific management are mandatory in order to achieve favorable outcome.

  11. Transmission-type angle deviation microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, M.-H.; Lai, C.-W.; Tan, C.-T.; Lai, C.-F.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new microscopy technique that we call transmission angle deviation microscopy (TADM). It is based on common-path heterodyne interferometry and geometrical optics. An ultrahigh sensitivity surface plasmon resonance (SPR) angular sensor is used to expand dynamic measurement ranges and to improve the axial resolution in three-dimensional optical microscopy. When transmitted light is incident upon a specimen, the beam converges or diverges because of refractive and/or surface height variations. Advantages include high axial resolution (∼32 nm), nondestructive and noncontact measurement, and larger measurement ranges (± 80 μm) for a numerical aperture of 0.21in a transparent measurement medium. The technique can be used without conductivity and pretreatment

  12. Mirtazapine-induced acute angle closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Kahraman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute angle closure (AAC is an ocular emergency with symptoms including blurred vision, eye pain, headache, nausea, vomiting and reddening of the eye those results from increased intraocular pressure. This clinical condition can lead to permanent damage in vision, thus causing blindness by generating progressive and irreversible optic neuropathy if left untreated. There are several reasons of AAC, including several types of local and systemic medications; mainly sympathomimetics, cholinergics, anti-cholinergics, mydriatics, anti-histamines, antiepileptics like topiramate, tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, antipsychotics, sulfa-based drugs and anticoagulants. Mirtazapine, a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant, is an atypical antidepressant with a complex pharmacological profile. This case report describes a patient with major depressive disorder, who experienced AAC after the first dosage of mirtazapine treatment, and highlights the importance of close monitoring of individuals under antidepressant treatment particularly immediately after initiation of the drug.

  13. Multifunctional patchy particles by glancing angle deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Amar B; Kretzschmar, Ilona

    2009-08-18

    The application of glancing angle deposition (GLAD) as a means to produce a variety of multifunctional patchy particles is reported. The GLAD technique has been previously used to produce anisotropic particles with an anisotropy dimension of "patchiness". Here, we extend the technique to produce multifunctional patchy particles with anisotropy dimensions of "patchiness", "branching", and "chemical ordering". To access the entire particle surface, a particle stamping technique is employed using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp. The particle stamping technique along with GLAD yields multifunctional patchy particles having patches on opposite poles. The potential of the developed techniques in producing a wide variety of surface-anisotropic particles with variable patch size, shape, and orientation is demonstrated.

  14. Wide Angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer (WAMDII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B.

    1986-01-01

    The wide angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer (WAMDII) is a specialized type of optical Michelson interferometer working at sufficiently long path difference to measure Doppler shifts and to infer Doppler line widths of naturally occurring upper atmospheric Gaussian line emissions. The instrument is intended to measure vertical profiles of atmospheric winds and temperatures within the altitude range of 85 km to 300 km. The WAMDII consists of a Michelson interferometer followed by a camera lens and an 85 x 106 charge coupled device photodiode array. Narrow band filters in a filter wheel are used to isolate individual line emissions and the lens forms an image of the emitting region on the charge coupled device array.

  15. Contact angle measurement of natural materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianyi; Jiang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Contact angle (CA) is the most important parameter used to quantify the wettability of solid surfaces. In order to evaluate wettability performance, numerous methods have been developed to measure the CA of solid surfaces. Recent years have seen increased focus on the special wettability performance of various biological materials. Biomimetic wettability has become one of the most popular research fields, and novel CA measurements have been invented accordingly. In this protocol, we introduce several CA measurement techniques mainly based on the image capture method, which is commonly to investigate the wettability of natural materials. According to the solid/liquid/gas context, we classify CA measurements into three types: in air, under liquid, and air bubble measurements, and describe methods for each. The precise measurement of CA together with study of surface structure can reveal the mechanisms of special wettability, thus accelerating the investigation of biomaterials. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Dilemma of gonial angle measurement: Panoramic radiograph or lateral cephalogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Pillai Devu; Varma, Nilambur Kovilakam Sapna; Ajith, Vallikat Velath [Dept. of Orthodontics, Amrita School of Dentistry, Kochi (India)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of panoramic imaging in measuring the right and left gonial angles by comparing the measured angles with the angles determined using a lateral cephalogram of adult patients with class I malocclusion. The gonial angles of 50 class I malocclusion patients (25 males and 25 females; mean age: 23 years) were measured using both a lateral cephalogram and a panoramic radiograph. In the lateral cephalograms, the gonial angle was measured at the point of intersection of the ramus plane and the mandibular plane. In the panoramic radiographs, the gonial angle was measured by drawing a line tangent to the lower border of the mandible and another line tangent to the distal border of the ascending ramus and the condyle on both sides. The data obtained from both radiographs were statistically compared. No statistically significant difference was observed between the gonial angle measured using the lateral cephalograms and that determined using the panoramic radiographs. Further, there was no statistically significant difference in the measured gonial angle with respect to gender. The results also showed a statistically insignificant difference in the mean of the right and the left gonial angles measured using the panoramic radiographs. As the gonial angle measurements using panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms showed no statistically significant difference, panoramic radiography can be considered in orthodontics for measuring the gonial angle without any interference due to superimposed images.

  17. Absolute Quantification of Water in Microporous Solids with1H Magic Angle Spinning NMR and Standard Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlleberghs, Maarten; Hoffmann, Andreas; Dom, Dirk; Kirschhock, Christine E A; Taulelle, Francis; Martens, Johan A; Breynaert, Eric

    2017-07-05

    Zeolites are microporous materials driving industrial scale adsorption, ion exchange, and catalytic processes. Their water content dramatically impacts their properties, but its quantification with Karl Fisher titration or thermal gravimetric analysis is problematic. When standard addition of water is combined with 1 H magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR detection, absolute quantification of water in microporous materials becomes possible. The method was demonstrated on five different, commercially available zeolites.

  18. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welt, M. A.

    In July 1981, the first specifically designed multi-purpose irradiation facility for food irradiation was put into service by the Radiation Technology, Inc. subsidiary Process Technology, Inc. in West Memphis, Arkansas. The operational experience gained, resulted in an enhanced design which was put into commercial service in Haw River, North Carolina, by another subsidiary, Process Technology (N.C.), Inc. in October 1983. These facilities have enabled the food industry to assess the commercial viability of food irradiation. Further impetus towards commercialization of food irradiation was gained in March 1981 with the filing in the Federal Register, by the FDA, of an Advanced Proposed Notice of Rulemaking for Food Irradiation. Two years later in July 1983, the FDA approved the first food additive regulation involving food irradiation in nineteen years, when they approved the Radiation Technology, Inc. petition calling for the sanitization of spices, onion powder and garlic powder at a maximum dosage of 10 kGy. Since obtaining the spice irradiation approval, the FDA has accepted four additional petitions for filing in the Federal Register. One of the petitions which extended spice irradiation to include insect disinfestation has issued into a regulation while the remaining petitions covering the sanitization of herbs, spice blends, vegetable seasonings and dry powdery enzymes as well as the petition to irradiate hog carcasses and pork products for trichinae control at 1 kGy, are expected to issue either before the end of 1984 or early in 1985. More recently, food irradiation advocates in the United States received another vote of confidence by the announcement that a joint venture food irradiation facility to be constructed in Hawaii by Radiation Technology, is backed by a contractual committment for the processing of 40 million pounds of produce per year. Another step was taken when the Port of Salem, New Jersey announced that the Radiation Technology Model RT-4104

  19. Commercial refining in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, P.

    1999-01-01

    About 9% of the world's oil refining capacity is on the Mediterranean: some of the world's biggest and most advanced refineries are on Sicily and Sardinia. The Mediterranean refineries are important suppliers to southern Europe and N. Africa. The article discusses commercial refining in the Mediterranean under the headings of (i) historic development, (ii) product demand, (iii) refinery configurations, (iv) refined product trade, (v) financial performance and (vi) future outlook. Although some difficulties are foreseen, refining in the Mediterranean is likely to continue to be important well into the 21st century. (UK)

  20. Commercialization of nuclear power plant decommissioning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    The commercialization of nuclear power plant decommissioning is presented as a step in the commercialization of nuclear energy. Opportunities for technology application advances are identified. Utility planning needs are presented

  1. Guam Commercial Fisheries BioSampling (CFBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Guam Commercial Fisheries Biosampling program, which collects length and weight frequency data for whole commercial catches, and samples 4-8 species for in-depth...

  2. Opteren voor de Netherlands Commercial Court

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeben, J.; Keirse, A.L.M.; Reijneveld, M.D.

    Internationale contracten leiden tot internationale handelsgeschillen. Deze kunnen onder meer worden beslecht bij een commercial court. In Nederland wordt momenteel een Netherlands Commercial Court (NCC) opgericht. Dit introduceert een keuze voor (contracts)partijen voor een nieuw forum voor

  3. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising. ...

  4. Commercial Space with Technology Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Robinson, John W.

    2013-01-01

    To provide affordable space transportation we must be capable of using common fixed assets and the infrastructure for multiple purposes simultaneously. The Space Shuttle was operated for thirty years, but was not able to establish an effective continuous improvement program because of the high risk to the crew on every mission. An unmanned capability is needed to provide an acceptable risk to the primary mission. This paper is intended to present a case where a commercial space venture could share the large fixed cost of operating the infrastructure with the government while the government provides new advanced technology that is focused on reduced operating cost to the common launch transportation system. A conceivable commercial space venture could provide educational entertainment for the country's youth that would stimulate their interest in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through access at entertainment parks or the existing Space Visitor Centers. The paper uses this example to demonstrate how growing public-private space market demand will re-orient space transportation industry priorities in flight and ground system design and technology development, and how the infrastructure is used and shared.

  5. Research achievements and commercial interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    ANSTO, in partnership with Australian and overseas organisations, continues to make significant contributions to selected fields of research and development. Major revenue for ANSTO is generated through sales of radiopharmaceuticals and radioisotopes for medical, industrial, environmental and research purposes and through neutron irradiation services. Further, ANSTO is actively trying to generate maximum value from its knowledge and know-how through protection and exploitation of its intellectual property. Strategic alliances have been developed to further the commercial utilisation of ANSTO know-how in, for example, delivery systems for tumour treatments, commercial waste remediation and applications of plasma implantation. The 2000-2001 financial year saw the establishment of an ANSTO business unit called Sulfide Solutions targeted at better management of environmental issues arising from mining operations. Overall, ANSTO's capacity to generate value from the application of its knowledge and know-how is being increasingly acknowledged, the organisation attaining credibility as an international leader in the application of nuclear science and technology in targeted areas

  6. International Commercial Arbitration in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the above article author describes evolution of legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Venezuela. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Venezuela activities. In past two decades many Latin American countries have reformed their arbitration law. In an effort to modernize its arbitral institutions several Latin American countries adopted Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration of the UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL. In addition, many Latin American countries have adopted the monistic system. Author pays detailed attention to this issue, discusses concept of a monistic system - a system in which a unique set of rules governs both domestic and international arbitration. Author argues that legal system of Venezuela fits this definition. Venezuelan law on arbitration in 1998 makes no distinction between domestic and international arbitration. Arbitration was included in judicial system under the Constitution of Venezuela of the 1999. Art. 258 of the Venezuelan Constitution states that arbitration, conciliation and mediation are alternative ways of resolving disputes.

  7. Influence of anterior segment biometric parameters on the anterior chamber angle width in eyes with angle closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Takaaki; Hirose, Fumitaka; Ito, Shin-Ichiro; Hata, Masayuki; Hirami, Yasuhiko; Kurimoto, Yasuo

    2015-02-01

    To predict angle narrowing in eyes with angle closure in a Japanese population using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) quantitative parameters. AS-OCT was used to examine 118 eyes of 118 patients with angle closure and 40 eyes of 40 patients with open angle under dark conditions. After measuring the angle opening distance 500 (AOD500), anterior chamber depth, iris thickness (IT), iris convexity (IC), pupil diameter, anterior chamber width, and crystalline lens rise, multivariate regression analyses were performed for the AOD500 in each group. With the exception of IT, significant differences were observed between the AS-OCT parameters for the angle closure and open-angle groups. Anterior chamber depth, IT, and IC were the explanatory variables associated with AOD500 for each group (P≤0.001). A significant negative association was found between IT and IC only in the angle-closure group (Pchamber depth was a major mechanism of angle narrowing, and that both IT and IC had a strong impact on angle narrowing. Moreover, the negative association found between IT and IC in only the angle closure group indicated the existence of the stretch force placed on the iris by relative pupillary block.

  8. Planning and Operation of Commercial Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Kye Ryung; Lee, Tae Joon; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Park, Je Won; Lee, Jae Sang

    2003-06-15

    The objectives of this R and D project are as follows : First, transferring developed technologies to outside companies and operating technology market to vitalize technology transactions, Second, developing commercial application projects to transfer technologies for commercial purposes and to solve interface problems in commercial applications, Third, enhancing commercial utilizations of developed accelerator and beam utilization technologies, Finally. preparing infra-structures for the development of over 30 venture- businesses based on achieved technologies through the Proton Engineering Frontier Project.

  9. Legal regulation of the Commercial Register

    OpenAIRE

    Hanková, Zuzana

    2007-01-01

    99 Legal Regulation of the Commercial Register Summary In my master diploma thesis, I describe legal regulation of the Commercial Register. This legal institution serves for the registration of entrepreneurs (both legal entities and natural persons - entrepreneurs) and is very important for free market economy. For these reasons, it is supposed to be one of the substantial topics in the field of contemporary Commercial Law. I chose this particular theme because I am interested in the Commerci...

  10. Commercialization basics for the photonics industry

    CERN Document Server

    Krohn, David A

    2013-01-01

    Most entrepreneurs have expertise in one or more of the critical areas of commercialization, but may lack key elements necessary for success. Commercialization Basics for the Photonics Industry serves as a roadmap for the commercialization process, helping identify and address roadblocks on the path to commercialization. Evaluation techniques will help determine the strength of a business opportunity and guide its development toward the best chance of success.

  11. Commercial lumber, round timbers, and ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann

    2010-01-01

    When sawn, a log yields round timber, ties, or lumber of varying quality. This chapter presents a general discussion of grading, standards, and specifications for these commercial products. In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types...

  12. 12 CFR 541.5 - Commercial paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial paper. 541.5 Section 541.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft, or...

  13. Characteristics of Commercial Motorcyclists in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the characteristics of commercial motorcyclists in Ugbowo, Benin-city. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out among commercial motorcyclists in Ugbowo, Benin-city, Edo State. A total of 252 commercial motorcyclists were involved in the study. A cluster sampling method ...

  14. 32 CFR 37.1250 - Commercial firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial firm. 37.1250 Section 37.1250... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1250 Commercial firm... does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial marketplace. ...

  15. 78 FR 20255 - Leased Commercial Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... Commercial Access AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Technical amendments. SUMMARY: The... Commercial Access. Some of the revised rules contained information collections that required approval by OMB... published in the Federal Register reflect the Leased Commercial Access rules that have remained in effect...

  16. 76 FR 43218 - Commercial and Industrial Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    .... EERE-2011-BT-STD-0031] RIN 1904-AC54 Commercial and Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Department of Energy... efficient product designs for commercial and industrial pumps. The comment period closed on July 13, 2011... commercial and industrial pumps. The comment period is extended to September 16, 2011. DATES: The comment...

  17. Mandatory Compensation to Commercial Agents upon Termination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil Abdu Oumer

    Abstract. The Ethiopian Commercial Code recognizes mandatory compensation if agency agreement for an indefinite period of time is terminated due to the fault of the principal; and the Draft Commercial Code is likely to maintain this approach. This comment examines the status and functions of a commercial agent as well ...

