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Sample records for anglerfishes teleostei lophiiformes

  1. Evolutionary history of anglerfishes (Teleostei: Lophiiformes: a mitogenomic perspective

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    Shimazaki Mitsuomi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The teleost order Lophiiformes, commonly known as the anglerfishes, contains a diverse array of marine fishes, ranging from benthic shallow-water dwellers to highly modified deep-sea midwater species. They comprise 321 living species placed in 68 genera, 18 families and 5 suborders, but approximately half of the species diversity is occupied by deep-sea ceratioids distributed among 11 families. The evolutionary origins of such remarkable habitat and species diversity, however, remain elusive because of the lack of fresh material for a majority of the deep-sea ceratioids and incompleteness of the fossil record across all of the Lophiiformes. To obtain a comprehensive picture of the phylogeny and evolutionary history of the anglerfishes, we assembled whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome sequences from 39 lophiiforms (33 newly determined during this study representing all five suborders and 17 of the 18 families. Sequences of 77 higher teleosts including the 39 lophiiform sequences were unambiguously aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimation. Results Partitioned maximum likelihood analysis confidently recovered monophyly for all of the higher taxa (including the order itself with the exception of the Thaumatichthyidae (Lasiognathus was deeply nested within the Oneirodidae. The mitogenomic trees strongly support the most basal and an apical position of the Lophioidei and a clade comprising Chaunacoidei + Ceratioidei, respectively, although alternative phylogenetic positions of the remaining two suborders (Antennarioidei and Ogcocephaloidei with respect to the above two lineages are statistically indistinguishable. While morphology-based intra-subordinal relationships for relatively shallow, benthic dwellers (Lophioidei, Antennarioidei, Ogcocephaloidei, Chaunacoidei are either congruent with or statistically indistinguishable from the present mitogenomic tree, those of the principally deep

  2. APPLICATION OF QUALITY INDEX METHOD (QIM SCHEME IN SHELFLIFE STUDY OF ANGLERFISH (Lophius piscatorius

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    L. Pennisi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate a Quality Index Method (QIM scheme for fresh Anglerfish (Lophius piscatorius. Anglerfish were stored at 0±2 °C on ice up to 9 days. Total Mesophilic Counts (TMC, Total Psychrophilic Counts (TPC and counts of Specific Spoilage Organisms (SSOs were done. An high correlation between the Quality Index (QI and storage time on ice and between the Quality Index (QI and H2S-producing bacteria counts was found. The remaining storage time could be estimated with accuracy of ±1.5 days when the Anglerfish were evaluated with QIM.

  3. A synthesis of the early life history of the anglerfish, Lophius piscatorius (Linnaeus, 1758) in northern British waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hislop, J.R.G.; Gallego, A.; Heath, M.R.;

    2001-01-01

    and an examination of the geographical distribution of pelagic and demersal anglerfish. Otolith incremental analysis indicates that the pelagic phase is relatively long(ca. 120 days) and growth during the first year of life is rapid. A particle tracking model predicts that pelagic post larvae of known age caught...

  4. Characterization of a somatostatin-28 containing the (Tyr-7, Gly-10) derivative of somatostatin-14: a terminal active product of prosomatostatin II processing in anglerfish pancreatic islets.

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    Morel, A.; Gluschankof, P; Gomez, S. (Sara); Fafeur, V; Cohen, P.

    1984-01-01

    Anglerfish (Lophius piscatorius) Brockmann organs contain a form of somatostatin-14, identical to the hypothalamic tetradecapeptide, and two distinct forms of somatostatin-28, which can be separated by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Analysis of the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence and comparison of the ability to incorporate 125I indicate that one of these forms corresponds to an octacosapeptide including in its sequence the (Tyr-7, Gly-10) derivative of somatostat...

  5. Inaccuracy of Labeling and Visual Inspection for Microsporidian Parasites in Anglerfish Lophius litulon (Jordan, 1902) Collected from Chinese Retail Markets in Sardinia, Italy.

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    Meloni, Domenico; Arca, Costantino; Piras, Pierluigi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of labeling and the efficacy of visual inspection to detect the lesions by visible parasites in anglerfish Lophius litulon. One hundred samples were collected over a 2-year period (2011 to 2012) from Chinese retail markets in Sardinia, Italy. To assess the conformity of the items with the trade name, a preliminary visual inspection of the samples by a simple morphological analysis was performed. According to the Council Regulations (EC) 104/2000, 1224/2009, and 2074/2005, the Italian labels were examined to verify the appropriate indication of relevant information on traceability (trade name, scientific name, geographical area, and production method), and the samples of L. litulon were subjected to visual inspection to detect "visible parasites." Altogether, a high percentage of mismatching (70%) between the scientific name and trade name was pointed out. Moreover, 60% of the samples were visibly infected by Spraguea lophii, a microsporidian parasite of the nervous tissue that forms typical lesions (xenomas) in the fish flesh near the vertebral column. Although S. lophii is not pathogenic to humans, the presence of xenomas can decompose the fish flesh and render it unfit for human consumption. The high percentage of mislabeling, together with the inaccuracy in the visual inspection by Chinese food business operators highlighted the need to improve the European Union control system of fishery products imported from China and marketed in Europe. PMID:26038919

  6. OLDEST STEM TELEOSTEI FROM THE LATE LADINIAN (MIDDLE TRIASSIC) OF SOUTHERN CHINA

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    ANDREA TINTORI; ZUOYU SUN; PEIGANG NI; CRISTINA LOMBARDO; DAYONG JIANG; RYOSUKE MOTANI

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the largest modern vertebrate group, the Teleostei, saw major refinements in the last decades, thanks to newly discovered and stratigraphically closely spaced Triassic Lagerstätten. Here we report the oldest Pholidophoriformes (stem teleosts) that were collected during a large scale yet detailed excavation of Upper Ladinian (Middle Triassic) marine deposits in Xingyi City, Guizhou Province, China. Taxonomic comparisons support the erection of a new pholidophorid genus, Malingich...

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of the endemic species Korean aucha perch Coreoperca herzi (Teleostei, Centrarchiformes, Sinipercidae).

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    Park, Chang Eon; Park, Gun-Seok; Kwak, Yunyoung; Hong, Sung-Jun; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Jung, Byung Kwon; Park, Yeong-Jun; Kim, Min-Chul; Kim, Kgu-Hwan; Park, Hee Cheon; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the endemic species Korean aucha perch Coreoperca herzi (Teleostei, Centrarchiformes, Sinipercidae). The mitogenome, consisting of 16 495 base pairs (bp), encoded 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and 2 non-coding region. The overall base composition of C. herzi is G + C: 46.3%, A + T: 53.7%, apparently with a slight AT bias. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the C. herzi was closed to Coreoperca kawamebari. PMID:26181210

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Korean endemic species Microphysogobio yaluensis (Teleostei, Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

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    Park, Chang Eon; Park, Gun-Seok; Kim, Min-Chul; Kim, Kgu-Hwan; Park, Hee Cheon; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Korean endemic species Microphysogobio yaluensis (Teleostei, Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae). The mitogenome, consisted of 16 601 base pairs (bp), encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and 2 non-coding regions. The overall base composition of M. yaluensis was G + C: 43.8%, A + T: 56.2%, apparently with a slight AT bias. Phylogenetic analysis showed that M. yaluensis was close to Hemibarbus mylodon. PMID:26260172

  9. A new species of the Genus Microbrotula (Teleostei: Bythitidae) from Cenderawasih Bay, New Guinea, Indonesia

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    Schwarzhans, Werner; Nielsen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Following the recent revision of Microbrotula (Schwarzhans Nielsen, 2011), an additional nine specimens of the viviparous genus Microbrotula (Teleostei: Bythitidae), all caught in the Cenderawasih Bay, Irian Jaya, New Guinea, Indonesia, were made available to us. These specimens represent a new...... species described here as M. geraldalleni. It belongs to the group of species with 6 caudal and 14 pectoral fin rays and is closest to M. greenfieldi, differing in the higher dorsal and anal fin ray counts (68-73 and 61-65 vs. 62-70 and 58-61, respectively), the presence of 3 posterior mandibular pores...

  10. [New metacercariae of the genus Tylodelphys (Trematoda, Diplostomatidae) in lacustrine populations of Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei, Galaxiidae)].

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    Quaggiotto, E A; Valverde, F

    1992-01-01

    Metacercariae of three new species of Tylodelphys (Trematoda, Diplostomatidae) were found in the brain of Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei, Galaxiidae), at the Meliquina Lake, Neuquen Province, Argentina. These metacercariae are morphologically described as Tylodelphys argentinus n. sp., Tylodelphys barilochensis n. sp. and Tylodelphys crubensis n. sp. This is the first time that a stage of genus Tylodelphys is mentioned parasitizing Galaxias maculatus. Metacercariae of T. barilochen sis n. sp. were also found in G. maculatus brain at the Perito Moreno Lake, Rio Negro Province, Argentina.

  11. A cladistic re-analysis of the Gadiformes (Teleostei, Paracanthopterygii) using three-item analysis.

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    Grand, Anaïs; Zaragüeta Bagils, Rene; Vélez, Lina María Duque; Vélez, Lina María; Ung, Visotheary

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we describe LisBeth, a newly published phylogenetic program. LisBeth implements the cladistic three-item analysis for systematics and biogeography. We show how LisBeth handles character representation, character analysis, exact search functions, reconstruction of the intersection tree and other features, such as retention index, completeness index, character history and link with other programs such as PAUP*, version 4.0b10, TNT and Xper2. Using LisBeth, we reanalyze the phylogeny based on morphological characters of the order Gadiformes (Teleostei, Paracanthopterygii) published by Endo (2002) and compare our results. We also describe the generation of hypotheses of homology following Endo's guidelines versus 3ia representation schemes. We compare the topologies of all results and show the implications of the interpretation of character history.

  12. Anatomical stomach description of dog fish, Hydrolycus armatus (Jardine & Schomburgk, 1841, (Teleostei: Cynodontidae

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    Gerlane de Medeiros Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolycus armatus (dog fish is a Teleostei of Cynodontidae Family that forms a distinct group of Neotropical Characiformes. This species is a predator, pelagic, freshwater and carnivorous and ichthyophagic feeding habits. Biological studies on fish are important in fishery, already that they are used as parameters to keep the exploitation to sustainable levels. This study aimed to describe the stomach anatomy of H. armatus, in order to generate basic information of this body of this vertebrate. We used ten (10 specimens of H. armatus, from the Teles Pires, city of Carlinda-MT, being this dissected and analyzed. The stomach of saccular format presented the regions cardial, pyloric and fundic, last being this last larger than the others. The anatomical features presented by the liver and stomach of H. armatus confirmed the relationship between the anatomy of these organs and their feeding habits being these, therefore, characteristics of predatory species, carnivorous and preferably ichthyophagics.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of Taiwanese spined loach Cobitis cf. sinensis (Teleostei: Cobitidae).

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    Chen, I-Shiung; Wang, Chih-Wen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of Taiwanese spined loach, Cobitis cf. sinensis Sauvage and Dabry de Thiersant (Teleostei: Cobitidae) from northern Taiwan has been amplified and sequenced by employing long polymerase chain reaction method. The mitogenome, consisting of 16,553 bp, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes and a non-coding control region (CR). CR of 914 bp length is located between tRNAPro and tRNAPhe. The overall base composition of the loach is 29.9% for A, 25.9% for C, 27.8% for T and 16.3% for G, with a slight AT bias of 57.7%. The complete mitogenome may provide rather essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogenetic analysis for not only congeneric species but also higher different taxa of the loaches. PMID:24409842

  14. OLDEST STEM TELEOSTEI FROM THE LATE LADINIAN (MIDDLE TRIASSIC OF SOUTHERN CHINA

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    ANDREA TINTORI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the largest modern vertebrate group, the Teleostei, saw major refinements in the last decades, thanks to newly discovered and stratigraphically closely spaced Triassic Lagerstätten. Here we report the oldest Pholidophoriformes (stem teleosts that were collected during a large scale yet detailed excavation of Upper Ladinian (Middle Triassic marine deposits in Xingyi City, Guizhou Province, China. Taxonomic comparisons support the erection of a new pholidophorid genus, Malingichthys gen. nov., with two species. The new genus shows a partially fused skull roof, a preopercular bone with a hockey-stick shape and, for the first time in Pholidophoridae, supraneural elements. Most Triassic marine vertebrate clades (fishes and reptiles, Malingichthys included first emerged in the South China Block, with Late Ladinian most showing an important faunal transformation that was strengthened by our last findings. The material here described is about 2 million years older than the previous records for pholidophorids. 

  15. [Description of three new monogenean gill parasites from Mormyrus rume (Valenciennes, 1846) (Teleostei: Mormyridae) in Ivory Coast].

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    Blahoua, K G; Pariselle, A; N'Douba, V; Kone, T; Kouassi, N J

    2009-03-01

    The study of the gill parasites from elephant fish Mormyrus rume Valenciennes, 1846 (Teleostei: Mormyridae) from the Ayamé man-made Lake (Ivory Coast) revealed the presence of three new monogenean species of the genus Bouixella Euzet & Dossou, 1976, which can be mainly distinguished from all other species of the genus by the morphology and the size of the sclerotised parts of the haptor (dorsal and ventral anchor, dorsal and ventral bar) and by the size and the structure of the male copulatory organ. In this paper, descriptions of Bouixella gorei n. sp., Bouixella yaoi n. sp. and Bouvixella koutouani n. sp. are given. PMID:19353952

  16. Molecular systematics of the enigmatic Middle American genus Vieja (Teleostei: Cichlidae).

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    McMahan, Caleb D; Geheber, Aaron D; Piller, Kyle R

    2010-12-01

    The genus Vieja represents a group of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) distributed on the Atlantic and Pacific slopes of North and Central America from southern Mexico to Panama. Sixteen species of Vieja are presently recognized; however, based on long-standing taxonomic problems, the genus itself appears to be weakly defined. A number of different generic designations have been proposed for members of Vieja, and recent systematic studies of heroine cichlids have not specifically addressed the validity of the grouping and have not included all species in the genus. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the monophyly of the genus Vieja by including all nominal species in the genus using the mitochondrial encoded cytochrome b gene and nuclear S7-1 intron. Results of Maximum Parsimony, Bayesian inference, and topology tests (constraint tree searches and post-burn-in Bayesian filtering) indicate that the genus is not monophyletic as it is currently recognized. The genus Herichthys was recovered as sister to a clade consisting of a number of Vieja species (V. fenestrata, V. guttulata, V. zonata, V. hartwegi, V. bifasciata, V. breidohri, V. argentea, V. regani, V. melanura, V. synspila, and V. maculicauda, as well as Paraneetroplusbulleri). A clade consisting of V. intermedia, V. godmanni, and V. microphthalma was recovered sister to Theraps. Additionally, V. heterospila and V. tuyrensis were recovered outside of Vieja and Herichthys clades. Based on the results of this comprehensive study, we suggest a revised classification of Vieja species.

  17. A new species of Speleogobius (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the Western Mediterraenean Sea.

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    Kovačić, Marcelo; Ordines, Francesc; Schliewen, Ulrich K

    2016-01-01

    A new goby species, Speleogobius llorisi sp. nov. (Teleostei: Gobiidae) is described from the circalittoral sea bed at 46-69 m depth off the Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean. Six specimens, four females and two males, of the new species were collected from beam trawl samples carried out on the red algae beds off the south west coast of Mallorca Island. Among others, the main traits that differentiate the new species from the only congeneric species, S. trigloides, are the presence of preopercular head canal with pores γ, δ, ε vs. preopercular head canal absent; a longer snout, equal or longer than eye vs. shorter than eye; lower lip ending anteriorly slightly in front of upper lip vs. upper lip slightly protruding lower lip; scales in lateral series 28 or 29 vs. 26; scales in transverse series 6 vs.7-8. It also differs from S. trigloides in some non-overlapping morphometrics and in coloration. All individuals of the new species were collected from Peyssonnelia beds, beds of red algae dominated by species of the family Peyssonneliaceae. The generic diagnosis of Speleogobius is revised. PMID:27395553

  18. Hyphessobrycon ocasoensis sp. n. (Teleostei, Characidae una nueva especie para el Alto Cauca, Colombia

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    García-Alzate, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyphessobrycon ocasoensis n. sp. (Teleostei, Characidae a new species from the Alto Cauca, Colombia Hyphessobrycon ocasoensis n. sp. (Characiformes, Characidae from heterorhabdus group (Gery, 1977 is described from the upper Cauca River in Colombia. The new species is distinguished from all other known species by the following combination of characters: three unbranched and eight branched fins in the dorsal fin; short maxillary bone with one or no teeth; four small foramens in the maxillary bone, and five in the premaxillary; 5-17 scales with pores in the lateral line, six between the lateral line and anal-fin origin, six between the lateral line and pelvic-fin origin, and nine predorsals; depth of the caudal peduncle has a mean of 16.7% in standard length; interorbital width 50.6% in head; a dark spot on caudal peduncle and a dark lateral band that extends vertically from the dorsal–fin origin to the tips of the middle caudal fin rays. Physical and chemical data of their habitat are included.

  19. Improved resolution and a novel phylogeny for the Neotropical triplefin blennies (Teleostei: Tripterygiidae).

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    Miller, Elizabeth Christina; Lin, Hsiu-Chin; Hastings, Philip A

    2016-03-01

    The triplefin blennies (Teleostei: Tripterygiidae) are a diverse group of small-bodied benthic fishes associated with rocky or coral reefs. The Neotropics contain four genera and 26 species, many of which have only been recently described. A recent molecular phylogeny (Lin and Hastings, 2013) contrasts with previous phylogenies based on morphology in recovering the four Neotropical genera as a single clade with respect to the Indo-Pacific genera; however, relationships within and among genera were poorly resolved. This study reports a novel topology based on an expanded seven-loci molecular dataset. Individual gene trees have poor resolution, but concatenated analyses show strong support for most nodes, likely due to emergent support from concatenation. Consistent with Lin and Hastings (2013), three of the Neotropical genera, Axoclinus, Enneanectes, and Crocodilichthys, form a well-supported clade, but relationships of the fourth (Lepidonectes) are not confidently resolved. The monophyly of Axoclinus is well supported, but Enneanectes is paraphyletic with the inclusion of Axoclinus and Crocodilichthys. Improved resolution allows for reinterpretation of the biogeography of the Neotropical Tripterygiidae. Broader taxon sampling is still necessary for resolving the relationships within Tripterygiidae globally. PMID:26718057

  20. Phylogenetic Relationships of Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Gobioninae Inferred from Multiple Nuclear Gene Sequences

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    Keun-Yong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gobionine species belonging to the genera Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae have been heavily studied because of problems on taxonomy, threats of extinction, invasion, and human health. Nucleotide sequences of three nuclear genes, that is, recombination activating protein gene 1 (rag1, recombination activating gene 2 (rag2, and early growth response 1 gene (egr1, from Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia species residing in China, Japan, and Korea, were analyzed to elucidate their intergeneric and interspecific phylogenetic relationships. In the phylogenetic tree inferred from their multiple gene sequences, Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia and Pungtungia species ramified into three phylogenetically distinct clades; the “tenuicorpa” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa, the “parva” clade composed of all Pseudorasbora species/subspecies, and the “herzi” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia nigra, and Pungtungia herzi. The genus Pseudorasbora was recovered as monophyletic, while the genus Pseudopungtungia was recovered as polyphyletic. Our phylogenetic result implies the unstable taxonomic status of the genus Pseudopungtungia.

  1. Cytogenetic characterization of the strongly electric Amazonian eel, Electrophorus electricus (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, from the Brazilian rivers Amazon and Araguaia

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    Soraia B.A. Fonteles

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A karyotype analysis of the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, a strongly electric fish from northern South America, is presented. Two female specimens were analyzed, one from the Amazon River and one from the Araguaia River. The specimens had a chromosomal number of 2n = 52 (42M-SM + 10A. C-bands were present in a centromeric and pericentromeric position on part of the chromosomes; some interstitial C-bands were also present. Heteromorphic nucleolus organizer regions (NORs were detected in two chromosome pairs of the specimen from the Amazon River. The chromosome number and karyotype characteristics are similar to those of other Gymnotidae species. The genera Electrophorus and Gymnotus are positioned as the basal lineages in the Gymnotiformes phylogeny.

  2. Variación morfológica de las especies de Astyanax, subgénero Zygogaster (Teleostei, Characidae

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    Ruiz-C., R. I.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation of Astyanax species, subgenus Zygogaster (Teleostei, Characidae The diverse Neotropical fish genus Astyanax inhabits a variety of aquatic environments. As with other species in this genus, the taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships of species of this subgenus remain largely undetermined. Based on 354 individuals, we analyzed the morphological variation of four species of the subgenus Zygogaster (A. atratoensis, A. caucanus, A. filiferus, and A. magdalenae using procrustes analysis and compared findings with two species of the sister group: subgenus Poecilurichthys (A. orthodus and A. superbus. The PCA (Principal Component Analysis and CVA (Canonical Variates Analysis showed morphological affinity between the subgenera and indicated variance in body depth, anterior trend of dorsal fin origin and humeral spot, depression on the dorsal surface of the skull, and ventral displacement of the orbit and snout. The variation in these structures may provide evidence supporting adaptive speciation as an alternative to speciation driven by geographical isolation.

  3. Gonadal maturation and histological observations of the grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus Gmelin, 1789 (Teleostei: Balistidae in the Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia

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    Hichem Kacem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the spawning activity using gonadosomatic index (GSI and gonad histology the Balistes capriscus (Teleostei: Balistidae of the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea. Methods: The reproductive biology of the species, based on 756 (480 females and 276 males, collected from commercial catches at several fishing ports including Chebba, Kerkennah and Zarzis at respective GPS coordinates (34°14' N, 11°06' E, (34°45' N, 11°17' E, (33°41' N, 11°48' E was studied over 28 months (January 2008-April 2010 using GSI and gonad histology. Sizes used in this study ranged from 11.30 to 45.60 cm in fork length. Results: Both GSI and gonad histology suggest that spawning activity occurred mainly between July and mid-September with a peak in July, coinciding with summer time. The first maturation occurred at 20.26 cm fork length for females and 21.30 cm fork length for males. The monthly values of hepatosomatic index and condition factor (K indicated that the liver is the main organ responsible for the mobilization process of the energizing reserves during the sexual cycle. Conclusions: It is the first inventory of gonadal maturation and histological observations of the grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus Gmelin, 1789 (Teleostei: Balistidae in the Gulf of Gabès, (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea.

  4. Dactylogyrid monogeneans parasitising Cyphocharax voga (Hensel) (Teleostei: Curimatidae) from the Pampas region, Argentina: new and previously described species.

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    Rossin, María Alejandra; Timi, Juan Tomás

    2016-09-01

    Most studies on dactylogyrid monogeneans in Argentina have been carried out during 1980s and 1990s. Many of these species have been later synonymised and other remain under a confusing taxonomic status, particularly those parasitising Cyphocharax voga (Hensel) (Teleostei: Curimatidae). In order to clarify the identity of dactylogyrids, new material was collected from fishes in Lake Chascomús, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. A total of four species was found in the gills of C. voga. Two known species, Curvianchoratus singularis (Suriano, 1980) Suriano, 1986 and Palombitrema triangulum (Suriano, 1981) Suriano, 1997, are redescribed and their generic and specific status discussed, and two new species are described. Urocleidoides surianoae n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by having an anterior medial projection in the ventral bar and a laminar ligament connecting the base of the male copulatory organ and accessory piece. Annulotrematoides bonaerensis n. sp. differs from its congeners principally by having a ventral bar with an anterior medial projection. The diversity of dactylogyrids harboured by C. voga indicates the need of further studies in the Pampas region, which will provide interesting and valuable sources of evidence for future zoogeographical and evolutionary research on dactylogyrids in the Neotropics. PMID:27522368

  5. [Ontogenetic Mechanisms of Explosive Morphological Divergence in the Lake Tana (Ethiopia) Species Flock of Large African Barbs (Labeobarbus; Cyprinidae; Teleostei)].

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    Shkila, F N; Lazebny, O E; Kapitanova, D V; Abdissa, Belay; Borisov, V B; Smirnov, S V

    2015-01-01

    Species flock of Lake Tana (Ethiopia) large African barbs (Labeobarbus; Cyprinidae; Teleostei) was studied as a model system for investigating ontogenetic mechanisms of the explosive morphological divergence often accompanying sympatric speciation in bony fishes. Comparative morphological analysis carried out with the use ofgeometric morphometric techniques revealed quantitative differences in the head shapes of species under study. Comparative analysis of skull development revealed significant interspecies differences in the temporal characteristics of craniogenesis in these species. These two lines of evidence suggest that heterochronies in craniogenesis underlie divergence in the head shapes of adult Tana barbs. This prediction was verified via experimental changes of temporal characteristics of craniogenesis in L. intermedius, a putative ancestor for the Lake Tana species flock. For this aim, timing and rate of skull development were changed by artificial manipulation of thyroid hormone levels. In sum, it was shown that it is heterochronies that underlie an explosive morphological divergence of the Lake Tana barbs species flock. Our findings together with those reported in the literature suggest variability in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis to contribute to these heterochronies. PMID:26606829

  6. Convergent evolution of ecomorphological adaptations in geographically isolated Bay gobies (Teleostei: Gobionellidae) of the temperate North Pacific.

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    Ellingson, Ryan A; Swift, Camm C; Findley, Lloyd T; Jacobs, David K

    2014-01-01

    North Pacific Bay gobies (Teleostei: Gobioidei: Gobionellidae) inhabit bays, beaches, coastal lagoons, and estuaries of temperate Asia and North America, but are absent from the boreal northernmost Pacific. Previously, morphological characters conventionally subdivided the clade into two groups - an elongate-bodied, infaunal-inhabiting "Astrabe" group, and a deeper-bodied, non-infaunal "Chasmichthys" group - each with a disjunct East-West (amphi-) Pacific distribution. Here we use mitochondrial and multi-locus nuclear DNA sequence data to show that several morphological characters previously used to delimit these two groups have in fact arisen independently on both sides of the Pacific, revealing convergence of ecologically adaptive characters within a geographically divided clade. Basal divergence of the resultant tree coincides with a dramatic global cooling event at the Eocene/Oligocene transition, without evidence of subsequent trans-Pacific migration. A novel approach to partitioning sequence data by relative rate, as opposed to traditional gene/codon position partitioning, was used to help distinguish phylogenetic signal from noise on a per-site basis. Resulting improvements in topology and nodal support, along with decreased computational effort, suggest that this partitioning strategy may be useful for future studies in phylogenetics and phylogenomics. PMID:24148989

  7. Catálogo dos Peixes Marinhos do Laboratório de Ictiologia da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Parte I: Chondrichthyes (Rajiformes). Teleostei (Elopiformes a Dactylopteriformes)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Roberto Duarte Lopes

    1989-01-01

    The present paper is the first part of the catalogue of marine fishes belonging to the collection of the Laboratory of Ichthyology (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-RJ) to be published. Here are included Chondrichthyes (Rajiformes) and part of Osteichthyes, Teleostei (Elopiformes to Dactylopteriformes) in a total amount of 30 families, 52 genera and 62 species. The most part of the material have been collected at the littoral of the State of Rio de Janeiro. For each species considered i...

  8. Evolution of microhabitat association and morphology in a diverse group of cryptobenthic coral reef fishes (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Eviota)

    KAUST Repository

    Tornabene, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae) are an extremely diverse and widely distributed group and are the second most species rich family of vertebrates. Ecological drivers are key to the evolutionary success of the Gobiidae. However, ecological and phylogenetic data are lacking for many diverse genera of gobies. Our study investigated the evolution of microhabitat association across the phylogeny of 18 species of dwarfgobies (genus Eviota), an abundant and diverse group of coral reef fishes. In addition, we also explore the evolution of pectoral fin-ray branching and sensory head pores to determine the relationship between morphological evolution and microhabitat shifts. Our results demonstrate that Eviota species switched multiple times from a facultative hard-coral association to inhabiting rubble or mixed sand/rubble habitat. We found no obvious relationship between microhabitat shifts and changes in pectoral fin-ray branching or reduction in sensory pores, with the latter character being highly homoplasious throughout the genus. The relative flexibility in coral-association in Eviota combined with the ability to move into non-coral habitats suggests a genetic capacity for ecological release in contrast to the strict obligate coral-dwelling relationship commonly observed in closely related coral gobies, thus promoting co-existence through fine scale niche partitioning. The variation in microhabitat association may facilitate opportunistic ecological speciation, and species persistence in the face of environmental change. This increased speciation opportunity, in concert with a high resilience to extinction, may explain the exceptionally high diversity seen in Eviota compared to related genera in the family. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  9. Calicobenedenia Polyprioni n. gen., n. sp. (Monogenoidea: Capsalidae) from the external surfaces of wreckfish, Polyprion americanus (Teleostei: Polyprionidae), in the north Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, D C; Fennessy, C J

    1999-04-01

    Calicobenedenia polyprioni n. sp. (Capsalidae) is described from the external surfaces (skin and eye) of wreckfish, Polyprion americanus (Teleostei, Perciformes, Polyprionidae), from the north Atlantic Ocean. The monotypic Calicobenedenia n. gen. is proposed for this species and is characterized, in part, by its members possessing an aseptate haptor armed with 14 submarginal hooks and 1 pair of anchors, a common genital pore opening marginally immediately posterior to the left cephalic lobe, 2 testes juxtaposed near the body midlength, and by lacking cephalic suckers or adhesive discs, accessory haptoral sclerites, and a uterine valve. The new genus most closely resembles Entobdella, which differs from Calicobenedenia by having an aseptate haptor armed with 14 submarginal hooks, 2 pairs of anchors, and a pair of accessary sclerites. PMID:10219294

  10. Haliotrema abaddon n. sp. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) from the gills of wild and maricultured West Australian dhufish Glaucosoma hebraicum (teleostei: Glaucosomatidae), in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, D C; Stephens, F

    2001-08-01

    Haliotrema abaddon n. sp. (Dactylogyridae) is described from the gills of West Australian dhufish Glaucosoma hebraicum (Teleostei: Glaucosomatidae), from the Indian Ocean near Fremantle, Western Australia. The parasite is recorded from cultured dhufish and from a major portion of the known geographic distribution of its host. In cultured dhufish, H. abaddon causes branchitis and hyperplasia and metaplasia of the lamellar epithelial cells and may be a limiting factor in the development of an economically feasible mariculture industry. Comparable prevalences and densities of the parasite on wild and cultured dhufish were observed. In heavily infested captive fish, clusters of eggs (egg strands) appear to restrict blood flow to localized regions of the gills as a result of entanglement of egg filaments with secondary gill lamellae. Hatching of oncomiracidia occurs in 7-10 days at 20-25 C. PMID:11534637

  11. Description de trois Monogènes nouveaux, parasites branchiaux de Mormyrus rume (Teleostei : Mormyridae en Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blahoua K.G.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available L’étude de la parasitofaune branchiale d’un Mormyridae, Mormyrus rume Valenciennes, 1846 (Teleostei : Mormyridae, capturé dans le lac de retenue d’Ayamé I en Côte d’Ivoire (Afrique de l’Ouest a révélé la présence de trois Monogènes nouveaux du genre Bouixella Euzet & Dossou, 1976, qui se différencient des autres espèces du genre par la taille et la morphologie des pièces haptoriales (anchor dorsal et ventral, barre dorsale et ventrale et de l’appareil génital mâle. Nous décrivons dans ce travail ces trois nouvelles espèces : Bouixella gorei n. sp., Bouixella yaoi n. sp. et Bouixella koutouani n. sp.

  12. Anatomia Funcional e Morfometria do Intestino no Teleostei (Pisces de Água Doce Surubim (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans - Agassiz, 1829

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    Seixas Filho José Teixeira de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram estudar a anatomia funcional e a morfometria comparativas nos intestinos médio e no reto, do peixe Teleostei, surubim, Pseudoplatystoma coruscans (Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes, Siluroidei, Pimelodidae, de hábito alimentar carnívoro, em duas classes de tamanho, visando fornecer referência à nutrição para o ajuste de diferentes sistemas de alimentação artificial para essa espécie nativa. Por meio destes estudos concluiu-se que o intestino do surubim, sob o ponto de vista morfológico, deve ser denominado, de intestino médio e reto, devido a presença da valva ileorretal e da invaginação valvar intestinal entre esses segmentos. Em relação ao padrão de enrolamento do intestino, apesar do plano geral do intestino médio e do reto ter sido mantido, as alças do intestino médio apresentaram arranjo indefinido, não tendo sido determinado um arranjo-padrão para a espécie. O arranjo intestinal é compatível ao da maioria de peixes carnívoros, ou predominantemente carnívoro, uma vez que seu intestino é quase retilíneo; contudo, as circunvoluções das alças finais do intestino médio talvez possam ser vistas como adaptações a um possível regime onívoro, preferencialmente carnívoro. As pregas intestinais encontram-se mais complexas e desenvolvidas no intestino dos exemplares da segunda classe de tamanho. Procurando estabelecer relações entre o arranjo das pregas das mucosas e a velocidade de transporte do alimento no intestino médio da espécie estudada, sugere-se que o padrão longitudinal, com numerosas anastomoses retardam o avanço do alimento em sentido aboral, o que possibilita maior período digestivo e, conseqüentemente, maior aproveitamento dos nutrientes, pela exposição do material alimentar à mucosa intestinal por período maior, além de contribuir para a preparação do bolo fecal. As pregas da mucosa próxima ao ânus têm direção longitudinal, sugerindo auxílio na

  13. Feeding of holoshesthes Heterodon eigenmann (Teleostei, Cheirodontinae of the cajuru reservoir (Minas Gerais, Brazil, in relation to the vegetal biomass on its depletion zone

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    Márcio Camilo Carvalho Alvim

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Stomach contents of Holoshesthes heterodon Eigenmann, 1915 (Teleostei, Cheirodontinae, collected in the depletion zone of Cajuru reservoir when it was at its maximum water level in two stations with different vegetal densities, were studied in order to investigate the influence of the flooded vegetal biomass on the food quantity and quality ingested by fish. Eighteen individuals from each station were examined. The standard length was l.53±0.05 cm and l.52±0.05 cm, respectively at the lower biomass (8.19 kg diy weight/ha and higher biomass (38.10 kg diy weight/ha sampling stations. The stomach repletion Index (SRI was applied for the quantitative analysis. The alimentary index (IAi was used for the quali-quantitative analysis, with the volume of the items obtained through the points method. SRI did not show values significatively different between the two stations, p>0.05, by applying the Mann-Whitney test. In both situations, Cladocera was the most important item. There were no correlation between the flooded vegetal biomass in the depletion zone and the intake of food by H. heterodon. However, as there were no empty stomachs, possibly even the lower vegetal biomass was enough to provide abundant feeding resources.

  14. Parasitic inventory of Balistes capriscus (Teleostei:Balistidae) from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hichem Kacem; Lassad Neifar

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the parasitic inventory of Balistes capriscus (Teleostei:Balistidae) (B. capriscus) from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea). Methods:A parasitological survey of the grey triggerfish B. capriscus (Gmelin, 1788) from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea) was conducted monthly from May 2007 to April 2009. A total of 480 fishes were collected from commercial catches by pelagic trawl net at different fishing ports at Chebba (34°14' N, 11°06' E), Kerkennah (34°45' N, 11°17' E) and Zarzis (33°41' N, 11°48' E). The weight, the size, the sex, the date and the area of capture of each specimen were recorded. B. capriscus were then examined to search for ectoparasites and endoparasites. For each parasite species, parasitological indices were calculated. Results:Five species of parasites were identified, among which a new species of Digenea Hypocreadium caputvadum was discovered and two species of parasites were reported for the first time in the Mediterranean. Conclusions:It is the first inventory of the ecto and endoparasites of grey triggerfish collected from the Gulf of Gabès Mediterranean Sea.

  15. Ultrastructure and development of Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia, a hyperparasite of Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda, a parasite of Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toguebaye Bhen Sikina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia, Nosematidae is described from Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda: Opecoelidae, a parasite of the fish Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei in the Atlantic Ocean. Electron microscopy reveals that all the stages of the cycle (merogony and sporogony are diplokaryotic and in direct contact with the cytoplasm of host cells. There is no sporophorous vesicle (pansporoblast. The earliest stages observed are meronts, which have a simple plasmic membrane. Their cytoplasm is granular, rich in ribosomes and contains some sacculi of endoplasmic reticulum. They divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporonts. The sporonts have a thick electron-dense wall. Their diplokaryon is slightly less electron-dense than the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm of more advanced sporonts has numerous electron-lucent vesicles. Sporonts with two diplokarya divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporoblasts. The older sporoblasts are irregular or elongate and the polar filament is in formation. Their cytoplasm is denser, with ribosomes and lamellae of granular endoplasmic reticulum. The sporoblasts evolve into spores. The mature spores are broadly oval and measure 3.6 (3.1–4.0 × 2.58 (1.8–3.3 μm. Their wall is 100–300 nm thick. The polar tube is isofilar with 11–16 coils, 130–155 nm in diameter and arranged in many layers in the centre of the spore. The polaroplast is divided into two regions: an outer electron-dense cup with granular content and lacking lamellae and an internal region, less electron-dense, composed of irregularly arranged sacs. The posterior vacuole, with an amorphous electron-dense content, is present. The new species is compared with other species of Nosema from trematodes.

  16. Scale surface microstructure and scale size in the tooth-carp genus Aphanius (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae) from endorheic basins in Southwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Zeinab; Teimori, Azad; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Reichenbacher, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    A substantial number of species within the tooth-carp Aphanius Nardo, 1827 (Cyprinodontidae, Teleostei) has been recorded from the endorheic drainage systems of Iran, and several isolated populations in these systems may deserve species status. Descriptions of these species and populations have been based mainly on morphological and molecular data; however, the characters related to the fish scales have not up to now been intensively studied and employed for the identification of the species belonging to this genus. The objective of this study is to test as to whether (i) scale surface morphology, (ii) scale surface microstructure, and (iii) scale size can be used to discriminate species and/or populations and, (iv) to discuss the possible causes of the observed differences. To achieve these objectives, scales of three species of the genus Aphanius from endorheic basins in SW Iran, viz. A. sophiae (nine populations from the Kor River Basin), A. farsicus (four populations from the Maharlu Lake Basin) and A. pluristriatus (a single population from the Mond River Basin) have been studied using SEM images, scale measurements, and uni- and multivariate statistics. It is opined that scale surface morphology and microstructure cannot help in distinguishing the species, but can be employed to discriminate certain populations of A. sophiae (those from Safashahr, Kharameh, Tashk, Gol). In addition, scale size and J-indices, respectively, represent a valuable tool for species separation, which corroborates earlier studies for the use of these indices in taxonomy. Major driving forces of the differentiation within A. sophiae probably include habitat fragmentation resulting from the geological history and local adaptations. Thus the differentiation results from a balance between both genetic and environmental effects. PMID:26131487

  17. Atividade de lipase em quimo de três espécies tropicais de peixes Teleostei de água doce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seixas Filho José Teixeira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a atividade de lipase no quimo dos intestinos médio e posterior de três espécies de peixes Teleostei, com hábitos alimentares diferentes, piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, piau (Leporinus friderici, onívoros, e surubim (Pseudoplatystoma curuscans, preferencialmente carnívoro, visando fornecer referência à nutrição para o ajuste de diferentes sistemas de alimentação artificial. Foram determinadas as atividades de lipase, utilizando-se kit BIOCLIN. Os resultados demonstraram atividade específica média de lipase de 99,86%, sendo menor para a piracanjuba (1,89 UI/mg em relação ao piau (1347,82 UI/mg, ambos de hábito alimentar onívoro. A diferença de atividade específica de lipase entre piracanjuba e surubim (793,76 UI/mg também apresentou média de 99,76%. O surubim apresentou atividade específica de lipase 41,11% menor que o piau. Estes dados sugerem que o piau apresenta atividade específica de lipase mais próxima à de um peixe carnívoro que onívoro. Estudos adicionais com testes de alimentação são necessários para a avaliação do comportamento destas espécies a novos sistemas de alimentação.

  18. Catálogo dos Peixes Marinhos do Laboratório de Ictiologia da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Parte I: Chondrichthyes (Rajiformes. Teleostei (Elopiformes a Dactylopteriformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Duarte Lopes

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is the first part of the catalogue of marine fishes belonging to the collection of the Laboratory of Ichthyology (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-RJ to be published. Here are included Chondrichthyes (Rajiformes and part of Osteichthyes, Teleostei (Elopiformes to Dactylopteriformes in a total amount of 30 families, 52 genera and 62 species. The most part of the material have been collected at the littoral of the State of Rio de Janeiro. For each species considered is given the vulgar name (when known in Southeastern Brazil, the known distribution (in Western Atlantic Ocean and some data as collecting locality, total number of collected specimens and the register number in the collection. Scorpaena isthmensis Meek & Hildebrand, 1928 (Scorpaenidae is for the first time mentioned for the Southern littoral of Brazil.

  19. Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea infecting the south European toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae from a hypersaline environment in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huyse Tine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, non-native species of Gambusia (Poeciliidae have been used to control larval stages of the Asian tiger mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta Reinert, Harbach et Kitching, 2004 throughout Italy. The potential utility of indigenous populations of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae as an appropriate alternative biological control is currently being explored. A sub-sample of ten fish collected from Cervia Saline, Italy (salinity 65 ppt; 30°C to assess their reproductive capability in captivity, harboured a moderate infection of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea. A subsequent morphological and molecular study identified this as being a new species. Results Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. is described from the skin, fins and gills of A. fasciatus. Light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM examination of the opisthaptoral armature and their comparison with all other recorded species suggested morphological similarities to Gyrodactylus rugiensoides Huyse et Volckaert, 2002 from Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas. Features of the ventral bar, however, permit its discrimination from G. rugiensoides. Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene and a comparison with all species listed in GenBank confirmed they are unique and represent a new species (most similar to Gyrodactylus anguillae Ergens, 1960, 8.3% pair-wise distance based on 5.8S+ITS2. This represents the first species of Gyrodactylus to be described from Aphanius and, to date, has the longest ITS1 (774 bp sequenced from any Gyrodactylus. Additional sampling of Cervia Saline throughout the year, found G. salinae n. sp. to persist in conditions ranging from 35 ppt and 5°C in December to 65 ppt and 30°C in July, while in captivity a low level of infection was present, even in freshwater conditions (0 ppt. Conclusions The ability of G. salinae n. sp. to tolerate a wide

  20. COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE OS MÉTODOS DE EXTRAÇÃO DE METACERCÁRIAS DE ASCOCOTYLE SP (TREMATODA: DIGENEA DOS TECIDOS DE MUGIL LIZA VALENCIENNES, 1836 (TELEOSTEI: MUGILIDAE

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    Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand and consumption of fish and their derivatives has increased considerably in recent years. However, fish are ideal hosts of numerous parasites, highlighting the need to develop new research methodologies for its detection. The aim of present study was to compare the efficacy of Ascocotyle metacercariae (Trematoda: Digenea extraction from visceral tissues of Mugil liza Valenciennes, 1836 (Teleostei: Mugilidae by two methods: homogenization by blender or mixer. Twentysix samples of M. liza were collected, being 16 liver samples and 10 samples of muscle tissue. Approximately 5g of each sample were processed by blender and mixer techniques homogenization for metacercariae extraction. In liver samples, up to 46 metacercariae were found in samples homogenized in blender. The lowest amount found was 2 metacercariae for blender and mixer techniques. In samples of muscle tissue, 4 metacercariae were observed in the mixer extraction. The lowest amount was found to be 2 parasites to blender and mixer. The mean metacercariae found and extracted from muscle tissue were 0.2 (+0.357 and 1.2 (+0.963 for blender and mixer, respectively. The averages of metacercariae found and extracted from fish liver, in blender and mixer, were 24 (+15.145 and 18 (+8.246, respectively. The homogenization techniques for blender and mixer were effective for the extraction of metacercariae of mullet fish tissues, suggesting that they may be directly applicable in the field of study, especially due to the ease of testing.

  1. A specimen of Paralycoptera Chang & Chou 1977 (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei) from Hong Kong (China) with a potential Late Jurassic age that extends the temporal and geographical range of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Tze-Kei; Pittman, Michael; Chang, Mee-Mann

    2015-01-01

    We describe a Mesozoic fish Paralycoptera sp. (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei), on the basis of a postcranial skeleton collected from the volcaniclastic mudstones of the Lai Chi Chong Formation of Hong Kong, China. The new finding-representing the city's first Mesozoic fish-extends the geographical distribution of Paralycoptera from eastern mainland China into Hong Kong, demonstrating a wider distribution than previously appreciated for this genus. A radiometric age for the Lai Chi Chong Formation of 146.6 ± 0.2 Ma implies a temporal range expansion for Paralycoptera of approximately 40 million years back from the Early Cretaceous (∼110 Ma). However, spores found in the Formation suggest an Early Cretaceous age that is consistent with the existing age assignment to Paralycoptera. We argue that the proposed temporal range extension is genuine because it is based on recent high precision radiometric age data, but given the discrepancies with the biostratigraphic ages further investigation is needed to confirm this. This study provides an important step towards revealing Hong Kong's Mesozoic vertebrate fauna and understanding its relationship to well-studied mainland Chinese ones.

  2. Determinação do sistema endócrino difuso nos intestinos de três Teleostei (Pisces de água doce com hábitos alimentares diferentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seixas Filho José Teixeira de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de verificar a presença de células endócrinas nos intestinos médio e posterior, ou reto, e nos cecos pilóricos de três espécies tropicais de peixes Teleostei de água doce com hábitos alimentares diferentes: piracanjuba, (Brycon orbignyanus e piau (Leporinus friderici, onívoro; e surubim (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans, carnívoro. Para tanto, foram utilizados sete exemplares da piracanjuba, com médias de peso e comprimento-padrão de 410,16 ± 66,33 g e 27,42 ± 1,17 cm, respectivamente, 13 exemplares de piau com médias de 77,71 ± 24,31 g e 14,84 ± 1,56 cm de peso e comprimento-padrão, respectivamente; e cinco exemplares do surubim com médias de peso e comprimento-padrão de 309,91 ± 94,23 g e 32,70 ± 1,79 cm, respectivamente. Pode-se constatar a presença de células endócrinas do "tipo aberto" nos segmentos referentes aos intestinos médio e posterior das espécies onívoras e do "tipo fechado" no intestino médio e no reto da espécie carnívora. As células argirófilas foram observadas entre as células absortivas do epitélio intestinal. Os resultados permitem concluir que a presença de células endócrinas nas espécies estudadas pode indicar que estas atuam no mecanismo de controle da absorção dos nutrientes do alimento.

  3. Ligophorus spp. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) occurring in the fresh and brackish waters of the Shatt Al-Arab River and Estuary in southern Iraq, with the description of Ligophorus sagmarius sp. n. from the greenback mullet Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Khamees, Najim R; Ali, Atheer H

    2013-12-01

    The gills of three of five species of mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) collected from the brackish and fresh waters of southern Iraq were infected with species of Ligophorus (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) as follows: greenback mullet Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes) infected with Ligophorus lebedevi Dmitrieva, Gerasev, Gibson, Pronkina and Galli, 2012, Ligophorus bantingensis Soo and Lim, 2012, Ligophorus sagmarius n. sp., and Ligophorus fluviatilis (Bychowsky, 1949) Dmitrieva, Gerasev, Gibson, Pronkina, and Galli, 2012; Klunzinger’s mullet Liza klunzingeri (Day) with L. bantingensis, L. fluviatilis, and an apparently undescribed species of Ligophorus; and abu mullet Liza abu (Heckel) with L. bantingensis and L. fluviatilis. The keeled mullet Liza carinata (Valenciennes) and Speigler’s mullet Valamugil speigleri (Bleeker) were uninfected. L. sagmarius n. sp. is described, and L. lebedevi and L. bantingensis are redescribed. Available specimens of L. fluviatilis and the undescribed species of Ligophorus from Klunzinger’s mullet were insufficient for description. PMID:24022128

  4. Phylogeny of the snailfishes (Teleostei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Møller, P. R.; Gravlund, P.

    2007-01-01

    Liparidae (snailfishes) is one of the most diverse and abundant fish families in polar and deep-sea habitats. However, the evolution of this family is poorly known because of the rarity of many species and difficulties in scoring morphological characters. We perform phylogenetic analyses of Lipar......Liparidae (snailfishes) is one of the most diverse and abundant fish families in polar and deep-sea habitats. However, the evolution of this family is poorly known because of the rarity of many species and difficulties in scoring morphological characters. We perform phylogenetic analyses...... type of evolution, with a gradual loss of characters (e.g. sucking disc/pelvic fins, pseudobranchial filaments, skin spinules). Nectoliparis, which had previously been placed either as the basal most genus or among the most derived genera, are found to occupy the most basal position among the taxa...

  5. Phylogeny of the gudgeons (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Gobioninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kevin L; Agnew, Mary K; Chen, Wei-Jen; Vincent Hirt, M; Raley, Morgan E; Sado, Tetsuya; Schneider, Leah M; Yang, Lei; Bart, Henry L; He, Shunping; Liu, Huanzhang; Miya, Masaki; Saitoh, Kenji; Simons, Andrew M; Wood, Robert M; Mayden, Richard L

    2011-10-01

    The members of the cyprinid subfamily Gobioninae, commonly called gudgeons, form one of the most well-established assemblages in the family Cyprinidae. The subfamily is a species-rich group of fishes, these fishes display diverse life histories, appearances, and behavior. The phylogenetic relationships of Gobioninae are examined using sequence data from four loci: cytochrome b, cytochrome c oxidase I, opsin, and recombination activating gene 1. This investigation produced a data matrix of 4114 bp for 162 taxa that was analyzed using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods. The phylogenies our analyses recovered corroborate recent studies on the group. The subfamily Gobioninae is monophyletic and composed of three major lineages. We find evidence for a Hemibarbus-Squalidus group, and the tribes Gobionini and Sarcocheilichthyini, with the Hemibarbus-Squalidus group sister to a clade of Gobionini-Sarcocheilichthyini. The Hemibarbus-Squalidus group includes those two genera; the tribe Sarcocheilichthyini includes Coreius, Coreoleuciscus, Gnathopogon, Gobiocypris, Ladislavia, Paracanthobrama, Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, Pungtungia, Rhinogobio, and Sarcocheilichthys; the tribe Gobionini includes Abbottina, Biwia, Gobio, Gobiobotia, Huigobio, Microphysogobio, Platysmacheilus, Pseudogobio, Romanogobio, Saurogobio, and Xenophysogobio. The monotypic Acanthogobio is placed into the synonymy of Gobio. We tentatively assign Belligobio to the Hemibarbus-Squalidus group and Mesogobio to Gobionini; Paraleucogobio and Parasqualidus remain incertae sedis. Based on the topologies presented, the evolution of swim bladder specializations, a distinctive feature among cyprinids, has occurred more than once within the subfamily. PMID:21672635

  6. Biologia do jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei, Pimelodidae Biology of Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei, Pemelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy de Carvalho Gomes

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O jundiá, Rhamdia quelen, é encontrado desde o centro da Argentina até o sul do México, e seu cultivo está aumentando no sul do Brasil. Portanto, o objetivo desta revisão é apresentar os dados existentes até o momento sobre a biologia dessa espécie. R. quelen pode atingir 50cm de comprimento e 3kg de peso, possui hábito noturno e habita locais calmos e profundos dos rios. Os alevinos suportam água do mar a 10%o, até 9,0g/l de sal comum e pH na faixa de 4,0 a 8,5, com melhor crescimento das larvas na faixa de pH de 8,0 a 8,5. É uma espécie euritérmica. Esse peixe é omnívoro, com tendência piscívora. A maturidade sexual é atingida no primeiro ano de vida. É uma espécie ovulípara e, na natureza, os cardumes desovam em locais com água limpa, calma e de fundo pedregoso. Não apresenta cuidado parental. Possui dois picos reprodutivos por ano (um no verão e outro na primavera e desova múltipla. A indução da desova apresentou bons resultados com gonadotrofina coriônica humana (HCG ou extrato hipofisário. O desenvolvimento embrionário de R. quelen é rápido e se dá entre 3 a 5 dias. O melhor alimento artificial para larvas de R. quelen é baseado em lecitina de soja, fígado bovino e levedura. Várias bactérias patogênicas e trematódeos digenéticos já foram identificados em R. quelen. Para um melhor aproveitamento dessa espécie na piscicultura, são necessários mais estudos relacionados ao efeito de parâmetros físicoquímicos da água, alimentação artificial e crescimento em cativeiro.The jundiá, Rhamdia quelen, occurs from Southern Mexico to Central Argentina, and the husbandry of this species is spreading in Southern Brazil. Consequently, the aim of this review is to present the available data of the biology of this species. R. quelen can reach 50cm of length and 3kg of weight, presents a nocturnal habit and lives in placid and deep waters of the rivers. Fingerlings support 10‰ seawater, up to 9g/l table salt and 4.0 - 8.5 pH range, with best growth at 8.0 - 8.5 pH range. It is an eurytermal species. This fish is omnivorous, but prefers fish. The sexual maturity is reached in the first year of life, and it is ovuliparous and in the natural environment the schools spawn in clean and calm waters with rocky bottom. There is no parental care. This species shows two reproductive peaks/year (spring and summer and multiple spawning. The induced spawning had good results with human chorionic gonadotrofin (HCG or pituitary extract. The embriological development of R. quelen is fast, and the larval development occurs in three to five days. The best feeding ration to the larvae of R. quelen is based on soybean lecithin, cattle liver and yeast. Several pathogenic bacteria and digenetic trematoda were identified in R. quelen. To improve the use of this species in fish culture, additional studies about physico-chemical parameters of the water, feeding rations and growth in captivity are essential.

  7. Biologia do jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei, Pimelodidae) Biology of Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei, Pemelodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Levy de Carvalho Gomes; Jaqueline Ineu Golombieski; Adriana Regina Chippari Gomes; Bernardo Baldisserotto

    2000-01-01

    O jundiá, Rhamdia quelen, é encontrado desde o centro da Argentina até o sul do México, e seu cultivo está aumentando no sul do Brasil. Portanto, o objetivo desta revisão é apresentar os dados existentes até o momento sobre a biologia dessa espécie. R. quelen pode atingir 50cm de comprimento e 3kg de peso, possui hábito noturno e habita locais calmos e profundos dos rios. Os alevinos suportam água do mar a 10%o, até 9,0g/l de sal comum e pH na faixa de 4,0 a 8,5, com melhor crescimento das la...

  8. Badis dibruensis, a new species (Teleostei: Badidae from northeastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Geetakumari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Badis Hamilton is described from Dibru River, Dibrugarh, Brahmaputra basin in Assam, India. The species has the following combination of characters: a conspicuous black blotch covering the superficial part of the cleithrum above pectoral fin base, a small oval-shaped black blotch on the middle of caudal fin, two predorsal bones, interorbital width 9.9-15.0, upper jaw length 6.1-6.9, lower jaw length 7.1-8.3 and orbital diameter 7.6-9.4 % SL. The species differs from its nearest congeners, B. badis, B. kanabos and B. tuivaiei by the absence of dark black or brown vertical bars on sides. A key to species of Badis of India is provided.

  9. The identity of Hamilton's Ticto Barb, Pethia ticto (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katwate, Unmesh; Raghavan, Rajeev; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2015-01-01

    While describing the fishes of Ganges, Hamilton described Cyprinus ticto (now allocated to Pethia) from south-eastern parts of Bengal. The unavailability of type material and insufficient diagnostic characters in the original description resulted in ambiguities in the identity of this species. In this paper, we clarify the identity of P. ticto through an integrative-taxonomic approach. Pethia ticto can be distinguished from all other known species of the genus by a combination of characters that includes an abbreviated lateral line with 6-12 pored scales; 23-26 scales in lateral-scale row; 9 predorsal scales; ½4/1/3½-4 scales in transverse series; and a pigmentation pattern that includes a small black humeral spot covering the third and fourth lateral-line scales, a prominent spot on the caudal peduncle on the 16th-19th scales of the lateral-line scale row, and two rows of black spots scattered on the dorsal fin.

  10. New microsatellites primers for plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L. (Teleostei : Pleuronectidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoarau, G; Cook, D; Stam, WT; Olsen, JL

    2002-01-01

    Seven microsatellite loci were developed for Pleuronectes platessa, a commercially important flatfish found throughout northern European waters. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 11 to 33 and heterozygosities from 0.74 to 0.96. Cross-reactivity was tested against six other flatfish species

  11. Molecular phylogenetics of the Neotropical fish family Prochilodontidae (Teleostei: Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Bruno F; Sidlauskas, Brian L; Hoekzema, Kendra; Frable, Benjamin W; Vari, Richard P; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    Migratory detritivores of the characiform family Prochilodontidae occur throughout the freshwaters of much of South America. Prochilodontids often form massive populations and many species achieve substantial body sizes; a combination that makes them one of the most commercially important fish groups on the continent. Their economic significance notwithstanding, prochilodontids have never been the subject of a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis. Using three mitochondrial and three nuclear loci spanning all prochilodontid species, we generated a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for the family. Our results strongly support monophyly of the family and the three included genera. A novel, highly supported placement of Ichthyoelephas sister to the clade containing Prochilodus and Semaprochilodus diverges from a previous morphological hypothesis. Most previously hypothesized interspecific relationships are corroborated and some longstanding polytomies within Prochilodus and Semaprochilodus are resolved. The morphologically similar P. brevis, P. lacustris, P. nigricans and P. rubrotaeniatus are embedded within what is herein designated as the P. nigricans group. Species limits and distributions of these species are problematic and the group clearly merits taxonomic revision. PMID:27262428

  12. Mahseers genera Tor and Neolissochilus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoàng, Huy Đức; Phạm, Hùng Mạnh; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Trần, Ngân Trọng; Phan, Phúc Đình

    2015-08-25

    Two new species and two new basin records of mahseers in the genera Tor and Neolissochilus are described from the upper Krong No and middle Đồng Nai drainages of the Langbiang Plateau in southern Vietnam. These new species and new records are known from streams and rivers in montane mixed pine and evergreen forests between 140 and 1112 m. Their populations are isolated in the Sre Pok River of the Mekong basin, the middle of the Đồng Nai basin, and the An Lão River. Both new species are differentiated from their congeners by a combination of the following characters: 23-24 lateral scales, 9-10 predorsal scales, 2/7 or 1/8 pelvic-fin rays, mouth position, median lobe of lower lip, rostral hood, colour in life and by divergent mitochondrial DNA. Tor mekongensis sp. nov. is differentiated from Tor dongnaiensis sp. nov. by the number of transverse scale rows (3/1/2 vs. 4/1/2), number of pelvic-fin rays (2/7 vs. 1/8), a blunt rostral hood vs. pointed, caudal-fin lobes that are equal vs. unequal, and by mitochondrial DNA (0.7% sequence divergence). Molecular evidence identifies both species as members of the genus Tor and distinct from all congeners sampled (uncorrected sequence divergences >1.9% for all Tor species for which homologous COI sequences are available). Tor sinensis is recorded in the Krong No and the Sre Pok rivers, further south of its known distribution. Polymorphism is described in Neolissochilus stracheyi with a Tor-like morph and a Neolissochilus-like morph.

  13. Karyotype description of five species of Trichomycterus (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae

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    Sato Luciana Ramos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomycteridae is a family of small catfish which are widely distributed throughout Southern Central America and South America. The present study showed that the cis-Andean species Trichomycterus florensis, Trichomycterus sp. aff. Trichomycterus itatiyae, Trichomycterus reinhardti, Trichomycterus davisi and Trichomycterus auroguttatus had 2n = 54 chromosomes (42 metacentric, 10 submetacentric and 2 subtelocentric, with T. reinhardti, T. auroguttatus and T. sp. aff. T. itatiyae exhibiting only one chromosome pair with silver-stained nucleolus organizer regions (NORs. The cytogenetic data suggest the existence of at least two groups of species in the cis-Andean representatives of the genus Trichomycterus. In the first group the first metacentric pair is considerably larger than the second metacentric pair and the NORs occur in the pericentromeric position of the short arm of a large submetacentric pair while in the second group the first and second metacentric pairs are about the same size and larger than the other metacentric pairs and the NORs are located in the pericentromeric position of the long arm of a large metacentric pair. The relative conservatism of the karyotype of the cis-Andean Trichomycterus species contrasts with the wide diversification observed in the trans-Andean species, reinforcing the hypothesis that the genus is not monophyletic.

  14. A new species of Poecilia from Honduras (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.N. Poeser

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Poecilia from the Atlantic slopes of Honduras is described and assigned to the subgenus Mollienesia. Poecilia hondurensis, new species, differs from all congeners in the combination of having tricuspid teeth on the inner of both jaws and lacking a prominent spine or hook on the gono

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gobiobotia filifer (Teleostei, Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Liu, Ya; Zhou, Jian; Gong, Quan; Li, Hua; Lai, Jiansheng; Li, Lianman

    2016-09-01

    The Gobiobotia filifer is a small economic fish which distributes in the upstream of Yangtze River and its distributaries. For the environmental pollution and overfishing, its population declined drastically in recent decades, so it is essential to protect its resource. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of G. filifer was determined with PCR technology, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,613 bp. The order and composition of genes were similar to most of the other teleost fish. Most of the genes were encoded on heavy strand, except for ND6 genes and eight tRNAs. Just like most other vertebrates, the bias of G and C has been found in different genes/regions. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of G. filifer would contribute to better understand evolution of this lineage, population genetics, and will help administrative department to make rules and laws to protect this lineage. PMID:25806579

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Epinephelus polyphekadion (Teleostei, Serranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Chen, Mengmeng; Luo, Jian; Chen, Guohua

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Epinephelus polyphekadion has been sequenced by the next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques strategy. The mitochondrial genome is 16,691 bp in length and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 27.90% A, 29.05% T, 27.48% G and 15.58% C. With the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy-strand (H-strand). All the tRNAs have clover secondary structure with conservative anticodon arm, TΨC arm and D arm except for tRNA-Ser(GCT) and tRNA-Pro(TGG), which D arm consists of 13 bp and 7 bp single-base, respectively. Phylogenetic tree showed that E. latifasciatus, E. polyphekadion, E. epistictus, E. akaara and E. stictus of the Epinephelus formed a monophyletic group, whereas E. latifasciatus, E. polyphekadion and E. epistictus formed a sister group. PMID:26061342

  17. Rediscovery of Sewellia lineolata in Annam, Viet Nam (Teleostei: Balitoridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kottelat, M.

    1994-01-01

    Sewellia lineolata is recorded for the first time since its original description (in 1846) based on specimens without precise locality data. It occurs on the eastern slope of the Annam mountain range of Viet Nam, near Hue. The preoral groove communicating with the mooth described by earlier authors

  18. Phylogenetic placement of enigmatic percomorph families (Teleostei: Percomorphaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanciangco, Millicent D; Carpenter, Kent E; Betancur-R, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Percomorphs are a large and diverse group of spiny-finned fishes that have come to be known as the "bush at the top" due to their persistent lack of phylogenetic resolution. Recently, the broader Euteleost Tree of Life project (EToL) inferred a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis that groups the diversity of percomorphs into nine well-supported series (supraordinal groups): Ophidiaria, Batrachoidaria, Gobiaria, Syngnatharia, Pelagiaria, Anabantaria, Carangaria, Ovalentaria, and Eupercaria. The EToL also provided, for the first time, a monophyletic definition of Perciformes - the largest order of vertebrates. Despite significant progress made in accommodating the diversity of percomorph taxa into major clades, some 62 families (most previously placed in "Perciformes", as traditionally defined) were not examined by the EToL. Here, we provide evidence for the phylogenetic affinities of 10 of those 62 families, seven of which have largely remained enigmatic. This expanded taxonomic sampling also provides further support for the nine EToL supraordinal series. We examined sequences from 21 genes previously used by the EToL and added two fast-evolving mitochondrial markers in an attempt to increase resolution within the rapid percomorph radiations. We restricted the taxonomic sampling to 1229 percomorph species, including expanded sampling from recent studies. Results of maximum likelihood analysis revealed that bathyclupeids (Bathyclupeidae), galjoen fishes (Dichistiidae), kelpfishes (Chironemidae), marblefishes (Aplodactylidae), trumpeters (Latridae), barbeled grunters (Hapalogenyidae), slopefishes (Symphysanodontidae), and picarel porgies (formerly Centracanthidae) are members of the series Eupercaria ("new bush at the top"). The picarel porgies and porgies (Sparidae) are now placed in the same family (Sparidae). Our analyses suggest a close affinity between the orders Spariformes (including Lethrinidae, Nemipteridae and Sparidae) and Lobotiformes (including the tripletails or Lobotidae, the barbeled grunters, and tigerperches or Datnioididae), albeit support for this group is low. None of the newly examined families belong in the order Perciformes, as recently defined. Finally, we confirm results from other recent studies that place the Australasian salmons (Arripidae) within Pelagiaria, and the false trevallies (Lactariidae) close to flatfishes, jacks, and trevallies, within Carangaria. PMID:26493227

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of Polydactylus sextarius (Teleostei, Mugiliformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengyi; Qiu, Jianbiao; Peng, Xin; Ai, Weiming; Huang, Xiaolin; Liu, Weicheng; Chen, Shaobo

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitogenome of Polydactylus sextarius was firstly determined in this study using a long polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and genome walking. It is 16,836 bp in length and has 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. The genes composition and order of which are similar to most other vertebrates. All mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is 27.4% A, 26.0% T, 29.9% C, and 16.7% G, with a slight AT bias of 53.4%. There are eight regions of gene overlap totaling 27 bp and 16 intergenic spacer regions totaling 344 bp. The mitogenome sequence of P. sextarius could contribute to the solution of its phylogenetic position within Polynemidae fishes based on the whole mitogenomic data. PMID:25714147

  20. Careproctus kidoi, a new Arctic species of snailfish (Teleostei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Møller, Peter Rask

    2008-01-01

    Careproctus kidoi sp. nov. is described from the Baffin Bay between Greenland and Canada, in the northern most part of the western North Atlantic. During a series of bottom trawl surveys conducted in 1988-2004, 22 specimens of an undescribed species of Careproctus were caught at depths between 952...

  1. Anatomia e histologia gastrintestinal da garoupa-verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Teleostei, Serranidae = Dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Teleostei, Serranidae gastrintestinal anatomy and histology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Machado Cunha da Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A garoupa-verdadeira (Epinephelus marginatus é uma espécie de serranídeo com grande importância ecológica e boas perspectivas para o cultivo. A investigação da morfologia do trato digestório, associada à atividade alimentar, é fundamental para a compreensão da biologia dessa espécie e premissa básica para pesquisas sobrerequerimentos nutricionais, desenvolvimento de rações e práticas adequadas de manejo alimentar. O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia e, por meio da microscopia de luz, as variações histológicas ao longo do tubo digestório de juvenis de Epinephelus marginatus, correlacionando a histologia de cada seguimento com as respectivas funções e o hábito alimentar. Verificou-se que essa espécie possui elevado número de tipos celulares ao longo do tubo digestório que estão intimamente relacionados com a resposta imunológica inata e adaptativa, permitindo o hábito alimentar detritívoro.

  2. Efecto del suplemento de astaxantina sobre la calidad seminal en Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Domínguez-Castanedo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó la morfometría de los espermatozoides del teleósteo Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae, y se evaluó el efecto de la suplementación del carotenoide astaxantina en la dieta sobre la calidad de semen. La morfometría de los espermatozoides se realizó con microscopia óptica con la tinción de eosina-nigrosina vista en fluorescencia. La calidad de semen de 360 peces se evaluó con espermogramas clásicos (concentración, volumen, motilidad y viabilidad. La longitud total del espermatozoide fue de 16,83 ± 2,33 μm, diámetro de la cabeza sin acrosoma de 1,93 ± 0,21 μm, diámetro de la pieza media de 0,91 ± 0,23 μm y longitud del flagelo de 13,18 ± 1,76 μm. En los peces del grupo control, el volumen seminal y la concentración espermática fue de 2,14 ± 1,55 μL y 6,8x10(8 ± 292,82 respectivamente. La adición de astaxantina incrementó significativamente (P < 0,05 estos parámetros a 3,87 ± 1,06 μL y 13x10(8 ± 265,56 respectivamente. La motilidad no varió significativamente entre el grupo control (3,14 ± 1,46 y astaxantina (3,50 ± 0,92. Los resultados indicaron una tendencia hacia el incremento de la calidad seminal en el grupo tratado con astaxantina. Este incremento se puede atribuir a sus propiedades antioxidantes que protegen a las células testiculares contra el estrés oxidativo, con lo cual, se mejora el potencial reproductor de esta especie en condiciones de cultivo.

  3. Molecular phylogeny of the Neotropical fish genus Tetragonopterus (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Bruno F; Benine, Ricardo C; Silva, Gabriel S C; Avelino, Gleisy S; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Tetragonopterinae encompasses characid species of the genus Tetragonopterus, which are widely distributed throughout east of the Andes in South America. While taxonomy has recently clarified the species diversity and molecular evidence strongly supports the monophyly of Tetragonopterus, no interspecific relationship studies are currently available. Here we used a large molecular dataset composed of two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci containing an extensive taxon sampling within the family Characidae and included eleven species of Tetragonopterus to generate the first time-calibrated phylogeny for Tetragonopterinae. Our results support monophyly of the subfamily represented solely by Tetragonopterus and corroborate previous molecular hypothesis of close relationship with Exodon plus Roeboexodon and the subfamily Characinae. Internally, we found Moenkhausia georgiae as sister species to all remaining species followed by T. rarus, being both species endemic to the Guiana Shield drainages. Species-level relationships are first hypothesized and putative morphological apomorphies are discussed as support to monophyletic clades. Our time-calibrated phylogeny suggested an origin of the genus during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene. We hypothesized that the Andean geological activity followed by transformations in the Amazonian hydrographic scenario during the Miocene may have promoted most of the lineage diversification within the Tetragonopterus. PMID:26541240

  4. Nuclear DNA content determination in Characiformes fish (Teleostei, Ostariophysi from the Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Margarida Lima

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, nuclear DNA content was analyzed in 53 species of Characiformes fish from the Neotropical region. Diploid number ranged from 2n = 48 in Astyanax fasciatus, Gymnocorymbus ternetzi and Hyphessobrycon griemi to 2n = 102 in Potamorhina squamoralevis, with a modal number of 54 chromosomes. Nuclear DNA content ranged from 1.70 ± 0.04 pg of DNA per diploid nucleus in Acestrorhynchus pantaneiro to 3.94 ± 0.09 pg in Tetragonopterus chalceus. A general analysis showed a mean value of 2.9 pg of DNA per diploid nucleus. Very similar DNA content values were observed in the species of the family Cynodontidae which showed a variation of 3% between the two genera studied. Small variations were observed between populations of Gymnocorymbus ternetzi, Astyanax fasciatus and Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Characidae, Tetragonopterinae. The subfamilies Tetragonopterinae and Acestrorhynchinae (Characidae presented the widest range, about 96%. Even in those families in which diploid number and karyotypic formulae were conserved such as the families Anostomidae, Curimatidae, and Prochilodontidae, episodes leading to losses or gains of genetic material became fixed in their evolutionary history.

  5. Uncovering the Ancestry of B Chromosomes in Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Utsunomia

    Full Text Available B chromosomes constitute a heterogeneous mixture of genomic parasites that are sometimes derived intraspecifically from the standard genome of the host species, but result from interspecific hybridization in other cases. The mode of origin determines the DNA content, with the B chromosomes showing high similarity with the A genome in the first case, but presenting higher similarity with a different species in the second. The characid fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae harbours highly invasive B chromosomes, which are present in all populations analyzed to date in the Parana and Tietê rivers. To investigate the origin of these B chromosomes, we analyzed two natural populations: one carrying B chromosomes and the other lacking them, using a combination of molecular cytogenetic techniques, nucleotide sequence analysis and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq2000. Our results showed that i B chromosomes have not yet reached the Paranapanema River basin; ii B chromosomes are mitotically unstable; iii there are two types of B chromosomes, the most frequent of which is lightly C-banded (similar to euchromatin in A chromosomes (B1, while the other is darkly C-banded (heterochromatin-like (B2; iv the two B types contain the same tandem repeat DNA sequences (18S ribosomal DNA, H3 histone genes, MS3 and MS7 satellite DNA, with a higher content of 18S rDNA in the heterochromatic variant; v all of these repetitive DNAs are present together only in the paracentromeric region of autosome pair no. 6, suggesting that the B chromosomes are derived from this A chromosome; vi the two B chromosome variants show MS3 sequences that are highly divergent from each other and from the 0B genome, although the B2-derived sequences exhibit higher similarity with the 0B genome (this suggests an independent origin of the two B variants, with the less frequent, B2 type presumably being younger; and vii the dN/dS ratio for the H3.2 histone gene is almost 4-6 times higher for B chromosomes than for A chromosome sequences, suggesting that purifying selection is relaxed for the DNA sequences located on the B chromosomes, presumably because they are mostly inactive.

  6. Whole chromosome painting of B chromosomes of the red-eye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae ( Teleostei , Characidae )

    OpenAIRE

    Scudeler, Patricia Elda Sobrinho; Diniz, Débora; Wasko,Adriane Pinto; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract B chromosomes are dispensable genomic elements found in different groups of animals and plants. In the present study, a whole chromosome probe was generated from a specific heterochromatic B chromosome occurring in cells of the characidae fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907). The chromosome painting probes were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments for the assessment of metaphase chromosomes obtained from individuals from three populations of...