  18. Viral commercials: the consumer as marketeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers,

  19. Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, David J. (Principal Investigator)

    MISR views the sunlit Earth simultaneously at nine widely spaced angles and provides ongoing global coverage with high spatial detail. Its imagery is carefully calibrated to provide accurate measures of the brightness, contrast, and color of reflected sunlight. MISR provides new types of information for scientists studying Earth's climate, such as the regional and global distribution of different types of atmospheric particles and aerosols. The change in reflection at different view angles provides the means to distinguish aerosol types, cloud forms, and land surface cover. Combined with stereoscopic techniques, this enables construction of 3-D cloud models and estimation of the total amount of sunlight reflected by Earth's diverse environments. MISR was built for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. It is part of NASA's first Earth Observing System (EOS) spacecraft, the Terra spacecraft, which was launched into polar orbit from Vandenberg Air Force Base on December 18, 1999. MISR has been continuously providing data since February 24, 2000. [Mission Objectives] The MISR instrument acquires systematic multi-angle measurements for global monitoring of top-of-atmosphere and surface albedos and for measuring the shortwave radiative properties of aerosols, clouds, and surface scenes in order to characterize their impact on the Earth's climate. The Earth's climate is constantly changing -- as a consequence of both natural processes and human activities. Scientists care a great deal about even small changes in Earth's climate, since they can affect our comfort and well-being, and possibly our survival. A few years of below-average rainfall, an unusually cold winter, or a change in emissions from a coal-burning power plant, can influence the quality of life of people, plants, and animals in the region involved. The goal of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is to increase our understanding of the climate changes that are occurring on our

  20. Advanced commercial Tokamak optimization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, R.H.; Berwald, D.H.; Gordon, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Our recent studies have concentrated on developing optimal high beta (bean-shaped plasma) commercial tokamak configurations using TRW's Tokamak Reactor Systems Code (TRSC) with special emphasis on lower net electric power reactors that are more easily deployable. A wide range of issues were investigated in the search for the most economic configuration: fusion power, reactor size, wall load, magnet type, inboard blanket and shield thickness, plasma aspect ratio, and operational β value. The costs and configurations of both steady-state and pulsed reactors were also investigated. Optimal small and large reactor concepts were developed and compared by studying the cost of electricity from single units and from multiplexed units. Multiplexed units appear to have advantages because they share some plant equipment and have lower initial capital investment as compared to larger single units

  1. What Is Commercial Social Marketing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen; Stead, Martine

    of CSM. In relation to the benchmark criteria, the second section focuses on 3 key ethical challenges in CSM. a) We describe the problem of paternalism and suggest that CSM can deal with it by anchoring social campaigns in the target groups’ world-view. b) We address the problem of power imbalances......The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of commercial social marketing (CSM) and discuss some major ethical aspects of CSM. In the first section, we introduce 6 social marketing benchmark criteria. Against this background, we demonstrate Dove’s ‘Campaign for Real Beauty’ to be an instance...... and argue why it is more severe in non-profit social marketing. c) We argue that CSM could create a new and unethical kind of social competition due to its inherent motivation to gain ownership of the social cause it addresses....

  2. Thermal spray for commercial shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, F. S.

    1997-09-01

    Thermal spraying of steel with aluminum to protect it from corrosion is a technology that has been proven to work in the marine environment. The thermal spray coating system includes a paint sealer that is applied over the thermally sprayed aluminum. This extends the service life of the coating and provides color to the end product. The thermal spray system protects steel both through the principle of isolation (as in painting) and galvanizing. With this dual protection mechanism, steel is protected from corrosion even when the coating is damaged. The thermal- sprayed aluminum coating system has proved the most cost- effective corrosion protection system for the marine environment. Until recently, however, the initial cost of application has limited its use for general application. Arc spray technology has reduced the application cost of thermal spraying of aluminum to below that of painting. Commercial shipbuilders could use this technology to enhance their market position in the marine industry.

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Commercial Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Priyanka; Pettee, Brian; Britt, David W.; Huang, Wenjie; Johnson, William P.; Anderson, Anne J.

    2009-07-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are finding increased use in applications ranging from biosensors to prophylactic antimicrobials embedded in socks. The release of heavy metal-containing nanoparticles (NP) into the environment may be harmful to the efficacy of beneficial microbes that function in element cycling, pollutant degradation, and plant growth. Antimicrobial activity of commercial NP of Ag, CuO, and ZnO is demonstrated here against the beneficial soil microbe, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which was modified to serve as a bioluminescent sentinel organism. "As manufactured" preparations of nano- Ag, -CuO, and -ZnO caused rapid, dose dependent loss of light output in the biosensor. Bulk equivalents of these products showed no inhibitory activity, indicating that particle size was determinant in activity.

  4. Commercial Product Activation Using RFID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrey, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) would be used for commercial product activation, according to a proposal. What is new here is the concept of combining RFID with activation - more specifically, using RFID for activating commercial products (principally, electronic ones) and for performing such ancillary functions as tracking individual product units on production lines, tracking shipments, and updating inventories. According to the proposal, an RFID chip would be embedded in each product. The information encoded in the chip would include a unique number for identifying the product. An RFID reader at the point of sale would record the number of the product and would write digital information to the RFID chip for either immediate activation of the product or for later interrogation and processing. To be practical, an RFID product-activation system should satisfy a number of key requirements: the system should be designed to be integrable into the inventory-tracking and the data-processing and -communication infrastructures of businesses along the entire supply chain from manufacture to retail; the system should be resistant to sophisticated hacking; activation codes should be made sufficiently complexity to minimize the probability of activating stolen products; RFID activation equipment at points of sale must be capable to two-way RF communication for the purposes of reading information from, and writing information to, embedded RFID chips; the equipment at points of sale should be easily operable by sales clerks with little or no training; the point-of-sale equipment should verify activation and provide visible and/or audible signals indicating verification or lack thereof; and, the system should be able to handle millions of products per year with minimal human intervention, among other requirements.

  5. Ionospheric electron density profile estimation using commercial AM broadcast signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, De; Ma, Hong; Cheng, Li; Li, Yang; Zhang, Yufeng; Chen, Wenjun

    2015-08-01

    A new method for estimating the bottom electron density profile by using commercial AM broadcast signals as non-cooperative signals is presented in this paper. Without requiring any dedicated transmitters, the required input data are the measured elevation angles of signals transmitted from the known locations of broadcast stations. The input data are inverted for the QPS model parameters depicting the electron density profile of the signal's reflection area by using a probabilistic inversion technique. This method has been validated on synthesized data and used with the real data provided by an HF direction-finding system situated near the city of Wuhan. The estimated parameters obtained by the proposed method have been compared with vertical ionosonde data and have been used to locate the Shijiazhuang broadcast station. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed ionospheric sounding method is feasible for obtaining useful electron density profiles.

  6. Radon investigations - Soil and commercial projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The liability issues of radon exposure have prompted potential purchasers of vacant land for commercial/industrial development, and commercial landlords, renting large commercial buildings, to determine the radon gas levels at such sites. This paper deals with both pre-construction sites subject to freezing conditions and to large commercial structures. A correlation of radon gas levels within a commercial building and a sister pre-construction site confirms the validity of using activated charcoal canisters as a cost effective means to combating radon in large structures

  7. The EUVE Right Angle Program (RAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, J.; Christian, D.; Craig, N.; Jessop, H.; Stroozas, B.

    1996-05-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE ) has three scanning telescopes that observe in a direction perpendicular to that of the primary guest observer (GO) telescope---the Deep Survey/Spectrometer (DS/S). During the first 6 months of the EUVE mission, the scanning telescopes were used to conduct an all-sky survey consisting of short exposures ( ~ 500 s) of the entire sky between 58--740 Angstroms . These telescopes are now being used during GO observations to conduct simultaneous long exposure (typically 40+ ks) observations as part of the very successful---and publicly accessible---EUVE Right Angle Program (RAP). To date, the EUVE RAP has provided photometric and timing data on late-type stars and CVs and has been responsible for detecting dozens of previously unknown extreme ultraviolet sources, including many stars without optical counterparts. This poster presents some of the exciting results found with EUVE RAP data, along with general information about the program and instructions for submitting RAP proposals. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS5-29298.

  8. Rubber hand illusion affects joint angle perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin V Butz

    Full Text Available The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI is a well-established experimental paradigm. It has been shown that the RHI can affect hand location estimates, arm and hand motion towards goals, the subjective visual appearance of the own hand, and the feeling of body ownership. Several studies also indicate that the peri-hand space is partially remapped around the rubber hand. Nonetheless, the question remains if and to what extent the RHI can affect the perception of other body parts. In this study we ask if the RHI can alter the perception of the elbow joint. Participants had to adjust an angular representation on a screen according to their proprioceptive perception of their own elbow joint angle. The results show that the RHI does indeed alter the elbow joint estimation, increasing the agreement with the position and orientation of the artificial hand. Thus, the results show that the brain does not only adjust the perception of the hand in body-relative space, but it also modifies the perception of other body parts. In conclusion, we propose that the brain continuously strives to maintain a consistent internal body image and that this image can be influenced by the available sensory information sources, which are mediated and mapped onto each other by means of a postural, kinematic body model.

  9. Neutron elastic scattering at very small angles

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment will measure neutron-proton elastic scattering at very small angles and hence very small four-momentum transfer, |t|. The range of |t| depends on the incident neutron momentum of the events but the geometrical acceptance will cover the angular range 0.025 < $\\Theta_{lab}$ < 1.9 mrad. The higher figure could be extended to 8.4 mrad by changing the geometry of the experiment in a later phase. \\\\ \\\\ The neutron beam will be highly collimated and will be derived from a 400 GeV external proton beam of up to $4 \\times 10^{10}$ protons per pulse in the SPS North Area Hall 1. The hydrogen target will be gaseous, operating at 40 atm. pressure and acts as a multiwire proportional chamber to detect the recoil protons. The forward neutron will be detected and located by interaction in a neutron vertex detector and its energy measured by a conventional steel plate calorimeter. \\\\ \\\\ The experiment will cover the angular region of nucleon-nucleon scattering which is dominated by Coulomb scattering ...

  10. Phase sensitive small angle neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brok, Erik; Majkrzak, Charles F.; Krycka, Kathryn

    It is a well-known problem that information about the scattered wave is lost in scattering experiments because the measured quantity is the modulus squared of the complex wave function. This ''phase problem'' leads to ambiguity in determining the physical properties of the scattering sample. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is a useful technique for determining the structure of biomolecules, in particular proteins that cannot be crystallized and studied with x-ray crystallography. However, because the biomolecules are usually suspended in a liquid the observed scattering is an average of all possible orientations, making it difficult to obtain three dimensional structural information. In a proposed method polarized SANS and magnetic nanoparticle references attached to the sample molecules is used to obtain phase sensitive structural information and simultaneously circumvent the problem of orientational averaging (Majkrzak et al. J. Appl. Cryst. 47, 2014) If realized and perfected the technique is very promising for unambiguous determination of the three dimensional structure of biomolecules. We demonstrate the principles of our method and show the first experimental data obtained on a simple test system consisting of core shell magnetic nanoparticles.

  11. Iris melanoma invading the camerular angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verona Ugando, Leticia; Landrian Iglesias, Beatriz; Padierne Gonzalez, Naysa

    2011-01-01

    Uveal melanomas are the most frequent primary uveal tumors, having an incidence of 8/1 000 000 a year in Caucasian people. Specifically, iris Melanoma represents 5 to 7 % of the uveal malignant melanomas and they may be amelanic or pigmented, generally very vascularized. An eighteen years old male patient with a history of health problems was presented, who had been seen at the Ophthalmological Emergency Service because of eye pain and sudden visual reduction in his right eye. In the physical exam, a marked ocular hypertension was confirmed as well as a 2 mm hyphema and corneal edema. These conditions were overcome with treatment and afterwards, there was observed iris tumoration invading the iridocorneal angle. Some complementary studies were carried out to search further tumors at other levels and finally a fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed. The diagnosis was amelanic Iris Melanoma invading the ciliary body. The patient was referred for surgical treatment at the National Institute of Oncology and Radiology

  12. Hadron elastic scattering at small angles

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is an extension of the measurements of the WA9 experiment up to the highest energies available in the North Area. It will measure the differential cross-section for hadron elastic scattering in the t-range 0.002-0.05 (GeV/c)$^{2}$ using an ionization chamber for the measurement of the energy and the angle of the recoil and a magnet-WC spectrometer to measure the momentum and direction of the forward particle. From these measurements will be obtained the ratio $\\rho$ of the real to imaginary parts of the forward elastic amplitude and the exponential slope parameter b of the hadronic amplitude at small t. The precision expected in these measurements is $\\Delta \\rho \\approx \\pm 0.01$ and $\\Delta$b $\\approx \\pm 0.2$ (GeV/c)$^{-2}$. \\\\ \\\\ The experimental programme includes: \\\\\\\\ i) measurements of $\\rho$ and b for $\\pi$p elastic scattering at incident momenta between 150 GeV/c and 300 GeV/c; \\\\ ii) measurements of $\\rho$ and b for $\\pi^{+}$p and pp elastic scattering at incident momenta between 5...

  13. Steering Angle Function Algorithm of Morphing of Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Tian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A residential area feature morphing method based on steering angle function is presented. To residential area with the same representation under two different scales,transforming the representation of the residential area polygon from vector coordinates to steering angle function,then using the steering angle function to match,and finding out the similarity and the differences between the residential areas under different scale to get the steering angle function of the the residential areas under any middle scale,the final,transforming the middle scale steering angle function to vector coordinates form,and get the middle shape interpolation of the the residential area polygon.Experimental results show:the residential area morphing method by using steering angle function presented can realize the continuous multi-scale representation under the premise of keeping in shape for the residential area with the rectangular boundary features.

  14. Non-contact measurement of rotation angle with solo camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Xiaochuan; Sun, Anbin; Ye, Xin; Ma, Liqun

    2015-02-01

    For the purpose to measure a rotation angle around the axis of an object, a non-contact rotation angle measurement method based on solo camera was promoted. The intrinsic parameters of camera were calibrated using chessboard on principle of plane calibration theory. The translation matrix and rotation matrix between the object coordinate and the camera coordinate were calculated according to the relationship between the corners' position on object and their coordinates on image. Then the rotation angle between the measured object and the camera could be resolved from the rotation matrix. A precise angle dividing table (PADT) was chosen as the reference to verify the angle measurement error of this method. Test results indicated that the rotation angle measurement error of this method did not exceed +/- 0.01 degree.

  15. Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation Based on General Regression Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the accuracy of estimation of vehicle’s mass center sideslip angle, an estimation method of slip angle based on general regression neural network (GRNN and driver-vehicle closed-loop system has been proposed: regarding vehicle’s sideslip angle as time series mapping of yaw speed and lateral acceleration; using homogeneous design project to optimize the training samples; building the mapping relationship among sideslip angle, yaw speed, and lateral acceleration; at the same time, using experimental method to measure vehicle’s sideslip angle to verify validity of this method. Estimation results of neural network and real vehicle experiment show the same changing tendency. The mean of error is within 10% of test result’s amplitude. Results show GRNN can estimate vehicle’s sideslip angle correctly. It can offer a reference to the application of vehicle’s stability control system on vehicle’s state estimation.

  16. Detection of Clinically Significant Retinopathy of Prematurity Using Wide-angle Digital Retinal Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Michael F.; Melia, Michele; Buffenn, Angela N.; Lambert, Scott R.; Recchia, Franco M.; Simpson, Jennifer L.; Yang, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of detecting clinically significant retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) using wide-angle digital retinal photography. Methods Literature searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases were conducted last on December 7, 2010, and yielded 414 unique citations. The authors assessed these 414 citations and marked 82 that potentially met the inclusion criteria. These 82 studies were reviewed in full text; 28 studies met inclusion criteria. The authors extracted from these studies information about study design, interventions, outcomes, and study quality. After data abstraction, 18 were excluded for study deficiencies or because they were superseded by a more recent publication. The methodologist reviewed the remaining 10 studies and assigned ratings of evidence quality; 7 studies were rated level I evidence and 3 studies were rated level III evidence. Results There is level I evidence from ≥5 studies demonstrating that digital retinal photography has high accuracy for detection of clinically significant ROP. Level III studies have reported high accuracy, without any detectable complications, from real-world operational programs intended to detect clinically significant ROP through remote site interpretation of wide-angle retinal photographs. Conclusions Wide-angle digital retinal photography has the potential to complement standard ROP care. It may provide advantages through objective documentation of clinical examination findings, improved recognition of disease progression by comparing previous photographs, and the creation of image libraries for education and research. Financial Disclosure(s) Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. PMID:22541632

  17. Comparison of Anterior Segment-Optical Coherence Tomography Parameters in Phacomorphic Angle Closure and Acute Angle Closure Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Sasan; Ramezani, Farshid; He, Mingguang; Coleman, Anne L; Lin, Shan C

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare anterior segment-optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) parameters in phacomorphic angle closure and acute primary angle closure (APAC) eyes. In this cross-sectional case series, a total of 134 patients with phacomorphic angle closure (28 eyes) or APAC (54 eyes), as well as normal control subjects (52 eyes), were enrolled. Patients underwent AS-OCT imaging and A-scan biometry of both eyes. Anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber area (ACA), iris thickness (IT), iris curvature, lens vault (LV), anterior vault (AV), and angle parameters including angle opening distance (AOD 500 and AOD750) and trabecular iris space area (TISA500 and TISA750) were measured in qualified images using the Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program and compared among eyes with phacomorphic angle closure, APAC, and normal control subjects. Phacomorphic angle closure and APAC eyes had smaller AOD, ACD, ACA, ACW, AV, and posterior corneal arc length and greater LV than normal controls (P APAC eyes: ACD 1042 μm (OR,12.12; P APAC eyes. In multivariate analysis, ACD, LV, AOD500, and axial length could significantly distinguish the two entities. Ocular biometric parameters can differentiate phacomorphic angle closure from APAC eyes. Shallower ACD and greater LV, axial length, and ACA are the main parameters that distinguish phacomorphic angle closure from APAC.

  18. Ultrasound biomicroscopic features associated with angle closure in fellow eyes of acute primary angle closure after laser iridotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bao-qun; Wu, Ling-ling; Zhang, Chun; Wang, Xin

    2009-03-01

    To investigate the frequency of appositional angle closure and related anatomic characteristics in fellow eyes of Chinese subjects with acute primary angle closure (APAC) after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI). Cross-sectional study. Consecutive subjects with APAC presenting from April 2006 to September 2006 at the Glaucoma Service of Peking University Eye Center, Peking University Third Hospital. Under dark conditions, fellow eyes were divided into 2 groups based on the detection of appositional angle closure by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). For all subjects, UBM parameters were measured to evaluate the different anatomic features between the 2 groups. Darkroom provocative tests (DRPTs) and gonioscopy were performed to investigate the relationship between angle closure and intraocular pressure. Central anterior chamber depth (ACD); angle opening distance(500) (AOD(500)); angle recess area(750) (ARA(750)); trabecular-iris angle (T-I angle); trabecular-ciliary process distance (TCPD); peripheral iris thickness (IT(1)); iris-zonule distance (IZD); and the position of the iris insertion. Thirty-four post-LPI fellow eyes of 34 patients with APAC (8 men, 26 women; mean +/- standard deviation age 66.3+/-7.2 years, range 54-83) were included. Peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) were not observed in any subject. Appositional angle closure was observed in at least 1 quadrant in 13 (38.2%) of the 34 patients. Compared with eyes without appositional closure, eyes with appositional closure showed significantly lower AOD(500), ARA(750), and T-I angle in 4 quadrants; shorter TCPD in the inferior and temporal quadrants; and thicker IT(1) in the superior and nasal quadrants (PAPAC showed appositional angle closure after LPI. The anatomic findings indicate a narrower angle, a more anterior position of the ciliary body, and a thicker peripheral iris in fellow eyes of APAC after LPI may be associated with an increased risk for progressive angle closure.

  19. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

    OpenAIRE

    Luo Jun; Wang Zhiqian; Shen Chengwu; Wen Zhuoman; Liu Shaojin; Cai Sheng; Li Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendic...

  20. Angle Dependent Optics of Plasmonic Core-Shell Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-21

    function of spherical co-ordinates: azimuthal and polar angles. Absorption, scattering and emission of light from nanoparticles, especially when they are...placed on a substrate, can drastically depend on angle of excitation and angle of scattering/ emission . Such particle-substrate coupling can...V’ antenna with the Raman marker molecule nile blue chloride. Typical SERS spectra of nile blue from a ‘V’ antenna under different polarizations (0

  1. Glancing angle x-ray studies of oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenport, A.J.; Isaacs, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    High brightness synchrotron radiation incident at glancing angles has been used to study inhibiting species present in low concentrations in oxide films on aluminum. Glancing incident angle fluorescence measurements give surface-sensitive information on the valence state of elements from the shape of the x-ray absorption edge. Angle-resolved measurements show the depth distribution of the species present. 15 refs., 4 figs

  2. 76 FR 39018 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2007-27659] RIN 2126-AB02 Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's..., 2011, that will be effective on July 8, 2011. This final rule amends the commercial driver's license... to issue the commercial learner's permit (CLP). Since the final rule was published, FMCSA identified...

  3. 78 FR 17875 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2007-27659] RIN 2126-AB59 Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's.... The 2011 final rule amended the commercial driver's license (CDL) knowledge and skills testing standards and established new minimum Federal standards for States to issue the commercial learner's permit...

  4. 77 FR 26989 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2007-27659] RIN 2126-AB02 Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's... effective on July 8, 2011. That final rule amended the commercial driver's license (CDL) knowledge and skills testing standards and established new minimum Federal standards for States to issue the commercial...

  5. 76 FR 26853 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 383, 384 and 385 Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial... Administration 49 CFR Parts 383, 384, and 385 [Docket No. FMCSA-2007-27659] RIN 2126-AB02 Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  6. 48 CFR 227.7202-3 - Rights in commercial computer software or commercial computer software documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... computer software or commercial computer software documentation. 227.7202-3 Section 227.7202-3 Federal... Documentation 227.7202-3 Rights in commercial computer software or commercial computer software documentation... computer software or commercial computer software documentation was obtained. (b) If the Government has a...

  7. 48 CFR 227.7202 - Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation. 227.7202 Section 227.7202 Federal Acquisition....7202 Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation. ...

  8. Small-angle neutron scattering technique in liquid crystal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahidan Radiman

    2005-01-01

    The following topics discussed: general principles of SAS (Small-angle Neutron Scattering), liquid crystals, nanoparticle templating on liquid crystals, examples of SAS results, prospects of this studies

  9. Changes in the foot angle after calcaneal fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frahm, R.; Fritz, H.; Drescher, E.

    1989-01-01

    Forty fractured calcanei (13 without and 27 with involvement of the joint) were examined by CT and the angle of the hind foot measured. Following a typical compression fracture there is a negative calcaneusvalgus angle, i.e. varus deformity of the tuberosity fragment. The sustentaculum angle is increased. There are changes in the talo-calcaneal and calcaneo-cuboidal angles. The length ratio of calcaneus to talus is reduced. Reproducible measurements make it possible to compare the results of operative correction and of changes in shape following conservative treatment, e.g. during weight-bearing. (orig.) [de

  10. Flow tilt angles near forest edges - Part 1: Sonic anemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Mann, Jakob; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of flow tilt angles from a fetch-limited beech forest site with clearings is presented in the context of vertical advection of carbon dioxide. Flow angles and vertical velocities from two sonic anemometers by different manufacturers were analyzed. Instead of using rotations, where zero...... distortion and vertical alignment, it was only possible to a limited extent to relate sonic anemometer flow tilt angles to upwind forest edges, but the results by the lidar indicated that an internal boundary layer affect flow tilt angles at 21m above the forest. This is in accordance with earlier studies...

  11. Beam-beam collisions and crossing angles in RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper evaluates the strength of head on and parasitic beam-beam collisions in RHIC when the crossing angle is zero. A non-zero crossing angle is not required in normal operation with 120 bunches, thanks to the early separation of the two beams. The RHIC lattice is shown to easily accommodate even conservatively large crossing angles, for example in beam dynamics studies, or in future operational upgrades to as many as 360 bunches per ring. A modest loss in luminosity is incurred when gold ions collide at an angle after 10 hours of storage

  12. The wave vane - A device to measure the breaker angle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; Anand, N.M.

    with the shoreline at the wave vane is equal to the breaker angle as the wave vane is installed very close to breaker zone. Repeating the procedure, the breaker angles for a required duration can be estimated. FIELD TEST A 4 km long beach near Karwar on the west... in Table 1. Ob- servations on breaker angles were made for 20 minutes duration every day. The average breaker angle computed based on the 20 minute observation is presented in Table 1. A directional wave rider buoy was deployed at 16 m water depth...

  13. Contact angle distribution of particles at fluid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeyink, Craig; Barman, Sourav; Christopher, Gordon F

    2015-01-27

    Recent measurements have implied a distribution of interfacially adsorbed particles' contact angles; however, it has been impossible to measure statistically significant numbers for these contact angles noninvasively in situ. Using a new microscopy method that allows nanometer-scale resolution of particle's 3D positions on an interface, we have measured the contact angles for thousands of latex particles at an oil/water interface. Furthermore, these measurements are dynamic, allowing the observation of the particle contact angle with high temporal resolution, resulting in hundreds of thousands of individual contact angle measurements. The contact angle has been found to fit a normal distribution with a standard deviation of 19.3°, which is much larger than previously recorded. Furthermore, the technique used allows the effect of measurement error, constrained interfacial diffusion, and particle property variation on the contact angle distribution to be individually evaluated. Because of the ability to measure the contact angle noninvasively, the results provide previously unobtainable, unique data on the dynamics and distribution of the adsorbed particles' contact angle.

  14. Tibial and fibular angles in homozygous sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamaguna, A.I.; Odita, J.C.; Ugbodaga, C.I.; Okafor, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of the tibial and fibular angles made on ankle radiographs of 34 patients with sickle cell disease were compared with those of 36 normal Nigerians. Widening of the fibular angle, which is an indication of tibiotalar slant, was demonstrated in about 79% of sickle cell disease patients. By using fibular angle measurements as an objective method of assessing subtle tibiotalar slant, it is concluded that the incidence of this deformity is much higher among sickle cell disease patients than previously reported. The mean values of tibial and fibular angles in normal Nigerians are higher than has been reported amongst Caucasians. (orig.)

  15. Characterizing the combinatorial beam angle selection problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangert, Mark; Ziegenhein, Peter; Oelfke, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The beam angle selection (BAS) problem in intensity-modulated radiation therapy is often interpreted as a combinatorial optimization problem, i.e. finding the best combination of η beams in a discrete set of candidate beams. It is well established that the combinatorial BAS problem may be solved efficiently with metaheuristics such as simulated annealing or genetic algorithms. However, the underlying parameters of the optimization process, such as the inclusion of non-coplanar candidate beams, the angular resolution in the space of candidate beams, and the number of evaluated beam ensembles as well as the relative performance of different metaheuristics have not yet been systematically investigated. We study these open questions in a meta-analysis of four strategies for combinatorial optimization in order to provide a reference for future research related to the BAS problem in intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment planning. We introduce a high-performance inverse planning engine for BAS. It performs a full fluence optimization for ≈3600 treatment plans per hour while handling up to 50 GB of dose influence data (≈1400 candidate beams). For three head and neck patients, we compare the relative performance of a genetic, a cross-entropy, a simulated annealing and a naive iterative algorithm. The selection of ensembles with 5, 7, 9 and 11 beams considering either only coplanar or all feasible candidate beams is studied for an angular resolution of 5°, 10°, 15° and 20° in the space of candidate beams. The impact of different convergence criteria is investigated in comparison to a fixed termination after the evaluation of 10 000 beam ensembles. In total, our simulations comprise a full fluence optimization for about 3000 000 treatment plans. All four combinatorial BAS strategies yield significant improvements of the objective function value and of the corresponding dose distributions compared to standard beam configurations with equi

  16. Angle Class II correction with MARA appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Chiqueto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects produced by the MARA appliance in the treatment of Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion. METHODS: The sample consisted of 44 young patients divided into two groups: The MARA Group, with initial mean age of 11.99 years, treated with the MARA appliance for an average period of 1.11 years, and the Control Group, with initial mean age of 11.63 years, monitored for a mean period of 1.18 years with no treatment. Lateral cephalograms were used to compare the groups using cephalometric variables in the initial and final phases. For these comparisons, Student's t test was employed. RESULTS: MARA appliance produced the following effects: Maxillary growth restriction, no change in mandibular development, improvement in maxillomandibular relationship, increased lower anterior facial height and counterclockwise rotation of the functional occlusal plane. In the upper arch, the incisors moved lingually and retruded, while the molars moved distally and tipped distally. In the lower arch, the incisors proclined and protruded, whereas the molars mesialized and tipped mesially. Finally, there was a significant reduction in overbite and overjet, with an obvious improvement in molar relationship. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the MARA appliance proved effective in correcting Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion while inducing skeletal changes and particularly dental changes.OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos proporcionados pelo aparelho MARA no tratamento da má oclusão de Classe II, 1ª divisão. MÉTODOS: utilizou-se uma amostra de 44 jovens, divididos em dois grupos - Grupo MARA, com idade inicial média de 11,99 anos e tratado com o aparelho MARA por um período médio de 1,11 ano; e Grupo Controle, com idade inicial média de 11,63 ano e observado por um período médio de 1,18 ano, sem nenhum tratamento. Utilizou-se as telerradiografias em norma lateral para comparar os grupos quanto às variáveis cefalométricas das

  17. Characterizing the combinatorial beam angle selection problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, Mark; Ziegenhein, Peter; Oelfke, Uwe

    2012-10-01

    The beam angle selection (BAS) problem in intensity-modulated radiation therapy is often interpreted as a combinatorial optimization problem, i.e. finding the best combination of η beams in a discrete set of candidate beams. It is well established that the combinatorial BAS problem may be solved efficiently with metaheuristics such as simulated annealing or genetic algorithms. However, the underlying parameters of the optimization process, such as the inclusion of non-coplanar candidate beams, the angular resolution in the space of candidate beams, and the number of evaluated beam ensembles as well as the relative performance of different metaheuristics have not yet been systematically investigated. We study these open questions in a meta-analysis of four strategies for combinatorial optimization in order to provide a reference for future research related to the BAS problem in intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment planning. We introduce a high-performance inverse planning engine for BAS. It performs a full fluence optimization for ≈3600 treatment plans per hour while handling up to 50 GB of dose influence data (≈1400 candidate beams). For three head and neck patients, we compare the relative performance of a genetic, a cross-entropy, a simulated annealing and a naive iterative algorithm. The selection of ensembles with 5, 7, 9 and 11 beams considering either only coplanar or all feasible candidate beams is studied for an angular resolution of 5°, 10°, 15° and 20° in the space of candidate beams. The impact of different convergence criteria is investigated in comparison to a fixed termination after the evaluation of 10 000 beam ensembles. In total, our simulations comprise a full fluence optimization for about 3000 000 treatment plans. All four combinatorial BAS strategies yield significant improvements of the objective function value and of the corresponding dose distributions compared to standard beam configurations with equi

  18. Issues in fuel cell commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, A. J.

    After 25 years of effort, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is approaching commercialization as cell stack assemblies (CAS) show convincingly low degradation and its balance-of-plant (BOP) achieves mature reliability. A high present capital cost resulting from limited cumulative production remains an issue. The primary PAFC developer in the USA (International Fuel Cells, IFC) has only manufactured 40 MW of PAFC components to date, the equivalent of a single large gas turbine aero-engine or 500 compact car engines. The system is therefore still far up the production learning curve. Even so, the next generation of on-site 40% electrical efficiency (LHV) combined heat-and-power (CHP) PAFC system was available for order from IFC in 1995 at US 3000/kW (1995). To effectively compete in the marketplace with diesel generators, the dispersed cogeneration PAFC must cost approximately US 1550/kW (1995) in the USA and Europe. At somewhat lower costs than this, dispersed cogeneration PAFCs will compete with large combined-cycle generators. However, in Japan, costs greater than US 2000/kW will be competitive, based on the late-1995 trade exchange rate of 100-105 Yen/US ). The perceived advantages of fuel cell technologies over developments of more conventional generators (e.g., ultra-low emissions, siting) are not strong selling points in the marketplace. The ultimate criterion is cost. Cost reduction is now the key to market penetration. This must include reduced installation costs, for which the present goal is US$ 385/kW (1995). How further capital cost reductions can be achieved by the year 2000 is discussed. Progress to date is reviewed, and the potential for pressurized electric utility PAFC units is determined. Markets for high-temperature fuel cell system (molten carbonate, MCFC, and solid oxide, SOFC), which many consider to be 20 and 30 years, respectively, behind the PAFC, are discussed. Their high efficiency and high-quality waste heat should make them attractive

  19. Simulation of Canopy Leaf Inclination Angle in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-cui ZHANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A leaf inclination angle distribution model, which is applicable to simulate leaf inclination angle distribution in six heights of layered canopy at different growth stages, was established by component factors affecting plant type in rice. The accuracy of the simulation results was validated by measured values from a field experiment. The coefficient of determination (R2 and the root mean square error (RMSE between the simulated and measured values were 0.9472 and 3.93%, respectively. The simulation results showed that the distribution of leaf inclination angles differed among the three plant types. The leaf inclination angles were larger in the compact variety Liangyoupeijiu with erect leaves than in the loose variety Shanyou 63 with droopy leaves and the intermediate variety Liangyou Y06. The leaf inclination angles were distributed in the lower range in Shanyou 63, which matched up with field measurements. The distribution of leaf inclination angles in the same variety changed throughout the seven growth stages. The leaf inclination angles enlarged gradually from transplanting to booting. During the post-booting period, the leaf inclination angle increased in Shanyou 63 and Liangyou Y06, but changed little in Liangyoupeijiu. At every growth stage of each variety, canopy leaf inclination angle distribution on the six heights of canopy layers was variable. As canopy height increased, the layered leaf area index (LAI decreased in all the three plant types. However, while the leaf inclination angles showed little change in Liangyoupeijiu, they became larger in Shanyou 63 but smaller in Liangyou Y06. The simulation results used in the constructed model were very similar to the actual measurement values. The model provides a method for estimating canopy leaf inclination angle distribution in rice production.