  7. Uncovering the Ancestry of B Chromosomes in Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Silva, Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Trifonov, Vladmir A; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    B chromosomes constitute a heterogeneous mixture of genomic parasites that are sometimes derived intraspecifically from the standard genome of the host species, but result from interspecific hybridization in other cases. The mode of origin determines the DNA content, with the B chromosomes showing high similarity with the A genome in the first case, but presenting higher similarity with a different species in the second. The characid fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae harbours highly invasive B chromosomes, which are present in all populations analyzed to date in the Parana and Tietê rivers. To investigate the origin of these B chromosomes, we analyzed two natural populations: one carrying B chromosomes and the other lacking them, using a combination of molecular cytogenetic techniques, nucleotide sequence analysis and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq2000). Our results showed that i) B chromosomes have not yet reached the Paranapanema River basin; ii) B chromosomes are mitotically unstable; iii) there are two types of B chromosomes, the most frequent of which is lightly C-banded (similar to euchromatin in A chromosomes) (B1), while the other is darkly C-banded (heterochromatin-like) (B2); iv) the two B types contain the same tandem repeat DNA sequences (18S ribosomal DNA, H3 histone genes, MS3 and MS7 satellite DNA), with a higher content of 18S rDNA in the heterochromatic variant; v) all of these repetitive DNAs are present together only in the paracentromeric region of autosome pair no. 6, suggesting that the B chromosomes are derived from this A chromosome; vi) the two B chromosome variants show MS3 sequences that are highly divergent from each other and from the 0B genome, although the B2-derived sequences exhibit higher similarity with the 0B genome (this suggests an independent origin of the two B variants, with the less frequent, B2 type presumably being younger); and vii) the dN/dS ratio for the H3.2 histone gene is almost 4-6 times higher for B chromosomes than for A chromosome sequences, suggesting that purifying selection is relaxed for the DNA sequences located on the B chromosomes, presumably because they are mostly inactive. PMID:26934481

  8. Whole chromosome painting of B chromosomes of the red-eye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Patricia Elda Sobrinho; Diniz, Débora; Wasko, Adriane Pinto; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    B chromosomes are dispensable genomic elements found in different groups of animals and plants. In the present study, a whole chromosome probe was generated from a specific heterochromatic B chromosome occurring in cells of the characidae fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907). The chromosome painting probes were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments for the assessment of metaphase chromosomes obtained from individuals from three populations of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae. The results revealed that DNA sequences were shared between a specific B chromosome and many chromosomes of the A complement in all populations analyzed, suggesting a possible intra-specific origin of these B chromosomes. However, no hybridization signals were observed in other B chromosomes found in the same individuals, implying a possible independent origin of B chromosome variants in this species. FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes revealed the presence of non-active ribosomal genes in some B chromosomes and in some chromosomes of the A complement, suggesting that at least two types of B chromosomes had an independent origin. The role of heterochromatic segments and ribosomal sequences in the origin of B chromosomes were discussed. PMID:26753081

  9. Stable isotope evidence for trophic overlap of sympatric Mexican Lake Chapala silversides (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae: Chirostoma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Mercado-Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We explore the trophic role that a diverse sympatric group of fishes in the genus Chirostoma play in a large, shallow lake in central Mexico, Lake Chapala. We use δ13C and δ15N stable isotope - based food web analyses to explore how they relate to other components of the Lake Chapala ecosystem. We find five Chirostoma species in top trophic levels of the Chapala food web compared to other fishes, relying on a combination of zooplankton, fish and benthic resources as energy sources. Food web metric analyses showed generally overlapping trophic niches for members of Chirostoma, especially in terms of δ13C. However, C. jordani had lower mean δ15N isotopic values than C. promelas. As a group, "pescados blancos" (C. sphyraena and C. promelas also had higher δ15N signatures than "charales" (C. consocium, C. jordani and C. labarcae reflecting greater piscivory, but these differences were not strong for all food web metrics used. Trophic overlap among species of Chirostoma in Lake Chapala raises questions about the forces that might have led to a morphologically diverse but functionally similar and monophyletic group of species.

  10. Ontogeny, variation, and homology in Salvelinus alpinus caudal skeleton (Teleostei: Salmonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünbaum, Thomas; Cloutier, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The ontogeny of the caudal skeleton in the Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus was examined using an extensive series of cleared and stained specimens. We demonstrate the presence of skeletal components never reported previously within the Salmonidae. In contrast to the generalized condition for salmonids, seven hypurals (instead of six), and four uroneurals (instead of three) have been found in some specimens. Variation in the number and condition of epurals is documented. New hypotheses are proposed concerning (1) relationships among centra and their associated elements, (2) phylogenetic distribution of caudal characters within the Salmonidae, and (3) homology of caudal components. Using the published phylogenetic hypotheses, we provide evidence, that a seventh hypural and a fourth uroneural are taxic atavism in salmonids. The development of the salmonid homocercal fin is discussed in the light of a polyural scheme based on evidences of a one-to-one relationship among ural centra and their associated elements. PMID:19603412

  11. Morfología del sistema digestivo de la berrugata Menticirrhus saxatilis (Teleostei: Sciaenidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham Kobelkowsky; Orlando Pantoja Escobar

    2007-01-01

    Como caracteres morfológicos relacionados con la bentofagia, Menticirrhus saxatilis muestra el tentáculo y los orificios mentonianos, el pliegue supraoral, la boca ventral. El esqueleto visceral presenta una notable anchura de los canales mandibular y preopercular del sistema sensorial de la línea lateral. Se reconoce una articulación especial del palatino con el paraesfenoides. Como caracteres sobresalientes de la musculatura visceral se encuentran: la sección tentacular del intermandibulari...

  12. Redescription of Gobio nigrescens from the Hari River drainage (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi-Sabet, Hamed; Ganjbakhsh, Babak; Geiger, Matthias F; Geiger, Matthias F; Freyhof, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Gobio nigrescens, from the Hari River drainage, is redescribed. It represents a valid species distinguished from congeners in the adjacent Caspian and Aral Sea basins by a combination of characters: a naked breast, 16 circumpeduncular scales and 6-7 irregularly shaped, black or brown blotches on back behind dorsal-fin base. PMID:27395112

  13. Strong reproductive skew among males in the multiply mated swordtail Xiphophorus multilineatus (Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J; Sanetra, M; Schartl, M; Meyer, A

    2005-01-01

    Male swordtails in the genus Xiphophorus display a conspicuous ventral elongation of the caudal fin, the sword, which arose through sexual selection due to female preference. Females mate regularly and are able to store sperm for at least 6 months. If multiple mating is frequent, this would raise the intriguing question about the role of female choice and male-male competition in shaping the mating system of these fishes. Size-dependent alternate mating strategies occur in Xiphophorus; one such strategy is courtship with a sigmoid display by large dominant males, while the other is gonopodial thrusting, in which small subordinate males sneak copulations. Using microsatellite markers, we observed a frequency of multiple paternity in wild-caught Xiphophorus multilineatus in 28% of families analyzed, but the actual frequency of multiple mating suggested by the correction factor PrDM was 33%. The number of fathers contributing genetically to the brood ranged from one to three. Compared to other species in the family Poeciliidae, both frequency and degree of multiple paternity were low. Paternity was found to be highly skewed, with one male on average contributing more than 70% to the offspring. Hence in this Xiphophorus mating system, typically one male dominates and sneaker males do not appear to be particularly effective. Postcopulatory mechanisms, however, such as sperm competition, are also indicated by our data, using sex-linked phenotypes among the offspring. PMID:15743903

  14. Strong Reproductive Skew Among Males in the Multiply Mated Swordtail Xiphophorus multilineatus (Teleostei)

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Jing; Sanetra, Matthias; Schartl, Manfred; Meyer, Axel

    2005-01-01

    Male swordtails in the genus Xiphophorus display a conspicuous ventral elongation of the caudal fin, the sword, which arose through sexual selection due to female preference. Females mate regularly and are able to store sperm for at least 6 months. If multiple mating is frequent, this would raise the intriguing question about the role of female choice and male-male competition in shaping the mating systemof these fishes. Size-dependent alternate mating strategies occur in Xiphophorus; one suc...

  15. The first molecular phylogeny of Chilodontidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) reveals cryptic biodiversity and taxonomic uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Bruno F; Sidlauskas, Brian L; Hoekzema, Kendra; Vari, Richard P; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Chilodontidae is a small family of eight described characiform species popularly known as headstanders. These small to moderately sized fishes are well known to aquarists, who prize their striking spotted pigmentation and unusual behaviors, and to systematists, who have revised both chilodontid genera in recent memory and studied their phylogenetic relationships using a comprehensive morphological dataset. However, no molecular phylogeny for the family has ever been proposed. Here, we reconstruct phylogenetic relationships for all eight known chilodontid species using three mitochondrial and two nuclear loci. Results largely agree with the previous morphological hypothesis, and confirm the monophyly of the family as well as its included genera, Caenotropus and Chilodus. The molecular topology differs slightly from the morphological hypothesis by placing Caenotropus maculosus rather than C. mestomorgmatos as the sister to the remaining three congeners, and by reconstructing the Curimatidae as the closest outgroup family, rather than the Anostomidae. However, the topologies supported by the morphological data were only slightly less likely and could not be rejected via Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests. Within Chilodus, two described species with distinctive pigmentation (C. fritillus and C. zunevei) appear embedded within the broad distributed C. punctatus clade, suggesting the presence of cryptic taxa with polymorphic pigmentation within the present concept of C. punctatus. Future work should combine morphological and molecular data to revisit the taxonomy and systematics of Chilodus and determine species limits within the C. punctatus-group sensu lato. PMID:24120449

  16. Petroscirtes pylei, a new saber-toothed blenny from the Fiji Islands (Teleostei: Blenniidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Vaniz, W.F.

    2005-01-01

    Petroscirtes pylei is described from three specimens, 20.3-40.9 mm SL, obtained from a deep-water reef off Suva, Viti Levu, Fiji Islands. It is distinguished from all other congeners by its color pattern, including the presence of two dark body stripes, the lower one broadly extending onto the anal fin, and the dorsal fin with a broad, dark basal stripe, superimposed by a conspicuous white spot centered on the 4th spine. Among Petroscirtes, only the new species and P. springeri typically have 12 dorsal-fin spines but they are not closely related. The holotype was collected in 104-110 m, the second deepest depth record for a species of Petroscirtes. Discovery of this new species, and an apparently second new deep-water Petroscrites (uncollected), at a different Fijian reef indicates that our knowledge of the biodiversity of this habitat and of the saber-toothed blennies is very incomplete. Copyright ?? 2005 Magnolia Press.

  17. Un caso de xantismo parcial en Aplodactylus punctatus (Teleostei: Aplodactylidae del sur de Perú

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    Philippe Béarez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta por primera vez en Ilo, sur del Perú, una jerguilla amarilla (Aplodactylus punctatus. Esa condición de tener una piel de color amarillo se denomina xantismo. Este registro, único, corresponde probablemente a una extensión hacia el norte del rango de distribución de la «jerguilla reina», conocida de la costa central de Chile.

  18. Spawning migrations of the endemic Labeobarbus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia, status and threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anteneh, W.; Getahun, A.; Dejen, E.; Sibbing, F.A.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; de Graaf, M.; Wudneh, T.; Vijverberg, J.; Palstra, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive biology of the only known intact species flock of large cyprinids, the 16 Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana (Ethiopia), has been extensively studied for the past two decades. Seven species of Labeobarbus are known to migrate >50 km upstream into tributary rivers for spawning during t

  19. Nuclear DNA content in 20 species of Siluriformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi from the Neotropical region

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    Paulo César Fenerich

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 20 species of Siluriformes fish were analyzed in order to determine their nuclear DNA content and compare these data with their diploid number. In addition, the extension and importance of the changes that occurred during the process of diversification in the group of Neotropical freshwater catfish were investigated. The only species studied of the family Doradidae, Rhinodoras d'orbignyi (2n = 58, presented 3.46 ± 0.13 pg of DNA. Among the species of the family Heptapteridae, the values of nuclear DNA content and the diploid numbers ranged from 1.13 ± 0.09 pg of DNA in Pimelodella sp. (2n = 46 to 2.38 ± 0.07 pg of DNA in Imparfinis mirini (2n = 58. The family Loricariidae showed the widest variation in diploid number and nuclear DNA content values, ranging from 2n = 52 and 3.96 ± 0.22 pg of DNA in Liposarcus anisitsi to 2n = 76 and 4.90 ± 0.12 pg of DNA in Hypostomus sp. 4. In this group, two local samples of Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae were analyzed, and both exhibited 2n = 56, but different nuclear DNA content values (2.68 ± 0.22 pg and 2.82 ± 0.20 pg, respectively. Among the Pseudopimelodidae species analyzed, Pseudopimelodus mangurus (2n = 54 showed 2.23 ± 0.15 pg and Microglanis cottoides (2n = 54 exhibited 2.50 ± 0.18 pg of DNA. Two species of Trichomycterus (Trichomycteridae also presented the same diploid number, 2n = 54 chromosomes, but, while the species from the Quinta stream presented a DNA content of 2.62 ± 0.19 pg, in the sample from the Capivara river this value was 2.30 ± 0.23 pg. In the analyzed species, the results showed that the changes in DNA content were frequently not followed by changes in the diploid number. This fact permits to suggest that, in addition to structural chromosome rearrangements, other mechanisms, including deletions, duplications and polyploidy, could be involved in the process of species differentiation in the representatives of the fish order Siluriformes.

  20. Peroxisomes in intestinal and gallbladder epithelial cells of the stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus L. (Teleostei)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, A.J.H. de; Veenhuis, M.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    The occurrence of microbodies in the epithelial cells of the intestine and gallbladder of the stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus L., is described. In the intestine the organelles are predominantly located in the apical and perinuclear zone of the cells and may contain small crystalline cores. In ga

  1. Revision of Hastatobythites and Saccogaster (Teleostei, Bythitidae) with three new species and a new genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen; Schwarzhans, Werner; Cohen, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    of the genus. The revision of Saccogaster (Cohen Nielsen 1972) was based on 15 specimens. Since then 29 additional specimens have been collected representing 11 species, three of which are here described: S. brayae, horrida and nikoliviae. Three of the 11 Saccogaster species, S. melanomycter, S. normae and S...

  2. Taxonomic revision and stratigraphic provenance of 'Histiophorus rotundu' Woodward 1901 (Teleostei, Perciformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsch, K.A.; Fierstine, H.L.; Weems, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, Histiophorus rotundus Woodward 1901, was known from a single, poorly preserved rostrum from the Tertiary phosphate beds near Charleston, South Carolina, an area from which many fossils have been described. The specimen is relatively featureless externally; its internal anatomy is unknown and the documentation of its geological provenance was poor. In an earlier revision the species was transferred to the fossil billfish genus Xiphiorhynchus Van Beneden, 1871. Here we confirm this designation, supported by new morphological studies of the holotype, recently found specimens of Xiphiorhynchus rotundus (Woodward, 1901), and the stratigraphic record of Xiphiorhynchus. The systematic paleontology we present is a contribution to the taxonomic revision of billfishes world-wide. Because the holotype is heavily phosphatized and the type locality was vaguely described, we discuss the geology of the phosphate mining districts of the Charleston region. Based on our studies, we can narrow the possible age of the holotype to late Oligocene or early Miocene. We suggest X. rotundus was extinct by the Burdigalian. 

  3. Three new species of blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infecting pufferfishes (Teleostei: Tetraodontidae) from off Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, R Q-Y; Cutmore, S C; Bray, R A; Miller, T L; Semarariana, I W Y; Palm, H W; Cribb, T H

    2016-10-01

    We describe three new species of blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) and propose their classification within the genus Psettarium Goto & Ozaki, 1929. All three species were collected from the circulatory systems of pufferfishes caught off Bali, central Indonesia. Psettarium pulchellum n. sp. was found in the gills of both the narrow-lined puffer (Arothron manilensis de Procé) and the spiny blaasop (Tylerius spinosissimus Regan), while P. ogawai n. sp. and P. jimbaranense n. sp. were found in the gills of the reticulated puffer (Arothron reticularis Bloch & Schneider). The morphological characteristics of these taxa necessitated emendation of the diagnosis for the genus Psettarium, to accommodate the presence of an oral sucker, multiple or entirely post-caecal testes and a degenerate posterior testis. Features such as proportion of body length occupied by the oesophagus, and posterior caeca being ≥7× the length of anterior caeca, are no longer regarded as useful genus-level characters. Additionally, Sasala nolani is reassigned to this genus as Psettarium nolani n. comb. In phylogenetic analyses of the 28S and ITS2 rDNA regions, all three new taxa form a well-supported clade, together with Psettarium sinense and Psettarium nolani n. comb., the two other species of tetraodontid-infecting aporocotylids for which comparative rDNA data were available. The short branch lengths within this clade, despite dramatic morphological differences between the five species, suggest that rapid morphological diversification has occurred among the tetraodontid-infecting aporocotylids. The genus Psettarium has long been considered problematic. Further commentary is given on the history of this genus and how the issues presented might be resolved. PMID:27208886

  4. Phylogeny of moray eels (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae), with a revised classification of true eels (Teleostei: Elopomorpha: Anguilliformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kevin L; Fielitz, Christopher

    2013-02-01

    The family Muraenidae is one of the largest and most recognizable eel groups. Moray eels are key components of marine ecosystems but their relationships remain poorly understood. The phylogenetic relationships of the morays are examined herein using mitochondrial 12S and 16S sequence data, totaling 1673 bp for 139 taxa. The results of our analyses found support for a monophyletic family Muraenidae that is part of a monophyletic suborder Muraenoidei, which is revised to include the anguilliform families Heterenchelyidae and Myrocongridae, and to exclude the family Chlopsidae. The muraenids form two monophyletic subfamilies, Muraeninae and Uropterygiinae. Of the genera that had multiple species included for analysis, only the type genus of the family, Muraena, is found to be monophyletic. In the subfamily Uropterygiinae, Uropterygius is not recovered as a monophyletic genus. In the subfamily Muraeninae, the species-rich piscivorous genera, Enchelycore and Gymnothorax, and the durophagous genus, Echidna, are demonstrably not monophyletic. The monotypic Gymnomuraena is the sister group to all other muraenine species. The relationships within Muraenidae require much additional study and its genera remain in urgent need of revision. The order Anguilliformes is revised herein to include four suborders: Anguilloidei, Congroidei, Muraenoidei, and Synaphobranchoidei. All four families of the order Saccopharyngiformes are nested within Anguilliformes, recovered as part of a clade that includes Anguillidae; the saccopharyngiform families are referred to the suborder Anguilloidei sensu novum.

  5. The c-myc coding DNA sequences of cyprinids (Teleostei: Cypriniformes): Implications for phylogeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG XiangHui; WANG XuZhen; GAN XiaoNi; HE ShunPing

    2007-01-01

    The family Cyprinidae is one of the largest fish families in the world, which is widely distributed in East Asian, with obvious difference in characteristic size among species. The phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid taxa based on the functionally important genes can help to understand the speciation and functional divergence of the Cyprinidae. The c-myc gene is an important gene regulating individual growth.In the present study, the sequence variations of the cyprinid c-myc gene and their phylogenetic significance were analyzed. The 41 complete sequences of the c-myc gene were obtained from cyprinids and outgroups through PCR amplification and clone. The coding DNA sequences of the c-myc gene were used to infer molecular phylogenetic relationships within the Cyprinidae. Myxocyprinus asiaticus (Catostomidae), Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Cobitidae) and Hemimyzon sinensis (Homalopteridae)were assigned to the outgroup taxa. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian retrieved similar topology. Within the Cyprinidae, Leuciscini and Barbini formed the monophyletic lineage respectively with high nodal supports. Leuciscini comprises Xenocyprinae, Cultrinae, East Asian species of Leuciscinae and Danioninae, Gobioninae and Acheilognathinae, and Barbini contains Schizothoracinae, Barbinae, Cyprininae and Labeoninae. Danio rerio, D.myersi and Rasbora trilineata were supposed to separate from Leuciscinae and Barbini and to form another lineage. The positions of some Danioninae species were still unresolved. Analyses of both amino acid variation with parsimony information and two high variation regions indicated that there is no correlation between variations of single amino acid or high variation regions and characteristic size of cyprinids. In addition, the species with smaller size were usually found to be basal within clades in the tree, which might be the results of the adaptation to the primitive ecology and survival pressure.

  6. Pseudolimia n. gen., a new monotypic genus for Limia heterandria Regan, 1913 (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeser, Fred N.

    2002-01-01

    A new genus, Pseudolimia n. gen. is established for the South American Limia heterandria Regan, 1913. It is compared in an anatomical analysis with several nominal taxa of the tribe Poeciliini. Based on number and shape of the gonapophyses, Pseudolimia n. gen. is assigned to the tribe Poeciliini.

  7. Chromosomal Diversification Higher Than Molecular Variation in Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavalco, Karine Frehner; Pazza, Rubens; Brandão, Karina de Oliveira; Garcia, Caroline; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; de Almeida-Toledo, Lurdes Foresti

    2016-08-01

    Comprising a large number of species, the genus Astyanax has been intensively studied by several approaches to elucidate its evolutionary relationships. Such studies have demonstrated that many nominal species are artificial clusters where distinct taxa are grouped under the same denomination. Astyanax aff. fasciatus stands out due to its high karyotypic diversity, since cytogenetic studies have reported three standard cytotypes (2n = 46, 48, and 50), as well as cases of sympatry between cytotypes, variant cytotypes, and B chromosomes. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the reliability of the chromosomal differences in relation to the analysis of the ATPase6/8 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence, thereby providing subsidies to the evolutionary reconstruction of this group. Nine populations from four distinct hydrographic basins along Southeastern Brazil were analyzed. These are the first cytogenetic data collected for four of them. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with 5S rDNA probe evidenced the presence of a standard phenotype for the group and the existence of a new arrangement in the individuals from Ribeira de Iguape River. Besides the karyotypic variation, the genetic distance was low among the studied populations and some aspects of the evolutionary relationships among distinct cytotypes/populations could be ascertained by phylogeographic studies. The incipient molecular structuring of certain cytotypes in different hydrographic basins indicates the role of different evolutionary processes on the diversification of the group. PMID:27148810

  8. Cytogenetic analysis of five species of the subfamily Corydoradinae (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Callichthyidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Kioko Shimabukuro-Dias

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, five callichthyid species belonging to the subfamily Corydoradinae were karyotyped: three species of Aspidoras and two of Corydoras. The three species of Aspidoras had the same diploid number, 2n = 46 chromosomes, similar karyotypic formulae, with most chromosomes metacentric or submetacentric, single interstitial Ag-NORs and C-band positive segments mainly found in the centromeric position. The comparative analysis of cytogenetic data available for the genus Aspidoras and other species of Corydoradinae suggest that several events of centric fusion occurred in the origin of the species of Aspidoras. The two analyzed species of Corydoras showed high diploid numbers, 2n = 74 in C. sodalis and 2n = 90 in C. britskii. While C. sodalis exhibited single Ag-NORs and terminal, interstitial and centromeric C-band positive segments in almost all chromosomes, C. britskii showed multiple Ag-NORs and a small number of C-band positive segments found in the terminal position in one acrocentric (A pair and in the interstitial position in one subtelocentric (ST pair. The occurrence of high diploid numbers and many ST and A chromosomes are uncommon among the Corydoradinae, suggesting the occurrence of a high number of chromosome rearrangements, mainly centric fissions, in the origin of the Corydoras species studied.

  9. Repetitive DNA Sequences and Evolution of ZZ/ZW Sex Chromosomes in Characidium (Teleostei: Characiformes.

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    Priscilla Cardim Scacchetti

    Full Text Available Characidium constitutes an interesting model for cytogenetic studies, since a large degree of karyotype variation has been detected in this group, like the presence/absence of sex and supernumerary chromosomes and variable distribution of repetitive sequences in different species/populations. In this study, we performed a comparative cytogenetic analysis in 13 Characidium species collected at different South American river basins in order to investigate the karyotype diversification in this group. Chromosome analyses involved the karyotype characterization, cytogenetic mapping of repetitive DNA sequences and cross-species chromosome painting using a W-specific probe obtained in a previous study from Characidium gomesi. Our results evidenced a conserved diploid chromosome number of 2n = 50, and almost all the species exhibited homeologous ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in different stages of differentiation, except C. cf. zebra, C. tenue, C. xavante and C. stigmosum. Notably, some ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes showed 5S and/or 18S rDNA clusters, while no U2 snDNA sites could be detected in the sex chromosomes, being restricted to a single chromosome pair in almost all the analyzed species. In addition, the species Characidium sp. aff. C. vidali showed B chromosomes with an inter-individual variation of 1 to 4 supernumerary chromosomes per cell. Notably, these B chromosomes share sequences with the W-specific probe, providing insights about their origin. Results presented here further confirm the extensive karyotype diversity within Characidium in contrast with a conserved diploid chromosome number. Such chromosome differences seem to constitute a significant reproductive barrier, since several sympatric Characidium species had been described during the last few years and no interespecific hybrids were found.

  10. Reproductive biology of a population of Gymnotus aff.carapo (Teleostei: Gymnotidae from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego de Paula Cognato

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive period and its relation with somatic and abiotic factors, the relative and absolute fecundity, spawning type, length of first maturation and sex ratio is describe for Gymnotus aff.carapo from a small lake at Itapuã State Park, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Gymnotus aff. carapo presents a relatively long reproductive cycle extending from November/2003 to March/2004. Decreases in water conductivity and increases in dissolved oxygen are correlated with increased gonadal development in males. In females, seasonal increases in temperature and photoperiod and decreases in dissolved oxygen are correlated with increased gonadal development. The mean absolute fecundity was 915.3 oocytes, and mean relative fecundity 0.20 oocytes/mg body weight. Egg size distributions indicate multiple spawning. The size of first maturation was 141 mm in females and 146 mm in males. The sex ratio was 1:1, with a male bias only in smaller size classes.São descritos o período reprodutivo e a relação deste com fatores bióticos e abióticos, a fecundidade absoluta e relativa, o tipo de desova, comprimento de primeira maturação e proporção sexual de Gymnotus aff. carapo de um pequeno lago no Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A espécie apresentou um período reprodutivo relativamente longo, de novembro de 2003 até março de 2004. Houve correlação significativamente positiva entre o IGS dos machos e o oxigênio dissolvido e negativa em relação à condutividade. O IGS das fêmeas se correlacionou positivamente com a temperatura e fotoperíodo, e negativamente com o oxigênio dissolvido. A fecundidade absoluta média foi de 915,3 ovócitos e a fecundidade relativa média foi de 0,20 ovócitos por miligrama de peso da fêmea. A desova foi considerada parcelada e o tamanho de primeira maturação gonadal foi de 141 mm para fêmeas e 146 mm para machos. A proporção sexual no período amostrado foi de 1:1, sendo que somente na menor classe de comprimento houve maior abundância dos machos.

  11. Reproductive characteristics of characid fish species (Teleostei, Characiformes and their relationship with body size and phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Azevedo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I investigated the reproductive biology of fish species from the family Characidae of the order Characiformes. I also investigated the relationship between reproductive biology and body weight and interpreted this relationship in a phylogenetic context. The results of the present study contribute to the understanding of the evolution of the reproductive strategies present in the species of this family. Most larger characid species and other characiforms exhibit a reproductive pattern that is generally characterized by a short seasonal reproductive period that lasts one to three months, between September and April. This is accompanied by total spawning, an extremely high fecundity, and, in many species, a reproductive migration. Many species with lower fecundity exhibit some form of parental care. Although reduction in body size may represent an adaptive advantage, it may also require evolutionary responses to new biological problems that arise. In terms of reproduction, smaller species have a tendency to reduce the number of oocytes that they produce. Many small characids have a reproductive pattern similar to that of larger characiforms. On the other hand they may also exhibit a range of modifications that possibly relate to the decrease in body size and the consequent reduction in fecundity. Examples of changes in the general reproductive pattern include the following: reduction in the size of mature oocytes; increase in fecundity; production of several batches of oocytes; an extended reproductive period or even continuous reproduction that allows individuals to reproduce more than once a year; high growth rates; rapid recruitment of juveniles; presence of more than one reproductive cohort that increases the sexually active population; and multiple independent development of insemination as a reproductive strategy. These changes are possibly associated with adaptive pressures that are related to the reduction in body size. In addition, such reproductive characteristics or novelties may reflect the phylogenetic history of a given species.

  12. Juvenile Thalassoma amblycephalum Bleeker (Labridae, Teleostei) dwelling among the tentacles of sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedlund, Michael; Iwao, Kenji; Brolund, Thea Marie;

    2006-01-01

    each) of the juvenile wrasse Thalassoma amblycephalum dwelling among the tentacles of the two sea anemones Entacmaea quadricolor (clonal type), and Heteractis magnifica at a coral reef in southern Japan during 16 months in daylight hours. There are only two past records of this facultative association......, one from east Africa and one from Indonesia. The wrasse remained close to and was occasionally in physical contact with the host when foraging amongst the tentacles. When frightened, they took shelter among corals, away from the host anemone. The wrasse co-existed with the anemonefishes Amphiprion...

  13. Skin toxins in coral-associated Gobiodon species (Teleostei: Gobiidae) affect predator preference and prey survival

    OpenAIRE

    Gratzer, Barbara; Millesi, Eva; Walzl, Manfred; Herler, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Predation risk is high for the many small coral reef fishes, requiring successful sheltering or other predator defence mechanisms. Coral-dwelling gobies of the genus Gobiodon live in close association with scleractinian corals of the genus Acropora. Earlier studies indicated that the low movement frequency of adult fishes and the development of skin toxins (crinotoxicity) are predation avoidance mechanisms. Although past experiments showed that predators refuse food prepared with goby skin mu...

  14. Ontogenia y sistemática filogenética de la familia Gerreidae (Teleostei: Percoidei) /

    OpenAIRE

    Ortíz Galindo, José Luis sustentante.

    2009-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Ciencias Biológicas, presenta José Luis Ortíz Galindo ; asesor José Luis Castro Aguirre, Víctor Hugo Reynoso Rosales. xii, 139 páginas : ilustraciones. Doctorado en Ciencias Biológicas UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, 2009

  15. Spermatozoon ultrastructure of Gyliauchen sp. (Digenea: Gyliauchenidae), an intestinal parasite of Siganus fuscescens (Pisces: Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilichini, Y; Foata, J; Justine, J-L; Bray, R A; Marchand, B

    2011-10-01

    The ultrastructure of the mature spermatozoon of Gyliauchen sp., a parasite of the dusky rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens, was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The spermatozoon possesses two axonemes of the 9+"1" pattern of Trepaxonemata, four attachment zones, one mitochondrion, a nucleus, cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, and spine-like bodies. The main characteristics of this spermatozoon are the presence of one mitochondrion, spine-like bodies not associated with the external ornamentation, and a posterior extremity of type 3 that is characterized by the following sequence: posterior extremity of the nucleus then posterior extremity of the second axoneme. Numerous other ultrastructural features are also discussed and compared to the digenean spermatology literature. This is the first study of a member of the Gyliauchenidae and the fourth within the Lepocreadioidea. The results show that many ultrastructural characters are variable within this superfamily and could be useful for phylogeny.

  16. Feeding ecology of Lutjanus analis (Teleostei: Lutjanidae from Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Oliveira Freitas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Diet and feeding ecology of the mutton snapper Lutjanus analis were investigated in the Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil, the largest and richest coral reefs in the South Atlantic, where about 270 species of reef and shore fishes occur. To evaluate seasonal and ontogenetic shifts in the diet, specimens of L. analis were obtained through a fish monitoring program in four cities in southern Bahia State, from June 2005 to March 2007. Stomachs from 85 mutton snappers that ranged in size from 18.1 to 74.0 cm TL were examined. Prey were identified to the lowest possible taxon and assessed by the frequency of occurrence and volumetric methods. Variations in volume prey consumption were evaluated using non-metric multi-dimensional scaling ordination, analysis of similarity, and similarity percentage methods. Significant differences in diet composition among size classes were registered, whereas non significant differences between seasons were observed. Considering size-classes, food items consumption showed important variations: juveniles (50.1 cm TL consumed basically fish, mostly Anguiliformes. Lutjanus analis is an important generalist reef predator, with a broad array of food resources and ontogenetic changes in the diet. This snapper species plays an important role on the trophic ecology of the Abrolhos Bank coral reefs.Foram avaliadas a dieta e a ecologia alimentar da cioba Lutjanus analis no Banco dos Abrolhos, Leste do Brasil. O Banco dos Abrolhos abrange os maiores e mais diversos recifes de corais do Atlântico Sul, onde cerca de 270 espécies de peixes recifais e costeiros ocorrem. Para a avaliação das variações sazonais e ontogênicas na dieta, exemplares de L. analis foram obtidos através de um programa de monitoramento em quatro cidades do extremo sul da Bahia, entre junho de 2005 e março de 2007. Estômagos de 85 exemplares com comprimento total variando entre 18,1 e 74,0 cm foram examinados. Os itens alimentares foram identificados até o menor nível taxonômico possível e avaliados através dos métodos de frequência de ocorrência e volumétrico. Variações no consumo das presas foram avaliadas através do método de escalonamento multidimensional não-métrico e métodos de análise de similaridade e percentagem de similaridade. Diferenças significativas na dieta foram observadas entre as classes de tamanho, porém estas não foram detectadas entre as estações do ano. Considerando as classes de tamanho, os itens consumidos apresentaram importantes variações: os juvenis (50,1 cm CT consumiram basicamente peixes, principalmente Anguiliformes. Lutjanus analis é um importante predador recifal generalista, que consome um amplo espectro de presas, apresentando mudanças ontogênicas na dieta. Esse lutjanídeo desempenha um importante papel na ecologia trófica dos recifes de corais do Banco dos Abrolhos.

  17. Channa aurantipectoralis, a new species of snakehead from Mizoram, north-eastern India (Teleostei: Channidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalhlimpuia, Denis Van; Lalronunga, Samuel; Lalramliana, Lalramliana

    2016-08-04

    Channa aurantipectoralis, a new species of snakehead of the C. gachua species group, is described from Karnaphuli drainage of Mizoram, India. The species is immediately distinguished from all other snakehead species by its unique coloration in life, specifically its brightly-coloured orange pectoral fins, which lack any spots or stripes; and by the presence of a dark V-shaped blotch on the dorsal surface of the head. It can be further distinguished from all other species of the genus by the combination of the following characters: presence of pelvic fins, a large scale on the ventral surface of the lower jaw, 51-64 lateral-line scales, 34-37 dorsal-fin rays, 23-25 anal-fin rays, 13-14 pectoral-fin rays, 5½-6½ /1/ 7½-8½ transverse scale rows, and the absence of scales on the gular region.

  18. Channa andrao, a new species of dwarf snakehead from West Bengal, India (Teleostei: Channidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britz, Ralf

    2013-10-30

    Channa andrao, new species, from Lefraguri swamp, West Bengal, India, differs from all its congeners except, C. asiatica, C. bleheri and C. burmanica and the recently described C. hoaluensis and C. ninhbinhensis by the absence of pelvic fins. It can be distinguished from all other pelvic fin-less species of snakeheads by its colour pattern, and differs further in its number of vertebrae, dorsal- and anal-fin rays, and lateral-line scales from individual snakehead species in this complex. Channa andrao raises the number of snakehead species endemic to the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot to ten, representing almost one third of the known species in the genus.

  19. Insight into the origin of endemic Mediterranean ichthyofauna: phylogeography of Chondrostoma genus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, J-D; Bianco, P G; Laroche, J; Gilles, A

    2003-01-01

    The Chondrostoma genus is widespread in Europe, with numerous endemic species in northern Mediterranean rivers. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of this genus, using the whole cytochrome b sequence and compared the two freshwater fish dispersion hypotheses: (1) dispersion around the Mediterranean Sea during the Lago Mare phase of the Messinian salinity crisis (Bianco's hypothesis) and (2) an older and more gradual colonization of the Mediterranean rivers (Banarescu's hypothesis). All phylogenetic analyses identified two levels of divergences, implying two radiation events in the Chondrostoma genus. The first radiation mainly concerned Mediterranean species, whereas the second one includes Danubian and Mesopotamian species. This phylogeographic pattern was already observed for the genus Squalius, which exhibits a similar geographic range distribution in Europe and probably is shared with several other Mediterranean genera, such as Scardinius, Rutilus, and TELESTES: Furthermore, assuming a molecular clock of 1% per million years, the first radiation appears consistent with a Messinian dispersion during the Lago Mare, 5.3 million years ago, whereas the second one may correspond to a Mesopotamian dispersion through the Black Sea to the Danube system. According to our results, the Lago Mare theory is strengthened, and a more recent and pre-Pleistocene colonization of the Danube from Mesopotamian freshwater fishes is suggested. PMID:12920103

  20. Paleoclimatic history and vicariant speciation in the "sand goby" group (Gobiidae, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyse, Tine; Houdt, Jeroen Van; Volckaert, Filip A M

    2004-07-01

    Vicariant and climatic cycling speciation hypotheses of the 'sand gobies' belonging to the genera Pomatoschistus, Gobiusculus, Knipowitschia, and Economidichthys are tested using molecular phylogenies constructed of nuclear DNA (ITS1 locus) and mitochondrial DNA (12S and 16S fragments). These gobies are among the most abundant in the Eastern Atlantic-Mediterranean region, and play an important role in the ecosystem. Considerable ITS1 length differences, primarily due to the presence of several tandem repeats, were found between species and even within individuals. Therefore, phylogenetic analyses focused on fragments of the 12S and 16S mtDNA region that have been sequenced for 16 goby taxa. The 'sand gobies' clustered as a monophyletic group as proposed on morphological grounds. However, G. flavescens, E. pygmaeus, and K. punctatissima clustered within the Pomatoschistus species, pointing to a paraphyletic origin of these genera. Furthermore, the genetic divergence between P. minutus from the Adriatic Sea versus the Atlantic-Mediterranean region was as high as the divergence within the P. minutus complex, suggesting that P. minutus from the Adriatic Sea should be considered as a distinct species. The "star" phylogeny might suggest that these gobies evolved in a very short time period, possibly linked to the drastic alterations in the Mediterranean Sea during and immediately after the Messinian salinity crisis at the end of the Miocene. The freshwater life-style appeared monophyletic; equating its origin with the salinity crisis resulted in a molecular clock estimate of 1.4% divergence per million years. The last common ancestor probably occupied sandy bottoms and a coastal niche while several species subsequently adapted to new habitats (pelagic, freshwater or stenohaline). The origin of the shallowest clades dated back to the glacial cycling during the Pleistocene epoch. PMID:15186817

  1. Morphometric studies of genus Placocheilus (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) from Red River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Li, Min-Hui; Wang, Chun-Ping; Qi, Mi

    2015-11-18

    It is practically difficult to differentiate Placocheilus robustus and Placocheilus caudofasciatus from Red River drainage of China. Without stated reasons, P. robustus has been assumed as the synonyms of P. caudofasciatus. The present study aims to decipher the morphological differences between two species so as to provide reliable clues for their classification by multivariate morphometry. A total of 72 specimens of two species in genus Placocheilus were examined. Besides morphological character comparisons, 10 anatomic landmarks were utilized and 23 frame structures and 15 general characters measured. The scatter plot results of principal component analysis showed that all specimens were clustered together and could not be defined as two distinct species. No significant morphological differences existed in four diagnostic characters between P. robustus and P. caudofasciatus. Thus the results of the present study fail to support P. robustus as a valid and independent species.

  2. Description of a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in Thoracocharax cf. stellatus (Teleostei, Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Margarida Lima

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The family Gasteropelecidae is composed of three genera and eight species. This study shows that Thoracocharax cf. stellatus has 2n = 52 chromosomes for both sexes. The five males studied showed 8 metacentric, 16 submetacentric, 4 subtelocentric, and 24 acrocentric chromosomes; the seven females showed only one submetacentric chromosome, belonging to pair 11, and one extra acrocentric chromosome, smaller than all the other chromosomes, characterizing the presence of a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in this species. Nucleolus organizing regions (NORs were detected on the short arms of the subtelocentric chromosome pair 13. Constitutive heterochromatin was identified at pericentromeric and terminal positions in almost all chromosomes. The W chromosome was almost entirely heterochromatic, except for a small terminal euchromatic segment. The analyses of the amount of nuclear DNA found 2.18 ± 0.09 pg of DNA per diploid nucleus, without significant differences between sexes. A discussion about the evolution of the sex chromosomes in this group is presented.

  3. A new Eocene catostomid (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) from northeastern China and early divergence of Catostomidae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG; Mee-mann

    2009-01-01

    A new Eocene catostomid genus and species,Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae, is described from Huadian, Jilin Province, northeastern China. The materials include a nearly complete skeleton, dozens of pharyngeal bones with teeth, and a number of disarticulated bones. The new articulated specimen is large-sized and deep-bodied, with an estimated standard length of ca. 300 mm and body depth of 156 mm or about half of its standard length. The assignment of the fish to the Catostomidae is based on its falciform pharyngeal bone with one row of numerous (more than 50) compressed teeth, and the bone is much smaller than in cyprinids, especially given the size of the fish. The new fish distinguishes itself from all known catostomids (both extinct and extant) in its long anal fin with four unbranched and 17-18 branched rays, and its extremely short caudal peduncle that is only about one fourth of its depth. Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae resembles the Eocene-Oligocene transpacific-distributed Amyzon in many general skeletal characters. However, it shows a few characters uniquely shared with the Recent catostomid Myxocyprinus asiaticus. Those include a very long dorsal fin with about 50 branched fin rays, the end of dorsal fin rays being close to the caudal fin base, and anal rays stretching posteriorly beyond the base of caudal fin. It is the first fossil catostomid that shows a close relationship to the endemic Myxocyprinus now living in the Yangtze River and Minjiang River, China. The discovery of Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae, along with two previously described possible catostomid genera Jianghanichthys and Vasnetzovia, may indicate that the divergence of the Catostomidae started much earlier, in the middle Eocene or earlier, on the western side of the Pacific than on its eastern side.

  4. A new Eocene catostomid (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) from northeastern China and early divergence of Catostomidae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Juan; CHANG Meemann

    2009-01-01

    A new Eocene catostomid genus and species, Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae, is described from Huadian, Jilin Province, northeastern China. The materials include a nearly complete skeleton, dozens of pharyngeal bones with teeth, and a number of disarticulated bones. The new articulated specimen is large-sized and deep-bodied, with an estimated standard length of ca. 300 mm and body depth of 156 mm or about half of its standard length. The assignment of the fish to the Catostomidae is based on its falciform pharyngeal bone with one row of numerous (more than 50) compressed teeth, and the bone is much smaller than in cyprinids, especially given the size of the fish. The new fish distinguishes itself from all known catostomids (both extinct and extant) in its long anal fin with four unbranched and 17-18 branched rays, and its extremely short caudal peduncle that is only about one fourth of its depth. Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae resembles the Eocene-Oligocene transpacific-distributed Amyzon in many general skeletal characters. However, it shows a few characters uniquely shared with the Recent catostomid Myxocyprinus asiaticus. Those include a very long dorsal fin with about 50 branched fin rays, the end of dorsal fin rays being close to the caudal fin base, and anal rays stretching posteriorly beyond the base of caudal fin. It is the first fossil catostomid that shows a close relationship to the endemic Myxocyprinus now living in the Yangtze River and Minjiang River, China. The discovery of Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae, along with two previously described possible catostomid genera Jianghanichthys and Vasnetzovia, may indicate that the divergence of the Catostomidae started much earlier, in the middle Eocene or earlier, on the western side of the Pacific than on its eastern side.

  5. Biological performance of Asian catfish (Clarias batrachus (Teleostei, Clariidae cultured in recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Fadhil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the biological performance of Asian catfish in RAS by using4 tanks (3 culture tanks and 1 sedimentation tank measuring 2 m x 1 m x 0.60 m with a volume of 900liters and bio-filter as water purification unit. The numbers of catfish cultured in each tank were as manyas 300 fish i each tank, with a size of 5-8 cm (Tank 1, 8-12 cm (Tank 2 and 12-15 cm (Tank 3,respectively. This study was conducted for 30 days (August-September 2010 by considering the waterquality during experiment, indicates that the RAS are able to provide proper conditions for growth andsurvival of catfish with a survival rate more than 92% on all tank experiments with specific growth ratefrom 0.64 to 0.89% per day and feed conversion rate of about 0.18-0.27. The existence of the impuritiesfrom the fish waste directly influences water quality, but the decline of water quality still at a decent levelfor the culture of catfish. The ANOVA test to the biological performance and water quality showed thatthe difference in the size of fish in each tank has no significant influence between each other.

  6. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of Scomber (Teleostei: Scombridae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jiao; GAO Tianxiang; MIAO Zhenqing; YANAGIMOTO Takashi

    2011-01-01

    A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the genus Scomber was conducted based on mitochondrial (COI, Cyt b and control region) and nuclear (5S rDNA) DNA sequence data in multigene perspective. A variety of phylogenetic analytic methods were used to clarify the current taxonomic classification and to assess phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history of this genus. The present study produced a well-resolved phylogeny that strongly supported the monophyly of Scomber. We confirmed that S. japonicus and S. colias were genetically distinct. Although morphologically and ecologically similar to S. colias, the molecular data showed that S. japonicus has a greater molecular affinity with S. australasicus, which conflicts with the traditional taxonomy. This phyiogenetic pattern was corroborated by the mtDNA data, but incompletely by the nuclear DNA data. Phylogenetic concordance between the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA regions for the basal nodes supports an Atlantic origin for Scomber. The present-day geographic ranges of the species were compared with the resultant molecular phylogeny derived from partition Bayesian analyses of the combined data sets to evaluate possible dispersal routes of the genus. The present-day geographic distribution of Scomber species might be best ascribed to multiple dispersal events. In addition, our results suggest that phylogenies derived from multiple genes and long sequences exhibited improved phylogenetic resolution, from which we conclude that the phylogenetic reconstruction is a reliable representation of the evolutionary history of Scomber.

  7. Osteology of Priocharax and remarkable developmental truncation in a miniature Amazonian fish (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, George M T; Britz, Ralf; Toledo-Piza, Mônica

    2016-01-01

    Establishing phylogenetic relationships of miniature fishes is challenging in taxa with developmental truncation. Within the Characiformes, developmental truncation appears to be relatively rare, with the Neotropical genus Priocharax being an example. Priocharax includes three miniature species among the smallest of the order and has been hypothesized to belong to the Heterocharacinae. The pronounced reduction in its skeleton, however, prevented a clearer evaluation of its relationships. The present detailed osteological study was designed to address this question and revealed that 21 bones are absent and nine other skeletal structures are simplified in Priocharax when compared to other characids. Comparison of the skeleton of adult Priocharax with early developmental stages of other characids demonstrated that most of the absences and simplifications can be interpreted as developmental truncations. The most striking developmental truncations are in the pectoral girdle, in which the endoskeleton remains entirely cartilaginous. Other interesting truncations are in the ethmoid region of the skull, infraorbital series, and Weberian apparatus, in which the claustrum is absent. Our study also revealed some unusual sexual dimorphisms in the pelvic girdle. Two cladistic analyses were performed to assess the relationships of Priocharax within the Heterocharacinae. The first consisted of a traditional analysis in which all absences and reductions of Priocharax were coded in the same way as in the remaining taxa. This resulted in three equally most parsimonious topologies, all of which have Priocharax as the most basal taxon of the Heterocharacinae. The second analysis incorporated ontogenetic information, and most absences and reductions of Priocharax were reinterpreted as apomorphic conditions and thus, coded differently from similar conditions in outgroups. This resulted in a single phylogenetic hypothesis with Priocharax and Gnathocharax as sister groups based on seven synapomorphies. Our approach demonstrates the importance of developmental studies to better understand morphological evolution of miniaturized, truncated taxa, and to generate hypotheses of their relationships.

  8. Phylogeography and RAPD-PCR variation in Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794 (Pisces, Teleostei in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dergam Jorge A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Rio Doce basin of southeastern Brazil, the freshwater fish Hoplias malabaricus (trahira is a widespread predatory characin and one of the few resilient native fishes in a highly impacted lake system. In order to test for genetic differentiation in populations within this basin and for biogeographic relationships among populations of this species in other basins, a study was conducted using RAPD-PCR analysis of Rio Doce samples (N = 63 and phylogeographic analyses with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplotypes, including the Rio Grande and Macacu river basins. In the Rio Doce basin, the patterns of genetic similarity of RAPD-PCR markers (individual fingerprinting and Nei?s genetic distance suggest the existence of two genetically different groups, one composed of the lacustrine populations Carioca and Dom Helvécio, and the other of riverine and the remaining lacustrine populations. The differences in the RAPD-PCR patterns may be explained by the existence of sub-basins within this lacustrine system. A maximum parsimony tree of cytochrome b fragment (383 base pairs supports the view that trahiras of the Rio Doce share a complex biogeographic history with those of neighboring basins. The phylogeographic patterns may be explained by a common history of the watersheds of the Rio Doce, Paraíba do Sul, and Rio Grande basins, corroborating the hypothesis of a Plio-Pleistocene separation of these drainage systems, forming the Mantiqueira "divortium aquarium".

  9. Phylogeography and RAPD-PCR variation in Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794) (Pisces, Teleostei) in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dergam Jorge A.; Paiva Samuel R.; Schaeffer Carlos E.; Godinho Alexandre L.; Vieira Fabio

    2002-01-01

    In the Rio Doce basin of southeastern Brazil, the freshwater fish Hoplias malabaricus (trahira) is a widespread predatory characin and one of the few resilient native fishes in a highly impacted lake system. In order to test for genetic differentiation in populations within this basin and for biogeographic relationships among populations of this species in other basins, a study was conducted using RAPD-PCR analysis of Rio Doce samples (N = 63) and phylogeographic analyses with mitochondrial D...

  10. The biology of Solea bleekeri (Teleostei) in Lake St Lucia on the southeast coast of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, D. P.

    Several aspects of the biology of Solea bleekeri in Lake St Lucia were investigated, these included occurrence, distribution, reproduction and recruitment, food and feeding, size frequency distribution and the role of estuaries in the species' life cycle. Solea bleekeri was found to occur throughout the system in muddy turbid areas and was largely absent from the eastern shores of the lake where clear water sandy substrata occur. The preferred diet of the species was bivalve siphon tips of the species Solon cylindraceus, when these were in abundant supply. However, when numbers of large (length > 20 mm) specimens were not available then S. bleekeri fed on whatever prey was available in or near the substratum. Analysis of stomach contents under the latter conditions showed that food consumption reflected the composition of the benthos. Large numbers of S. bleekeri spend their entire post-larval and juvenile phases as well as the greater part of their adult life within estuaries. Evidence is presented to support the idea that S. bleekeri breeds in certain areas of the lake and that spawning takes place between September and November. The current data suggest that there may be two populations in St Lucia: one migrates from the system to spawn at sea during winter along with the other marine fish species which utilize estuaries as nursery areas, while the other population breeds within the system. Alternatively there may simply be a single population which normally breeds at sea, but which may breed within the system when conditions are suitable. Recruitment of S. bleekeri into the St Lucia estuarine system takes place from the muddy offshore marine banks and possibly from within the system as well. Solea bleekeri appears not to be totally dependent on estuaries for the completion of its life cycle. The advantages of utilizing these systems for their development relate to the shallow, calm, turbid food-rich areas which estuaries offer. The fact that breeding takes place within St Lucia means that adults and juveniles are present in varying numbers throughout the year.

  11. Nemachilichthys ruppelli (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae) and the proper correction of the German umlaut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullander, Sven

    2016-01-01

    In a re-description of the South Asian fish species Nemachilichthys ruppelli (Sykes, 1839a) Keskar et al. (2015) noticed-as also pointed out by Kottelat (2012)-that the original spelling of the species name was rupelli [actually: Rupelli, with regular font and capital R], but that information in Sykes (1839a: 162) showed clearly that the species was named for [Eduard] Rüppell with the explicit dedication "I have dedicated this beautiful little fish to Rüppell, who did me the favor to look over my drawings ..." Rüppell is also mentioned twice on page 159. Sykes's (1839a) paper was reprinted in Sykes (1839b) with exactly the same spelling, but there the species name appears in italics. A third publication by Sykes (1841), based on the same material, also uses the spelling Rupelli for the species, but does not mention Rüppell. PMID:27394900

  12. Corrigendum: Redescription of Nemachilichthys rueppelli, a senior synonym of N. shimogensis (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskar, Ashwini; Kumkar, Pradeep; Katwate, Unmesh; Ali, Anvar; Raghavan, Rajeev; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2016-01-01

    In Keskar et al. (2015) we emended the original name Cobitis rupelli Sykes, 1839, because Sykes (1839) specifically mentions that the species was named after Rüppell. The specific epithet 'rupelli', with a single 'p', is an incorrect original spelling and should be emended into 'ruppelli' as required by Article 32.5 (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1999). However, citing Art 32.5.2.1, we also suggested that because Sykes (1839) named the species after Rüppell, the umlaut 'ü' should be corrected to 'ue' and that the specific epithet should thus be 'rueppelli'. This is an error. Sykes (1839) did not use 'ü' in the original spelling of the species epithet rupelli: hence changing it to 'ue' is incorrect. Therefore, the correct spelling for the species should be 'Nemachilichthys ruppelli', a change that should be reflected in the title and in the rest of the text of Keskar et al. (2015). PMID:27394901

  13. Lake Tanganyika--a 'melting pot' of ancient and young cichlid lineages (Teleostei: Cichlidae?

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    Juliane D Weiss

    Full Text Available A long history of research focused on the East Africa cichlid radiations (EAR revealed discrepancies between mtDNA and nuclear phylogenies, suggesting that interspecific hybridisation may have been significant during the radiation of these fishes. The approximately 250 cichlid species of Lake Tanganyika have their roots in a monophyletic African cichlid assemblage, but controversies remain about the precise phylogenetic origin and placement of different lineages and consequently about L. Tanganyika colonization scenarios. 3312 AFLP loci and the mitochondrial ND2 gene were genotyped for 91 species representing almost all major lacustrine and riverine haplotilapiine east African cichlid lineages with a focus on L. Tanganyika endemics. Explicitly testing for the possibility of ancient hybridisation events, a comprehensive phylogenetic network hypothesis is proposed for the origin and diversification of L. Tanganyika cichlids. Inference of discordant phylogenetic signal strongly suggests that the genomes of two endemic L. Tanganyika tribes, Eretmodini and Tropheini, are composed of an ancient mixture of riverine and lacustrine lineages. For the first time a strong monophyly signal of all non-haplochromine mouthbrooding species endemic to L. Tanganyika ("ancient mouthbrooders" was detected. Further, in the genomes of early diverging L. Tanganyika endemics Trematocarini, Bathybatini, Hemibatini and Boulengerochromis genetic components of other lineages belonging to the East African Radiation appear to be present. In combination with recent palaeo-geological results showing that tectonic activity in the L. Tanganyika region resulted in highly dynamic and heterogeneous landscape evolution over the Neogene and Pleistocene, the novel phylogenetic data render a single lacustrine basin as the geographical cradle of the endemic L. Tanganyika cichlid lineages unlikely. Instead a scenario of a pre-rift origin of several independent L. Tanganyika precursor lineages which diversified in ancient rivers and precursor lakes and then amalgamated in the extant L. Tanganyika basin is put forward as an alternative: the 'melting pot Tanganyika' hypothesis.

  14. Multi-locus fossil-calibrated phylogeny of Atheriniformes (Teleostei, Ovalentaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Daniela; Hughes, Lily C; Unmack, Peter J; Bloom, Devin D; Piller, Kyle R; Ortí, Guillermo

    2015-05-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among families within the order Atheriniformes have been difficult to resolve on the basis of morphological evidence. Molecular studies so far have been fragmentary and based on a small number taxa and loci. In this study, we provide a new phylogenetic hypothesis based on sequence data collected for eight molecular markers for a representative sample of 103 atheriniform species, covering 2/3 of the genera in this order. The phylogeny is calibrated with six carefully chosen fossil taxa to provide an explicit timeframe for the diversification of this group. Our results support the subdivision of Atheriniformes into two suborders (Atherinopsoidei and Atherinoidei), the nesting of Notocheirinae within Atherinopsidae, and the monophyly of tribe Menidiini, among others. We propose taxonomic changes for Atherinopsoidei, but a few weakly supported nodes in our phylogeny suggests that further study is necessary to support a revised taxonomy of Atherinoidei. The time-calibrated phylogeny was used to infer ancestral habitat reconstructions to explain the current distribution of marine and freshwater taxa. Based on these results, the current distribution of Atheriniformes is likely due to widespread marine dispersal along the margins of continents, infrequent trans-oceanic dispersal, and repeated invasion of freshwater habitats. This conclusion is supported by post-Gondwanan divergence times among families within the order, and a high probability of a marine ancestral habitat. PMID:25769409

  15. Laimosemion leticia (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae), a new species from the upper Rio Amazonas, Southern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdesalici, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Laimosemion leticia is described from the Rio Tacana drainage, upper Rio Amazonas basin, Southern Colombia. The new species was found in a shallow swamp within a tropical rainforest in the vicinity of Leticia, capital of the department of Amazonas and southernmost municipality of Colombia. This miniature species is considered to be a member of the Owiyeye subgenus, which is diagnosed by a unique frontal squamation. Laimosemion leticia can be distinguished from all other species of the genus by the unique colour pattern on the unpaired fins. The new species appears related to L. jauaperi, L. uatuman and L. ubim due to the similar flank colour pattern in males, but is easy distinguished by coloration of the unpaired fins and morphological characters. PMID:27394304

  16. A further note on the identity of Barbus mussullah Sykes (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)  .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, J D Marcus; Rai, Ashwin; D'souza, Ronald K P

    2014-01-01

    Knight et al. (2013a) clarified the identity of Barbus mussullah Sykes, the type species of Hypselobarbus Bleeker, showing it to represent a lineage clearly distinct from Tor Gray (type species Tor hamiltonii Gray (= Cyprinus tor Hamilton)). They showed the two species to be distinguished by a suite of characters, with Hypselobarbus lacking the distinctive median fleshy lobe of the lower lip (present in T. tor), having the last simple ray of the dorsal fin weak (vs. strong, 'osseous'), gill rakers long and branched (vs. short and simple, unbranched) on first gill arch, and the proximal end of the fifth ceratobranchial hooked (vs. only slightly curved). Nevertheless, some subsequent authors (e.g., Ambili et al. 2014; Khare et al. 2014) have persisted in referring Barbus mussullah to Tor, in effect synonymyzing Hypselobarbus (in which 12 species are currently recognized) with Tor and thereby causing confusion with regard to the identities of these groups of fishes which, being large and relatively common cyprinids, are of significant economic importance.  PMID:24989742

  17. Hemiodus iratapuru, a new species of Hemiodontidae from the Rio Jari, Amazon Basin, Brazil (Teleostei, Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeani, F; Moreira, C R

    2013-04-01

    Hemiodus iratapuru, a new species of the Hemiodontidae from the Rio Iratapuru, a left bank tributary of the Rio Jari, Amazon Basin, Brazil, is described. The new species is diagnosed from other species of Hemiodus by modifications in the ectopterygoid, tooth form, scale counts, dorsal-fin form and colour pattern. The new species is proposed to be related to the Hemiodus quadrimaculatus species group.

  18. Female preference and filial cannibalism in Aidablennius sphynx (Teleostei, Blenniidae); A combined field and laboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraak, SBM

    1996-01-01

    In the fish Aidablennius sphynx, in which males continuously care for up to 7000 eggs throughout the breeding season, females prefer to mate with males that already guard eggs, The present study shows that this preference appears to be adaptive because the probability of eggs being cannibalized decr

  19. MATE CHOICE IN AIDABLENNIUS-SPHYNX (TELEOSTEI, BLENNIIDAE) - FEMALES PREFER NESTS CONTAINING MORE EGGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRAAK, SBM; VIDELER, JJ

    1991-01-01

    Criteria for female mate choice were investigated in a natural population of a Mediterranean blenny, Aidablennius sphynx. Removable test tubes in concrete blocks were offered as nests. Each tube was guarded by a male and females laid eggs in the tubes. Nests with larger broods received significantly

  20. A new jellynose, Ateleopus edentatus, from the western Pacific Ocean (Teleostei: Ateleopodiformes: Ateleopodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaga, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Ateleopus edentatus sp. nov. is described based on 12 specimens collected from the Kyushu-Palau Ridge in the western Pacific Ocean. It is distinguished from its three known congeners in completely lacking upper-jaw teeth. It is also distinguished from Ateleopus indicus by having 94-130 anal+caudal-fin rays vs. 76-82 in A. indicus, 11-13 gill rakers vs. 7-8, and 26-28+81-107=109-135 vertebrae vs. 22-24+75-80=97-103.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA variability to explore the relationship complexity of Schizothoracine (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Syed Mudasir; Bhat, Farooz Ahmad; Balkhi, Masood-Ul Hassan; Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Despite numerous studies on the taxonomy of a highly complex group of schizothoracine (snow trouts), with over five recognized species from Kashmir, India (Schizothorax niger, Schizothorax esocinus, Schizothorax plagiostomus, Schizothorax curvifrons and Schizothorax labiatus) based on traditional morphological data, the relationships between these species is poorly understood and the taxonomic validity is still under debate. To resolve the evolutionary relationships among these species, we sequenced mitochondrial fragments, including 16Sr RNA, Cytb and the D-loop. Separate analyses of 16S and Cytb showed intermixing of the species and 16S was found more conserved than Cytb. The D-loop was found highly variable and showed length variation between and within species. Length variation was observed in di-nucleotide (TA)n microsatellite repeats with a variable number of repeat units (n = 7-14) that did not show heteroplasmy. Central conserved sequence blocks (CSBs) in D-loop sequences were found comparable to other vertebrate species. All phylogenetic reconstructions recovered the focal taxa as a monophyletic clade within the schizothoracines. Analyses with combined mitochondrial data sets showed close genetic relationships of all the five species. In addition to a close relationship between S. niger and S. curvifrons, two distinct groupings of S. ecoscinus and S. plagiostomus were supported by all the analyses. This study gives an insight into molecular phylogeny of the species and improves our understanding of historical and taxonomic relationships derived from morphological and ecological studies.

  2. Molecular cytogenetic study of the European bitterling Rhodeus amarus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Acheilognathinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtiklis, Lech; Ocalewicz, Konrad; Wiechowska, Marzena; Boroń, Alicja; Hliwa, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    The European bitterlings (Rhodeus amarus) from the Eastern locations were cytogenetically examined by conventional and molecular techniques. All analyzed individuals presented invariably the same chromosomal constitution of 2n = 48, with 8 metacentrics + 20 submetacentrics + 20 subtelo-acrocentrics and C-banding positive heterochromatin at the pericentromeric regions in most of the chromosomes. Moreover, some of the chromosomes had short arms entirely built with heterochromatin. GC-rich Ag-NORs (nucleolus organizer regions) were located at the short arms of two submetacentric chromosomes, and the length polymorphism of these regions was found. Multiple location of 28S rDNA sequences with fluorescence in situ hybridization signals was observed on the long and/or short arms of three submetacentric chromosomes including NOR regions and short arms of three to five acrocentric chromosomes in the studied fish. 5S rDNA sites were found on the short arms of two subtelocentric chromosomes, and telomeric repeats were localized at the ends of all chromosomes. Provided results have expanded our knowledge concerning genetic characteristics of the European bitterlings that may be profitable in the conservation programs of this endangered species.

  3. Extensive spreading of interstitial telomeric sites on the chromosomes of Characidium (Teleostei, Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; da Costa-Silva, Guilherme José; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-06-01

    Characidium comprises several species of small freshwater fish that display conserved diploid chromosome numbers and karyotypic formulae. In this study, a comparative cytogenetic analysis using telomeric DNA probes was carried out in nine species of Characidium; a molecular phylogenetic analysis with mitochondrial DNA was also performed in order to investigate the direction of the evolutionary chromosome changes observed here. Our results showed the existence of species with several and variable interstitial telomeric sites (ITSs), with other species showing only terminal signals in their chromosomes. Molecular phylogenetic data suggested that these ITSs emerged once in the evolutionary history of Characidium and were later differentially spread in distinct species/populations of this clade. Additionally, the origin of an exclusive acrocentric pair found in C. pterostictum, C. serrano and C. timbuiense was also investigated, revealing that this pair possibly had a common origin to these species. These results evidence the occurrence of intense and continuous genomic changes among species of Characidium.

  4. Extracellular matrix remodeling of the testes through the male reproductive cycle in Teleostei fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Julio Cesar de Oliveira; Quagio-Grassiotto, Irani

    2014-12-01

    During the fish reproductive cycle, testes undergo morphological changes related to germinal epithelium and remodeling of extracellular matrix components (ECM). ECM is degraded mainly by action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Due to the natural renewal of ECM in fish testes, we choose Pimelodus maculatus to study remodeling of ECM throughout reproductive cycle, using picrosirius (to identify type I, II, III collagen) and reticulin (type III collagen), and to immunolocalize MT1-MMP (membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase) and MMP-2 in testis cells. Testes were classified in four reproductive phases: regenerating, development, spawning capable and regressing. Picrosirius and reticulin demonstrated a differential distribution of total collagen fibers during the reproductive cycle. Immunohistochemistry showed MT1-MMP only in acidophilic granulocyte cells mainly inside blood vessels, in connective tissue of capsule close to the germinal compartment, and also infiltrated in interstitial connective tissue. MMP-2 was detected in fibroblast and endothelial cells of interstitial and capsule blood vessels, in epithelial cells of capsule, and in acidophilic granulocyte cells at same description for MT1-MMP. The fish testes ECM were remodeled throughout reproductive cycle in according to morphophysiological alterations. During reproductive season (spawning capable), the interstitium increased in total collagen fibers (type I, II, III). After spermiation period (regression and regenerating), the amount of collagen fibers decreased in response to action of MMPs on collagen degradation and other interstitial components (not assessed in this study). MMPs seem to be indispensable components for natural cyclic events of ECM remodeling of fish testes and for guarantee tissue homeostasis throughout reproductive cycle. PMID:25142725

  5. New and previously described species of Dactylogyridae (Monogenoidea) from the gills of Panamanian freshwater fishes (Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Aguirre-Macedo, M Leopoldina; Vidal-Martínez, Victor M

    2007-08-01

    During an investigation of the diversity of metazoan parasites of 7 freshwater fish species from 3 localities in central Panama, the following gill dactylogyrid (Monogenoidea) species were found: Aphanoblastella chagresii n. sp. from Pimelodella chagresi (Heptapteridae); Aphanoblastella travassosi (Price, 1938) Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco, and Scholz, 2000 from Rhamdia quelen (Heptapteridae); Diaphorocleidus petrosusi n. sp. from Brycon petrosus (Characidae); Gussevia asota Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1989, from Astronotus ocellatus (Cichlidae); Sciadicleithrum panamensis n. sp. from Aequidens coeruleopunctatus (Cichlidae); Urocleidoides flegomai n. sp. from Piabucina panamensis (Lebiasinidae); and Urocleidoides similuncus n. sp. from Poecilia gillii (Poeciliidae). Consideration of the comparative morphology and distribution of these parasites along with the evolutionary history of the host fishes suggests that diversification may be associated with geotectonic events that provided isolation of the Central American fauna with the uplift of the Panamanian Isthmus during early Pliocene (3 mya). PMID:17918354

  6. Diversity of neotropical electric fish Microsternarchus (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes: Hypopomidae: an electrophysiological and geometric morphometric approach

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    Adília Nogueira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The South American hypopomid electric fish tribe Microsternarchini includes three small species from the Upper Orinoco and Negro rivers. These are placed in monotypic genera: Microsternarchus, Racenisia and Procerusternarchus. Recent collections from tributaries in Negro, Solimões and Amazonas Basins have revealed new specimens of Microsternarchus with significant variations in external morphology and in Electric Organ Discharge parameters (EOD. In order to estimate the diversity within the genus a previous molecular study was done using DNA barcoding, that suggested the presence of multiple Microsternarchus's lineages with high levels of genetic divergence between them. Here we try to determine if the variation in morphology and EOD parameters in the new specimens meet the genetic divergence found. To test the presence of differences in shape among the different lineages we performed a geometric morphometric analysis, which included a relative warp and multivariate analysis on distances between 14 anatomical landmarks defined on the basis of external morphology and homologous among the lineages. The EOD variations were also explored using multivariate analyses of 20 electrophysiological parameters calculated through an algorithm developed in Matlab. The results show that there are significant differences in body shape and EOD in three lineages of Microsternarchus, and the features that contributed most were related to the shape of the head, the coefficient of variation of the signal and the duration and area of the different phases of the pulse. The discrimination of the three lineages confirms the occurrence of new species in the group that are currently being described.

  7. Variations of body geometry in Brycon henni (Teleostei: Characiformes, Bryconidae) in different rivers and streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Escobar, N; Hurtado-Alarcón, J C; Mancera-Rodríguez, N J; Márquez, E J

    2016-07-01

    Landmark-based geometric morphometrics were used to evaluate the effect of flow and depth in the water column on the body size and shape of Brycon henni from river and stream populations. The dendrogram showed that stream populations clustered apart and showed significantly smaller centroid size and narrower bodies than river populations, indicating a role for flow and depth on whole body morphometric variation. The results are concordant with morphometric variation described in other fish species and provide the first insights into phenotypic variation in natural populations of B. henni. PMID:27117920

  8. The reproductive biology of the plata pompano, Trachinotus marginatus (Teleostei: Carangidae, in southern Brazil

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    Valéria M. Lemos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Plata pompano, Trachinotus marginatus (Cuvier, 1832, is an endemic carangid of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, occurring from Rio de Janeiro to Uruguay. This study describes the reproductive period, spawning type, the size at first gonadal maturation and the length-weight relationship of individuals sampled from landings of the artisanal and commercial fishing fleets in Rio Grande that operate along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil (~ 32ºS to the Uruguayan border (~ 34ºS. Monthly collections from September 2008 through January 2010 yielded 274 individuals ranging from 142 to 444 mm in total length (TL. The gonadal development stages were defined according to the histological examination of the ovaries and the testes. The relationship between TL (mm and total weight TW (g was statistically different between males (TW = 0.000463*TL2.7655 and females (TW = 0.000361*TL2.8131, showing negative allometric growth for both sexes. The sizes at first maturity were 187.2 mm and 254.9 mm for females and males, respectively. The presence of two modal groups of oocyte diameters suggested that total spawning occurred. The interpretation of the monthly variations of the condition factor and gonadosomatic index, which are associated with higher frequencies of the more advanced stages of gonadal development, identified the spring and summer months as the reproductive period, with a peak in the reproductive activity during November and January. These results suggested that the species has an opportunistic reproductive strategy.

  9. Local ecological knowledge on the goliath grouper epinephelus itajara (teleostei: serranidae in southern Brazil

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    Leopoldo Cavaleri Gerhardinger

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara is a large sized (> 400 kg and critically endangered marine fish, which is protected in many countries, including Brazil. Through the application of semi-structured interviews, we investigated the local ecological knowledge of seven fishermen specialist on catching E. itajara from the Babitonga bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Local long-line fisheries for E. itajara seemed to be a disappearing tradition in the studied site, with a detailed inherent local ecological knowledge system, which is also being lost. Our study also showed that fishermen engaged in recent fisheries, such as spear-fishing, can also possess a detailed local ecological knowledge system. Through the analysis of fishermen local ecological knowledge, several aspects of E. itajara life history were registered. This species is found in the inner and outer Babitonga bay, from saline waters to areas with a large input of freshwater, and inhabits submerged wooden substrates and artificial reefs such as shipwrecks, mooring pillars and cargo containers. It is known to spawn in December and subsequent summer months in the studied area. Spawning aggregations are usually seen in December (during full moon, being also eventually observed in January and February by our informants. While lobsters, spadefishes and octopuses seem to constitute the most important food items of inner bay E. itajara, outer bay individuals may feed on catfishes, crustaceans and other fish species. The goliath grouper is regarded as pacific and curious fish, but frequently display agonistic behavior in the presence of divers. Based on the perception of well experienced spear fishermen, we hypothesize that E. itajara undertakes seasonal migrations from the inner to the outer bay during summer, and that the studied population is suffering from growth over-fishing. Our data provides a practical evidence of how joining scientific and local ecological knowledge will likely benefit E. itajara local conservation and management practices by adding important new biological data into the decision-making process.O mero Epinephelus itajara é uma espécie de peixe marinho de grandes proporções (>400 kg e criticamente ameaçado, protegido em muitos países, incluindo o Brasil. Através da aplicação de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, investigamos o conhecimento ecológico local de pescadores de espinhel e pesca subaquática, especialistas na captura de E. itajara na baía Babitonga, Santa Catarina, Brasil. A pescaria de espinhel direcionada à E. itajara parece ser uma tradição em desaparecimento, com um detalhado sistema de conhecimento ecológico local que está também sendo perdido com o tempo. Nosso estudo mostra que pescadores envolvidos em pescarias recentes, como a pesca subaquática, podem também possuir detalhado sistema de conhecimento ecológico local. Através da análise e integração do conhecimento ecológico local dos informantes, diversos aspectos da história de vida de E. itajara foram registrados. Esta espécie é encontrada na porção interna e externa da baía Babitonga, em águas salinas e em água com grande aporte de água doce, habitando resquícios de troncos submersos e recifes artificiais como naufrágios, píers e containeres de carga. Epinephelus itajara é conhecido por reproduzir-se em dezembro e meses subseqüentes de verão na área de estudo. Agregações reprodutivas são usualmente observadas em dezembro (lua cheia, e eventualmente em janeiro e fevereiro. Enquanto lagostas, enxadas e polvos parecem constituir os itens alimentares mais importantes de E. itajara habitando o interior da baía, indivíduos de fora da baía Babitonga parecem alimentar-se de bagres, crustáceos e outras espécies de peixe. Os meros são considerados peixes curiosos e pacíficos, mas freqüentemente demonstram comportamento agonístico na presença de mergulhadores. Nós propomos a hipótese de que E. itajara realiza migrações sazonais do interior para o exterior da baía no verão, e que a população estudada está sofrendo de sobrepesca do crescimento. Nossos dados proporcionam evidências práticas de como a integração do conhecimento científico e tradicional pode beneficiar as práticas locais de conservação e manejo de E. itajara ao adicionar novas informações biológicas importantes no processo de tomada de decisão.