  20. Enhancing avifauna in commercial plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nájera, Andrea; Simonetti, Javier A

    2010-02-01

    The occurrence of fauna in commercial plantations is often associated with structural complexity. Through a meta-analysis, we tested whether the structural complexity of plantations could enhance bird species assemblages and whether bird assemblages respond differently depending on taxonomic affiliation, body size, and diet. Our analyses included 167 case studies in 31 countries in which bird assemblages in forests and plantations were compared and 42 case studies in 14 countries in which bird assemblages in plantations of different structural complexity were compared. Species richness, but not abundance, was higher in forests than in plantations. Both species richness and abundance were significantly higher in complex than in structurally simple plantations. Taxonomic representation and body size did not differ between forest and plantations, except that there were fewer insectivorous birds in plantations than in forests. In the comparison of simple versus complex plantations, abundance of all taxonomic and dietary groups was higher in complex plantations. Body size did not affect bird species richness or abundance. Independent of the type of plantation, bird richness and abundance were greater in structurally complex plantations. Enhancing the structural complexity of plantations may mitigate their impact and offer habitat for some native species.

  1. The commercialization of biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Currently there are ten large collective biogas plants and ten smaller farm plants operating in Denmark. During the last five years, biogas technology has undergone extensive technological development. The developmental process is supported by a public R and D programme and a follow-up programme for full-scale demonstration plants. Most plants still need considerable income increases before a final conclusion can be reached as to whether it is possible to achieve a profit from a corporate economic viewpoint. All plants have received investment grants. Gas production is in most cases reliable, especially due to the admixture of easily convertible organic waste as a supplement to the slurry supplies. Profitable collective biogas plants are within reach, even without investment grants. The total intake of biomass must be supplemented by 10 to 25 per cent easily convertible organic waste so that the minimum gas production reaches 30 to 35 m 3 per m 3 of biomass. Plants based solely on animal manure are not profitable. Energy from the biogas has to be sold at prices corresponding to consumer prices, which include Danish energy taxes. Collective biogas plants in Denmark appear to be approaching a commercial breakthrough. The concept of a collective biogas plant has been developed to address the energy-related, environmentally-related and agricultural problems. (AB)

  2. Commercial Parts Technology Qualification Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Many high-reliability systems, including space systems, use selected commercial parts (including Plastic Encapsulated Microelectronics or PEMs) for unique functionality, small size, low weight, high mechanical shock resistance, and other factors. Predominantly this usage is subjected to certain 100% tests (typically called screens) and certain destructive tests usually (but not always) performed on the flight lot (typically called qualification tests). Frequently used approaches include those documented in EEE-INST-002 and JPL DocID62212 (which are sometimes modified by the particular aerospace space systems manufacturer). In this study, approaches from these documents and several space systems manufacturers are compared to approaches from a launch systems manufacturer (SpaceX), an implantable medical electronics manufacturer (Medtronics), and a high-reliability transport system process (automotive systems). In the conclusions section, these processes are outlined for all of these cases and presented in tabular form. Then some simple comparisons are made. In this introduction section, the PEM technology qualification process is described, as documented in EEE-INST-002 (written by the Goddard Space Flight Center, GSFC), as well as the somewhat modified approach employed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Approaches used at several major NASA contractors are also described

  3. Plastron Respiration Using Commercial Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Atherton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of insect and arachnid species are able to remain submerged in water indefinitely using plastron respiration. A plastron is a surface-retained film of air produced by surface morphology that acts as an oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange surface. Many highly water repellent and hydrophobic surfaces when placed in water exhibit a silvery sheen which is characteristic of a plastron. In this article, the hydrophobicity of a range of commercially available water repellent fabrics and polymer membranes is investigated, and how the surface of the materials mimics this mechanism of underwater respiration is demonstrated allowing direct extraction of oxygen from oxygenated water. The coverage of the surface with the plastron air layer was measured using confocal microscopy. A zinc/oxygen cell is used to consume oxygen within containers constructed from the different membranes, and the oxygen consumed by the cell is compared to the change in oxygen concentration as measured by an oxygen probe. By comparing the membranes to an air-tight reference sample, it was found that the membranes facilitated oxygen transfer from the water into the container, with the most successful membrane showing a 1.90:1 ratio between the cell oxygen consumption and the change in concentration within the container.

  4. DSM Pocket Guidebook: Commercial technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    It has been estimated that if electricity were used more efficiently with commercially available end-use technologies, 24%endash 44% of the nation's current demand for electricity could be eliminated. Almost all major electric utilities in the west are investigating such demand-side management (9DSM) opportunities. In some service territories, for example, improved efficiency could soon produce as much power as that from new coal-fired plants and produce it at a lower cost. Even utilities that currently have excess capacity are finding that DSM offers an opportunity to build efficient end-use stock to help them meet their future load shape objectives. Utility DSM programs typically consist of several measures designed to modify the utility's load shape (for example, innovative rate structures, direct utility control of loads, promotion of energy-efficient technologies, and customer education). The coordinated implementation of such measures requires planning, analysis of options, engineering, marketing, monitoring, and other coordination activities (Figure P1). This guidebook addresses one facet of an overall DSM program: selectrion of end-use technologies within the electrical utilities

  5. Plateau iris in Japanese patients with primary angle closure and primary angle closure glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Takanori; Ozaki, Mineo; Wakiyama, Harumi; Ogino, Nobuchika

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of plateau iris in Japanese patients with primary angle closure (PAC) and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and analyze the biometric parameters in patients with plateau iris using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). In this cross-sectional observational study, subjects aged >50 years with PAC and PACG who had previously undergone a patent laser peripheral iridotomy underwent UBM in one eye. UBM images were qualitatively analyzed using standardized criteria. Plateau iris in a quadrant was defined by anteriorly directed ciliary body, absent ciliary sulcus, steep iris root from its point of insertion followed by a downward angulation, flat iris plane, and irido-angle contact. At least two quadrants had to fulfill these UBM criteria for an eye to be classified as having plateau iris. A-scan biometry was used to measure anterior segment parameters. Ninety-one subjects with PAC (58 subjects) or PACG (33 subjects) and 68 normal controls were recruited. The mean (standard deviation) ages of PAC and PACG patients and normal controls were 73.5 (6.2) and 72.6 (7.3), respectively. Based on UBM criteria, plateau iris was found in 16 eyes (17.6%) of 91 eyes. In these 16 eyes, quadrant-wise analysis showed ten eyes (62.5%) had plateau iris in two quadrants; four eyes (25%) had plateau iris in three quadrants; and two eyes (12.5%) had plateau iris in four quadrants. Anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, axial length, lens position, and relative lens position were not statistically significant between the group having plateau iris and that not having plateau iris, respectively. Approximately 20% of Japanese subjects with PAC and PACG with a patent laser peripheral iridotomy were found to have plateau iris on UBM. No morphological difference was noted in the anterior segment of the eye between those with or without plateau iris.

  6. Plateau iris in Japanese patients with primary angle closure and primary angle closure glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizoguchi T

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Takanori Mizoguchi,1 Mineo Ozaki,2,3 Harumi Wakiyama,1,4 Nobuchika Ogino1,51Mizoguchi Eye Clinic, Nagasaki, Japan; 2Ozaki Eye Clinic Miyazaki, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan; 4The Japanese Red Cross Nagasaki Genbaku Hospital, Nagasaki, Japan; 5Nishigaki Eye Clinic, Nagoya, JapanPurpose: To determine the prevalence of plateau iris in Japanese patients with primary angle closure (PAC and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG and analyze the biometric parameters in patients with plateau iris using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM.Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, subjects aged >50 years with PAC and PACG who had previously undergone a patent laser peripheral iridotomy underwent UBM in one eye. UBM images were qualitatively analyzed using standardized criteria. Plateau iris in a quadrant was defined by anteriorly directed ciliary body, absent ciliary sulcus, steep iris root from its point of insertion followed by a downward angulation, flat iris plane, and irido-angle contact. At least two quadrants had to fulfill these UBM criteria for an eye to be classified as having plateau iris. A-scan biometry was used to measure anterior segment parameters.Results: Ninety-one subjects with PAC (58 subjects or PACG (33 subjects and 68 normal controls were recruited. The mean (standard deviation ages of PAC and PACG patients and normal controls were 73.5 (6.2 and 72.6 (7.3, respectively. Based on UBM criteria, plateau iris was found in 16 eyes (17.6% of 91 eyes. In these 16 eyes, quadrant-wise analysis showed ten eyes (62.5% had plateau iris in two quadrants; four eyes (25% had plateau iris in three quadrants; and two eyes (12.5% had plateau iris in four quadrants. Anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, axial length, lens position, and relative lens position were not statistically significant between the group having plateau iris and that not having plateau iris

  7. Problems of intangible assets commercialization accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Legenchyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing role of intangible assets in conditions of global economy postindustrialization is grounded. The problems of intangible assets accounting are singled out. The basic tasks of the intangible assets accounting commercialization process are determined. The difference between the commercialization of intellectual property and intangible assets is considered. The basic approaches to understanding the essence of the intangible assets commercialization are singled out and grounded. The basic forms and methods of intangible assets commercialization researched by the author are analyzed. The order of accounting reflection of licensee royalties is considered. The factors of influence on the accounting process of intangible assets commercialization are determined. The necessity of solving the problem of accounting of lease payments for computer program by providing access to SaaS environment is grounded. The prospects of further studies of intangible assets accounting commercialization are determined.

  8. Investigation of Polarimetric SAR Data Acquired at Multiple Incidence Angles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Thougaard; Skriver, Henning; Thomsen, A.

    1998-01-01

    The dependence of different polarimetric parameters on the incidence angles in the range of 30° to 60° is investigated for a number of different crops using airborne SAR data. The purpose of the investigation is to determine the effect of the variation of incidence angle within a SAR image when...

  9. Physiological response to angling of Africa's premier freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood plasma was analysed for glucose, cortisol and lactate concentrations to assess the effects of angling duration, fish size and fish condition. Larger fish were angled for a longer duration. Plasma glucose concentrations decreased with greater lactate concentrations, an indication of the aerobic and anaerobic work done ...

  10. Contact angle hysteresis: a review of fundamentals and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eral, Burak; 't Mannetje, Dieter; Oh, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Contact angle hysteresis is an important physical phenomenon. It is omnipresent in nature and also plays a crucial role in various industrial processes. Despite its relevance, there is a lack of consensus on how to incorporate a description of contact angle hysteresis into physical models. To

  11. Normal values of knee angle, intercondylar and intermalleolar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is little data on the range of variation of knee angle, intermalleolar and intercondylar distances in African children. Such measurements are needed to assist determining whether a child legs are normal or not. Knee angle intermalleolar and intercondylar distances were measured in 2166 Nigerian children aged one ...

  12. Escape angles in bulk chi((2)) soliton interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steffen Kjær; Bang, Ole; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2002-01-01

    We develop a theory for nonplanar interaction between two identical type I spatial solitons propagating at opposite, but arbitrary transverse angles in quadratic nonlinear (or so-called chi((2))) bulk, media. We predict quantitatively the outwards escape angle, below which the solitons turn around...

  13. Small angle neutron scattering from nanometer grain sized materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, J. E.; Siegel, R. W.

    1991-11-01

    Small angle neutron scattering has been utilized, along with a number of complementary characterization methods suitable to the nanometer size scale, to investigate the structures of cluster-assembled nanophase materials. Results of these investigations are described and problems and opportunities in using small angle scattering for elucidating nanostructures are discussed.

  14. Small angle polarised neutron scattering investigation of magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergenti, I.; Deriu, A.; Savini, L.; Bonetti, E.; Spizzo, F.; Hoell, H.

    2003-01-01

    Small angle scattering of polarised neutron (SANSPOL) is a powerful technique for the determination of magnetisation, density and compositional profiles of nanostructured particles. We present here some examples of the magnetic profile determination using the SANSPOL technique and we discuss in detail its advantage with respect to the conventional small angle neutron scattering approach

  15. An assessment of recreational bank angling in the Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recreational angling is an important form of utilisation of inland fisheries in South Africa but there is little information on this sector. The objective of this study was to provide an assessment of recreational bank angling in the Free State Province using licence sale and tournament data. During 2013 and 2014, 8 256 and 7 ...

  16. Determination of the Optimum Collector Angle for Composite Solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model for predicting solar radiation available at any given time in the inhabited area in Ilorin was developed. From the equation developed, the optimum tilt angle of the collector due south was carried out. The optimum angle of tilt of the collector and the orientation are dependent on the month of the year and the location ...

  17. Radiological assessment of the femoral bicondylar angle in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Femoral bicondylar angle is the angle between the diaphysis of the femur and a line perpendicular to the infracondylar plane. It is indispensable in bipedal locomotion as it serves to place the knee and foot under the body's center of gravity during the single support phase of gait. Although the mechanism for the ...

  18. Solar electricity potentials and optimal angles for mounting solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for harnessing solar energy using solar panels mounted at optimal inclination angles in the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria is presented. The optimal angle for mounting solar panels as presented by Photovoltaic Geographic Information System (PVGIS) ranges from 11º to 14º in the Southern zone and 13º to 16º ...

  19. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery, angles of inclination. 58.01-40 Section 58.01-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-40 Machinery, angles of inclination. (a) Propulsion machinery and all auxiliary...

  20. Gradient angle estimation by uniform directional simulation on a cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1997-01-01

    approximation to a locally most central limit state point. Moreover, the estimated angle can be used to correct the geometric reliability index.\\bfseries Keywords: Directional simulation, effectivity factor, gradient angle estimation, maximum likelihood, model-correction-factor method, Monte Carlo simulation...

  1. A new uncertainty relation for angular momentum and angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranold, H.U.

    1984-01-01

    An uncertainty relation of the form ΔL 2 ΔSo >=sup(h/2π)/sub(2) is derived for angular momentum and angle. The non-linear operator So measures angles and has a simple interpretation. Subject to very general conditions of rotational invariance the above relation is unique. Radial momentum is not quantized

  2. A cephalometric assessment of the nasolabial angle of an adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: One of the most important components of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is an evaluation of the patient's soft tissue profile. An assessment of the nasolabial angle is a vital component of this evaluation. The purpose of this study was to establish norms for the nasolabial angle of an adult Nigerian ...

  3. A gallery approach for off-angle iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Mahmut; Yoldash, Rashiduddin; Boehnen, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    It has been proven that hamming distance score between frontal and off-angle iris images of same eye differs in iris recognition system. The distinction of hamming distance score is caused by many factors such as image acquisition angle, occlusion, pupil dilation, and limbus effect. In this paper, we first study the effect of the angle variations between iris plane and the image acquisition systems. We present how hamming distance changes for different off-angle iris images even if they are coming from the same iris. We observe that increment in acquisition angle of compared iris images causes the increment in hamming distance. Second, we propose a new technique in off-angle iris recognition system that includes creating a gallery of different off-angle iris images (such as, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 degrees) and comparing each probe image with these gallery images. We will show the accuracy of the gallery approach for off-angle iris recognition.

  4. Presentation of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) at Lions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma in Africa. We carried out a study to determine the clinical presentation pattern of patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) at a tertiary hospital in Malawi. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Lions Sight First Eye Hospital—a ...

  5. Engineering sidewall angles of silica-on-silicon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haiyan, Ou

    2004-01-01

    Burned photoresist is used as etch mask when producing silica-onsilicon waveguides. The sidewall angle of the optical glass waveguides is engineered by varying photoresist thickness and etch selectivity. The principle for the formation of the angles is introduced and very promising experimental...

  6. Angle-domain common-image gathers from anisotropic Gaussian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An approach for extracting angle-domain common-image gathers (ADCIGs) from anisotropic Gaussian beam prestack depth migration (GB-PSDM) is presented in this paper. The propagation angle is calcu- lated in the process of migration using the real-value traveltime information of Gaussian beam. Based on the above ...

  7. A Novel Monopulse Angle Estimation Method for Wideband LFM Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xiong Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional monopulse angle estimations are mainly based on phase comparison and amplitude comparison methods, which are commonly adopted in narrowband radars. In modern radar systems, wideband radars are becoming more and more important, while the angle estimation for wideband signals is little studied in previous works. As noise in wideband radars has larger bandwidth than narrowband radars, the challenge lies in the accumulation of energy from the high resolution range profile (HRRP of monopulse. In wideband radars, linear frequency modulated (LFM signals are frequently utilized. In this paper, we investigate the monopulse angle estimation problem for wideband LFM signals. To accumulate the energy of the received echo signals from different scatterers of a target, we propose utilizing a cross-correlation operation, which can achieve a good performance in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR conditions. In the proposed algorithm, the problem of angle estimation is converted to estimating the frequency of the cross-correlation function (CCF. Experimental results demonstrate the similar performance of the proposed algorithm compared with the traditional amplitude comparison method. It means that the proposed method for angle estimation can be adopted. When adopting the proposed method, future radars may only need wideband signals for both tracking and imaging, which can greatly increase the data rate and strengthen the capability of anti-jamming. More importantly, the estimated angle will not become ambiguous under an arbitrary angle, which can significantly extend the estimated angle range in wideband radars.

  8. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial...

  9. Accounting and Tax Issues Concerning Commercial Discounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Raluca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial discounts accounting presents a particular importance because, on the one hand, of their widely spread on a large scale in the commercial activity and on the second hand, due to the influence of the accounting and reporting method over the value added tax. The paper theoretically addresses commercial reductions and also their reflection in the accounting according with the latest regulations in force.

  10. Determinants of Commercial Banks' Profitability in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Trofimov, Ivan D.; Md. Aris, Nazaria; Ying Ying, Jovena Kho

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between non-performing loans (NPLs) and commercial banks' performance in Malaysia, alongside other factors. It considers the effect of NPLs, cost efficiency and bank size on commercial banks' profitability by using panel data regression (Pooled OLS model), covering the period of 2010-2015. The findings of the study show that NPLs and cost efficiency have a significant negative relationship with commercial banks' performances in Malaysia. On the othe...

  11. A 'conveyor belt' model for the dynamic contact angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpe C, Della; Siboni, S

    2011-01-01

    The familiar Young contact angle measurement of a liquid at equilibrium on a solid is a fundamental aspect of capillary phenomena. But in the real world it is not so easy to observe it. This is due to the roughness and/or heterogeneity of real surfaces, which typically are not perfectly planar and chemically homogeneous. What can be easily detected, and in a repeatable way, are advancing and receding contact angles. In this paper, we discuss a simple model which accounts for the onset of advancing and receding contact angles measured by the Wilhelmy microbalance, one of the most powerful techniques for contact angle measurements. The model also explains the experimental observation that advancing and receding contact angles become closer to each other when the system is gently 'shaken', by supplying mechanical energy in an appropriate way. The model may be pedagogically useful in introducing students and teachers to aspects of capillary phenomena which are not usually discussed in basic physics courses.

  12. Nonlinearity in the effect of an inhomogeneous Hall angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Daniel W.

    2007-03-01

    The differential equation for the electric potential in a conducting material with an inhomogeneous Hall angle is extended to the large-field limit. This equation is solved for a square specimen, using a successive over-relaxation [SOR] technique for matrices of up to 101x101 size, and the Hall weighting function -- the effect of local pointlike perturbations on the measured Hall angle -- is calculated as both the unperturbed Hall angle, θH, and the perturbation, δθH, exceed the linear, small angle limit. Preliminary results show that the Hall angle varies by no more than 5% if both | θH |<1 and | δθH |<1. Thus, previously calculated results for the Hall weighting function can be used for most materials in all but the most extreme magnetic fields.

  13. Does Sacrococcygeal Angle Play a Role on Pilonidal Sinus Etiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Eryilmaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The predisposing factors for the development of sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease (SPD still remain undetermined. Here, we investigate the sacrococcygeal angle as a possible predisposing factor for the development of disease. Consecutive male patients admitted to our clinic with the diagnosis of SPD were included. Sex, age and BMI matched healthy controls without SPD were enrolled to the study. The predefined sacrococcygeal angles of patients and controls were measured on lateral pelvic radiographs by a single experienced radiologist. Thirty patients were included in each group. Sacrococcygeal angles of patients and control group were measured as 37.3 ± 14.5 and 36.81 ± 10.23 in patients and controls, respectively. The difference with respect to sacrococcygeal angle was not statistically significant between two groups. Sacrococcygeal angle which is the main skeletal determinant of intergluteal sulcus is not a predisposing factor for the development of sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease.

  14. Neutron small angle scattering of irradiated aluminium-silicon alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostorz, G.

    1976-01-01

    Technically pure aluminium and aluminium-silicon alloys (0.43, 0.83 and 1.2% Si, also containing 0.11 to 0.14 at. % Fe) were investigated by slow neutron small angle scattering after irradiation with fast neutrons at low temperatures. Different irradiation levels, ageing at room temperature and at 60/70 0 C had no measurable effect upon small angle scattering cross-sections. From the experimental precision upper limit for the amount of Si involved in clustering after irradiation can be given. The observed small angle scattering shows a strong dependence on scattering angles and is attributed to large precipitates of Al 12 Fe 3 Si. A surface layer on the as-received samples is identified as another source of low-intensity small angle scattering. (orig.) [de

  15. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  16. Creep in commercially pure metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabarro, F.R.N.

    2006-01-01

    The creep of commercially pure polycrystalline metals under constant stress has four stages: a virtually instantaneous extension, decelerating Andrade β creep, almost steady-state Andrade κ creep, and an acceleration towards failure. Little is known about the first stage, and the fourth stage has been extensively reviewed elsewhere. The limited experimental evidence on the physical mechanism of the second stage is reviewed and a critical discussion is given of various theories of this stage. The dependence of strain rate on stress in the third, steady-state, period seems to fall into two regimes, a power law with an exponent of about 4-5, and a rather closely exponential law. The limits of the parameters within which a simple theory of the exponential dependence can be expected to be valid are discussed, and found to be compatible with experiments. Theories of the power-law dependence are discussed, and, appear to be unconvincing. The theoretical models do not relate closely to the metallographic and other physical observations. In view of the weakness of theory, experiments which may indicate the physical processes dominant in steady-state creep are reviewed. It is usually not clear whether they pertain to the power-law or the exponential regime. While the theories all assume that most of the deformation occurs homogeneously within the grains, most experimental observations point strongly to a large deformation at or close to the grain boundaries. However, a detailed study of dislocation processes in a single grain of polycrystalline foil strained in the electron microscope shows that most of the observed strain can be accounted for by the motion of single dislocations through the subgrain structure. There is no clear reconciliation of these two sets of observations. Grain-boundary sliding cannot occur without intragranular deformation. One or other process may dominate the overall deformation; the geometrically dominant process may not be the rate

  17. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well.

  18. Phacoemulsification treatment of subjects with acute primary angle closure and chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Ye-Hong; Wang, Mei; Li, Ying; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Lin, Min-Kai; Fang, Min; Ge, Jian

    2009-12-01

    To investigate and compare the effects of phacoemulsification as an initial procedure to control intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes with acute primary angle closure (APAC) and chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma (CPACG) with coexisting cataracts and peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) of greater than 180 degrees. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Thirteen patients (13 eyes) with APAC and 10 patients (10 eyes) with CPACG were enrolled in the study. IOP control in the 2 groups was compared at final follow-up. Other outcome measures included visual acuity, anterior chamber depth, gonioscopic appearance, and complications. The postoperative IOP was reduced in both the APAC and CPACG groups. As assessed at last follow-up (median 6 mo), IOP in the APAC group was significantly lower than that in the CPACG group. The absolute success rate was 100% in the APAC group and 80% in the CPACG group. The number of hypotensive medications decreased in both APAC and CPACG group. The postoperative degree of PAS was relieved in 11 of 12 eyes with APAC and 5 of 9 eyes with CPACG. Initial phacoemulsification performed to provide short-term control of IOP is more efficacious in patients with APAC than in those with CPACG, especially when PAS is greater than 180 degrees.

  19. Deep learning methods for protein torsion angle prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiou; Hou, Jie; Adhikari, Badri; Lyu, Qiang; Cheng, Jianlin

    2017-09-18

    Deep learning is one of the most powerful machine learning methods that has achieved the state-of-the-art performance in many domains. Since deep learning was introduced to the field of bioinformatics in 2012, it has achieved success in a number of areas such as protein residue-residue contact prediction, secondary structure prediction, and fold recognition. In this work, we developed deep learning methods to improve the prediction of torsion (dihedral) angles of proteins. We design four different deep learning architectures to predict protein torsion angles. The architectures including deep neural network (DNN) and deep restricted Boltzmann machine (DRBN), deep recurrent neural network (DRNN) and deep recurrent restricted Boltzmann machine (DReRBM) since the protein torsion angle prediction is a sequence related problem. In addition to existing protein features, two new features (predicted residue contact number and the error distribution of torsion angles extracted from sequence fragments) are used as input to each of the four deep learning architectures to predict phi and psi angles of protein backbone. The mean absolute error (MAE) of phi and psi angles predicted by DRNN, DReRBM, DRBM and DNN is about 20-21° and 29-30° on an independent dataset. The MAE of phi angle is comparable to the existing methods, but the MAE of psi angle is 29°, 2° lower than the existing methods. On the latest CASP12 targets, our methods also achieved the performance better than or comparable to a state-of-the art method. Our experiment demonstrates that deep learning is a valuable method for predicting protein torsion angles. The deep recurrent network architecture performs slightly better than deep feed-forward architecture, and the predicted residue contact number and the error distribution of torsion angles extracted from sequence fragments are useful features for improving prediction accuracy.

  20. [Diagnostic value of Blumensaat angle for anterior cruciate ligament injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiang-Yun; Feng, Jiang-Feng; Lu, Yan-Hui; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Yang, Zi-Quan

    2017-08-25

    The receiver operator characteristic(ROC) curve was used to determine the best Blumensaat angle for the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament injury, so as to objectively evaluate the diagnostic value of Blumensaat angle for anterior cruciate ligament injury. Total 167 patients who had knee arthroscopic treatment in a hospital from January 2015 to January 2016 were retrospectively studied, and the patients' age, gender, left and right limb condition were recorded. The patients were divided into two groups according to Blumensaat angle measured on the MRI: group A(Blumensaat angle0°). The ROC curve was drawn from the statistical data of the group B to get the best critical value of the anterior cruciate ligament injury when the Blumensaat angle was more than 0°. According to the best critical value obtained by ROC curve, the coincidence rate of the total sample was obtained. There were no significant differences in patients' age, gender, and affected limbs. There were 51 patients in group A, in which 49 patients were diagnosed as anterior cruciate injury under arthroscopy(gold standard for diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament injury), and 2 patients were diagnosed as no anterior cruciate injury under arthroscopy. When the Blumensaat angle was=15°, the probability of anterior cruciate ligament injury was greater. When the Blumensaat angle was 0° to 15°, the anterior cruciate ligament was more likely to be not injured. The Blumensaat angle=15° were used to diagnose the injury of anterior cruciate ligament. Compared with the results of arthroscopy, the coincidence rate of the total sample was 92.8%. Blumensaat angle is helpful to diagnose the ACL injuries. When the Blumensaat angle was =15°, the probability of ACL injury is greater.

  1. Preferred viewing distance and screen angle of electronic paper displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Kong-King; Lee, Der-Song

    2007-09-01

    This study explored the viewing distance and screen angle for electronic paper (E-Paper) displays under various light sources, ambient illuminations, and character sizes. Data analysis showed that the mean viewing distance and screen angle were 495 mm and 123.7 degrees. The mean viewing distances for Kolin Chlorestic Liquid Crystal display was 500 mm, significantly longer than Sony electronic ink display, 491 mm. Screen angle for Kolin was 127.4 degrees, significantly greater than that of Sony, 120.0 degrees. Various light sources revealed no significant effect on viewing distances; nevertheless, they showed significant effect on screen angles. The screen angle for sunlight lamp (D65) was similar to that of fluorescent lamp (TL84), but greater than that of tungsten lamp (F). Ambient illumination and E-paper type had significant effects on viewing distance and screen angle. The higher the ambient illumination was, the longer the viewing distance and the lesser the screen angle. Character size had significant effect on viewing distances: the larger the character size, the longer the viewing distance. The results of this study indicated that the viewing distance for E-Paper was similar to that of visual display terminal (VDT) at around 500 mm, but greater than normal paper at about 360 mm. The mean screen angle was around 123.7 degrees, which in terms of viewing angle is 29.5 degrees below horizontal eye level. This result is similar to the general suggested viewing angle between 20 degrees and 50 degrees below the horizontal line of sight.