  10. Genetic population structure of sympatric and allopatric populations of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, Teleostei, Coregonidae

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    Nitz Barbara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teleost fishes of the Coregonidae are good model systems for studying postglacial evolution, adaptive radiation and ecological speciation. Of particular interest is whether the repeated occurrence of sympatric species pairs results from in-situ divergence from a single lineage or from multiple invasions of one or more different lineages. Here, we analysed the genetic structure of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, examining 271 individuals from 8 lakes in northern Germany using 1244 polymorphic AFLP loci. Six lakes had only one population of C. albula while the remaining two lakes had C. albula as well as a sympatric species (C. lucinensis or C. fontanae. Results AFLP demonstrated a significant population structure (Bayesian θB = 0.22. Lower differentiation between allopatric (θB = 0.028 than sympatric (0.063-0.083 populations contradicts the hypothesis of a sympatric origin of taxa, and there was little evidence for stocking or ongoing hybridization. Genome scans found only three loci that appeared to be under selection in both sympatric population pairs, suggesting a low probability of similar mechanisms of ecological segregation. However, removal of all non-neutral loci decreased the genetic distance between sympatric pairs, suggesting recent adaptive divergence at a few loci. Sympatric pairs in the two lakes were genetically distinct from the six other C. albula populations, suggesting introgression from another lineage may have influenced these two lakes. This was supported by an analysis of isolation-by-distance, where the drift-gene flow equilibrium observed among allopatric populations was disrupted when the sympatric pairs were included. Conclusions While the population genetic data alone can not unambiguously uncover the mode of speciation, our data indicate that multiple lineages may be responsible for the complex patterns typically observed in Coregonus. Relative differences within and among lakes raises the possibility that multiple lineages may be present in northern Germany, thus understanding the postglacial evolution and speciation in the C. albula complex requires a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of several potential founder lineages.

  11. L'alimentation de Brycinus leuciscus (Teleostei : Characidae) au Mali : aspects qualitatifs, quantitatifs et comportementaux

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazaï, M.A.; Bénech, Vincent; Paugy, Didier

    1991-01-01

    L'alimentation de #Brycinus leuciscus$ a été étudiée dans une mare alimentée par le fleuve Niger près de Bamako. Dans cet habitat, cette espèce possède un régime omnivore dans lequel la quantité de proies allochtones augmente en saison des pluies. Elle se nourrit surtout durant la photophase. Des observations en aquarium montrent que la détection des proies est essentiellement visuelle. Le rythme alimentaire nycthéméral semble modulé par la lunaison, la réplétion stomacale étant plus faible d...

  12. Discovering Hidden Diversity of Characins (Teleostei: Characiformes) in Ecuador’s Yasuní National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Camacho, Daniel; Barriga, Ramiro; Ron, Santiago R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Management and conservation of biodiversity requires adequate species inventories. The Yasuní National Park is one of the most diverse regions on Earth and recent studies of terrestrial vertebrates, based on genetic evidence, have shown high levels of cryptic and undescribed diversity. Few genetic studies have been carried out in freshwater fishes from western Amazonia. Thus, in contrast with terrestrial vertebrates, their content of cryptic diversity remains unknown. In this study, we carried out genetic and morphological analyses on characin fishes at Yasuní National Park, in eastern Ecuador. Our goal was to identify cryptic diversity among one of the most speciose fish families in the Amazon region. This is the first time that genetic evidence has been used to assess the species content of the Napo Basin, one of the richest regions in vertebrate diversity. Results Phylogenetic analyses of partial mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (∼600 pb) DNA sequences from 232 specimens of the family Characidae and its closest groups revealed eight candidate new species among 33 species sampled, representing a 24% increase in species number. Analyses of external morphology allowed us to confirm the species status of six of the candidate species. Conclusions Our results show high levels of cryptic diversity in Amazonian characins. If this group is representative of other Amazonian fish, our results would imply that the species richness of the Amazonian ichthyofauna is highly underestimated. Molecular methods are a necessary tool to obtain more realistic inventories of Neotropical freshwater fishes. PMID:26275041

  13. Diet of Astyanax species (Teleostei, Characidae in an Atlantic Forest River in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silveira Vilella

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of six species of Astyanax from river Maquiné are described. Fishes were sampled bi-monthly from November/95 to September/96 in two zones of the river. Items were identified, counted and had their abundance estimated according to a semi-quantitative scale. Frequency of occurrence, alimentary importance index (IFI values and a similarity analysis of diets for each species-river zone sample were examined. All the species were considered typically omnivorous, with insects and vegetal matter being the most important items in their diet. These species could act as seed dispersers, particularly for macrophytes. Intra-specific spatial differences were not observed in comparisons of samples from two diferent regions of the river, except for A. fasciatus. The presence of Podostemaceae macrophytes in the mid-course of the river seemed to be important both as an autochthonous food resource and as habitat for several organisms preyed by the Astyanax species.Seis espécies do gênero Astyanax, presentes no rio Maquiné, RS, foram estudadas quanto aos seus hábitos alimentares. Os exemplares foram amostrados bimensalmente de novembro de 1995 a setembro de 1996 nas zonas ritral e potamal do rio. Os itens alimentares foram identificados e quantificados de acordo com uma escala semi-quantitativa de abundância, utilizando-se para análise a frequência de ocorrência e um índice de importância alimentar para cada espécie e zona do rio. Análises multivariadas de agrupamento e ordenação foram utilizadas para comparar as dietas intra e interespecíficas. Todas as espécies foram consideradas onivoras, sendo que os itens mais importantes foram os insetos e restos de vegetais superiores. Sugere-se que as espécies estudadas possam atuar como dispersoras de sementes, particularmente para macrófitas. Diferenças espaciais intraespecíficas não foram encontradas, exceto para A. fasciatus. A presença de Podostemaceae no curso médio do rio parece ser uma fonte importante de alimento para as espécies, além de servir de refúgio para diversos organismos que são predados por Astyanax sp.

  14. Age and growth estimation of bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Teleostei: Scombridae in the southwestern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Duarte-Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to supply the first information on age and growth for Thunnus obesus caught in the equatorial south-western Atlantic using dorsal spines, an approach that has been successfully employed for ageing tuna species. The study was conducted using a multi-model inference based on information theory for back-calculated and observed length-at-age data. Uncertainty associated with the parameter estimation was verified and results were compared to other accounts on the species, considering both the statistical and methodological contexts. Samples were collected in Natal city (Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil from February 1999 to January 2000, of tuna vessels and from surveys, aimed at providing information on the Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ in the area around São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago. Validation using marginal increment indicated that one ring is deposited per year. Mean length-at-age ranged of 54.3 to 177.5 cm (fork length for ages 1 to 9 years. Von Bertalanffy, Richards, and Gompertz models were considered suitable for the bigeye tuna. Hence, the model-averaged asymptotic length ¯L∞ was estimated. The averaged model generated in the present study by back-calculation was considered appropriate for describing the growth of T. obesus.A proposta do presente estudo foi fornecer a primeira informação sobre idade e crescimento de Thunnus obesus, capturado no Atlântico sudoeste equatorial usando espinhos dorsais, uma abordagem que tem sido utilizada com sucesso na determinação de idade de espécies de atuns. O estudo foi conduzido usando uma inferência de multi-modelos baseada na teoria de informação avaliada para dados de comprimento por idade retrocalculados e observados. Incertezas associadas aos parâmetros foram verificadas e os resultados foram comparados aos de outros estudos realizados para esta espécie, considerando os contextos estatísticos e metodológicos. As amostras foram coletadas na cidade de Natal (estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil de fevereiro de 1999 a janeiro de 2000, provenientes de embarcações comerciais e também prospecções, cujo objetivo foi prover informações sobre a Zona Econômica Exclusiva (ZEE na área do entorno do Arquipélago de São Pedro e São Paulo. A validação usando incremento marginal indicou a deposição de um anel anual. Os comprimentos médios por idade variaram entre 54.3 a 175.7 cm (comprimento furcal para idades de 1 a 9 anos. Os modelos Von Bertalanffy, Richards e Gompertz foram considerados adequados para a albacora bandolim e, desta forma, o comprimento assintótico para um modelo médio (¯L∞ foi estimado. O modelo médio gerado no presente estudo a partir dos comprimentos retrocalculados foi considerado apropriado para descrever o crescimento de T. obesus capturada no Atlântico.

  15. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  16. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus(Teleostei)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏; 尤锋; 刘梦侠; 吴志昊; 文爱韵; 李军; 徐永立; 张培军

    2010-01-01

    Steroid sex hormones,such as estradiol-17β(E2)and testosterone(T),are important regulators of sex change in fish.In this study,we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay(RIA).Flounder larvae were divided into five groups(G0–G4),and fed with 0 (control),0.2,2,20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching(dph).Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not signific...

  17. Uncovering the Ancestry of B Chromosomes in Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Silva, Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Trifonov, Vladmir A.; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    B chromosomes constitute a heterogeneous mixture of genomic parasites that are sometimes derived intraspecifically from the standard genome of the host species, but result from interspecific hybridization in other cases. The mode of origin determines the DNA content, with the B chromosomes showing high similarity with the A genome in the first case, but presenting higher similarity with a different species in the second. The characid fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae harbours highly invasive B chromosomes, which are present in all populations analyzed to date in the Parana and Tietê rivers. To investigate the origin of these B chromosomes, we analyzed two natural populations: one carrying B chromosomes and the other lacking them, using a combination of molecular cytogenetic techniques, nucleotide sequence analysis and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq2000). Our results showed that i) B chromosomes have not yet reached the Paranapanema River basin; ii) B chromosomes are mitotically unstable; iii) there are two types of B chromosomes, the most frequent of which is lightly C-banded (similar to euchromatin in A chromosomes) (B1), while the other is darkly C-banded (heterochromatin-like) (B2); iv) the two B types contain the same tandem repeat DNA sequences (18S ribosomal DNA, H3 histone genes, MS3 and MS7 satellite DNA), with a higher content of 18S rDNA in the heterochromatic variant; v) all of these repetitive DNAs are present together only in the paracentromeric region of autosome pair no. 6, suggesting that the B chromosomes are derived from this A chromosome; vi) the two B chromosome variants show MS3 sequences that are highly divergent from each other and from the 0B genome, although the B2-derived sequences exhibit higher similarity with the 0B genome (this suggests an independent origin of the two B variants, with the less frequent, B2 type presumably being younger); and vii) the dN/dS ratio for the H3.2 histone gene is almost 4–6 times higher for B chromosomes than for A chromosome sequences, suggesting that purifying selection is relaxed for the DNA sequences located on the B chromosomes, presumably because they are mostly inactive. PMID:26934481

  18. Whole chromosome painting of B chromosomes of the red-eye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Patricia Elda Sobrinho; Diniz, Débora; Wasko, Adriane Pinto; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract B chromosomes are dispensable genomic elements found in different groups of animals and plants. In the present study, a whole chromosome probe was generated from a specific heterochromatic B chromosome occurring in cells of the characidae fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907). The chromosome painting probes were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments for the assessment of metaphase chromosomes obtained from individuals from three populations of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae. The results revealed that DNA sequences were shared between a specific B chromosome and many chromosomes of the A complement in all populations analyzed, suggesting a possible intra-specific origin of these B chromosomes. However, no hybridization signals were observed in other B chromosomes found in the same individuals, implying a possible independent origin of B chromosome variants in this species. FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes revealed the presence of non-active ribosomal genes in some B chromosomes and in some chromosomes of the A complement, suggesting that at least two types of B chromosomes had an independent origin. The role of heterochromatic segments and ribosomal sequences in the origin of B chromosomes were discussed. PMID:26753081

  19. Moments of induced spawning and embryonic development of Brycon amazonicus (Teleostei, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Neumann, Erika; Faustino, Francine; Mendes, José Mário Ribeiro; de Braga, Francisco Manoel

    2014-11-01

    Based on the economic and ecological relevance of Brycon amazonicus, the goal of this work was to describe the diameter of oocytes and eggs of this species, as well as the chronological embryonic development. The material was provided by Buriti fish farm, Nova Mutum - MT, Brazil. Samples of both oocytes and eggs were obtained from extrusion to hatching. The material was fixed and measured under stereomicroscope, and the samples were divided for light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. At extrusion, the oocytes were bluish green. The frequency distribution of oocytes revealed that 87.7% of them ranged from 1.11-1.30 mm in diameter. During incubation, the total diameter of the eggs increased from 1.22 ± 0.04 mm to 3.06 ± 0.46 mm in the first 60 min post fertilization (PF), and growth ceased at 180 min PF. Between 10-30 s PF, most eggs were fertilized and fertilization cones were observed from 10 s onwards after gamete activation. The main fertilization events took place asynchronically and spermatozoa were visualized in the micropyle vestibule up to 90 s PF. The first cell was formed in the centre of the blastodisc 20 min PF. The morula stage was identified 2 h PF and, 3 h later, 70% of the yolk was covered by the blastoderm; the blastopore was almost entirely closed at 6 h PF. The cephalic and caudal regions of the embryo could be defined 8 h PF and hatching occurred after 13 h of embryonic development. The larvae hatched with undifferentiated organic systems and with a large yolk sac, free from swimming abilities or visual acuity.

  20. Lake Tanganyika—A 'Melting Pot' of Ancient and Young Cichlid Lineages (Teleostei: Cichlidae)?

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Juliane D.; Cotterill, Fenton P. D.; Schliewen, Ulrich K

    2015-01-01

    A long history of research focused on the East Africa cichlid radiations (EAR) revealed discrepancies between mtDNA and nuclear phylogenies, suggesting that interspecific hybridisation may have been significant during the radiation of these fishes. The approximately 250 cichlid species of Lake Tanganyika have their roots in a monophyletic African cichlid assemblage, but controversies remain about the precise phylogenetic origin and placement of different lineages and consequently about L. Tan...

  1. Lake Tanganyika--a 'melting pot' of ancient and young cichlid lineages (Teleostei: Cichlidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Juliane D; Cotterill, Fenton P D; Schliewen, Ulrich K

    2015-01-01

    A long history of research focused on the East Africa cichlid radiations (EAR) revealed discrepancies between mtDNA and nuclear phylogenies, suggesting that interspecific hybridisation may have been significant during the radiation of these fishes. The approximately 250 cichlid species of Lake Tanganyika have their roots in a monophyletic African cichlid assemblage, but controversies remain about the precise phylogenetic origin and placement of different lineages and consequently about L. Tanganyika colonization scenarios. 3312 AFLP loci and the mitochondrial ND2 gene were genotyped for 91 species representing almost all major lacustrine and riverine haplotilapiine east African cichlid lineages with a focus on L. Tanganyika endemics. Explicitly testing for the possibility of ancient hybridisation events, a comprehensive phylogenetic network hypothesis is proposed for the origin and diversification of L. Tanganyika cichlids. Inference of discordant phylogenetic signal strongly suggests that the genomes of two endemic L. Tanganyika tribes, Eretmodini and Tropheini, are composed of an ancient mixture of riverine and lacustrine lineages. For the first time a strong monophyly signal of all non-haplochromine mouthbrooding species endemic to L. Tanganyika ("ancient mouthbrooders") was detected. Further, in the genomes of early diverging L. Tanganyika endemics Trematocarini, Bathybatini, Hemibatini and Boulengerochromis genetic components of other lineages belonging to the East African Radiation appear to be present. In combination with recent palaeo-geological results showing that tectonic activity in the L. Tanganyika region resulted in highly dynamic and heterogeneous landscape evolution over the Neogene and Pleistocene, the novel phylogenetic data render a single lacustrine basin as the geographical cradle of the endemic L. Tanganyika cichlid lineages unlikely. Instead a scenario of a pre-rift origin of several independent L. Tanganyika precursor lineages which diversified in ancient rivers and precursor lakes and then amalgamated in the extant L. Tanganyika basin is put forward as an alternative: the 'melting pot Tanganyika' hypothesis. PMID:25928886

  2. Comparative Osteology of the Suspensorial Complex of Algal-Feeding Cichlids (Pisces, Teleostei) from Lake Tanganyika

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaoka, Kosaku

    1988-01-01

    The comparative osteology of the suspensorial complex in 20 species of epilithic algal feeders from Lake Tanganyika was studied as a means of obtaining fundamental data for understanding the adaptive radiation in feeding habits of cichlid fishes in the East African lakes. Six types of suspensorial complex could be recognized within the 20 species studied. For the palatine, ectopterygoid, entopterygoid, metapterygoid, quadrate, symplectic, preoperculum and hyomandibula, 5, 2, 3, 3, 5, 2, 2 and...

  3. A revision of the genus Astatoreochromis (Teleostei, Cichlidae, East–Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Snoeks

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic revision of the cichlid genus Astatoreochromis is presented. Eighteen meristic and 23 morphometric measurements were taken on 185 individuals, including type specimens. While fin counts separate populations from the Lake Victoria region (Astatoreochromis alluaudi from those of the Rusizi and Malagarazi rivers in the Lake Tanganyika basin (A. vanderhorsti and A. straeleni respectively, clear differentiation was not detected between the latter two. Mann-Whitney U-tests on specimens of comparable size from the two Tanganyika populations revealed significant differences in specimens 75 mm SL and Astatoreochromis vanderhorsti is herein considered a junior synonym of A. straeleni. A redescription of the two valid species of Astatoreochromis, A. alluaudi and A.straeleni, is provided.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the rocky reef fish Cheilodactylus variegatus Valenciennes, 1833 (Teleostei: Cheilodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada-Romegialli, Claudio; Véliz, David; Docmac, Felipe; Harrod, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Cheilodactylus variegatus is a common benthivorous marine fish inhabiting in rocky subtidal habitats in the eastern south Pacific coast of Chile and Peru. However, its biology and ecology are relatively understudied and its taxonomic assignment has been debated recently. The complete mitochondrial genome was assembled de novo and mapped to a reference using 5.97 million of reads obtained through Ion Torrent next generation sequencing, resulting in a circular sequence of 16,652 bp in length. Gene composition and arrangement comprised to that reported for most fishes and contained the typical structure of 2 rRNAs, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 1 non-coding region. This mitogenome provides a valuable resource for studies of fish molecular systematics, phylogeography and population genetics. PMID:25970628

  5. Pethia sanjaymoluri, a new species of barb (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from the northern Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katwate, U; Jadhav, S; Kumkar, P; Raghavan, R; Dahanukar, N

    2016-05-01

    Pethia sanjaymoluri, a new cyprinid, is described from the Pavana and Nira tributaries of Bhima River, Krishna drainage, Maharashtra, India. It can be distinguished from congeners by a combination of characteristics that includes an incomplete lateral line, absence of barbels, upper lip thick and fleshy, 23-25 lateral series scales, 7-12 lateral-line pored scales, 10 predorsal scales, 11-14 prepelvic scales, 17-20 pre-anal scales, 4½ scales between dorsal-fin origin and lateral line, four scales between lateral line and pelvic-fin origin, 8-15 pairs of serrae on distal half of dorsal-fin spine, 12-14 branched pectoral-fin rays, 4 + 26 total vertebrae, 4 + 5 predorsal vertebrae, 4 + 13 abdominal vertebrae, 13 caudal vertebrae and a unique colour pattern comprising a humeral spot positioned below the lateral line and encompassing the third and fourth lateral-line scales and one scale below, one caudal spot on 17th-21st lateral-line scales with a yellow hue on its anterior side and apical half of dorsal fin studded with melanophores making the fin tip appear black. Genetic analysis based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence suggests that the species is distinct from other known species of Pethia for which data are available. PMID:27098090

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome organization of Schizothorax Plagiostomus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaz Khan, Muhammad; Nasir Khan Khattak, Muhammad; He, Dekui; Liang, Yangyang; Li, Chunhua; Ullah Dawar, Farman; Chen, Yifeng

    2016-09-01

    Schizothorax plagiostomus, a fresh water fish, is an economically important fish of Pakistan. In this study, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of S. plagiostomus was explored. The mitogenome length was found to be 16 563bp with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 2 non-coding regions: origin of light-strand replication (OL) and control region (D-loop). All genes were encoded on the heavy strand except ND6 and few tRNA genes. The overall base composition of S. plagiostomus of the heavy strand was T 25.5%, C 27.0%, A 29.8% and G 17.8%, A + T content 55.3% and G + C content 44.7%. The phylogenetic tree suggests that S. esocinus, S. progastus, S. richardsonii and S. plagiostomus may have closer affinities than other fish of the genus Schizothorax. This mitogenome sequence would be useful for phylogenetic analysis and conservation of this species in Pakistan. PMID:26369352

  7. Flight response of the barber surgeonfish, Acanthurus bahianus Castelnau, 1855 (Teleostei: Acanthuridae, to spearfisher presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa J. Benevides

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT When confronted by predators, prey need to make an economic decision between continuing their current activity or flee. Flight Initiation Distance (FID, the distance at which an organism begins to flee an approaching threat, has been used to indicate an animal's fearfulness level and a way to examine factors influencing escape decisions. Here we investigated how the FID of the barber surgeonfish, Acanthurus bahianus, responds to the presence of spearfishers in a fishing site in northeast Brazil. Specifically, we examined whether the FID was influenced by body and group size; by the heterogeneity of species in groups formation; and the distance to shelter. Significant differences in FID were observed with increasing body size. We found no significant relationship of FID with size or group formation, neither with distance to shelter. Preferences in forming groups with A. bahianus were seen among some species, and a higher FID was associated with less sheltered substrates. Results obtained here support theories suggesting that spearfishers do influence fish behavior. We highlight that future research should focus on the indirect impacts of spearfishing on the structure of marine communities, emphasizing the anti-predator behaviour of juvenile and adult target fishes.

  8. Early life history of daubed shanny (Teleostei: Leptoclinus maculatus) in Svalbard waters

    OpenAIRE

    Ottesen, Camilla; Hop, Haakon; Christiansen, Jørgen Schou; Falk-Petersen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    The daubed shanny (Leptoclinus maculatus, Family Stichaeidae) is considered to be an ecologically significant species in the arctic waters of Norway because of high abundance and the unique energy storage abilities of its postlarvae. Both postlarvae and adults are found in relative large abundances in Svalbard fjords as well as along the ice edge of north-east Svalbard, even at sub-zero temperatures. The postlarva feeds primarily on Calanus spp. and stores lipids from this high-energy diet in...

  9. Morphology-diet relationships in four killifishes (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae, Orestias) from Lake Titicaca

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado, E; Hubert, Nicolas; Sagnes, P.; Mérona, Bernard de

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between morphology and diet in four Andean killifishes (Orestias) from Lake Titicaca that are known to differ in habitat use. Species that fed preferentially on amphipods (Orestias albus) or molluscs (Orestias luteus) separated in multivariate space from other species that feed on cladocera and algae (Orestias agassii and Orestias jussiei). Generally, specimens feeding on cladocera were characterized by a short, blunt nose with a small mouth; whereas, spec...

  10. Mortality rates in two populations of the viviparous fish Poeciliopsis baenschi (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Molina-Moctezuma; José Jaime Zúñiga-Vega; Héctor Espinosa-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Mortality is one of the most important demographic features. Measures of size- or sex-specific mortality can help to explain local selective pressures and can also be used to construct demographic models that estimate population trends. This study estimated mortality rates for 2 populations of a viviparous freshwater fish, endemic to western Mexico (Poeciliopsis baenschi). We found that mortality was size- and sex-dependent and different between both populations. We compared our findings with...

  11. Phylogenetic relationships of the algae scraping cyprinid genus Capoeta (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Boris A; Freyhof, Jörg; Lajbner, Zdeněk; Perea, Silvia; Abdoli, Asghar; Gaffaroğlu, Muhammet; Ozuluğ, Müfit; Rubenyan, Haikaz R; Salnikov, Vladimir B; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    We reconstructed the matrilineal phylogeny of Asian algae-eating fishes of the genus Capoeta based on complete mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b sequences obtained from 20 species sampled from the majority of the range and 44 species of closely related barbs of the genera Barbus s. str. and Luciobarbus. The results of this study show that Capoeta forms a strongly supported monophyletic subclade nested within the Luciobarbus clade, suggesting that specialized scraping morphology appeared once in the evolutionary history of the genus. We detected three main groups of Capoeta: the Mesopotamian group, which includes three species from the Tigris-Euphrates system and adjacent water bodies, the Anatolian-Iranian group, which has the most diversified structure and encompasses many species distributed throughout Anatolian and Iranian inland waters, and the Aralo-Caspian group, which consists of species distributed in basins of the Caspian and Aral Seas, including many dead-end rivers in Central Asia and Northern Iran. The most probable origination pathway of the genus Capoeta is hypothesized to occur as a result of allopolyploidization. The origin of Capoeta was found around the Langhian-Serravallian boundary according to our molecular clock. The diversification within the genus occurred along Middle Miocene-Late Pliocene periods.

  12. Two new species of shovel-jaw carp Onychostoma (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Huy Duc; Pham, Hung Manh; Tran, Ngan Trong

    2015-05-22

    Two new species of large shovel-jaw carps in the genus Onychostoma are described from the upper Krong No and middle Dong Nai drainages of the Langbiang Plateau in southern Vietnam. These new species are known from streams in montane mixed pine and evergreen forests between 140 and 1112 m. Their populations are isolated in the headwaters of the upper Sre Pok River of the Mekong basin and in the middle of the Dong Nai basin. Both species are differentiated from their congeners by a combination of the following characters: transverse mouth opening width greater than head width, 14-17 predorsal scales, caudal-peduncle length 3.9-4.2 times in SL, no barbels in adults and juveniles, a strong serrated last simple ray of the dorsal fin, and small eye diameter (20.3-21.5% HL). Onychostoma krongnoensis sp. nov. is differentiated from Onychostoma dongnaiensis sp. nov. by body depth (4.0 vs. 3.2 times in SL), predorsal scale number (14-17 vs. 14-15), dorsal-fin length (4.5 vs. 4.2 times in SL), caudal-peduncle length (3.9 vs. 4.2 times in SL), colour in life (dark vs. bright), and by mitochondrial DNA (0.2% sequence divergence). Molecular evidence indicates that both species are members of Onychostoma and are distinct from all congeners sampled (uncorrected sequence divergences at the 16S rRNA gene of >2.0% for all Onychostoma for which homologous 16S rRNA sequences are available).

  13. Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the Capoeta damascina Species Complex (Pisces: Teleostei: Cyprinidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Alwan

    Full Text Available Capoeta damascina was earlier considered by many authors as one of the most common freshwater fish species found throughout the Levant, Mesopotamia, Turkey, and Iran. However, owing to a high variation in morphological characters among and within its various populations, 17 nominal species were described, several of which were regarded as valid by subsequent revising authors. Capoeta damascina proved to be a complex of closely related species, which had been poorly studied. The current study aims at defining C. damascina and the C. damascina species complex. It investigates phylogenetic relationships among the various members of the C. damascina complex, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships were projected against paleogeographical events to interpret the geographic distribution of the taxa under consideration in relation to the area's geological history. Samples were obtained from throughout the geographic range and were subjected to genetic analyses, using two molecular markers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (n = 103 and the two adjacent divergence regions (D1-D2 of the nuclear 28S rRNA genes (n = 65. Six closely related species were recognized within the C. damascina complex, constituting two main lineages: A western lineage represented by C. caelestis, C. damascina, and C. umbla and an eastern lineage represented by C. buhsei, C. coadi, and C. saadii. The results indicate that speciation of these taxa is rather a recent event. Dispersal occurred during the Pleistocene, resulting in present-day distribution patterns. A coherent picture of the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the C. damascina species complex is drawn, explaining the current patterns of distribution as a result of paleogeographic events and ecological adaptations.

  14. Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the Capoeta damascina Species Complex (Pisces: Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, Nisreen; Esmaeili, Hamid-Reza; Krupp, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    Capoeta damascina was earlier considered by many authors as one of the most common freshwater fish species found throughout the Levant, Mesopotamia, Turkey, and Iran. However, owing to a high variation in morphological characters among and within its various populations, 17 nominal species were described, several of which were regarded as valid by subsequent revising authors. Capoeta damascina proved to be a complex of closely related species, which had been poorly studied. The current study aims at defining C. damascina and the C. damascina species complex. It investigates phylogenetic relationships among the various members of the C. damascina complex, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships were projected against paleogeographical events to interpret the geographic distribution of the taxa under consideration in relation to the area's geological history. Samples were obtained from throughout the geographic range and were subjected to genetic analyses, using two molecular markers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (n = 103) and the two adjacent divergence regions (D1-D2) of the nuclear 28S rRNA genes (n = 65). Six closely related species were recognized within the C. damascina complex, constituting two main lineages: A western lineage represented by C. caelestis, C. damascina, and C. umbla and an eastern lineage represented by C. buhsei, C. coadi, and C. saadii. The results indicate that speciation of these taxa is rather a recent event. Dispersal occurred during the Pleistocene, resulting in present-day distribution patterns. A coherent picture of the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the C. damascina species complex is drawn, explaining the current patterns of distribution as a result of paleogeographic events and ecological adaptations. PMID:27309854

  15. Amblyceps accari, a new species of torrent catfish (Teleostei: Amblycipitidae) from the Western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahanukar, Neelesh; Raghavan, Rajeev; Ali, Anvar; Britz, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    A new species of torrent catfish, Amblyceps accari, is described from the central region of the Western Ghats of India. The new species differs from all its congeners by having 12 branched anal-fin rays (vs. 7-10 in other Amblyceps, rarely 11 in A. tuberculatum). It differs further from all other species of the genus except A. murraystuarti and A. torrentis in having the adipose fin confluent with the dorsal procurrent part of the caudal fin and by the following combination of characters from all its congeners: jaws unequal with lower jaw weakly-projecting, pectoral spine smooth, adipose-fin origin opposite anal-fin origin, dorsal fin to adipose-fin distance more than one fourth of standard length, adipose fin long with its base more than one-fourth of standard length, and deeply forked caudal fin with minute, poorly developed, centrally projecting hooks on the proximal lepidotrichia of central caudal-fin rays. The discovery of the new species represents the first record of this genus from peninsular India. PMID:27394861

  16. Population characteristics, space use and habitat associations of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Teleostei: Syngnathidae

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    Ierecê Lucena Rosa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a case study of a threatened seahorse species, Hippocampus reidi, highlighting the importance of using ecological information to assist conservation and management initiatives. Underwater visual sighting data (50 x 2m transect gathered along the NE, SE and S portions of the Brazilian coast revealed an unequal distribution across localities, perhaps related to harvesting pressure, and a mean density of 0.026 ind.m-2. Our findings suggest some restricted spatial use by H. reidi, which was consistent with its estimated home range, and with re-sighting of specimens. Reproduction was recorded year-round, however productive peaks may exist. Components of habitat structure mostly used as anchoring points were mangrove plants, macroalgae, cnidarians, seagrass, sponges, and bryozoans. Conservation recommendations include: further characterization and mapping of habitats; assessment of availability and condition of microhabitats in selected areas, and studies on dispersal routes during initial life stages.Neste artigo apresenta-se um estudo de caso de uma espécie ameaçada de cavalo-marinho, Hippocampus reidi, enfatizando a importância de utilizar informações ecológicas nas ações de conservação e manejo. Dados de censo visual (transectos de 50 x 2m obtidos nas porções NE, SE e S da costa brasileira revelaram uma distribuição heterogênea entre as localidades, talvez relacionada à pressão de coleta, e uma densidade média de 0.026 ind.m-2. Os resultados sugerem limitação no uso do espaço por H. reidi (consistente com a área vital estimada e com a re-avistagem de exemplares e que a reprodução ocorre o ano inteiro, embora com possíveis picos. Os componentes da estrutura do habitat mais freqüentemente utilizados como pontos de ancoragem pelos cavalos-marinhos foram vegetação de mangue, macroalgas, cnidários, capim marinho e briozoários. Recomendações conservacionistas incluem caracterização adicional e mapeamento de habitats; avaliação da disponibilidade e condição dos microhabitats em áreas selecionadas, e estudos sobre rotas de dispersão durante as fases iniciais de vida.

  17. Revisão taxonômica do gênero Homodiaetus (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae

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    Koch Walter Rudolf

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Homodiaetus Eigenmann & Ward, 1907 is revised and four species are recognized. Its distribution is restricted to southeastern South America, from Uruguay to Paraguay river at west to the coastal drainages of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Homodiaetus is currently distinguished from other genus of Stegophilinae by the combination of the following characters: origin of ventral-fin at midlength between the snout tip and the caudal-fin origin; opercle with three or more odontodes; and gill membranes confluent with the istmus. Homodiaetus anisitsi Eigenmann & Ward, 1907, is diagnosed by the caudal-fin with black middle rays, margin of upper and lower procurrent caudal-fin rays with dark stripes extending to the caudal-fin, and 3-6 opercular odontodes; H. passarellii (Ribeiro, 1944 with 6-7 opercular odontodes, 21-24 lower procurrent caudal-fin rays and 23-26 upper procurrent caudal-fin rays; H. banguela sp. nov. with 9 opercular odontodes, 17-19 lower procurrent caudal-fin rays, 17-22 upper procurrent caudal-fin rays, reduction of fourth pharyngobranchial with only three teeth and untoothed fifth ceratobranchial; and H. graciosa sp. nov. with 5-6 dentary rows, 7-9 opercular odontodes and 16-23 upper procurrent caudal-fin rays.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Moltrecht's minnow, Aphyocypris moltrechti (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), in comparison with A. kikuchii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Tsai, Chi-Li; Chang, Chia-Hao; Watanabe, Katsutoshi

    2013-04-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Moltrecht's minnow, Aphyocypris moltrechti, which is known as an endemic species to Taiwan. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,617 bp in size, consisting of 37 genes coding for 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 1 control region. Its gene arrangement pattern was identical with most vertebrates. We compared the mitochondrial genome of A. moltrechti with that of the Kikuchi's minnow, Aphyocypris kikuchii, which had been considered closely related to A. moltrechti within a same genus. Nucleotide sequence divergence (K2P distance) between the two whole mitochondrial genomes was 11.62%. The detailed comparison between the mitochondrial genomes of two species was done.

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Kikuchi's minnow Aphyocypris kikuchii (Teleostei, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Tsai, Chi-Li; Watanabe, Katsutoshi

    2013-02-01

    We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Kikuchi's minnow, Aphyocypris kikuchii (Oshima 1919), which is an endemic species to Taiwan. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,601 bp in size, containing 37 genes coding for 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 1 control region. It has the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement. The sequence information could play an important role in resolving the conflict on its current taxonomic position and preservation of genetic resources for helping conservation of the endangered species.

  20. Origin of Gymnocypris przewalskii and phylogenetic history of Gymnocypris eckloni (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Kai; Duan Ziyuan; Yang Gongshe; Peng Zuogang; He Shunping; Chen Yiyu

    2007-01-01

    The origins and phylogenetic patterns were assessed for G. przewalskii and G. eckloni by analyzing the complete mtDNA cytochrome b gene sequence (1140bp). Phylogenetic analyses further supported that there were three mtDNA lineages (A-C) identified in G. przewalskii and G. eckloni, demonstrating that outer rakers of the first gill have little significance in the phylogeny of the Gymnocypris fishes. The network established showed that G. eckloni of the Yellow River specific haplotype A1 was a founder and it radiated all haplotypes of G. przewalskii which suggested G. przewalskii might only originate from one of two maternals of G. eckloni from the Yellow River. Fs test and mismatch analysis showed at least two expansion events in the population of G. przewalskii about 0. 2734 Ma and 0. 0658 Ma, while G. eckloni from Qaidam Basin could have experienced severe bottleneck effect about 0. 0693 Ma. The population expansion was detected in subclades A1 and A21 with the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) about 0. 2308 ± 0.01 Ma and 0.1319 ± 0. 015 Ma, respectively, which were within the geological age range of "Conghe Movement" event that caused the separation of Lake Qinghai from the upper Yellow River. These results suggested the effect of the fish diversification by rapid uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in the Late Pleistocene.

  1. Reproductive biology of weakly electric fish Eigenmannia trilineata López and Castello, 1966 (Teleostei, Sternopygidae

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    Júlia Giora

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study described the reproductive biology of a population of the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia trilineata from southern Brazil, providing the information on the estimation of reproductive period, fecundity, spawning type, first maturation size, and analysis of gonadal morphology and histology of the species, relating these data to alimentary and abiotic characters. The species showed a relatively long reproductive period, a relative fecundity of 0.27 oocytes per mg of total weight and a parcelled spawning type. First maturation size estimated for the females was 80.5 mm and for the males 63.5 mm of total length. Sex ratio did not differ from 1:1 under a X²test (α= 0.01 during all the sampled months. Sexual dimorphism was related to total length, and males had larger total length than females. The abiotic factors photoperiod and water conductivity presented significant correlations with female GSI, while male GSI presented a significant correlation only with photoperiod.Este trabalho descreve a biologia reprodutiva de uma população do peixe elétrico Eigenmannia trilineata do Sul do Brasil. São apresentadas informações a respeito do período reprodutivo, fecundidade, tipo de desova, tamanho de primeira maturação, morfologia e histologia das gônadas da espécie, relacionando estes dados a caracteres alimentares e abióticos. A espécie apresentou período reprodutivo relativamente longo, com fecundidade relativa de 0,27 ovócito por miligrama do peso da fêmea e desova do tipo parcelada. O tamanho de primeira maturação gonadal estimado para fêmeas foi 80,5 mm e para machos, 63,5 mm de comprimento total. A proporção sexual, testada pelo teste X² (Α= 0.01, foi de 1:1 durante todos os meses amostrados; dimorfismo sexual relacionado ao comprimento total foi detectado, possuindo os machos um maior comprimento total. Dos fatores abióticos testados, fotoperíodo e condutividade da água mostraram correlação significativa com o IGS das fêmeas, enquanto somente fotoperíodo apresentou-se relacionado ao IGS dos machos.

  2. Multilocus resolution of Mugilidae phylogeny (Teleostei: Mugiliformes): Implications for the family's taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Rong; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Fu, Cuizhang

    2016-03-01

    The interrelationships among mugilids (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) remain highly debated. Using a mitochondrial gene-based phylogeny as criterion, a revised classification with 25 genera in the Mugilidae has recently been proposed. However, phylogenetic relationships of major mitochondrial lineages remain unresolved and to gain a general acceptance the classification requires confirmation based on multilocus evidence and diagnostic morphological characters. Here, we construct a species-tree using twelve nuclear and three mitochondrial loci and infer the evolution of 71 morphological characters. Our multilocus phylogeny does not agree with previous morphology-based hypotheses for the relationships within Mugilidae, confirms the revised classification with 25 genera and further resolves their phylogenetic relationships. Using the well-resolved multilocus phylogeny as the criterion, we reclassify Mugilidae genera into three new subfamilies (Myxinae, Rhinomugilinae, and Cheloninae) and one new, recombined, subfamily (Mugilinae). The Rhinomugilinae subfamily is further divided into four tribes. The revised classification of Mugilidae is supported by morpho-anatomical synapomorphies or a combination of characters. These characters are used to erect a key to the subfamilies and genera.

  3. Molecular evolution of connective tissue growth factor in Cyprinidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianghui Kong; Xuzhen Wang; Xiaoni Gan; Junbing Li; Shunping He

    2008-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) plays an important role in regulation ofcell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and individual development in animals. The study of sequences variation and molecular evolution of CTGF gene across various species of the cyprinid could be helpful for understanding of speciation and gene divergence in this kind of fish. In this study, 19 novel sequences of CTGF gene were obtained from the representative species of the family Cyprinidae using PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing. Phylogenetic relationships of Cyprinidae were reconstructed by neighbor-joining (N J), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian method. Oryzias latipes from the family Cyprinodontidae was assigned to be the outgroup taxon. Leuciscini and Barbini were clustered into the monophyletic lineages, respectively, with the high nodal supports. The estimation of the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution (dN/dS) for the various branches indicated that there stood the different evolution rates between the Leuciscini and the Barbini. With the ratio of dN/dS of the Leuciscini being lower than that of the Barbini, species within the Barbini were demonstrated to be subjected to the relatively less selection pressure and under the relaxable evolution background. A 6 bp indel (insertion/deletion) was found at the 5' end of CTGF gene of Cyprinidae, and this 6 bp deletion only appeared in the Leuciscini, which is a typical characteristic of the Leuciscini and provides evidence for the monophylogeny of the Leuciscini. For the amino acid sequences of CTGF protein, the most variations and indels were distributed in the signal region and IGFBP region of this protein, implying that these variations were correlated with the regulation of the CTGF gene expression and protein activity.

  4. Adult habitat preferences, larval dispersal, and the comparative phylogeography of three Atlantic surgeonfishes (Teleostei: Acanthuridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Luiz A; Bass, Anna L; Robertson, D Ross; Bowen, Brian W

    2002-02-01

    Although many reef fishes of the tropical Atlantic are widely distributed, there are large discontinuities that may strongly influence phylogeographical patterns. The freshwater outflow of the Amazon basin is recognized as a major barrier that produces a break between Brazilian and Caribbean faunas. The vast oceanic distances between Brazil and the mid-Atlantic ridge islands represent another formidable barrier. To assess the relative importance of these barriers, we compared a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b gene among populations of three species of Atlantic surgeonfishes: Acanthurus bahianus, A. chirurgus and A. coeruleus. These species have similar life histories but different adult habitat preferences. The mtDNA data show no population structure between Brazil and the mid-Atlantic islands, indicating that this oceanic barrier is readily traversed by the pelagic larval stage of all three surgeonfishes, which spend approximately 45-70 days in the pelagic environment. The Amazon is a strong barrier to dispersal of A. bahianus (d = 0.024, phiST = 0.724), a modest barrier for A. coeruleus (phiST = 0.356), and has no discernible effect as a barrier for A. chirurgus. The later species has been collected on soft bottoms with sponge habitats under the Amazon outflow, indicating that relaxed adult habitat requirements enable it to readily cross that barrier. A limited ability to use soft bottom habitats may also explain the low (but significant) population structure in A. coeruleus. In contrast, A. bahianus has not been collected over deep sponge bottoms, and rarely settles outside shallow reefs. Overall, adult habitat preferences seem to be the factor that differentiates phylogeographical patterns in these reef-associated species. PMID:11856425

  5. Identification and chromosome mapping of repetitive elements in the Astyanax scabripinnis (Teleostei: Characidae) species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Patrícia; de Oliveira, Luiz Antonio; Pucci, Marcela Baer; Santos, Mateus Henrique; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Nogaroto, Viviane; de Almeida, Mara Cristina; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Most part of the eukaryotic genome is composed of repeated sequences or multiple copies of DNA, which were considered as "junk DNA", and may be associated to the heterochromatin. In this study, three populations of Astyanax aff. scabripinnis from Brazilian rivers of Guaratinguetá and Pindamonhangaba (São Paulo) and a population from Maringá (Paraná) were analyzed concerning the localization of the nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs), the As51 satellite DNA, the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and the 5S rDNA. Repeated sequences were also isolated and identified by the Cot - 1 method, which indicated similarity (90%) with the LINE UnaL2 retrotransposon. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the retrotransposon dispersed and more concentrated markers in centromeric and telomeric chromosomal regions. These sequences were co-localized and interspaced with 18S and 5S rDNA and As51, confirmed by fiber-FISH essay. The B chromosome found in these populations pointed to a conspicuous hybridization with LINE probe, which is also co-located in As51 sequences. The NORs were active at unique sites of a homologous pair in the three populations. There were no evidences that transposable elements and repetitive DNA had influence in the transcriptional regulation of ribosomal genes in our analyses.

  6. Two new species of the genus Cobitis Linnaeus (Teleostei: Cobitidae) from southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongxia; Sui, Xiaoyun; Liang, Na; Chen, Yifeng

    2016-05-01

    Two new species of the genus Cobitis from southern China, C. hereromacula from the Luohe River in Guangdong Province and C. baishagensis from the Nandujiang River in Hainan Province, are described and illustrated here. C. hereromacula can be distinguished from its congeners by possessing the following combination of characteristics: absence of the second and third pigmentary zones of Gambetta; 13-16 oval blotches on the dorsum and 10-13 vertical, elongated triangular blotches below the midlateral line with more than 20 vertical dark brown bars between them; 6-7 narrow rows of dark spots on the caudal fin; a vertical oval spot smaller than the eye diameter on the upper part of the caudal peduncle; pointed mental lobes of the lower lip pointed with a slightly filiform tip; one slender and long needle-shaped lamina circularis at the base of the first branched ray of the male pectoral fins. C. baishagensis can be distinguished from its congeners by the fourth Gambetta zone being covered by 10-12 transverse elongated blotches; 4-5 narrow rows of dark spots on the caudal fin; a vertical blotch smaller than the eye diameter on the upper part of the caudal peduncle; males with a slender and long needle-shaped lamina circularis at the second branched pectoral fin ray in males; large scales with a slightly large focal zone; undeveloped mental lobes with a lower lip that does not end posteriorly in a filiform tip.

  7. Microsatellite Development for an Endangered Bream Megalobrama pellegrini (Teleostei, Cyprinidae Using 454 Sequencing

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    Zuogang Peng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Megalobrama pellegrini is an endemic fish species found in the upper Yangtze River basin in China. This species has become endangered due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam and overfishing. However, the available genetic data for this species is limited. Here, we developed 26 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the M. pellegrini genome using next-generation sequencing techniques. A total of 257,497 raw reads were obtained from a quarter-plate run on 454 GS-FLX titanium platforms and 49,811 unique sequences were generated with an average length of 404 bp; 24,522 (49.2% sequences contained microsatellite repeats. Of the 53 loci screened, 33 were amplified successfully and 26 were polymorphic. The genetic diversity in M. pellegrini was moderate, with an average of 3.08 alleles per locus, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.47 and 0.51, respectively. In addition, we tested cross-species amplification for all 33 loci in four additional breams: M. amblycephala, M. skolkovii, M. terminalis, and Sinibrama wui. The cross-species amplification showed a significant high level of transferability (79%–97%, which might be due to their dramatically close genetic relationships. The polymorphic microsatellites developed in the current study will not only contribute to further conservation genetic studies and parentage analyses of this endangered species, but also facilitate future work on the other closely related species.

  8. Development of free neuromasts in Engraulis ringens and Strangomera bentincki (Teleostei, Clupeiformes early larvae

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    Alejandra Llanos-Rivera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuromast morphology and distribution are characterized during early ontogeny of anchoveta (Engraulis ringens and common sardine (Strangomera bentincki. Although both species share morphological features, they show several differences during their early ontogeny, such as size at hatching and yolk absorption. Larvae were obtained from incubation of planktonic eggs (at 12°C, collected during the spawning season 2001 (August-September at Coliumo Bay. The neuromasts were observed from hatching to 25 days, and the pattern of neuromast appearance, in newly hatched larva, until yolk absorption, was determined using Janus Green staining and scanning electronic microscope. Results showed a similar pattern of neuromast development in both species. At hatching, two pairs of neuromasts were observed in the cephalic area and 8-9 in the rest of the body, which increased to 19 pairs and to 30-39 pairs at a larval size of 11 mm, respectively. On the average, 12 hair cells per neuromast were counted, with little variation among neuromasts. The polarity of these hair cells was closest to multiple polarity. Neuromast positioning for both species, anchoveta and common sardine larvae, are similar to those of Engraulis mordax and Clupea harengus, respectively. The similar development pattern of these species seems to be related to similar functional constraints and close taxonomic affinity.

  9. Atlantic-Mediterranean and within-Mediterranean molecular variation in Coris julis (L. 1758) (Teleostei, Labridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fruciano, Carmelo; Hanel, Reinhold; Debes, Paul V.; Tigano, Concetta; Ferrito, Venera

    2011-01-01

    Sequence variation in the mitochondrial control region was studied in the Mediterranean rainbow wrasse (Coris julis), a species with pronounced pelagic larval phase inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea and the adjacent coastal eastern Atlantic Ocean. A total of 309 specimens from 19 sampling sites were analysed with the aim of elucidating patterns of molecular variation between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean as well as within the Mediterranean Sea. Phylogeographic analyses revealed a pronounc...

  10. A new species of the genus Pethia from Mizoram, northeastern India (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishma, Mayanglambam; Vishwanath, Waikhom

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes Pethia expletiforis, a new cyprinid species from the Ka-ao River, Kaladan drainage, Mizoram, India. It is distinguished from its congeners in the Chindwin-Irrawaddy and Ganga-Brahmaputra drainages by the combination of: a complete lateral line, nine predorsal scales, 12 circumpeduncular scales, ½4/1/3½ transverse scales, a black blotch on the caudal peduncle, and the absence of a humeral mark and barbels. PMID:25112614

  11. New insights on early evolution of spiny-rayed fishes (Teleostei: Acanthomorpha

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    Wei-Jen eChen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Acanthomorpha is the largest group of teleost fishes with about one third of extant vertebrate species. In the course of its evolution this lineage experienced several episodes of radiation, leading to a large number of descendant lineages differing profoundly in morphology, ecology, distribution and behavior. Although Acanthomorpha was recognized decades ago, we are only now beginning to decipher its large-scale, time-calibrated phylogeny, a prerequisite to test various evolutionary hypotheses explaining the tremendous diversity of this group. In this study, we provide new insights into the early evolution of the acanthomorphs and the euteleost allies based on the phylogenetic analysis of a newly developed dataset combining nine nuclear and mitochondrial gene markers. Our inferred tree is time-calibrated using 15 fossils, some of which have not been used before. While our phylogeny strongly supports a monophyletic Neoteleostei, Ctenosquamata (i.e., Acanthomorpha plus Myctophiformes, and Acanthopterygii, we find weak support (bootstrap value < 48% for the traditionally defined Acanthomorpha, as well as evidence of non-monophyly for the traditional Paracanthopterygii, Beryciformes, and Percomorpha. We corroborate the new Paracanthopterygii sensu Miya et al. (2005 including Polymixiiformes, Zeiformes, Gadiformes, Percopsiformes, and likely the enigmatic Stylephorus chordatus. Our timetree largely agrees with other recent studies based on nuclear loci in inferring an Early Cretaceous origin for the acanthomorphs followed by a Late Cretaceous/Early Paleogene radiation of major lineages. This is in contrast to mitogenomic studies mostly inferring Jurassic or even Triassic ages for the origin of the acanthomorphs. We compare our results to those of previous studies, and attempt to address some of the issues that may have led to incongruence between the fossil record and the molecular clock studies, as well as between the different molecular timetrees.

  12. Mitochondrial molecular clocks and the origin of the major Otocephalan clades (Pisces: Teleostei)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Zuogang; He, Shunping; Wang, Jun;

    2006-01-01

    The Otocephala, a clade including ostariophysan and clupeomorph teleosts, represents about a quarter of total fish species diversity, with about 1000 genera and more than 7000 species. A series of recent papers have defended that the origin of this clade and of its major groups may be significant...

  13. Multiple invasions into freshwater by pufferfishes (teleostei: tetraodontidae: a mitogenomic perspective.

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    Yusuke Yamanoue

    Full Text Available Pufferfishes of the Family Tetraodontidae are the most speciose group in the Order Tetraodontiformes and mainly inhabit coastal waters along continents. Although no members of other tetraodontiform families have fully discarded their marine lives, approximately 30 tetraodontid species spend their entire lives in freshwaters in disjunct tropical regions of South America, Central Africa, and Southeast Asia. To investigate the interrelationships of tetraodontid pufferfishes and thereby elucidate the evolutionary origins of their freshwater habitats, we performed phylogenetic analysis based on whole mitochondrial genome sequences from 50 tetraodontid species and closely related species (including 31 newly determined sequences. The resulting phylogenies reveal that the family is composed of four major lineages and that freshwater species from the different continents are independently nested in two of the four lineages. A monophyletic origin of the use of freshwater habitats was statistically rejected, and ancestral habitat reconstruction on the resulting tree demonstrates that tetraodontids independently entered freshwater habitats in different continents at least three times. Relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian divergence time estimation suggests that the timing of these invasions differs between continents, occurring at 0-10 million years ago (MA in South America, 17-38 MA in Central Africa, and 48-78 MA in Southeast Asia. These timings are congruent with geological events that could facilitate adaptation to freshwater habitats in each continent.

  14. Muscular system in the pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Teleostei: Scombridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio; Shinohara, Gento; Okada, Tokihiko; Matsuura, Keiichi

    2014-02-01

    The muscular system in the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis is studied in detail. For the first time, a complete description of the muscular anatomy of a thunnid is provided here. Eighty-two elements including subdivisions of components of the muscular system are identified. This is less than found in a basal perciform and two other investigated scombrid species, owing mainly to the absence or fusion of pectoral, pelvic and caudal fin muscles. The absence of elements of the basal perciform pattern was most prominent in the caudal fin, which includes only the flexor dorsalis, flexor ventralis, hypochordal longitudinalis, and interradialis. In the caudal fin, the medial fan-shaped ray was identified as the first dorsal ray, judging from myological and neuroanatomical characters. The highly developed gill filament muscles in Thunnus orientalis and sheet-like rectus communis control gill ventilation. Long body muscle tendons reduce the metabolic energy needed during rapid and continuous swimming. These characters are interpreted as adaptations in the context of the oceanic life style of the species.

  15. Parasitofauna study of the brown trout, Salmo trutta (Pisces, Teleostei from Corsica (Mediterranean island rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quilichini Y.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Corsica is a mediterranean island characterised by a great number of rivers. Salmonides are the main fishes which populate these rivers. Very appreciated by fishermen, Salmonides are represented by three species in the insular hydrographical network, among which an autochthonous species, the brown trout (Salmo trutta. In the present work, we have analysed the parasitofauna of this species. According to our knowledge, this research has never been carried out in Corsica. In a first step, we drew up an inventory of the parasites found in this freshwater fish. In a second step, we studied the differences which appeared in the composition of parasite communities of this species.

  16. Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Amphidromous Fish Genus Dormitator Gill 1861 (Teleostei: Eleotridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván-Quesada, Sesángari; Doadrio, Ignacio; Alda, Fernando; Perdices, Anabel; Reina, Ruth Gisela; García Varela, Martín; Hernández, Natividad; Campos Mendoza, Antonio; Bermingham, Eldredge; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Species of the genus Dormitator, also known as sleepers, are representatives of the amphidromous freshwater fish fauna that inhabit the tropical and subtropical coastal environments of the Americas and Western Africa. Because of the distribution of this genus, it could be hypothesized that the evolutionary patterns in this genus, including a pair of geminate species across the Central American Isthmus, could be explained by vicariance following the break-up of Gondwana. However, the evolutionary history of this group has not been evaluated. We constructed a time-scaled molecular phylogeny of Dormitator using mitochondrial (Cytochrome b) and nuclear (Rhodopsin and β-actin) DNA sequence data to infer and date the cladogenetic events that drove the diversification of the genus and to relate them to the biogeographical history of Central America. Two divergent lineages of Dormitator were recovered: one that included all of the Pacific samples and another that included all of the eastern and western Atlantic samples. In contrast to the Pacific lineage, which showed no phylogeographic structure, the Atlantic lineage was geographically structured into four clades: Cameroon, Gulf of Mexico, West Cuba and Caribbean, showing evidence of potential cryptic species. The separation of the Pacific and Atlantic lineages was estimated to have occurred ~1 million years ago (Mya), whereas the four Atlantic clades showed mean times of divergence between 0.2 and 0.4 Mya. The splitting times of Dormitator between ocean basins are similar to those estimated for other geminate species pairs with shoreline estuarine preferences, which may indicate that the common evolutionary histories of the different clades are the result of isolation events associated with the closure of the Central American Isthmus and the subsequent climatic and oceanographic changes. PMID:27074006

  17. The first molecular phylogeny of Chilodontidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) reveals cryptic biodiversity and taxonomic uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Bruno F; Sidlauskas, Brian L; Hoekzema, Kendra; Vari, Richard P; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Chilodontidae is a small family of eight described characiform species popularly known as headstanders. These small to moderately sized fishes are well known to aquarists, who prize their striking spotted pigmentation and unusual behaviors, and to systematists, who have revised both chilodontid genera in recent memory and studied their phylogenetic relationships using a comprehensive morphological dataset. However, no molecular phylogeny for the family has ever been proposed. Here, we reconstruct phylogenetic relationships for all eight known chilodontid species using three mitochondrial and two nuclear loci. Results largely agree with the previous morphological hypothesis, and confirm the monophyly of the family as well as its included genera, Caenotropus and Chilodus. The molecular topology differs slightly from the morphological hypothesis by placing Caenotropus maculosus rather than C. mestomorgmatos as the sister to the remaining three congeners, and by reconstructing the Curimatidae as the closest outgroup family, rather than the Anostomidae. However, the topologies supported by the morphological data were only slightly less likely and could not be rejected via Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests. Within Chilodus, two described species with distinctive pigmentation (C. fritillus and C. zunevei) appear embedded within the broad distributed C. punctatus clade, suggesting the presence of cryptic taxa with polymorphic pigmentation within the present concept of C. punctatus. Future work should combine morphological and molecular data to revisit the taxonomy and systematics of Chilodus and determine species limits within the C. punctatus-group sensu lato.

  18. Spontaneous behavior of basal Copionodontinae cave catfishes from Brazil (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae

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    Bianca Rantin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cave animals are particularly interesting due to their behavioral specializations, resultant from evolution in isolation. We present data from a spontaneous behavior study (spatial distribution and preference for microhabitats of two troglobitic catfish from Brazil: Glaphyropoma spinosum and a new species of Copionodon. We compared the data with those obtained of a sympatric epigean species, Copionodon pecten. These Trichomycteridae species belong to a basal and apparently monophyletic subfamily – Copionodontinae, endemic to Chapada Diamantina, central Bahia state, eastern Brazil. We observed the fishes in natural and laboratory conditions through ad libitum and focal animal methods. Each spatial behavioral category (hidden, bottom, midwater, surface and wall swimming and stationary in the bottom was timed individually, with a sample of 12 specimens per species. Unlike most troglobitic fishes, cave copionodontines tested herein did not extend exploratory behavior to midwater, with benthonic and thigmotactic-related exploratory behavior. This behavior is possibly related to its feeding behavior specializations, strong territorialism and photophobic behavior. The epigean Copionodon species is also benthonic. The spatial behavior of the cave Copionodontinae could be interpreted as a retained and plesiomorphic character-state in relation to other trichomycterid catfishes.

  19. Reproductive biology of weakly electric fish Eigenmannia trilineata López and Castello, 1966 (Teleostei, Sternopygidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Júlia Giora; Clarice Bernhardt Fialho

    2009-01-01

    This study described the reproductive biology of a population of the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia trilineata from southern Brazil, providing the information on the estimation of reproductive period, fecundity, spawning type, first maturation size, and analysis of gonadal morphology and histology of the species, relating these data to alimentary and abiotic characters. The species showed a relatively long reproductive period, a relative fecundity of 0.27 oocytes per mg of total weight and ...

  20. Reproductive characteristics of characid fish species (Teleostei, Characiformes) and their relationship with body size and phylogeny

    OpenAIRE

    Marco A. Azevedo

    2010-01-01

    In this study, I investigated the reproductive biology of fish species from the family Characidae of the order Characiformes. I also investigated the relationship between reproductive biology and body weight and interpreted this relationship in a phylogenetic context. The results of the present study contribute to the understanding of the evolution of the reproductive strategies present in the species of this family. Most larger characid species and other characiforms exhibit a reproductive p...

  1. Atividade reprodutiva de peixes (Teleostei e o defeso da pesca de arrasto no litoral norte de Santa Catarina, Brasil Reproductive activity of fish (Teleostei and closed season to shrimp trawling off ther northern coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Leda M. de Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Desembarques de arrasto visando à pesca do camarão sete-barbas, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri, foram acompanhados de 2005 a 2007 no município de São Francisco do Sul, Santa Catarina. Setenta e seis espécies de teleósteos foram registradas como captura incidental e seus indivíduos foram avaliados quanto ao estádio de maturação e Índice de Atividade Reprodutiva. Constatou-se que indivíduos de metade das espécies são capturados com gônadas maduras, em estações que variaram conforme a espécie. Em Isopisthus parvipinnis a atividade enquadrou-se na categoria "muito intensa" na primavera de 2005 e no verão de 2007; em Menticirrhus americanus, Stellifer sp., Pomadasys corvinaeformis, Stellifer brasiliensis, Syacium papillosum, Larimus breviceps, Diapterus rhombeus, Symphurus tessellatus, Chirocentrodon bleekerianus, Pellona harroweri, Anchoa tricolor e Selene setapinnis apenas em uma estação, dependendo da espécie. O verão de 2007, seguido da primavera de 2005, foram as estações em que o arrasto incidiu sobre maior número de espécies em atividade reprodutiva "intensa" ou "muito intensa". No verão de 2007 o arrasto camaroeiro incidiu sobre um conjunto de espécies em atividade reprodutiva maior que na mesma estação em 2006. Atribui-se esse fato à proibição legal do arrasto de camarão no trimestre de outubro-dezembro de 2006, favorecendo a atividade reprodutiva das espécies na estação subseqüente. Recomenda-se que a gestão da pesca camaroeira na região mantenha o defeso de arrasto na primavera, assim beneficiando não apenas as espécies de peixes que desovam nesta estação, mas também aquelas que se preparam para a desova no verão.Shrimp trawling was monitored in southern Brazil in order to study the reproductive status of teleosts occurring as by-catch. From 2005 to 2007 seventy-six fish species were found in this kind of fisheries. Gonad stages were evaluated and the Reproductive Activity Index was calculated. Mature individuals were 50% of the total caught as by-catch. Breeding activity in Isopisthus parvipinnis was "very high" in spring 2005 and summer 2007, and in a particular season (depending on the species in Menticirrhus americanus, Stellifer sp., Pomadasys corvinaeformis, Stellifer brasiliensis, Syacium papillosum, Larimus breviceps, Diapterus rhombeus, Symphurus tessellatus, Chirocentrodon bleekerianus, Pellona harroweri, Anchoa tricolor, and Selene setapinnis. In the summer of 2007, followed by the spring of 2005, trawling caught more species in "high" or "very high" breeding activity. In the summer of 2007 a larger number of species was in reproductive activity than the same season of 2006, due to a closed season in October-December 2006. Aiming to improve the fish breeding activity in this region, it is recommended to close this area for shrimp trawling during the spring. This measure could be positive for both species that spawn in spring and those preparing to spawn in the summer.

  2. Toxicidade aguda do nitrito em larvas do peixe-rei marinho Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei, Atherinopsidae Acute toxicity of nitrite on larvae of the marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei, Atherinopsidae

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    Luís André Sampaio

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou a determinar o efeito tóxico do nitrito sobre larvas do peixe-rei marinho Odontesthes argentinensis através de testes agudos com 96h de duração. As larvas utilizadas neste experimento foram cultivadas no Laboratório de Maricultura da FURG (Rio Grande - RS. Foi utilizada água do mar filtrada na salinidade 35‰, na temperatura de 23°C, com fotoperíodo de 14 horas de luz e aeração constante. Diariamente, as larvas mortas foram retiradas e, em seguida, 100% do meio experimental foi renovado. Não foi fornecido alimento durante a exposição ao nitrito. As larvas foram expostas a cinco concentrações de nitrito: 50, 150, 250, 350 e 450mg L-1 N-NO2-, mais um controle onde o nitrito não foi adicionado. A CL50-96h (concentração letal para 50% dos organismos após 96 horas e seu intervalo de confiança (95% foram de 199,3 (142,0-279,6mg L-1 N-NO2-. Os resultados deste trabalho sugerem que, assim como outras espécies de peixes marinhos, o O. argentinensis é uma espécie tolerante a altas concentrações de nitrito e é pouco provável que este último seja um problema para o cultivo intensivo desta espécie.This work evaluated the toxicity of nitrite on larvae of the marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis through acute exposure during 96h. Larvae used in this experiment were cultivated in the Laboratory of Mariculture of the University of Rio Grande. During the tests temperature was 23°C, salinity 35‰, and 14 hours of light were provided. Every day dead larvae were removed and the experimental media were completely renewed. Larvae were deprived of food during the test. Concentrations for the acute tests were 50, 150, 250, 350 and 450mg L-1 N-NO2-, plus a control with no nitrite added. Lethal concentration for 50% of the organisms (LC50-96h, and its confidence interval, was 199.3 (142.0-279.6mg L-1 N-NO2-. The results of the acute tests suggest that, as other species of marine fish larvae, O. argentinensis is tolerant to high concentrations of nitrite, and it is unlikely that it would be a problem for the intensive culture of this species.

  3. Reproductive biology of Steindachnerina insculpta (Fernandez-Yépez (Teleostei, Curimatidae in Furnas reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil Biologia reprodutiva de Steindachnerina insculpta (Fernandez-Yépez (Teleostei, Curimatidae no reservatório de Furnas, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Vinicius M. A. Ribeiro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The 'saguiru' Steindachnerina insculpta, a small teleost detritivorous fish species in Furnas reservoir, upper rio Paraná basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, has a prolonged period of reproductive activity that extends from September to March, with fractionated spawning. During gonadal maturation, the females showed a low hepatosomatic index, suggesting that hepatic substances are possibly transferred from liver to ovaries. During the reproductive period, this fish had lower stomach repletion and coelomic fat indexes, indicating that the species eat less and consume more fat reserves. The weight of the ovaries influenced positively the condition factor (K1, since the lowest K2 values (without the gonads weight, were obtained during maturation, confirming the influence of the weight of the ovaries upon the physiological condition of the females.O 'saguiru' Steindachnerina insculpta, peixe teleósteo detritívoro que ocorre no reservatório de Furnas, bacia do alto Paraná, Minas Gerais, apresenta período reprodutivo prolongado que se estende de setembro a março, com desova parcelada. Durante a maturação gonadal, fêmeas apresentaram baixos valores do índice hepatossomático, sugerindo que possivelmente, substâncias hepáticas são transferidas do fígado para os ovários. Durante o período reprodutivo, os peixes desta espécie apresentam índices de repleção estomacal e de gordura celômica baixos, indicando diminuição da atividade alimentar e consumo de reservas. O peso dos ovários influencia positivamente o fator de condição (K1, uma vez que os mais baixos valores de K2 (sem o peso das gônadas foram obtidos durante a maturação, confirmando a influência do peso dos ovários na condição fisiológica das fêmeas.

  4. Desenvolvimento gonadal do jundiá, Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei, Siluriformes, em viveiros de terra, na região sul do Brasil = Gonadal development of jundiá, Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei, Siluriformes, in earthen ponds in southern Brazil

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    Luciana Ghiraldelli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo caracterizou o desenvolvimento gonadal de jundiá até a maturação sexual, quando cultivados em viveiros de terra, visando subsidiar o desenvolvimento de tecnologia de cultivo para esta espécie na região sul do Brasil. Alevinos de jundiá (peso médio 8 ± 3,73 g foram estocados em três viveiros, na densidade de 0,6indivíduos m-2. Catorze indivíduos foram amostrados mensalmente, de setembro de 2001 a outubro de 2002. Os estádios de maturação gonadal foram caracterizados macroscopicamente, e fragmentos de ovários e testículos de alguns exemplares foram fixados em formalina 4% para análise histológica. Foram analisados 118 exemplares: 60 machos e 58 fêmeas. Os machos apresentaram atividade reprodutiva precoce, quandocomparados às fêmeas. Testículos e ovários apresentaram morfologia similar a de outras espécies de Siluriformes. De acordo com a análise microscópica, as gônadas foram classificadas em quatro estádios de desenvolvimento: imaturo, em maturação inicial, em maturação final e maduro. A relação gonadossomática variou de 0,29 a 9,16 para os machose de 0,11 a 13,03 para as fêmeas. Indivíduos maduros foram observados nos meses de verão (dezembro/2001 e janeiro/2002, outono (abril e maio/2002 e primavera (setembro e outubro/2002, acompanhando o aumento de temperatura.The study characterized the gonadal development of jundiá from approximately 8 g until gonadal maturation, to provide further knowledge for farming jundiá in Southern Brazil. Jundiá fingerlings(average weight 8.00 ± 3.73 g were stocked in three ponds at 0.6 fish m-2. Fourteen fish were sampled each month from September 2001 to October 2002. Gonadal maturation stages were characterized macroscopically, and samples of ovaries and testicles were fixedin 4-%-buffered formalin for histological examination. One hundred and eighteen fish were analyzed: 60 males e 58 females. Jundiá males matured earlier than females. Testicles and ovaries presented similar morphology to other Siluriformes species. Gonads were classified in four development phases of the ovarian follicle, according to histology: immature, initial maturation, final maturation and mature. The gonadosomatic index varied from 0.29 to 9.16 for males and from 0.11 to 13.03 for females. Mature individuals were observed during summer (December/2001 and January/2002, fall (April and May/2002 and spring (September and October/2002, following the increase in water temperature.

  5. Aspectos biológicos del pleco invasor Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Teleostei: Loricariidae en el río Palizada, Campeche, México Biological aspects of the invasor plecos Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Teleostei: Loricariidae from Palizada River, Campeche, Mexico

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    Armando T. Wakida-Kusunoki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el comportamiento de la abundancia, la relación peso-longitud y el índice gonadosomático de Pterygoplichthys pardalis en el río Palizada en Campeche, México. Se realizaron muestreos mensuales de junio de 2008 a mayo de 2009 con redes agalleras. Se colectaron 118 plecos cuyas tallas estuvieron entre 222 y 422.5 mm de longitud total (LT y un peso de 72.8 a 385.4 g. El periodo de mayor abundancia se presentó de junio a agosto, no hubo diferencias significativas de la abundancia en diferentes periodos del día (p≤ 0.05. Se observó que el índice de abundancia está correlacionado con el nivel del río y el índice gonadosomático. El índice gonadosomático muestra que la época de reproducción se presenta de mayo a agosto; sin embargo, se encontraron hembras con gónadas bien desarrolladas durante todo el año de muestreo. Los parámetros de la relación peso-longitud para ambos sexos son: b= 2.78 y a= 0.0003. La comparación de esta relación entre ambos sexos no resultó significativa (p≤ 0.05. Es necesario realizar esfuerzos para la erradicación de este pez por medio de incentivos a pescadores durante el periodo de mayor vulnerabilidad y de mayor actividad reproductiva.Abundance, length-weight relationship and gonad somatic index of Pterygoplichthys pardalis in Palizada River, Mexico were analyzed. Monthly samplings were carried out from June 2008 to May 2009 with gill nets. A total of 118 plecos were catched; theirs sizes were between 222 and 422.5 mm of total longitude (TL and weight between 72.8 to 385.4 g. The highest abundance period was found from June to August, with not statistical differences between their values in the different periods of the day (p≤ 0.05. The abundance index was correlationed with river level and gonad somatic index. The gonad somatic index showed that the spawning season occurs from May to August; however, females with well developed gonads were observed during all sampling period. The parameters of the length-weight relationship for both sexes are: b= 2.78 and a= 0.0003. The comparison of this relationship between both sexes is not significant (p≤ 0.05. It is necessary that efforts be made to eradicate this species through incentives to fishermen during bigger vulnerability and of more reproductive activity period.

  6. Ecomorphology and food habits of teleost fishes Trachinotus carolinus (Teleostei: Carangidae and Menticirrhus littoralis (Teleostei: Sciaenidae, inhabiting the surf zone off Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Luana Prestrelo Palmeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecomorphology and food habits of juvenile Trachinotus carolinus and Menticirrhus littoralis caught in the surf zone of sandy beaches in Niterói, RJ, were investigated between July 2006 and May 2007. These fish species differ morphologically, but present similarities in their diet composition suggest some slight overlapping in their diet. The importance of food items was assessed using Kawakami and Vazzoler's feeding index. Morphometric variables were recorded to correlate with the diet composition of the different size classes for each species. A total of 210 fishes (Trachinotus carolinus - 122, Menticirrhus littoralis - 88, ranging between 24.2 mm and 112 mm total length, were analyzed, but the stomachs of only 84.8% of them contained food. Trachinotus carolinus presented mysids, Polychaetes and Emerita spp. as the predominant items in their diet. Formicidae and Isopoda were the most important items for class I individuals, whereas mysids and Emerita spp. were important for classes II and III. Class I individuals also showed smaller sized prey (amphipods and isopods and clupeid fish larvae in their diet. Emerita spp. dominated the food items of Menticirrhus littoralis regardless of the size class. Polychaetes, the second most important item was better represented in class sizes II and III. The main morphometric variable correlated with such differences included mouth position and diameter of the eye.A ecomorfologia e os hábitos alimentares de juvenis de Trachinotus carolinus e Menticirrhus littoralis capturados na zona de arrebentação de praias arenosas em Niterói, RJ, foram investigados entre julho de 2006 e Maio de 2007. Ambas as espécies diferem morfologicamente, mas apresentam semelhanças em sua dieta, sugerindo uma possível sobreposição alimentar. A importância dos itens alimentares foi avaliada utilizando o índice alimentar de Kawakami e Vazzoler. Variáveis morfométricas foram correlacionadas à dieta observada para diferentes classes de tamanho, para cada espécie. Um total de 210 peixes (Trachinotus carolinus - 122, Menticirrhus littoralis - 88, variando entre 24.2 mm e 112 mm de comprimento total, foram analisados, mas apenas 84.8% continham alimento. Trachinotus carolinus apresentou mysidáceos, poliquetas e Emerita spp. como os itens predominantes na dieta. Formicidae e Isopoda foram os itens mais importantes para a classe I de tamanho dos indivíduos, enquanto que mysidáceos e Emerita spp. foram importantes para as classes II e III. Indivíduos da classe I também apresentaram itens de menor tamanho (anfípodos e isópodos bem como larvas de peixes clupeídeos na dieta. Emerita spp. dominou a alimentação de Menticirrhus littoralis, independentemente da classe de tamanho. Poliquetas, o segundo item mais importante, foi mais bem representado na classe II e III de tamanho dos indivíduos. As principais variáveis morfométricas correlacionadas com essas diferenças incluíram a posição da boca e o diâmetro do olho.

  7. Reprodução de Stellifer rastrifer (Jordan (Teleostei, Sciaenidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Reproduction of Stellifer rastrifer (Jordan (Teleostei, Sciaenidae at the Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil

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    Paulo de Tarso da Cunha Chaves

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1312 individuais of S. rastrifer were sampled from March 1994 to September 1996 at the Guaratuba Bay, Southern Brazilian coast. This species is a permanently inhabitant of the mangrove area throughout the year. The weight/length relationship of the species in the region is "In TW =-12,35 + 3,22 In TL", and the individuais may reach 172mm of total length. The analyses of gonadal morphology and gonadossomatic index indicate that S. rastrifer is a multiple spawner species, that reproduces at the mangrove area during a long period of the year. The reproductive activity is more intense during the winter and mainly the spring, when the value of Condition Factor declines and empty folheies are found in the ovaries.