  2. Magnetic nanoparticles studied by small angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cristiano Luis Pinto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Grupo de Fluidos Complexos; Antonel, Soledad; Negri, Martin [Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA) (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Dept. de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted much attention in the past decades because of their potential applications in high-density magnetic recording, magnetic fluids, data storage, spin-tronics, solar cells, sensors and catalysis. Among the magnetic nanoparticles, cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) has been widely studied due to high electromagnetic performance, excellent chemical stability, mechanical hardness, and high cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy. These properties make it a promising candidate for many applications in commercial electronics such as video, audio tapes, high-density digital recording media, and magnetic fluids. Other interesting application is the use of magnetic nanocompounds in the design of magneto elastomers. Magnetoelastomers are dispersions of magnetic particles into an elastomer polymer matrix. These materials are highly promising for applications in the development of sensors and actuators, mainly because of the possibility to optimize the quality parameters of the devices by systematically changing the chemical nature of both the inorganic particles and the organic polymeric matrix, with the consequent modification of the magnetic, electric and elastic properties. Moreover, nanoparticles of cobalt-iron oxides (cobalt ferrite, CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) appears as very interesting compounds for magnetoelasticity, not only because present magnetic anisotropy, moderate-high magnetization and high coercitivity at room temperature, but also because the possibility to modulate its magnetic properties by chemical synthesis, that is by synthesizing nanoparticles of different sizes having thus not only different magnetic parameters but also different magnetic behavior (superparamagnetism or ferromagnetism). That means that most of the magnetic properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite strongly depend on the size and shape of the nanoparticles, which are closely related to the method of preparation. On the other hand, nickel

  3. Magnetic nanoparticles studied by small angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cristiano Luis Pinto; Antonel, Soledad; Negri, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted much attention in the past decades because of their potential applications in high-density magnetic recording, magnetic fluids, data storage, spin-tronics, solar cells, sensors and catalysis. Among the magnetic nanoparticles, cobalt ferrite (CoFe 2 O 4 ) has been widely studied due to high electromagnetic performance, excellent chemical stability, mechanical hardness, and high cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy. These properties make it a promising candidate for many applications in commercial electronics such as video, audio tapes, high-density digital recording media, and magnetic fluids. Other interesting application is the use of magnetic nanocompounds in the design of magneto elastomers. Magnetoelastomers are dispersions of magnetic particles into an elastomer polymer matrix. These materials are highly promising for applications in the development of sensors and actuators, mainly because of the possibility to optimize the quality parameters of the devices by systematically changing the chemical nature of both the inorganic particles and the organic polymeric matrix, with the consequent modification of the magnetic, electric and elastic properties. Moreover, nanoparticles of cobalt-iron oxides (cobalt ferrite, CoFe 2 O 4 ) appears as very interesting compounds for magnetoelasticity, not only because present magnetic anisotropy, moderate-high magnetization and high coercitivity at room temperature, but also because the possibility to modulate its magnetic properties by chemical synthesis, that is by synthesizing nanoparticles of different sizes having thus not only different magnetic parameters but also different magnetic behavior (superparamagnetism or ferromagnetism). That means that most of the magnetic properties of CoFe 2 O 4 ferrite strongly depend on the size and shape of the nanoparticles, which are closely related to the method of preparation. On the other hand, nickel nanoparticles are very interesting

  4. Within tree variation of lignin, extractives, and microfibril angle coupled with the theoretical and near infrared modeling of microfibril angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Via; chi L. So; Leslie H. Groom; Todd F. Shupe; michael Stine; Jan. Wikaira

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical model was built predicting the relationship between microfibril angle and lignin content at the Angstrom (A) level. Both theoretical and statistical examination of experimental data supports a square root transformation of lignin to predict microfibril angle. The experimental material used came from 10 longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)...

  5. Can orbital angle morphology distinguish dogs from wolves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Luc; Spanoghe, Inge; Miller, Rebecca; Van Dongen, Stefan

    For more than a century, the orbital angle has been studied by many authors to distinguish dog skulls from their progenitor, the wolf. In early studies, the angle was reported to be different between dogs (49°-55°) and wolves (39°-46°). This clear difference was, however, questioned in a more recent Scandinavian study that shows some overlap. It is clear that in all studies several methodological issues were unexplored or unclear and that group sizes and the variety of breeds and wolf subspecies were small. Archaeological dog skulls had also not been studied. Our goal was to test larger and more varied groups and add archaeological samples as they are an evolutionary stage between wolves and modern dogs. We also tested the influence of measuring methods, intra- and inter-reliability, angle symmetry, the influence of variations in skull position and the possibility of measuring and comparing this angle on 3D CT scan images. Our results indicate that there is about 50 % overlap between the angle range in wolves and modern dogs. However, skulls with a very narrow orbital angle were only found in wolves and those with a very wide angle only in dogs. Archaeological dogs have a mean angle very close to the one of the wolves. Symmetry is highest in wolves and lowest in archaeological dogs. The measuring method is very reliable, for both inter- and intra-reliability (0.99-0.97), and most skull position changes have no statistical influence on the angle measured. Three-dimensional CT scan images can be used to measure OA, but the angles differ from direct measuring and cannot be used for comparison. Evolutionary changes in dog skulls responsible for the wider OA compared to wolf skulls are mainly the lateralisation of the zygomatic process of the frontal bone. Our conclusion is that the orbital angle can be used as an additional morphological measuring method to discern wolves from recent and archaeological dogs. Angles above 60° are certainly from recent dogs. Angles

  6. Apparent and microscopic dynamic contact angles in confined flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Takeshi; Kajishima, Takeo

    2017-11-01

    An abundance of empirical correlations between a dynamic contact angle and a capillary number representing a translational velocity of a contact line have been provided for the last decades. The experimentally obtained dynamic contact angles are inevitably apparent contact angles but often undistinguished from microscopic contact angles formed right on the wall. As Bonn et al. ["Wetting and spreading," Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 739-805 (2009)] pointed out, however, most of the experimental studies simply report values of angles recorded at some length scale which is quantitatively unknown. It is therefore hard to evaluate or judge the physical validity and the generality of the empirical correlations. The present study is an attempt to clear this clutter regarding the dynamic contact angle by measuring both the apparent and the microscopic dynamic contact angles from the identical data sets in a well-controlled manner, by means of numerical simulation. The numerical method was constructed so that it reproduced the fine details of the flow with a moving contact line predicted by molecular dynamics simulations [T. Qian, X. Wang, and P. Sheng, "Molecular hydrodynamics of the moving contact line in two-phase immiscible flows," Commun. Comput. Phys. 1, 1-52 (2006)]. We show that the microscopic contact angle as a function of the capillary number has the same form as Blake's molecular-kinetic model [T. Blake and J. Haynes, "Kinetics of liquid/liquid displacement," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 30, 421-423 (1969)], regardless of the way the flow is driven, the channel width, the mechanical properties of the receding fluid, and the value of the equilibrium contact angle under the conditions where the Reynolds and capillary numbers are small. We have also found that the apparent contact angle obtained by the arc-fitting of the interface behaves surprisingly universally as claimed in experimental studies in the literature [e.g., X. Li et al., "An experimental study on dynamic pore

  7. EFFECT OF SWEEP ANGLE ON THE VORTICAL FLOW OVER DELTA WINGS AT AN ANGLE OF ATTACK OF 10°

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMES BRETT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CFD simulations have been used to analyse the vortical flows over sharp edged delta wings with differing sweep angles under subsonic conditions at an angle of attack of 10°. RANS simulations were validated against experimental data for a 65° sweep wing, with a flat cross-section, and the steadiness of the flow field was assessed by comparing the results against unsteady URANS and DES simulations. To assess the effect of sweep angle on the flow field, a range of sweep angles from 65° to 43° were simulated. For moderate sweep wings the primary vortex was observed to detach from the leading edge, undergoing vortex breakdown, and a weaker, replacement, "shadow" vortex was formed. The shadow vortex was observed for sweep angles of 50° and less, and resulted in reduced lift production near the wing tips loss of the stronger primary vortex.

  8. The Influence of Face Angle and Club Path on the Resultant Launch Angle of a Golf Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wood

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A two-part experimental study was conducted in order to better understand how the delivered face angle and club path of a golf club influences the initial launch direction of a golf ball for various club types. A robust understanding of how these parameters influence the ball direction has implications for both coaches and club designers. The first study used a large sample of golfers hitting shots with different clubs. Initial ball direction was measured with a Foresight Sports camera system, while club delivery parameters were recorded with a Vicon motion capture system. The second study used a golf robot and Vision Research camera to measure club and ball parameters. Results from these experiments show that the launch direction fell closer to face angle than club path. The percent toward the face angle ranged from 61% to 83%, where 100% designates a launch angle entirely toward the face angle.

  9. Influence of angle between the nozzle and skin surface on the heat flux and overall heat extraction during cryogen spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, Guillermo; Vu, Henry; Nelson, J Stuart

    2004-01-01

    High speed video imaging and an inverse heat conduction problem algorithm were used to observe and measure the effect of the angle between the nozzle and surface of a skin phantom on: (a) surface temperature; (b) heat flux q; and (c) overall heat extraction Q during cryogen spray cooling (CSC). A skin phantom containing a fast-response temperature sensor was sprayed with 50 ms cryogen spurts from a commercial nozzle placed 30 mm from the surface. The nozzle was systematically positioned at angles ranging from 5 deg. to 90 deg. (perpendicular) with respect to the phantom surface. It is shown that angles as low as 15 deg. have an insignificant impact on the surface temperature, q and Q. Only exaggerated angles of 5 deg. show up to 10% lower q and 30% lower Q with respect to the maximal values measured when nozzles are aimed perpendicularly. This study proves that the slight angle that many commercial nozzles have does not affect significantly the CSC efficiency. (note)

  10. The ideal male jaw angle--An Internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommaerts, Maurice Y

    2016-04-01

    The ideal male jaw angle has not been established. With the advent of additive manufacturing, precise customized shaping is a reality. This study aimed to define the ideal masculine mandibular angle as an aid for 3-dimensional (3D) design. An Internet survey was conducted using black/white photographs of celebrities and non-celebrities. Preferences regarding gonial angle (profile and frontal views), intergonial width and vertical jaw angle position (face frontal view), and angle curvature and definition in oblique views were obtained using simplified, unbalanced Likert scales. Constructs were defined for planning 3D implant designs. The preferred jaw angle had these characteristics: 130° in face profile view, intergonial width similar to facial width, vertical position in frontal view at the oral commissure or at least not below the lower lip, jawline slope in the face frontal view nearly parallel to (with a maximum 15° downward deviation from) a line extending from the lateral canthus to the alare, ascending ramus slope 65°-75° to the Frankfort horizontal, and curvature in the oblique view visible from earlobe to chin and not pointy. Photogrammetric analysis of panel preferences lead to constructs with values useful for the design of 3D printed jaw angles. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Angle of Attack on Slope Climbing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Colin M.; Jones, Lucas; Smith, Lauren M.

    2017-01-01

    Ascending steep slopes is often a very difficult challenge for off-road vehicles, whether on Earth or on extraterrestrial bodies. This challenge is even greater if the surface consists of loose granular soil that does not provide much shear strength. This study investigated how the path at which a vehicle traverses a slope, specifically the angle that it is commanded to drive relative to the base of the hill (the angle of attack), can affect its performance. A vehicle was driven in loose sand at slope angles up to 15 degrees and angles of attack ranging from 10 to 90 degrees. A novel photogrammetry technique was implemented to both track vehicle motion and create a three-dimensional profile of the terrain. This allowed for true wheel sinkage measurements. The study showed that though low angles of attack result in lower wheel slip and sinkage, the efficiency of the vehicles uphill motion increased at higher angles of attack. For slopes up to 15 degrees, a 90 degree angle of attack provided the greatest likelihood of successful ascent.

  12. Dynamic angle selection in X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabravolski, Andrei, E-mail: andrei.dabravolski@uantwerpen.be [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Batenburg, Kees Joost, E-mail: joost.batenburg@uantwerpen.be [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica (CWI), Science Park 123, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sijbers, Jan, E-mail: jan.sijbers@uantwerpen.be [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • We propose the dynamic angle selection algorithm for CT scanning. • The approach is based on the concept of information gain over a set of solutions. • Projection angles are selected based on the already available projection data. • The approach can lead to more accurate results from fewer projections. - Abstract: In X-ray tomography, a number of radiographs (projections) are recorded from which a tomogram is then reconstructed. Conventionally, these projections are acquired equiangularly, resulting in an unbiased sampling of the Radon space. However, especially in case when only a limited number of projections can be acquired, the selection of the angles has a large impact on the quality of the reconstructed image. In this paper, a dynamic algorithm is proposed, in which new projection angles are selected by maximizing the information gain about the object, given the set of possible new angles. Experiments show that this approach can select projection angles for which the accuracy of the reconstructed image is significantly higher compared to the standard angle selections schemes.

  13. A study of images of Projective Angles of pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jue [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhaoqi, Zhang [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)], E-mail: zhaoqi5000@vip.sohu.com; Yu Wei; Miao Cuilian; Yan Zixu; Zhao Yike [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15

    Aims: In images of magnetic resonance and computed tomography (CT) there are visible angles between pulmonary veins and the coronary, transversal or sagittal section of body. In this study these angles are measured and defined as Projective Angles of pulmonary veins. Several possible influential factors and characters of distribution are studied and analyzed for a better understanding of this imaging anatomic character of pulmonary veins. And it could be the anatomic base of adjusting correctly the angle of the central X-ray of the angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing the catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Method: Images of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) and contrast enhanced computer tomography (CECT) of the left atrium and pulmonary veins of 137 health objects and patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are processed with the technique of post-processing, and Projective Angles to the coronary and transversal sections are measured and analyzed statistically. Result: Project Angles of pulmonary veins are one of real and steady imaging anatomic characteristics of pulmonary veins. The statistical distribution of variables is relatively concentrated, with a fairly good representation of average value. It is possible to improve the angle of the central X-ray according to the average value in the selective angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing the catheter ablation of AF.

  14. The UK commercial demonstration fast reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.A.G.

    1987-01-01

    The paper on the UK Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor design was presented to the seminar on 'European Commercial Fast Reactor Programme, London 1987. The design is discussed under the topic headings:- primary circuit, intermediate heat exchangers and pumps, fuel and core, refuelling, steam generators, and nuclear island layout. (U.K.)

  15. Progress commercializing solar-electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracker, R.; De Laquil, P. III

    1996-01-01

    The commercial status of the principal solar electric technologies -- photovoltaic and solar thermal -- is reviewed. Current and near-term market niches are identified, and projected longer-term markets are explored along with the key strategies for achieving them, including technological breakthroughs, manufacturing developments, economies of scale and mass production, and market creation. Market barriers and public policy impacts on commercialization are discussed

  16. 77 FR 41331 - Commercial Mobile Alert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Requirements for the Commercial Mobile Alert System (CMAS). Form No.: Not applicable. Respondents: Business or... Alert System (CMAS), under which the Commercial Mobile Service (CMS) providers may elect to transmit... Mobile Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; announcement of...

  17. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  18. Regional vegetation management standards for commercial pine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the understanding gained from these trials allowed for the development of vegetation management standards, their operational and economic viability need to be tested on a commercial basis. Four pine trials were thus initiated to test the applicability of these standards when utilised on a commercial scale. Two of ...

  19. CASH 2021: Commercial access and space habitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Ferretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frédéric; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J. Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

    2002-07-01

    Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed.

  20. Combustion properties of wood impregnated with commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine some combustion properties of Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) wood specimens impregnated with aqueous solutions of commercial fertilizers. Ammonium sulphate (AS) and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were used as commercial fertilizers. Diammonium phosphate and ...

  1. Edible TV: Your Child and Food Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Robert B., Comp.; Engle, Pamela C., Comp.

    This document reports on the impact of television food commercials on children under 12, focusing specifically on how commercials influence children's food preferences and concepts, how they affect children's knowledge of nutrition, and how they contribute to obesity. Part I is a compilation of short excerpts from relevant testimony before the…

  2. Gene transformation potential of commercial canola ( Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of efficient transformation methods in commercial varieties. In this research transformation potential of 8 commercial cultivars; Licord, SLM046, RGS003, Zarfam, Okapi, Sarigol, Modena and Opera adapted to different regions of Iran was studied using cotyledon and hypocotyl explants. Agrobacterium tumifaciens strain AGL0 ...

  3. 36 CFR 327.18 - Commercial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial activities. 327.18 Section 327.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND... § 327.18 Commercial activities. (a) The engaging in or solicitation of business on project land or...

  4. 36 CFR 331.19 - Commercial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial activities. 331.19 Section 331.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.19 Commercial activities. Unless otherwise authorized in writing by the District...

  5. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  6. TV Commercials as Achievement Scripts for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, F. L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Women who viewed four current, sex-stereotyped commercials emphasized homemaking over other achievement concerns in imagining their lives 10 years hence. Women who saw same commercials with sex roles reversed put significantly greater emphasis on their own achievement aspirations. Their more equal weighting of home and career matched men's. (CMG)

  7. Commercial kidney transplantation: Trends, outcomes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objective: Many experts believe that commercial organ transplants continue unabated despite international efforts to curb them. The aim was to determine the trends, outcomes and challenges of commercial living unrelated renal transplants (LURT) as seen in our institution. Materials and Methods: A ...

  8. The Rise and Demise of Commercial Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Lawrence R.

    1982-01-01

    Commercial geography, originally taught in 18th-century trading schools, reached its zenith in the mid-1920s because it was stimulated by the development of the British Empire, noted for its commercial applications, and popularized through information disseminated by geographical societies. Demise factors include America's isolationist attitudes,…

  9. commercial calf rennet, Aspergillus niger var. awamori

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aysegul

    2013-09-11

    Sep 11, 2013 ... The possibilities of using recombinant chymosin as an alternative coagulant to commercial calf rennet in the production of white pickled cheese was investigated. For this purpose, white pickled cheese produced by using commercial calf rennet, recombinant chymosin (Aspergillus niger var. awamori) and.

  10. Mandatory Compensation to Commercial Agents upon Termination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil Abdu Oumer

    real estate, invest capitals, sign bills of exchange, effect a settlement, consent to arbitration, make donations or bring or defend an action”.31. 2.3 Duration of commercial agency. Unlike agency in civil transactions, commercial agency between an agent and a principal is not confined to a specific activity, and thus needs to ...

  11. SOCIAL ORIENTATION MANAGEMENT OF COMMERCIAL BANKS ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Shpankovskaya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern theoretical approaches to definition of essence of social activity of enterprises are analyzed. The directions of development of social activity of commercial banks are determined. The expedience of formulation of mission of commercial banks and general requirements it must meet to is grounded.

  12. 32 CFR 705.13 - Commercial advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... encourages cooperation with advertisers. However, the layout, artwork and text of the proposed advertisement... exclusively for the use of an advertiser. (d) Navy cooperation in commercial advertising, publicity and other... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial advertising. 705.13 Section 705.13...

  13. Commercial kidney transplantation: Trends, outcomes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim was to determine the trends, outcomes and challenges of commercial living unrelated renal transplants (LURT) as .... Commercial kidney transplants: Trends and outcomes. (22,2%), diabète post-greffe dans sept (15 .... (42.2%) with UTI as the commonest infection, which is in keeping with the known fact that UTI.

  14. Patient-specific rhytidectomy: finding the angle of maximal rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacono, Andrew A; Ransom, Evan R

    2012-09-01

    Rhytidectomy is fundamentally an operation of tissue release and resuspension, although the manner and direction of suspension are subject to perpetual debate. The authors describe a method for identifying the angle of maximal rejuvenation during rhytidectomy and quantify the resulting angle and its relationship to patient age. Patients were prospectively enrolled; demographic data, history, and operative details were recorded. Rhytidectomies were performed by the senior author (AAJ). After complete elevation, the face-lift flap was rotated in a medially-based arc (0-90°) while attention was given to the submental area, jawline, and midface. The angle of maximal rejuvenation for each hemiface was identified as described, and the flap was resuspended. During redraping, measurements of vertical and horizontal skin excess were recorded in situ. The resulting angle of lift was then calculated for each hemiface using trigonometry. Symmetry between sides was determined, and the effect of patient age on this angle was assessed. Three hundred hemifaces were operated (147 women; 3 men). Mean age was 60 years (range, 37-80 years). Mean resulting angle for the cohort was 60° from horizontal (range, 46-77°). This was inversely correlated with patient age (r = -.3). Younger patients (<50 years, 64°) had a significantly more vertical angle than older patients (≥70 years, 56°; P < .0002). No significant intersubject difference was found between hemifaces (P = .53). The authors present a method for identifying the angle of maximal rejuvenation during rhytidectomy. This angle was more superior than posterior in all cases and is intimately related to patient age. Lasting results demand a detailed anatomical understanding and strict attention to the direction and degree of laxity.

  15. Hybrid Projectile Body Angle Estimation for Selectable Range Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Christopher J.

    A Hybrid Projectile (HP) is a tube launched munition that transforms into a gliding UAV, and is currently being researched at West Virginia University. A simple launch timer was first envisioned to control the transformation point in order to achieve maximum distance. However, this timer would need to be reprogrammed for any distance less than maximum range due to the nominal time to deployment varying with launch angle. A method was sought for automatic wing deployment that would not require reprogramming the round. A body angle estimation system was used to estimate the pitch of the HP relative to the Earth to determine when the HP is properly oriented for the designed glide slope angle. It was also necessary to filter out noise from a simulated inertial measurement unit (IMU), GPS receiver, and magnetometer. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) was chosen to estimate the Euler angles, position and velocity of the HP while an algorithm determined when to deploy the wings. A parametric study was done to verify the optimum deployment condition using a Simulink aerodynamic model. Because range is directly related to launch angle, various launch angles were simulated in the model. By fixing the glide slope angle to -10° as a deployment condition for all launch angles, the range differed only by a maximum of 6.1% from the maximum possible range. Based on these findings, the body angle deployment condition provides the most flexible option to maintain maximum distance without the need of reprogramming. Position and velocity estimates were also determined from the EKF using the GPS measurements. Simulations showed that the EKF estimates exhibited low root mean squared error values, corresponding to less than 3% of the total position values. Because the HP was in flight for less than a minute in this experiment, the drift encountered was acceptable.

  16. Modified dark room provocative test for primary angle closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dejiao; Wang, Ningli; Wang, Bingsong; Wang, Tao; Jonas, Jost B

    2012-03-01

    To examine the diagnostic value of a modified dark room provocative test (DRPT) in detecting primary closure of the anterior chamber angle. The cross-sectional observational prospective clinical study included suspects of primary angle closure. Using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), we measured the anterior chamber angle configuration at room light and after 3 minutes of dark adaptation. Gonioscopy and Perkin's applanation tonometry were performed in room light conditions at baseline and after 1.5 hours of dark adaptation. The number of closed angle quadrants assessed on AS-OCT images and upon gonioscopy were recorded. The DRPT was positive, if intraocular pressure increased by ≥8 mm Hg after 1.5 hours of dark adaptation. The study included 76 subjects (76 eyes). Among 32 (42%) eyes with a positive DRPT, the number of eyes with an increased number of closed angle quadrants was significantly higher for the OCT examination at 3 minutes of dark adaptation than for gonioscopy at 1.5 hours of dark adaptation [29 (91%) eyes vs 21 (66%) eyes; P=0.01]. Kappa statistics showed a moderate agreement between increased closed angle quadrants obtained both after 3 minutes of dark adaptation (κ=0.44; Pdark room test (κ=0.45; Pdark room test. A modified DRPT with an anterior chamber angle assessment by OCT at 3 minutes of dark adaptation as compared with a gonioscopic angle assessment after 1.5 hours of dark adaptation had a higher diagnostic precision in predicting primary angle closure.

  17. [Laser Iridotomy - In Cases of Acute Angle Closure Only?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handzel, Daniel M; Meyer, Carsten H; Wegener, Alfred

    2017-11-01

    The narrowing of the chamber angle-as a result of anatomic predispositions like high hyperopia or increasing lens thickness-poses the greatest risk for acute angle closure. A laser iridotomy counts as a standard procedure in cases of acute angle closure, whereas there are no coherent recommendations or guidelines for a prophylactic therapy. Modern imaging techniques, such as anterior segment optical coherence tomography or Scheimpflug photography, can give valuable information for the planning of treatment. This review presents traditional and modern imaging techniques and summarises recommendations for action in relation to recent publications. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Influence of Stockpile Angle in Natural Drying of Laterite Ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoalbys Retirado-Mediaceja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural drying is performed at Cuban nickel plants by depositing bulk ore in the open. The ore is currently being stockpiled without much consideration for the impact of the drying surface angle on the process power behavior. Simulations were carried out in this investigation, which prove that an increased triangular stockpile angle considerably reduces natural drying efficiency. A 45 sexagesimal degree angle to the horizontal plane results in exposure of a large volume of ore to natural drying and guarantees adequate energy performance.

  19. Low-cost large-angle steering mirror development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassom, Steven R.

    2009-08-01

    The Space Dynamics Laboratory has combined internal funds with its background in space-rated mechanisms to develop a prototype low-cost large-angle 2-axis fine steering mirror (FSM). The FSM has a 75-mm clear aperture, 30-degree mechanical elevation angle, 120-degree mechanical azimuth angle, and a 70-Hertz small-amplitude bandwidth. Key components include a rotary voice coil, unique patent-pending feedback sensor, brushless DC motor and optical encoder. Average error is portable demonstration electronics development, and thermal-vacuum testing to pressures down to 1e-7 torr and temperatures down to 164 K.

  20. Control of Angular Intervals for Angle-Multiplexed Holographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Nobuhiro; Muroi, Tetsuhiko; Ishii, Norihiko; Kamijo, Koji; Shimidzu, Naoki

    2009-03-01

    In angle-multiplexed holographic memory, the full width at half maximum of the Bragg selectivity curves is dependent on the angle formed between the medium and incident laser beams. This indicates the possibility of high density and high multiplexing number by varying the angular intervals between adjacent holograms. We propose an angular interval scheduling for closely stacking holograms into medium even when the angle range is limited. We obtained bit error rates of the order of 10-4 under the following conditions: medium thickness of 1 mm, laser beam wavelength of 532 nm, and angular multiplexing number of 300.

  1. Large angle tracking and high discriminating tracking in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tomokazu; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Satoru; Fukuda, Tsutomu; Mikado, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a high resolution and re-analyzable detector. Conventional “Track Selector” which have angle acceptance |tan θ|<0.6 are widely used to find tracks in emulsion. We made a new track selector “Fine Track Selector” (FTS) which has large angle acceptance and high discriminating ability. The FTS reduces fake tracks using new algorithms, navigation etc. FTS also keeps finding efficiency of tracks around 90% in an angle range of |tan θ| < 3.5. FTS was applied to the τ candidate in OPERA and no additional tracks found. FTS will be useful to our new J-PARC emulsion experiment.

  2. Indoor Measurement of Angle Resolved Light Absorption by Black Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amdemeskel, Mekbib Wubishet; Iandolo, Beniamino; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    Angle resolved optical spectroscopy of photovoltaic (PV) samples gives crucial information on PV panels under realistic working conditions. Here, we introduce measurements of angle resolved light absorption by PV cells, performed indoors using a collimated high radiance broadband light source. Our...... indoor method offers a significant simplification as compared to measurements by solar trackers. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we show characterization of black silicon solar cells. The experimental results showed stable and reliable optical responses that makes our setup suitable for indoor......, angle resolved characterization of solar cells....

  3. The modified Cassie’s equation and contact angle hysteresis

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xianmin

    2012-08-29

    In this paper, we derive a modified Cassie\\'s equation for wetting on chemically patterned surfaces from a homogenization approach. The derivation reveals that effective contact angle is a local average of the static contact angle along the contact line which describes all possible equilibrium states including the local minimum of the free energy of the system. The usual Cassie\\'s state which corresponds to the global minimum is only a special case. We then discuss the contact angle hysteresis on chemically patterned surfaces. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Optimal fringe angle selection for digital fringe projection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajun; Zhang, Song

    2013-10-10

    Existing digital fringe projection (DFP) systems mainly use either horizontal or vertical fringe patterns for three-dimensional shape measurement. This paper reveals that these two fringe directions are usually not optimal where the phase change is the largest to a given depth variation. We propose a novel and efficient method to determine the optimal fringe angle by projecting a set of horizontal and vertical fringe patterns onto a step-height object and by further analyzing two resultant phase maps. Experiments demonstrate the existence of the optimal angle and the success of the proposed optimal angle determination method.

  5. Projection angles of mandibular condyles in panoramic and transcranial radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the true projection angles of film-side mandibular condyles in panoramic and transcranial radiographs. 52 panoramic and transcranial radiographs of 4 condyles from two human dry mandibles with gradual horizontal and vertical angle changes were taken. The results were compared with the standard panoramic and transcranial radiographs and the identical pairs were selected. Panoramic radiography projected 10 degree to the film-sided condyles both horizontally and vertically. Transcranial radiography projected 15 degree to the film-sided condyles vertically. The medical and lateral poles were not forming the outline of condylar images in both projections when the horizontal angles of condyles were not sufficiently big enough

  6. Investigation of ferromagnetic domain structures by neutron small angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schild, L.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetic small angle scattering of thermal neutrons caused by magnetic refraction at domain walls of ferromagnetic materials without texture has been investigated. Experiments on Fe-Si alloys with a twin crystal diffractometer were carried out. It is shown that the mean extension of magnetic basic units (domains as well as parallel wall systems) can be determined. A comparison of grain sizes determined metallographically with domain sizes obtained by neutron small-angle scattering has shown that neither mean grain size nor domain size can be assessed by small-angle scattering experiments

  7. Relationship between retinal lattice degeneration and open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mansour

    2005-01-01

    Patients with retinal disorders may develop glaucoma of both a primary and secondary type. Pigment may contribute to trabecular obstruction in some patients with open-angle glaucoma. Lattice degeneration of the retina in its typical form is a sharply demarcated, circumferentially oriented, degenerative process with significant alterations of retinal pigmentation. The association between myopia, open angle glaucoma and pigment dispersion is striking. Therefore, it could be postulated that there is significant prevalence of open angle glaucoma in patients with retinal lattice degeneration, especially in combination with myopia.

  8. Research advances on multifocal electroretinogram in primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Fei Mo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma is a chronic and progressive optic neuropathy. It can lead to serious damage of visual impairment, and it is an important eye disease of blindness. Multifocal electroretinogram is a new way to measure visual electrophysiology. It can measure electroretinogram of the whole visual field of many small parts in a relatively short period of time, and it can reflect the function of regional retina. It has an extremely important value for early diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma. The research advances on multifocal electroretinogram in diagnosing primary open angle glaucoma were summarized in this paper.

  9. 76 FR 28662 - Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters and Commercial and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ...; FRL-9308-6] RIN 2060-AQ25; 2060-AO12 Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters and Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters'' and ``Standards of...

  10. 78 FR 11996 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ...: Commercial and Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... standards for commercial and industrial pumps published on February 1, 2013, is extended to May 2, 2013... relating to commercial and industrial pumps is extended to May 2, 2013. ADDRESSES: Any comments submitted...

  11. The Relationship Between Insertion Angles, Default Frequency Allocations, and Spiral Ganglion Place Pitch in Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberger, David M; Svrakic, Maja; Roland, J Thomas; Svirsky, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available cochlear implant systems attempt to deliver frequency information going down to a few hundred Hertz, but the electrode arrays are not designed to reach the most apical regions of the cochlea, which correspond to these low frequencies. This may cause a mismatch between the frequencies presented by a cochlear implant electrode array and the frequencies represented at the corresponding location in a normal-hearing cochlea. In the following study, the mismatch between the frequency presented at a given cochlear angle and the frequency expected by an acoustic hearing ear at the corresponding angle is examined for the cochlear implant systems that are most commonly used in the United States. The angular insertion of each of the electrodes on four different electrode arrays (MED-EL Standard, MED-EL Flex28, Advanced Bionics HiFocus 1J, and Cochlear Contour Advance) was estimated from X-ray. For the angular location of each electrode on each electrode array, the predicted spiral ganglion frequency was estimated. The predicted spiral ganglion frequency was compared with the center frequency provided by the corresponding electrode using the manufacturer's default frequency-to-electrode allocation. Differences across devices were observed for the place of stimulation for frequencies below 650 Hz. Longer electrode arrays (i.e., the MED-EL Standard and Flex28) demonstrated smaller deviations from the spiral ganglion map than the other electrode arrays. For insertion angles up to approximately 270°, the frequencies presented at a given location were typically approximately an octave below what would be expected by a spiral ganglion frequency map, while the deviations were larger for angles deeper than 270°. For frequencies above 650 Hz, the frequency to angle relationship was consistent across all four electrode models. A mismatch was observed between the predicted frequency and the default frequency provided by every electrode on all electrode arrays

  12. ILC Extraction Line for 14 mrad Crossing Angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosochkov, Y.; Markiewicz, T.; Maruyama, T.; Seryi, A.; Parker, B.