  8. Inoculação de suspensão bacteriana de Plesiomonas shigelloides em Jundiá, Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei: Pimelodidae Inoculation of bacterial suspension of Plesiomonas shigelloides in jundiá, Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei: Pimelodidae

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    Cheila de Lima Boijink

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o crescimento da aqüicultura mundial e intensificação da criação de peixes, os animais ficam sujeitos às enfermidades bacterianas e outras. Com o objetivo de avaliar a patogenicidade da Plesiomonas shigelloides para jundiás (Rhamdia quelen, diferentes concentrações bacterianas (3 x 10(8 e 9 x 10(8 UFC - Unidade Formadora de Colônia/ml foram inoculadas por via intraperitoneal. Foram utilizados 84 jundiás juvenis com peso e comprimento médios de 24,37 ± 4,28g e 14,42 ± 1,62cm, respectivamente. Os animais inoculados foram mantidos durante 21 dias, em caixas d'agua de amianto, em condições semelhantes de temperatura, pH, alcalinidade e dureza. Os jundiás foram sacrificados a cada dois dias para contagem de UFC/ml de tecido renal. Por observações diárias, constatou-se que a inoculação intraperitoneal de Plesiomonas shigelloides não ocasionou nenhuma alteração nos jundiás, independente da concentração inoculada. As contagens das bactérias nos rins dos jundiás mantiveram-se entre 10(5 e 10(6UFC/ml até o 21º dia, quando o experimento foi finalizado.As worldwide aquaculture has grown, and intensification in fish raising, the animals are subject to bacterial diseases and others. With the aim of evaluating pathogenicity of Plesiomonas shigelloides for "jundiá" (Rhamdia quelen, different bacterial concentrations (3 x 10(8 e 9 x 10(8 CFU - Colony Former Unit/ml were inoculated via peritoneum. Eigthy four juvenile "jundiá" averaging 24.37 ± 4,28g of weight and 14.42 ± 1,62cm of length were utilized. The inoculated animals were maintained for 21 days, in asbestos water tanks, at similar temperature, pH, alkalinity and hardness conditions. The "jundiás" were slaughtered every other day for counting UFC/ml renal tissue. For daily inspections, it was observed that intraperitoneal inoculation of Plesiomonas shigelloides did not cause any change in the catfishes, regardless inoculated concentration. Bacteria counting in "jundiás" kidneys was maintained between 10(5 and 10(6 UFC/ml until the 21st day, when the experiment was ended.

  9. Relação peso-comprimento de Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier (Teleostei, Haemulidae na Baia de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Length-weight relationship of Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier (Teleostei, Haemulidae in the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    André L. B. dos Santos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A relação peso-comprimento de Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier, 1830 na Baia de Sepetiba (22º54'-23º04'S; 43º34'-44º10'W, Rio de Janeiro foi determinada. Este trabalho objetiva contribuir com o conhecimento sobre a morfometria desta espécie na baía e fornecer bases para comparações com outros ambientes. Os peixes foram coletados em programas de amostragens de arrasto de praia (juvenis e arrasto de fundo (adultos entre outubro de 1998 e setembro de 1999. A equação encontrada foi W = 0,000006 L3,1368 para machos e W = 0,000006 L3,14º3 para fêmeas. Alometria positiva foi encontrada para machos e fêmeas e a proporção sexual foi de 1:1. Os altos valores para o coeficiente alométrico indicam alto investimento no crescimento, que pode ser devido ao pequeno tamanho relativo dos espécimes da população analisada, ou ser um mecanismo para suportar as condições de estresse nesta área.The lenght-weight relationship of Orthopristis rubber (Cuvier, 1830 in the Sepetiba Bay (22º54'-23º04'S; 43º34'-44º10'W, Rio de Janeiro was determined. It aims to contribute to morphometrics knowledge of this species in a semi-closed coastal area and to supply basis for comparisons with others environment. Fishes were collected by beach seine (juveniles and otter trawl (adults from October 1998 to September 1999. The equation found was W = 0,000006 L3,1368 for males and W = 0,000006 L3,14º3 for females. Positive allometry was found for both sexes and sex rate was 1:1. The comparatively high values for allometric coefficient indicate high investment in growth, which can be due to relatively small size of the examined fish populations, or a mechanism to overcome stress conditions in the area.

  10. Light microscopy and ultrastructure ight of the liver of Astyanax altiparanae Garutti and Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae = Histologia e ultraestrutura do fígado de Astyanax altiparanae Garutti e Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae

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    Bruno Bertolucci

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Livers of thirty specimens of Astyanax altiparanae obtained from a commercial fish farm were subjected to light and transmission electron microscopy, in order to describe the hepatic parenchyma and the intrahepatic exocrine pancreatic tissue. Anatomically, theliver showed only three hepatic lobes. Histological analysis demonstrated that the hepatocytes were spread out as anastomotic cords, arranged in two cellular layers and surrounded by sinusoids. The intrahepatic exocrine pancreatic tissue exhibited an acinararrangement and was diffused in the hepatic parenchyma. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the hepatocytes had a rounded nucleus and a rough endoplasmatic reticulum, with a parallel disposition to the nuclear membrane. The exocrine pancreatic cells showed secretion granules at the apical portion, and the rough endosplasmatic reticulum was concentrically distributed.Fígados de 30 exemplares de Astyanax altiparanae, obtidos de pesqueiros, foram submetidos à microscopia de luz e à microscopia eletrônica de transmissão para descrição do parênquima hepático e do tecido pancreático exócrino intrahepático. Anatomicamente, o fígado apresenta somente três lobos hepáticos. A análise histológica demonstra que os hepatócitos se encontram arranjados na forma de cordões anastomosados, dispostos em duas camadas celulares, sendo que estes estão cercados por sinusóides. O tecido pancreático exócrino intra-hepático apresenta arranjo acinar difuso pelo parênquima hepático. A análise ultraestrutural demonstra que os hepatócitos possuem um núcleo arredondado e retículo endoplasmático rugoso, com disposição paralela à membrana nuclear. As células pancreáticas exócrinas apresentam grânulos de secreção na porção apical e retículo endoplasmático rugoso com distribuição concêntrica.

  11. Ecomorphology and food habits of teleost fishes Trachinotus carolinus (Teleostei: Carangidae) and Menticirrhus littoralis (Teleostei: Sciaenidae), inhabiting the surf zone off Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luana Prestrelo Palmeira; Cassiano Monteiro-Neto

    2010-01-01

    The ecomorphology and food habits of juvenile Trachinotus carolinus and Menticirrhus littoralis caught in the surf zone of sandy beaches in Niterói, RJ, were investigated between July 2006 and May 2007. These fish species differ morphologically, but present similarities in their diet composition suggest some slight overlapping in their diet. The importance of food items was assessed using Kawakami and Vazzoler's feeding index. Morphometric variables were recorded to correlate with the diet co...

  12. Especie nueva del género Bryconamericus (Teleostei: Characidae del río Fonce, sistema río Magdalena, Colombia A new fish species of the genus Bryconamericus (Teleostei: Characidae from the Fonce river, Magdalena Basin, Colombia

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    César Román-Valencia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una especie nueva del género Bryconamericus Eigenmann, 1907 de la cuenca río Fonce, sistema río Magdalena, Colombia. La especie se distingue de sus congéneres por el número de radios anteriores de la aleta anal cubiertos por una hilera de escamas (4-11 vs. 11-26, excepto de B. orinocoense Román-Valencia 2003, de la cual se distingue por el mayor número de radios ramificados en la aleta anal 19-26 vs. 16-17 y de escamas en la línea lateral (39-45 vs. 31-32; en machos, por un número reducido de espinas sobre los radios en las aletas (anal 2-10 vs. 9-23, pélvicas 2-9 vs. 8-20, pectorales 2-6 vs. 9-28 y dorsal 3-6 vs. 6-18. Se suministran datos ecológicos del hábitat del nuevo taxon y una clave taxonómica para las especies de la cuenca de los ríos Cauca-Magdalena, Sinú y Ranchería.A new fish species of Bryconamericus Eigenmann 1907 is described from the Fonce river, Magdalena Basin of Colombia. The species can be distinguished from all congeners by the number of anterior anal fin rays covered by a scales row (4-11 vs.11-26, except B. orinocoense Román-Valencia 2003 with 1-6, from which is distinguished by the higher number of branched anal fin rays 19 -26 vs. 16-17 and lateral line scales (39-45 vs.31-32; in males, by the spines number on each fins rays (anal 2-10 vs. 9-23, pelvic 2-9 vs. 8-20, pectorals 2-6 vs.9-28 and dorsal 3-6 vs. 6-18. Ecological data of the aquatic habitat of the new taxon are presented and a key to species of Bryconamericus from Cauca-Magdalena, Sinú and Ranchería rivers in Colombia is provided.

  13. Avaliação da mutagênese e genotoxicidade em Eigenmannia virescens (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes expostos ao benzeno Avaliation of mutagenicity and gentotoxicity in Eigenmannia virescens (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes exposed to benzene

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    Augusto Bücker

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de substâncias genotóxicas sobre o genoma de peixes tem sido objeto de muitos estudos, sobretudo daqueles que buscam estabelecer a resposta dos genes aos estímulos ambientais. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar um estudo sobre mutagenicidade e genotoxicidade em peixes elétricos da espécie Eingenmannia virescens, pela exposição ao benzeno (50ppm, utilizando as técnicas da Freqüência de Micronúcleos (MNs e o Ensaio do Cometa. Foram coletadas amostras do sangue de dez peixes em diferentes tempos de exposição: T0, 24h, 48h, 72h, 96h e 360h (15 dias. Para a análise das lâminas no Teste do MN, foram contadas 1.000 células e estipulada a freqüência de ocorrência de MNs. Para análise do Ensaio do Cometa a contagem foi feita estipulando quatro classes de danos: I - II - III - IV, e para a análise estatística foram atribuídos valores numéricos (ranques de 0 a 3, respectivamente, verificando diferenças significativas para a soma dos ranques em todos os tempos de exposição em relação ao T0. No Teste do Micronúcleo não foi possível detectar efeitos mutagênicos significativos nos eritrócitos analisados. No entanto, para o Ensaio do Cometa os resultados sugerem ação genotóxica do benzeno, devido a um aumento gradual no número de células com maiores classes de danos de acordo com maior tempo de exposição, indicando um efeito tempo-dependente. Estes resultados sugerem maior sensibilidade do Ensaio do Cometa que o Teste do MN.The effects of genotoxic substances on fishes genome have been object of many studies, especially those which attempt to establish the responses of genes to environmental stimulus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity and genotoxicity in electric fishes of species Eingenmannia virescens, under to benzene exposure (50ppm, utilizing Micronuclei Test (MNs and Comet Assay techniques. Ten fish blood samples were collected in different times of exposure: T0, 24h, 48h, 72h, 96h and 360h (15 days. To determine the frequency of MNs, 1.000 cells per microscopical slides were counted. For the Comet Assay analysis, four damage classes were defined: I - II - III - IV, and for the statistic analysis number values (ranks from 0 to 3 were assigned for each class. The sum of ranks (values for all times of exposure was compared to T0 and these differences were statistically analyzed. On Micronuclei Test demonstrated do not possible detect significant mutagenic effects in the erythrocytes analyzed. On the other hand, for the Comet Assay, the results suggested genotoxic action of benzene, proper the gradual increase of number of cells with greatest damage class with the greatest of exposure time, indicating an effect time-dependent. These results suggested the most sensibility for the Comet Assay like Micronuclei Test.

  14. Reproductive biology of Steindachnerina insculpta (Fernandez-Yépez) (Teleostei, Curimatidae) in Furnas reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil Biologia reprodutiva de Steindachnerina insculpta (Fernandez-Yépez) (Teleostei, Curimatidae) no reservatório de Furnas, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Vinicius M. A. Ribeiro; Gilmar B. Santos; Nilo Bazzoli

    2007-01-01

    The 'saguiru' Steindachnerina insculpta, a small teleost detritivorous fish species in Furnas reservoir, upper rio Paraná basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, has a prolonged period of reproductive activity that extends from September to March, with fractionated spawning. During gonadal maturation, the females showed a low hepatosomatic index, suggesting that hepatic substances are possibly transferred from liver to ovaries. During the reproductive period, this fish had lower stomach repletion and co...

  15. Tolerância de juvenis do pampo Trachinotus marginatus (Teleostei, Carangidae ao choque agudo de salinidade em laboratório Acute salinity tolerance of juvenile pompano Trachinotus marginatus (Teleostei, Carangidae under laboratory conditions

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    Luís André Sampaio

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O pampo Trachinotus marginatus é uma espécie com potencial para piscicultura, mas a sua utilização pode ser limitada pelas variações de salinidade comuns em estuários ou em ambientes super-salinos. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar a tolerância à salinidade de juvenis de T. marginatus em laboratório. Foram testadas 12 salinidades em duplicata (0, 6, 8, 10, 15, 25, 45, 55, 58, 61, 65 e 75‰ e um tratamento controle (35‰. Dez peixes (comprimento total: 20,7±2,3mm e peso úmido: 427±113mg foram colocados em tanques plásticos de 3L. A temperatura da água foi mantida em 24ºC com um banho termostatisado, aeração constante e, a cada 24 horas, os meios experimentais foram completamente renovados. Após 96 horas de exposição, as salinidades letais médias inferior e superior, com os respectivos intervalos de confiança (IC 95%, foram estimadas em 6,99‰ (IC 95% = 6,86-7,13‰ e 58,50‰ (IC 95% = 56,81-60,24‰, respectivamente. Estes resultados permitem caracterizar esta espécie como eurialina. O estudo da influência da salinidade sobre T. marginatus deve ser aprofundado, buscando avaliar principalmente os efeitos sobre o crescimento, de modo que seja possível determinar o potencial do seu cultivo em ambientes com diferentes salinidades.The pompano Trachinotus marginatus shows good potential for aquaculture, but the success of its culture might be limited by the salinity fluctuations common in estuaries or in hyper-saline environments. The objective of this work was to establish the salinity tolerance of juvenile T. marginatus under laboratory conditions. Twelve salinities (0, 6, 8, 10, 15, 25, 45, 55, 58, 61, 65, and 75‰ plus a control (35‰ were tested in duplicate. Groups of ten fish (total length: 20.7±2,3mm and wet weight: 427±113mg were placed in plastic tanks with 3L of water. A water bath was set to control the temperature at 24ºC, water was continuously aerated, and completely exchanged every 24h. After 96 hours, lower and upper medium lethal salinities and their respective confidence intervals (CI 95% were estimated as 6.99‰ (CI 95% = 6.86-7.13‰, and 58.50‰ (CI 95% = 56.81-60.24‰, respectively. These results allow the characterization of this species as euryhaline. The influence of salinity on T. marginatus should be studied with more detail, with special attention to its effects on growth, in order to determine the potential for T. marginatus culture in different salinities.

  16. Kudoa unicapsula n. sp. (Myxosporea: Kudoidae) a parasite of the Mediterranean mullets Liza ramada and L. aurata (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurakhno, V M; Ovcharenko, M O; Holzer, A S; Sarabeev, V L; Balbuena, J A

    2007-11-01

    A new multivalvulid myxozoan parasite, Kudoa unicapsula n. sp., is described from the intestinal mesentery, intestine and pyloric caeca of the thin-lipped grey mullet Liza ramada (Risso 1826) and the golden grey mullet L. aurata (Risso, 1810) from the Mediterranean coastal waters of Spain. It is characterized by the presence of elongated, rice corn-like white cysts of 0.47-0.56 x 0.18-0.38 mm, filled with tetracapsulate, slightly asymmetric spores, rectangular in apical view and tear-shaped in lateral view with four polar capsules of considerably different size and slightly unequal spore valves with rounded edges, overlapping each other on the apex of the spore. One large polar capsule includes a polar filament coiled in two to three turns, and the other three polar capsules, which are very small, posses only a rudimental filament. Both light and electron microscopy data showed that this species differs from all previously described Kudoa spp. with unequal polar capsules. The molecular analysis based on 18S and 28S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid DNA sequence data of K. unicapsula n. sp. indicates a close relationship and thus phylogenetic clustering together with K. trifolia, a myxozoan from the same host and the same geographical location. PMID:17846792

  17. 5S rDNA characterization in twelve Sciaenidae fish species (Teleostei, Perciformes: depicting gene diversity and molecular markers

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    Fernanda A. Alves-Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to extend the genetic data on the Sciaenidae fish family, the present study had the purpose to characterize PCR-generated 5S rDNA repeats of twelve species of this group through PAGE (Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis analysis. The results showed the occurrence of at least two different 5S rDNA size classes in all the species. Moreover, 5S rDNA repeats of one of the studied species - Isopisthus parvipinnis - were cloned and subjected to nucleotide sequencing and Southern blot membrane hybridization analyses, which permitted to confirm the existence of two major 5S rDNA classes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleotide sequences of different 5S rDNA repeats of I. parvipinnis lead to their separation into two major clusters. These results may reflect the high dynamism that rules the evolution rate of 5S rDNA repeats. The obtained data suggest that 5S rDNA can be useful in genetic analyses to identify species-specific markers and determine relationships among species of the Sciaenidae group.

  18. Description of three new species of Moenkhausia (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae) with the definition of the Moenkhausia jamesi species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrolli, Marina G; Benine, Ricardo C

    2015-01-01

    From the examination of extensive comparative material currently identified as M. jamesi we verified that there are, at least, three new species under this name. These, along with M. jamesi and M. justae, form what we herein called the M. jamesi species complex, by sharing the following group of characters: a short maxilla, with its distal margin not exceeding anterior third of the second infraorbital; first through third teeth of the inner row of premaxilla and first and second dentary teeth with cusps arranged in a pronounced arch, humeral spot positioned between the fourth and seventh scales of the lateral line and extending up to four scale rows above the lateral line and one scale row below the lateral line, and a vertically oval to round spot at the base of the caudal fin rays. Moenkhausia ischyognatha sp. n., from Rio Xingu basin, differs from the other species of the complex by its lower head depth. Moenkhausia alesis sp. n., from the river system Tocantins-Araguaia, differs from M. jamesi, M. ischyognatha, and M. sthenosthoma by the number of scale rows above the lateral line. Moenkhausia sthenosthoma sp. n., from the Rio Madeira basin, differs from M. jamesi by the number of scale rows between the lateral line and the midventral scale series. Moenkhausia justae can be diagnosed from the other species of the complex by having a tri to pentacuspidate tooth on the maxilla. PMID:26250196

  19. Cytogenetic analysis of B chromosomes in one population of the fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907) (Teleostei, Characiformes)

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo Hashimoto; Tatiana Voltolin; Ana Paes; Fausto Foresti; Jehud Bortolozzi; Fabio Porto-Foresti

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize cytogenetically one population of the fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907), with emphasis on the analysis of B chromosomes. The nucleolar activity in the B microchromosomes was characterized, and an analysis of mitotic instability of these microchromosomes was accomplished. The results showed a diploid chromosome number of 50 chromosomes. In all individuals, we observed the presence of B microchromosomes with intra- and inter-individ...

  20. Cytogenetic analysis of B chromosomes in one population of the fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907 (Teleostei, Characiformes

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    Diogo Hashimoto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize cytogenetically one population of the fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907, with emphasis on the analysis of B chromosomes. The nucleolar activity in the B microchromosomes was characterized, and an analysis of mitotic instability of these microchromosomes was accomplished. The results showed a diploid chromosome number of 50 chromosomes. In all individuals, we observed the presence of B microchromosomes with intra- and inter-individual variability. The analysis of the nucleolus organizing regions (NORs by silver nitrate staining demonstrated multiple NORs. We observed active sites of ribosomal DNA in the B microchromosomes, with a frequency of 20% in the analyzed cells, which shows gene activity in these chromosomal elements. The analysis of constitutive heterochromatin patterns showed that the B microchromosomes are heterochromatic or euchromatic, which demonstrates differentiation of DNA composition between these genomic elements. The calculation of the mitotic instability index implied that B chromosomes in this species might be in a final stage of instability.

  1. Cytogenetic analysis of B chromosomes in one population of the fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907) (Teleostei, Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltolin, Diogo Teruo Hashimoto Tatiana Aparecida; Paes, Ana Danyelle Noitel Valim de Arruda; Foresti, Fausto; Bortolozzi, Jehud; Porto-Foresti, Fábio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize cytogenetically one population of the fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907), with emphasis on the analysis of B chromosomes. The nucleolar activity in the B microchromosomes was characterized, and an analysis of mitotic instability of these microchromosomes was accomplished. The results showed a diploid chromosome number of 50 chromosomes. In all individuals, we observed the presence of B microchromosomes with intra- and inter-individual variability. The analysis of the nucleolus organizing regions (NORs) by silver nitrate staining demonstrated multiple NORs. We observed active sites of ribosomal DNA in the B microchromosomes, with a frequency of 20% in the analyzed cells, which shows gene activity in these chromosomal elements. The analysis of constitutive heterochromatin patterns showed that the B microchromosomes are heterochromatic or euchromatic, which demonstrates differentiation of DNA composition between these genomic elements. The calculation of the mitotic instability index implied that B chromosomes in this species might be in a final stage of instability. PMID:24260658

  2. Fine structure of the myxosporean, Henneguya curimata n. sp., parasite of the Amazonian fish, Curimata inormata (Teleostei, Curimatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Carlos; Matos, Edilson

    2002-01-01

    Henneguya curimata n. sp. (Myxozoa, Myxobolidae) is described from the kidney of the teleost Curimata inormata collected in an estuarine region of the Amazon River, near Belém. Brazil. This myxosporean produces large cysts (0.6-1.2 mm in diam.) that represent plasmodia containing all life cycle stages, including spores. The spore body is ellipsoidal (approximately 16.6 microm in length and approximately 6.2 microm in width), and each valve presents a tapering tail (approximately 19.1 microm in length). These valves surround the binucleate sporoplasm cell and two ellipsoidal polar capsules located side-by-side at the same level, measuring 6.5 x 1.2 microm each and containing 10-11 coils of the polar filament. On the basis of its host specificity and on data collected by light and electron microscopy, the organism, H. curimata n. sp. is distinguished as a new species. The taxonomic affinities and morphological comparisons with other similar species of the same genus are discussed. PMID:12120984

  3. Karyotype evolution in Curimatidae (Teleostei, Characiformes) from the Amazon region. II. Centric fissions in the genus Potamorhina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldberg, E; Porto, J I; Nakayama, C M; Bertollo, L A

    1993-04-01

    Using cytogenetic analysis following Giemsa staining, nucleolar organizer region (NOR) staining, and C-banding, three distinct karyotypes in three species of curimatids belonging to the fish genus Potamorhina were identified: 2n = 54/44 M + 10 SM (P. pristigaster), 2n = 56/52 M + 2 SM + 2 ST (P. latior), and 2n = 102/2 M + 2 SM + 98 A (P. altamazonica). A 2n = 54 was considered to be the ancestral diploid number and the different karyotypes were probably the result of centric fissions. Both the NOR pattern and constitutive heterochromatin pattern are species specific. PMID:18469994

  4. Nucleotide sequence, genomic organization and chromosome localization of 5S rDNA in two species of Curimatidae (Teleostei, Characiformes

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    Lessandra Viviane de Rosa Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The 5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA of higher eukaryotes is organized in repeat units of tandem arrays composed of a 5S rDNA coding region, conserved even among non-related taxa, and a variable non-transcribed spacer sequence (NTS. To contribute to knowledge on the organization and evolution of vertebrate 5S rDNA we used PCR, nucleotide sequencing, Southern blot hybridization and chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH to investigate 5S rDNA tandem repeats in the South American Curimatidae fish Steindachnerina insculpta and Cyphocharax modesta. 5S rDNA repeats of 180 base pairs (bp from both species were PCR-generated and sequenced evidencing the shortest 5S rDNA monomer so far described in eukaryote species. Southern blotting revealed that both species contained two tandem 5S rDNA classes, the PCR amplified fragment composed of 180 bp monomers and a class of 1600 bp monomers not detected by PCR. Chromosome mapping of the 5S rDNA repeats identified a major locus in both species and a second minor locus only in C. modesta. The Southern blot and chromosome mapping data indicate the presence of different types of 5S rDNA tandem repeats in the Curimatidae genome.

  5. Reproductive Strategy of Labeobarbus batesii (Boulenger, 1903 (Teleostei: Cyprinidae in the Mbô Floodplain Rivers of Cameroon

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    Claudine Tekounegning Tiogué

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the reproductive strategy of African carp, Labeobarbus batesii, were investigated from May 2008 to October 2009 in the Mbô Floodplain of Cameroon. Samples were collected monthly from artisanal fishermen. The total length and total body mass of each specimen were measured to the nearest mm and 0.01 g, respectively. Sex was determined by macroscopic examination of the gonads after dissection. The sex ratio was female skewed (overall sex ratio: 1 : 1.42. Females reach sexual maturity at a larger size (213 mm than the males (203 mm. The mean gonadosomatic index ranges from 0.32±0.17% to 1.91±1.15%, whereas the mean K factor ranges from 0.90±1.09 to 1.10±0.13. These two parameters are negatively correlated. The reproduction cycle begins in mid-September and ends in July of the next year, and they are reproductively quiescent for the rest of the year. Labeobarbus batesii is a group-synchronous spawner with pulses of synchronised reproduction spread over a long period. The mean absolute, potential, and relative fecundities are 2898±2837 oocytes, 1016±963 oocytes, and 9071±7184 oocytes/kg, respectively. The fecundity is higher and positively correlated with the gonad mass than with body size. Its reproductive biology suggests that L. batesii is suitable for pond culture.

  6. Growth parameters estimates of Maurolicus stehmanni Parin & Kobyliansky 1996 (Teleostei, Sternoptichydae from south and southeastern Brazilian waters

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    Andre Bellucco

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper on the otolith microstructure analysis of Maurolicus stehmanni presents estimates of the species growth parameters and longevity. The species inhabits the outer shelf and slope of the southern and southeastern Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ. Growth parameters are important for the knowledge of the species' life history and rational management. M. stehmanni constitutes an important link between the initial and final components of the alimentary chain of the open sea ecosystem, being one of the main food items for squids and large pelagic fish. Among the various applied methods those which presented the most coherent values for growth parameters and were best adapted to the von Bertallanfy's equation were: Li= 55mm K= 0.0088/day and to= 5.5 days Maurolicus stehmanni's longevity is of less than one year (around 220 days and the sagita daily otolith rings are useful for the determination of its age.Este estudo, baseado na análise da microestrutura dos otólitos de Maurolicus stehmanni, apresenta estimativas dos parâmetros de crescimento e longevidade para esta espécie que habita a plataforma externa e o talude da ZEE sul-sudeste do Brasil. Estes parâmetros são importantes para o conhecimento da estratégia de vida da espécie e para o manejo deste recurso, que constitui um importante elo entre os componentes iniciais e finais da teia alimentar no ecossistema de mar aberto, sendo um dos principais itens na dieta das lulas e grandes peixes pelágicos. Dentre os vários métodos aplicados, os valores dos parâmetros de crescimento mais coerentes com a estratégia da espécie e que melhor se ajustaram à equação de von Bertallanfy foram: Li= 55mm K= 0.0088/dia e to= 5.5 dias. A espécie vive cerca de 220 dias e as marcas diárias nos otólitos sagita são apropriadas para a determinação da idade.

  7. A quantitative description of the reproductive biology of the Mediterranean blenny Aidablennius sphynx (Teleostei, Blenniidae) in its natural habitat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraak, SBM

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the reproductive behaviour of Aidablennius sphynx, which was studied in the field during four breeding seasons. Artificial nest sites were used for the determination of nest contents. The breeding season started at the end of April, when water temperature had just reached 14-15

  8. Potaspora aequidens n. sp. (Microsporidia, Tetramicridae), a parasite infecting the freshwater fish Aequidens plagiozonatus (Teleostei, Cichlidae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videira, Marcela; Casal, Graça; Rocha, Sónia; Gonçalves, Evonnildo; Azevedo, Carlos; Velasco, Michele; Matos, Edilson Rodrigues

    2015-07-01

    Morphological and molecular procedures were used to describe a new species of microsporidian that infects the muscles of the sub-opercular region and the caudal fins of the freshwater Aequidens plagiozonatus in Brazil. This microsporidian forms whitish xenomas containing variable number of spores, reaching up to ~0.4 mm in diameter. The mature spores, pyriformin shape, with slightly round ends, measured 3.4 ± 0.5 μm long and 1.9 ± 0.3 μm wide (n = 50) and showed characteristics typical of Microsporidia. The average thickness of the spore wall was 100 (96-108) nm (n = 50), and the spore wall was composed of two layers, a thin, electron-dense exospore and a thick electron-transparent endospore. The exospore was surrounded by a thin, irregular layer of granular material. The anchoring disc was mushroom-like, located in the apical region of the spore in an eccentric position relative to the spore axis, rendering bilateral asymmetry to the spore. The anterior part of the polar filament (PF) (manubrium) measured approximately 125 (122-128) nm thick (n = 30), and the angle of tilt between the anterior PF and the spore axis was ~45°; the posterior part was packed in 8-9 coils. Phylogenetic analysis showed a strongly supported clade containing family Spragueidae Weissenberg, 1976, family Tetramicridae Matthews and Matthews, 1980, Microsporidium sp. RBS1, and Kabatana spp. In conclusion, the available morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular data shows that this microsporidian is a new species belonging to group 4, classified as Potaspora aequidens n. sp. This is the second species described in the genus Potaspora. PMID:25813455

  9. Crenicichla gillmorlisi, a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from the Paraná river drainage in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullander, Sven O; De Lucena, Carlos A Santos

    2013-01-01

    Crenicichla gillmorlisi, new species, is described from the río Acaray, a right bank tributary to the río Paraná. It is most similar to C. mandelburgeri in proportional measurements and meristics, but differs in colour pattern, adults having the body covered with small spots.

  10. Karyotypic conservatism in samples of Characidium cf. zebra (Teleostei, Characiformes, Crenuchidae): Physical mapping of ribosomal genes and natural triploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2011-04-01

    Basic and molecular cytogenetic analyses were performed in specimens of Characidium cf. zebra from five collection sites located throughout the Tietê, Paranapanema and Paraguay river basins. The diploid number in specimens from all samples was 2n = 50 with a karyotype composed of 32 metacentric and 18 submetacentric chromosomes in both males and females. Constitutive heterochromatin was present at the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and pair 23, had additional interstitial heterochromatic blocks on its long arms. The nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were located on the long arms of pair 23, while the 5S rDNA sites were detected in different chromosomes among the studied samples. One specimen from the Alambari river was a natural triploid and had two extra chromosomes, resulting in 2n = 77. The remarkable karyotypic similarity among the specimens of C. cf. zebra suggests a close evolutionary relationship. On the other hand, the distinct patterns of 5S rDNA distribution may be the result of gene flow constraints during their evolutionary history.

  11. Karyotypic conservatism in samples of Characidium cf. zebra (Teleostei, Characiformes, Crenuchidae: physical mapping of ribosomal genes and natural triploidy

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    José Carlos Pansonato-Alves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic and molecular cytogenetic analyses were performed in specimens of Characidium cf. zebra from five collection sites located throughout the Tietê, Paranapanema and Paraguay river basins. The diploid number in specimens from all samples was 2n = 50 with a karyotype composed of 32 metacentric and 18 submetacentric chromosomes in both males and females. Constitutive heterochromatin was present at the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and pair 23, had additional interstitial heterochromatic blocks on its long arms. The nucleolar organizer regions (NORs were located on the long arms of pair 23, while the 5S rDNA sites were detected in different chromosomes among the studied samples. One specimen from the Alambari river was a natural triploid and had two extra chromosomes, resulting in 2n = 77. The remarkable karyotypic similarity among the specimens of C. cf. zebra suggests a close evolutionary relationship. On the other hand, the distinct patterns of 5S rDNA distribution may be the result of gene flow constraints during their evolutionary history.

  12. Phylogeny and biogeography of 91 species of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) based on sequences of the cytochrome b gene.

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    Pérez, Gustavo A Concheiro; Rícan, Oldrich; Ortí, Guillermo; Bermingham, Eldredge; Doadrio, Ignacio; Zardoya, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    Heroini constitute the second largest tribe of Neotropical cichlids and show their greatest diversity in Mesoamerica. Although heroine species are morphologically and ecologically very diverse, they were all historically assigned to one single genus, Cichlasoma that was never formally revised from a phylogenetic point of view. Here, we present the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the tribe Heroini to date, based on the complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b, and the analysis of 204 individuals representing 91 species. Phylogenetic analyses did not support the monophyly of heroines because the genus Pterophyllum was placed as the sister group of all remaining heroines plus cichlasomatines. However, the recovered relative position of Pterophyllum was without strong statistical support. Within the remaining heroines, Hyspelecara and Hoplarchus are recovered with low support in a basal position with respect to a clade that includes Heros, Uaru, Mesonauta, and Symphysodon, and the circumamazonian (CAM) heroines. The first clade is restricted to South America. The largest clade of heroines, the CAM heroines, include more than 85% of the species within the tribe. This clade is mostly Mesoamerican, but also contains four species found in the Greater Antilles (Nandopsis), and three genera found in South America (the 'Heros' festae group, Australoheros, and Caquetaia). Up to eight major lineages can be recovered within the CAM heroines, but the phylogenetic relationships among them remain unresolved. Two large suprageneric groups can be distinguished, the amphilophines and the herichthyines. The amphilophines include Amphilophus, Archocentrus, Hypsophrys, Neetroplus, Parachromis, Petenia, and five additional unnamed genera (the 'Heros' istlanus group, the 'Amphilophus' calobrensis group, the 'Heros' urophthalmus group, the 'Heros' wesseli group, and the 'Heros' sieboldii group). The herichthyines include the crown-group herichthyines (Herichthys, Theraps, Vieja, and Paratheraps) and the genera Tomocichla, Herotilapia, and Thorichthys, together with three unnamed genera (the 'Heros' umbriferus group, the 'Heros' grammodes group, and the 'Heros' salvini group). Amphilophines are prevalent in southern Mesomerica south of the Motagua fault. Herichthyines have basal linages in Central America, whereas crown-group herichthyines and three related genera are found north from the Motagua fault. At least two independent origins are required to explain current Mesoamerican heroine distribution. Dispersal of heroines from South America into Mesoamerica was dated between 24 and 16 million years ago (MYA) based on geological calibrations and on standard fish mitochondrial cytochrome b rates, respectively. These datings cannot be reconciled with currently known geological evidence, and the existence of a connection between Central America and South America in the Miocene needs to be postulated in order to explain the origins of Mesoamerican heroine lineages. However, our datings agree with those estimated for the dispersal of other secondary freshwater fishes (Rivulidae, Synbranchus) into Mesoamerica, and predate the invasion of primary freshwater fishes by at least 10 myr.

  13. Cytogenetical and morphological features reveal significant differences among Venezuelan and Brazilian samples of Mugil curema (Teleostei: Mugilidae

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    Mauro Nirchio

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Karyotype of M. curema from the Gulf of Mexico and Brazil have been reported as possessing chromosome complement with 2n=28 and FN=48, whereas specimens from Venezuela has been reported as possessing a diploid number 2n=24 and a conserved FN (48. Although at first sight this variation suggests the presence of a chromosomal intraspecific (interpopulational variability, the possibility that we are dealing with two different species was examined. This work revisit the karyotypes of M. curema from Venezuela and Brazil, including new data on C-banding, and NOR localization, and compares morphologic characteristics of samples from both localities. Thus, besides diploid number, the constitutive heterochromatin distribution and NORs location, mark other differences between M. curema Cytotype 1 (2n=28; FN=48 and Cytotype 2 (2n=24; NF=48. Moreover, morphologic comparison revealed differences in the scale counts and pectoral fin rays: 35 scales in the middle body line and 15 pectoral fin rays in specimens possessing the karyotype 2n=28, compared with 37-39 scales in the middle body line and 17 pectoral fin rays in specimens with the karyotype 2n=24. These differences lead us to suggest that both cytotypes are not related merely to geographic polytipic variations but could correspond to different species.Os cariótipos de M. curema do Golfo do México e do Brasil possuem 2n=28 cromossomos e NF=48. Espécimes da Venezuela, entretanto, apresentam um número diplóide de 28 cromossomos e um NF conservado (48. Apesar desta variação sugerir, a princípio, uma variabilidade intraespecífica (interpopulacional, a possibilidade de estarmos perante diferentes espécies foi investigada. O presente trabalho re-analisa os cariótipos de M. curema da Venezuela e do Brasil, incluindo novos dados sobre bandamento C e localização das NORs e compara caracteres merísticos e morfométricos de amostras de ambas as localidades. Assim, junto com o número cromossômico, a heterocromatina constitutiva e a distribuição das NORs trazem outras diferenças entre M. curema Citótipo 1 (2n=48, FN=48 e Citótipo 2 (2n=48, FN=48. Além disso, as comparações dos caracteres morfológicos revelam diferenças nas contagens, com 35 escamas na linha média do corpo e 15 raios nas nadadeiras peitorais nos espécimes com cariótipo 2n=28, já o cariótipo 2n=24 apresenta 37-39 escamas e 17 raios nas peitorais. Essas diferenças sugerem que ambos citótipos não estão relacionados meramente a variações geográficas politípicas mas que podem corresponder a diferentes espécies.

  14. Dynamics of ovarian maturation during the reproductive cycle of Metynnis maculatus, a reservoir invasive fish species (Teleostei: Characiformes

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    Thiago Scremin Boscolo Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the dynamics of ovarian maturation and the spawning processes during the reproductive cycle of Metynnis maculatus. Adult females (n = 36 were collected bimonthly between April 2010 and March 2011. The mean gonadosomatic index (GSI was determined, ovarian and blood samples were submitted for morphometric evaluation and the steroid plasma concentration was determined by ELISA. This species demonstrated asynchronous ovarian development with multiple spawns. This study revealed that, although defined as a multiple spawning species, the ovaries of M. maculatus have a pattern of development with a predominance of vitellogenesis between April and August and have an intensification in spawning in September; in October, a drop in the mean GSI values occurred, and the highest frequencies of post-ovulatory follicles (POFs were observed. We observed a positive correlation between the POF and the levels of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone. Metynnis maculatus has the potential to be used as a source of pituitary tissue for the preparation of crude extracts for hormonal induction; the theoretical period for use is from September to December, but specific studies to determine the feasibility of this approach must be conducted.

  15. Induction of spawning in Capoeta aculeata, (Valenciennes in Cuv. & Val., 1844 (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, using carp pituitary extract

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    Reza Kamali-Far

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Capoeta aculeata is a benthopelagic fresh-water fish that lives in subtropical climates and has awidely distribution in Iranian river basins. Hatchery production of fish for stocking is an important means oftemporarily supplementing insufficient natural reproduction, thus help to maintain or restore eroded fishpopulation. This study was done in May and June 2007 on captured brood fish from Zayandeh-Rood River,Iran in order to reach a suitable technique of artificial reproduction of C. aculeata. Caught brood fish wereinjected with carp pituitary extract at doses of 0.75 and 1.5 milligram per kilogram body weight of fish.Brood fish were tested for ovulation each 12 hours from final injection for 3 days, but no sing of readinessfor spawning was observed. To gain confidence of experiment, the study was repeated after one monthfrom the first try with new fish. The result, however, was the same and didn’t attain to any success.Inadequate information about reproduction biology of this species is one of the most important reasons ofthe negative result. Furthermore, unsuitable hormone and dosages as well as inappropriate injection timescan be probable causes of this failure that should be evaluated in later studies.

  16. Cytotaxonomic diagnosis of Trichomycterus diabolus (Teleostei: Trichomycteridae with comments about its evolutionary relationships with co-generic species

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    Rodrigo A. Torres

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype and the Ag-NOR location of a sample of Trichomycterus diabolus collected in the córrego Hortelã (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil are described. The species exhibited 2n=56 chromosomes (42 metacentrics, 12 submetacentrics and 2 subtelocentrics and the nucleolus organizing region located near to the centromere on the long arm of the largest metacentric pair. The presence of 2n=56 chromosomes in T. diabolus is an interesting characteristic since until now all cis-Andean species karyotyped presented 2n=54 chromosomes while almost all trans-Andean species presented different diploid numbers. The possible origin of this unexpected karyotypic form is discussed.São descritos o cariótipo e a localização das regiões organizadoras de nucléolo (Ag-NOR de uma amostra de Trichomycterus diabolus, coletada no córrego Hortelã (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brasil. A espécie apresentou 2n=56 cromossomos (42 metacêntricos, 12 submetacêntricos e 2 subtelocêntricos e as regiões organizadoras de nucléolo localizadas próximas ao centrômero, no braço longo do maior par metacêntrico. A ocorrência de 2n=56 cromossomos em Trichomycterus diabolus é uma característica interessante, uma vez que, até o momento, todas as espécies cis-Andinas cariotipadas apresentaram 2n=54 cromossomos, enquanto que quase todas as espécies trans-Andinas apresentaram números diplóides diferentes. É discutida a possível origem desta inesperada estrutura cariotípica.

  17. A Ploidy Difference Represents an Impassable Barrier for Hybridisation in Animals. Is There an Exception among Botiid Loaches (Teleostei: Botiidae?

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    Jörg Bohlen

    Full Text Available One of the most efficient mechanisms to keep animal lineages separate is a difference in ploidy level (number of whole genome copies, since hybrid offspring from parents with different ploidy level are functionally sterile. In the freshwater fish family Botiidae, ploidy difference has been held responsible for the separation of its two subfamilies, the evolutionary tetraploid Botiinae and the diploid Leptobotiinae. Diploid and tetraploid species coexist in the upper Yangtze, the Pearl River and the Red River basins in China. Interestingly, the species 'Botia' zebra from the Pearl River basin combines a number of morphological characters that otherwise are found in the diploid genus Leptobotia with morphological characters of the tetraploid genus Sinibotia, therefore the aim of the present study is to test weather 'B.' zebra is the result of a hybridisation event between species from different subfamilies with different ploidy level. A closer morphological examination indeed demonstrates a high similarity of 'B.' zebra to two co-occurring species, the diploid Leptobotia guilinensis and the tetraploid Sinibotia pulchra. These two species thus could have been the potential parental species in case of a hybrid origin of 'B.' zebra. The morphologic analysis further reveals that 'B.' zebra bears even the diagnostic characters of the genera Leptobotia (Leptobotiinae and Sinibotia (Botiinae. In contrast, a comparison of six allozyme loci between 'B.' zebra, L. guilinensis and S. pulchra showed only similarities between 'B.' zebra and S. pulchra, not between 'B.' zebra and L. guilinensis. Six specimens of 'B.' zebra that were cytogenetically analysed were tetraploid with 4n = 100. The composition of the karyotype (18% metacentric, 18% submetacentric, 36% subtelocentric and 28% acrocentric chromosomes differs from those of L. guilinensis (12%, 24%, 20% and 44% and S. pulchra (20%, 26%, 28% and 26%, and cannot be obtained by any combination of genomes from L. guilinensis and S. pulchra. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on sequence data of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the nuclear RAG-1 gene invariably places 'Botia' zebra as sister species to S. pulchra, while L. guilinensis is only distantly related. The presented combination of genetic data demonstrates that 'B.' zebra is not the result of a hybridisation, but a species of tetraploid genus Sinibotia with a striking morphological evolution towards an enormous similarity with a co-occurring, but not directly related species. The complete lack of knowledge of the ecology of these species, their main predators or their ecological interactions hampers any conclusion regarding the evolutionary advantage of such adaptation.

  18. Differentiation and growth of myotomal muscles in a non-model tropical fish Pterophyllum scalare (Teleostei: Cichlidae).

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    Kacperczyk, A; Jędrzejowska, I; Daczewska, M

    2011-12-01

    Somite differentiation, muscle fibres formation and growth were analysed in a non-model tropical fish Pterophyllum scalare. In this study, it was found that during somite differentiation, a primary myotome appears. The primary myotome is filled with multinucleated myotubes that constitute the major part of the somite. Subsequently, Pax-3 (paired-box protein)-positive cells, located externally to the myotomes, appear. In post-hatching stages, mononucleated proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells are observed in the inter-myotomal spaces and within the myotomes. The mononucleated cells, situated in the myotomes, first express desmin in their cytoplasm and then Pax-7 (paired-box protein) in their nuclei. Expression of desmin indicates that they will enter myogenic pathway, whereas expression of Pax-7 suggests their role of satellite cells. We assume that mononucleated intramyotomal cells are myogenic precursors involved in muscle growth. In advanced (post-hatching) stages of myogenesis, myotomes contain both primary and new muscle fibres. Morphometric analyses show that in Pterophyllum scalare, growth of muscle fibres is mainly a result of hypertrophy. PMID:21569078

  19. Temporal and ontogenetic variations in feeding habits of Hollandichthys multifasciatus (Teleostei: Characidae in coastal Atlantic rainforest streams, southern Brazil

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    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the characin Hollandichthys multifasciatus were investigated. Samplings were made between March 2004 and February 2005 in two black water streams of the coastal Atlantic rainforest in southern Brazil. The diet, evaluated by qualitative and quantitative methods, included aquatic and terrestrial insects, decapods, oligochaetes, plants and spiders. Large individuals feed mainly on plants, terrestrial insects, and spiders, whereas small fish feed basically on plants and oligochaetes. The species showed an omnivorous feeding habit, and its diet was composed of autochthonous (mainly oligochaetes and allochthonous (plants and terrestrial insects material.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do caracídeo Hollandichthys multifasciatus. Amostras foram obtidas entre março de 2004 e fevereiro de 2005, em dois riachos de água escura da Floresta Atlântica Costeira do Sul do Brasil. A dieta, avaliada por métodos quantitativos e qualitativos, inclui insetos aquáticos e terrestres, decápodes, oligoquetos aquáticos, plantas e aranhas. Os maiores indivíduos alimentaram-se principalmente de plantas, insetos terrestres e aranhas, enquanto que os menores indivíduos alimentaram-se basicamente de plantas e oligoquetos aquáticos. A espécie apresentou hábito alimentar onívoro, e sua dieta no riacho estudado foi composta por material autóctone (principalmente oligoquetos aquáticos e alóctone (plantas e insetos terrestres.

  20. A complex of species related to Paradiscogaster glebulae (Digenea: Faustulidae) in chaetodontid fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes) of the Great Barrier Reef.

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    Diaz, Pablo E; Bray, Rodney A; Cutmore, Scott C; Ward, Selina; Cribb, Thomas H

    2015-10-01

    A total of 1523 individuals of 34 species of chaetodontids from the Great Barrier Reef were examined for faustulid trematodes. Specimens resembling Paradiscogaster glebulae Bray, Cribb & Barker, 1994 were found in nine chaetodontid species at three localities. These specimens are shown, on the basis of combined morphological and molecular analyses, to comprise a complex of morphologically similar and partly cryptic species. The complex may comprise as many as six distinct species of which three are resolved here. The true P. glebulae is identified in Chaetodon ornatissimus Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon aureofasciatus Macleay, 1878, Chaetodon plebeius Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon rainfordi McCulloch, 1923 and Chaetodon speculum Cuvier, 1831. Two new species are described, Paradiscogaster munozae n. sp. from Heniochus varius (Cuvier, 1829), Heniochus chrysostomus Cuvier, 1831 and Chaetodon citrinellus Cuvier, 1831 and Paradiscogaster melendezi n. sp. from Chaetodon kleinii Bloch, 1790. In terms of morphology the three species differ most clearly in the development of the appendages on the ventral sucker. The three species differ at 3-6consistent bp of ITS2 rDNA. The host-specificity of the three species differs strikingly. P. melendezi n. sp. infects just one fish species, P. glebulae infects species of only one clade of Chaetodon, and P. munozae n. sp. infects quite unrelated species. The basis of this unusual pattern of host-specificity requires further exploration. Two of the species recognised here, P. glebulae and P. munozae n. sp., showed apparent intra-individual variation in the ITS2 rDNA sequences as demonstrated by clear, replicated double peaks in the electropherograms.

  1. Oogenesis: From Oogonia to Ovulation in the Flagfish, Jordanella floridae Goode and Bean, 1879 (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Mari Carmen; Grier, Harry J; García-Alarcón, Adriana; Parenti, Lynne R

    2016-10-01

    We provide histological details of the development of oocytes in the cyprinodontid flagfish, Jordanella floridae. There are six stages of oogenesis: Oogonial proliferation, chromatin nucleolus, primary growth (previtellogenesis [PG]), secondary growth (vitellogenesis), oocyte maturation and ovulation. The ovarian lamellae are lined by a germinal epithelium composed of epithelial cells and scattered oogonia. During primary growth, the development of cortical alveoli and oil droplets, are initiated simultaneously. During secondary growth, yolk globules coalesce into a fluid mass. The full-grown oocyte contains a large globule of fluid yolk. The germinal vesicle is at the animal pole, and the cortical alveoli and oil droplets are located at the periphery. The disposition of oil droplets at the vegetal pole of the germinal vesicle during late secondary growth stage is a unique characteristic. The follicular cell layer is composed initially of a single layer of squamous cells during early PG which become columnar during early vitellogenesis. During primary and secondary growth stages, filaments develop among the follicular cells and also around the micropyle. The filaments are seen extending from the zona pellucida after ovulation. During ovulation, a space is evident between the oocyte and the zona pellucida. Asynchronous spawning activity is confirmed by the observation that, after ovulation, the ovarian lamellae contain follicles in both primary and secondary growth stages; in contrast, when the seasonal activity of oogenesis and spawning ends, after ovulation, the ovarian lamellae contain only follicles in the primary growth stage. J. Morphol. 277:1339-1354, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. General characteristics of the diet of Trachinotus paitensis (Teleostei: Carangidae) from San Ignacio Lagoon, Baja California Sur, Mexico.

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    Cruz Escalona, V H; Abitia Cárdenas, L A

    2004-03-01

    The food habits of Trachinotus paitensis, in San Ignacio Lagoon B.C.S., Mexico, were investigated. We observed that T. paitensis is carnivorous, feeding mainly on benthic invertebrates (the gastropods Anachis spp., Bittium spp., and the crustacean larvae). We concluded that T. paitensis is an opportunist predator that impacts mainly on epibenthic invertebrates.

  3. A systematic review of diapoma (teleostei: characiformes: characidae: stevardiinae: diapomini with descriptions of two new species from southern Brazil

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    Naércio A. Menezes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diapoma is reviewed and four species are recognized: (1 Diapoma thauma, new species, from streams of the rio Jacuí basin, state of Rio Grande do Sul; (2 D. pyrrhopteryx, new species collected from the rio Canoas and streams flowing into this basin in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, Brazil; (3 Diapoma terofali, from streams flowing into rio Uruguay in Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and streams flowing into rio de la Plata, Argentina; and (4 Diapoma speculiferum, from lowland coastal streams in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and Uruguay. Diapoma pyrrhopteryx possess the posteroventral opercular elongation typical of D. speculiferum, type species of the genus, but which is absent in D. thauma and D. terofali. Nonetheless, all the diapomin species have the caudal pouch organ about equally developed in both sexes and the dorsal portion of the pouch opening bordered by a series of 3 to 8 elongated scales, the two derived features that characterize the group. The two previously described species, D. speculiferum and D. terofali, are redescribed. Previous hypotheses of relationships among the diapomin genera Planaltina, Diapoma and Acrobrycon are discussed on the basis of preliminary morphological information. It is proposed that the Diapomini is a monophyletic group. An identification key, information on sexual dimorphism, gonad anatomy, reproductive mode and distribution of the species of Diapoma are provided.

  4. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the emerald rock cod, Trematomus bernacchii (Teleostei: Perciformes) in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Cipriani, Paolo; Pankov, Plamen; Lawton, Scott P

    2015-10-01

    Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. is described from the gill blood vessels of the emerald rock cod Trematomus bernacchii in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. It is distinguished from all other species of Aporocotyle by its body tegument showing single conical spines, spinous buccal capsule, and genital atrium positioned medially; all congeners described to date are characterized by clusters of tegumental spines, unspined buccal capsule and genital atrium located in the lateral part of the body. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. clearly differs from A. notothenia (the only other species of Aporocotyle found in a perciform fish) in its shape and arrangement of tegumental spines, buccal capsule features, location of genital atrium, body size, ratio of esophagus/body length, anterior caeca/posterior caeca ratio, number of testes, cirrus sac and ovary size and shape, and host. The new species is easily distinguished from A. argentinensis (the species that most closely resembles A. michaudi) by the shape and arrangement of tegumental spines, buccal capsule features, genital atrium location, left anterior caecum longer than right, esophagus/body length ratio, number of testes, cirrus sac size and shape, host and molecular analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of partial 28S rDNA genetic data showed that sequences representing the new species form a distinct clade with all other sequences for species of Aporocotyle and appear basal within the genus. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. represents the only species of genus described in Antarctica. PMID:25979611

  5. Local ecological and taxonomic knowledge of snapper fish (Teleostei: Actinopterygii held by fishermen in Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil

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    Camilla Fahning Ferreira Caló

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Local Ecological and Taxonomic Knowledge (LEK of fish held by fishermen in the municipality of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, known as the snapper ("vermelho" was examined from August 2005 to November 2006. Semi-structured interviews and tests were made with fishermen selected under the criteria of "specialists". The data analysis followed the union model of the different individual competences. Grouping analysis was performed on data referring to the localities of the occurrence of these fish, depth, coloration, and morphological characteristics of the species using the Pearson correlation coefficient (UPGMA. A total of 19 species were named within the snapper group, although three of them could not be scientifically identified. The Lutjanidae family presented the greatest numbers of species (n = 9. Other families mentioned were: the Serranidae (n = 3, Holocentridae (n = 2, Priacanthidae (n = 1, Mullidae (n = 1. The 1:1 correspondence between fishermen's local names and scientific species observed in this study indicates the richness of local fishermen knowledge. Analysis of the LEK related to the feeding habits of these fish and indicated that most were considered as being carnivorous, which agrees with the specialized literature consulted. In terms of their spatial distribution, two categories were detected: locality of occurrence (rivers/sea, coast, and offshore and depth (surface, mid-depth, mid-depth/deep, deep. The fish were considered locally to be "winter fish", based on harvested yields. Most of the interviewees knew little about the reproductive aspects of these fish. The main criteria used to identify, name, and classify the species were based on color and morphological aspects. Much of the information gathered in this study agreed with the published literature, which strengthens the importance of including LEK in planning and decision-making processes.

  6. Integrative taxonomy of Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae (Nematoda) in Paralichthys patagonicus and Xystreurys rasile (Pisces: Teleostei) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Michelle Cristie Gonçalves da; Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza Nunes; Di Azevedo, Maria Isabel N; Torres, Eduardo José Lopes; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; São Clemente, Sérgio Carmona de

    2016-10-17

    Thirty-six Paralichthys patagonicus and 30 Xystreurys rasile were collected in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to investigate the presence of anisakid and raphidascaridid nematodes. Anisakis typica, Terranova sp., Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. were identified using integrative taxonomy of morphological and genetic data. Morphological and morphometric analysis was conducted using bright field microscopy with scanning electron microscopy for topographic characterization of the cuticular surface. Phylogenetic analysis, using ITS and cox2 molecular targets, clearly demonstrated the species identification of A. typica and H. deardorffoverstreetorum and the high diversity of H. deardorffoverstreetorum. This is the first report of A. typica, H. deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. parasitizing P. patagonicus and X. rasile.

  7. Molecular Identification and Traceability of Illegal Trading in Lignobrycon myersi (Teleostei: Characiformes), a Threatened Brazilian Fish Species, Using DNA Barcode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Alexandre dos Santos; Brandão, José Henrique Souza Galdino; Bitencourt, Jamille de Araújo; Jucá-Chagas, Ricardo; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horácio

    2016-01-01

    Lignobrycon myersi is a threatened freshwater fish species and endemic of a few coastal rivers in northeastern Brazil. Even though the Brazilian laws prohibit the fisheries of threatened species, L. myersi is occasionally found in street markets, being highly appreciated by local population. In order to provide a reliable DNA barcode dataset for L. myersi, we compared mitochondrial sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) from fresh, frozen, and salt-preserved specimens. Phylogenetically related species (Triportheus spp.) and other fish species (Astyanax fasciatus) commonly mixed with L. myersi in street markets were also included to test the efficiency of molecular identification. In spite of the differences in conservation processes and advanced deterioration of some commercial samples, high-quality COI sequences were obtained and effective in discriminating L. myersi specimens. In addition, while populations from Contas and Almada River basins seem to comprise a single evolutionary lineage, the specimens from Cachoeira River were genetically differentiated, indicating population structuring. Therefore, DNA barcoding has proved to be useful to trace the illegal trading of L. myersi and to manage threatened populations, which should focus on conservation of distinct genetic stocks and mitigation on human impacts along their range. PMID:27668281

  8. Karyological characterization of four Neotropical fish species of the genus Hisonotus (Teleostei, Loricariidae, Hypoptopomatinae from distinct Brazilian river basins

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    Artur Antonio Andreata

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotypes of four Hisonotus species (two provisionally-named species A and D, H. nigricauda, and H. leucofrenatus were found to have the same diploid number of 2n = 54 and interstitial silver-staining nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs located on the long arm of the largest metacentric pair. The C-banding pattern appeared to be species-specific, with one group (H. nigricauda and the unnamed species A and D being characterized by small amounts of positive C-banded segments and containing a sub-group (species A and D identified by a large positive C-banded segment on a small metacentric chromosome pair. The second group contained different samples of H. leucofrenatus, characterized by a larger amount of C-band positive segments spread over several chromosome arms. Heterochromatin appears to play an important evolutionary role in chromosome differentiation in Hisonotus species, especially in H. leucofrenatus. The geographic isolation of several H. leucofrenatus populations seems to have favored chromosome evolution of each sample analyzed.

  9. Biological performance of Asian catfish (Clarias batrachus) (Teleostei, Clariidae) cultured in recirculating aquaculture system

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmat Fadhil; Johari Endan; Farah S. Taip; Muhammad S. b. Hj. Ja’afar

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the biological performance of Asian catfish in RAS by using4 tanks (3 culture tanks and 1 sedimentation tank) measuring 2 m x 1 m x 0.60 m with a volume of 900liters and bio-filter as water purification unit. The numbers of catfish cultured in each tank were as manyas 300 fish i each tank, with a size of 5-8 cm (Tank 1), 8-12 cm (Tank 2) and 12-15 cm (Tank 3),respectively. This study was conducted for 30 days (August-September 2010) by considering the waterqu...

  10. Phylogeny of the Labeoninae (Teleostei, Cypriniformes) based on nuclear DNA sequences and implications on character evolution and biogeography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanping ZHENG; Junxing YANG; Xiaoyong CHEN

    2012-01-01

    The Labeoninae is a subfamily of the family Cyprinidae,Order Cypriniformes.Oromandibular morphology within the Labeoninae is the greatest among cyprinid fishes.Although several phylogenetic studies about labeonines have been undertaken the results have been inconsistent and a comprehensive phylogeny is needed.Further,an incongruence between morphological and molecular phylogeny requires a systematic exploration of the significance of morphological characters on the basis of the molecular phylogeny.In this study,a total of 292 nucleotide sequences from 73 individuals (representing 24 genera and 73 species) of Labeoninae were analyzed.The results of the phylogenetic analysis indicate that there are four major clades within Labeoninae and three monophyletic lineages within the fourth clade.Results of the character evolution show that all oromandibular morphological characters are homoplastically distributed on the molecular phylogenetic tree and suggests that these characters evolved several times during the history of labeonines.In particular,the labeonine,a specific disc on the lower lip,has been acquired three times and reversed twice.These morphological characters do not have systematic significance but can be useful for taxonomy.The results of biogeography suggest that the Labeoninae originated from Southeast Asia and separately dispersed to Africa,East Asia and South Asia.

  11. Genetic variability in Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae from the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

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    Maria Dolores Peres

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Allozyme data was used to assess the genetic diversity Astyanax altiparanae populations from the floodplain of the Upper Paraná River (PR. Specimens were collected in the southern Brazilian state of Paraná from PR in Porto Rico municipality and Ribeirão Ficha (RF in Ubiratã municipality. The authors used 15% (w/v corn starch gel electrophoresis to identify 21 putative loci for 13 enzymatic systems: Aspartate aminotransferase, 2.6.1.1 (AAT, Acid phosphatase, 3.1.3.2 (ACP, Esterase, 3.1.1.1 (EST, Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.8 (G3PDH, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.49 (G6PDH, Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, 5.3.1.9 (GPI, Iditol dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.14 (IDDH, Isocitrate dehydrogenase - NADP+, 1.1.1.42 (IDH, L-Lactate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.27 (LDH, Malate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.37 (MDH, Malate dehydrogenase - NADP+, 1.1.1.40 (MDHP, Phosphoglucomutase, 5.4.2.2 (PGM, and Superoxide dismutase, 1.15.1.1 (SOD. The proportion of polymorphic loci were estimated as 52.38% in the PR population and 38.10% in the RF population. Expected estimated heterozygosities were 0.1518 ± 0.0493 for the PR population and 0.0905 ± 0.0464 for the RF population. The A. altiparanae heterozygosity data were similar to previous estimates for other PR basin characid species. Allele frequencies were significantly different between the PR and RF populations in respect to some loci (Acp-1, G3pdh-1, Gpi-A, Iddh-1, Mdhp-1 and Mdhp-2. Wright’s statistics for all loci were estimated as Fis = 0.3919, Fit = 0.4804 and Fst = 0.1455. Our results show that the A. altiparanae populations studied are genetically different and have a high degree of genetic variability.

  12. Glyptothorax mibangi, a new species of catfish (Teleostei: Sisoridae) from the Tisa River, Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darshan, Achom; Dutta, Rashmi; Kachari, Akash; Gogoi, Budhin; Das, Debangshu Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Glyptothorax mibangi, a new sisorid catfish, is described from the Tisa River of Arunachal Pradesh, India. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners in the Ganga-Brahmaputra and Barak-Surma-Meghna basins by the following combination of characters: an obtuse leaf-shaped thoracic adhesive apparatus with a spindle-shaped median depression, skin ridges present over the entire apparatus including the depressed region; ventral surface of pectoral spine and first pelvic-fin ray non-plaited; slender body with depth of 10.4-13.5% SL; caudal peduncle shallow with depth 6.8-8.3% SL; snout long with length 52.9-58.6% HL; and 2+7 gill rakers on the first branchial arch.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships and timing of diversification in gonorynchiform fishes inferred using nuclear gene DNA sequences (Teleostei: Ostariophysi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Thomas J; Dornburg, Alex; Friedman, Matt

    2014-11-01

    The Gonorynchiformes are the sister lineage of the species-rich Otophysi and provide important insights into the diversification of ostariophysan fishes. Phylogenies of gonorynchiforms inferred using morphological characters and mtDNA gene sequences provide differing resolutions with regard to the sister lineage of all other gonorynchiforms (Chanos vs. Gonorynchus) and support for monophyly of the two miniaturized lineages Cromeria and Grasseichthys. In this study the phylogeny and divergence times of gonorynchiforms are investigated with DNA sequences sampled from nine nuclear genes and a published morphological character matrix. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses reveal substantial congruence among individual gene trees with inferences from eight genes placing Gonorynchus as the sister lineage to all other gonorynchiforms. Seven gene trees resolve Cromeria and Grasseichthys as a clade, supporting previous inferences using morphological characters. Phylogenies resulting from either concatenating the nuclear genes, performing a multispecies coalescent species tree analysis, or combining the morphological and nuclear gene DNA sequences resolve Gonorynchus as the living sister lineage of all other gonorynchiforms, strongly support the monophyly of Cromeria and Grasseichthys, and resolve a clade containing Parakneria, Cromeria, and Grasseichthys. The morphological dataset, which includes 13 gonorynchiform fossil taxa that range in age from Early Cretaceous to Eocene, was analyzed in combination with DNA sequences from the nine nuclear genes and a relaxed molecular clock to estimate times of evolutionary divergence. This "tip dating" strategy accommodates uncertainty in the phylogenetic resolution of fossil taxa that provide calibration information in the relaxed molecular clock analysis. The estimated age of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of living gonorynchiforms is slightly older than estimates from previous node dating efforts, but the molecular tip dating estimated ages of Kneriinae (Kneria, Parakneria, Cromeria, and Grasseichthys) and the two paedomorphic lineages, Cromeria and Grasseichthys, are considerably younger.

  14. A popular and potentially sustainable fishery resource under pressure–extinction risk and conservation of Brazilian Sciaenidae (Teleostei: Perciformes

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    Ning Labbish Chao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Croakers (Sciaenidae are major fishery resource in Brazil; constituting 22% of marine and 9% of freshwater fishery landings. Croakers are subject to heavy fishing pressure throughout Brazil, but habitat alteration is also an important threat to regional populations. In this regional Sciaenidae assessment, each species was analyzed for relative risk of extinction, including the identification and quantification of the impact of major threats and existing conservation measures, based on application of the Categories and Criteria of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Of the 52 species of Sciaenid fishes (34 marine and 18 freshwater present in Brazilian waters, the majority are at low risk of extinction, with 10 species classified as Data Deficient (DD and 36 as Least Concern (LC. However the Southern black drum (Pogonias cromis, listed as Endangered (EN is the most threatened species in the region, while three other species are classified as Near Threatened (NT. A large portion of Brazilian croakers is landed by small-scale artisanal fisheries, which are scattered along coastal and riverine communities. However, our assessments reveal that available fishery landing statistics may have greatly underestimated the artisanal fishery production and by-catch of Sciaenids. We recommend establishing, with adequate enforcement, coastal and riverine protected areas as well as strategic fishing seasons to improve and maintain the conservation status of Sciaenids and sustainable Sciaenid fisheries.

  15. UNE NOUVELLE ESPÈCE DE TOMETES (TELEOSTEI : CHARACIDAE : SERRASALMINAE DU BOUCLIER GUYANAIS, TOMETES LEBAILI N. SP.

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    JÉGU M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Tometes lebaili n. sp. diffère de Tometes trilobatus Valenciennes, 1850, par la position de la bouche, oblique et dirigée vers le haut. T. lebaili présente 7 à 8 dents à la série labiale du dentaire contre 5 chez T. trilobatus. T. trilobatus, citée des rapides de l’Araguari (Amapá, Brésil à l’Oyapock (Guyane française, est remplacée plus à l’ouest par T. lebaili n. sp., décrite de la Mana (Guyane fr. au Commewine (Surinam et peut-être présente dans le Sinnamary. La taille maximale observée pour T. lebaili est de 512 mm LS.

  16. A new myxozoan parasite from the Amazonian fish Metynnis argenteus (Teleostei, Characidae): light and electron microscope observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Graça; Matos, Edilson; Azevedo, Carlos

    2006-08-01

    Myxobolus metynnis n. sp. (Phylum Myxozoa) is described in the connective subcutaneous tissues of the orbicular region of the fish, Metynnis argenteus (Characidae), collected in the lower Amazon River, near the city of Peixe Boi, Pará State, Brazil. Polysporic, histozoic plasmodia were delimited by a double membrane with numerous microvilli on the peripheral cytoplasm. Several life-cycle stages, including mature spores, were observed. An envelope formed by numerous fine and anastomosed microfibrils was observed at the spore surface. The spore body presented an ellipsoidal shape and was about 13.1 microm long, 7.8 microm wide, and 3.9 microm thick. Elongated-pyriform polar capsules were of equal size, measuring 5.2 microm in length, 3.2 microm in width, and possessing a polar filament with 8-9 turns around the longitudinal axis. The binucleated sporoplasm contained a vacuole and numerous sporoplasmosomes. These were circular in cross-section, showing an adherent eccentric, dense structure, with a half-crescent section. Based on the morphological differences and host specificity, we propose that the parasite is a new species named Myxobolus metynnis n. sp.

  17. A new Pseudophoxinus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae species from Southwestern Anatolia, with remarks on the distribution of the genus in western Anatolia

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    Fahrettin Küçük

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pseudophoxinus burduricus sp. n. is described from drainages of Salda and Burdur lakes, southwestern Turkey. It is distinguished from other Anatolian Pseudophoxinus by a combination of characters: lateral line incomplete, with 21–39 (commonly 26–37 perforated scales and 47–57+1-2 scales in lateral series; 10½–12½ scale rows between lateral line and dorsal fin origin, 3–4(5 scale rows between lateral line and the pelvic fin origin; dorsal fin commonly with 7½ branched rays; anal fin commonly with 6½ branched rays; 7–8(9 gill rakers on the first branchial arch; a faint and diffuse epidermal black stripe from eye to caudal fin base in alive and preserved individuals; mouth slightly subterminal, tip of mouth cleft on about level of lower margin of eye; snout rounded, its length greater than eye diameter. Comparison is given with all Pseudophoxinus species from western Anatolia.

  18. Systematic status of Systomus rubrotinctus Jerdon (Teleostei: Cyprinidae with notes on the Puntius arulius group of fishes

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    J.D.M. Knight

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Systomus rubrotinctus Jerdon has long been considered a synonym of Puntius arulius. Examination of ‘P. arulius’ collected from various parts of the Western Ghats revealed the presence of two distinct species: and the fish considered by Day as ‘P. arulius’ from Wayanad is in fact P. rubrotinctus. Based on the colour pattern, morphometrics and meristics, P. rubrotinctus is retrieved from the synonymy of P. arulius and redescribed. Puntius rubrotinctus can be distinguished from P. arulius by the unique colour pattern consisting of three well-defined black blotches on the body, two scales high and three scales wide, as distinct from the diffused blotches in P. arulius. It further differs from P. arulius in having a shorter dorsal-to-hypural distance (49.8-54.6 % SL, vs. 57.3-57.6 % SL, a smaller interorbital width (28.4-35.6 % HL, vs. 39.1-39.7 % HL and a higher number of gill rakers (10-11 in the first gill arch, vs. 8. Puntius rubrotinctus is wide distributed in the Cauvery River and its tributaries in the Western Ghats region across the states of Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The results revalidate the identity of the ‘Puntius filamentosus group’ of previous authors drawing attention to the presence of intermediate forms among this group, in which natural hybrids appear to occur, of which P. exclamatio may be one.

  19. Apistogramma ortegai (Teleostei: Cichlidae), a new species of cichlid fish from the Ampyiacu River in the Peruvian Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britzke, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Kullander, Sven O

    2014-10-02

    Apistogramma ortegai, new species, is described from small streams tributaries of the Ampiyacu River near Pebas, in eastern Peru. It belongs to the Apistogramma regani species group and is distinguished from all other species of Apistogramma by the combination of contiguous caudal spot to bar 7, presence of abdominal stripes, short dorsal-fin lappets in both sexes, absence of vertical stripes on the caudal fin, and reduced number of predorsal and prepelvic scales.

  20. A southern species of the tropical catfish genus Phractocephalus (Teleostei: Siluriformes) in the Miocene of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpelicueta, María de las Mercedes; Cione, Alberto Luis

    2016-04-01

    Catfish bones from Tortonian (Miocene) freshwater beds of central Argentina are here identified as pertaining to a new species of the tropical pimelodid genus Phractocephalus. The new species differs from the other recent and fossil species of the genus in skull, pectoral girdle and spine characters. The material was found in different localities near the city of Paraná, Entre Ríos Province. The bearing horizon is the so-called "Conglomerado osífero" which constitutes the lowermost beds of the fluvial Ituzaingó Formation. The aquatic vertebrate fauna occurring in the bearing bed shows a similar generic composition to several northern South American Miocene units where Phractocephalus remains were found. This report extends the range of Phractocephalus more than 2000 km to the South. The record is in agreement with higher global temperatures and putative ample hydrographic connections of the river basins in the Paraná area with the Amazon basin until at least the early late Miocene.

  1. Experimentally induced pigment changes in small African 'Barbus' (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): Synonymy of 'Barbus' amphigramma and 'Barbus' taitensis with 'Barbus' paludinosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farm, Brian P.

    2001-01-01

    Pigmentation in fishes is known to be variable both among individuals of a species and within individuals over time. Use of pigment characters for taxonomic diagnoses must, therefore, be carefully considered. I present experimental evidence showing that pigment characters previously considered diagnostic for three small African 'Barbus' species may differ between living and preserved specimens and that lasting changes in these characters can be induced experimentally by placing fishes in a different, less turbid environment. Lateral line pigmentation and presence of a spot on the caudal peduncle showed significant changes that resulted in different species identifications before and after the experiment. These pigment patterns are thereby shown to be labile, nontrenchant characters having little or no diagnostic utility. 'Barbus' amphigramma Boulenger, 1903, and 'Barbus' taitensis Gu??nther, 1894, are thus shown to be junior synonyms of 'Barbus' paludinosus Peters, 1852.

  2. [Association of sardine fishery, Sardinella aurita (Teleostei: Clupeidae) and environmental variability of the coastal upwelling ecosystem of Nueva Esparta, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzźlez, Leo W; Euán, Jorge; Eslava, Nora; Suniaga, Jesús

    2007-03-01

    The present research is an analysis of Spanish sardine fishing (Sardinella aurita) associated with some climatic and meteorologic parameters of the ecosystem from El Morro Nueva Esparta, Venezuela. The catch and environmental data from the area were taken in the period 1996-2000. Catch data as a function of wind speed, sea surface temperature, air temperature and rain were analyzed by means of simple lineal regression and multiple models. We found a positive correlation of catch with wind speed, and a negative correlation with sea surface temperature, air temperature, and rain. The multiple regression model with intercept had a poor fit, therefore, we made a model without intercept, which improve greatly the fit. A selection of the variables using the forward procedure verified that the independent variables "wind speed" and "air temperature" have a significant relation with catch (p < 0.001) at real time. This method suggests that sea surface temperature and rain have little influence on the catch, and suggests a major availability of resources in the months with low air temperature and the highest wind speed (January-June). Rev. PMID:18457137

  3. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Microcotyle pancerii (Monogenea: Polyopisthocotylea: Microcotylidae), parasite of meagre Argyrosomus regius (Pisces: Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Joséphine; Marchand, Bernard

    2009-04-01

    The present work deals with the ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Microcotyle pancerii, a gill parasite of meagre Argyrosomus regius collected in Corsican fish farms. Spermiogenesis was rather similar to that observed in other polyopisthocotylean Monogenea. The intercentriolar body was different from that described in digeneans. The nuclear condensation occurred in 2 successive stages. First, during the nuclear migration in the median cytoplasmic process, the nucleus developed a honeycomb-like appearance. Then, after the flagellar fusion, a discontinuous twisting of the chromatin appeared along the nucleus, with this process ending in total nuclear condensation. The structure of the spermatozoon is characterized by 2 axonemes (9 + "1" pattern), a single and continuous field of cortical microtubules, a mitochondrion, and a nucleus. Our findings were compared with various ultrastructural features in order to highlight variability within the group. PMID:18817455

  4. Lamellodiscus sanfilippoi n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae parasite branchial de Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae en Méditerranée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine F.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Lamellodiscus sanfilippoi n. sp. entre, parmi les Lamellodiscus, dans le sous-groupe “ergensi” (Amine et Euzet, 2005, caractérisé par la morphologie des barres latérales dorsales du hapteur. Ce sous-groupe comprend, en Méditerranée, L. ergensi Euzet et Oliver, 1966, L. kechemirae Amine et Euzet, 2005 et L. tomentosus Amine et Euzet, 2005 parasites de Diplodus sargus, ainsi que L. baeri Oliver, 1974 parasite de Pagrus pagrus. L. sanfilippoi se distingue de ces espèces par la morphologie et la taille des barres latérales dorsales du hapteur. L’espèce se rapproche de Lamellodiscus furcillatus Kritsky, Jiménez-Ruíz et Sey, 2000, parasite de Diplodus noct du golfe Persique, mais s’en distingue par l’épaisseur des pièces du hapteur et la morphologie de l’appareil copulateur mâle. Lamellodiscus gussevi Sanfilippo (1978 et Lamellodiscus abbreviatus Sanfilippo (1978 sont considérés comme des nomina nuda.

  5. Two new species of Haliotrema (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) from Acanthurus nigrofuscus and Acanthurus olivaceus (Teleostei: Acanthuridae) in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan; Kritsky, Delane C; Yang, Tingbao

    2007-08-01

    Haliotrema leporinus n. sp. and Haliotrema pratasensis n. sp. are described from the gills of surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae) off the Pratas Islands in the South China Sea. Haliotrema leporinus n. sp. differs from all other members of the genus by possessing a rabbit-head-shaped sclerotized piece in the haptor. Haliotrema pratasensis n. sp. differs from its congeners by having a copulatory organ with a clockwise coil and a funnel-shaped base and by lacking an accessory piece. PMID:17918356

  6. Lamellodiscus sanfilippoi n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) parasite branchial de Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae) en Méditerranée

    OpenAIRE

    Amine F.; Neifar L.; Euzet L.

    2006-01-01

    Lamellodiscus sanfilippoi n. sp. entre, parmi les Lamellodiscus, dans le sous-groupe “ergensi” (Amine et Euzet, 2005), caractérisé par la morphologie des barres latérales dorsales du hapteur. Ce sous-groupe comprend, en Méditerranée, L. ergensi Euzet et Oliver, 1966, L. kechemirae Amine et Euzet, 2005 et L. tomentosus Amine et Euzet, 2005 parasites de Diplodus sargus, ainsi que L. baeri Oliver, 1974 parasite de Pagrus pagrus. L. sanfilippoi se distingue de ces espèces par la morphologie et la...

  7. [Lamellodiscus sanfilippoi n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) parasite from the gills of Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae) in Mediterranean Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, F; Neifar, L; Euzet, L

    2006-03-01

    Lamellodiscus sanfilippoi n. sp. takes place, among the other species of Lamellodiscus, in the "ergensi" sub-group (Amine et Euzet, 2005) characterized by the morphology of the dorsal lateral bars of the haptor. This sub-group comprises, in the Mediterranean, L. ergensi Euzet and Oliver, 1966, L. kechemirae Amine and Euzet, 2005, L. tomentosus Amine and Euzet, 2005, all parasite of Diplodus sargus, and L. baeri Oliver, 1974 parasite of Pagrus pagrus. L. sanfilippoi can be distinguished from the previous species by the morphology and size of the dorsal lateral bars. The new species is close to Lamellodiscus furcillatus Kritsky, Jiménez-Ruiz and Sey, 2000, a parasite of Diplodus noct in the Persian Gulf, but differs by the size of the haptoral sclerotised pieces and the morphology of the male copulatory apparatus. Lamellodiscus gussevi Sanfilippo (1978) et Lamellodiscus abbreviatus Sanfilippo (1978) are considered as nomina nuda. PMID:16605066

  8. Ontogenetic shape changes in Pomacentridae (Teleostei, Perciformes) and their relationships with feeding strategies: a geometric morphometric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Frederich, Bruno; Adriaens, Dominique; Vandewalle, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The present study explores the shape changes of cranial structures directly involved in food capturing during growth after reef settlement in two species of Pomacentridae (Dascyllus aruanus and Pomacentrus pavo). Landmark-based geometric morphometrics were used to study allometric patterns and related shape changes in four skeletal units: neurocranium, suspensorium and opercle, mandible and premaxilla. At settlement, the larvae of both species have a relatively similar morphology, especially ...

  9. Evolutionary patterns of shape and functional diversification in the skull and jaw musculature of triggerfishes (Teleostei: Balistidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Charlene L; Westneat, Mark W

    2016-06-01

    The robust skull and highly subdivided adductor mandibulae muscles of triggerfishes provide an excellent system within which to analyze the evolutionary processes underlying phenotypic diversification. We surveyed the anatomical diversity of balistid jaws using Procrustes-based geometric morphometric analyses and a phylomorphospace approach to quantifying morphological transformation through evolution. We hypothesized that metrics of interspecific cranial shape would reveal patterns of phylogenetic diversification that are congruent with functional and ecological transformation. Morphological landmarks outlining skull and adductor mandibulae muscle shape were collected from 27 triggerfish species. Procrustes-transformed skull shape configurations revealed significant phylogenetic and size-influenced structure. Phylomorphospace plots of cranial shape diversity reveal groupings of shape between different species of triggerfish that are mostly consistent with phylogenetic relatedness. Repeated instances of convergence upon similar cranial shape by genetically disparate taxa are likely due to the functional demands of shared specialized dietary habits. This study shows that the diversification of triggerfish skulls occurs via modifications of cranial silhouette and the positioning of subdivided jaw adductor muscles. Using the morphometric data collected here as input to a biomechanical model of triggerfish jaw function, we find that subdivided jaw adductors, in conjunction with a unique cranial skeleton, have direct biomechanical consequences that are not always congruent with phylomorphospace patterns in the triggerfish lineage. The integration of geometric morphometrics with biomechanical modeling in a phylogenetic context provides novel insight into the evolutionary patterns and ecological role of muscle subdivisions in triggerfishes. J. Morphol. 277:737-752, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26997352

  10. Morphometric variation of the Herichthys bartoni (Bean, 1892 species group (Teleostei: Cichlidae: How many species comprise H. labridens (Pellegrin, 1903?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mejía

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cichlids of the tribe Heroini have long been a source of taxonomical conflict. In particular, the species included in the Herichthys bartoni group have failed to be recovered as monophyletic in different molecular studies. In this paper we use traditional and geometric morphometrics to evaluate morphological variation in the species included in the H. bartoni complex in order to evaluate the number of species it contains. An update of a previously published DNA barcoding study suggests the existence of three genetic clusters that included the six recognized species analyzed in this study, none of them recovered as monophyletic. On the other hand, geometric morphometrics arise as a useful tool to discriminate species due that traditional morphometrics showed a high overlap in the characters analyzed that prevents the proposal of diagnostic characters.

  11. Populations of Odontesthes (Teleostei: Atheriniformes) in the Andean region of Southern South America: body shape and hybrid individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Conte-Grand; Julie Sommer; Guillermo Ortí; Víctor Cussac

    2015-01-01

    The original distribution area of the Patagonian 'pejerrey' Odontesthes hatcheri has been subjected to the introduction of a related species; the Bonaerensean 'pejerrey' Odontesthes bonariensis. This species currently coexists with O. hatcheri in lakes and reservoirs, and can interbreed and produce fertile hybrid offspring. The purposes of this study were; a) the extensive sampling of Patagonian and Andean-Cuyan populations of pejerrey, b) the species identification according to taxonomic key...

  12. Populations of Odontesthes (Teleostei: Atheriniformes in the Andean region of Southern South America: body shape and hybrid individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Conte-Grand

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The original distribution area of the Patagonian 'pejerrey' Odontesthes hatcheri has been subjected to the introduction of a related species; the Bonaerensean 'pejerrey' Odontesthes bonariensis. This species currently coexists with O. hatcheri in lakes and reservoirs, and can interbreed and produce fertile hybrid offspring. The purposes of this study were; a the extensive sampling of Patagonian and Andean-Cuyan populations of pejerrey, b the species identification according to taxonomic key, c validation of taxonomic results on the basis of mitochondrial DNA composition, and d applying morphometric analysis to explore the effects of hybridization and environmental conditions on body shape. Cytochrome b sequence analysis showed a high degree of genetic divergence between species and low intraspecific variation in O. hatcheri. Geometric Morphometric Analyses detected shape differences in agreement with diagnostic characteristics of each species. Putative hybrids exhibiting intermediate diagnostic characteristics were identified by Geometric Morphometric Analysis. Significant regressions between body shape and total phosphorus and altitude were found, suggesting a dependence on trophic web structure. This multi-level approach suggests the introgression of O. bonariensis into several O. hatcheri populations throughout Patagonia. Managers should take this into account when considering further exotic introductions into regions where non-native fishes have not yet become established.

  13. Otolith morphology and hearing abilities in cave- and surface-dwelling ecotypes of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Teleostei: Poeciliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Ladich, Friedrich; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2010-08-01

    Cave fish have rarely been investigated with regard to their inner ear morphology, hearing abilities, and acoustic communication. Based on a previous study that revealed morphological differences in the saccular otolith between a cave and two surface populations of Poecilia mexicana, we checked for additional differences in utricular and lagenar otoliths and tested whether different populations have similar hearing sensitivities. We found pronounced differences in the shape of all three otoliths. Otoliths of the saccule and lagena from cave fish differed from those of surface fish in the features of the face oriented towards the sensory epithelium. In addition, otoliths of the utricle and lagena were significantly heavier in cave fish. Auditory sensitivities were measured between 100 and 1500Hz, utilizing the auditory evoked potential recording technique. We found similar hearing abilities in cave and surface fish, with greatest sensitivity between 200 and 300Hz. An acoustic survey revealed that neither ecotype produced species-specific sounds. Our data indicate that cave dwelling altered the otolith morphology in Atlantic mollies, probably due to metabolic differences. Different otolith morphology, however, did not affect general auditory sensitivity or acoustic behavior.

  14. FEEDING HABITS OF THE SHARP SNOUT SEA BREAM, DIPLODUS PUNTAZZO (CETTI, 1777) (TELEOSTEI: SPARIDAE) FROM BENGHAZI COAST, EASTERN LIBYA

    OpenAIRE

    Hana M Saleh* and Mohammad El-Mor

    2015-01-01

    The feeding habits of 500 specimens of Diplodus puntazzo (family: Sparidae), inhabiting Benghazi Mediterranean coast, were studied monthly from September 2013 to August 2014. The annual diet composition, monthly variations in the diet composition, the variations of diet with length and the intensity of feeding were studied. Diplodus puntazzo feed on a wide variety of prey types: crustaceans) 40.1%), cephalopods (22.1%), green algae (17.7 %), mollusks (5.2%), polychaetes (1.1%) and sediments (...

  15. Reproductive biology of Plagioscion magdalenae (Teleostei: Sciaenidae (Steindachner, 1878 in the bay of Marajo, Amazon Estuary, Brazil

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    Nayara Barbosa Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plagioscion magdalenae (pacora is a commercially important benthopelagic sciaenid and widely distributed in the Amazon River basin. The present study describes the reproductive biology of this species in the bay of Marajo, Amazon Estuary, Brazil. The gonadal development stage, age and size at first sexual maturity (L50, sex ratio, and reproductive strategy were determined. The data were collected bi-monthly from December 2005 to October 2006. A total of 251 specimens were examined, with the total length (TL ranging between 220 and 590 mm. The weight-length relationship for females, males and grouped sexes was highly significant, showing a positive allometry. The L50 was of 279 mm for grouped sexes, with 305 mm and 269 mm TL for females and males respectively. The sex ratio for the total number of individuals favored the males (2.02 males: 1 female. Macroscopically, the gonads were classified as immature, maturing, mature and spent. Considering the macro and microscopic evaluation of the gonads, an extended spawning period, mainly in August to February, was observed.Plagioscion magdalenae (pescada-curuca é um sciaenídeo bentopelágico, de importância comercial, amplamente distribuído na bacia do rio Amazonas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a biologia reprodutiva dessa espécie na baía do Marajó, estuário Amazônico, Brasil. Neste estudo foi determinado o estádio do desenvolvimento gonadal, tamanho de primeira maturação gonadal (L50, proporção entre sexos, época e o tipo de desova. A coleta foi realizada bimestralmente no período de dezembro de 2005 a outubro de 2006. Foi examinado um total de 251 exemplares, variando entre 220 e 590 mm de comprimento total (CT. A relação peso-comprimento para fêmeas, machos e sexos agrupados foi altamente significativa, com alometria positiva. O L50 foi de 279 mm considerando sexos agrupados, 305 e 269 mm CT para fêmeas e machos respectivamente. A proporção entre sexos para o total de indivíduos foi favorável aos machos (2,02 machos: 1 fêmea. Macroscopicamente, as gônadas foram classificadas em imatura, em maturação, matura e desovada. Considerando-se as avaliações macro e microscópicas das gônadas, foi registrado um período prolongado de desova, principalmente entre agosto e fevereiro.

  16. Integrative taxonomy of Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae (Nematoda) in Paralichthys patagonicus and Xystreurys rasile (Pisces: Teleostei) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Michelle Cristie Gonçalves da; Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza Nunes; Di Azevedo, Maria Isabel N; Torres, Eduardo José Lopes; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; São Clemente, Sérgio Carmona de

    2016-10-17

    Thirty-six Paralichthys patagonicus and 30 Xystreurys rasile were collected in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to investigate the presence of anisakid and raphidascaridid nematodes. Anisakis typica, Terranova sp., Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. were identified using integrative taxonomy of morphological and genetic data. Morphological and morphometric analysis was conducted using bright field microscopy with scanning electron microscopy for topographic characterization of the cuticular surface. Phylogenetic analysis, using ITS and cox2 molecular targets, clearly demonstrated the species identification of A. typica and H. deardorffoverstreetorum and the high diversity of H. deardorffoverstreetorum. This is the first report of A. typica, H. deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. parasitizing P. patagonicus and X. rasile. PMID:27491056

  17. Distribution and abundance of carangidae (Teleostei, Perciformes associated with oceanographic factors along the northeast brazilian exclusive economic zone

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    Christiane Sampaio de Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to study the distribution and abundance of the Carangidae larvae and to analyze the influence of the hydrological (temperature and salinity and biological factors (phytoplanktonic biomass and zooplanktonic biomass, on the space and temporal distribution of the larvae. Ichthyoplankton was collected during four expeditions from the Northeast Exclusive Economic Zone. Six species (Trachurus lathami, Decapterus punctatus, Chloroscombrus chrysurus, Selene setapinnis, Selene vomer and Elagatis bipinnulata and Caranx- Carangoides complex were identified. D. punctatus was the species most abundant (52% of the total, with higher abundance during the Period 3, while the Period 2 was the period of low abundance. C. chrysurus was the second species in abundance representing 30% of the total of carangid. This species had higher abundance during the Period 2 and the Period 1. However, in Period 3 abundance were lesser. The third species in abundance was T. lathami that corresponded 8% of the total of carangid larvae. S. setapinnis, S. vomer and E. bipinnulata were the species less abundant, representing together 2% of the total identified larvae. The larvae of Caranx- Carangoides complex represented 9% of the carangid total.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a distribuição e abundância das larvas de Carangidae, foi analisada também a influência de fatores hidrológicos (temperatura e salinidade e biológicos (biomassa fitoplanctônica e biomassa zooplanctônica, sobre a distribuição espacial e temporal dessas larvas. O ictioplâncton foi coletado durante quatro expedições: Período 1 (Agosto Outubro 1995, Período 2 (Janeiro Abril 1997, Período 3 (Abril Julho 1998 e Período 4 (Setembro Dezembro 2000, realizadas na Zona Econômica Exclusiva do nordeste. Em um total de 313 larvas foram identificadas 6 espécies (Trachurus lathami, Decapterus punctatus, Chloroscombrus chrysurus, Selene setapinnis, Selene vomer e Elagatis bipinnulata e o Complexo Caranx Carangoides pertencentes à família Carangidae. D. punctatus foi a espécie mais abundante neste estudo (52% do total. Sua maior abundância foi observada no Período 3 e a menor no Período 2. C. chrysurus foi a segunda espécie em abundância representando 30% do total de carangídeos. Esta espécie teve maior abundância durante o Período 2, enquanto que os Períodos 1 e 3 foram ás épocas de menor abundância. A terceira espécie em abundância foi T. lathami que correspondeu 8% do total de larvas de carangídeos, sendo o Período 4 o mais abundante. S. setapinnis, S. vomer e E. bipinnulata foram bem menos abundantes que as outras espécies analisadas, representando juntas 2% do total de larvas identificadas. Larvas do Complexo Caranx - Carangoides representaram 9% do total de carangídeos.

  18. A Ploidy Difference Represents an Impassable Barrier for Hybridisation in Animals. Is There an Exception among Botiid Loaches (Teleostei: Botiidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Šlechta, Vlastimil; Šlechtová, Vera; Sember, Alexandr; Ráb, Petr

    2016-01-01

    One of the most efficient mechanisms to keep animal lineages separate is a difference in ploidy level (number of whole genome copies), since hybrid offspring from parents with different ploidy level are functionally sterile. In the freshwater fish family Botiidae, ploidy difference has been held responsible for the separation of its two subfamilies, the evolutionary tetraploid Botiinae and the diploid Leptobotiinae. Diploid and tetraploid species coexist in the upper Yangtze, the Pearl River and the Red River basins in China. Interestingly, the species 'Botia' zebra from the Pearl River basin combines a number of morphological characters that otherwise are found in the diploid genus Leptobotia with morphological characters of the tetraploid genus Sinibotia, therefore the aim of the present study is to test weather 'B.' zebra is the result of a hybridisation event between species from different subfamilies with different ploidy level. A closer morphological examination indeed demonstrates a high similarity of 'B.' zebra to two co-occurring species, the diploid Leptobotia guilinensis and the tetraploid Sinibotia pulchra. These two species thus could have been the potential parental species in case of a hybrid origin of 'B.' zebra. The morphologic analysis further reveals that 'B.' zebra bears even the diagnostic characters of the genera Leptobotia (Leptobotiinae) and Sinibotia (Botiinae). In contrast, a comparison of six allozyme loci between 'B.' zebra, L. guilinensis and S. pulchra showed only similarities between 'B.' zebra and S. pulchra, not between 'B.' zebra and L. guilinensis. Six specimens of 'B.' zebra that were cytogenetically analysed were tetraploid with 4n = 100. The composition of the karyotype (18% metacentric, 18% submetacentric, 36% subtelocentric and 28% acrocentric chromosomes) differs from those of L. guilinensis (12%, 24%, 20% and 44%) and S. pulchra (20%, 26%, 28% and 26%), and cannot be obtained by any combination of genomes from L. guilinensis and S. pulchra. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on sequence data of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the nuclear RAG-1 gene invariably places 'Botia' zebra as sister species to S. pulchra, while L. guilinensis is only distantly related. The presented combination of genetic data demonstrates that 'B.' zebra is not the result of a hybridisation, but a species of tetraploid genus Sinibotia with a striking morphological evolution towards an enormous similarity with a co-occurring, but not directly related species. The complete lack of knowledge of the ecology of these species, their main predators or their ecological interactions hampers any conclusion regarding the evolutionary advantage of such adaptation. PMID:27442252

  19. Genetic and Morphological Evidence Implies Existence of Two Sympatric Species in Cyathopharynx furcifer (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Tanganyika

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsumi Takahashi; Michio Hori

    2012-01-01

    Although the cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika are treated as a textbook example of adaptive radiation, many taxonomic problems remain unresolved. Cyathopharynx furcifer, which belongs to the currently monospecific genus Cyathopharynx, contains two colour morphs at the southern end of the lake: one has a yellow anal fin, and the other has a black anal fin. Some books for hobbyists of ornamental fish treat these morphs as different species, but taxonomic studies have neither mentioned the ex...

  20. Genetic and Morphological Evidence Implies Existence of Two Sympatric Species in Cyathopharynx furcifer (Teleostei: Cichlidae from Lake Tanganyika

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    Tetsumi Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika are treated as a textbook example of adaptive radiation, many taxonomic problems remain unresolved. Cyathopharynx furcifer, which belongs to the currently monospecific genus Cyathopharynx, contains two colour morphs at the southern end of the lake: one has a yellow anal fin, and the other has a black anal fin. Some books for hobbyists of ornamental fish treat these morphs as different species, but taxonomic studies have neither mentioned the existence nor addressed the status of these colour morphs. In the present paper, we analysed these two colour morphs using mitochondrial, microsatellite, morphometric, and meristic data sets. Both molecular and morphological data allowed clear discrimination between these morphs, suggesting the existence of two distinct sympatric species. Three taxonomic species have been described in this genus, and only C. furcifer is currently considered valid. Observations of type specimens of these three nominal species will be needed to determine the scientific names of these colour morphs.

  1. Evolutionary history of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Lamprologini (Teleostei: Perciformes) derived from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data

    OpenAIRE

    Sturmbauer, Christian; Salzburger, Walter; Duftner, Nina; Schelly, Robert; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika comprises a cichlid species flock with substrate-breeding and mouthbrooding lineages. While sexual selection via mate choice on male mating color is thought to boost speciation rates in mouthbrooding cichlids, this is not the case in substrate-breeding lamprologines, which mostly form stable pairs and lack sexual dichromatism. We present a comprehensive reconstruction of the evolution of the cichlid tribe Lamprologini, based upon mtDNA sequences and multilocus nuclear DNA (AFL...

  2. A new species of the genus Hypleurochilus (Teleostei: Blenniidae) from Trindade Island and Martin Vaz Archipelago, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Hudson T; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rangel, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the genus Hypleurochilus, endemic to Trindade Island and Martin Vaz Archipelago, off Brazil, is described. Hypleurochilus brasil sp. n. differs from its congeners in color pattern and anal-ray counts. A recent study shows a close relationship between H. brasil sp. n. and H. fissicornis. This new species is recorded from 3 to 15 m depth, solitary or in small groups (up to 10 individuals), always in small holes or associated with sea-urchins and sponges on the rocky reefs. Hypleurochilus brasil sp. n. is the eleventh recognized species of Hypleurochilus and the third species of this genus reported from the Brazilian Province. PMID:26240899

  3. Characterization of the ovary fatty acids composition of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard (Teleostei: Siluriformes, throughout their reproductive cycle

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    Rodrigo Vargas Anido

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about gonad fatty acid composition is important for broodstock diet formulation. This study characterized ovary fatty acid composition of wild female jundiá catfish (Rhamdia quelen in their different gonadal maturation stages. Female jundiá (n = 36, average weight= 383.8 + 208.8 g were captured in the rio Uruguay, comprising all seasons. Ovaries were extracted and classified according to their gonadal maturation stage. Gonad-somatic ratio varied significantly among seasons, being higher in spring (3.7, followed by summer (2.2, winter (0.9 and autumn (0.6. Main fatty acids groups detected were: saturated (SFA= 35.5%, monounsaturated (MUFA= 28.1% and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA= 33.5%. Over the four seasons, palmitic acid was recorded in large quantities, followed by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA. ARA was present in higher concentrations in immature or maturing ovaries, and its content decreased along the maturation process. Conversely, DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA contents increased during maturation. Such variation resulted in an increase in EPA/ARA and DHA/ARA ratios in mature gonads, which can be important for successful breeding. Such findings suggest that jundiá broodstock diets should contain lipids that provide long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from both the n-3 and n-6 series to ensure gonadal maturation completion.

  4. Introduction and spread of non-native parasites with Silurus glanis L. (Teleostei: Siluridae) in UK fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, A J; Britton, J R; Davies, G D; Shinn, A P; Williams, C F

    2012-12-01

    Despite growing concern of the ecological risks posed by the European catfish Siluris glanis L. in freshwater fisheries, little information exists on the parasite fauna of this silurid catfish in Britain. Parasitological examinations of released S. glanis from four still-water fisheries in England revealed the presence of Thaparocleidus vistulensis (Siwak, 1932) and Ergasilus sieboldi (Nordmann, 1832), both non-native parasites, the latter known to be an important fish pathogen. This represents the first record of T. vistulensis from British freshwater fish. The human-assisted movement of S. glanis between UK recreational still-water fisheries provides a clear avenue for the introduction and spread of non-native parasites. PMID:22130112

  5. Merluccius hubbsi (Teleostei: Merlucciidae: stock identification based on reproductive biology in the south-southeast brazilian region

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    André Martins Vaz-dos-Santos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Argentine hake, Merluccius hubbsi, a demersal-pelagic species found from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to the Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, has become an important target of the Brazilian bottom-trawler fleet since 2001. Earlier studies focusing on the species have suggested that more than one stock might occur off the Brazilian coast, in accordance with environmental features. In order to evaluate this hypothesis, fish were collected from four different areas in the Brazilian waters in which the hake is distributed, during the summers and winters of 1996-2001 and 2004, the females being used to analyze and compare spatial-temporal variations in ovarian maturation. Gonad indexes were also applied for the same purpose. Results indicate a north-south spawning gradient occurring as from summer at around 21°S to winter near 34°S, leading to the identification of two distinct stocks: one located between 21°S and 29°S (Southeastern stock and the other between 29°S and 34°S (Southern stock, this latter shared with Uruguay and Argentina. Brazilian stocks present clear signs of overexploitation, the situation calling for an urgent solution.A merluza Merluccius hubbsi, espécie demerso-pelágica distribuída desde o Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, até a Terra do Fogo, Argentina, tornou-se alvo das frotas de arrasto de fundo da região Sudeste-Sul do Brasil desde 2001. Estudos anteriores sobre a biologia da espécie sugeriram a existência de mais de um estoque em águas brasileiras, relacionados a características ambientais. Para verificar esta hipótese, exemplares oriundos de quatro áreas em águas brasileiras foram coletados durante o verão e o inverno nos períodos 1996-2001 e 2004, sendo as fêmeas utilizadas para analisar variações espaço-temporais na maturação gonadal. Para corroborar estas análises também foram aplicados índices gonadais. Os resultados mostraram a ocorrência de um gradiente norte-sul para a desova, que é mais intenso no verão em 21°S e no inverno em 34°S. Foram identificados dois estoques: um denominado Sudeste, que se distribui entre 21°S-29°S, e outro Sul, entre 29°S-34°S, este último compartilhado com o Uruguai e a Argentina. Os estoques brasileiros apresentam sinais de sobrepesca, situação que merece atenção e medidas apropriadas de gestão.

  6. A new record of the non-native fish species Butis koilomatodon (Bleeker 1849 (Teleostei: Eleotridae for southeastern Brazil

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    Riguel Feltrin Contente

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the second record of the Indo-Pacific invasive mud sleeper, Butis koilomatodon, for coastal São Paulo in southeastern Brazil, and represents the southernmost record for this species in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The risks of a potential invasion mediated by anthropogenic impacts on the area of occurrence are also discussed.

  7. Evidence for panmixia despite barriers to gene flow in the southern African endemic, Caffrogobius caffer (Teleostei: Gobiidae

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    von der Heyden Sophie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceanography and life-history characteristics are known to influence the genetic structure of marine species, however the relative role that these factors play in shaping phylogeographic patterns remains unresolved. The population genetic structure of the endemic, rocky shore dwelling Caffrogobius caffer was investigated across a known major oceanographic barrier, Cape Agulhas, which has previously been shown to strongly influence genetic structuring of South African rocky shore and intertidal marine organisms. Given the variable and dynamic oceanographical features of the region, we further sought to test how the pattern of gene flow between C. caffer populations is affected by the dominant Agulhas and Benguela current systems of the southern oceans. Results The variable 5' region of the mtDNA control region was amplified for 242 individuals from ten localities spanning the distributional range of C. caffer. Fifty-five haplotypes were recovered and in stark contrast to previous phylogeographic studies of South African marine species, C. caffer showed no significant population genetic structuring along 1300 km of coastline. The parsimony haplotype network, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses revealed panmixia. Coalescent analyses reveal that gene flow in C. caffer is strongly asymmetrical and predominantly affected by the Agulhas Current. Notably, there was no gene flow between the east coast and all other populations, although all other analyses detect no significant population structure, suggesting a recent divergence. The mismatch distribution suggests that C. caffer underwent a population expansion at least 14 500 years ago. Conclusion We propose several possible life-history adaptations that could have enabled C. caffer to maintain gene flow across its distributional range, including a long pelagic larval stage. We have shown that life-history characteristics can be an important contributing factor to the phylogeography of marine species and that the effects of oceanography do not necessarily suppress its influence on effective dispersal.

  8. A review of Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Teleostei: Galaxiidae) in south-eastern Australia with a description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Rhys A; Hoffmann, Ary A; Raadik, Tarmo A

    2015-01-01

    The dwarf galaxias, Galaxiella pusilla (Mack), is a small, threatened freshwater fish from coastal south-eastern Australia. Recent genetic studies, using multiple nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, found substantial differences between populations in western Victoria and south Australia ('west region') compared to eastern Victoria, Flinders Island, and Tasmania ('east region') that suggest the presence of a cryptic species. Morphological measurements and meristic counts from multiple populations within each region were undertaken to investigate potential differences between regions. Several characters, found to discriminate between individuals in the regions and to be diagnostic for two taxa, were used to describe a new species, Galaxiella toourtkoourt, for the west region. This is only the second species in the Galaxiidae to exhibit sexual dimorphism. The original description of Galaxiella pusilla, based on five specimens, is revised following examination of a large number of individuals. Both species are considered nationally threatened and are categorised as 'endangered'; the revised distribution of G. pusilla s.s. is reduced by approximately 60%. A number of inconsistencies in the most recent revision of the genus Galaxiella are also corrected. PMID:26624129

  9. Additional record of Batasio merianiensis (Chaudhuri 1913, a catfish (Teleostei: Bagridae in upper Brahmaputra River drainage in Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    L. Tamang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper communicates the extension of the distribution range of Batasio merianiensis in Sille River in the upper Brahmaputra drainage, East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh. Detailed examinations of the specimens revealed existence of few morphological variations against those reported by Heok Hee Ng in 2009 on the following characteristics: by having a longer preanal (70.4-73.4 vs. 66.3-68.2% SL; a longer prepectoral (25.1-29.3 vs. 21.4-25.7% SL; a longer adipose-fin base (22.0-27.6 vs. 16.9-22.2% SL; a shorter post-adipose distance (11.6-13.4 vs.13.4-15.5% SL; a deeper body at anus (depth 18.3-20.8 vs.15.2-18.4% SL and broader head (width 17.6-20.0 vs.13.5-16.2 % HL. Few additional characters of the fish are included along with brief information on its habitat. The LIPUM, the semi-traditional method of fishing in the river is identified as a major threat to this species.

  10. Phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical patterns in Circum-Mediterranean subfamily Leuciscinae (Teleostei, Cyprinidae inferred from both mitochondrial and nuclear data

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    Perea Silvia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leuciscinae is a subfamily belonging to the Cyprinidae fish family that is widely distributed in Circum-Mediterranean region. Many efforts have been carried out to deciphering the evolutionary history of this group. Thus, different biogeographical scenarios have tried to explain the colonization of Europe and Mediterranean area by cyprinids, such as the "north dispersal" or the "Lago Mare dispersal" models. Most recently, Pleistocene glaciations influenced the distribution of leuciscins, especially in North and Central Europe. Weighing up these biogeographical scenarios, this paper constitutes not only the first attempt at deciphering the mitochondrial and nuclear relationships of Mediterranean leuciscins but also a test of biogeographical hypotheses that could have determined the current distribution of Circum-Mediterranean leuciscins. Results A total of 4439 characters (mitochondrial + nuclear from 321 individuals of 176 leuciscine species rendered a well-supported phylogeny, showing fourteen main lineages. Analyses of independent mitochondrial and nuclear markers supported the same main lineages, but basal relationships were not concordant. Moreover, some incongruence was found among independent mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies. The monophyly of some poorly known genera such as Pseudophoxinus and Petroleuciscus was rejected. Representatives of both genera belong to different evolutionary lineages. Timing of cladogenetic events among the main leuciscine lineages was gained using mitochondrial and all genes data set. Conclusions Adaptations to a predatory lifestyle or miniaturization have superimposed the morphology of some species. These species have been separated into different genera, which are not supported by a phylogenetic framework. Such is the case of the genera Pseudophoxinus and Petroleuciscus, which real taxonomy is not well known. The diversification of leuciscine lineages has been determined by intense vicariant events following the paleoclimatological and hydrogeological history of Mediterranean region. We propose different colonization models of Mediterranean region during the early Oligocene. Later vicariance events promoted Leuciscinae diversification during Oligocene and Miocene periods. Our data corroborate the presence of leuciscins in North Africa before the Messinian salinity crisis. Indeed, Messinian period appears as a stage of gradually Leuciscinae diversification. The rise of humidity at the beginning of the Pliocene promoted the colonization and posterior isolation of newly established freshwater populations. Finally, Pleistocene glaciations determined the current European distribution of some leuciscine species.

  11. Interrelationships of the subgenera of Coryphaenoides (Teleostei: Gadiformes: Macrouridae): synthesis of allozyme, peptide mapping, and DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Raymond R; Attia, Phoebe

    2003-05-01

    DNA sequences of the 12s rRNA mitochondrial gene from 12 species key to the question of the monophyly of the deep-sea fish genus Coryphaenoides (Macrouridae) were analyzed phylogenetically using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood. The results were compared with those of three previous studies in which allozyme, peptide mapping, and DNA sequence data were similarly analyzed. The allozyme and DNA sequence data suggested that the largest subgenus (Coryphaenoides), which contained most of the species inhabiting continental slopes between approximately 600 and 2000m depth, is monophyletic. Two of the three subgenera containing the species inhabiting abyssal ocean basins below approximately 2000m together formed a sister group to subgenus Coryphaenoides. The macrourids of the abyssal basins and those of the continental slopes thus appear to have experienced separate radiations from a common ancestor. PMID:12695096

  12. Three sympatric karyomorphs in the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae do not seem to hybridize in natural populations

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    Maressa Ferreira-Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819 were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA. Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers.

  13. Psilorhynchus tysoni, a new species of torrent minnow from the Salween River drainage, western Thailand (Teleostei: Psilorhynchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Kevin W; Pinion, Amanda K

    2016-01-01

    Psilorhynchus tysoni, new species, is described on the basis of 10 specimens, 23.3-53.8 mm SL from the Mae Nam Moei and Hue Mae Song Rivers, in the Salween River drainage in western Thailand. It belongs to the P. nudithoracicus species group and can be distinguished from other members of this group by a combination of characters, including features of body and fin coloration, head shape, and caudal fin-ray, vertebrae, and cephalic lateral-line canal pore counts. Phylogenetic analyses of a mitochondrial DNA data set (comprising 642 bp of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 1140 bp of cytochrome b) for 12 species of Psilorhynchus and one outgroup taxon resulted in phylogenetic hypotheses in which P. tysoni is a member of a clade equivalent to the P. nudithoracicus species group. Within this group P. tysoni is placed as the sister taxon of a putatively undescribed species of Psilorhynchus from Myanmar. PMID:27395735

  14. On a record of two alien fish species (Teleostei: Osphronemidae from the natural waters of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

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    J.D. Marcus Knight

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquarium trade has been the source of many alien species being introduced into the natural waters of Chennai.  Trichopsis vittata and Macropodus opercularis are being reported for the first from Chennai. However,  contrary to the propagule pressure theory both these species are not common in the aquarium trade, raising speculations of inter-basin water transfer playing a role in introducing non-native species into an ecosystem.  

  15. A redescription of grey pomfret Pampus cinereus (Bloch,1795) with the designation of a neotype (Teleostei:Stromateidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing; LI Chunsheng; NING Ping

    2013-01-01

    Pampus cinereus (Bloch,1795) (Stromateidae),a species believed to be widely distributed throughout the Indo-Western Pacific region,was redescribed and a neotype was designated.The designation of a neotype was necessary because of ambiguous data in Bloch's original description and the loss of the original type specimen.Morphological data indicated that 10 recently-collected specimens from the coasts of southern China agreed well with Bloch's original description and figure ofP.cinereus.A neotype for this species was selected from among the 10 specimens,and a detailed description is presented in this paper.

  16. Gene rearrangements and evolution of tRNA pseudogenes in the mitochondrial genome of the parrotfish (Teleostei: Perciformes: Scaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, Kohji; Miya, Masaki; Satoh, Takashi P; Westneat, Mark W; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2004-09-01

    Genomic size of animal mitochondrial DNA is usually minimized over time. Thus, when regional duplications occur, they are followed by a rapid elimination of redundant material. In contrast to this general view, we report here long-sustained tRNA pseudogenes in the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of teleost fishes of the family Scaridae (parrotfishes). During the course of a molecular phylogenetic study of the suborder Labroidei, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitogenome for a parrotfish, Chlorurus sordidus, and found a gene rearrangement accompanied by a tRNA pseudogene. In the typical gene order of vertebrates, a tRNA-gene cluster between ND1 and ND2 genes includes tRNA(Ile) (I), tRNA(Gln) (Q), and tRNA(Met) (M) genes in this order (IQM). However, in the mitogenome of the parrotfish, the tRNA(Met) gene was inserted between the tRNA(Ile) and the tRNA(Gln) genes, and the tRNA(Gln) gene was followed by a putative tRNA(Met) pseudogene (psiM). Such a tRNA gene rearrangement including a pseudogene (IMQpsiM) was found in all of the 10 examined species, representing 7 of the 10 currently recognized scarid genera. All sister groups examined (20 species of Labridae and a single species of Odacidae) had the typical gene order of vertebrate mitogenomes. Phylogenetic analysis of the tRNA(Met) genes and the resulting pseudogenes demonstrated that the ancestral tRNA(Met) gene was duplicated in a common ancestor of the parrotfish. Based on the fossil record, these results indicate that the pseudogenes have survived at least 14 million years. Most of the vertebrate mitochondrial gene rearrangements involving the IQM region have held the tRNA(Met) gene just upstream of the ND2 gene, and even in a few exceptional cases, including the present ones, the tRNA pseudogenes have been found in that position. In addition, most of these tRNA(Met) pseudogenes maintained clover-leaf secondary structures, with the remainder sustaining the clover-leaf structure in the "top half (TpsiC and acceptor arms). Considering their potential secondary structures (holding "top halves" of the clover-leaf structures), locations within mitogenomes (flanking the 5' ends of the ND2 genes) and stabilities over time (survived at least 14 Myr), it is likely that the tRNA pseudogenes retain function as punctuation marks for mitochondrial ND2 mRNA processing. PMID:15553084

  17. Sexual development and reproductive pattern of the Mutton hamlet, Alphestes afer (Teleostei: Epinephelidae: a dyandric, hermaphroditic reef fish

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    Simone Marques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little knowledge on the reproduction of the genus Alphestes. The reproduction of the Mutton hamlet, Alphestes afer, sampled in Pernambuco reefs (Brazil was studied based on macroscopic analysis during reproductive period and histological analysis of gonad material from March 2008 to October 2009. This study showed that A. afer is a diandric, protogynous hermaphrodite. Sex change followed protogynous mode in two pathways: primary males formed from immature female individuals or secondary males formed from resting, ripe or spent female individuals. The numerical distribution of gonad classes by size indicated that females from 11-18 cm L T were immature while females from 16-25 cm L T and males from 12-22 cm L T were in various stages of gonadal development. Individuals identified as immature bisexual and transitional (presenting both ovarian and sperm tissue were sized from 16-24 cm L T. Size of first reproduction for females was 18 cm L T and for males was 12 cm L T. Alphestes afer showed multiple spawning, with spawning season period from August to December 2008 and from August to October 2009. The sex-ratio (females: males in 2008 and 2009 was 0.94:1 during the months of spawning season. Males were smaller than females, reaching maximum size of 22 cm compared to 25 cm observed for females. Males showed a high sperm competition rank (3.8, suggesting intense sperm competition. This latter is a possible indication of a shift in the mating group structure from paired to group spawning. The presence of small males added to high sperm competition index, suggest that this species, while retaining the protogynous pattern, has a reproductive strategy similar to gonochorist epinephelids.Há pouco conhecimento sobre a reprodução do gênero Alphestes. A reprodução do sapé Alphestes afer coletado nos recifes de Pernambuco (Brasil foi estudada baseada em análises macroscópicas durante o período reprodutivo e análises histológicas das gônadas de março de 2008 a outubro de 2009. Esse estudo mostrou que Alphestes afer é uma espécie hermafrodita diândrica. A mudança de sexo seguiu o modo protogínico em dois caminhos: machos primários transformados de fêmeas imaturas ou machos secundários transformados de fêmeas em repouso, maduras ou esgotados. A distribuição numérica por classe de tamanho indicou que fêmeas de 11-18 cm L T foram imaturas; fêmeas de 16-25 cm L T e machos de 12-22 cm L T foram de vários estádios de desenvolvimento gonadal. Indivíduos identificados como imaturos bissexuais e transicionais (ambos apresentando tecido ovariano e espermático foram de 16-24 cm L T de comprimento. O tamanho de primeira maturação da fêmea foi 18 cm L T e do macho foi 12 cm L T. Alphestes afer mostrou desova múltipla, com período de desova de agosto a dezembro de 2008 e de agosto a outubro de 2009. A proporção sexual (fêmeas: machos em 2008 e 2009 foi 0,94:1 durante os meses de desova. Machos foram menores que as fêmeas, alcançando o tamanho máximo de 22 cm L T comparados ao tamanho máximo de 25 cm L T das fêmeas observadas. Machos tiveram o rank de competição espermática alto (3,8 sugerindo intensa competição espermática, o que é uma possível indicação da mudança na estrutura do grupo de acasalamento de desova em pares para desova em grupo. A presença de machos pequenos com alto índice de competição espermática sugere que esta espécie, enquanto retém o padrão protogínico, possui uma estratégia reprodutiva similar aos epinefelídeos gonocoristas.

  18. Glyptothorax mibangi, a new species of catfish (Teleostei: Sisoridae) from the Tisa River, Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darshan, Achom; Dutta, Rashmi; Kachari, Akash; Gogoi, Budhin; Das, Debangshu Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Glyptothorax mibangi, a new sisorid catfish, is described from the Tisa River of Arunachal Pradesh, India. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners in the Ganga-Brahmaputra and Barak-Surma-Meghna basins by the following combination of characters: an obtuse leaf-shaped thoracic adhesive apparatus with a spindle-shaped median depression, skin ridges present over the entire apparatus including the depressed region; ventral surface of pectoral spine and first pelvic-fin ray non-plaited; slender body with depth of 10.4-13.5% SL; caudal peduncle shallow with depth 6.8-8.3% SL; snout long with length 52.9-58.6% HL; and 2+7 gill rakers on the first branchial arch. PMID:26249379

  19. Phylogenetic relationships within the speciose family Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes based on multilocus analysis and extensive ingroup sampling

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    Vari Richard P

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With nearly 1,100 species, the fish family Characidae represents more than half of the species of Characiformes, and is a key component of Neotropical freshwater ecosystems. The composition, phylogeny, and classification of Characidae is currently uncertain, despite significant efforts based on analysis of morphological and molecular data. No consensus about the monophyly of this group or its position within the order Characiformes has been reached, challenged by the fact that many key studies to date have non-overlapping taxonomic representation and focus only on subsets of this diversity. Results In the present study we propose a new definition of the family Characidae and a hypothesis of relationships for the Characiformes based on phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (4,680 base pairs. The sequences were obtained from 211 samples representing 166 genera distributed among all 18 recognized families in the order Characiformes, all 14 recognized subfamilies in the Characidae, plus 56 of the genera so far considered incertae sedis in the Characidae. The phylogeny obtained is robust, with most lineages significantly supported by posterior probabilities in Bayesian analysis, and high bootstrap values from maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses. Conclusion A monophyletic assemblage strongly supported in all our phylogenetic analysis is herein defined as the Characidae and includes the characiform species lacking a supraorbital bone and with a derived position of the emergence of the hyoid artery from the anterior ceratohyal. To recognize this and several other monophyletic groups within characiforms we propose changes in the limits of several families to facilitate future studies in the Characiformes and particularly the Characidae. This work presents a new phylogenetic framework for a speciose and morphologically diverse group of freshwater fishes of significant ecological and evolutionary importance across the Neotropics and portions of Africa.

  20. ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in the endangered fish Lignobrycon myersi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1956 (Teleostei, Characiformes, Triportheidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Alexandre dos Santos; Medrado, Aline Souza; Diniz, Débora; Oliveira, Claudio; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lignobrycon myersi is an endemic fish species from a few coastal rivers in northeastern Brazil. Based on molecular evidence, Lignobrycon myersi and genera Triportheus Cope, 1872, Agoniates Müller & Troschel, 1845, Clupeacharax Pearson, 1924 and Engraulisoma Castro, 1981 were placed in the family Triportheidae. In the present work, we report the first cytogenetic data for Lignobrycon myersi to test the hypothesis that Lignobrycon and Triportheus are closely related. Studied specimens presented 2n=52 with 28 metacentric (m), 18 submetacentric (sm) and six subtelocentric (st) chromosomes for males and 27 m, 19 sm and 6 st for females, characterizing a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. The Z chromosome corresponds to the largest chromosome in karyotype while the W is about 50% smaller than the Z and largely heterochromatic. Terminal nucleolus organizer regions, GC-rich sites and 18S rDNA signals were detected on pair 14. However, additional 18S rDNA sites were observed in the W chromosome. The 5S rDNA was mainly detected on long arms of pair 7. The apparent synapomorphic chromosomal traits of Triportheus and Lignobrycon myersi reinforce their close phylogenetic relationship, suggesting that the ZZ/ZW chromosome system in both genera has arisen before cladogenic events. PMID:27551346

  1. Karyotype and genome size of Iberochondrostoma almacai (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) and comparison with the sister-species I. lusitanicum

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Monteiro; Cláudia Carvalho; Maria João Collares-Pereira

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to define the karyotype of the recently described Iberian endemic Iberochondrostoma almacai, to revisit the previously documented chromosome polymorphisms of its sister species I. lusitanicum using C-, Ag-/CMA3 and RE-banding, and to compare the two species genome sizes. A 2n = 50 karyotype (with the exception of a triploid I. lusitanicum specimen) and a corresponding haploid chromosome formula of 7M:15SM:3A (FN = 94) were found. Multiple NORs were observed in both species (i...

  2. A new vision of the origin and the oocyte development in the Ostariophysi applied to Gymnotus sylvius (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes

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    Gisleine Fernanda França

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on new knowledge coming from marine perciform species, the origin of oocytes and their development in the Ostariophysi, Gymnotus sylvius is described. In both Gymnotus sylvius and marine perciform fish, oogonia are found in the germinal epithelium that forms the surface of the ovarian lamellae. At the commencement of folliculogenesis, proliferation of oogonia and their entrance into meiosis gives rise to germ cell nests that extend into the stroma from the germinal epithelium. Both cell nests and the germinal epithelium are supported by the same basement membrane that separates them from the stroma. At the time of meiotic arrest, oocytes in a cell nest become separated one from the other as processes of prefollicle cells, these being derived from epithelial cells in the germinal epithelium, gradually encompass and individualize them while also synthesizing a basement membrane around themselves during folliculogenesis. The oocyte enters primary growth while still within the cell nest. At the completion of folliculogenesis, the oocyte and follicle cells, composing the follicle, are encompassed by a basement membrane. The follicle remains connected to the germinal epithelium as the both share a portion of common basement membrane. Cells originating from the stroma encompass the ovarian follicle, except where there is a shared basement membrane, to form the theca. The follicle, basement membrane and theca form the follicular complex. Oocyte development occurs inside the follicular complex. Development is divided into the stages primary and secondary growth, oocyte maturation and ovulation. Cortical alveoli appear in the ooplasm just prior to the beginning of secondary growth, the vitellogenic stage that begins with yolk deposition and proceeds until the oocyte is full-grown and the ooplasm is filled with yolk globules. Maturation is characterized by the germinal vesicle or nuclear migration, germinal vesicle breakdown or nuclear envelop fragmentation and the resumption of meiosis. At the ovulation the egg is released from the follicular complex into the ovarian lumen. When compared to marine Perciformes that lay pelagic eggs, oocyte development in Gymnotus sylvius has fewer steps within the stages of development, the two most remarkable being the absence of oil droplet formation during primary and secondary growth, (and the consequent absence of the oil droplets fusion during maturation, and the hydrolysis of yolf preceding ovulation.Tendo por base os novos conhecimentos oriundos de recentes estudos com Perciformes marinho, a origem e o desenvolvimento dos oócitos no Ostariophysi Gymnotus sylvius são aqui descritos. Da mesma maneira que ocorre nos Perciformes, em Gymnotus sylvius as oogônias são encontradas no epitélio germinativo que margeia as lamelas ovígeras. No início da foliculogênese, a proliferação das oogônias e sua entrada em meiose dão origem a ninhos de células germinativas que se projetam em direção ao estroma ovariano, a partir do epitélio germinativo. Os ninhos e o epitélio germinativo são suportados pela mesma membrana basal que os separa do estroma. Coincidindo com a paralisação da meiose os oócitos, presentes nos ninhos, são separados uns dos outros por processos citoplasmáticos das células pré-foliculares. As células pré-foliculares derivam do epitélio germinativo sendo, portanto, inicialmente células epiteliais. Durante a foliculogênese, ao mesmo tempo em que envolvem os oócitos individualizando-os, as células pré-foliculares sintetizam a membrana basal ao seu redor. Os oócitos entram em crescimento primário ainda dentro dos ninhos. Ao término da foliculogênese, o oócito e as células foliculares que compõem o folículo são circundados pela membrana basal. O folículo permanece conectado ao epitélio germinativo uma vez que ambos compartilham uma porção comum da membrana basal. Células oriundas do estroma circundam o folículo ovariano exceto na região de compartilhamento da membrana basal formando a teca. O folículo, a membrana basal e a teca formam o complexo folicular. O desenvolvimento do oócito ocorre dentro do complexo folicular e compreende os estágios de crescimento primário e secundário, maturação e ovulação. Os alvéolos corticais surgem no ooplasma momentos antes do início do crescimento secundário ou estágio vitelogênico que tem início com a deposição de vitelo, progride até o oócito esteja completamente desenvolvido e o ooplasma preenchido pelos glóbulos de vitelo. A maturação é caracterizada pela migração do núcleo ou vesícula germinativa, pela quebra da vesícula germinativa, ou seja, pela fragmentação do envoltório nuclear e, retomada da meiose. Na ovulação o ovo é liberado do complexo folicular para o lúmen ovariano. Em comparação com os Perciformes marinhos com ovos pelágicos, o desenvolvimento oocitário em Gymnotus sylvius tem menos etapas dentro dos estágios de desenvolvimento, sendo as duas mais notáveis delas as ausências da formação das gotas de lipídio durante os crescimentos primário e secundário (e a consequente fusão das gotas para formar um único glóbulo de lipídio durante a maturação e, a hidrólise do vitelo antecedendo a ovulação.

  3. Composition and structure of the parasite faunas of cod, Gadus morhua L. (Teleostei: Gadidae, in the North East Atlantic

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    Kostadinova Aneta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although numerous studies on parasites of the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. have been conducted in the North Atlantic, comparative analyses on local cod parasite faunas are virtually lacking. The present study is based on examination of large samples of cod from six geographical areas of the North East Atlantic which yielded abundant baseline data on parasite distribution and abundance. Materials and Methods A total of 826 fish was sampled in the Baltic, Celtic, Irish and North seas, Icelandic waters and Trondheimsfjord (Norway in 2002 (spring and autumn and 2003 (spring. The gills and internal organs (oesophagus, stomach, intestine, pyloric caeca, liver, heart, spleen, gall bladder and gonads were examined for macroparasites following a standardised protocol. The taxonomic consistency of the identification was ensured thorough the entire study. Results We discuss some problems in parasite identification, outline the composition of the parasite faunas in cod in the six North East Atlantic regions, provide novel data on parasite prevalence and abundance and a comparative assessment of the structure of the regional parasite faunas with respect to the higher-level taxonomic groupings, host specificity and zoogeographical distribution of the parasites. Altogether 57 different parasite forms were found including seven new host records (Diclidophora merlangi, Rhipidocotyle sp., Fellodistomum sp., Steringotrema sp., Cucullanus sp., Spinitectus sp., and Chondracanthus ornatus. The predominant groups of cod parasites were trematodes (19 species and nematodes (13 species including larval anisakids which comprised 58.2% of the total number of individuals. Conclusion Our study reveals relatively rich regional parasite faunas in cod from the North East Atlantic which are dominated by generalist parasites with Arcto-Boreal distribution. Further, it provides more detailed data on the distribution in the North East Atlantic of the majority of cod parasites which may serve as baselines for future studies on the effect of climate change. Based on the faunal comparisons, predictions can be made in relation to the structure and diversity of the parasite communities in the North East Atlantic regions studied.

  4. A systematic revision of the piscivorous haplochromine Cichlidae (Pisces: Teleostei) of Lake Victoria (East Africa). Part I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, van M.J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The distinction between Harpagochromis and Prognathochromis, and the distinction between these and other cichlid genera of Lake Victoria as proposed by Greenwood (1980), is demonstrated to be artificial. The BM(NH) collections of Haplochromis dichrourus and H. pellegrini were found to be polyspecifi

  5. Goblet Cells and Mucus Types in the Digestive Intestine and Respiratory Intestine in Bronze Corydoras (Callichthyidae: Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leknes, I L

    2015-10-01

    The structure and histochemical properties of the intestine in bronze corydoras (Corydoras aeneus), a stomach-containing teleost, are described, with emphasis on goblet cells and mucin types. The proximal intestine displayed a normal structure for teleosts, whereas the distal intestine was wide, translucent, thin-walled, richly vascularized and constantly filled with air, suggesting an important respiratory role. Goblet cells were common throughout the entire intestine and displayed a variable, but mainly faint metachromatic colour after toluidine blue. They were moderately coloured by alcian blue at both pH 2.5 and 0.2 and displayed no colour after periodic acid followed by Schiff's solution (PAS), but a distinct purple-brown colour after high iron diamine followed by alcian blue (pH 2.5). Together, these results suggest that the mucin in the intestine goblet cells consists mainly of sulphated proteoglycans. Further, the results from the present lectin and neuraminidase tests suggest that these mucins contain much N-acetylglucoseamines and some N-acetylgalactosamines and sialic acid, but seem to lack glucose and mannose. They also contain some galactose-N-acetylgalactosamines sequences, normally hidden by sialic acid. The distinct brush border and mucus layer on the epithelial cells in the respiratory intestine may indicate some digestive roles, such as absorption of water, ions and simple carbohydrates. As sulphated proteoglycans are tough and attract much water, this mucus may play important roles in the protection against mechanical and chemical damages and in the defence against micro-organisms throughout the entire intestine, but in the respiratory intestine it may impede significantly the oxygen uptake. However, as this part of the intestine usually contains no digesta, but is completely filled with air, frequently renewed by dry air from the atmosphere, and the main function of the mucus may be to protect the respiratory epithelium against a destroying and dangerous desiccation.

  6. Densidad y biomasa de Pterois volitans/miles (Teleostei: Scorpaenidae) en arrecifes del litoral oeste de La Habana, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    García-Rodríguez, Alain; Chevalier Monteagudo, Pedro P.; Cabrera Sansón, Erlán; Caballero Aragón, Hansel; Luis Hernández López, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    El pez león (Pterois volitans/miles) es la primera especie (s) de pez arrecifal del Indo- Pacífico que invade el Atl{ntico Occidental, constituyendo una de las invasiones de peces marinos m{s r{pida de la historia. El objetivo fue determinar la densidad y biomasa de las poblaciones del pez león y sus posibles variaciones temporales y espaciales en arrecifes del oeste de La Habana, Cuba. Los muestreos fueron realizados mediante censos visuales con buceo autónomo en los períodos ...

  7. Further evidence for the invasion and establishment of Pterois volitans (Teleostei: Scorpaenidae) along the Atlantic Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, H.S.; Wyanski, D.M.; Loefer, J.K.; Ross, S.W.; Quattrini, A.M.; Sulak, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    We document the continued population expansion of red lionfish, Pterois volitans, the first documented successful introduction of an invasive marine fish species from the western Pacific to Atlantic coastal waters of the United States. Red lionfish are indigenous to the Indo-Pacific and have apparently established one or more breeding populations on reefs off the southeastern United States. Fifty-nine specimens, most presumably adult red lionfish, were documented or collected on live-bottom reefs off North Carolina, South Carolina, and Florida, and on a manmade structure off Georgia. Observation/collection depths and bottom water temperatures for these fish ranged from 40-99 m and 13.8-24.4??C, respectively. Eleven juvenile lionfish, believed to be expatriated from southeastern waters, were collected in estuaries along the coast of Long Island, NY, at depths of 0-5 m and water temperatures ranging from 13.8-16.5??C. Twelve of the total 70 specimens collected or observed were positively identified as red lionfish. Based on histological assessment of gonad tissue, two reproductively-active males and one immature female were collected. The life history of red lionfish, especially their reproductive biology and food habits, should be investigated along the east coast of the US to determine the potential impacts of this species on ecosystems they have invaded.

  8. Comparative phylogeography of sympatric sister species, Clevelandia ios and Eucyclogobius newberryi (Teleostei, Gobiidae), across the California Transition Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, M N; Louie, K D; Barlow, M; Jacobs, D K; Swift, C C

    2002-06-01

    It is paradigmatic in marine species that greater dispersal ability often, but not always, results in greater gene flow and less population structure. Some of the exceptions may be attributable to studies confounded by comparison of species with dissimilar evolutionary histories, i.e. co-occurring species that are not closely related or species that are closely related but allopatric. Investigation of sympatric sister species, in contrast, should allow differences in phylogeographic structure to be attributed reliably to recently derived differences in dispersal ability. Here, using mitochondrial DNA control region sequence, we first confirm that Clevelandia ios and Eucyclogobius newberryi are sympatric sister taxa, then demonstrate considerably shallower phylogeographic structure in C. ios than in E. newberryi. This shallower phylogeographic structure is consistent with the higher dispersal ability of C. ios, which most likely results from the interaction of habitat and life-history differences between the species. We suggest that the paradigm will be investigated most rigorously by similar studies of other sympatric sister species, appended by thorough ecological studies, and by extending this sister-taxon approach to comparative phylogeographic studies of monophyletic clades of sympatric species. PMID:12030983

  9. Reproductive biology of Ilisha elongata (Teleostei: Pristigasteridae) in Ariake Sound, Japan: Implications for estuarine fish conservation in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Takita, Toru; Zhang, Chunguang

    2009-01-01

    Elongate ilisha ( Ilisha enlongata) is a commercially important species that contributes to clupeoid fisheries in Asian countries. In the present study, the reproductive biology of I. elongata in Ariake Sound, Japan is determined for the first time. Six maturity stages were described using ovarian and testicular histology throughout the annual cycle. The spawning season in Ariake Sound lasts from May to July, with peak spawning activity in May and June. Age at first maturity was estimated to be 2 years, with a few exceptions of 1 year in well-developed males. Ovaries that contained both tertiary yolk oocytes and postovulatory follicles occurred from late May to late July, indicating that I. elongata is a multiple spawner. The size-frequency distribution of oocytes provided evidence for its multiple spawning and accuracy of the fecundity estimates. The batch fecundity of this species was estimated at between 22,200 and 270,900 eggs per individual, increasing with age between two and six years. The present findings on the reproductive strategy of I. elongata in Ariake Sound are generally consistent with those in temperate or subtropical populations, but quite different from those of tropical population where first maturation occurs around 200 days and life spans are shorter, with a maximum age less than 3 years. The conservation implications of this reproductive strategy in a harsh, variable environment in Asian countries are also discussed.

  10. Records of Copiatestes filiferus (Leukart, in Sars, 1885 Gibson and Bray, 1977 (Digenea and Gorgorhynchus sp. (Acanthocepahala of marine fish from peruvian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Tantaleán V

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Copiatestes filiferus (Leukart, in Sars, 1885 Gibson and Bray, 1977 (Digenea and Gorgorhynchus sp. (Acanthocephala parasites of Hemilutjanus macrophthalmos (Teleostei, both parasites are new records from Peru and the fish is a new host.

  11. Phylogenetic analyses of the subgenus Mollienesia (Poecilia, Poeciliidae, Teleostei) reveal taxonomic inconsistencies, cryptic biodiversity, and spatio-temporal aspects of diversification in Middle America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Maura; Voelker, Gary; Arias Rodriguez, Lenin; Mateos, Mariana; Tobler, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The subgenus Mollienesia is a diverse group of freshwater fishes, including species that have served as important models across multiple biological disciplines. Nonetheless, the taxonomic history of this group has been conflictive and convoluted, in part because the evolutionary relationships have not been rigorously resolved. We conducted a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of the subgenus Mollienesia to identify taxonomic discrepancies and potentially identify undescribed species, estimate ancestral areas of origin and estimate dates of divergence, as well as explore biogeographical patterns. Our findings confirm the presence of three main clades composed of the P. latipinna, P. sphenops, and P. mexicana species complexes. Unlike previously hypothesized morphology-based analyses, species found on the Caribbean Islands are not part of Mollienesia, but are more closely related to species of the subgenus Limia. Our study also revealed several taxonomic inconsistencies and distinct lineages in the P. mexicana species complex that may represent undescribed species. The diversity in the subgenus Mollienesia is a result of dynamic geologic activity leading to vicariant events, dispersal across geologic blocks, and ecological speciation. PMID:27472959

  12. Infestation pattern and parasitic castration of the crustacean Riggia paranensis (Crustacea: Cymothoidea on the fresh water fish Cyphocharax gilbert (Teleostei: Curimatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Souza Azevedo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyphocharax gilbert infested by Riggia paranensis shows parasitic castration. The prevalence of parasitism in C. gilbert varied among different environments, being higher in the middle rio Itabapoana. Fish were collected monthly using two cast nets (thrown 30 times during the day and gillnets kept in the river during 12 hour, from sunset to sunrise, between September 1997 and August 2000. Infestation pattern was investigated on 1358 specimens. Most of them were infested (57.9%, with one or two parasites; the majority (62.9% was collected during the rainy season (spring-summer. The parasite did not show preference for sex or size of hosts. A total of 91.5% of the 511 examined parasites had a body size that represented 10.1% to 20% of host standard length. The reproductive condition of 311 specimens of R. paranensis was analyzed checking the presence of oocytes in the ovarian and eggs or embryos in the marsupium. Nearly 73% of them were at reproductive phase, and had a body size that represented 5.1% to 20% of host standard length. The size of the immature parasites varied from 0.1% to 5% of the host size. The results suggest that R. paranensis may adopt a fast growth rate strategy and increase the investment in reproduction when they occupy most of the host's pericardial space.Cyphocharax gilbert infestado por Riggia paranensis apresenta castração parasitária. A prevalência do parasito varia entre diferentes ambientes, sendo maior no trecho médio do rio Itabapoana. Os peixes foram coletados mensalmente neste rio usando duas tarrafas (lançadas por 30 vezes durante o dia e redes de espera por 12 horas, do crepúsculo ao amanhecer, entre setembro de 1997 e agosto de 2000. O padrão de infestação foi investigado em 1358 peixes. Peixes infestados apresentaram um ou dois parasitos, representando 57,9% da população e a maioria deles (62,9% foi coletada no período de maior precipitação (primavera-verão. O parasito não apresentou preferência por sexo ou tamanho do hospedeiro. No total, 91,5% de 511 parasitos examinados apresentaram um tamanho corpóreo que representou de 10,1% a 20% do comprimento padrão do hospedeiro. A condição reprodutiva em 311 espécimes R. paranensis foi analisada através da presença de oócitos no ovário e ovos ou embriões no marsúpio, sendo que cerca de 73% estavam em fase de reprodução, apresentando um tamanho corporal que variou entre 5,1% a 20% do comprimento padrão do hospedeiro. O tamanho dos parasitos imaturos variou de 0,1% a 5% do tamanho do hospedeiro. Os resultados sugerem que R. paranensis pode adotar uma estratégia de rápido crescimento e deve aumentar o investimento em reprodução quando ocupa grande parte do espaço disponível na cavidade pericardial do hospedeiro.

  13. Henneguya nagelii n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) in Cyphocharax nagelii (Steindachner, 1881) (Teleostei: Characiformes: Curimatidae) from the Peixe's River, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Rodney Kozlowiski; Abdallah, Vanessa Doro; Paes, Jaciara Vanessa Krüger; Da Silva, Reinaldo José; Matos, Patrícia; Velasco, Michele; Matos, Edilson

    2013-10-01

    A new species of Myxosporea, Henneguya nagelii n. sp., is described parasitizing the gills of Cyphocharax nagelii collected from Peixe's River, São Paulo State, Brazil. Among the fish examined, 16.7% had gills parasitized by myxosporeans. The plasmodia were white, round, or oval and measured 150-250 μm. The mature spores were fusiform and had smooth wall. The spores measurements were the following: total length, 34.5 ± 4.2 (26.4-39.9) μm; body length, 12.0 ± 0.5 (11.2-11.9) μm; body width, 4.9 ± 0.3 (4.4-5.5) μm; and caudal process length, 22.4 ± 4.0 (14.7-27.3) μm. The polar capsules were elongated and of unequal size, with lengths of 4.9 ± 0.4 (4.0-5.9) μm and 5.2 ± 0.4 (4.6-6.0) μm for the longest and shortest axes, respectively. Capsule width was 1.8 ± 0.2 (1.5-2.2) μm. Each capsule contained a polar filament with six to eight turns. There was no mucous envelope or iodinophilous vacuole. Morphometric differences between this parasite and other species of the genus Henneguya indicated that the parasite observed in C. nagelii is a new species. This is the first species of Myxosporea described in Peixe's River. PMID:23907634

  14. Two new species of Cyphocharax (Teleostei: Characiformes: Curimatidae) from headwaters of the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco river basins, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Guilherme Moreira; Penido, Iago De Souza; Mello, Gabriel Caetano Guimarães De; Pessali, Tiago Casarim

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Cyphocharax from southeastern Brazil are described. Both new species share with C. punctatus, and C. vanderi the presence of a midlateral series of irregular patches of dark pigmentation along the lateral line. Cyphocharax jagunco, new species, from Rio Jequitinhonha basin, is distinguished from C. lundi, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the number of patches of dark pigmentation along lateral line; the number of pored scales posterior to the hypural joint; the number of scales in the lateral line; and the number of scales rows above lateral line. Cyphocharax lundi, new species, from Rio São Francisco basin, is distinguished from C. jagunco, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the presence of dark spots above the lateral line; and the number of scales in the lateral line. Comments on the relationships of the new species within Cyphocharax are presented. PMID:27394625

  15. Garra mondica, a new species from the Mond River drainage with remarks on the genus Garra from the Persian Gulf basin in Iran (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyadzadeh, Golnaz; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Freyhof, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Garra mondica, new species, from the Mond River drainage in Iran is distinguished from its congeners by having 7½ branched dorsal-fin rays; the breast, belly and back in front of the dorsal-fin origin naked and 9+8 branched caudal-fin rays. Garra mondica is also distinguished from all other congeners in the Persian Gulf basin, except an unidentified species from the Kol River, by having two fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region. The identity of G. gymnothorax, a nominal species from the Karun River drainage, and G. crenulata, a nominal species from Central Iran, are discussed. Garra populations examined from the Karun have a unique mtDNA COI barcode sequence, but their diagnostic characters are not consistent with the description and syntypes of G. gymnothorax. G. crenulata is considered as a synonym of G. rufa. Two populations of Garra from the Kol River have a sequence of the COI barcode region very similar to G. mondica, but cannot be identified as G. mondica and their identity cannot be resolved here.

  16. Distinguishing between incomplete lineage sorting and genomic introgressions: complete fixation of allospecific mitochondrial DNA in a sexually reproducing fish (Cobitis; Teleostei, despite clonal reproduction of hybrids.

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    Lukas Choleva

    Full Text Available Distinguishing between hybrid introgression and incomplete lineage sorting causing incongruence among gene trees in that they exhibit topological differences requires application of statistical approaches that are based on biologically relevant models. Such study is especially challenging in hybrid systems, where usual vectors mediating interspecific gene transfers--hybrids with Mendelian heredity--are absent or unknown. Here we study a complex of hybridizing species, which are known to produce clonal hybrids, to discover how one of the species, Cobitis tanaitica, has achieved a pattern of mito-nuclear mosaic genome over the whole geographic range. We appplied three distinct methods, including the method using solely the information on gene tree topologies, and found that the contrasting mito-nuclear signal might not have resulted from the retention of ancestral polymorphism. Instead, we found two signs of hybridization events related to C. tanaitica; one concerning nuclear gene flow and the other suggested mitochondrial capture. Interestingly, clonal inheritance (gynogenesis of contemporary hybrids prevents genomic introgressions and non-clonal hybrids are either absent or too rare to be detected among European Cobitis. Our analyses therefore suggest that introgressive hybridizations are rather old episodes, mediated by previously existing hybrids whose inheritance was not entirely clonal. Cobitis complex thus supports the view that the type of resulting hybrids depends on a level of genomic divergence between sexual species.

  17. Reproductive activity and recruitment of the yellow-mandi Pimelodus maculatus (Teleostei: Pimelodidae in the Igarapava Reservoir, Grande River, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Pereira Maia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The catfish yellow-mandi, Pimelodus maculatus, is a valuable sporting and commercial fish of inland waters of Southeast Brazil including Igarapava Reservoir. It is a short-distance migrant that needs shorter stretches of free-flowing river to spawn compared to other Neotropical migrants. Igarapava Reservoir is one the 13 hydroelectric reservoirs, arranged in a cascade fashion, impounding the 1,300 km-long Grande River, SE Brazil. In this paper, we examined reproductive features and recruitment of the yellow-mandi in Igarapava Reservoir. We also evaluated the role of the Igarapava Fish Ladder (IFL built around Igarapava Dam on the sustainability of its fisheries. Female adult yellow-mandis that were gill netted (nets of 8-20 cm stretch-mesh during the reproductive season of 2002/2003, showed adequate ovarian development, indicated by the gonadosomatic index (12.9 ± 2.1, at mature stage and absolute fecundity (413,794 ± 206,259; range = 125,601-742,026, which were higher than those found in the literature. Postovulatory follicles present in ovarian tissue of 32% of the females examined showed that they possibly could have spawned in the reservoir area. Gill nets of 3-5 cm stretch-mesh aimed at capturing juvenile yellow-mandi were unproductive. These results indicated that Igarapava Reservoir and its reduced catchment area did not provide adequate conditions for recruitment of the yellow-mandi. This fish, the most abundant in the IFL, and those reaching the reservoir tended to remain there since no upstream passage mechanism is present. Thus, the IFL apparently was responsible for maintaining the Igarapava Reservoir stock of yellow-mandi.O mandi-amarelo, Pimelodus maculatus, é um peixe importante nas pescarias comercial e desportiva de águas continentais do Sudeste do Brasil, incluindo o reservatório de Igarapava. Ele é um migrador de curta distância que necessita de segmentos mais curtos de fluxos livres de rios para desovar do que outros migradores. O reservatório de Igarapava é um dos 13 reservatórios hidrelétricos, dispostos em cascata, que fragmentaram os 1.300 km do rio Grande, no sudeste do Brasil. Neste trabalho, examinamos aspectos reprodutivos e o recrutamento do mandi-amarelo no reservatório de Igarapava. Avaliamos também o papel da escada de peixes, construída em torno da barragem de Igarapava, na sustentabilidade da pesca desse peixe no respectivo reservatório. Fêmeas de mandis-amarelos adultas, capturadas durante o período reprodutivo, com redes de emalhar (tamanho de malha entre 8 e 20 cm, medido entre nós opostos, exibiram adequado desenvolvimento ovariano, indicado pelo índice gonadossomático (12,9 ± 2,1, no estádio maduro e fecundidade absoluta (413.794 ± 206.259; amplitude = 125.601-742.026. Esses valores foram mais altos do que os registrados na literatura. Folículos pós-ovulatórios, presentes no ovário de 32% das fêmeas examinadas indicaram que, possivelmente, elas poderiam ter desovado no reservatório. Redes de emalhar de 3-5 cm de malha (medida entre nós opostos, colocadas com o objetivo de se capturar juvenis, mostraram-se improdutivas. Esses resultados indicaram que o reservatório de Igarapava e sua reduzida bacia hidrográfica não teriam condições adequadas para o recrutamento do mandi-amarelo. Esta é a espécie mais abundante na escada de peixes de Igarapava e os indivíduos que atingem o reservatório de Igarapava tenderiam a permanecer ali em razão da inexistência de mecanismo de passagem para montante. Portanto, a passagem de mandis-amarelos pela escada foi, aparentemente, responsável pela manutenção de seu estoque no reservatório de Igarapava.