    2005-01-01

    The earlier studies of the ILC extraction line for 20 mrad and 2 mrad crossing angle options [1]-[5] showed that the 20 mrad design has an advantage of a simpler beamline and lower extraction beam loss because of the independent incoming and extraction optics. However, the large 20 mrad crossing angle requires the use of a crab cavity correction, increases synchrotron radiation emittance growth in the solenoid, and increases photon backscattering from the forward calorimeter of the detector. To reduce these effects, an attempt has been made to minimize the crossing angle while keeping the extraction and incoming lines separate. A new quadrupole scheme near the interaction point has been proposed which allows a reduction of the crossing angle to 14 mrad [6]. The optics design and results of tracking and background simulations for the 14 mrad extraction line are presented

  13. Multi Angle Imaging With Spectral Remote Sensing for Scene Classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prasert, Sunyaruk

    2005-01-01

    .... QuickBird panchromatic (0.61 meter) and multispectral (2.44 meter) imagery collected in July 2003 are examined to determine the impact of adding multi-angles and filtered texture information to the standard MSI classification approaches...

  14. Shear wave splitting in the Isparta Angle, southwestern Turkey ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    broadband station in the Isparta Angle,southwestern Turkey.We selected 21 good quality seismic events out of nearly 357 earthquakes and calculated splitting parameters (polarization direction of fast wave, and delay time between fast and ...

  15. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of sodium butyl benzene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Na-NBBS), in aqueous solutions is investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Nearly ellipsoidal aggregates of Na-NBBS at concentrations well above its minimum hydrotrope concentration were detected by SANS. The hydrotrope ...

  16. Setting of angles on machine tools speeded by magnetic protractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, L. B.

    1964-01-01

    An adjustable protractor facilitates transference of angles to remote machine tools. It has a magnetic base incorporating a beam which can be adjusted until its shadow coincides with an image on the screen of a projector.

  17. Angle Stability Analysis for Voltage-Controlled Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Hengwei; Jia, Chenxi; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    a criterion to analyze the quasi-steady angle stability and the direct current (DC) side stability for VSCs. The operating limit and the angle instability mechanism are revealed, which is generally applicable to the voltage-controlled converters. During the analysis, the influence of the parameters on angle...... stability is studied. Further, the difference on instability mechanism between power electronic converters and synchronous generators are explained in detail. Finally, experiment results with corrective actions verify the analysis.......Power electronics based voltage source converters (VSCs) keep increasing in modern electrical systems. As a branch of stability problems, angle stability is significant for an electrical system. Based on small disturbance analysis and time scale decomposition perspective, this paper proposes...

  18. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of sodium butyl benzene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Na-NBBS), in aqueous solutions is investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Nearly ellipsoidal aggregates of Na-NBBS at concentrations well above its minimum hydrotrope concentration were detected by SANS. The hydrotrope ...

  19. Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) was successfully launched into sun-synchronous polar orbit aboard Terra, NASA's first Earth Observing System (EOS)...

  20. Quantized contact angles in the dewetting of a structured liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilton, Mark; Stasiak, Pawel; Matsen, Mark W; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2014-02-14

    We investigate the dewetting of a disordered melt of diblock copolymer from an ordered residual wetting layer. In contrast to simple liquids where the wetting layer has a fixed thickness and the droplets exhibit a single unique contact angle with the substrate, we find that structured liquids of diblock copolymer exhibit a discrete series of wetting layer thicknesses each producing a different contact angle. These quantized contact angles arise because the substrate and air surfaces each induce a gradient of lamellar order in the wetting layer. The interaction between the two surface profiles creates an effective interface potential that oscillates with film thickness, thus, producing a sequence of local minimums. The wetting layer thicknesses and corresponding contact angles are a direct measure of the positions and depths of these minimums. Self-consistent field theory is shown to provide qualitative agreement with the experiment.

  1. ILC extraction line for 14 mrad crossing angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosochkov, Y.; Markiewicz, T.; Maruyama, T.; Seryi, A.; Parker, B.

    2006-01-01

    The earlier studies of the ILC extraction line for 20 mrad and 2 mrad crossing angle options showed that the 20 mrad design has an advantage of a simpler beamline and lower extraction beam loss because of the independent incoming and extraction optics. However, the large 20 mrad crossing angle requires the use of a crab cavity correction, increases synchrotron radiation emittance growth in the solenoid, and increases photon backscattering from the forward calorimeter of the detector. To reduce these effects, an attempt has been made to minimize the crossing angle while keeping the extraction and incoming lines separate. A new quadrupole scheme near the interaction point has been proposed which allows a reduction of the crossing angle to 14 mrad. The optics design and results of tracking and background simulations for the 14 mrad extraction line are presented. (author)

  2. Parameterization of ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Barney L.

    2016-03-01

    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different power functions of the arguments. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles, minimum yields, effects on half-angles and minimum yields of amorphous overlayers. The program can calculate these half-angles and minimum yields for axes and [h k l] planes up to (5 5 5). The program is open source and available at

  3. Comparison of different passive knee extension torque-angle assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Sandro R; Vaz, João R; Bruno, Paula M; Valamatos, Maria J; Mil-Homens, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have used isokinetic dynamometry to assess joint torques and angles during passive extension of the knee, often without reporting upon methodological errors and reliability outcomes. In addition, the reliability of the techniques used to measure passive knee extension torque-angle and the extent to which reliability may be affected by the position of the subjects is also unclear. Therefore, we conducted an analysis of the intra- and inter-session reliability of two methods of assessing passive knee extension: (A) a 2D kinematic analysis coupled to a custom-made device that enabled the direct measurement of resistance to stretch and (B) an isokinetic dynamometer used in two testing positions (with the non-tested thigh either flexed at 45° or in the neutral position). The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) of torque, the slope of the torque-angle curve, and the parameters of the mathematical model that were fit to the torque-angle data for the above conditions were measured in sixteen healthy male subjects (age: 21.4 ± 2.1 yr; BMI: 22.6 ± 3.3 kg m −2 ; tibial length: 37.4 ± 3.4 cm). The results found were: (1) methods A and B led to distinctly different torque-angle responses; (2) passive torque-angle relationship and stretch tolerance were influenced by the position of the non-tested thigh; and (3) ICCs obtained for torque were higher than for the slope and for the mathematical parameters that were fit to the torque-angle curve. In conclusion, the measurement method that is used and the positioning of subjects can influence the passive knee extension torque-angle outcome. (paper)

  4. A study of arrival angles of natural VLF waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsen, A. G.; Fedorenko, Iu. V.; Chernysheva, S. P.; Kleimenova, N. G.; Putilin, A. N.

    Methods are proposed for determining the arrival angles of natural VLF waves at a ground-based observatory. A device in which the proposed method is implemented is described, and questions regarding its calibration and suppression of lightning-induced and industrial noise are addressed. Measurements of natural VLF-wave arrival angles, carried out in the auroral zone in the Murmansk region are presented.

  5. Anthropometric study of angle of femoral torsion in Maharashtrian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Dwivedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Angle of femoral torsion is a normal torsion or twist present in femur that plays an important role in stability and function of the hip joint. The angle of femoral torsion can be defined as the angle formed by femoral condyle′s plane (bicondylar plane and a plane passing through center of neck and femoral head. Abnormal angle of femoral torsion has been implicated in the etiology of hip osteoarthrosis and developmental dysplasia of hip joint. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on unpaired 280, adult human femora devoid of any gross pathology, 139 male (65 right and 74 left, and 141 female (71 right and 70 left from bone banks of three medical colleges of Maharashtra. The gender of each specimen was determined by the established practice. Femora were evaluated by Kingsley Olmsted method, and data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: The average angle of femoral torsion 13.39° and 11.23° on the right and left side respectively in male, 16.21° and 13.23° on the right and left side, respectively, in female. Statistical analysis using Student′s "t"-test revealed significant difference (P < 0.05, greater angle of femoral torsion in female and on the right side. Conclusion: Knowledge of angle of femoral torsion is becoming significant nowadays with an increase in demand for total hip replacement, as the angle of femoral torsion is crucial to attain a normal activity of the replaced joint.

  6. Virtual characterization of delamination failures in pultruded GFRP angles

    OpenAIRE

    Girão Coelho, Ana M.; Mottram, J. Toby; Matharu, Navroop S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of cohesive zone models to study delamination failures in leg-angles of pultruded glass fibre reinforced polymer material using the general-purpose finite element software Abaqus. The objective of the study is present a finite element modelling methodology that can, for example, help to fill-in knowledge gaps in the available experimental data pertaining to the tying force resistance of angle-cleated jointing in frame construction. It may be used to optim...

  7. Light Airplane Crash Test at Three Pitch Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Victor L., Jr.; Alfaro-Bou, Emilio

    1979-01-01

    Three similar twin-engine general-aviation airplane specimens were crash tested at the Langley Impact Dynamics Research Facility at 27 m/sec, a flight-path angle of -15deg, and pithch angles of -15deg, 0deg, and 15deg. Other crash parameters were held constant. The test facility, instrumentation, test specimens, and test method are briefly described. Structural damage and accelerometer data for each of the three impact conditions are presented and discussed.

  8. Light airplane crash tests at three pitch angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, V. L., Jr.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1979-01-01

    Three similar twin-engine general aviation airplane specimens were crash tested at an impact dynamics research facility at 27 m/sec, a flight path angle of -15 deg, and pitch angles of -15 deg, 0 deg, and 15 deg. Other crash parameters were held constant. The test facility, instrumentation, test specimens, and test method are briefly described. Structural damage and accelerometer data for each of the three impact conditions are presented and discussed.

  9. Exchange interpretation of anomalous back angle heavy ion elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1977-10-01

    Anomalous back angle oscillations in the angular distributions obtained in the elastic scattering of 16 O + 28 Si and 12 C + 28 Si have been interpreted in terms of an elastic cluster transfer comparable to that observed in other heavy ion reactions. The calculations appear to at least qualitatively explain the data with respect to the existence and phase of the back angle oscillations. The results indicate that an exchange mechanism may play an important role in the oscillations

  10. BIPHASIC TREATMENT OF 2ND CLASS ANGLE ANOMALIES

    OpenAIRE

    C. Romanec; R. Stanciu; Anca Telmecea; Valentina Dorobat

    2011-01-01

    Our approach aims at presenting, based on clinical observations and complementary examinations, the effects of a treatment’s setting up during the mixed dentition period. The objectives include the identification of the optimal time of treatment of II/1, II/2 Angle malocclusions, as well as the therapeutic possibilities for the treatment of 2nd class Angle malocclusion during the period of mixed and permanent dentition. The study is based on data collected from 114 cli...

  11. Acquisition of Infrared Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometer (IR-VASE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-22

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This award was used to acquire a J.A. Woollam Infrared Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometer ( IR -VASE). The IR -VASE...unit is capable of obtaining crucial IR information of ultrathin films whilst being complemented with ellipsometry data. This powerful and versatile...Unlimited UU UU UU UU 22-04-2016 1-Feb-2015 31-Jan-2016 Final Report: Acquisition of Infrared Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometer ( IR -VASE) The

  12. Photovoltaic Modules: Effect of Tilt Angle on Soiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Jose

    2011-12-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are one of the next generation's renewable energy sources for our world energy demand. PV modules are highly reliable. However, in polluted environments, over time, they will collect grime and dust. There are also limited field data studies about soiling losses on PV modules. The study showed how important it is to investigate the effect of tilt angle on soiling. The study includes two sets of mini-modules. Each set has 9 PV modules tilted at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 23, 30, 33 and 40°. The first set called "Cleaned" was cleaned every other day. The second set called "Soiled" was never cleaned after the first day. The short circuit current, a measure of irradiance, and module temperature was monitored and recorded every two minutes over three months (January-March 2011). The data were analyzed to investigate the effect of tilt angle on daily and monthly soiling, and hence transmitted solar insolation and energy production by PV modules. The study shows that during the period of January through March 2011 there was an average loss due to soiling of approximately 2.02% for 0° tilt angle. Modules at tilt angles 23° and 33° also have some insolation losses but do not come close to the module at 0° tilt angle. Tilt angle 23° has approximately 1.05% monthly insolation loss, and 33° tilt angle has an insolation loss of approximately 0.96%. The soiling effect is present at any tilt angle, but the magnitude is evident: the flatter the solar module is placed the more energy it will lose.

  13. Measurement of the angle of superficial tension by images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez M., Javier; Alonso R., Sergio

    2006-02-01

    When a liquid is deposited on a surface, this one form a certain angle with respect to the surface, where depending on its value, it will conclude that so hard it is his adhesion with the surface. By means of the analysis of images we looked for to measure this angle of superficial tension. In order to make this measurement, we propose a technique by means of projective transformations and one method of regression to estimation parameters to conic fitting.

  14. Determination of angle of inclination for optimum power production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the performance of the photovoltaic modules at different tilt angle (angle of inclination) from 5º to 90º. The solar panel of 45 Watts capacity was placed on the manual tracker between the hours of 7:00am and 6:15pm on the geographical location of latitude of 40 55' 58” North and longitude of 60 59' 55” ...

  15. NORMAL AXIAL ANGLES OF THE KNEE JOINT IN ADULT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-08-01

    Aug 1, 2003 ... centres of the hip, knee and ankle all lie on a straight line, forming the mechanical axis of the lower limb (Figure 1). This axis coincides with the anatomical axis of the tibia in the leg, while in the thigh it forms an angle of 6° with the anatomical axis of the femoral shaft in Caucasians (1). The mechanical angle ...

  16. Detection of Contact Binaries Using Sparse High Phase Angle Lightcurves

    OpenAIRE

    Lacerda, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    We show that candidate contact binary asteroids can be efficiently identified from sparsely sampled photometry taken at phase angles >60deg. At high phase angle, close/contact binary systems produce distinctive lightcurves that spend most of the time at maximum or minimum (typically >1mag apart) brightness with relatively fast transitions between the two. This means that a few (~5) sparse observations will suffice to measure the large range of variation and identify candidate contact binary s...

  17. Environmental management technology demonstration and commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, D.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Groenewold, G.H.

    1995-01-01

    The Energy ampersand Environmental Research Center (EERC), a contract-supported organization focused on technology research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD ampersand C), is entering its second year of a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to facilitate the development, demonstration, and commercialization of innovative environmental management (EM) technologies in support of the activities of DOE's Office of Environmental Science and Technology (EM-50) under DOE's EM Program. This paper reviews the concept and approach of the program under the METC-EERC EM Cooperative Agreement and profiles the role the program is playing in the commercialization of five EM technologies

  18. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  19. A commercial space technology testbed on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, David R.

    2000-01-01

    There is a significant and growing commercial market for new, more capable communications and remote sensing satellites. Competition in this market strongly motivates satellite manufacturers and spacecraft component developers to test and demonstrate new space hardware in a realistic environment. External attach points on the International Space Station allow it to function uniquely as a space technology testbed to satisfy this market need. However, space industry officials have identified three critical barriers to their commercial use of the ISS: unpredictable access, cost risk, and schedule uncertainty. Appropriate NASA policy initiatives and business/technical assistance for industry from the Commercial Space Center for Engineering can overcome these barriers. .

  20. Contact angle control of sessile drops on a tensioned web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Janghoon; Kim, Dongguk; Lee, Changwoo

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the influence of the change of tension applied to flexible and thin web substrate on the contact angle of sessile drop in roll-to-roll system was investigated. Graphene oxide and deionized water solutions were used in the experiments. Tension was changed to 29, 49, and 69 N, and the casting distance of the micropipette and the material was set to 10, 20, and 40 mm, and the droplet volume was set to 10, 20, and 30 μL, respectively. Statistical analysis of three variables and analysis of the variance methodology showed that the casting distance was most significant for the contact angle change, and the most interesting tension variable was also affected. The change in tension caused the maximum contact angle to change by 5.5°. The tension was not uniform in the width direction. When the droplet was applied in the same direction in the width direction, it was confirmed that the tension unevenness had great influence on the contact angle up to 11°. Finally, the casting distance, which has a large effect on the contact angle, was calibrated in the width direction to reduce the width direction contact angle deviation to 1%. This study can be applied to fine patterning research using continuous inkjet printing and aerosol jet printing, which are roll-to-roll processes based on droplet handling.