  18. Comparison of the bioaccumulation from seawater and depuration of heavy metals and radionuclides in the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (Chondrichthys) and the turbot Psetta maxima (Actinopterygii: Teleostei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffree, Ross A.; Warnau, Michel; Teyssie, Jean-Louis [IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 (Monaco); Markich, Scott J. [Aquatic Solutions International, Level 1, 467 Miller St, Cammeray, NSW 2062 (Australia)

    2006-09-15

    The bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals and radionuclides ({sup 241}Am, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 57}Co, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 65}Zn) from seawater was experimentally compared in the Chondrichthyan Scyliorhinus canicula (spotted dogfish) and the Actinopterygian Teleost Psetta maxima (turbot), of comparable size, age and benthic feeding habits. The speciation of these elements in seawater (salinity 38%%, pH 8.1, temperature 16.5 {sup o}C) was also calculated to determine their potential bioavailability. The uptake rates, measured over 14 days, varied greatly among isotopes and between species. Concentration factors (CFs) in P. maxima varied 5-fold between ca. 0.2 for {sup 51}Cr and 2.5 for {sup 65}Zn and {sup 134}Cs, whereas in S. canicula they varied by a much greater factor of 350, with CFs for {sup 51}Cr and {sup 241}Am ranging from ca. 0.4 to 140, respectively. With the exception of {sup 134}Cs, all radiotracers were accumulated at a faster rate in S. canicula than in P. maxima, particularly for {sup 241}Am and {sup 65}Zn where the CFs attained during the uptake phase were, two and one order of magnitude greater in S. canicula, respectively. In contrast, {sup 134}Cs reached a CF of about 2.5 in P. maxima, which was 5-fold greater than in S. canicula. Patterns of loss from the experimental depuration phase over 29 days showed greater similarities between species, compared to the uptake phase that highlighted the greater differences between elements. The distributions of these seven radioisotopes among six body components indicated that between the two species the skin of the dogfish displayed a greater bioaccumulation potential, particularly for {sup 241}Am, {sup 57}Co and {sup 65}Zn. However {sup 65}Zn was also distinctive from {sup 241}Am and {sup 57}Co in its pattern of bioaccumulation in dogfish, with its other body components attaining concentrations of {sup 65}Zn that were comparable to the levels found in its skin. The heightened uptake of {sup 134}Cs in turbot was characterised by a more even percentage distribution among its tissues compared to {sup 241}Am and {sup 57}Co, but every tissue of turbot had a higher concentration of {sup 134}Cs, compared to dogfish, particularly the muscle and liver. The elevated uptake rates and higher CFs for most radioisotopes indicate that S. canicula is more susceptible than P. maxima to exposure and contamination by these metals and radionuclides in seawater. These experimentally-determined differences between dogfish and turbot in their bioaccumulation characteristics were assessed against a set of criteria erected to evaluate the working hypothesis that they were taxonomically based. The outcomes of this initial assessment were supportive of this hypothesis that warrants further investigation. (author)

  19. 中鲤亚属的分支系统学分析%Cladistic Analysis of the Cyprinid Subgenus Cyprinus (Mesocyprinus) Fang (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小勇; 杨君兴

    2002-01-01

    Phylogeny of the cyprinid subgenus Cyprinus (Mesocyprinus) is elucidated based on both external and osteological features. All five species of Cyprinus (Mesocyprinus) are including in the ingroup in addition to two Cyprinus (Cyprinus) species. Procypris merus was treated as outgroup in comparison. A total of 48 characters were identified as variable among ingroup and outgroup. Phylogenetic analysis was accomplished using Parsimony and Bootstrap methods with Branch-and-Bound search of PAUP*. There are 28 characters remaining useful after excluding unpolarized characters and autapomorphies of terminal taxa. Analysis of the characters resulted in one tree with a length of 69 steps, Consistency Index (CI) of 0.7246, CI excluding uninformative characters of 0.6122, and Retention Index (RI) of 0.6346. It is apparent that the Mesocyprinus group consisting of five species is a polyphyletic group. This result suggests that subgenus Cyprinus (Mesocyprinus) should be suspended.%基于外部形态特征和内部骨骼特征对鲤科鲤属中鲤亚属进行了分支系统学分析.内群包括中鲤亚属的全部5种和鲤亚属的2种鱼类,外群采用乌原鲤.在鲤属鱼类和外群间共有48个性状存在变化.系统发育分析采用PAUP*软件的Parsimony和Bootstrap两种方式的Branch-and-Bound算法.排除不能极化的特征和特有离征之后,还有28个特征可用,由这28个特征可得到唯一的系统树,树长69,一致性系数0.7246,排除无用特征的一致性系数0.6122,保留系数0.6346.由5种中鲤组成的中鲤亚属明显不构成一个单系群.结果表明:中鲤亚属是一个复系群,该类元应该被撤销.

  20. Otocinclus cocama, a new uniquely colored loricariid catfish from Peru (Teleostei: Siluriformes, with comments on the impact of taxonomic revisions to the discovery of new taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto E. Reis

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A new, uniquely colored species of the loricariid catfish genus Otocinclus, O. cocama is described from a tributary to the lower río Ucayali in northern Peru. The new species is distinguished from other Otocinclus species by two putatively autapomorphic features, the distinct color pattern, consisting of vertically elongated blotches spanning from the dorsal midline to the ventral border of flanks, and by a complete lateral line. The phylogenetic relationships of the new species are investigated and it is apparently more closely related to a clade formed by O. huaorani, O. bororo, O. mariae, and O. mura. Comments on the impact of taxonomic revisions for the discovery and description of previously undetected biodiversity are also presented.Uma nova espécie de bagre loricariídeo de coloração única do gênero Otocinclus, O. cocama, é descrita de um afluente do baixo río Ucayali no norte do Peru. A nova espécie se distingue das demais espécies de Otocinclus por dois caracteres supostamente autopomórficos, o padrão de coloração diferenciado, que consiste em marcas alongadas verticalmente desde a linha média dorsal até a porção ventral dos flancos, e por uma linha lateral completa. As relações filogenéticas da nova espécie são investigadas e ela é aparentemente mais proximamente relacionada ao clado formado por O. huaorani, O. bororo, O. mariae e O. mura. Ao final, são apresentados comentários sobre o impacto de revisões taxonômicas no descobrimento e descrição de biodiversidade previamente não detectada.

  1. Otocinclus cocama, a new uniquely colored loricariid catfish from Peru (Teleostei: Siluriformes), with comments on the impact of taxonomic revisions to the discovery of new taxa

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto E Reis

    2004-01-01

    A new, uniquely colored species of the loricariid catfish genus Otocinclus, O. cocama is described from a tributary to the lower río Ucayali in northern Peru. The new species is distinguished from other Otocinclus species by two putatively autapomorphic features, the distinct color pattern, consisting of vertically elongated blotches spanning from the dorsal midline to the ventral border of flanks, and by a complete lateral line. The phylogenetic relationships of the new species are investiga...

  2. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis of the genus Orestias (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) in the southern Chilean Altiplano: the relevance of ancient and recent divergence processes in speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, I; Morales, P; Scott, S; Poulin, E; Véliz, D; Harrod, C; Méndez, M A

    2013-03-01

    This study presents phylogenetic molecular data of the Chilean species of Orestias to propose an allopatric divergence hypothesis and phylogeographic evidence that suggests the relevance of abiotic factors in promoting population divergence in this complex. The results reveal that diversification is still ongoing, e.g. in the Ascotán salt pan, where populations of Orestias ascotanensis restricted to individual freshwater springs exhibit strong genetic differentiation, reflecting putative independent evolutionary units. Diversification of Orestias in the southern Altiplano may be linked to historical vicariant events and contemporary variation in water level; these processes may have affected the populations from the Plio-Pleistocene until the present.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of Cyprinidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) inferred from the partial S6K1 gene sequences and implication of indel sites in intron 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG; XiangHui; WANG; XuZhen; GAN; XiaoNi; LI; JunBing; HE; ShunPing

    2007-01-01

    The family Cyprinidae is widely distributed in East Asia, and has the important phylogenetic signifi- cance in the fish evolution. In this study, the 5′ end partial sequences (containing exon 1, exon 2 and indel 1) of S6K1 gene were obtained from 30 representative species in Cyprinidae and outgroup using PCR amplification and sequencing. The phylogenetic relationships of Cyprinidae were reconstructed with neighbor joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian meth- ods. Myxocyprinus asiaticus (Catostomidae) was assigned to the outgroup taxon. Similar phylogenetic relationships within the family Cyprinidae were achieved with the four analyses. Leuciscini and Barbini were monophyletic lineages respectively with the high nodal supports. Leuciscini comprises Hypophthalmichthyinae, Xenocyprinae, Cultrinae, Gobioninae, Acheilognathinae and East Asian species of Leuciscinae and Danioninae. Monophyly of East Asian clade was supported with high nodal support. Barbini comprises Schizothoracinae, Barbinae, Cyprininae and Labeoninae. The monophyletic lineage consisting of Danio rerio, D. myersi, and Rasbora trilineata was basal in the tree. In addition, the large fragment indels in intron 1 were analyzed to improve the understanding of Cyprinidae relationships. The results showed that the large fragment indels were correlated with the relations among species. Some conserved regions in intron 1 were thought to be involved in the functional regulation. However, no correlation was found between sequence variations and species characteristic size.

  4. Karyotypic diversity and evolutionary trends in the Neotropical catfish genus Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803 (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Loricariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Alves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The family Loricariidae with 813 nominal species is one of the largest fish families of the world. Hypostominae, its more complex subfamily, was recently divided into five tribes. The tribe Hypostomini is composed of a single genus, Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803, which exhibits the largest karyotypic diversity in the family Loricariidae. With the main objective of contributing to a better understanding of the relationship and the patterns of evolution among the karyotypes of Hypostomus species, cytogenetic studies were conducted in six species of the genus from Brazil and Venezuela. The results show a great chromosome variety with diploid numbers ranging from 2n=68 to 2n=76, with a clear predominance of acrocentric chromosomes. The Ag-NORs are located in terminal position in all species analyzed. Three species have single Ag-NORs (Hypostomus albopunctatus (Regan, 1908, H. prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758, and H. prope paulinus (Ihering, 1905 and three have multiple Ag-NORs (H. ancistroides (Ihering, 1911, H. prope iheringi (Regan, 1908, and H. strigaticeps (Regan, 1908. In the process of karyotype evolution of the group, the main type of chromosome rearrangements was possibly centric fissions, which may have been facilitated by the putative tetraploid origin of Hypostomus species. The relationship between the karyotype changes and the evolution in the genus is discussed.

  5. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Majtánová

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis. We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA. Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.

  6. The morphology of the cement gland apparatus of larval Pterophyllum scalare Cuv. & Val. (Cichlidae, Teleostei). Histological, transmission- and scanning electron microscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennemann, R; Pietzsch-Rohrschneider, I

    1978-10-30

    The cement gland apparatus of newly hatched Pterophyllum scalare Cuv. & Val. was examined by histology, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The whole organ is composed of three pairs of endoepithelial, ductless glands, which cause prominent elevations on the larval head and are found in a specific arrangement. Each single gland is represented by an aggregation of elongated, tubular secretory cells surrounding a pyriform acinus. It overlies a basal lamina and is covered by the outer layer of the bilaminar embryonic epidermis. Two different types of secretory cells can be distinguished. One type is restricted to the bottom of the cavity. It is characterized by multiform cytoplasmic protrusions, which project into the gland's cavity. The secretory granules contain a network of light filamentous material. The second type constitutes the side wall of the acinus. It does not develop any protrusions. The contents of the secretory granules is of very high and homogeneous electron density. The mechanism of extrusion is discussed for both cell types. All secretory cells show a strong PAS-reaction. In SEM a circular microridge pattern with attached mucus globules can be recognized on the larval epithelial surface. PMID:728956

  7. Redescripción de Hemibrycon orcesi Böhlke, 1958 y H. polyodon (Gunther, 1864 (Teleostei, Characidae, incluye clave para las especies de Hemibrycon en Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román-Valencia, C.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Redescription of Hemibrycon orcesi Böhlke, 1958 and H. polyodon (Günther, 1864 (Pisces, Characidae, with a key for the species of Hemibrycon from Ecuador. Hemibrycon orcesi is readily distinguished from its congeners by its 13 to 16 teeth on maxilla, base of caudal fin scaled, 34 to 36 scales on lateral line with pores and 17 to 18 branched anal fin rays. H. polyodon is distinguished from its congeners by simple and branched dorsal fin rays of equal length and shape of humeral spot.

  8. Schistura megalodon species nova, a new river loach from the Irra-waddy basin in Dehong, Yunnan, China (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-09-01

    A new species of river loach, Schistura megalodon sp. nov., is described from the Irrawaddy basin in Yingjiang County, Dehong Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The following combination of diagnostic characters serve to distinguish it from all other congeners in the given zoogeographical region: a large processus dentiformes in the upper jaw, a short pre-anus length of 65.4%-66.3% of SL, long paired fins (pectoral: 20.8%-24.2% of SL; pelvic: 17.9%-20.6% of SL), a wide body of 9.7%-11.3% of SL at anal fin origin, an incomplete lateral line, the absence of an orbital lobe, and a oad and distinct basicaudal bar with forward extensions.

  9. Ontogenetic, spatial and temporal variations in the feeding ecology of Deuterodon langei Travassos, 1957 (Teleostei: Characidae in a Neotropical stream from the Atlantic rainforest, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean R. S. Vitule

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Information related to the diet of one species always contributes to the knowledge of its bionomy and the functioning of the ecosystem in which the species lives. Therefore, understanding the feeding ecology of one fish population and its ontogenetic, spatial and temporal aspects help to understand the structure of fish assemblages and river communities. Knowledge of this structure is essential for habitat management and biodiversity conservation. The feeding ecology of Deuterodon langei Travassos, 1957 was studied through analyses of diet composition, sharing of resources, feeding strategy and contribution of food items to the width of its niche. The analysis included an assessment of ontogenetic, spatial and seasonal variations. The species was considered omnivorous with great plasticity caused by seasonal variation in food availability throughout the river basin, but mainly through ontogeny. The diet of smaller individuals revealed a predominance of insects and other arthropods, while the diet of larger specimens showed allochthonous plant items as the main components. The low intestinal quotient (IQ values for the smaller individuals were accounted for their mainly insectivorous diet. The greater relative length of the intestine can account for the greater plasticity of the adult diet, enabling them to use diet items of larger size and more difficult digestion, such as plant items. Therefore, shifts in feeding ecology during growth are confirmed in this omnivorous tropical river fish, strengthening the concept that, when comparing food habits among species, fish size must be taken into account. This study also provides needed information regarding the feeding ecology of fishes intrinsically associated with the Atlantic rainforest, one of the most threatened and biodiverse ecosystems of the planet.Informações relacionadas à alimentação de uma espécie contribuem para o conhecimento de sua bionomia e funcionamento do ecossistema no qual ela vive. Desta forma, entender a ecologia alimentar de uma população de peixes e seus aspectos ontogenéticos, temporais e espaciais auxiliam na compreensão da assembléia de peixes e de toda a comunidade de um rio. Reconhecer tal estrutura é fundamental para o manejo e conservação da biodiversidade do habitat. A ecologia alimentar de Deuterodon langei Travassos, 1957 foi analisada por meio da composição da dieta, partilha de recursos, estratégia alimentar e contribuição dos itens alimentares para o nicho alimentar. As análises incluem uma abordagem das variações ontogenéticas, espaciais e temporais. A espécie foi considerada onívora com uma grande plasticidade alimentar causada pela variabilidade sazonal na disponibilidade de recursos e ao longo da bacia hidrográfica, mas principalmente ao longo de sua ontogenia. A dieta dos indivíduos menores revelou uma predominância de insetos e outros artrópodes, enquanto nos indivíduos maiores ocorreu um predomínio de vegetais alóctones. Os baixos valores de Quociente Intestinal (IQ para os indivíduos menores foram associados a uma dieta predominantemente insetívora. Os maiores comprimentos intestinais estiveram associados com uma maior plasticidade dos adultos, os quais são capazes de utilizar itens maiores e de difícil digestão, como itens de origem vegetal. Neste sentido, mudanças na ecologia alimentar durante o crescimento são confirmadas neste peixe onívoro de rios tropicais, ampliando o conceito de que, quando se compara os hábitos alimentares entre espécies, o tamanho dos peixes examinados deve ser levado em consideração. Este estudo contribui também com informações necessárias sobre a ecologia alimentar de peixes intrinsecamente associados com a Floresta Atlântica, um dos mais biodiversos e ameaçados ecossistemas do planeta.

  10. Multi-locus sequence data reveal a new species of coral reef goby (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Eviota), and evidence of Pliocene vicariance across the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornabene, L; Valdez, S; Erdmann, M V; Pezold, F L

    2016-05-01

    Here, multi-locus sequence data are coupled with observations of live colouration to recognize a new species, Eviota punyit from the Coral Triangle, Indian Ocean and Red Sea. Relaxed molecular clock divergence time estimation indicates a Pliocene origin for the new species, and the current distribution of the new species and its sister species Eviota sebreei supports a scenario of vicariance across the Indo-Pacific Barrier, followed by subsequent range expansion and overlap in the Coral Triangle. These results are consistent with the 'centre of overlap' hypothesis, which states that the increased diversity in the Coral Triangle is due in part to the overlapping ranges of Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean faunas. These findings are discussed in the context of other geminate pairs of coral reef fishes separated by the Indo-Pacific Barrier. PMID:27021219

  11. Localization of 18S ribosomal genes in suckermouth armoured catfishes Loricariidae (Teleostei, Siluriformes with discussion on the Ag-NOR evolution

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    Anderson Alves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Loricariidae with about 690 species divided into six subfamilies, is one of the world’s largest fish families. Cytogenetic studies conducted in the family showed that among 90 species analyzed the diploid number ranges from 2n=38 in Ancistrus sp. to 2n=96 in Hemipsilichthys gobio Luetken, 1874. In the present study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH was employed to determine the chromosomal localization of the 18S rDNA gene in four suckermouth armoured catfishes: Kronichthys lacerta (Nichols, 1919, Pareiorhaphis splendens (Bizerril, 1995, Liposarcus multiradiatus (Hancock, 1828 and Hypostomus prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758. All species analyzed showed one chromosome pair with 18S rDNA sequences, as observed in the previous Ag-NORs analyses. The presence of size and numerical polymorphism was observed and discussed, with proposing a hypothesis of the Ag-NOR evolution in Loricariidae.

  12. Chromosomal differentiation between populations of Oligosarcus hepsetus (Teleostei, Characidae from small tributaries at opposite margins of the Paraíba do Sul river (Brazil

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    Liano Centofante

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analyses were carried out in two populations of Oligosarcus hepsetus from tributaries at opposite margins of the Paraíba do Sul river. The same diploid number was observed in both populations (2n=50, but they showed remarkable differences related to karyotype formula and distribution of rDNA sites as revealed by silver nitrate staining and in situ hybridization with 18S probes. The results suggested that the main channel of the Paraíba do Sul river acted as barrier to gene flow between populations.Análises citogenéticas foram realizadas em duas populações de Oligosarcus hepsetus provenientes de riachos de margens opostas do rio Paraíba do Sul. O número diplóide foi o mesmo para ambas as populações (2n=50, porém diferenças significativas foram observadas com relação à fórmula cariotípica e distribuição dos sítios de DNAr detectados pela impregnação por prata e pela hibridação "in situ" com sonda 18S. Estes resultados sugerem que a calha principal do rio Paraíba do Sul estaria atuando como uma barreira para o fluxo gênico entre essas populações.

  13. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, Effective Population Size, Demographic History and Regional Connectivity Patterns of the Endangered Dusky Grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz-Sørensen, Molly; Vella, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the genetic population structure and demographic history of the endangered marine fish, Epinephelus marginatus, within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone for the purpose of localised conservation planning. Epinephelus marginatus is a long-lived, sedentary, reef-associated protogynous hermaphrodite with high commercial and recreational value that is at risk of extinction throughout its global distribution. Based on global trends, population substructuring and gaps in local knowledge this has led to an increased interest in evaluation of local stock. Assessment of Maltese demography was based on historical and contemporary catch landings data whilst genetic population structure and regional connectivity patterns were evaluated by examining 175 individuals collected within the central Mediterranean region between 2002 and 2009 using 14 nuclear microsatellite loci. Demographic stock assessment of Maltese E. marginatus' revealed a 99% decline in catch landings between 1947 and 2009 within the Fisheries Management Zone. A contemporary modest mean size was observed, 3 ± 3 kg, where approximately 17% of the population was juvenile, 68% female/sex-changing and 15% were male with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1:5. Genetic analysis describes the overall population of E. marginatus' within the Fisheries Management Zone as decreasing in size (ƟH = 2.2), which has gone through a significant size reduction in the past (M = 0.41) and consequently shows signs of moderate inbreeding (FIS = 0.10, p Management Zone and that they are connected to a larger network of E. marginatus' within the Sicily Channel. Results suggest conservation management should be designed to reflect E. marginatus' within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone as two management units. PMID:27463811

  14. Infrapopulations of Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 (Trematoda: Gyliauchenidae) in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei: Siganidae) from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jahdali, M O

    2012-08-01

    In hermaphroditic helminth parasites, infrapopulation size or mating group size mostly affects some processes acting within the infrapopulation. Here, 30 natural infrapopulations (12-154 individuals) of the intestinal trematode Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 from the fish Siganus rivulatus consisting of newly excysted juveniles, immature and mature worms were found distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (anterior 40% of the intestine). In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were alive. In larger infrapopulations, differential mortality was only and consistently observed among newly excysted juveniles, and gradually increased to include most or all juveniles in the largest infrapopulations. Among mature worms, the mean worm length seemed unaffected by the infrapopulation size. However, the ratio mean testis size-mean ovary size, a reliable indicator of resource allocation to the male function and of opportunities for cross fertilization, significantly increased with mating group size. In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were scattered along the niche, and never seen in mating pairs (possibly reproduced by self-fertilization). In larger infrapopulations, newly excysted juveniles and immature worms were scattered along the anterior two thirds of the niche, while mature worms were constantly found aggregated in its posterior third (narrow microhabitat), where some were arranged in mating pairs. The probability of mating reciprocally or unilaterally was dependent on body size. The mean number of uterine eggs per worm significantly decreased and their mean sizes significantly increased with mating group size. The results are statistically significant and suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is greatly associated with its size.

  15. Infrapopulations of Sclerocollum saudii Al-Jahdali, 2010 (Acanthocephala: Cavisomidae) in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei, Siganidae) from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jahdali, M O; Hassanine, R M El-Said

    2012-03-01

    In infrapopulations of helminth parasites, density-dependent effects, through some form of intra- and interspecific competition, play an important role in shaping and regulating the infrapopulations. The mechanisms responsible for these processes have often been observed in laboratory studies and rarely studied under natural conditions. Here, 24 natural infrapopulations (77-447 individuals) of the acanthocephalan Sclerocollum saudii Al-Jahdali, 2010 from the fish Siganus rivulatus consisted of cystacanths, newly excysted juveniles, immature and mature worms, distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (anterior 60% of the intestine). Each of these stages exhibited a significantly different longitudinal distribution within this niche. In small infrapopulations, cystacanths and newly excysted juveniles were found in the sixth 10% of the intestine, immature worms in the fifth 10% and mature worms in the anterior 40% of the intestine. However, their proportions followed a clear ascending order in each infrapopulation, and the female-male ratios of both immature and mature worms were distinctly female-biased. In large infrapopulations, mature worms existed partially in the site of immature ones, where a differential mortality among immature females was constantly observed. However, the proportions of immature worms increased significantly and those of mature worms decreased significantly, the mean lengths of immature and mature females decreased dramatically and the female-male ratios were distinctly male-biased. The mean sizes of immature and mature males seemed stable through all infrapopulations. The distribution of mature males and females suggests intense male-male competition for access to females, and reveals that larger females are copulated prior to the smaller ones. The results are statistically significant and suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is through density-dependent mechanisms, in which immature females may play a key role.

  16. Infrapopulations of Procamallanus elatensis Fusco & Overstreet, 1979 (Nematoda: Camallanidae) in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei, Siganidae) from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jahdali, Mohammed O

    2012-09-01

    Factors regulating gastrointestinal nematode infrapopulations are to a great extent density-dependent. Here, 23 natural infrapopulations (41-281 individuals) of the viviparous nematode Procamallanus elatensis (Camallanidae) from the fish Siganus rivulatus were found distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (posterior 55% of the intestine). Immature worms were mostly found in the anterior third of this niche, while mature worms were found in aggregations posterior to them and followed by gravid females in the posterior 20% of the intestine. This distribution strongly suggests that worms migrate towards the posterior intestine while they mature, copulate and reproduce. In small infrapopulations, the sex ratios were distinctly female-biased and the number of gravid females was low. In large infrapopulations, the sex ratios were distinctly male-biased and the number of gravid females was high. However, the mean lengths of both immature males and females and mature females decreased dramatically as the infrapopulation size increased, while those of mature males increased significantly. These results strongly suggest intraspecific competition and density-dependent regulation of mean worm length, and the increase in the mean length of mature males strongly suggests intense sexual selection and competition between mature males. Production of larvae by female worms decreased significantly as the infrapopulation size increased, suggesting a density-dependent reduction in female worm fertility. The results are statistically significant and strongly suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is through density-dependent mechanisms, in which development of immature worms, infrapopulation size, sex ratio, sexual selection and carrying capacity of the fundamental niche play essential roles in shaping and regulating the infrapopulations.

  17. [Hyphessobrycon taphorni and H. eschwartzae (Teleostei: Characidae) two new species of fish in the basin of Madre de Dios river, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alzate, Carlos A; Romin-Valencia, César; Ortega, Hernán

    2013-06-01

    Hyphessobrycon with 129 valid species, is a genus of fish that has a great diversity of species in the Neotropical ichthyofauna, reaches its greatest diversity in the Amazon basin with about 70% of these species, is highly desired by hobbyists because of their beauty and color, and are still meeting new species. We analyzed specimens from the Departamento de Ictiología, Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú (MUSM); and measurements of the specimens were taken point to point with digital calipers. Observations of bone and cartilage structures were made on cleared and stained (C&S) samples. The morphometric relationships between species using 21 variables were explored using a principal component analysis (PCA). Here we describe two new species, Hyphessobrycon taphorni and H. eschwartzae from the Madre de Dios River drainage, Peru. Hyphessobrycon taphorni sp. n. can be distinguished by the number of dorsal-fin rays (iii, 8), by the number of: pored lateral-line scales (4-5), teeth in the outer premaxillary row (1-2), teeth in the inner premaxillary row (7-8), by: the caudal-peduncle length (11.4-16.4% SL), number of lateral scales (28-29, except from H. loretoensis which has 29-30) and absence of a humeral spot (vs. present), it differs from H. loretoensis by the number of: scales between the lateral line and the anal fin origin (4 vs. 3) and maxillary teeth (2 vs. 3-4), and it differs from H. agulha by the number of branched pectoral-fin rays (11-12 vs. 9-10). Hyphessobrycon eschwartzae sp. n. is distinguished by the number of: simple anal-fin rays (iv), teeth on the dentary (13-15), teeth in the inner premaxillary row (6), teeth in the outer premaxillary row (3, except from H. heterorhabdus and H. loretoensis which have 3-4); it differs from H. loretoensis by the number of: pored lateral-line scales (7 vs. 9-10), scales between the lateral line and the dorsal-fin origin (5 vs. 3-4); it differs from H. agulha in the number of lateral scales (30-31 vs. 33-34), by the number of: predorsal scales (9 vs. 10), maxillary teeth (4 vs. 0-1); in having in life a red lateral stripe above the dark lateral stripe that extends from the posterior part of the opercle to the caudal peduncle (vs. absent) and by the presence of bony hooks in mature males only on the anal fin (vs. hooks on all fins, including the caudal).

  18. A revision of the Rutilus complex from Mediterranean Europe with description of a new genus, Sarmarutilus, and a new species, Rutilus stoumboudae (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Pier Giorgio; Ketmaier, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    By combining morphology, ecology, biology, and biogeography with the available molecular (sequence variation of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b gene; cyt-b) and karyology data, the taxonomy of several species of the Rutilus complex inhabiting southern Europe is revised. Rutilus stoumboudae, new species, is described from Lake Volvi, Greece. It differs from Rutilus rutilus in possessing more total GR and less branched rays in both dorsal and anal fins and in its placement in the cyt-b based phylogeny of the genus. The resurrected genus Leucos Heckel, 1843 (type species Leucos aula, Bonaparte, 1841), which according to molecular data diverged from Rutilus more than 5 million years ago, during the Messinian salinity crisis, includes five species of small size, without spinous tubercles on scales and head in reproductive males, pharyngeal teeth formula 5-5, and all show a preference for still waters. Leucos aula is the Italian species endemic in the Padany-Venetian district: L. basak is widespread in Croatia, Albania, Montenegro and former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM); L. albus, recently described from Lake Skadar, Montenegro, is also found in rivers Moraca and Zeta (Montenegro). L. albus differs from L. basak, its closest relative, in having more scales on the LL and less anal-fin rays; L. panosi is endemic to the western-Greece district, and L. ylikiensis is endemic to lakes Yliki and Paralimni in eastern Greece (introduced in Lake Volvi). Among the nominal species examined, Rutilus karamani, R. ohridanus, R. prespensis and R. prespensis vukovici are all junior synonyms of Leucos basak. Rutilus vegariticus is definitively regarded as junior synonym for R. rutilus. Sarmarutilus n.gen. is a monotypic genus, with Sarmarutilus rubilio as the type species. According to phylogenetic data, Sarmarutilus rubilio is basal to a cluster of species that includes Leucos basak, L. albus, L. aula, L. panosi and L. ylikiensis. Sarmarutilus possibly evolved in pre-Messinian time, in the Lago Mare, entered the Mediterranean area during the Messinian Lago Mare phase of the Mediterranean Sea and survived only in the Tuscany- Latium district. This genus differs from Leucos in having large pearl organs on the central part of head and body scales in mature males and for the habitat preference, being a riverine-adapted species. It differs from Rutilus in pharyngeal teeth formula (5-5 in Sarmarutilus and 6-5 in Rutilus), size (small in Sarmarutilus and large in Rutilus) and for the preferential habitat (riverine vs. still water). Finally, lectotypes for Leucos basak, Leucos aula, and Sarmarutilus rubilio are designated. PMID:25082046

  19. Hepatocyte nuclear structure and subcellular distribution of copper in zebrafish Brachydanio rerio and roach Rutilus rutilus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) exposed to copper sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris-Palacios, Severine [Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne (URCA), UFR Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, Institut International de Recherche sur les Ions Metalliques, B.P. 1039-51687 Reims cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: severine.paris@univ-reims.fr; Biagianti-Risbourg, Sylvie [Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne (URCA), UFR Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, Institut International de Recherche sur les Ions Metalliques, B.P. 1039-51687 Reims cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: sylvie.biagianti@univ-reims.fr

    2006-05-10

    Copper is a trace element essential to life, but also a heavy metal with toxic effect clearly demonstrated. Cu induced perturbations in fish liver are well documented but the variability of the reported results is large. In this study two cyprinids, zebrafish and roach, were exposed to copper. Reported histocytological changes are either adaptative or degenerative depending on fish species, concentration of metal, and duration of exposure. Hepatic subcellular distribution of copper was determined by X-ray microanalysis in control and Cu-exposed roach and zebrafish. Sublethal copper sulphate contamination induced the development of a particular nucleolar alteration forming a network or honeycomb like structure in liver. This perturbation is observable in almost all the hepatocytes of zebrafish and roach exposed to copper for a minimum of 4 days of exposure. It seemed to concern more precisely the pars fibrosa. X-ray microanalysis showed that the appearance of network nucleolus was in relation to a Cu accumulation. Cu deposit was well located in the network as pars granulosa and nucloplasm showed very lower metal concentrations. The origin and consequence of network structure in nucleolus was discussed.

  20. Gonadal Morphogenesis and Sex Differentiation in Intraovarian Embryos of the Viviparous Fish Zoarces viviparus (Teleostei, Perciformes, Zoarcidae): A Histological and Ultrastructural Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tina H.; Jespersen, Åse; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2006-01-01

    undifferentiated paired bilobed gonad contains primordial germ cells. In the female embryos, ovarian differentiation, initiated 14 days posthatch (dph), is characterized by the initial formation of the endoovarian cavity of the single ovary as well as by the presence of some early meiotic oocytes in a chromatin-nucleolus...

  1. Dynamics and cytochemistry of oogenesis in Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae from Rio Sapucaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio Dias Garcia

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oogenesis involves a set of transformations which are undergone by female germ cells These cells change into oogonias and then into mature oocytes. Sexually mature female fish were collected monthly, during one year, from the Sapucaí River, a tributary of the Rio Grande, which is part of the Furnas Reservoir in the state of Minas Gerais. During the several stages of maturation, we observed small round oogonias with a large nucleus, a single nucleolus, and weakly stained cytoplasm with eosinophilic granules. The primary oocytes showed a large basophilic nucleus, with a developed peripheral nucleolus and a reduced cytoplasm. The previtellogenic oocytes presented voluminous cytoplasm and nucleus with several small peripheral nucleoli. The oocytes underwent vitellogenesis with the development of the zona radiata and the follicle cells. Their cytochemical reactions indicated that the two layers of the zona radiata of A. fasciatus contained proteins and polysaccharides. The initially squamous follicle cells, became cuboidal. In mature oocytes, the nucleus moved toward the periphery, next to the micropyle, and the yolk granules formed by proteins, fulfilled the cytoplasm. The clear unstained vesicles are likely to be the cortical alveoli in the perivitelline region.

  2. Dynamics and cytochemistry of oogenesis in Leporinus striatus Kner (Teleostei, Characiformes, Anostomidae from the Rio Sapucaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Helena A.S. Chini

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oogenesis involves a sequense of transformations which are undergone by female germ cells. These cells change into oogonias and then into mature oocytes. Sexually mature females were collected monthly, during one year, from the Rio Sapucaí, tributary of the Rio Grande, which is part of the Furnas Reservoir system in the state of Minas Gerais. The observed material showed that oogonias were small spherical cells, had a big spherical nucleus, with a single nucleolus, and weakly stained cytoplasm with eosinophilic granules (FG stained, which indicate their protein content. The primary oocytes showed a big basophilic nucleus, with a large peripheral nucleolus, and several smaller nucleoli. They show a reduced cytoplasmic content. The previtellogenic oocytes presented voluminous cytoplasm and nucleus with several small peripheral nucleoli. The oocytes underwent vitellogenesis with the development of the zona radiata and the follicle cells. The zona radiata had two layers, the outer and the inner, which showed its protein content when stained with CM and FG techniques. TB pH 2.5 and pH 4.0 staining showed that oocytes undergoing vitellogenesis presented weakly stained cytoplasm and peripheral cytoplasmic vesicles. The follicle cells that were squamous became cuboidal. In mature oocytes, the yolk granules that filled the cytoplasm became green and blue when stained with FG and CM techniques, indicating their protein content. The perivitclline region showed rosy stained vesicles (TB pH 2.5 and pH 4.0 spread among the weakly stained peripheral vesicles, which seemed to be the cortical alveoli. The zona radiata cells, CM and FG stained, still showed two layers like the oocytes from the previous stage, but thicker.

  3. Karyotypic diversity in four species of the genus Gymnotus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae: physical mapping of ribosomal genes and telomeric sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Scacchetti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3 and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (G. sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, G. inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, G. pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758 from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. G. sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st, G. pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st, while G. inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a and G. cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of G. inaequilabiatus, G. cf. carapo, and G. pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in G. inaequilabiatus, G. cf. carapo, and G. pantherinus, and on pair 2 in G. sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in G. sylvius and G. pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in G. sylvius and two pairs in G. pantherinus; G. inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and G. cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of G. inaequilabiatus and G. cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of G. sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGGn indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present study reveals valuable cytotaxonomic markers for this group and allows a more precise evaluation of the processes involved in the karyotype differentiation and the interrelationships among different species of the genus Gymnotus.

  4. A new species of freshwater eel-tailed catfish of the genus Tandanus (Teleostei: Plotosidae) from the Wet Tropics Region of Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Stuart; Jerry, Dean R.; Burrows, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Tandanus tropicanus, new species, is described based on specimens from streams in the wet tropics region of northeast Queensland. Previously, two species were recognized in the genus Tandanus: T. tandanus of eastern Australia and T. bostocki of Western Australia. A combination of meristic and morphometric characters distinguishes the new species from all congeners. Further, taxonomic distinctness based on morphologic differences between the new species and all congeners is corroborated by genetic analyses.

  5. Population structure and reproduction of Deuterodon langei travassos, 1957 (Teleostei, Characidae in a neotropical stream basin from the Atlantic Forest, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the biology of D. langei were studied at different sites along a longitudinal gradient formed by the Ribeirão stream basin, a Neotropical stream of the Atlantic Forest, southern Brazil. Differences were observed in population structure and reproduction along the longitudinal gradient and during the study period. Juvenile fishes occurred in high abundance, mainly in the downstream site after the rainy months. Adults occurred mainly in the intermediate and upstream sites. During their life cycle, adults optimise their reproductive strategy by concentrating the reproductive period with total spawn in a short time interval before summer rains dragged the juvenile, larval forms and/or eggs downstream. The downstream site was characterized by a wide range of microhabitats (ex. submerged grass and shallow flooded area. Thus, the species used different portions of the basin in distinct stages of its life, being ecologically adapted to variation patterns in its temporal and physical environments.Aspectos da biologia de D. langei foram estudados em diferentes locais da bacia do rio Ribeirão, um riacho litorâneo da Floresta Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil. Foram observadas diferenças na estrutura da população e na reprodução, ao longo do gradiente longitudinal da bacia e do período de estudo. Os peixes juvenis ocorreram em grande abundância, principalmente no trecho a jusante da bacia, após os meses mais chuvosos. Adultos ocorreram principalmente nos trechos intermediários e a montante. Não houve diferença significativa na relação sexual entre os locais amostrados, estações do ano, meses e classes de comprimento. O comprimento médio de primeira maturação (L50 foi o mesmo para machos e fêmeas, entre 6,1 e 7,0 cm de comprimento total (Lt. O período reprodutivo foi curto (entre o final da primavera e início do verão, antes dos meses mais chuvosos, com desova total. O Índice de Atividade Reprodutiva (IAR indicou que D. langei reproduz em toda a bacia, porém a atividade reprodutiva é mais intensa nos trechos mais a montante da bacia. O período chuvoso e as chuvas torrenciais se mostraram fatores abióticos muito importantes para a dinâmica da população. Durante seu ciclo de vida os adultos maximizam sua estratégia reprodutiva concentrando o período reprodutivo, com desova total em um curto espaço de tempo antes das chuvas de verão que carregam juvenis, formas larvais e/ou ovos para as regiões a jusante onde existe uma ampla quantidade de micro-ambientes (gramíneas submersas e áreas rasas e calmas. Desta forma a espécie estudada utilizou diferentes porções da bacia em distintos estágios de seu ciclo de vida, demonstrando estar ecologicamente adaptada às variações temporais e físicas do ambiente.

  6. A multi-approach analysis of the genetic diversity in populations of Astyanax aff. bimaculatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei: Characidae from Northeastern Brazil

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    Vanessa de Carvalho Cayres Pamponet

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Few reports are available about the ichthyofauna of typical semi-arid rivers, although the regional diversity has been constantly threatened by human activities, mainly related to impoundment and construction of dams. The goal of the present work was to evaluate using different methods, the population genetic structure of a characin fish, Astyanax aff. bimaculatus, widespread throughout hydrographic basins of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Morphological (meristic and morphometric data, cytogenetic (karyotype and Ag-NOR, and molecular (RAPD and SPAR analyses were carried out in specimens collected upstream and downstream of Pedra Dam, in the main channel of Contas River (Contas River Basin, and in the Mineiro stream, which belongs to the adjacent Recôncavo Sul basin. Few external differences were detected among populations, where the individuals collected upstream of Pedra Dam were slightly larger than the others. Cytogenetic data also showed a similar karyotypic pattern (2n=50; 6m+28sm+12st+4a; FN= 96 and NORs located on the short arms of up to two chromosome pairs, with numerical inter- and intra-populational variation. Nonetheless, RAPD and SPAR analyses differentiated reliably the three populations, revealing striking differences in the allele frequencies among the localities studied and a significant difference in population structure index (Fst=0.1868, PPoucos estudos ictiofaunísticos estão disponíveis em rios típicos do semi-árido, apesar da constante ameaça à diversidade local devido a influências antrópicas, com destaque para o represamento e construção de barragens. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, por meio de diferentes metodologias, a estrutura genética de populações de uma espécie de caracídeo, Astyanax aff. bimaculatus, amplamente distribuída em bacias hidrográficas da Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil. Análises morfológicas (dados merísticos e morfométricos, citogenéticas (cariótipo e Ag-RONs e moleculares (RAPD e SPAR foram realizadas em espécimes coletados à montante e à jusante da Barragem da Pedra, na calha principal do médio rio de Contas (bacia do Rio de Contas e no ribeirão Mineiro, pertencente à bacia adjacente do Recôncavo Sul. Poucas diferenças externas foram detectadas entre as populações, sendo os indivíduos originários do reservatório, à montante da barragem, ligeiramente maiores. Os dados citogenéticos também mostraram padrões cariotípicos semelhantes (2n=50; 6m+28sm+12st+4a; FN= 96 e RONs situadas nos braços curtos de até dois pares cromossômicos, com variação numérica inter- e intra-populacional. Contudo, as análises por RAPD e SPAR diferenciaram as três populações de forma eficiente, revelando freqüências alélicas significativamente diferentes entre as localidades amostradas e índices significativos de estruturação populacional (Fst=0.1868, P<0.0001. As diferenças entre populações do mesmo rio foram tão significativas quanto entre bacias hidrográficas distintas, indicando que a represa constitui uma barreira eficiente ao fluxo gênico. Além disso, acredita-se que peculiaridades ambientais de cada localidade possam também influenciar os padrões genéticos encontrados. Por outro lado, a similaridade entre amostras das bacias do Rio de Contas e Recôncavo Sul pode estar relacionada a uma história evolutiva comum, já que ambas estão geograficamente próximas. Por fim, o presente estudo demonstra que a realização de estudos envolvendo diferentes marcadores é extremamente útil para a identificação de estruturas de populações em espécies amplamente distribuídas e para avaliação dos impactos das atividades humanas sobre as populações naturais de peixes.

  7. Screening and characterization of sex-specific DNA fragments in the freshwater fish matrinchã, Brycon amazonicus (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Eder Marques; Wong, Marina Sek Lien; Martins, Cesar; Wasko, Adriane Pinto

    2012-10-01

    The matrinchã Brycon amazonicus, a commercially important freshwater fish resource, has no heteromorphic sex chromosomes so far described. In the present study, we performed a screening of sex-associated DNA markers in this species, through the use of a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay and a genomic DNA restriction digestion analysis. DNA digestions evidenced no differences between sexes. Sixty-six random primers were used in pooled and individual DNA samples of males and females, and the analysis of the RAPD fingerprints revealed one female sex-associated band. Cloning and sequencing of this band led to the identification of two distinct DNA segments. While one of the isolated fragments showed a significant identity with a described protein gene (phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class W), the other fragment, composed of 535 bp, corresponds to a novel DNA marker. Further experiments were performed with this second DNA fragment in order to verify its sex-specificity. Data on dot blot hybridization, using total DNA of both sexes, confirmed its female-specificity in B. amazonicus. A primer set was designed based on its sequence data and used in PCR with DNA samples of this species, leading to diagnose the animals' sexes with a 100 % overall accuracy through a sequence characterized amplified region approach. No amplification results were found for two other species of the genus--B. orbignyanus and B. lundii. The obtained data can lead to the hypothesis that B. amazonicus may present heteromorphic sex chromosomes that should be in an early phase of differentiation. PMID:22527611

  8. A multi-approach analysis of the genetic diversity in populations of Astyanax aff. bimaculatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei: Characidae) from Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa de Carvalho Cayres Pamponet; Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro; Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello Affonso; Viviam Souto Miranda; Juvenal Cordeiro Silva Júnior; Claudine Gonçalves de Oliveira; Fernanda Amato Gaiotto

    2008-01-01

    Few reports are available about the ichthyofauna of typical semi-arid rivers, although the regional diversity has been constantly threatened by human activities, mainly related to impoundment and construction of dams. The goal of the present work was to evaluate using different methods, the population genetic structure of a characin fish, Astyanax aff. bimaculatus, widespread throughout hydrographic basins of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Morphological (meristic and morphometric data), cytogene...

  9. Anticipation of Artemia sp. supply in the larviculture of the barber goby Elacatinus figaro (Gobiidae: Teleostei influenced growth, metamorphosis and alkaline protease activity

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    Maria Fernanda da Silva-Souza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The barber goby Elacatinus figaro is considered endangered due to overexploitation by the ornamental industry. Farming marine ornamental fishes, especially the threatened ones, can be one of the measures to minimize the pressure on the natural stocks. Among the priority issues for their production is the determination of the most appropriate feeding management. The feeding protocol commonly used in the larviculture of barber goby, when the start of Artemia sp. offer occurred at the 18th DAH (days after hatching (treatment T18, was modified, by anticipating brine shrimp supply in 6 days (treatment T12. Alkaline proteases activity, growth and metamorphosis of larvae were evaluated in both protocols. Juveniles at T12 showed higher weight (0.04 ± 0.001 g and lower activity of total alkaline proteases (1.3 ± 0.2 mU mg-1 protein compared to T18 (0.02 ± 0.001 g; 2.8 ± 0.4 mU mg-1 protein, respectively. With anticipation of brine shrimp, the commencing and end of larval transformation was observed earlier (at 24 and 34 DAH, respectively in comparison to those with the supply of Artemia sp. at 18 DAH (27 and 41 DAH, respectively. Thus, the Artemia sp. anticipation was beneficial during the larviculture of the barber goby, considering that larvae reached metamorphosis earlier.

  10. Garra mondica, a new species from the Mond River drainage with remarks on the genus Garra from the Persian Gulf basin in Iran (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyadzadeh, Golnaz; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Freyhof, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Garra mondica, new species, from the Mond River drainage in Iran is distinguished from its congeners by having 7½ branched dorsal-fin rays; the breast, belly and back in front of the dorsal-fin origin naked and 9+8 branched caudal-fin rays. Garra mondica is also distinguished from all other congeners in the Persian Gulf basin, except an unidentified species from the Kol River, by having two fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region. The identity of G. gymnothorax, a nominal species from the Karun River drainage, and G. crenulata, a nominal species from Central Iran, are discussed. Garra populations examined from the Karun have a unique mtDNA COI barcode sequence, but their diagnostic characters are not consistent with the description and syntypes of G. gymnothorax. G. crenulata is considered as a synonym of G. rufa. Two populations of Garra from the Kol River have a sequence of the COI barcode region very similar to G. mondica, but cannot be identified as G. mondica and their identity cannot be resolved here. PMID:26624737

  11. Morphological aspects of Henneguya aequidens n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) in Aequidens plagiozonatus Kullander, 1984 (Teleostei: Cichlidae) in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videira, Marcela; Velasco, Michele; Azevedo, Rodney; Silva, Reinaldo; Gonçalves, Evonnildo; Matos, Patrícia; Matos, Edilson

    2015-03-01

    A new species of Myxosporea, Henneguya aequidens sp. n. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), was described based on its ultrastructural features. This is a parasite of the freshwater fish Aequidens plagiozonatus, in the Peixe-boi River, Pará, Brazil. This parasite was found in the gills, in the form of whitish ellipsoid cysts with mature spores inside them. The average spore body was 15 ± 0.9 μm in length (n = 30) and 6 ± 0.8 μm in width (n = 30), and the tail measured 27 ± 0.5 μm in length (n = 15). The spores showed typical features of the genus Henneguya with two valves of equal size and two symmetrical polar capsules of 3 ± 0.3 μm in length and 2 ± 0.3 μm in width. Each polar capsule had a polar filament forming a helix from the apical region to the polar caps, with four to six turns. Based on the ultrastructural differences in morphology of these spores, the location of the parasite, and its host specificity, this parasite was described as a new species.

  12. Tres nuevas especies de hyphessobrycon grupo heterorhabdus (teleostei: characiformes: characidae), y clave para especies de la cuenca del río orinoco

    OpenAIRE

    García, Carlos; Román, Cesar; Prada, Saul

    2012-01-01

    Se describen tres nuevas especies de Hyphessobrycon grupo heterorhabdus de lacuenca alta del río Orinoco, Orinoquia Colombiana. Hyphessobrycon mavro sp. n.se distingue de los otros Hyphessobrycon conocidos de la cuenca del Orinoco porpresentar 4 a 6 dientes en el maxilar, 17 dientes en el dentario, por la longitud del hocico9,9-15,2 % LC y la ausencia de ganchos en las aletas en machos. Hyphessobrycon nigersp. n. puede distinguirse por presentar nueve dientes en el dentario, cinco escamas con...

  13. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Re-description of Hypselobarbus lithopidos (Teleostei: Cyprinidae, based on its rediscovery from the Western Ghats, India, with notes on H. thomassi

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    J.D.M. Knight

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, though the genus Hypselobarbus has been studied substantially, the identities of individual species remain ambiguous. Hypselobarbus lithopidos has been assessed as Data Deficient in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species with a speculation that it could possibly be extinct as there has not been any validated record of this species since 1941 from its known range. In this work we report a population of this species from its type locality and re-describe this little known species to clear any taxonomic ambiguity that surrounds the identity of this species. We also attempt to clear the taxonomic ambiguity that surrounds the identity of the Critically Endangered H. thomassi with fresh collections from the type locality are discussed.

  14. On the identities of Barbus mussullah Sykes and Cyprinus curmuca Hamilton with notes on the status of Gobio canarensis Jerdon (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, J D Marcus; Rai, Ashwin; D'souza, Ronald K P

    2013-01-01

    The identity and generic placement of Barbus mussullah Sykes, the type species of Hypselobarbus Bleeker, have for long been unclear, variously having been considered a synonym of Cyprinus curmuca Hamilton or a species of Tor Gray or Gonoproktopterus Bleeker. Here, through a re-examination of the original descriptions and the examination of specimens from western peninsular India, we redescribe H. mussullah and show that Hypselobarbus is a valid genus, of which Gonoproktopertus is a junior synonym. Hypselobarbus mussullah is distinguished from all other species of Hypselobarbus by possessing both rostral and maxillary barbels; having the last simple dorsal-fin ray weak and smooth; the lateral line complete, with 41 +1 pored scales; 9/1/4 scales in transverse line between origins of dorsal and pelvic fins; and 5½ scales between lateral line and anal-fin origin. Species of Hypselobarbus are distinguished from other genera of Cyprinidae by possessing long, branched gill rakers and the anal fin distally rounded in adults. Hypselobarbus canarensis was found to be a valid species and H. kurali is considered its synonym. Hypselobarbus canarensis can be distinguished from all congeners by possessing both rostral and maxillary barbels; having the last simple dorsal-fin ray weak and smooth; the lateral line complete, with 40-42+1 pored scales; ½7-½8/1/3½ scales in transverse line from dorsal-fin origin to pelvic-fin origin; 4½ scales between lateral line and anal-fin origin. Hypselobarbus kolus is considered a synonym of H. curmuca, which is redescribed: it is distinguished from all congeners by possessing maxillary barbels only; the last simple dorsal-fin ray weak and smooth; 41-43+1 lateral-line scales; 9-10/1/4½-5 scales in transverse line between origins of dorsal and pelvic fins; and 5½-6 scales between lateral line and anal-fin origin.  PMID:25113692

  15. Systematic status of Systomus rubrotinctus Jerdon (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) with notes on the Puntius arulius group of fishes

    OpenAIRE

    J.D.M. Knight; K.R. Devi; V. Atkore

    2011-01-01

    Systomus rubrotinctus Jerdon has long been considered a synonym of Puntius arulius. Examination of ‘P. arulius’ collected from various parts of the Western Ghats revealed the presence of two distinct species: and the fish considered by Day as ‘P. arulius’ from Wayanad is in fact P. rubrotinctus. Based on the colour pattern, morphometrics and meristics, P. rubrotinctus is retrieved from the synonymy of P. arulius and redescribed. Puntius rubrotinctus can be distinguished from P. arulius by t...

  16. Rediscovery of Hypselobarbus pulchellus, an endemic and threatened barb (Teleostei: Cyprinidae of the Western Ghats, with notes on H. dobsoni and H. jerdoni

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    J.D.M. Knight

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypselobarbus pulchellus, is a poorly known species, with very few verifiable records since its description in 1870. Many authors have considered H. pulchellus to be a synonym of either H. dobsoni or H. jerdoni. This lack of information and clarity on its identity has led to H. pulchellus being categorized as a ‘Critically Endangered’ (possibly Extinct species in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Based on the collection of H. pulchellus from its type locality, we re-describe this little known species, and clear its taxonomic ambiguity vis-à-vis H. dobsoni and H. jerdoni.

  17. Two new species of Hyphessobrycon (Teleostei: Characidae from upper rio Tapajós basin on Chapada dos Parecis, central Brazil

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    Tiago Pinto Carvalho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Hyphessobrycon are described from the upper rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Hyphessobrycon melanostichos is distinguished from its congeners by the combination of a conspicuous longitudinal broad black band beginning on the posterior margin of orbit and reaching the tip of middle caudal fin rays, a distinct vertically elongate humeral spot, and 16 to 18 branched anal-fin rays. Hyphessobrycon notidanos is distinguished from its congeners by the combination of an elongate dorsal fin in mature males, a vertically elongate humeral spot, 2-4 maxillary teeth, iii,8 dorsal-fin rays, and 16 to 21 branched anal-fin rays.Duas novas espécies do gênero Hyphessobrycon são descritas para a bacia do alto rio Tapajós, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Hyphessobrycon melanostichos distingue-se de seus congêneres pela combinação da presença de uma banda preta longitudinal larga entre a margem posterior da órbita até a ponta dos raios medianos da nadadeira caudal, de uma mancha umeral verticalmente alongada, e de 16 a 18 raios ramificados na nadadeira anal. Hyphessobrycon notidanos distingue-se de seus congêneres pela combinação da presença da nadadeira dorsal alongada nos machos maduros, de uma mancha umeral verticalmente alongada, 2-4 dentes no maxilar, iii,8 raios na nadadeira dorsal e 16 a 21 raios ramificados na nadadeira anal.

  18. Three new species of Protogyrodactylus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) from the gills of the longtail silverbiddy Gerres longirostris (Teleostei: Gerreidae) in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Paolo; Kritsky, Delane C

    2008-03-01

    Twenty-one specimens of the longtailed silverbiddy Gerres longirostris (Gerreidae) were examined for dactylogyrid parasites from the Nabq Managed Resource Protected Area, Ras Mohammed National Park (Red Sea) near Sharm El-Sheikh, South Sinai, Egypt. The diagnosis of Protogyrodactylus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 was amended, and three new species, P. federicae n. sp., P. zullinii n. sp. and P. alatus n. sp., were recovered and described; the prevalence of each species was 100%. P. federicae most closely resembled P. alienus Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1974, but differed from it by possessing two anteromedial projections on the ventral bar, a claw-like ventral anchor sclerite and spatulate dorsal bars. P. zullini was most similar to P. quadratus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922, from which it differed by having a distal hook on the superficial root of the dorsal anchor, an evenly curved ventral anchor shaft and point, and a flange on the bulbous base of the male copulatory organ. P. alatus was closest to P. youngi Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1974, from which it differed by having delicate anchors and two prominent anteromedial processes on the ventral bar.

  19. Ultrastructure of ovarian follicular epithelium of the amazonian fish Pseudotylosurus microps (Gunther (Teleostei, Belonidae: I. the follicular cells cycle of development

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    Carminda da Cruz-Landim

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the changes on ultrastructural features of the follicular cells along the growth of the oocyte of Pseudotylosurus microps (Gunther, 1868. The epithelium pass from single squamous to pseudostratified and finally cylindric. Remarkable are the changes in the nuclear shapes, the increasing amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum and the formation of large lipid deposits in the follicular cells by the end of vitellogenic phase. Very peculiar intercellular deposits forms between the perinucleolar and vitellogenic phase of oocyte maturation. Although largely referred to in the specialized literature, our attempts to correlate the follicular cells changes with the formation of the oocyte envelopes or even with an endocrine function are not supported by conclusive evidences in the present paper.

  20. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Acanthocephaloides incrassatus (Molin, 1858) (Acanthocephala, Paleacanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae) from Anguilla anguilla (Pisces, Teleostei) in Urbino ponds (Corsica Island).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foata, J; Quilichini, Y; Dal Pos, N; Greani, S; Marchand, B

    2012-07-01

    This study deals with first ultrastructure features of Acanthocephaloides incrassatus (Paleacanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae), a parasite of the fish Anguilla anguilla, reported for the first time in a Mediterranean pond. The spermiogenesis of A. incrassatus shows original specificities which have never been pointed out to this day in ultrastructural studies on spermiogenesis: the centriolar derivative is divided into two parts of different densities: an electron-dense, and the other, electron-lucent; a ring form has been observed on each side of the axoneme; a centriole with one central element. After the elaboration of a flagellum of 9+2 pattern, the centriole migrates in a nuclear groove. Rapidly, the centriole disappears. Then, the flagellum migration occurs by a series of processes and gives rise to a spermatozoon. The spermatozoon of A. incrassatus presents its own specificities: it exhibits an evolution of the centriolar derivative characterized by only nine peripheral elements deprived of a central element in the anterior part, then nine peripheral and one central element, and finally, nine peripheral elements with two central elements. An assumption is emitted on a probable correspondence of the evolution of the derivative centriolar during the spermiogenesis and the evolution that occurs in the spermatozoon. Protein granules also show different sizes and forms, full or emptied of their contents compared with data on other Acanthocephala. PMID:22307764

  1. Saldenioichthys remotus gen. et sp. nov. (Teleostei, Perciformes and other acanthomorph remains from the Maastrichtian Saldeño Formation (Mendoza, Argentina

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    A. López-Arbarello

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Some isolated acanthomorph remains and a new taxon of perciform fishes, Saldenioichthys remotus gen. et sp. nov., from the Maastrichtian Saldeño Formation of Mendoza province, Argentina, are described and their systematic affinities are discussed. The new taxon is represented by a single incomplete, but well preserved postcranial skeleton. With the exception of a fully developed neural spine on the second preural centrum, it agrees with the generalized skeletal features of basal percoids, in particular the generalized perciform caudal skeleton. The only other Mesozoic perciform skeletal remains known so far are Nardoichthys, from the upper Campanian-lower Maastrichtian of Nardo (Italy and Eoserranus from the Upper Cretaceous Lameta Formation (India. Therefore, the new perciform taxon from the Saldeño Formation represents one of the oldest members of this group, and due to its peculiar combination of primitive and derived characters, it raises several questions regarding character evolution on this lineage. Es werden einige isolierte Reste acanthomorpher Fische sowie ein neues Taxon der Perciformes, Saldenioichthys remotus gen. et sp. nov., aus dem Maastricht der Saldeño Formation in der Provinz Mendoza, Argentinien, werden beschrieben und ihre systematische Stellung wird diskutiert. Das neue Taxon ist durch ein einziges, unvollständiges, aber gut erhaltenes postkraniales Skelett repräsentiert. Mit Ausnahme eines vollstandig ausgebildeten Dornfortsatzes auf dem ersten präuralen Zentrum stimmt es mit der generalisierten Skelettmorphologie basaler Percoiden überein, insbesondere mit dem generalisierten perciformen Caudal-Skelett. Die einzigen anderen Skelettreste von Perciformen aus dem Mesozoikum sind Nardoichthys aus dem Ober-Campan/Unter-Maastricht von Nardo, Italien, und Eoserranus aus der Oberkreide der Lameta Formation, Indien, und die Gruppe ist ansonsten praktisch nur aus känozoischen Sedimenten bekannt. Somit stellt das neue Taxon aus der Saldeño Formation einen der ältesten Nachweise dieser Gruppe dar, und wirft aufgrund seiner ungewöhnlichen Kombination primitiver und fortschrittlicher Merkmale einige Fragen zur Merkmalsevolution in dieser Linie auf. doi:10.1002/mmng.20030060109

  2. Anatomia funcional e morfometria dos intestinos e dos cecos pilóricos do teleostei (pisces de água doce Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849

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    Seixas Filho José Teixeira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a anatomia funcional e a morfometria comparativas nos intestinos médio e posterior e nos cecos pilóricos da piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae. Foram conduzidos estudos anatomofuncionais e morfométricos nos intestinos médio e posterior e nos cecos pilóricos dessa espécie com hábito alimentar onívoro. Constatou-se, por meio destes estudos, que o padrão de enrolamento das alças intestinais em arranjo em N apresentou, na segunda classe de tamanho, freqüentes variações no intestino médio, mas foi compatível com os de outras espécies de hábitos alimentares similares. Os estudos da morfometria mostraram que o comprimento total do intestino e das alças intestinais e seus calibres, provavelmente, exercem função específica na absorção dos nutrientes. As relações entre o arranjo das pregas da mucosa e a velocidade de transporte do alimento no intestino médio sugerem que os padrões transversal e oblíquo retardam o avanço do alimento em sentido aboral, possibilitando maior período digestivo e melhor aproveitamento dos nutrientes, contribuindo para a preparação do bolo fecal. O comprimento e o calibre dos cecos pilóricos aumentam com o desenvolvimento do peixe, e o seu padrão de mucosa possui características anatômicas semelhantes às do intestino.

  3. Three new species of Protogyrodactylus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) from the gills of the longtail silverbiddy Gerres longirostris (Teleostei: Gerreidae) in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Paolo; Kritsky, Delane C

    2008-03-01

    Twenty-one specimens of the longtailed silverbiddy Gerres longirostris (Gerreidae) were examined for dactylogyrid parasites from the Nabq Managed Resource Protected Area, Ras Mohammed National Park (Red Sea) near Sharm El-Sheikh, South Sinai, Egypt. The diagnosis of Protogyrodactylus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 was amended, and three new species, P. federicae n. sp., P. zullinii n. sp. and P. alatus n. sp., were recovered and described; the prevalence of each species was 100%. P. federicae most closely resembled P. alienus Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1974, but differed from it by possessing two anteromedial projections on the ventral bar, a claw-like ventral anchor sclerite and spatulate dorsal bars. P. zullini was most similar to P. quadratus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922, from which it differed by having a distal hook on the superficial root of the dorsal anchor, an evenly curved ventral anchor shaft and point, and a flange on the bulbous base of the male copulatory organ. P. alatus was closest to P. youngi Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1974, from which it differed by having delicate anchors and two prominent anteromedial processes on the ventral bar. PMID:18210221

  4. Revision of Allobenedenia Yamaguti, 1963 (Monogenoidea: Capsalidae) with the description of A. zhangi n. sp. from Epinephelus fasciatus (Teleostei: Serranidae) in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingbao, Yang; Kritsky, Delane C; Yuan, Sun

    2004-11-01

    Allobenedenia Yamaguti, 1963 is revised to include capsalid species with five radial septa in the haptor. Megalocotyloides Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1967 and Allosprostonia Lawler & Hargis, 1968 are considered junior synonyms of Allobenedenia. Eight described species comprise the genus: A. convoluta (Yamaguti, 1937) Yamaguti, 1963 (type-species), A. epinepheli (Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1967) n. comb., A. patagonica (Evdokimova, 1969) n. comb., A. pedunculata Raju & Rao, 1980, A. pseudomarginata (Bravo-Hollis, 1958) n. comb., A. sebastodi (Egorova, 1994) n. comb., A. yamagutii (Egorova, 1994) n. comb. and A. zhangi n. sp. A. ishikawae (Goto, 1894) Yamaguti, 1963 is considered a species inquirenda; Megalocotyloides hongkongensis Wu, Lu & Woo, 2002 is placed in synonymy with A. yamagutii; M. grandiloba (Paperna & Kohn, 1964) Egorova & Aleshkina, 1984 is provisionally returned to Megalocotyle as M. grandiloba Paperna & Kohn, 1964; and specimens identified as M. grandiloba from Serranus cabrilla (Serranidae) by Buhrnheim et al. (1973) are considered an undescribed species of Allobenedenia. A. zhangi n. sp. is described from the external surface of Epinephelus fasciatus (Serranidae) of Allobenedenia. A. zhangi n. sp. is described from the external surface of Epinephelus fasciatus (Serranidae) in the South China Sea and is characterised by having an elongtate proximally uncoiled male copulatory organ extending to near the level of the anterior margin of the ovary, a large prostatic reservoir apparently external to the male copulatory canal, and a submedial protuberance on the dorsal surface of the accessory sclerite of the haptor. PMID:15542951

  5. Monogenea of marine fishes from Hainan Island, China. VIII. Two new species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 (Dactylogyridae) from Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Teleostei: Lutjanidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Pan; Jianying, Zhang

    2006-06-01

    This paper reports two new species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 collected from the gills of Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål). E. xinyingense n. sp. is similar to Euryhaliotrema atlanticum Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 in the structure of copulatory apparatus, but differs from the latter in the shape of anchors and the structure of vagina. E. hainanense n. sp. also closely resembles E. atlanticum Kritsky & Boeger, 2002, but differs from the latter in the structure of haptor and the shape of accessory piece. PMID:16612651

  6. Quantitative analysis of crypt cell population during postnatal development of the olfactory organ of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Teleostei, Poecilidae), from birth to sexual maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Simone; Lazzari, Maurizio; Franceschini, Valeria

    2012-08-01

    Crypt cells are one of three types of olfactory sensory neuron, differing from ciliated and microvillar cells in shape, localization and number, and found only in fish. Although crypt cells are morphologically well characterized, their function remains unclear. They were hypothesized to be involved in reproductive behaviours by detecting sex pheromones, but electrophysiological investigations revealed sensitivity to only amino acids. However, the number of crypt cells in adult guppies is not the same in the two sexes. In this study, we compared the size of the crypt cell population in juvenile guppies during the first 90 days after birth. The purpose of our study was to clarify whether a correlation exists between sex and the number of these olfactory neurons. The data show that guppies reach adult crypt cell density when they become sexually mature. Despite a constant increment in volume during development of the olfactory organ, the minimum density of crypt neurons occurs at ~45 days. Moreover, in the early weeks, the density of crypt neurons is greater in males than in females because in females the total number of cells decreases significantly after just 7 days. In adults, however, crypt neurons are found in higher density in females than in males. These findings suggest that the number of crypt cells is sex specific, with independent developmental dynamics between males and females. A role in pheromone detection could explain such a difference, but the early appearance of crypt cells in the first days of life is suggestive of other, not sexually related, functions.

  7. Aspects of the biology of the Atlantic Midshipman, Porichthys porosissimus (Teleostei, Batrachoididae: an important by-catch species of shrimp trawling off southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vianna

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Trawl fishing for pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and F. paulensis catches large quantities of by-catch fish, discarded due to their having no commercial vaue. As these species have rarely been studied, the impact of fisheries on these populations is not known. This contribution studies the biology of a species of no commercial value, the Atlantic midshipman Porichthys porosissimus. The last haul /Tom a commercial trawler, operating on the northern coast of São Paulo State and the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, was preserved (/Tom being discarded and identified at the species leveI. It was observed that this fishery affects the juvenile population which is intluenced by the seasonal variation of the water masses. Growth parameters were estimated: L∞ = 37.0 cm, K = 0.285 year-1. Instantaneous mortality coefficients were estimated: 2=2.14, M=0.63, F= 1.51, S= 11.8 and E=0.71. Considering the intensive activity of the shrimp trawl tleet operating in this area, the deleterious action of trawling is considered as of high impact. The stock management measures applied for pink shrimp are without effect regarding P. porosissimus. which has its spawning period before the closed season and its recruitment peak after it. The results show overfishing and the need to apply measures to reduce trawling action, such as adequate policies, introduction of selectivity devices and the creation of exclusion zones for trawl fishing.A pesca de arrasto para a captura do camarão-rosa (Fm:fantepenaeus brasi/iensis e F. paulensis captura grande quantidade de peixes considerados fauna acompanhante que são descartados por não possuírem valor comercial. Assim, pouco aparecem em trabalhos de biologia pesqueira com dados de desembarque, sendo a ação pesqueira sobre estas populações pouco conhecida. Neste estudo, um arrasto mensal de um barco de pesca foi desembarcado sem que nada do material capturado fosse descartado. Analisou-se Porichthys porosissimus do qual foram avaliados aspectos biológicos e pesqueiros. Estimou-se, para a espécie: L∞ = 37,0 cm, K = 0,285 ano.l, Rn=180 (x 10-3, 2=2,14, M=0,63, F=1,51, S=11,8 e E=0.71. Embora não intencional, a pesca age principalmente em jovens e ocorre durante o ano todo, sendo intluenciada pela sazonal idade das massas d'água. Considerando a frota operante na área, o efeito do arrasto é considerável, já que a taxa de aproveitamento é nula. As medidas de proteção de estoque aplicadas ao camarão-rosa não são efetivas para P. porosissimus, que apresenta o período de desova anterior à época do defeso e o pico de recrutamento pesqueiro posterior. Os resultados indicam sobrepesca da população estudada sendo necessário medidas de modo a diminuir a ação deletéria do arrasto, como a adequação da legislação, uso de dispositivos de seletividade e a criação de zonas de exclusão de arrasto.

  8. Gonadal morphogenesis and sex differentiation in intraovarian embryos of the viviparous fish Zoarces viviparus (Teleostei, Perciformes, Zoarcidae): a histological and ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Tina H; Jespersen, Ase; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2006-09-01

    It is essential to know the timing and process of normal gonadal differentiation and development in the specific species being investigated in order to evaluate the effect of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on these processes. In the present study gonadal sex differentiation and development were investigated in embryos of a viviparous species of marine fish, the eelpout, Zoarces viviparus, during their intraovarian development (early September to January) using light and electron microscopy. In both sexes of the embryos at the time of hatching (September 20) the initially undifferentiated paired bilobed gonad contains primordial germ cells. In the female embryos, ovarian differentiation, initiated 14 days posthatch (dph), is characterized by the initial formation of the endoovarian cavity of the single ovary as well as by the presence of some early meiotic oocytes in a chromatin-nucleolus stage. By 30 dph, the endoovarian cavity has formed. By 44 dph and onward, the ovary and the oocytes grow in size and at 134 dph, just prior to birth, the majority of the oocytes are at the perinucleolar stage of primary growth and definitive follicles have formed. In the presumptive bilobed testis of the male embryos, the germ cells (spermatogonia), in contrast to the germ cells of the ovary, remain quiescent and do not enter meiosis during intraovarian development. However, other structural (somatic) changes, such as the initial formation of the sperm duct (30 dph), the presence of blood vessels in the stromal areas of the testis (30 dph), and the appearance of developing testicular lobules (102 dph), indicate testicular differentiation. Ultrastructually, the features of the primordial germ cells, oogonia, and spermatogonia are similar, including nuage, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi complexes.

  9. First records of introduced carps (Teleostei, Cyprinidae in the natural habitats of Mirim and Patos Lagoon estuary, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre M. Garcia

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first record in the wild of occurrence of four carp species (bighead Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845, common Cyprinus carpio carpio Linnaeus, 1758, silver Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus (Valenciennes, 1844 in the Mirim Lagoon and Patos Lagoon estuary. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that during periods of elevated rainfall and freshwater discharge, exotic species could be easily transported from overflowed ponds and lakes into the Mirim-Patos Lagoon and then estuarine area.Este trabalho registra a ocorrência de quatro espécies de carpas (cabeça-grande Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845, comum Cyprinus carpio carpio Linnaeus, 1758, prateada Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844, e capim Ctenopharyngodon idellus (Valenciennes, 1844 em ambientes naturais da Lagoa Mirim e do estuário da Lagoa dos Patos. Os resultados reforçam a hipótese de que durante períodos de excesso de chuvas e elevada descarga continental, espécies exóticas poderiam ser facilmente transportadas de tanques de cultivos e lagos transbordados para a Lagoa Mirim e a região estuarina da Lagoa dos Patos.

  10. Ancyrocephalidae (Monogenea) of Lake Tanganyika: I: Four new species of Cichlidogyrus from Ophthalmotilapia ventralis (Teleostei: Cichlidae), the first record of this parasite family in the basin

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhove, Maarten p. m.; Filip A M Volckaert; Antoine Pariselle

    2011-01-01

    Examination of gill parasites from Ophthalmotilapia ventralis (Boulenger, 1898) in Lake Tanganyika (Africa) revealed the presence of four new species of Monogenea, all members of Cichlidogyrus Paperna, 1960 (Ancyrocephalidae). In view of the systematic importance of haptoral structure, the fish host shows a remarkable diversity of morphological groups. Cichlidogyrus vandekerkhovei sp. nov. and C. makasai sp. nov. are especially characterized by the unusual length of the dorsal transverse bar ...

  11. Ancyrocephalidae (Monogenea of Lake Tanganyika: I: Four new species of Cichlidogyrus from Ophthalmotilapia ventralis (Teleostei: Cichlidae, the first record of this parasite family in the basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten P. M. Vanhove

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Examination of gill parasites from Ophthalmotilapia ventralis (Boulenger, 1898 in Lake Tanganyika (Africa revealed the presence of four new species of Monogenea, all members of Cichlidogyrus Paperna, 1960 (Ancyrocephalidae. In view of the systematic importance of haptoral structure, the fish host shows a remarkable diversity of morphological groups. Cichlidogyrus vandekerkhovei sp. nov. and C. makasai sp. nov. are especially characterized by the unusual length of the dorsal transverse bar auricles, while C. sturmbaueri sp. nov. is distinguished by the unique shape of the accessory piece of its male copulatory organ. Importantly, C. centesimus sp. nov. displays a number of features new to the genus, namely a spirally coiled thickening at the end of the penis, the absence of an accessory piece in the genital apparatus, and a hitherto unknown uncinuli configuration in the haptor. This is the first record of ancyrocephalid parasites from the Tanganyika basin. Some mechanisms possibly contributing to this yet unknown diversity are discussed, identifying topics deserving further scientific scrutiny.

  12. Ancyrocephalidae (Monogenea) of Lake Tanganyika : I : four new species of Cichlidogyrus from Ophthalmotilapia ventralis (Teleostei : Cichlidae), the first record of this parasite family in the basin

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhove, M.P.M.; Volckaert, F. A. M.; Pariselle, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Examination of gill parasites from Ophthalmotilapia ventralis (Boulenger, 1898) in Lake Tanganyika (Africa) revealed the presence of four new species of Monogenea, all members of Cichlidogyrus Paperna, 1960 (Ancyrocephalidae). In view of the systematic importance of haptoral structure, the fish host shows a remarkable diversity of morphological groups. Cichlidogyrus vandekerkhovei sp. nov. and C. makasai sp. nov. are especially characterized by the unusual length of the dorsal transverse bar ...

  13. Ancyrocephalidae (Monogenea) of Lake Tanganyika. III : Cichlidogyrus infecting the world's biggest cichlid and the non-endemic tribes Haplochromini, Oreochromini and Tylochromini (Teleostei, Cichlidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bukinga, F. M.; Vanhove, M.P.M.; Van Steenberge, M.; Pariselle, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika is the deepest and oldest African Great Lake and of economic importance. While the diversity of its endemic cichlid radiations yielded scientific interest, a number of cichlid tribes have few representatives in the lake. Some of those, namely Oreochromini (ex-Tilapiini), Haplochromini and Tylochromini, reach higher species numbers in riverine systems. Conversely, the phylogenetic position of the monospecific and endemic Boulengerochromini is unclear. The oreochromines Oreochro...

  14. Ancyrocephalidae (Monogenea) of Lake Tanganyika. IV. Cichlidogyrus parasitizing species of Bathybatini (Teleostei, Cichlidae) : reduced host-specificity in the deepwater realm ?

    OpenAIRE

    Pariselle, Antoine; Bukinga, F. M.; Van Steenberge, M.; Vanhove, M.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika's biodiversity and endemicity sparked considerable scientific interest. Its monogeneans, minute parasitic flatworms, have received renewed attention. Their host-specificity and simple life cycle render them ideal for parasite speciation research. Because of the wide ecological and phylogenetic range of its cichlids, Lake Tanganyika is a "natural experiment" to contrast factors influencing monogenean speciation. Three representatives of Bathybatini (Bathybates minor, B. fasciat...

  15. First insights into the diversity of gill monogeneans of 'Gnathochromis' and Limnochromis (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in Burundi: do the parasites mirror host ecology and phylogenetic history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmentová, Nikol; Gelnar, Milan; Koblmüller, Stephan; Vanhove, Maarten P M

    2016-01-01

    Monogenea is one of the most species-rich groups of parasitic flatworms worldwide, with many species described only recently, which is particularly true for African monogeneans. For example, Cichlidogyrus, a genus mostly occurring on African cichlids, comprises more than 100 nominal species. Twenty-two of these have been described from Lake Tanganyika, a famous biodiversity hotspot in which many vertebrate and invertebrate taxa, including monogeneans, underwent unique and spectacular radiations. Given their often high degrees of host specificity, parasitic monogeneans were also used as a potential tool to uncover host species relationships. This study presents the first investigation of the monogenean fauna occurring on the gills of endemic 'Gnathochromis' species along the Burundese coastline of Lake Tanganyika. We test whether their monogenean fauna reflects the different phylogenetic position and ecological niche of 'Gnathochromis' pfefferi and Gnathochromis permaxillaris. Worms collected from specimens of Limnochromis auritus, a cichlid belonging to the same cichlid tribe as G. permaxillaris, were used for comparison. Morphological as well as genetic characterisation was used for parasite identification. In total, all 73 Cichlidogyrus individuals collected from 'G.' pfefferi were identified as C. irenae. This is the only representative of Cichlidogyrus previously described from 'G.' pfefferi, its type host. Gnathochromis permaxillaris is infected by a species of Cichlidogyrus morphologically very similar to C. gillardinae. The monogenean species collected from L. auritus is considered as new for science, but sample size was insufficient for a formal description. Our results confirm previous suggestions that 'G.' pfefferi as a good disperser is infected by a single monogenean species across the entire Lake Tanganyika. Although G. permaxillaris and L. auritus are placed in the same tribe, Cichlidogyrus sp. occurring on G. permaxillaris is morphologically more similar to C. irenae from 'G.' pfefferi, than to the Cichlidogyrus species found on L. auritus. Various evolutionary processes, such as host-switching or duplication events, might underlie the pattern observed in this particular parasite-host system. Additional samples for the Cichlidogyrus species occuring on G. permaxillaris and L. auritus are needed to unravel their evolutionary history by means of (co-)phylogenetic analyses. PMID:26855869

  16. [Hyphessobrycon taphorni and H. eschwartzae (Teleostei: Characidae) two new species of fish in the basin of Madre de Dios river, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alzate, Carlos A; Romin-Valencia, César; Ortega, Hernán

    2013-06-01

    Hyphessobrycon with 129 valid species, is a genus of fish that has a great diversity of species in the Neotropical ichthyofauna, reaches its greatest diversity in the Amazon basin with about 70% of these species, is highly desired by hobbyists because of their beauty and color, and are still meeting new species. We analyzed specimens from the Departamento de Ictiología, Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú (MUSM); and measurements of the specimens were taken point to point with digital calipers. Observations of bone and cartilage structures were made on cleared and stained (C&S) samples. The morphometric relationships between species using 21 variables were explored using a principal component analysis (PCA). Here we describe two new species, Hyphessobrycon taphorni and H. eschwartzae from the Madre de Dios River drainage, Peru. Hyphessobrycon taphorni sp. n. can be distinguished by the number of dorsal-fin rays (iii, 8), by the number of: pored lateral-line scales (4-5), teeth in the outer premaxillary row (1-2), teeth in the inner premaxillary row (7-8), by: the caudal-peduncle length (11.4-16.4% SL), number of lateral scales (28-29, except from H. loretoensis which has 29-30) and absence of a humeral spot (vs. present), it differs from H. loretoensis by the number of: scales between the lateral line and the anal fin origin (4 vs. 3) and maxillary teeth (2 vs. 3-4), and it differs from H. agulha by the number of branched pectoral-fin rays (11-12 vs. 9-10). Hyphessobrycon eschwartzae sp. n. is distinguished by the number of: simple anal-fin rays (iv), teeth on the dentary (13-15), teeth in the inner premaxillary row (6), teeth in the outer premaxillary row (3, except from H. heterorhabdus and H. loretoensis which have 3-4); it differs from H. loretoensis by the number of: pored lateral-line scales (7 vs. 9-10), scales between the lateral line and the dorsal-fin origin (5 vs. 3-4); it differs from H. agulha in the number of lateral scales (30-31 vs. 33-34), by the number of: predorsal scales (9 vs. 10), maxillary teeth (4 vs. 0-1); in having in life a red lateral stripe above the dark lateral stripe that extends from the posterior part of the opercle to the caudal peduncle (vs. absent) and by the presence of bony hooks in mature males only on the anal fin (vs. hooks on all fins, including the caudal). PMID:23885596

  17. Henneguya melini n. sp. (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae), a parasite of Corydoras melini (Teleostei: Siluriformes) in the Amazon region: morphological and ultrastructural aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Patrick D; Maia, Antônio A M; Adriano, Edson A

    2016-09-01

    A new species of myxozoan, Henneguya melini sp. n. (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae), was described based on morphologic and ultrastructural features. This is a parasite of the ornamental freshwater fish C. melini from the Rio Negro, and it was found in five of 30 (16.7 %) C. melini examined. The parasite was found in the gill filaments, and the plasmodia had form of round to ellipsoid, with mature and immature spores inside them. The average spore body was 15.5 ± 0.2 μm in length, 4.7 ± 0.1 μm in width, and the tail measured 25.3 ± 0.1 μm in length. The spores showed typical features of the genus Henneguya, with two valves of equal size and two symmetrical polar capsules of 4.8 ± 0.7 μm in length and 1.7 ± 0.3 μm in width. Each polar capsule had a polar filament with five to six turns. Based on morphology (morphologic and ultrastructural data) of the plasmodia and spores and the fact that this is the first report of a Henneguya species in a fish species of the genus Corydoras, it was considered a new myxozoan species. PMID:27206653

  18. Pathological and histometric analysis of the gills of female Hyphessobrycon eques (Teleostei:Characidae) exposed to different concentrations of the insecticide Dimilin(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Lucas; Lopes, Diego Senra; Mounteer, Ann Honor; Goulart, Amara Manarino Andrade; Leandro, Mila Vasques; Dos Anjos Benjamin, Laércio

    2016-09-01

    Female individuals of Hyphessobrycon eques were exposed to Diflubenzuron (Dimilin(®)) in order to determine whether exposure to sublethal levels of this insecticide causes changes in gill morphology. Fish were exposed to 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0mgL(-1) for 96h and 17 days and then submitted to pathological and histometric evaluation. Pathological lesions, such as hyperplasia, lamellar fusion, vascular congestion, secondary lamellar disarray, vasodilatation, hemorrhage and increased lamellar epithelium, were significantly more common in the gills of fish exposed to Dimilin(®) than the control. Histometric analysis documented significant changes in blood vessel diameter, primary lamellae width and secondary lamellae length, and the appearance of hemorrhage foci in all concentrations tested. Even at low Dimilin(®) concentrations, the histopathological alteration index was mild to moderate, thereby indicating that the function of this tissue was compromised. These findings indicate that indiscriminate use of Dimilin(®) can adversely affect the structural integrity of the gills of H. eques, which can cause numerous problems for fish farming systems. PMID:27232206

  19. Phylogeography of Pteronotropis signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus Complex (Teleostei: Cypriniformes, with Comments on Diversity and History of the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. Mayden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cyprinid genus Pteronotropis is endemic to southeastern Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean of North America. Never before has the genus been demonstrated to be monophyletic. We investigate both the phylogenetic relationships and the phylogeography of some species in the genus using mitochondrial ND2 sequences. In no analysis is the genus resolved as monophyletic if Notropis harperi is not included in the genus. Biogeographic and phylogeographic evaluations are conducted with Pteronotropis, including P. signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus complex. Patterns of relationships and population genetic analyses support divergences within multiple clades both at the species level and within species that are tied to abiotic changes in the region. Replicated patterns across clades are observed, as well as patterns previously found in other taxa. Pteronotropis hypselopterus is likely not a natural grouping as populations from some drainages form clades more closely related to other species of the genus. The general patterns of relationships indicate likely cryptic species not currently recognized. Finally, the patterns of species relationships and clades and population structuring within species serve as another example of replicated divergences in the biodiversity east and west of the Mobile Bay.

  20. Phylogeography of Pteronotropis signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus Complex (Teleostei: Cypriniformes), with Comments on Diversity and History of the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayden, Richard L; Allen, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The cyprinid genus Pteronotropis is endemic to southeastern Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean of North America. Never before has the genus been demonstrated to be monophyletic. We investigate both the phylogenetic relationships and the phylogeography of some species in the genus using mitochondrial ND2 sequences. In no analysis is the genus resolved as monophyletic if Notropis harperi is not included in the genus. Biogeographic and phylogeographic evaluations are conducted with Pteronotropis, including P. signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus complex. Patterns of relationships and population genetic analyses support divergences within multiple clades both at the species level and within species that are tied to abiotic changes in the region. Replicated patterns across clades are observed, as well as patterns previously found in other taxa. Pteronotropis hypselopterus is likely not a natural grouping as populations from some drainages form clades more closely related to other species of the genus. The general patterns of relationships indicate likely cryptic species not currently recognized. Finally, the patterns of species relationships and clades and population structuring within species serve as another example of replicated divergences in the biodiversity east and west of the Mobile Bay. PMID:26114110

  1. The Afro-Asian labeonine genus Garra Hamilton, 1822 (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the Pliocene of Central Armenia: Palaeoecological and palaeobiogeographical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyan, Davit; Carnevale, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Fossil skeletal remains of the Afro-Asian labeonine genus Garra are described on the basis of more than 300 specimens from the Pliocene diatomites of Jradzor, Central Armenia. Extant species of the genus Garra exhibit a wide distribution ranging from China, South Asia, and Borneo, through Middle East, the Arabian Peninsula, and Africa, where these fishes inhabit a variety of freshwater biotopes. The Pliocene fossils from the Jradzor site provide the first evidence of Garra in the fossil record. The inadequate preservation of the available material did not allow a detailed taxonomic attribution at the species level. Remains of Garra sp. were found associated to a moderately diverse assemblage, which includes also remains of additional freshwater fishes (Capoeta sp., Leuciscus cf. souffia, Leuciscus sp.), amphibians (Pelophylax cf. ridibundus), and large mammals (Rhinocerotidae indet.), as well as of monocotyledon plants. According to the diatom flora, the diatomites of Jradzor can be assigned to the Pliocene and were deposited in a freshwater lacustrine setting that was characterized by high productivity, eutrophic conditions, and standing macrophyte vegetation along the littoral zone. The presence of abundant resorptive pharyngeal teeth suggests that the Pliocene palaeolake of Jradzor was characterized by resident populations of Garra. Extant species of this genus are currently absent in the freshwaters of Armenia. The record of the genus Garra from Jradzor suggests that the Araks-Kura River drainage was connected, at least in part, with the Euphrates and Tigris River drainage during the Pliocene. The extinction of Garra (and other thermophilous taxa) from Araks and Kura River drainage was probably due to Plio-Pleistocene tectonic uplift of the Armenian Highland and consequent progressive climate cooling.

  2. A new species of Comephoronema (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) from the stomach of the abyssal halosaur Halosauropsis macrochir (Teleostei) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Klimpel, Sven

    2007-08-01

    A new species of parasitic nematode Comephoronema macrochiri n. sp. (Cystidicolidae), is described from the stomach of the marine deep-sea fish Halosauropsis macrochir (abyssal halosaur) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The new species, studied with both light and scanning electron microscopy, is characterized mainly by 6 pairs of preanal papillae, by which it principally differs from members of Ascarophis; the spicules are 297-375 microm and 99-120 microm long and fully developed eggs possess 2 long filaments on 1 pole. Rhabdochona beatriceinsleyae is transferred to Comephoronema as C. beatriceinsleyae (Holloway and Klewer, 1969) n. comb. Comephoronema macrochiri differs from all other congeners mainly in having eggs with filaments on 1 pole only, and from individual species by some additional features such as the number of preanal papillae, the shape of pseudolabial projections, and the body and organ measurements. PMID:17918373

  3. Response of mucous cells of the gills of traíra (Hoplias malabaricus and jeju (Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (Teleostei: Erythrinidae to hypo- and hyper-osmotic ion stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Estevan Moron

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The mucous cells (MC of traíra, Hoplias malabaricus, and jeju, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus, two ecologically distinct erythrinid species, were analyzed in fish exposed to deionized (DW and high ion concentration (NaCl and Ca2+ water (HIW during 15 days to evaluate the MC responses to ion challenge. MCs are localized in the leading and trailing edge and, interlamellar region of the gill filament epithelium but, in H. unitaeniatus, they are also found in the breathing or lamellar epithelium. MC density is lower in H. malabaricus, the exclusively water-breathing fish, than in H. unitaeniatus, a facultative air-breathing fish. The transference to DW or HIW did not change the MC density and surface area, excepting in H. malabaricus, in the first day of exposure to DW. A single MC containing three types of glycoproteins (neutral, acidic and sulphated was identified in the gill epithelium of both, H. malabaricus and H. unitaeniatus. The amount (based on the intensity of histochemistry reaction of these glycoproteins differed between the species and were altered after exposure to DW and HIW showing little adjustments in the amount of mucosubstances in the MC of H. malabaricus and reduction of acidic and sulphated glycoproteins in H. unitaeniatus. The decreasing of these glycoproteins in H. unitaeniatus reduced the mucus protection against desiccation of gill tissue when change the ion concentration in water.As células mucosas (CM em traíra, Hoplias malabaricus, e jeju, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus, dois eritrinídeos ecologicamente distintos, foram analisadas em espécimes expostos a água deionizada (DW e água com alta concentração de íons (NaCl + Ca2+, HIW durante 15 dias para avaliar as respostas das CMs. As CMs estão localizadas no lado aferente e eferente e região interlamelar no epitélio do filamento branquial, mas em H. unitaeniatus, CMs estão presentes no epitélio respiratório ou lamelar. A densidade de CMs é menor em H. malabaricus, espécie com respiração exclusivamente aquática, do que em H. unitaeniatus, espécie com respiração aérea facultativa. A transferência para AD e HIW não alterou a densidade de CMs e a sua superfície, exceto em H. malabaricus, no primeiro dia de exposição à AD. Um único tipo de CM contendo três tipos de glicoproteínas (neutra, ácida e ácida sulfatada foi identificado no epitélio branquial de H. malabaricus e H. unitaeniatus. A quantidade das glicoproteínas (avaliada pela intensidade da reação histoquímica diferiu nas duas espécies e foi alterada após a transferência para AD e HIW mostrando pequeno ajuste na quantidade de cada mucosubstância secretada pelas CMs em H. malabaricus e redução de glicoproteínas ácidas e sulfatadas em H. unitaeniatus. A diminuição dessas glicoproteínas em H. unitaeniatus reduz a proteção do muco sobre o tecido branquial quando é alterada a concentração de íons na da água.

  4. Influence of spawning procedure on gametes fertilization success in Salminus hilarii Valenciennes, 1850 (Teleostei: Characidae): Implications for the conservation of this species

    OpenAIRE

    Renato M. Honji; Paulo H. Mello; Bruno C. Araújo; Jandyr A. Rodrigues-Filho; Alexandre W. S. Hilsdorf; Moreira, Renata G.

    2011-01-01

    Artificial reproduction and gamete fertilization were evaluated in Salminus hilarii wild and domesticated broodstocks. Wild and domesticated broodstocks were artificially induced to reproduction using a carp pituitary treatment. Four groups were considered: Group 1 (G1), fish caught in the wild maintained for three years in the same conditions as the domesticated broodstocks and spawned naturally; Group 2 (G2), broodstock born and raised in captivity and spawned naturally; Group 3 (G3), wild ...

  5. Influence of spawning procedure on gametes fertilization success in Salminus hilarii Valenciennes, 1850 (Teleostei: Characidae: Implications for the conservation of this species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato M. Honji

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reproduction and gamete fertilization were evaluated in Salminus hilarii wild and domesticated broodstocks. Wild and domesticated broodstocks were artificially induced to reproduction using a carp pituitary treatment. Four groups were considered: Group 1 (G1, fish caught in the wild maintained for three years in the same conditions as the domesticated broodstocks and spawned naturally; Group 2 (G2, broodstock born and raised in captivity and spawned naturally; Group 3 (G3, wild broodstocks, which were manually stripped for gamete collection and dry fertilization; and Group 4 (G4, domesticated males and females, also manually stripped. Oocytes, eggs, and larvae were sampled at different time intervals throughout embryonic development. Yolk sac absorption occurred approximately 24-29 h after hatching. Twenty-six h after hatching, the larvae mouths opened. Cannibalism was identified just 28-30 h after hatching. There was no morphological difference in embryonic development among all groups. The number of released eggs per gram of female was: G1: 83.3 ± 24.5 and G2: 103.8 ± 37.4; however, the fertilization success was lower in G2 (42.0 ± 6.37 % compared with G1 (54.7 ± 3.02% (P = 0.011. Hand-stripping of oocytes was not successful and the fertilization rate was zero. The reproduction of this species in captivity is viable, but it is necessary to improve broodstock management to enhance fertilization rates and obtain better fingerling production for restocking programs.A reprodução artificial e fertilização dos gametas foram avaliados em reprodutores selvagens e de cativeiro de Salminus hilarii. Reprodutores selvagens e de cativeiro foram induzidos artificialmente à reprodução utilizando hipófise de carpa. Quatros grupos foram considerados: Grupo 1 (G1, peixes capturados na natureza, mantidos por três anos nas mesmas condições de reprodutores de cativeiro e desovados naturalmente; Grupo 2 (G2, reprodutores nascidos e criados em cativeiro e desovados naturalmente; Grupo 3 (G3, reprodutores selvagens que foram extrusados manualmente para a coleta de gametas e fertilização a seco; e Grupo 4 (G4, com machos e fêmeas domesticadas, também extrusados manualmente. Oócitos, ovos e larvas foram amostrados em diferentes intervalos de tempo ao longo do desenvolvimento embrionário. A absorção do saco vitelínico ocorreu aproximadamente 24-29 h após a eclosão. Vinte e seis h após a eclosão, as larvas abriram a boca. O canibalismo foi identificado apenas 28-30 h após a eclosão. Não houve diferença morfológica no desenvolvimento embrionário entre todos os grupos. O número de ovos liberados por grama de fêmea foi: G1: 83,3 ± 24,5 e G2: 103,8 ± 37,4; embora, o sucesso na fertilização tenha sido menor no G2 (42,0 ± 6,37% em comparação com G1 (54,7 ± 3,02% (P = 0,011. A extrusão manual dos oócitos não foi bem sucedida e a taxa de fertilização foi zero. A reprodução em cativeiro desta espécie é viável, mas é necessário um melhor manejo dos reprodutores para aumentar as taxas de fertilização, visando a obtenção de uma melhor produção de alevinos para os programas de repovoamento.

  6. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, Effective Population Size, Demographic History and Regional Connectivity Patterns of the Endangered Dusky Grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae, within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone.

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    Molly Buchholz-Sørensen

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to describe the genetic population structure and demographic history of the endangered marine fish, Epinephelus marginatus, within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone for the purpose of localised conservation planning. Epinephelus marginatus is a long-lived, sedentary, reef-associated protogynous hermaphrodite with high commercial and recreational value that is at risk of extinction throughout its global distribution. Based on global trends, population substructuring and gaps in local knowledge this has led to an increased interest in evaluation of local stock. Assessment of Maltese demography was based on historical and contemporary catch landings data whilst genetic population structure and regional connectivity patterns were evaluated by examining 175 individuals collected within the central Mediterranean region between 2002 and 2009 using 14 nuclear microsatellite loci. Demographic stock assessment of Maltese E. marginatus' revealed a 99% decline in catch landings between 1947 and 2009 within the Fisheries Management Zone. A contemporary modest mean size was observed, 3 ± 3 kg, where approximately 17% of the population was juvenile, 68% female/sex-changing and 15% were male with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1:5. Genetic analysis describes the overall population of E. marginatus' within the Fisheries Management Zone as decreasing in size (ƟH = 2.2, which has gone through a significant size reduction in the past (M = 0.41 and consequently shows signs of moderate inbreeding (FIS = 0.10, p < 0.001 with an estimated effective population size of 130 individuals. Results of spatially explicit Bayesian genetic cluster analysis detected two geographically distinct subpopulations within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone and that they are connected to a larger network of E. marginatus' within the Sicily Channel. Results suggest conservation management should be designed to reflect E. marginatus' within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone as two management units.

  7. Composição em tamanho dos peixes (Actinopterygii, Teleostei de ribeirões da bacia do rio Tibagi, Paraná, Brasil

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    Shibatta Oscar A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard length of 7610 specimens of 43 species from eight streams of rio Tibagi basin was obtained in order to analyze the means of fish sizes. The higher mean size was observed in Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus, 1758 (165,5 mm and the smaller, in Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868 (16,25 mm. Some fish like Acestrorhynchus lacustris (Reinhardt, 1874, Leporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes, 1836, Gymnotus carapo Linneus, 1758 and Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch, 1795 can reach big or medium size when adults but were collected only young, evidencing they use some streams in beginning of life. The mean size of total species was 49,81mm, what shows the small size composition of fishes in the streams. The Kolmogov-Smirnov test comparing the mean size of all streams showed significant similar size both in upstream and downstream regions, independent to the different environmental conditions.

  8. Lycodes adolfi  Nielsen & Fosså, 1993 (Teleostei: Zoarcidae) recorded near Jan Mayen and in the eastern part of the Norwegian Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjedal, Ingvar; Brattegard, Torleiv; Møller, Peter Rask

    2009-01-01

    Specimens of Lycodes adolfi were collected from an epibenthic sampler at six stations near Jan Mayen and in the eastern part of the Norwegian Sea. The stations were at depths from 708 to 2150 m and all of them had subzero water temperatures. The records substantially increase the known distribution...

  9. Molecular phylogeny of the specialized schizothoracine fishes (Teleostei:Cyprinidae),with their implications for the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Dekui; CHEN Yifeng; CHEN Yiyu; CHEN Ziming

    2004-01-01

    Molecular phylogeny of three genera containing nine species and subspecies of the specialized schizothoracine fishes are investigated based on the complete nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Meantime relationships between the main cladogenetic events of the specialized schizothoracine fishes and the stepwise uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau are also conducted using the molecular clock, which is calibrated by geological isolated events between the upper reaches of the Yellow River and the Qinghai Lake. Results indicated that the specialized schizothoracine fishes are not a monophyly. Five species and subspecies of Ptychobarbus form a monophyly. But three species of Gymnodiptychus do not form a monophyly. Gd. integrigymnatus is a sister taxon of the highly specialized schizothoracine fishes while Gd. pachycheilus has a close relation with Gd. dybowskii, and both of them are as a sister group of Diptychus maculatus. The specialized schizothoracines fishes might have originated during the Miocene (about 10 MaBP), and then the divergence of three genera happened during late Miocene (about 8 MaBP). Their main specialization occurred during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene (3.54-0.42 MaBP). The main cladogenetic events of the specialized schizothoracine fishes are mostly correlated with the geological tectonic events and intensive climate shift happened at 8, 3.6, 2.5 and 1.7 MaBP of the late Cenozoic. Molecular clock data do not support the hypothesis that the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau uplifted to near present or even higher elevations during the Oligocene or Miocene, and neither in agreement with the view that the plateau uplifting reached only to an altitude of 2000 m during the late Pliocene (about 2.6 MaBP).

  10. Description of karyotype in Hypostomus regani (Ihering, 1905) (Teleostei, oricariidae) from the Piumhi river in Brazil with comments on karyotype variation found in Hypostomus

    OpenAIRE

    Ernani de Oliveira Mendes-Neto; Marcelo Ricardo Vicari; Roberto Artoni; Orlando Moreira-Filho

    2011-01-01

    The paper represents a comparative cytogenetic analysis of three populations of Hypostomus regani in Brazil. Two populations belong to the Upper Paraná River Basin and the third one, the karyotype of which is described for the first time, was probably introduced into the São Francisco River Basin through transposition from the Piumhi River. Karyotype features of populations of H. regani from the Piracicaba and Tietê River Basins are also discussed. The occurrence of H. reg...

  11. Karyotype, C-banding and AgNORs of two endemic leuciscine fish, Pseudophoxinus crassus (Ladiges, 1960) and P. hittitorum Freyhof & Özulug, 2010 ( Teleostei , Cyprinidae )

    OpenAIRE

    Sevgi Unal; Muhammet Gaffaroglu; Muradiye Karasu Ayata; Esref Yüksel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Pseudophoxinus Bleeker, 1860 is found in a wide range of habitats in central Anatolia, but it is not well known from a cytogenetic aspect. In this study the first karyotypic description of the spring minnows Pseudophoxinus crassus (Ladiges, 1960) and Pseudophoxinus hittitorum Freyhof & Özulug, 2010 by means of conventional methods (Giemsa staining, C-banding, silver nitrate impregnation (Ag-NORs)) was performed. Both species are endemic and have restricted distributions in ...

  12. Some aspects of branchial parasitism in Leuciscus cephalus(Teleostei, Cyprinidae: first record of Lamproglena compacta(Cyclopoida, Lernaeidae in Romania

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    Mala-Maria Stavrescu-Bedivan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper records for the first time the presence of the crustacean copepod Lamproglena compacta in the branchial microhabitat of the cyprinid species Leuciscus cephalus that elongs to a lotic Romanian ecosystem. Also, we discuss the affinity for fixing site on gill filaments, the observations being sustained by the t Student statistic test.

  13. Delimiting the origin of a B chromosome by FISH mapping, chromosome painting and DNA sequence analysis in Astyanax paranae (Teleostei, Characiformes.

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    Duílio M Z de A Silva

    Full Text Available Supernumerary (B chromosomes have been shown to contain a wide variety of repetitive sequences. For this reason, fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH is a useful tool for ascertaining the origin of these genomic elements, especially when combined with painting from microdissected B chromosomes. In order to investigate the origin of B chromosomes in the fish species Astyanax paranae, these two approaches were used along with PCR amplification of specific DNA sequences obtained from the B chromosomes and its comparison with those residing in the A chromosomes. Remarkably, chromosome painting with the one-arm metacentric B chromosome probe showed hybridization signals on entire B chromosome, while FISH mapping revealed the presence of H1 histone and 18S rDNA genes symmetrically placed in both arms of the B chromosome. These results support the hypothesis that the B chromosome of A. paranae is an isochromosome. Additionally, the chromosome pairs Nos. 2 or 23 are considered the possible B chromosome ancestors since both contain syntenic H1 and 18S rRNA sequences. The analysis of DNA sequence fragments of the histone and rRNA genes obtained from the microdissected B chromosomes showed high similarity with those obtained from 0B individuals, which supports the intraspecific origin of B chromosomes in A. paranae. Finally, the population hereby analysed showed a female-biased B chromosome presence suggesting that B chromosomes in this species could influence sex determinism.

  14. Variation of growth-related values within age  categories and sexes in a pumpkinseed ?Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus 1758, (Teleostei, Centrarchidae - population

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    Cătălina F. Radu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose an evaluation of a species invasion efficacy by means of comparing different methods of evaluating growth (increase in weight and length or body condition (Fulton body condition indices, the value of relative weight ? Le Cren, several combinations of relations between body weight and length or any other liniar values, as height, volume and mathematically determined body density. The values obtained from data collecting and observations were organised into three age groups and divided by sexes, highlighting the cases where a semnificant correlation between these values and the age and/or sex parameters was observed. It is supposed that a growth model which invests in rapidly achieveing sexual maturity, by an intensive body development, will be more efficient than a slow, lengthy one.

  15. Induction of spawning in Capoeta aculeata, (Valenciennes in Cuv. & Val., 1844) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), using carp pituitary extract

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Kamali-Far; Jamshid Amiri-Moghaddam; Fateme Maniei

    2009-01-01

    Capoeta aculeata is a benthopelagic fresh-water fish that lives in subtropical climates and has awidely distribution in Iranian river basins. Hatchery production of fish for stocking is an important means oftemporarily supplementing insufficient natural reproduction, thus help to maintain or restore eroded fishpopulation. This study was done in May and June 2007 on captured brood fish from Zayandeh-Rood River,Iran in order to reach a suitable technique of artificial reproduction of C. aculeat...

  16. Infrapopulations of Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 (Trematoda: Gyliauchenidae in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei: Siganidae from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea

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    Al-Jahdali M.O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In hermaphroditic helminth parasites, infrapopulation size or mating group size mostly affects some processes acting within the infrapopulation. Here, 30 natural infrapopulations (12-154 individuals of the intestinal trematode Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 from the fish Siganus rivulatus consisting of newly excysted juveniles, immature and mature worms were found distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (anterior 40 % of the intestine. In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were alive. In larger infrapopulations, differential mortality was only and consistently observed among newly excysted juveniles, and gradually increased to include most or all juveniles in the largest infrapopulations. Among mature worms, the mean worm length seemed unaffected by the infrapopulation size. However, the ratio mean testis size-mean ovary size, a reliable indicator of resource allocation to the male function and of opportunities for crossfertilization, significantly increased with mating group size. In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were scattered along the niche, and never seen in mating pairs (possibly reproduced by selffertilization. In larger infrapopulations, newly excysted juveniles and immature worms were scattered along the anterior two thirds of the niche, while mature worms were constantly found aggregated in its posterior third (narrow microhabitat, where some were arranged in mating pairs. The probability of mating reciprocally or unilaterally was dependent on body size. The mean number of uterine eggs per worm significantly decreased and their mean sizes significantly increased with mating group size. The results are statistically significant and suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is greatly associated with its size.

  17. Biologia reprodutiva de Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823 (Teleostei, Sciaenidae: 1. fator de condição como indicador do período de desova The reproductive biology of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823 (Teleostei, Sciaenidae: 1. condition factor as an indicator of spawning period

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    Victoria Judith Isaac-Nahum

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available A analise temporal da freqüência de estádios de maturação de 102 fêmeas adultas coletadas entre fevereiro de 1979 e janeiro de 1980 na região de Ubatuba, litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo, mostra que M. funieri, nessa área, apresenta três desovas durante o ano: uma no outono (abril-junho, outra no inverno (agosto-setembro e uma terceira na primavera-verão (novembro-fevereiro. Essa sugestão e reforçada pelas flutuações de K (fator de condição considerando-se o peso das gonadas e K' (sem considerar o peso das gonadas, durante um ciclo reprodutivo. Os valores máximos de K e K' coincidem com os picos de ocorrencia de indivíduos com gonadas maturas (C e, os mínimos, com os de indivíduos com gonadas esvaziadas (D, A diferença entre K e K' (AR estima a "condição da gonada" apresentando seus máximos nos períodos de mais intensa atividade dos ovários, contituindo-se, assim, o valor de AK em um índice indireto de maturidade e dos períodos de desova de M. funieri.The monthly analysis of maturity stage frequency of adult females caught monthly at the Ubatvíba region, SP, from February 1979 to January 1980, suggests that M. funieri spaws three times ayear: Autumn (April-June , Winter (August-Sept ember and Spring-Summer (November-February. Condition factor fluctuations estimated with andwithout gonads K and K' during a reproductive cycle reinforces hypothesis0 K and K' maximum values relate precisely with higher frequency periods of a females at advanced stages of maturity (C. On the other hand, K and K' minimum values are concomitant with higher frequency periods of spent females (D. Although K and K' have a similar evolution, there are some periods in which ΔK (K-K' appears higher: May, August-September and November. These periods are also related to the maximum frequency of females in stage C. As AX estimes the "gonad condition", establishing the periods when the gonad attains the maximum weight in relation to body weight, and so the more advances of maturity stages, it can be used as a maturity and breeding season index.

  18. Dieta de espécies de Anostomidae (Teleostei, Characiformes na área de influência do reservatório de Manso, Mato Grosso, Brasil Diet of Anostomidae species (Teleostei, Characiformes in the influence area of Manso Reservoir, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Graziela Custodio Balassa

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet of four species of Anostomidae (Leporinus friderici Bloch, 1794, L. striatus Kner, 1858, L. elongatus Valenciennes, 1849 and Leporinus sp. were investigated in the Manso Reservoir, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Fish were sampled in three sites: upriver, in the main body of the reservoir, and below the dam. Were analized 276 stomachs. The diet was evaluated using the frequency of ocorrence and volumetric methods. Leporinus friderici showed tendency to herbivory, mainly in the upriver site. In the reservoir and below the dam, it consumed large quantities of fish; Isoptera only in the reservoir. Leporinus striatus and L. elongatus have similar diets, consuming Chironomidae larvae (Diptera, whereas Leporinus sp. was more generalist, feeding similar proportions of vegetable, detritus and insect (Chironomidae and Ephemeroptera. The mouths of the species have different positions: terminal in L. friderici, subterminal in L. elongatus and intermediate in L. striatus and Leporinus sp. The diet overlap values were low, except for L. friderici and Leporinus sp. (0.7 in the upriver, and L. striatus and L. elongatus (0.6 below the dam.

  19. Dinâmica populacional de Characidium lauroi e C. alipioi (Teleostei, Crenuchidae na microbacia do Ribeirão Grande, serra da Mantiqueira Oriental, Estado de São Paulo = Population dynamics of Characidium lauroi and C. alipioi (Teleostei, Crenuchidae in the Ribeirão Grande microbasin, eastern Serra da Mantiqueira, São Paulo State

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    Alberto Luciano Carmassi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Em riachos de pequena ordem, o alto e variável fluxo de água oferece tanto vantagens como desvantagens para o ciclo de vida de peixes. Mesmo espécies próximas que vivem em habitats semelhantes podem apresentar diferenças em seus padrões de ciclo de vida. Com base na distribuição de tamanho de ovócitos, C. lauroi foi classificada no tipo de desova parcelada, e C. alipioi no tipo de desova total. A fecundidade absoluta de C. lauroi variou de 1.313 a 2.925 ov��citos; em C. alipioi, a fecundidade absoluta variou de 2.213 a 25.550 ovócitos. A prova não-paramétrica de correlação de Spearman mostrou haver significância entre a relação gonadossomática e a fecundidade para ambas as espécies. Os parâmetros de crescimento, a taxa de mortalidade natural e a taxa de sobrevivência para fêmeas de C. lauroi foram: K = 0,68 ano-1, Loo = 8,7 cm, tmax = 4,4 anos, M = 1,62 ano-1, S = 19,79%, e para machos: K = 0,78 ano-1, Loo = 6,9 cm, tmax = 3,8 anos, M = 1,89 ano-1, S = 15,11%. Os parâmetros de crescimento, a taxa de mortalidade natural e a taxa de sobrevivência para fêmeas de C. alipioi foram: K = 0,90 ano-1, Loo = 12,2 cm, tmax = 3,3 anos,M = 1,81 ano-1, S = 16,37%, e para machos: K = 0,76 ano-1, Loo = 10,1 cm, tmax = 3,9 anos, M = 1,71 ano-1, S = 18,10%.In low-order streams, the high and variable water flow rates offer both advantages and disadvantages to the life cycle of fishes. Even closely related species living in similar habitats can show differences in life history patterns. Based on oocyte-sizedistributions, C. lauroi was classified into the fractional spawning type, and C. alipioi into the total spawning type. The absolute fecundity of C. lauroi ranged from 1,313 to 2,925 oocytes; in C. alipioi the absolute fecundity ranged from 2,213 to 25,550 oocytes. The nonparametric Spearman correlation test showed statistical significance between the gonadosomatic index and fecundity for both species. The growth parameters, natural mortality rate and survivalrate for females of C. lauroi were: K = 0.68 yr-1, Loo = 8.7 cm, tmax = 4.4 years, M = 1.62 yr-1, S = 19.79%, and for males: K = 0.78 yr-1, Loo = 6.9 cm, tmax = 3.8 years, M = 1.89 yr-1, S = 15.11%. The growth parameters, natural mortality rate and survival rate for females ofC. alipioi were: K = 0.90 yr-1, Loo= 12.2 cm, tmax = 3.3 years, M = 1.81 yr-1, S = 16.37%, and for males: K = 0.76 yr-1, Loo = 10.1 cm, tmax = 3.9 years, M = 1.71 yr-1, S = 18.10%.

  20. The genus Basilichthys (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae revisited along its Chilean distribution range (21° to 40° S using variation in morphologyand mtDNA El género Basilichthys (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae analizado a lo largo de su distribución en Chile (21° a 40° S, utilizando rasgos morfológicos y variabilidad del ADN mitocondrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID VÉLIZ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available There is still doubt as to the number of species of the freshwater Chilean ichthyofauna, 64 % of which have conservation problems. One of the groups is that of the silversides of the genus Basilichthys. Three morphological species of this genus have been described in Chile with disjoint distributions: Basilichthys semotilus, B. microlepidotus and B. australis; the latter two overlap in distribution only in the Aconcagua River and are not easily distinguishable by morphological and meristic characters. In order to evaluate the efficacy of identification of these species by molecular techniques, we analyzed the sequence of 9 % of the mitochondrial DNA (Control Region and COI of individuals from the Loa River (21°41' S to the Valdivia River (39°50' S, adding meristic features for B. microlepidotus and B. australis in order to study population variation to clarify the taxonomy of the native species of the genus. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the individuals of Basilichthys semotilus form an haplogroup separated from the other species of the genus; however, B. australis and B. microlepidotus form a monophyletic group that shares the most common haplotypes. An analysis of meristic information showed no statistically significant differences in the number of lateral line scales or number of rays in the fins between B. microlepidotus and B. australis. These results do not support the current classification for the latter two species; there appears to be one group in the extreme north of the country (Basilichthys semotilus and a second group in central Chile which should be called B. microlepidotus. This information will be useful to review the conservation status of the Chilean fauna.Si bien aún existen dudas sobre el número de especies descritas en el país, se reconoce que el 64 % de la ictiofauna dulceacuícola chilena se encuentra en alguna categoría de peligro de conservación. Uno de los grupos categorizados como vulnerable y en peligro de extinción es el de los pejerreyes del género Basilichthys. A lo largo Chile, este género posee tres especies morfológicas con distribución disjunta: Basilichthys semotilus, B. microlepidotus y B. australis. Las dos últimas sobreponen su distribución en el río Aconcagua y no son fácilmente diferenciables morfológicamente. Para evaluar la eficacia en la identificación de estas especies al utilizar marcadores moleculares, se analizó el 9 % del ADN mitocondrial (Región Control y COI de organismos obtenidos desde el río Loa (21°41' S al río Valdivia (39°50' S y adicionando un análisis merístico en organismos pertenecientes a las especies B. microlepidotus y B. australis. El análisis filogenético muestra que los individuos de B. semotilus forman un haplogrupo separado de las otras especies del género, sin embargo, B. australis y B. microlepidotus serían parte de un mismo grupo monofilético. Un segundo análisis, el cual incluye información merística, no muestra diferencias estadísticas significativas en la cantidad de escamas de la línea lateral, y número de rayos en las aletas entre B. microlepidotus y B. australis. Estos resultados no sustentan la clasificación actual, separando claramente un grupo presente en el extremo norte del país (B. semotilus y un segundo grupo en Chile central el cual debería ser llamado B. microlepidotus. Esta información será importante para revisar el estado de conservación de la ictiofauna chilena.

  1. Morfologia e hábitos alimentares de duas espécies de Engraulidae (Teleostei, Clupeiformes na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro Morphology and feeding habits of two engraulid fish (Teleostei, Clupeiformes in the Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro

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    Sandra Sergipensel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados as hábitos alimentares dos peixes engraulídeos Anchoa januaria e Cetengraulis edentulus na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, de julho de 1983 a julho de 1985. Os itens alimentares e as estruturas morfológicas relacionadas à alimentação indicaram que a área superficial dos rastros branquiais de A. januaria e C. edentulus é mais eficiente para a filtração dos alimentos, do que as distâncias entre os mesmos. Estas estruturas morfológicas possibilitam uma seletividade no tamanho dos itens alimentares, resultando em formas distintata de obtenção do alimento, entre as duas espécies. A. januaria seleciona o zooplâncton, por captura dos itens alimentares, enquanto C. edentuluss é um fitoplanctófago filtrador. Anchoa januaria tem hábitos alimentares diurnos e explgra diferentes estratos da coluna d'água durante os períodos frio e quente.Feeding habits of the engraulidid flsh - Anchoa januaria and Cetengraulis edentullus were studied in the Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, from July 1983 to July 1985. Dietary items and morphological structures "blted to feeding indicate that the surface structures of branchial rays of A. januaria and C. edentulus are more useful for food filtration than the distance between them. Those morphological structures provide a separation of the size of dietary items, thw resoltins in different forms of feeding behaviors between two species. A. januaria is a selective zooplanktivore, picking up food items, whereas C. edentulus is a filtering phytaplanktivore. Anchoa januaria is a diurnal feeder and exploits different layers in the water column during the warm and cold seasons.

  2. Oportunismo alimentar de Knodus moenkhausii (Teleostei, Characidae: uma espécie abundante em riachos do noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Feeding opportunism of Knodus moenkhausii (Teleostei, Characidae: an abundant species in streams of the northwestern in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Mônica Ceneviva-Bastos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a biologia alimentar de Knodus moenkhausii (Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 em riachos do Alto rio Paraná no Estado de São Paulo. Em oito riachos (R1-R8, K. moenkhausii se alimentou de 18 itens, dos quais algas, ninfas de efemerópteros e larvas de dípteros foram os itens autóctones mais freqüentes e dominantes; fragmentos de insetos terrestres, himenópteros e aranhas foram os itens alóctones mais freqüentes e dominantes. No riacho R2, K. moenkhausii apresentou dieta distinta dos demais riachos, principalmente em função da profundidade, tipo de substrato e da presença de vegetação ripária. No riacho R9, amostrado mensalmente durante um ano, foram identificados 15 itens, dos quais insetos terrestres predominaram ao longo do ano; larvas de dípteros e algas foram pouco expressivas nos períodos de dezembro-janeiro (período mais quente e chuvoso e junho-julho (período mais frio e seco. No riacho R9 foram realizadas observações subaquáticas durante mergulho livre, onde observamos a cata de itens na coluna d'água junto do substrato, da vegetação submersa e na superfície da água. A elevada variedade de itens consumidos - condicionada às variações do hábitat e sazonais - e a prática de diversas táticas nos permitem considerar K. moenkhausii uma espécie oportunista quanto ao uso dos recursos alimentares. Este oportunismo aparentemente se reflete na abundância da espécie, demonstrando boa capacidade em alocar parte significativa de sua energia à reprodução, mesmo em ambientes fisicamente impactados por ação antrópica.In the present investigation we studied the feeding biology of Knodus moenkhausii (Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 in streams of the Upper Paraná river system in the state of São Paulo. In eight streams (R1-R8, K. moenkhausii consumed 18 items, of which algae, ephemeropteran nymphs, and dipteran larvae were the most frequent and dominant autochthonous items, as were terrestrial insects, hymenopterans, and spiders regarding allochthonous items. In the R2 stream, K. moenkhausii showed distinct diet, mostly due to depth, substrate type, and presence of riparian vegetation. In the R9 stream (monthly sampled for one year, 15 items were consumed, of which terrestrial insects predominated all year round; dipteran larvae and algae were least relevant during December-January (hot and wet period and June-July (cold and dry period, respectively. During snorkeling observations in this stream, we recorded individuals performing drift feeding, picking at relatively small preys close to the substrate and submerged vegetation, and surface picking. The large diversity of consumed items - conditioned to habitat and seasonal variations - and the diversity of feeding tactics allow us to consider K. moenkhausii a rather opportunistic fish species. Such opportunism apparently reflects on the species abundance, showing its ability to allocate a significant part of its energy to reproduction, even in physically impacted habitats by human actions.

  3. Revision of Aristocleidus (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae, rediscovery of Aristocleidus hastatus, and description of Aristocleidus lamothei n. sp. from the Peruvian Mojarra Diapterus peruvianus (Teleostei: Gerreidae in Mexico Revisión de Aristocleidus (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae, redescripción de Aristocleidus hastatus y descripción de Aristocleidus lamothei n. sp. de la mojarra peruana Diapterus peruvianus (Teleostei: Gerreidae en México

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    Delane C. Kritsky

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The generic diagnosis of Aristocleidus Mueller, 1936 is emended based on a collection of 2 species of the genus from the gills of the Peruvian mojarra, Diapterus peruvianus (Gerreidae, from a lagoon along the Pacific Coast of Mexico. The genus is characterized in part by species having a deeply incised base of the ventral anchor with the tip of the superficial root conspicuously directed toward that of the deep root. Aristocleidus hastatus Mueller, 1936 is redescribed and Aristocleidus lamothei n. sp. is described from D. peruvianus from the Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero State, Mexico. The finding of A. hastatus on D. peruvianus in Mexico represents new host and locality records for the species.Se completa la descripción de Aristocleidus Mueller, 1936 con base en 2 ejemplares recolectados de las branquias de la mojarra peruana, Diapterus peruvianus (Gerreidae, de una laguna situada en la costa del Pacífico de México. El género se caracteriza por tener la base del macrogancho ventral profundamente hundida, con la punta de la raíz superfcial dirigida marcadamente hacia la de la raíz profunda. Se redescribe Aristocleidus hastatus Mueller, 1936 y se describe Aristocleidus lamothei n. sp. de D. peruvianus de la laguna de Tres Palos, Guerrero, México. El hallazgo de A. hastatus en D. peruvianus representa un nuevo registro de hospedero y localidad.

  4. Revision of Aristocleidus (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), rediscovery of Aristocleidus hastatus, and description of Aristocleidus lamothei n. sp. from the Peruvian Mojarra Diapterus peruvianus (Teleostei: Gerreidae) in Mexico Revisión de Aristocleidus (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), redescripción de Aristocleidus hastatus y descripción de Aristocleidus lamothei n. sp. de la mojarra peruana Diapterus peruvianus (Teleostei: Gerreidae) en México

    OpenAIRE

    Kritsky, Delane C.; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F.

    2008-01-01

    The generic diagnosis of Aristocleidus Mueller, 1936 is emended based on a collection of 2 species of the genus from the gills of the Peruvian mojarra, Diapterus peruvianus (Gerreidae), from a lagoon along the Pacific Coast of Mexico. The genus is characterized in part by species having a deeply incised base of the ventral anchor with the tip of the superficial root conspicuously directed toward that of the deep root. Aristocleidus hastatus Mueller, 1936 is redescribed and Aristocleidus lamot...

  5. Development of fingerlings of Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyannus, Vallencienes (1849 (Teleostei: characidae in tanks fertilized with organic manures/ Desenvolvimento de juvenis de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyannus, Vallencienes (1849 (Teleostei: characidae em tanques experimentais fertilizados com adubação orgânica

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    Carmino Hayashi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to study the development of Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus in tanks under differents organic fertilizers. The experiment, entirely randomized, was accomplished in 16 tanks of 1000 liters, fertilized with manures of bovine (BOV, pigs (SUI, chickens (FRG and others without fertilizer (SAO, using 15 fish/m3 with an initial average weight and length of 10,87+0,31 g e 9,78+0,07 cm. After 30 days, the experiment showed a uniform development of the fish and high survival rate in thestudied density. The treatments presented significant statistical differences (PO objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o desenvolvimento de juvenis de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, em tanques com adubações orgânicas. O experimento, inteiramente casualizado, foi realizado em 16 tanques de 1000 litros, adubados com estercos de bovinos (BOV, suínos (SUI, frangos de corte (FRG e outros sem adubação (SAO, utilizando 15 peixes/m3 com peso e comprimento médios iniciais de 10,87+0,31 g e 9,78+0,07 cm. Após 30 dias, o experimento mostrou um desenvolvimento uniforme dos peixes e alta taxa de sobrevivência na densidade estudada. Os tratamentos apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,05 para ganho de peso e crescimento diário, com exceção dos tratamentos BOV e SUI quando comparados entre si. A temperatura e o oxigênio dissolvido foram os fatores abióticos que exerceram maior influência sobre a biota aquática, afetando o desenvolvimento dos peixes. Entre o fitoplâncton houve maior abundância de organismos nanoplanctônicos favorecendo o desenvolvimento do zooplâncton, destacando-se as clorófitas, com o gênero Scenedesmus, e as cianofíceas, com o gênero Microcystis, e entre o zooplâncton, a maior abundância foi de rotíferos dos gêneros Brachionus e Keratella, seguido por copépodas. O tratamento adubado com esterco de frangos possibilitou um maior desenvolvimento da comunidade planctônica, e melhores resultados quanto ao desenvolvimento dos peixes, demonstrando a importância do alimento natural na sua dieta.

  6. Condicionantes ambientais na distribuição e no periodo reprodutivo do Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier (Teleostei, Haemulidae na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Environmental constraints on distribution and reproductive period of Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier (Teleostei, Haemulidae in the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    André L. B. dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier, 1830 é uma espécie muito comum na costa brasileira, sendo encontrada em baias, onde figura entre os mais abundantes peixes nos arrastos de fundo. Este trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar a influência das condicionantes ambientais na distribuição espaço-temporal e no período reprodutivo de O. ruber na Baía de Sepetiba, uma área costeira semi-fechada no sul do Rio de Janeiro. Foi realizado um programa de arrasto de fundo, entre outubro de 1998 e setembro de 1999, em três zonas da baía, estabelecidas de acordo com sua proximidade do mar (interna, central e externa. Amostras mensais de peixes foram tomadas em triplicatas em cada ocasião de amostragem, bem como foram medidas as variáveis ambientais de temperatura, salinidade, transparência e profundidade. Abundância relativa foi avaliada com base nas CPUEs (Captura por Unidade de Esforço em termos de número e de biomassa, enquanto o período reprodutivo foi determinado com o índice gonadossomático. Um total de 866 indivíduos foi capturado, com o tamanho variando entre 31 e 293 mm de comprimento total e proporção sexual de 1:1. Um maior número de peixes foi registrado em janeiro/fevereiro e em maio, embora não tenha sido encontrada diferença na abundancia relativa entre as estações do ano. Espacialmente, os maiores números e biomassas foram registrados na zona externa. Correlação positiva significativa foi encontrada entre a abundancia relativa e a profundidade, salinidade e transparência, e negativa com a temperatura. O período reprodutivo, indicado pelos maiores valores de índices gonadosomático (IGS, provavelmente ocorre de junho a setembro, coincidindo com as menores temperaturas. Esta espécie parece ter distribuição limitada às zonas mais externa da baia, próxima à influência com o mar, com maiores influxos no verão, como provável efeito da das Águas Centrais do Atlântico Sul (ACAS que comprimem as Águas Costeiras (AC para a baía.Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier, 1830 is a very common species in the Brazilian coast, being found in large abundance in bays where they rank among the most numerical abundant species in bottom trawls. This work aims to assess environmental influences on spatial, temporal distribution and reproductive period of O. ruber in the Sepetiba Bay, a coastal semi-closed area in the Rio de Janeiro State. Monthly samplings were carried out using otter trawl from October 1998 to September 1999, in three Bay zones, defined according to the proximity of the sea (inner, middle and outer. Samples were taken as triplicate at each site as well as environmental measurements of water temperature, salinity, transparency and depth. Relative abundance was assessed by CPUE (capture per unit effort in both number and weight. The reproductive period was determined by the gonadossomatic index. A total of 866 individuals was caught, with size ranging from 31 to 293 mm Total Length and sex ratio 1:1. Higher fish numbers and biomass were recorded in January/February and May, although no significant difference was found among seasons. Spatially, the highest number and biomass were recorded in the outer zone. Positive significant correlation between relative abundance and depth, salinity and transparency and negative with temperature were found. The reproductive period, indicated by the highest gonadosomatic index (IGS occurred probably between June and September, coinciding with the lowest temperatures. This species seems to have distribution limited to outer bay zones, near to the sea influence, with the highest influxes in Summer, as a probable effect of the South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW that compress Coastal Waters (CW toward the bay.

  7. Anatomia e histologia gastrintestinal da garoupa-verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Teleostei, Serranidae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.4462 Dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Teleostei, Serranidae gastrintestinal anatomy and histology - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.4462

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    José Roberto Machado Cunha da Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A garoupa-verdadeira (Epinephelus marginatus é uma espécie de serranídeo com grande importância ecológica e boas perspectivas para o cultivo. A investigação da morfologia do trato digestório, associada à atividade alimentar, é fundamental para a compreensão da biologia dessa espécie e premissa básica para pesquisas sobre requerimentos nutricionais, desenvolvimento de rações e práticas adequadas de manejo alimentar. O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia e, por meio da microscopia de luz, as variações histológicas ao longo do tubo digestório de juvenis de Epinephelus marginatus, correlacionando a histologia de cada seguimento com as respectivas funções e o hábito alimentar. Verificou-se que essa espécie possui elevado número de tipos celulares ao longo do tubo digestório que estão intimamente relacionados com a resposta imunológica inata e adaptativa, permitindo o hábito alimentar detritívoro.The dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus is a serranida species with great ecological importance and good perspectives for rearing. The investigation of the digestive tract morphology associated to the feeding activity is essential for the understanding of the biology of this species and a basic premise for research on feed requirements, feed development and appropriate feeding methods. The present study describes the anatomy and histological variations along the digestive tract of Epinephelus marginatus juveniles associating the histology with function and feeding habit. It was verified that this species possesses a high number of different cellular types along the digestive tube intimately related with the innate and adaptative immunological responses.

  8. Feeding ecology of two demersal opportunistic predators coexisting in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Nieves; Navarro, Joan; Barría, Claudio; Albo-Puigserver, Marta; Coll, Marta; Palomera, Isabel

    2016-06-01

    The study of the feeding ecology of marine organisms is crucial to understanding their ecological roles and advancing our knowledge of marine ecosystem functioning. The aim of this study was to analyse the trophic ecology of two demersal predator species, black anglerfish (Lophius budegassa) and white anglerfish (L. piscatorius), in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Both species are important in the study area due to their high abundance and economic value, but information about their feeding behaviour is scarce. Here, we described the diet composition and ecological role of these two species, investigating whether trophic segregation exists between them and amongst fish of different sizes. In addition, by using experimental survey data we described the spatial distribution of both species to help us interpret trophic behaviour patterns. We gathered samples of two different sizes (small individuals of a total length SIA) of nitrogen and carbon with isotopic mixing models. Our results revealed that both anglerfish species are opportunistic predators, showing a diet composed mainly of fishes and, to a lesser extent, of crustaceans, with a small proportion of cephalopods, gastropods, bivalves and echinoderms. We found trophic segregation between the two species and the two sizes, indicating that they feed on different prey, in line with differences in their spatial distribution within the study area. This partial partition of food resources could also be explained by the differences in rhythms of activity that were reported in previous studies. In addition, although both species occupied a high position within the food web, our results showed that white anglerfish individuals and the large-sized fish of both species held higher trophic positions. This study demonstrates the usefulness of complementary approaches for trophic studies and confirms that both anglerfish species play an important role as predators in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea food web.

  9. Fish remains from Miocene beds of Višnja vas near Vojnik, Slovenia

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    Aleš Šoster

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses fossil teeth of sharks (Elasmobranchii, Neoselachii and porgies (Teleostei, Sparidae fromthe Miocene glauconite sandstones of Vi{nja vas near Vojnik. The remains of fish teeth, mostly tooth crowns, belongto cartilaginous fishes of the genera Notorynchus, Carcharias, Carcharoides, Isurus and Cosmopolitodus and to abony fish genus Pagrus.

  10. Age estimates for an adaptive lake fish radiation, its mitochondrial introgression, and an unexpected sister group: Sailfin silversides of the Malili Lakes system in Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Stelbrink, Björn; Stöger, Isabella; Hadiaty, Renny K; Schliewen, Ulrich K.; Herder, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Background The Malili Lakes system in central Sulawesi (Indonesia) is a hotspot of freshwater biodiversity in the Wallacea, characterized by endemic species flocks like the sailfin silversides (Teleostei: Atherinomorpha: Telmatherinidae) radiation. Phylogenetic reconstructions of these freshwater fishes have previously revealed two Lake Matano Telmatherina lineages (sharpfins and roundfins) forming an ancient monophyletic group, which is however masked by introgressive hybridization of sharpf...

  11. The barbs of Lake Tana, Ethiopia: morphological diversity and its implications for taxonomy, trophic resource partitioning, and fisheries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerke, L.A.J.

    1997-01-01

    The rediscovery of a unique species flock of cyprinid fish, its taxonomy and its feeding-biology are described. Fourteen species of barbs (Barbus spp, Cyprinidae, Teleostei) were found in highland (1800 m) Lake Tana, in northwestern Ethiopia. Lake Tana is an isolated fresh-water system, because its

  12. Two new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) and a redescription of Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier and S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky (Teleostei: Characidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Taísa Mendes; Boeger, Walter A; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marília

    2015-01-01

    Three species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 are reported from the gills of Salminus spp. in Brazil. Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier is redescribed, based on examination of paratypes. The study revealed morphological differences from the original description, especially in the morphology of the cephalothorax and the ornamentation of antenna, antennule and legs. Ergasilus lacusauratus n. sp. described from S. brasiliensis in lake Lagoa Dourada (Paraná) differs from the only known species from this host group, E. salmini, in the shape and size of the cephalothorax and the general morphology of the egg-sacs. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. from S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky in River São Francisco (Minas Gerais) closely resembles E. pitalicus, E. coatiarus and E. leporinidis in the lack of a pectinate seta on the first exopodal segment, a feature common in species of Ergasilus in the Neotropics. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. differs from these species in the presence of a spiniform process on the coxae of legs 2, 3 and 4, an ornament never reported from freshwater species of Ergasilus in South America.

  13. Bipteria formosa (Kovaleva et Gaevskaya, 1979) comb. n. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) in whiting Merlangius merlangus (Teleostei: Gadidae) from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlbakk, Egil; Køie, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    spore of is described in detail and compared with other Bipteria spp. The phylogenetic position of B. formosa, based on partial 18S rDNA sequences, is closest to Leptotheca fugu Tun, spp. The phylogenetic position of , based on partial 18S rDNA sequences, is closest to Tun, Yokoyama, Ogawa et...

  14. Gonadotropin-dependent oocyte maturational competence requires activation of the protein kinase A pathway and synthesis of RNA and protein in ovarian follicles of Nibe, Nibea mitsukurii (Teleostei, Sciaenidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, G.; Shusa, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Patino, R.

    2002-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone- (LH)-dependent ovarian follicle maturation has been recently described in two stages for teleost fishes. The oocyte's ability to respond to the steroidal maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), also known as oocyte maturational competence (OMC), is acquired during the first stage; whereas the MIH-dependent resumption of meiosis occurs during the second stage. However, studies directly addressing OMC have been performed with a limited number of species and therefore the general relevance of the two-stage model and its mechanisms remain uncertain. In this study, we examined the hormonal regulation of OMC and its basic transduction mechanisms in ovarian follicles of the sciaenid teleost, Nibe (Nibea mitsukurii). Exposure to MIH [17,20??-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one or 17,20??,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one] stimulated germinal vesicle breakdown (index of meiotic resumption) in full-grown follicles primed with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, an LH-like gonadotropin) but not in those pre-cultured in plain incubation medium. The induction of OMC by HCG was mimicked by protein kinase A (PKA) activators (forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP), and blocked by specific inhibitors of PKA (H89 and H8) as well as inhibitors of RNA (actinomycin D) and protein (cycloheximide) synthesis. Forskolin-induced OMC was also inhibited by actinomycin D and cycloheximide. A strong activator of protein kinase C, PMA, inhibited HCG-dependent OMC. In conclusion, OMC in Nibe ovarian follicles is gonadotropin-dependent and requires activation of the PKA pathway followed by gene transcription and translation events. These observations are consistent with the two-stage model of ovarian follicle maturation proposed for other teleosts, and suggest that Nibe can be used as new model species for mechanistic studies of ovarian follicle differentiation and maturation in fishes.

  15. Small-scale clinal variation, genetic diversity and environmental heterogeneity in the marine gobies Pomatoschistus minutus and P. lozanoi (Gobiidae, Teleostei)

    OpenAIRE

    Gysels, E.S.; Leentjes, V.; Volckaert, F.A.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Genetic variation was assayed at 14 allozyme loci in estuarine, coastal and offshore samples of Lozano's goby, Pomatoschistus lozanoi and the sand goby, P. minutus. Samples were taken from locations on the Belgian Continental Shelf and in the Schelde estuary with a range of environmental heterogeneity. We evaluate whether any differences in (1) the degree of genetic variation and (2) allele frequencies at the various loci exist within samples occurring in various habitats on the BCS and in th...

  16. Atividade alimentar diária da cabrinha Prionotus punctatus (Teleostei: Triglidae do litoral de Ubatuba, Brasil Diel feeding of searobin Prionotus punctatus (Telestei: Triglidae from coastal system off Ubatuba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Satiko Hashimoto Soares

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se identificar a cronologia alimentar e comparar a composição dos conteúdos estomacais ao longo do dia foram obtidas amostras de Prionotus punctatus na plataforma interna ao largo de Ubatuba (SP, Brasil, durante o ciclo diário em janeiro/87, julho/88 e dezembro/88. As amostras foram obtidas com rede de arrasto de fundo, a intervalos de aproximadamente 3 horas. Através do acompanhamento da freqüência relativa dos graus de repleção, dos indicadores de repleção, do número médio de presas frescas evidenciou-se nitidamente que Prionotus punctatus possui hábito alimentar diurno com tendência vespertina, podendo-se levantar a hipótese de ritmo circadiano na atividade alimentar. A composição dos conteúdos consistiu, principalmente de jovens de siris Portunus spinicarpus no verão (janeiro/87 e dezembro/88, e de jovens de Portunidae e camarões Penaeidea (Sicyonidae e Pleoticus mullen no inverno (julho/88. A composição foi altamente similar durante a fase de atividade alimentar no inverno, enquanto que apresentou variação tanto no verão/87 quanto no verão/88.The feeding habits and the diel feeding periodicity of the searobin Prionotus punctatus were investigated at Ubatuba region (22º30'S in the western South Atlantic. The samples were collected during consecutive 3 h periods over 24 h in January, 1987 and July and December, 1988. The diel feeding activity analysis indicated that Prionotus punctatus was a daytime feeder with afternoon tendency, permitting to bring up the hypothesis of the Orcadian rythm. The main food items were Portunidae crabs in Summer, and Portunidae and Penaeidae shrimps in Winter. The diet composition was very similar during the feeding activity time in Winter (July 1988, whereas it showed some variation in Summer (January 1987 and December 1988.

  17. Genetic variability in Oligosarcus paranensis (Teleostei: Characiformes from the São Francisco river, Ivaí river basin – Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.14179

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    Michele Rocha dos Santos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability of Oligosarcus paranensis was estimated from a population collected in São Francisco river, Prudentópolis county in Paraná State (Brazil using the electrophoresis in starch gel technique. Eleven enzymatic systems were analyzed: Aspartate aminotransaminase (AAT; E. C. 2.6.1, Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; E. C. 1.1.1.1, Esterase (EST; E. C. 3.1.1.1, Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI; E. C. 5.3.1.9, Glycerol-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH; E. C. 1.1.1, Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH; E. C. 1.1.1.42, L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; E. C. 1.1.1.27, Malate dehydrogenase (MDH; E. C. 1.1.1.37 , Malate dehydrogenase NADP (ME; E. C. 1.1.1.40, Phosphoglucomutase (PGM; E. C. 5.4.2.2 and Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORB; E.C. 1.1.1.14. Twenty loci were identified through 15% corn starch gel electrophoresis of which nine (45% were polymorphic. The average expected heterozygosity was estimated as 0.1229 ± 0.1728, and the observed was 0.0586 ± 0.1069, indicating high genetic variability. The average value of FIS = 0.5145 indicates homozygote excess.  

  18. Influence de la fréquence et de la période de nourrissage sur la croissance et l'efficacité alimentaire d'un silure africain, Heterobranchus longifilis (Teleostei, Clariidae)

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    Kerdchuen, N.; Legendre, Marc

    1991-01-01

    L'influence de la période (jour, nuit) et de la fréquence d'alimentation (1 à 4 repas fractionnés ou alimentation continue) a été étudiée sur la croissance et l'efficacité alimentaire chez un silure africain (#Heterobranchus longifilis$). L'expérience, d'une durée de 56 jours, a été réalisée sur des poissons de 74 g de poids moyen initial. Avec un même taux de rationnement (3% du poids moyen vif/jour), les poissons nourris la nuit ont une croissance significativement plus élevée que ceux nour...

  19. Rediscovery of Hypselobarbus pulchellus, an endemic and threatened barb (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) of the Western Ghats, with notes on H. dobsoni and H. jerdoni

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    J.D.M. Knight; Rai, A.; R.K.P. Dsouza

    2013-01-01

    Hypselobarbus pulchellus, is a poorly known species, with very few verifiable records since its description in 1870. Many authors have considered H. pulchellus to be a synonym of either H. dobsoni or H. jerdoni. This lack of information and clarity on its identity has led to H. pulchellus being categorized as a ‘Critically Endangered’ (possibly Extinct) species in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Based on the collection of H. pulchellus from its type locality, we re-describe this litt...

  20. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Re-description of Hypselobarbus lithopidos (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), based on its rediscovery from the Western Ghats, India, with notes on H. thomassi

    OpenAIRE

    J.D.M. Knight; Rai, A.; R.K.P. Dsouza

    2013-01-01

    In recent times, though the genus Hypselobarbus has been studied substantially, the identities of individual species remain ambiguous. Hypselobarbus lithopidos has been assessed as Data Deficient in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species with a speculation that it could possibly be extinct as there has not been any validated record of this species since 1941 from its known range. In this work we report a population of this species from its type locality and re-describe this little known sp...

  1. A taxonomic review of the species of CharaxScopoli, 1777 (Teleostei: Characidae: Characinae with description of a new species from the rio Negro bearing superficial neuromasts on body scales, Amazon basin, Brazil

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    Naércio A. Menezes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The species of Charaxwere reviewed by Lucena (1987 who a little later (1989 added three new species to the genus. Examination of recently collected specimens from museum collections documented the more extensive geographic distribution for most species and revealed the existence of a new species in which superficial neuromasts were discovered and are herein described. These skin structures were also detected in C. metae Eigenmann, 1922. Anal- and pelvic-fin hooks previously observed only on the anal-fin of one species of the genus are described herein in some other species. Charax unimaculatus Lucena is considered a junior synonym of C. michaeli Lucena. All the species are redescribed and the new species described.

  2. Descripción de una nueva especie de bagre marino fósil (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Ariidae del Mioceno de la provincia de Río Negro, Argentina

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    Sergio Bogan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen dos cráneos de la familia Ariidae procedentes del miembro Saladar de la Formación Gran Bajo del Gualicho, ubicados en las Salinas del Gualicho, provincia de Río Negro, Argentina. La edad de los depósitos del Miembro Saladar se remonta al Mioceno Temprano alto/Mioceno Medio bajo. Los materiales son asignados a una nueva especie extinta del género viviente Genidens. Este nuevo taxón se distingue de todas las especies actuales por presentar un proceso supraoccipital muy corto, ancho y redondeado, extraescapular subcircular y mesetmoides amplios con una conspicua escotadura mesial, frontales prácticamente planos en vista lateral y margen lateral de los huesos esfenóticos rectilíneo. Genidens sp. nov., representa el registro más antiguo para el género y constituiría una especie de aspecto similar a las formas actuales del género. sp. nov., representa el registro más antiguo para el género y constituiría una especie de aspecto similar a las formas actuales del género.

  3. Relationships of †Codoichthys carnavalii Santos, 1994 (Teleostei, Clupeomorpha, †Ellimmichthyiformes from the Late Aptian of São Luís-Grajaú Basin, NE Brazil

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    FRANCISCO J. DE FIGUEIREDO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT †Codoichthys carnavalii is a clupeomorph fish only found in calcareous concretions of Codó Formation, State of Maranhão. It is known based on three specimens housed in the paleontological collection of the Museu de Ciências da Terra of Departamento Nacional da Produção Mineral, Rio de Janeiro. It was omitted in most of recent cladistic analyses about clupeomorphs. We revisited its anatomy furnishing new data and additional restorations. Furthermore we explored the relationships of †Codoichthys with the computer program TNT based on a matrix with 30 taxa and 60 unordered and unweight characters. Elops was used to root the tree. The strict consensus was obtained from three shortest trees (L=181; CI=0.387; RI=0.632. The monophyly of †Ellimmichthyiformes is supported by a sigmoid cleithrum and an uniquely derived predorsal scute series. Most of subgroups showed low support indices. †Sorbinichthyidae and †Horseshoeichthys appear in the most basal position, and not closely related to †Armigatus or †Diplomystus. A †Diplomystus clade is more advanced than †Armigatus and sister-group of remaining †ellimmichthyiforms. Within †Paraclupeidae, †Codoichthys is sister-group of remaining †paraclupeids (including †thorectichthyines and †paraclupeines. Within †Paraclupeinae, †Triplomystini includes a †Triplomystus clade, a sister group of †Rhombichthys plus †Tycheroichthys, and †Paraclupeini with †S. itapagipensis and all other †ellimmichthyiform taxa.

  4. Dactylogyrids (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea) parasitizing butterfly fishes (Teleostei: Chaetodontidae) from the coral reefs of Palau, Moorea, Wallis, New Caledonia, and Australia: species of Euryhaliotrematoides n. gen. and Aliatrema n. gen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisance, Laetitia; Kritsky, Delane C

    2004-04-01

    Seven species of Euryhaliotrematoides n. gen. and 1 species of Aliatrema n. gen. (Monogenoidea; Dactylogyridae) are described and reported from the gills of 15 species of butterfly fishes (Chaetodontidae) from the coral reefs of Moorea (French Polynesia), Wallis (Wallis and Futuna), Heron and Lizard (Australia), Palau (Micronesia), and New Caledonia: Aliatrema cribbi n. sp. from Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon lunula, Chaetodon trifasciatus, Chaetodon ulietensis, Chaetodon vagabundus, Forcipiger flavisissimus, and Heniochus chrysostomus; Euryhaliotrematoides annulocirrus n. comb. from C. auriga, C. lunula, and C. vagabundus; Euryhaliotrematoides aspistis n. sp. from C. auriga, Chaetodon citrinellus, C. lunula, Chaetodon reticulatus, C. ulietensis, and C. vagabundus; Euryhaliotrematoides berenguelae n. sp. from C. citrinellus, Chaetodon ornatissimus, and F. flavisissimus; Euryhaliotrematoides grandis n. comb. from C. auriga, C. citrinellus, Chaetodon ephippium, Chaetodon kleinii, Chaetodon lineolatus, C. lunula, C. ornatissimus, C. trifasciatus, C. vagabundus, and H. chrysostomus; Euryhaliotrematoides microphallus n. comb. from C. auriga, C. citrinellus, C. ephippium, C. kleinii, C. lunula, C. ornatissimus, C. reticulatus, Chaetodon trifascialis, C. trifasciatus, C. vagabundus, F. flavisissimus, and H. chrysostomus; Euryhaliotrematoides pirulum n. sp. from C. auriga, C. citrinellus, C. lunula, C. trifasciatus, and C. vagabundus; and Euryhaliotrematoides triangulovagina n. comb. from C. auriga, C. citrinellus, C. kleinii, C. lunula, C. ornatissimus, C. vagabundus, F. flavisissimus, H. chrysostomus, and Hemitaurichthys polylepis. All reports of previously described species are new locality records. With exceptions of E. grandis and E. annulocirrus on C. auriga and C. lunula and E. triangulovagina and E. microphallus on C. auriga, all reports are new host records. Haliotrema hainanensis and H. affinis are considered junior subjective synonyms of E. triangulovagina and E. annulocirrus, respectively. Aliatrema n. gen. is characterized by marine dactylogyrids with tandem gonads (germarium pretesticular), haptoral hooks with upright acute thumbs, a coiled copulatory organ with counterclockwise rings and funnel-shaped base but lacking an accessory piece, and a dextral vaginal pore. Euryhaliotrematoides n. gen. is characterized by marine dactylogyrids having tandem gonads (germarium pretesticular), haptoral hooks with upright acute thumbs, a coiled copulatory organ with counterclockwise rings and funnel-shaped base, a vas deferens looping the left intestinal cecum, and a dextral vaginal pore. PMID:15165056

  5. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 54. Proposal of Aetheolabes n. g. (Dactylogyrinea: Diplectanidae), with the description of A. goeldiensis n. sp. from the gills of 'pescada' Plagioscion sp. (Teleostei: Sciaenidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeger, Walter A; Kritsky, Delane C

    2009-10-01

    Aetheolabes goeldiensis n. g., n. sp. (Diplectanidae) is described from the gills of 'pescada' Plagioscion sp. (Sciaenidae) collected from the Baía de Marajó, about 30 km north of Belém, Pará, Brazil. The monotypic Aetheolabes n. g. is characterised, in part, by its type-species having the haptor and haptoral sclerites modified as a clasp for attachment to the gill tissue of its host, the copulatory complex situated far posterior to the intestinal bifurcation near the mid-length of the trunk, the vaginal pore apparently within the genital atrium, the tegument lacking scales, anchors atypical for diplectanids, and by lacking peduncular spines and squamodiscs. A. goeldiensis n. sp. closely resembles Diplectanum umbrinum Tripathi, 1957 from India and China by the haptoral sclerites forming a clasp, but differs from it primarily by the orientation of the reproductive organs and absence of squamodiscs. PMID:19731097

  6. Monogenoids from the gills of spiny eels (Teleostei: Mastacembelidae) in India and Iraq, proposal of Mastacembelocleidus gen. n., and status of the Indian species of Actinocleidus, Urocleidus and Haplocleidus (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Pandey, K C; Agrawal, Nirupama; Abdullah, Shamall

    2004-12-01

    Mastacembelocleidus gen. n. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) is proposed to include two species collected and redescribed from spiny eels (Mastacembelidae) in India and Iraq: Mastacembelocleidus bam (Tripathi, 1959) comb. n. (syn. Ancyrocephalus bam Tripathi, 1959) from the gills of Macrognathus pancalus (new host record) and Macrognathus aculeatus (Synbranchiformes: Mastacembelidae) from Lucknow, India; and Mastacembelocleidus heteranchorus (Kulkami, 1969) comb. n. (syn. Urocleidus heteranchorus Kulkarni, 1969) from the gills of Mastacembelus armatus from Lucknow, India, and Mastacembelus mastacembelus (new host record) from the environs of Erbil, Iraq (new locality record). Urocleidus rhyncobdelli Jain, 1959, Haliotrema tandani Agrawal et Singh, 1982 and Urocleidus raipurensis Dubey, Gupta et Agarwal, 1992 are considered junior subjective synonyms of M. bam. PMID:15729940

  7. Dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) parasitizing the gills of spinefoots (Teleostei: Siganidae): proposal of Glyphidohaptor n. gen., with two new species from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and G. plectocirra n. comb. from Ras Mohammed National Park, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Galli, Paolo; Yang, Tingbao

    2007-02-01

    Nine species of Siganus (Perciformes: Siganidae) were examined for dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) from the Red Sea, Egypt; the Great Barrier Reef, Australia; and the South China Sea, China. Species of Tetrancistrum were found on siganids from all 3 localities; Pseudohaliotrema spp. were restricted to siganids from the Great Barrier Reef; and species representing Glyphidohaptor n. gen. were found on siganids from the Red Sea and Great Barrier Reef. Siganus argenteus from the Red Sea and Siganus vulpinus from the Great Barrier Reef were negative for dactylogyrid parasites. Glyphidohaptor n. gen. is proposed for 3 species (2 species new to science) and the new species are described: Glyphidohaptor phractophallus n. sp. from Siganus fuscescens from the Great Barrier Reef; Glyphidohaptor sigani n. sp. from Siganus doliatus (type host), Siganus punctatus, Siganus corallinus, and Siganus lineatus from the Great Barrier Reef; and Glyphidohaptor plectocirra (Paperna, 1972) n. comb. (= Pseudohaliotrema plectocirra Paperna, 1972) from Siganus luridus and Siganus rivulatus from the Red Sea. PMID:17436940

  8. Description of Poecilia (Acanthophacelus) wingei n. sp. from the Paría Peninsula, Venezuela, including notes on Acanthophacelus Eigenmann, 1907 and other subgenera of Poecilia Bloch and Schneider, 1801 (Teleostei, Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeser, F.N.; Kempkes, M.; Isbrücker, I.J.H.

    2005-01-01

    The taxonomy of the common guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859, is reviewed and the closely related Campoma guppy, P. wingei n. sp., is described. Formerly, the common guppy was not judged to be closely related to any other species of Poecilia, but the new species is the second species to be all

  9. Short notes and reviews Poecilia kykesis nom. nov., a new name for Mollienesia petenensis Günther, 1866, and redescription, revalidation and the designation of a lectotype for Poecilia petenensis Günther, 1866 (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeser, Fred. N.

    2002-01-01

    Poecilia petenensis Günther, 1866 (= Mollienesia gracilis Regan, 1913) is redescribed and is revalidated from synonymy of P. sphenops Valenciennes, 1846 and a lectotype is designated. Mollienesia petenensis Günther, 1866 is renamed as P. kykesis to avoid homonymy with Poecilia petenensis.

  10. Genetic and morphological characterisation of a new species of the genus Hysterothylacium (Nematoda from Paralichthys isosceles Jordan, 1890 (Pisces: Teleostei of the Neotropical Region, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Marcelo Knoff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the difficulties of taxonomic identification of larval anisakid nematodes based on morphological characters, genetic analyses were performed, together with those usually applied, in order to identify anisakid larvae found in the flounder Paralichthys isosceles from the littoral of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The analysis of 1,820 larvae revealed a new species, similar to Hysterothylacium MD, Hysterothylacium 2, Hysterothylacium KB and Hysterothylacium sp regarding the absence of the larval tooth, an excretory pore situated below the nerve ring level, and slender lateral alae. Moreover, the new species differs from Hysterothylacium fortalezae and Hysterothylacium reliquens with regard to the number and size of spines present on the tail end and from Hysterothylacium patagonicus by the absence of interlabia. The maximum parsimony and neighbour joining tree topologies based on the 18S ribosomal DNA gene, complete internal transcribed spacer region and cytochrome oxidase 2 (COII gene demonstrated that the Brazilian larvae belong to Raphidascarididae and represent a unique genetic entity, confirmed as a new Hysterothylacium species. Furthermore, the new species presents COII genetic signatures and shares polymorphisms with Raphidascarididae members. This is the first description of a new anisakid species from Brazil through the integration of morphological and molecular taxonomy data.

  11. Fifteen from one: a revision of the Galaxias olidus Günther, 1866 complex (Teleostei, Galaxiidae) in south-eastern Australia recognises three previously described taxa and describes 12 new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raadik, Tarmo A

    2014-01-01

    The systematics of the Galaxias olidus hyper-species complex from freshwater habitats in south-eastern, mainland Australia is revised. Galaxias olidus Günther 1866 is redescribed, Galaxias fuscus Mack 1936 and Galaxias ornatus Castelnau 1873, previously synonymised with G. olidus (sensu lato), are reinstated as valid taxa and redescribed, and 12 taxa are described as new: Galaxias aequipinnis sp. nov., Galaxias arcanus sp. nov., Galaxias brevissimus sp. nov., Galaxias gunaikurnai sp. nov., Galaxias lanceolatus sp. nov., Galaxias longifundus sp. nov., Galaxias mcdowalli sp. nov., Galaxias mungadhan sp. nov., Galaxias oliros sp. nov., Galaxias supremus sp. nov., Galaxias tantangara sp. nov., and Galaxias terenasus sp. nov. These species are morphologically similar and, whilst there is extensive overlap in meristic counts and morphometric characters, each can be diagnosed by unique combinations of characters, including allozyme loci and colour pattern; morphological diagnosis is improved greatly if based on freshly formalin-fixed material. Galaxias schomburgkii Peters 1868, Galaxias bongbong Macleay 1881, Galaxias kayi Ramsay & Ogilby 1886 and Galaxias oconnori Ogilby 1912 are retained as junior synonyms of G. olidus (sensu stricto). The types for Galaxias findlayi Macleay 1882 are lost and no specimens matching its description were collected or examined from the Mt. Kosciuszko region; it is also currently retained as a junior synonym of Galaxias olidus s.s. The species G. terenasus sp. nov. and G. arcanus sp. nov. are the most morphologically specialised in the complex and G. olidus s.s remains the most morphologically variable species. It also remains the most widespread taxon, though its previously known distribution is reduced, particularly in the south-west of its range. Nine species are narrow-range endemics, known from one, or only a few, locations, and these restricted distributions most probably reflect the fragmentation and reduction of former ranges caused by the effects of alien salmonids. Eleven species are of conservation concern, most are considered critically endangered. PMID:25543673

  12. Extraction of genomic DNA from solid tissues of teleostei fish/ Extração de DNA genômico em tecidos sólidos de peixes teleósteos

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    Eliane Gasparino

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this work was to extract the genomic DNA of solid tissue from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, piau (Leporinus sp. and curimba (Prochilodus lineatus, using the methods Proteinase K (PK and Cetyltrimethylammiun Bromide (CTAB. The DNA extractedfrom samples of liver, kidney, tail fin, heart, muscle and gills were quantified in spectrophotometer to determine the concentration and purity through the ratio A260nm/A280nm. The data were statistically analyzed and there were no significant effect of interaction between species and tissues about the purityand concentration of the DNA obtained with CTAB, but for the PK there were interaction about the concentration. Using the CTAB method was verified that the mean quantity of DNA in the curimbakidney was significantly (pO objetivo desse trabalho foi extrair o DNA genômico de tecidos sólidos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, piau (Leporinus sp. e curimba (Prochilodus lineatus, utilizando os métodos Proteinase K (PK e Brometo de Cetiltrimetilamônio (CTAB. O DNA extraído das amostras de fígado, rim, nadadeira caudal, coração, músculo e brânquias foi quantificado em espectrofotômetro para determinação da concentração e da pureza por meio da razão A260nm/A280nm. Os dados foram estatisticamente analisados e não se observou efeito significativo para a interação entre espécies e tecidos em relação à pureza e concentração do DNA obtido a partir do CTAB, porém para PK houve interação em relação à concentração. Utilizando o método CTAB verificou-se que a concentração média de DNA no rim de curimba foi significativamente (p < 0,05 inferior (106,98 ?g/mL à observada em pacu (1727,90 ?g/mL, porém não diferiram das encontradas em piau (497,20 ?g/mL e tilápia (234,50 ?g/ mL. Para o método PK, a concentração média de DNA utilizando o músculo de tilápia do Nilo apresentou o menor valor (117,35 ?g/mL em relação aos demais tecidos e espécies analisadas (p < 0,05. A razão A260nm/A280nm variou de 1,7 a 2,0 e 1,6 a 2,1 para os métodos PK e CTAB, respectivamente. Conclui-se que a pureza do DNA foi alcançada nos diferentes tecidos estudados, demonstrando que o método PK pode ser utilizado para essas quatro espécies de peixes.

  13. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, Effective Population Size, Demographic History and Regional Connectivity Patterns of the Endangered Dusky Grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), within Malta’s Fisheries Management Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the genetic population structure and demographic history of the endangered marine fish, Epinephelus marginatus, within Malta’s Fisheries Management Zone for the purpose of localised conservation planning. Epinephelus marginatus is a long-lived, sedentary, reef-associated protogynous hermaphrodite with high commercial and recreational value that is at risk of extinction throughout its global distribution. Based on global trends, population substructuring and gaps in local knowledge this has led to an increased interest in evaluation of local stock. Assessment of Maltese demography was based on historical and contemporary catch landings data whilst genetic population structure and regional connectivity patterns were evaluated by examining 175 individuals collected within the central Mediterranean region between 2002 and 2009 using 14 nuclear microsatellite loci. Demographic stock assessment of Maltese E. marginatus’ revealed a 99% decline in catch landings between 1947 and 2009 within the Fisheries Management Zone. A contemporary modest mean size was observed, 3 ± 3 kg, where approximately 17% of the population was juvenile, 68% female/sex-changing and 15% were male with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1:5. Genetic analysis describes the overall population of E. marginatus’ within the Fisheries Management Zone as decreasing in size (ƟH = 2.2), which has gone through a significant size reduction in the past (M = 0.41) and consequently shows signs of moderate inbreeding (FIS = 0.10, p Malta’s Fisheries Management Zone and that they are connected to a larger network of E. marginatus’ within the Sicily Channel. Results suggest conservation management should be designed to reflect E. marginatus’ within Malta’s Fisheries Management Zone as two management units. PMID:27463811

  14. Ostéologie et relations phylogénétiques de Steurbautichthys ("Pholidophophorus") aequatorialis gen. nov. (Teleostei, "Pholidophoriformes") du Jurassique moyen de Kisangani, en République Démocratique du Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Taverne, L.

    2011-01-01

    The osteology of Steurbautichthys ("Pholidophorus") aequatorialis gen. nov. from the Middle Jurassic of Kisangani (Stanleyville Formation, Songa Limestones) in the Democratic Republic of Congo is studied in detail. This fish, about 25 cm long, is marked by a large head, a rather aquiline snout and a small oval median rostral, which does not reach to the tip of the snout. The broad nasals meet on the mid-line anteriorly, but are separated by the frontals posteriorly. The anterior extremity of ...

  15. Estudos cariotípicos de peixes da família Sciaenidae (Teleostei Perciformes da região de Cananéia, SP, Brasil: 1. sobre o cariótipo de Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest , 1823 Karyotypical study on fish of family Sciaenidade (Teleostei, Perciformes from the region of Cananéia, SP, Brazil: 1. on the karyotype of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Gomes

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o cariótipo de Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823, peixe teleósteo da família Sciaenidae, coletado, na região estuarino-lagunar de Cananéia, SP, Brasil. Foram realizadas preparações de cromossomos mitóticos e meióticos e ensaios de bandamento C e G. O número diplóide encontrado para a espécie foi de 2n = 48 cromossomos tipo t (acrocêntricos, cujos tamanhos variaram entre 3,38 µm e 1,49 µm. O 1º par de homólogos apresenta uma constricção secundária na região proximal ao centrômero. 0 número haplóide encontrado foi de n = 24. 0 conteúdo diploide de DNA foi de 1,24 ± 0,01 picogramas/célula. Não se obteve padrão de bandas G, mas a aplicação da técnica facilitou a identificação de pares adjacentes e a visualização da constricçao secundária. Bandas C localizam-se, principalmente, na região pericentromérica.The chromosomes of Micropogonias furnieri was studied. The diploid number is 48 acrocentric chromosomes and the haploid number is 24. The diploid DNA content of blood cell nucleus was measured. C and G banding techniques were tried.

  16. Alterações histológicas em placas ósseas do peixe cascudo Rineloricaria strigilata (Hensel (Teleostei, Loricariidae e sua freqüência no lago Guaíba, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Description of histological abnormalities in the bony plates of the loricariid catfish Rineloricaria strigilata (Hensel (Teleostei, Loricariidae and analysis of its frequency in the lake Guaíba, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Flores-Lopes

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available about natural populations of fishes exposed to polluted waters in Brazil. Contaminants may be lethal or predispose fishes to sickness, being the analysis of aquatic organisms a good indicator of environmental quality. The violinha, Rineloricaria strigilata (Hensel, 1868, is a common loricariid catfish in the Guaíba lake basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and has been selected as a bioindicator for being resident, occurring in more than 50% of the samples, and by showing externally detectable neoplasies. These are characterized by its dark pigmentation, bony plates hypertrophy, and hypertrophy and irregular arrangement of the odontodes. Histology showed hypertrophied epitelial tissues, with an increased number of secretory cells, blood cells, and melanina pigments, giving the dark appearance to the neoplasm. Observed frequencies of neoplasm were higher in lake Guaíba than in comparativo samples. Inside lake Guaíba, a pattern of distribution of neoplasm was observed, with the absence of neoplasm in fishes at the collected site that receives water from rio Jacuí, and frequencies of 3.04 to 16.81% in the collection localities in front of Porto Alegre and downstream localities, that receive water from rio Jacuí, rio dos Sinos and rio Gravataí, that drain urban and industrial area of Porto Alegre and neighborhood cities.

  17. Research of marine isolates in development of biosensors for environmental pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhale, Trupti; Wali, Almas; Parikh, Shailee; Sood, Neeru

    2012-01-01

    Bioluminescence is a phenomenon exhibited by various organisms like marine bacteria, glow worms, fireflies, anglerfish, jelly fish, etc. These organisms can produce and emit light. Bioluminescence is a natural process of energy release in the form of emitted light. The organisms produce chemicals, luciferin, which is a pigment and an enzyme luciferase. Luciferin reacts with oxygen to release energy in the form of light with the help of enzyme luciferase. The reaction requires energy in the fo...

  18. Feeding ecology of two demersal opportunistic predators coexisting in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Nieves; Navarro, Joan; Barría, Claudio; Albo-Puigserver, Marta; Coll, Marta; Palomera, Isabel

    2016-06-01

    The study of the feeding ecology of marine organisms is crucial to understanding their ecological roles and advancing our knowledge of marine ecosystem functioning. The aim of this study was to analyse the trophic ecology of two demersal predator species, black anglerfish (Lophius budegassa) and white anglerfish (L. piscatorius), in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Both species are important in the study area due to their high abundance and economic value, but information about their feeding behaviour is scarce. Here, we described the diet composition and ecological role of these two species, investigating whether trophic segregation exists between them and amongst fish of different sizes. In addition, by using experimental survey data we described the spatial distribution of both species to help us interpret trophic behaviour patterns. We gathered samples of two different sizes (small individuals of a total length diet composed mainly of fishes and, to a lesser extent, of crustaceans, with a small proportion of cephalopods, gastropods, bivalves and echinoderms. We found trophic segregation between the two species and the two sizes, indicating that they feed on different prey, in line with differences in their spatial distribution within the study area. This partial partition of food resources could also be explained by the differences in rhythms of activity that were reported in previous studies. In addition, although both species occupied a high position within the food web, our results showed that white anglerfish individuals and the large-sized fish of both species held higher trophic positions. This study demonstrates the usefulness of complementary approaches for trophic studies and confirms that both anglerfish species play an important role as predators in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea food web.

  19. Presencia de caracteres atípicos en dos ejemplares de rape Lophius budegassa Spinola, 1807 capturados en el mar Cantábrico

    OpenAIRE

    Landa, J.; Pereda-Pérez, P. (Pilar); Barrado-Fernández, J. (Joaquín)

    2001-01-01

    Two specimens of anglerfish Lophius budegassa Spinola, 1807 with atypical characteristics, caught in the Bay of Biscay by trawlers during 1996 and 1997, are described. One of them was totally albinistic, with unpigmented peritoneum, blindness, and 5 rays at its first dorsal fin. The first three characteristics seem to be associated, and it is the largest albinistic specimen of L. budegassa described to date. The other specimen had orange spots on its dorsal side and on the edges of the pector...

  20. Evidence for fine scale genetic structure and estuarine colonisation in a potential high gene flow marine goby (Pomatoschistus minutus)

    OpenAIRE

    Pampoulie, C.; Gysels, E.S.; Maes, G.E.; Hellemans, B.; Leentjes, V.; A. G. Jones; Volckaert, F.A.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Marine fish seem to experience evolutionary processes that are expected to produce genetically homogeneous populations. We have assessed genetic diversity and differentiation in 15 samples of the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas, 1770) (Gobiidae, Teleostei) from four major habitats within the Southern Bight of the North Sea, using seven microsatellite and 13 allozyme loci. Despite its high dispersal potential, microsatellite loci revealed a moderate level of differentiation (overall F...

  1. Biodiversité des digènes et autres helminthes intestinaux des Rougets : synthèse pour Mullus surmuletus (Linné, 1758) et M. barbatus (L., 1758) dans le bassin méditerranéen

    OpenAIRE

    Le Pommelet, Eve; Bartoli, Pierre; Silan, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    International audience Two species belonging to the genus Mullus (Teleostei) are present in the Mediterranean sea : Mullus surmuletus and M. barbatus. The intestinal helminth community of thes fishes is mainly composed of Trematodes ; its richness and its diversity are one of the highest in this geographic area. Among the 18 digenean species reported within goatfishes, nine have been found again within the populations studied by the authors in the northwestern Mediterranean sea. Three orig...

  2. Contribuição ao conhecimento da ictiofauna do Manguezal de Cacha Pregos, Ilha de Itaparica, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia Contribution to knowledge of ichthyofauna of Mangrove Cacha Pregos, Itaparica island, Todos os Santos bay, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Duarte Lopes

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A check-list of fishes collected in a mangrove in Cacha Pregos, south of ltaparic Island, State of Bahia, Brazil (about 13o07'S,38o48'W from 1988-1989 and 1991-1992 is presented. Fifteen orders, 46 families and 85 species (Teleostei except one Chondrichthyes were identified, represented specimens whose adults live in different marine ecossystems.

  3. Response paper: Morphometric article by Mejía et al. 2015 alluding genera Herichthys and Nosferatu displays serious inconsistencies

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio de la Maza-Benignos; Ma. de Lourdes Lozano-Vilano; María Elena García-Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the present response paper, the article entitled "Morphometric variation of the Herichthys bartoni (Bean, 1892) species group (Teleostei: Cichlidae): How many species comprise H. labridens (Pellegrin, 1903)?" by Mejía et al . 2015 is critically reviewed. The current review pinpoints some of the more conspicuous conceptual inconsistencies and fundamental errors found in the study by Mejía et al . (2015), It is contended that the authors fail to provide any new insights into the com...

  4. Aquaculture et ichtyoparasitologie: action in vitro du Nitroxinil© (Antihelminthique) sur Diplectanum aequans , ectoparasite branchial du bar Dicentrarchus labrax

    OpenAIRE

    Silan, Patrick; Birgi, Emile; Louis, Christophe; Clota,, Frédéric; Mathieu, André; Giral, Louis

    1996-01-01

    International audience The sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax is subject to intensive rearing. Several monogeneans, gill ectoparasites with a direct biological cycle, parasitized this Teleostei. Under certain conditions of host density, populations of these platyhelminths can increase and consequently induce important mortality. It's especially the case of Diplectanum aequans, a monopisthocotylea against which no treatment is known. In vitro effects of nitroxinil© (or nitroxynil©), an anthelmin...

  5. Diet and metazoan parasites of juvenile and subadult silver scabbard fish, Lepidopus caudatus, from the Great Meteor Seamount (North Atlantic)

    OpenAIRE

    Klimpel, S.; Rückert, S; Piatkowski, Uwe; Palm, H. W.; Hanel, Reinhold

    2006-01-01

    Silver scabbard fish Lepidopus caudatus (Euphrasen, 1788) (Trichiuridae) from the Great Meteor Seamount (GMS) in the central eastern Atlantic were studied for diet composition and metazoan parasites. A total of 36 specimens with lengths between 39.1 and 52.2 cm were sampled, which had taken 14 different prey items belonging to 4 major taxonomic groups (Chaetognatha, Crustacea, Mollusca and Teleostei). The most abundant prey organisms were Myctophidae and Euphausiacea, followed by Copepoda (Ca...

  6. Construcción de una librería genómica parcial del pez Xiphophorus maculatus (Teleostei: Poeciliidae para la búsqueda de microsatélites (AC/GTn por medio de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR

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    Acosta DF.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de la presente investigación fue probar una metodología económica quepermitiera encontrar, y eventualmente identificar y aislar microsatélites (AC/GTn en el genomadel pez Xiphophorus maculatus . Los objetivos específicos de la misma fueron revisar el estadoactual del modelo genómico de Xiphophorus maculatuspara el estudio de melanoma, elaboraruna librería genómica parcial de este organismo para buscar microsatélites (AC/GTn, utilizardirectamente los fragmentos de restricción clonados como material de partida para la reacciónen cadena de la polimerasa (PCR, explorar la utilidad de la PCR para la búsqueda de insertosportadores de loci microsatélites utilizando iniciadores específicos, y por ultimo, evaluar lautilidad de la metodología propuesta en los protocolos de Cooper et al. (1997 y Grist et al.(1993 para el aislamiento de microsatélites.

  7. Feeding of guitarfish Rhinobatos percellens (Walbaum, 1972 (Elasmobranchii, Rhinobatidae, the target of artisanal fishery in Southern Brazil

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    Hugo Bornatowski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhinobatos percellens is one of three species of Rhinobatidae found on Brazilian shores and is one of the most abundant species on the shallow continental shelf of Paraná and Santa Catarina States. Specimens caught by artisanal fishery between July/2001 and March/2003 by fishing communities located on the frontier between two southern Brazilian States (Paraná and Santa Catarina had their stomach contents analyzed. According to the Alimentary Index (IAi, Decapoda (69% and Teleostei (22% were the main items consumed. Polychaeta, a common prey consumed by several benthonic fishes, was poorly represented in the feeding of R. percellens. This fact may be related to the availability of prey in the environment, or to the size of the guitarfish analyzed (ontogeny. Seasonal variance of main preys (with higher IAi was observed: Dendrobranchiata and Pleocyemata displayed higher percentages in spring and autumn, Teleostei in the winter and Brachyura during the summer.Rhinobatos percellens é uma das três espécies de Rhinobatidae encontrada na costa brasileira e uma das espécies de elasmobrânquio mais abundante na plataforma continental dos estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina. Indivíduos capturados pela pesca artesanal entre Julho/2001 e Março/2003 nas comunidades pesqueiras localizadas entre o Paraná e Santa Catarina tiveram seus conteúdos estomacais analisados. O Índice de Importância Alimentar (IAi mostrou que as principais presas consumidas foram Decapoda (69% e Teleostei (22%. Polychaeta, principal presa ingerida por várias espécies de peixes bentônicos foi pouco expressiva na alimentação de R. percellens. Essa diferença pode estar relacionada com a disponibilidade de presas no ambiente ou com o tamanho das raias analisadas (ontogenia. De acordo com análises sazonais, observou-se que os camarões Dendrobranchiata e Pleocyemata foram as principais presas consumidas durante a primavera e outono, Teleostei durante o inverno e Brachyura

  8. Morphometric aspects of the digestive tract of Roeboides xenodon and Orthospinus franciscensis

    OpenAIRE

    José Fernando Marques Barcellos; Érika Branco; Daylla Pontes

    2014-01-01

    Roeboides xenodon (dentudo) and Orthospinus franciscensis (piaba-facão) are small Teleostei with omnivorous feeding habits. In order to study the morphology of the digestive tract, specimens of O. franciscensis (n = 15) and R. xenodon (n = 16) were collected in the São Francisco River, Três Marias - MG and fixed in 4% formalin. In both species, a short esophagus began in the head and after the transverse septum, remained in the peritoneal cavity up to the first section of the stomach. In R. x...

  9. Vigilancia tecnológica para el pez león especie invasora a la diversidad biológica cubana.

    OpenAIRE

    Ginori, M. de los A.; Carro, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    La encuesta realizada a los participantes del proyecto “Estudios preliminares de la presencia del pez león (Teleostei: Scorpaenidae: Pterois sp.) en aguas cubanas” estuvo dirigida al conocimiento de la información externa y el entorno institucional, las herramientas de monitoreo y los recursos de información temas en los cuales se basa la vigilancia tecnológica. Se logró un diseño el cual resultó ser funcional en las 4 etapas y las 15 subetapas propuestas para el Se...

  10. Gonadal maturation and histological observations of the grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus Gmelin, 1789 (Teleostei:Balistidae) in the Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hichem Kacem; Lobna boudaya; Lassad Neifar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the spawning activity using gonadosomatic index (GSI) and gonad histology the Balistes capriscus (Teleostei: Balistidae) of the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea). Methods: The reproductive biology of the species, based on 756 (480 females and 276 males), collected from commercial catches at several fishing ports including Chebba, Kerkennah and Zarzis at respective GPS coordinates (34°14' N, 11°06' E), (34°45' N, 11°17' E), (33°41' N, 11°48' E) was studied over 28 months (January 2008-April 2010) using GSI and gonad histology. Sizes used in this study ranged from 11.30 to 45.60 cm in fork length. Results: Both GSI and gonad histology suggest that spawning activity occurred mainly between July and mid-September with a peak in July, coinciding with summer time. The first maturation occurred at 20.26 cm fork length for females and 21.30 cm fork length for males. The monthly values of hepatosomatic index and condition factor (K) indicated that the liver is the main organ responsible for the mobilization process of the energizing reserves during the sexual cycle. Conclusions: It is the first inventory of gonadal maturation and histological observations of the grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus Gmelin, 1789 (Teleostei: Balistidae) in the Gulf of Gabès, (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea).

  11. Atlas of marine bony fish otoliths (Sagittae of Southeastern - Southern Brazil Part I: Gadiformes (Macrouridae, Moridae, Bregmacerotidae, Phycidae and Merlucciidae; Part II: Perciformes (Carangidae, Sciaenidae, Scombridae and Serranidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lucia Del Bianco Rossi-Wongtschowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The drawings, detailed pictures, precise descriptions and measurements that characterize otoliths must be made available for studies in various areas, including taxonomy, phylogeny, ecology, fisheries, paleontology, diversity, predator-prey relationships and modeling. The Collection of Teleostei Fish Otoliths of Southeastern-Southern Brazil (COSS-Brasil of IOUSP contains 45,000 pairs of otoliths from 210 species. This publication is the first in a series that will constitute an atlas of Teleostei otoliths for southeastern-southern Brazil and presents the results of the morphologic and morphometric analyses of 11 Gadiformes and 36 Perciformes species by means of the most commonly used features, measurements and indices. Three otoliths of each species were illustrated and photographed whenever possible. The frequency of occurrence was calculated for each characteristic by total length classes (TL, and the ontogenetic differences were analyzed (multiple χ2 test; significance 0.05. Morphometric analyses were conducted for each characteristic per total length (TL class and for the whole sample, and the ontogenetic differences were analyzed.

  12. 宽鳃鮟鱇属一新种%A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS SLADENIA (PISCES, LOPHIIDAE) FROM THE EAST CHINA SEA AND THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪勇; 伍汉霖; 李生

    2012-01-01

    A new lophiid anglerfish of the deep water genus Sladenia is described based on four specimens collected from the East China Sea and the South China Sea during the period from 1980 to 1982.Sladenia Regan ( 1908 ) is a genus of lophiid anglerfish with rounded rather than depressed head, and compressed rather than depressed tail; nasal sacs not constricted at the base; very long pseudobranchia; humeral, subopercular, quadrate, parietal and articular spines absent; epiotic and interopercular spines low and rounded; vomerine teeth larger than palatine teeth; illicial bone and second dorsal spine inserting very close together on illicial pterygiophore; third or third and fourth dorsal spines invisible, hiding under the skin of post-cephalic portion; and smooth ridge on frontal bones anterior to eyes and lateral to illicial pterygiophore.There were only four specimens, identified as 3 species, I. E., S. Gardineri Regan, 1908, S. Remiger Smith et Radcliffe, 1912 and S. Shaefersi Caruso et Bullis 1976, belonging to the genus Sladenia in the world before 1976. During the period from 1980 to 1982, the RV "Dongfang" and the RV "Nanfeng" of the East China Sea Fisheries Institute and the South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute respectively, completed a survey of the deep water fish fauna of the East and South China Seas. Four separate Chinese specimens of the rare lophiid anglerfish genus Sladenia were collected. With detailed analysis of the four rare specimens, it was recognized that they should belong to the same species, and also a new species named as Sladenia zhui.%20世纪70年代以前,全世界已知宽鳃鮟鱇属Sladenia Regan( 1908)鱼类仅有3种.1980~1982年期间,东海水产研究所“东方”号和南海水产研究所“南锋”号调查船分别在东海和南海的大陆架渔场调查时,共采集到4尾珍稀的深海鮟鱇鱼类.经研究,认为这4尾标本是1新种,定名为朱氏宽鳃鮟鱇Sladenia zhui sp.nov..

  13. New occurrences of microvertebrate fossil accumulations in Bauru Group, Late Cretaceous of western São Paulo state, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveş, Y. M.; Bergqvist, L. P.; Brito, P. M.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present the results of several palaeontological expeditions to four Upper Cretaceous fossil microsites of the Adamantina and Presidente Prudente formations in western São Paulo State, Brazil. Despite the fragmentary condition of the fossils recovered, they represent an important record of vertebrate microremains. The material, recovered through screen washing, comprises teeth and scales of Lepisosteidae; two morphotypes of Halecostomi teeth with similarities to Characiformes and Amiiformes; a Teleostei tooth of molariform shape; fin spines of Siluriformes; teeth of possible Baurusuchidae, Notosuchia (probably Adamantinasuchus or Mariliasuchus), Neosuchia (probably Itasuchus or Goniopholis), and other Mesoeucrocodylia indet.; probable teeth of Abelisauroidea, other Theropoda indet., and a phalanx of Aves. The comparative microvertebrate fossil accumulation from western São Paulo State provides evidence that: 1) floodplain channels accumulate large concentrations of microremains; 2) coarse sandstone privileges enamel tissues like teeth and scales; 3) new vertebrate fossil records have been discovered in Florida Paulista, Alfredo Marcondes, and Alvares Machado outcrops.

  14. Descriptions of fishes from the cretaceous and tertiary deposits west of the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, E.D.

    1878-01-01

    This, with the genus following, introduces for the first time into the North American extinct fauna the family of the Dercetiform fishes. The relationship of the family has been discussed by various authors, especially by Pictet and Von der Marek. The former regards them as Teleostei; the latter as "Ganoids". As I do not adopt the division signified by the last name, I find Professor Pictet's view nearer to the point. The specimens indicate further that the Dercetidae belong to the Actinopteri, and probably to the order Hemibranchii. The only alternative is the order Isospondyli, and the characters which separate the two are not clearly shown in the specimens. Distinct bones below the pectoral fins may be interclavicles, which belong to the Hemibranchii.

  15. Diet and food partitioning between juveniles of mutton Lutjanus analis, dog Lutjanus jocu and lane Lutjanus synagris snappers (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in a mangrove-fringed estuarine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, C R; Joyeux, J-C

    2010-06-01

    Diet of juvenile mutton Lutjanus analis, dog Lutjanus jocu and lane Lutjanus synagris snappers were studied in the tropical Brazilian estuarine system of the Piraquê-açú and Piraquê-mirim Rivers to determine how these species share the resources in this restricted space. The three species prey principally upon Peracarida (L. synagris: relative importance index I(RIc) = 29%), Natantia (L. analis and L. synagris: I(RIc) = 39 and 38%, respectively), Reptantia (L. analis and L. jocu: I(RIc) = 28 and 43%, respectively) and Teleostei (L. jocu: I(RIc) = 24%). The three species use estuaries as nursery habitats but food overlap was not biologically significant due to a combination of interspecific differences in size, spatial distribution, microhabitat preferences and seasonal patterns of abundance and prey choice. Large marine protected areas incorporating essential habitats for all life stages are suggested to be the best tool for the management of these economically important species.

  16. Does habitat complexity influence fish recruitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. CHEMINÉE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human activities facilitate coastal habitat transformation and homogenization. The spread of marine invasive species is one example. This in turn may influence fish recruitment and the subsequent replenishment of adult assemblages. We tested habitat complexity effect on fish (Teleostei recruitment by experimentally manipulating meadows of the habitat-forming invasive macroalga Caulerpa taxifolia (Chlorophyta. Among the fourteen fish species recorded during the experiment, only two labrids (Coris julis and Symphodus ocellatus settled in abundance among these meadows. Patterns in the abundance of these juveniles suggested that reduced tri-dimensional meadow complexity may reduce habitat quality and result in altered habitat choices and / or differential mortality of juveniles, therefore reducing fish recruitment and likely the abundance of adults.

  17. Büyük Menderes nehrinden yakalanan Chondrostoma meandrense (Elvira, 1987) ve Acanthobrama mirabilis (Ladiges, 1960) (Cyprinidae)'in karyotip analizi

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Uğur Emek

    2011-01-01

    Bu araştırmada, Büyük Menders Nehrine endemik olan gerçek kemikli balıklara (Teleostei) ait Chondrostoma meandrense (Elvira, 1987) ve Acanthobrama mirabilis (Ladiges, 1960) (Cyprinidae) türlerinin kromozom sayısı ve yapısı belirlenmiş ve karyotip analizi yapılmıştır. Balıklar, Büyük Menderes Nehri ve Büyük Menderes'in kolu olan Çine Çayından serpme ağlarla yakalanarak laboratuvara getirilmiştir. Balıklara her bir gram vücut ağırlığı için 0.005 gr kolkisin abdominal boşluktan enjekte edilmiş v...

  18. A genomic view of the NOD-like receptor family in teleost fish: Identification of a novel NLR subfamily in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, K.J.; Purcell, M.K.; Winton, J.R.; Hansen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Background. A large multigene family of NOD-like receptor (NLR) molecules have been described in mammals and implicated in immunity and apoptosis. Little information, however, exists concerning this gene family in non-mammalian taxa. This current study, therefore, provides an in-depth investigation of this gene family in lower vertebrates including extensive phylogenetic comparison of zebrafish NLRs with orthologs in tetrapods, and analysis of their tissue-specific expression. Results. Three distinct NLR subfamilies were identified by mining genome databases of various non-mammalian vertebrates; the first subfamily (NLR-A) resembles mammalian NODs, the second (NLR-B) resembles mammalian NALPs, while the third (NLR-C) appears to be unique to teleost fish. In zebrafish, NLR-A and NLR-B subfamilies contain five and six genes respectively. The third subfamily is large, containing several hundred NLR-C genes, many of which are predicted to encode a C-terminal B30.2 domain. This subfamily most likely evolved from a NOD3-like molecule. Gene predictions for zebrafish NLRs were verified using sequence derived from ESTs or direct sequencing of cDNA. Reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis confirmed expression of representative genes from each subfamily in selected tissues. Conclusion. Our findings confirm the presence of multiple NLR gene orthologs, which form a large multigene family in teleostei. Although the functional significance of the three major NLR subfamilies is unclear, we speculate that conservation and abundance of NLR molecules in all teleostei genomes, reflects an essential role in cellular control, apoptosis or immunity throughout bony fish. ?? 2008 Laing et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  19. Coordinated feeding behavior of the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae, in southeastern Brazil: a comparison between populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine C. da S. Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The coordinated feeding tactics used by delphinids are influenced by differences in the distribution of prey species, season, and opportunities for social learning. In the present study, we compared the coordinated feeding behavior of two populations of the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, in southeastern Brazil, and how these feeding tactics vary seasonality and in the presence of calves. We observed eight types of coordinated feeding tactics, which differed in frequency and in the mean number of individuals engaged in them, and between both areas. Feeding tactics used to herd and capture prey were the most frequent and engaged a greater number of individuals, suggesting that these tactics are better for capturing fish that gather in larger schools. Furthermore, the seasons influenced the occurrence of different prey items, which in turn modified the feeding tactics of the dolphins. In the Ilha Grande Bay we observed that bouts lasted longer and larger groups engaged in the feeding tactics, which may be associated with the seasonal spawning of larger schooling fish such as Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879 (Teleostei: Clupeidae. However, in the Sepetiba Bay, we observed longer feeding bouts and a smaller number of individuals engaged in the feeding tactics during autumn-winter. This may be associated with the fact that the most abundant prey species, Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823 (Teleostei: Sciaenidae, gathers in small schools. Calves were present in 95% of all coordinated feeding tactics that occurred in the Ilha Grande Bay and in approximately 61% of feeding tactics in the Sepetiba Bay, suggesting that these areas are important for social learning. This study provides more information about feeding tactics and improves knowledge of the coordinated behavior of Sotalia guianensis (Van Benéden, 1864.

  20. Influence of season, size and sex on the dynamic of gill metazoan parasite infesting the Balistes capriscus (Teleostei:Balistidae) of the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hichem Kacem; Lobna boudaya; Lassad Neifar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of season, size and sex on the dynamic of gill metazoan parasite infesting the Balistes capriscus (Gmelin, 1788) (Teleostei: Balistidae) (B. capriscus) of the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea). Methods: A parasitological survey of the grey triggerfish B. capriscus from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea) was conducted monthly from June 2011 to June 2012. A total of 1080 fish were collected from commercial catches by pelagic trawl net at different fishing ports at Chebba (34°14' N, 11°06' E), Kerkennah (34°45' N, 11°17' E) and Zarzis (33°41' N, 11°48' E). The weight, size, sex, date and area of capture of each specimen were recorded. Then, B. capriscus was examined to search for ectoparasites. For each parasite species, parasitological indices were calculated. Results: The parasite species are indentified as two copepods: Naobranchia variabilis, Taneacanthus ballistae and a monogenean: Ancyrocephalus balisticus. The parasitological indices depend significantly on seasonality; the highest prevalence of Naobranchia variabilis, Taneacanthus ballistae and Ancyrocephalus balisticus (28.89%, 35.93% and 55.56%respectively) was recorded during summer season (June–August), while the lowest prevalence of each (6.3%, 4.44%, 8.15%) recorded during winter season (December–February). Furthermore the parasitological indices depend significantly on the host size but not on host sex. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the dynamic of gill metazoan parasite infesting B. capriscus is a result of a complex of biotic and abiotic factors. It is the first study on the effects of season, size and sex on the dynamic of gill metazoan parasite infesting B. capriscus (Teleostei: Balistidae) of the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea).

  1. Photobiology of the deep twilight zone and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Talbot H.

    1997-02-01

    Photobiology in the twilight zone of the deep sea depends on faint light of two, or possibly three, origins: sunlight, bioluminescence and some visible radiation near the bottom associated with hydrothermal vents. The deep twilight zone also contains two quite distinct ecosystems: the vast open ocean pelagic regime far from the shore and the bottom as well as the far less expansive benthic regime with quite different characteristic animals that live on, in or near the sea bo10 Most of the whole ocean's benthic regime with a mean depth over 3000m is well below the twilight zone, which eliminates sunlight as a light source there. Many of the most familiar deepsea animals with their spectacular arrays of dennal light organs and remarkable eyes are from the pelagic 19, 25 The less familiar benthic fishes and crustaceans sometimes have curious internal light organs powered by bacteria13 and occasional incredibly modified eyes.30 With the exception of those on the fishing rods of most female deepsea anglerfish, where the light is produced by symbiotic bacteria, all the numerous light organs of pelagic deepsea fishes are generally believed to manage their own chemiluminescence independent of luminous bacteria.17

  2. How does diet influence the reproductive seasonality of tropical freshwater fish?: A case study of a characin in a tropical mountain river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania M. Ballesteros

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal breeding of tropical freshwater fish may be synchronized with periods of high food consumption. We explored this hypothesis by studying the relationship between diet and reproductive activity of Creagrutus guanes (Teleostei, Characidae. Our results showed that C. guanes had a generalist and omnivorous diet dominated by aquatic insects (mainly Diptera larvae and seeds. Creagrutus guanes did not show intersexual or ontogenetic variation in diet. Peaks of feeding activity during rainy months were not synchronized with breeding in dry months. Our results do not support the hypothesis that the reproductive season has to be synchronized with high food consumption. We discussed the hypothesis fat reserves may be an important factor for the desynchronization of peaks of feeding and reproduction as explanation of seasonal breeding of this species.A reprodução sazonal de peixes tropicais de água doce pode estar sincronizada com períodos de alto consumo de alimento. Nós examinamos esta hipótese estudando a relação entre dieta e atividade reprodutiva de Creagrutus guanes (Teleostei, Characidae. Nossos resultados mostraram que C. guanes teve uma dieta generalista e onívora, com predominância de insetos aquáticos (principalmente larva de Diptera e sementes. Creagrutus guanes não apresentou variação intersexual ou ontogenética na dieta. Picos de atividade alimentar durante os meses chuvosos não foram sincronizados com atividade reprodutiva nos meses secos. Nossos resultados não sustentam a hipótese de que a estação reprodutiva está sincronizada com o consumo elevado de alimento. A reserva de gordura pode ser um fator importante para a dessincronização de picos de alimentação e reprodução (a reserva de gordura pode influenciar a ausência de sincronia entre os picos de alimentação e reprodução. São apresentadas hipóteses alternativas para a explicação de desova sazonal da espécie

  3. Primera ictiofauna marina del Cretácico Superior (Formación Jaguel, Maastrichtiano de la provincia de Río Negro, Argentina First marine ichthyofauna from the Upper Cretaceous (Jaguel Formation; Maastrichtian from Río Negro province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bogan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un conjunto de dientes fósiles que proceden de sedimentos marinos de la Formación Jagüel (Maastrichtiano, de la localidad de Bajo Trapalcó, provincia de Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina. La ictiofauna aquí descripta es la primera para la Formación y se compone de unos seis taxones diferentes de Chondrichthyes (Serratolamna serrata, Squalicorax pristodontus, Cretalamna appendiculata, Carcharias sp., Odontaspis sp. y cf. Pseudohypolophus mcnultyi y dos Teleostei del género Enchodus (aff. E. ferox y aff. E. gladiolus. Serratolamna serrata es el taxón mejor representado del conjunto, y constituye la cita más austral conocida en la distribución de esta especie y el primer registro fósil para Argentina. Los registros de Enchodus, Squalicorax pristodontus y cf. Pseudohypolophus mcnultyi, representan las primeras descripciones de estos taxones para Argentina. Todos los taxones descriptos constituyen un ensamblaje de especies que caracterizan las paleoictiofaunas de los mares del Cretácico Superior de distintas partes del globo, aportando novedosa información para la comprensión de las ictiofaunas Mesozoicas del cono sur sudamericano.This paper describes several fossil teeth coming from marine sediments from the Bajo Trapalcó locality, Río Negro province, Patagonia, Argentina. The ichthyofauna described here is composed by six different chondrichtyan taxa (Serratolamna serrata, Squalicorax pristodontus, Cretalamna appendiculata, Carcharias sp., Odontaspis sp. and cf. Pseudohypolophus mcnultyi and two Teleostei of the genus Enchodus (aff. E. ferox and aff. E. gladiolus. Serratolamna serrata is the most abundant species, and it represents the southernmost record for the species and the first record for Argentina. The records of Enchodus, Squalicorax pristodontus and cf. Pseudohypolophus mcnultyi, constitute the first mention for these taxa in Argentina. The taxa described here characterize the paleoichthyofaunas of the Upper

  4. The uplift of Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau and the vicariance speciation of glyptosternoid fishes (Siluriformes:Sisoridae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Shunping; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Hora, S. L., Silas, E. G., Evolution and distribution of glyptosternoid fishes of the family Sisoridae (Order: Siluroidea), Proc. Nati. Inst. Sci. India, 1952, 18: 309-322.[2]He, S., The phylogeny of the glyptosternoid fishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes, Sisoridae), Cybium, 1996, 20(2): 115-159.[3]Nelson, G., Platnick, N., Systematics and Biogeography, Cladistics and Vicariance, New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1981.[4]Rosen, D. E., A vicariance model of Caribbean biogeography, Syst. Zool., 1976, 24: 431-464.[5]Brooks, D. R., Hennig's parasitological method: A proposed solution, Syst. Zool., 1981, 30: 229-249 .[6]Ren, X., Cui, J., Yu, Q., The karyatype and NOR haploid in Glyptosternum maculatum, Genetics, 1992, 14(6): 10-11.[7]Chu, X., Systematics and evolutionary pedigree of the glyptosternoid fishes (Family Sisoridae), Act. Zootaxon. Sinica, 1997, 4(1): 72-82.[8]Datta, A. K., Zoological results of the Indian Cho-Oyu Expedition, Rec. Indian Mus., 1962, 41(4): 437-450.[9]Zhang, Q., Li, B. et al., On the Pliocene palaeogeography and the uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang plateau, in Studies on the Period, Amplitude and Type of the Uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, Beijing: Science Press,1981, 26-39.[10]Swofford, D. L., PAUP: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony, version 4.0, 1998.[11]Chung, C. L., Lee, T., Zhang, Y. et al., Diachronous uplift of the Tibetan plateau starting 40 Myr ago, Nature, 1998, 394: 769-773.[12]Ji, H., Huang, W., Chen, W. et al., The discovery of the Hipparion fauna in Xizang and its significance on the problem of the uplift of the plateau, in Studies on the Period, Amplitude and Type of the Uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, Beijing: Science Press, 1981, 19-25.[13]Hora, S. L., The game fishes of Indian, Part VI. The Goonch, Bagarius bagarius (Hamilton), J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 1939, 583-593.[14]Chang, C., Pan, Y., A brief discussion on the tectonic evolution of Qinghai-Xizang plateau

  5. Analysis of food habits of skate Rioraja agassizii (Elasmobranchii, Rajidae) from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, N S; Della-Fina, N; Souza, C C A; Rodrigues, E S; Amorim, A F

    2016-06-01

    Catches and exports of skate Rioraja agassizii place this species as "vulnerable to extinction" on the IUCN Red List; therefore, biological and ecological knowledge becomes an important instrument for its conservation control. This study described and quantified the diet composition of R. agassizii by means of stomach analysis contents in the periods 2005-2006 and 2012-2013. We analyzed and quantified stomach contents in terms of abundance (%N), weight (%M), frequency of occurrence (% FO), and index of relative importance (IRI). The results showed differences in the food rates between the periods. However, the groups of food items were the same: Teleostei fish, decapods, and mollusks. In 2005-2006, the diet consisted mainly of shrimp, however, in 2012-2013 it consisted of fish, followed by decapods, especially shrimps. The differences in diets may be attributed to shrimp abundance, which do not characterize a change in the eating habits in 2012-2013, because, in addition to fish, shrimps were also important food sources. The presence of a certain prey is more related to its availability rather than the feeding preference of skate. The amount of ingested items is associated to biological and environmental factors, so that further studies relating diet with capture area, seasonality, depth, and other factors should be conducted.

  6. The influence of magnetic field on the spatial orientation in zebrafish Danio rerio (Hamilton and roach Rutilus rutilus (L.

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    Anastasia A. Batrakova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Known, that some teleostei can perceive the geomagnetic field (GMF. However, the information about magnetosensitivity in Cyprinidae fish from artificial and natural habitats is obscure. We have registered preferred directions in Danio rerio (Hamilton from aquaria-cultivated line exposed to the natural GMF, 180 degrees reversal of horizontal GMF component, 180 degrees reversal of vertical GMF component, 180 degrees reversal of both vertical and horizontal GMF components and 90 degrees clockwise turn of horizontal GMF component. We also registered the preferred directions in Rutilus rutilus (L. from Rybinsk reservoir exposed to the natural GMF and 90 degrees clockwise turn of horizontal GMF component. It was found that zebrafish prefer two opposite directions towards east and west in the natural GMF. When the horizontal component of GMF was turned 90 degrees clockwise D. rerio prefer two opposite directions towards north and south. The possible reason of bimodality in zebrafish’s preferred directions distributions is discussed. The only direction towards east-north-east observed in roach under the natural GMF. This direction coincided with the way from the place of capture to the streamflow part of Rybinsk reservoir. And it was changed by south-south-east direction when turned the horizontal component of GMF 90 degrees clockwise. The possible reason of the choosing directions by fish with GMF is discussed.

  7. Effects of acute and chronic exposition on larvae of pejerrey Odontesthes Argentinensis to water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusmao, Emeline P.; Rodrigues, Ricardo V.; Moreira, Caue B.; Seyffert, Bianca; Ignacio, Gabriela; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sampaio, Luis A.; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C. [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Petroleum is considered one of the greatest marine water pollutants, but there have been few studies on the impact of oil on biota. The water-soluble fraction (WSF) of a crude oil contains a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols and heterocyclic compounds. Marine 'pejerrey' Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae) is a important commercial species in Brazilian southern region and has great potential for mariculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the lethal and sub-lethal effects of the WSF crude oil exposition on the early life stages of O. argentinensis using acute (96 hours) and chronic (21 days) toxicity tests. Water-soluble fraction of heavy crude oil was prepared using a ratio of one part crude oil to nine parts filtered seawater and mixing for 24 h. Newly hatched larvae and 17 days old larvae were used for the tests, respectively. According to the results, median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated in 55.0% of the WSF and safe level was estimated in 5.5% of WSF. These data can be used as a tool in environmental conservation studies. Heavy crude oil WSF presented total PAHs of 197.83 ng/mL and total BTEX of 106.1 {mu}g/L. (author)

  8. Isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayson, F G; de Jesus, E G; Amemiya, Y; Moriyama, S; Hirano, T; Kawauchi, H

    2000-02-01

    We report the isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus; Teleostei; Perciformes; Siganidae) growth hormone (GH). Rabbitfish GH was extracted from pituitary glands under alkaline conditions, fractionated by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The fractions containing GH were identified by immunoblotting with bonito GH antiserum. Under nonreducing conditions, the molecular weight of rabbitfish GH is about 19 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. The purified hormone was potent in promoting growth in rabbitfish fry. Weekly intraperitoneal injections of the hormone significantly accelerated growth. This was evident 3 weeks after the start of the treatment, and its effect was still significant 2 weeks after the treatment was terminated. Rabbitfish GH cDNA was cloned to determine its nucleotide sequence. Excluding the poly (A) tail, rabbitfish GH cDNA is 860 base pairs (bp) long. It contained untranslated regions of 94 and 175 bp in the 5' and 3' ends, respectively. It has an open reading frame of 588 bp coding for a signal peptide of 18 amino acids and a mature protein of 178 amino acid residues. Rabbitfish GH has 4 cysteine residues. On the amino acid level, rabbitfish GH shows high identity (71-74%) with GHs of other perciforms, such as tuna, sea bass, yellow tail, bonito, and tilapia, and less (47-49%) identity with salmonid and carp GHs.

  9. Co-invasion of a Red Sea fish and its ectoparasitic monogenean, Polylabris cf. mamaevi into the Mediterranean: observations on oncomiracidium behavior and infection levels in both seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Zohar; Diamant, Ariel; Abelson, Avigdor

    2007-03-01

    This study investigated aspects of the biology of the monogenean gill ectoparasite Polylabris cf. mamaevi (Polyopisthocotylea: Microcotyleae) infecting rabbitfish, Siganus rivulatus (Forskal) (Teleostei: Siganidae). Both host and parasite are Lessepsian immigrants that have co-invaded the Mediterranean Sea via the Suez Canal. The infection prevalence and mean intensity of the polyopisthocotylean was examined in both native and immigrant host populations and found to be three times greater in the new biogeographical region. In vitro observations on parasite eggs from both areas indicated that hatching occurred almost exclusively in the dark. The reaction of the larval oncomiracidia to water flow and secreted host chemicals indicated that neither Red Sea nor Mediterranean oncomiracidia exposed to waterborne host metabolites displayed any significant response or change in behavior; however, upon encountering flow, they ceased to swim and drifted passively downstream. Host specificity of P. cf. mamaevi may have co-evolved with temporal synchronization of the parasite with the host's diurnal activity. Hatching of P. cf. mamaevi eggs was rhythmical and the timing coincided with the known nocturnal resting behavior of the hosts, when their schools lie immobile on the sea bottom. After hatching, abrupt cessation of active swimming by the oncomiracidia upon sensing host inhalant gill-ventilating currents is likely to facilitate rapid, passive entry into the gill chamber of a suitable host. The greater abundance of P. cf. mamaevi in the invading (Mediterranean) populations is probably due to the changed, new environment, possibly impacting host resistance to the parasite and encouraging heavier infections.

  10. Study on techniques of culturing Rainbow trout%虹鳟养殖技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兴旺; 朱文锦; 杜建刚; 肖宏

    1999-01-01

    @@ 虹鳟鱼属于硬骨鱼纲(Chass Teleostei),鲱形目(Clupeiformes),鲑亚目(Salmonoidei),鲑科(Salmoninae),大马哈属(Oncorhynchus).它是世界上目前普遍养殖的鱼类之一.1996-1998年,河南省水产科学研究所和三门峡市水利局水产技术推广站协作引进虹鳟,首次在河南省内试养成功,获得高产高效.在灵宝县沟水坡水库,利用坝下渗水,用72m2的水泥池,养殖虹鳟商品鱼,经过222天的饲养管理,于今年8月20日通过专家组验收,共收获商品鱼1705千克,平均每立方米27.9千克,达到国内先进水平;养殖过程中共投喂颗粒饲料1940千克,净增重1431千克,饲料系数1.36.同时在216m2的水泥池内进行了虹鳟鱼种养鳟试验,收获32克/尾的大规格鱼种1152千克.

  11. Sequencing, de novo annotation and analysis of the first Anguilla anguilla transcriptome: EeelBase opens new perspectives for the study of the critically endangered european eel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernatchez Louis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Once highly abundant, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.; Anguillidae; Teleostei is considered to be critically endangered and on the verge of extinction, as the stock has declined by 90-99% since the 1980s. Yet, the species is poorly characterized at molecular level with little sequence information available in public databases. Results The first European eel transcriptome was obtained by 454 FLX Titanium sequencing of a normalized cDNA library, produced from a pool of 18 glass eels (juveniles from the French Atlantic coast and two sites in the Mediterranean coast. Over 310,000 reads were assembled in a total of 19,631 transcribed contigs, with an average length of 531 nucleotides. Overall 36% of the contigs were annotated to known protein/nucleotide sequences and 35 putative miRNA identified. Conclusions This study represents the first transcriptome analysis for a critically endangered species. EeelBase, a dedicated database of annotated transcriptome sequences of the European eel is freely available at http://compgen.bio.unipd.it/eeelbase. Considering the multiple factors potentially involved in the decline of the European eel, including anthropogenic factors such as pollution and human-introduced diseases, our results will provide a rich source of data to discover and identify new genes, characterize gene expression, as well as for identification of genetic markers scattered across the genome to be used in various applications.

  12. Expression of acid phosphatase in the seminiferous epithelium of vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruquetti, R L; Taboga, S R; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2010-01-01

    Acid phosphatases (AcPs) are known to provide phosphate to tissues that have high energy requirements, especially during development, growth and maturation. During spermatogenesis AcP activity is manifested in heterophagous lysosomes of Sertoli cells. This phagocytic function appears to be hormone-independent. We examined the expression pattern of AcP during the reproductive period of four species belonging to different vertebrate groups: Tilapia rendalli (Teleostei, Cichlidae), Dendropsophus minutus (Amphibia, Anura), Meriones unguiculatus (Mammalia, Rodentia), and Oryctolagus cuniculus (Mammalia, Lagomorpha). To demonstrate AcP activity, cryosections were processed for enzyme histochemistry by a modification of the method of Gömöri. AcP activity was similar in the testes of these four species. Testes of T. rendalli, D. minutus and M. unguiculatus showed an intense reaction in the Sertoli cell region. AcP activity was detected in the testes of D. minutus and O. cuniculus in seminiferous epithelium regions, where cells are found in more advanced stages of development. The seminiferous epithelium of all four species exhibited AcP activity, mainly in the cytoplasm of either Sertoli cells or germ cells. These findings reinforce the importance of AcP activity during the spermatogenesis process in vertebrates. PMID:20391346

  13. Distribution, population biology, and trophic ecology of the deepwater demersal fish Halosauropsis macrochir (Pisces: Halosauridae on the mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd Aksel Bergstad

    Full Text Available Halosauropsis macrochir ranked amongst the most abundant and widespread demersal fishes on the mid-Atlantic Ridge of the North Atlantic (Iceland-Azores with greatest abundance at 1700-3500 m. All sizes, ranging from 10-76 cm total length, occurred in the area without any apparent spatial pattern or depth trend. Using otolith sections displaying growth increments assumed to represent annuli, the age range recorded was 2-36 years, but most individuals were <20 years. Length and weight at age data were used to fit growth models. No differences between sexes in length and weight at age were observed. The majority of samples had a surplus of males. Diet analysis showed that H. macrochir feeds on Crustacea, Teleostei, Polychaeta, and Cephalopoda, but few prey could be identified to lower taxonomical levels. The mid-Atlantic Ridge constitutes a major portion of the North Atlantic living space of the abyssal halosaur where it completes its full life cycle, primarily as an actively foraging euryophagous micronekton/epibenthos and infauna feeder, becoming a partial piscivore with increasing size.

  14. Growth and Histopathological Effects of Chronic Exposition of Marine Pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis Larvae to Petroleum Water-Soluble Fraction (WSF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusmao, Emeline Pereira; Rodrigues, Ricardo Vieira; Moreira, Caue Bonucci [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Aquicultura, Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande (Brazil); Romano, Luis Alberto; Sampaio, Luis Andre [Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande (Brazil); Miranda-Filho, Kleber Campos [Escola de Veterinaria, Departamento de Zootecnia, Laboratorio de Aquacultura, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)], e-mail: kmiranda2010@ufmg.br

    2012-07-15

    The water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum contains a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile hydrocarbons, phenols, and heterocyclic compounds, considered deleterious to aquatic biota. Marine 'pejerrey' Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae) has a great commercial importance in local fisheries and a high potential for aquaculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathological effects in 'pejerrey' larvae exposed to different concentrations of petroleum WSF. The chronic toxicity test was conducted with newly hatched larvae exposed for 21 days to sublethal concentrations of WSF (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 % of WSF), plus one control. Survival and growth were significantly lower in the highest concentration. Several histopathological changes were found in the gills (e.g., hyperplasia, aneurysms, edema, and necrosis), kidney (e.g., nuclear alterations, decrease in the hematopoietic cells), and liver (e.g., hypertrophy, karyorrhexis, and karyopyknosis). An index of branchial lesion was proposed to standardize gill lesions to different pollutants.

  15. Investigation on natural diets of larval marine animals using peptide nucleic acid-directed polymerase chain reaction clamping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Seinen; Suzuki, Sayaka; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Lavery, Shane; Jeffs, Andrew; Takeyama, Haruko

    2011-04-01

    The stomach contents of the larvae of marine animals are usually very small in quantity and amorphous, especially in invertebrates, making morphological methods of identification very difficult. Nucleotide sequence analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a likely approach, but the large quantity of larval (host) DNA present may mask subtle signals from the prey genome. We have adopted peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-directed PCR clamping to selectively inhibit amplification of host DNA for this purpose. The Japanese spiny lobster (Panulirus japonicus) and eel (Anguilla japonica) were used as model host and prey organisms, respectively. A lobster-specific PNA oligomer (20 bases) was designed to anneal to the sequence at the junction of the 18 S rDNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of the lobster. PCR using eukaryote universal primers for amplifying the ITS1 region used in conjunction with the lobster-specific PNA on a mixed DNA template of lobster and eel demonstrated successful inhibition of lobster ITS1 amplification while allowing efficient amplification of eel ITS1. This method was then applied to wild-caught lobster larvae of P. japonicus and P. longipes bispinosus collected around Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. ITS1 sequences of a wide variety of animals (Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Crustacea, Teleostei, Mollusca, and Chaetognatha) were detected. PMID:20535520

  16. Spatial and nycthemeral distribution of the zooneuston off Fernando de Noronha, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Maria de Albuquerque Lira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Island environments drastically modify the hydrodynamics of ocean currents and generate strong vertical turbulence. This leads to an upward transport of nutrient-rich waters, thus increasing the biomass of plankton in these oceanic marine environments. The objective of this study was to assess the biomass and density of the zooneuston communities in relation to the upper and lower layers (epi-/hyponeuston, the nycthemeral variation (day/night, the currents in relation to the island (downstream vs upstream, and the distance from the island, focusing on the spatial variability. Samples were taken in July and August 2010 with a David-Hempel neuston net (Hydro-Bios with a mesh size of 500 µm. Twenty-one taxa were recorded. The most abundant taxa were Copepoda, Chaetognatha, Teleostei (eggs and Hydrozoa. This is the first record of phoronid larvae for the waters of the Tropical Atlantic. For both layers, density and biomass were significantly higher at night. Density and biomass were always significantly higher in the upper (epineuston layer than in the lower (hyponeuston layer. This was probably due to a zooneuston aggregation at the surface and massive vertical migration from deep waters at night, leading to increased abundances at night in both neuston layers.

  17. Morphometric aspects of the digestive tract of Roeboides xenodon and Orthospinus franciscensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Marques Barcellos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Roeboides xenodon (dentudo and Orthospinus franciscensis (piaba-facão are small Teleostei with omnivorous feeding habits. In order to study the morphology of the digestive tract, specimens of O. franciscensis (n = 15 and R. xenodon (n = 16 were collected in the São Francisco River, Três Marias - MG and fixed in 4% formalin. In both species, a short esophagus began in the head and after the transverse septum, remained in the peritoneal cavity up to the first section of the stomach. In R. xenodon, the esophagus showed primary thick folds, narrow and longitudinally arranged, separated by deep grooves and free edges and lines. In O. franciscensis, the esophagus displayed longitudinal primary folds, thick and wide, no deep grooves, but with free edges and few anastomoses. The stomach was of the cecal type in “Y.” The intestines consisted of two parts: a longer and more convoluted anterior part and a short posterior section. The beginning of the hindgut was marked by an abrupt change in the pattern of the mucosa. There was an anal sphincter at the distal end of the digestive tract. The digestive tract of both species is complete and adapted to their carnivorous habits.

  18. Fishing for gaps in science: a bibliographic analysis of Brazilian freshwater ichthyology from 1986 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, P G; Mesquita, F O; Young, R J

    2010-06-01

    To investigate Brazilian freshwater ichthyology, from 1986 to 2005, a bibliometric analysis was conducted using abstracts downloaded from The Web of Science database searching for the keywords 'fish', 'pisces', 'teleostei' and the address field having the word 'Brazil'. The results of this study showed that Brazilian freshwater ichthyology publications have been increasing during the study period. This process is a consequence of a series of investments that the Brazilian Government has made. Furthermore, data analyses identified scientific areas where there was a lack of scientific knowledge (e.g. studies of species threatened with extinction and certain hydrologic basins). Research institutions from the north-east and northern region of Brazil had the lowest participation in scientific productivity, which was a reflection of their regions poorer economic situation. This study showed that scientific productivity in Brazilian ichthyology was a direct reflection of state investment in research. Furthermore, data in this study follow expected statistical probabilities, for example, fishes from the most diverse families were the most studied. Thus, the study shows that great progress has been made by Brazilian ichthyologists in the last 20 years; however, due to the mega diversity of fishes in Brazil, much remains to be done if many species are to become known to science and to be saved from extinction. This it seems will depend on continued and further investment by Brazilian Government funding agencies, as Brazilian ichthyologists have demonstrated their capacity to generate high quality information about their study species. PMID:20557658

  19. Analysis of food habits of skate Rioraja agassizii (Elasmobranchii, Rajidae) from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, N S; Della-Fina, N; Souza, C C A; Rodrigues, E S; Amorim, A F

    2016-06-01

    Catches and exports of skate Rioraja agassizii place this species as "vulnerable to extinction" on the IUCN Red List; therefore, biological and ecological knowledge becomes an important instrument for its conservation control. This study described and quantified the diet composition of R. agassizii by means of stomach analysis contents in the periods 2005-2006 and 2012-2013. We analyzed and quantified stomach contents in terms of abundance (%N), weight (%M), frequency of occurrence (% FO), and index of relative importance (IRI). The results showed differences in the food rates between the periods. However, the groups of food items were the same: Teleostei fish, decapods, and mollusks. In 2005-2006, the diet consisted mainly of shrimp, however, in 2012-2013 it consisted of fish, followed by decapods, especially shrimps. The differences in diets may be attributed to shrimp abundance, which do not characterize a change in the eating habits in 2012-2013, because, in addition to fish, shrimps were also important food sources. The presence of a certain prey is more related to its availability rather than the feeding preference of skate. The amount of ingested items is associated to biological and environmental factors, so that further studies relating diet with capture area, seasonality, depth, and other factors should be conducted. PMID:26959951

  20. Molecular evidence confirms that Proctoeces humboldti and Proctoeces chilensis (Digenea: Fellodistomidae) are the same species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, I M; Cardenas, L; Gonzalez, K; Jofré, D; George-Nascimento, M; Guiñez, R; Oliva, M E

    2010-12-01

    Two species of Proctoeces Odhner, 1911 have been described in marine organisms from Chile: P. humboldti George-Nascimento & Quiroga (1983), parasitizing the gonads of keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.), and P. chilensis Oliva (1984), an intestinal parasite of Sicyases sanguineus (Teleostei); both species were subsequently considered as P. lintoni Siddiqi & Cable (1960). To assist in the resolution of the taxonomic identification of Proctoeces species in marine organisms from Chile, phylogenetic studies using DNA sequences from the V4 region of the SSU rRNA gene were performed. Several specimens of P. lintoni were isolated from keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.) and clingfish (S. sanguineus) from Bahia San Jorge (23°40'S) and Bahia Concepción (36°50'S). Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using three different approaches: a neighbour-joining (NJ), a maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). The phylogenetic analysis confirms that specimens of Proctoeces obtained from keyhole limpets and those specimens from the clingfish are in fact the same species. We prefer to consider our specimens as Proctoeces cf. lintoni, as the morphology of Proctoeces appears to be of doubtful value and genetic information about P. lintoni Siddiqi & Cable (1960) is not available. In addition, our results strongly suggest that there are at least three species in this genus.

  1. The fish and fisheries of Jones Bank and the wider Celtic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, I.; Ellis, J. R.; Scott, B.; Tidd, A.

    2013-10-01

    The Celtic Sea is a diverse fishing ground that supports important commercial fisheries for a range of demersal fish, large and small-bodied pelagic fish and a variety of cephalopods and other shellfish. A regional overview of the main commercial fish stocks of the Celtic Sea and of the fish that occur in the vicinity of Jones Bank are provided through analyses of landings data from English and Welsh vessels, and from scientific trawl surveys. Dedicated smaller scale sampling via trawl surveys combined with baited cameras on and around the Jones Bank were also analysed to investigate the importance of sandbank habitats with attention paid to the differences in the species occurring on the top of the bank in comparison to adjacent off-bank habitats. Official landing statistics for UK (English and Welsh) vessels indicated that the predominant commercial demersal species in ICES Divisions VIIg,h (in terms of quantities landed) were anglerfish, megrim, pollack and skates (Rajidae). There were, however, regional differences in the distribution of fish and fisheries, and the area surrounding Jones Bank (ICES Rectangles 28E1 and 28E2) supports fisheries for megrim, anglerfish, skates, hake, ling and turbot, with otter trawl, gillnet and beam trawl the main gears used. Recent survey data collected with GOV (Grande Ouverture Verticale) trawl from the Celtic Sea (ICES Divisions VIIe-h, 2007-2010) were used to highlight the broad scale distribution of the main fish assemblages in the Celtic Sea. Analyses of the fish and cephalopod catches from these surveys indicated that there were four broad assemblages in the area, including (i) a region around the Cornwall (which will also be partly influenced by the necessity to use rockhopper ground gear on these rough grounds), (ii) the shallower regions of the north-western Celtic Sea (including parts of the Bristol Channel), (iii) the deeper parts of the outer shelf and (iv) the central Celtic Sea. These data also provided

  2. Estimation of the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, Diego; Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Hospido, Almudena; Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2010-10-15

    The food production system as a whole is recognized as one of the major contributors to environmental impacts. Accordingly, food production, processing, transport and consumption account for a relevant portion of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with any country. In this context, there is an increasing market demand for climate-relevant information regarding the global warming impact of consumer food products throughout the supply chains. This article deals with the assessment of the carbon footprint of seafood products as a key subgroup in the food sector. Galicia (NW Spain) was selected as a case study. The analysis is based on a representative set of species within the Galician fishing sector, including species obtained from coastal fishing (e.g. horse mackerel, Atlantic mackerel, European pilchard and blue whiting), offshore fishing (e.g. European hake, megrim and anglerfish), deep-sea fishing (skipjack and yellowfin tuna), extensive aquaculture (mussels) and intensive aquaculture (turbot). The carbon footprints associated with the production-related activities of each selected species were quantified following a business-to-business approach on the basis of 1year of fishing activity. These individual carbon footprints were used to calculate the carbon footprint for each of the different Galician fisheries and culture activities. Finally, the lump sum of the carbon footprints for coastal, offshore and deep-sea fishing and extensive and intensive aquaculture brought about the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (i.e., capture and culture). A benchmark for quantifying and communicating emission reductions was then provided, and opportunities to reduce the GHG emissions associated with the Galician fishing activity could be prioritized.

  3. Estimation of the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (NW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The food production system as a whole is recognized as one of the major contributors to environmental impacts. Accordingly, food production, processing, transport and consumption account for a relevant portion of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with any country. In this context, there is an increasing market demand for climate-relevant information regarding the global warming impact of consumer food products throughout the supply chains. This article deals with the assessment of the carbon footprint of seafood products as a key subgroup in the food sector. Galicia (NW Spain) was selected as a case study. The analysis is based on a representative set of species within the Galician fishing sector, including species obtained from coastal fishing (e.g. horse mackerel, Atlantic mackerel, European pilchard and blue whiting), offshore fishing (e.g. European hake, megrim and anglerfish), deep-sea fishing (skipjack and yellowfin tuna), extensive aquaculture (mussels) and intensive aquaculture (turbot). The carbon footprints associated with the production-related activities of each selected species were quantified following a business-to-business approach on the basis of 1 year of fishing activity. These individual carbon footprints were used to calculate the carbon footprint for each of the different Galician fisheries and culture activities. Finally, the lump sum of the carbon footprints for coastal, offshore and deep-sea fishing and extensive and intensive aquaculture brought about the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (i.e., capture and culture). A benchmark for quantifying and communicating emission reductions was then provided, and opportunities to reduce the GHG emissions associated with the Galician fishing activity could be prioritized.

  4. Estimation of the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iribarren, Diego; Vazquez-Rowe, Ian; Hospido, Almudena; Moreira, Maria Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo, E-mail: diego.iribarren@rai.usc.es [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The food production system as a whole is recognized as one of the major contributors to environmental impacts. Accordingly, food production, processing, transport and consumption account for a relevant portion of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with any country. In this context, there is an increasing market demand for climate-relevant information regarding the global warming impact of consumer food products throughout the supply chains. This article deals with the assessment of the carbon footprint of seafood products as a key subgroup in the food sector. Galicia (NW Spain) was selected as a case study. The analysis is based on a representative set of species within the Galician fishing sector, including species obtained from coastal fishing (e.g. horse mackerel, Atlantic mackerel, European pilchard and blue whiting), offshore fishing (e.g. European hake, megrim and anglerfish), deep-sea fishing (skipjack and yellowfin tuna), extensive aquaculture (mussels) and intensive aquaculture (turbot). The carbon footprints associated with the production-related activities of each selected species were quantified following a business-to-business approach on the basis of 1 year of fishing activity. These individual carbon footprints were used to calculate the carbon footprint for each of the different Galician fisheries and culture activities. Finally, the lump sum of the carbon footprints for coastal, offshore and deep-sea fishing and extensive and intensive aquaculture brought about the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (i.e., capture and culture). A benchmark for quantifying and communicating emission reductions was then provided, and opportunities to reduce the GHG emissions associated with the Galician fishing activity could be prioritized.

  5. Criopreservação do sêmen testicular do teleósteo piau-açu Leporimus macrocephalus Testicular sperm cryopreservation of the teleost 'piau-açu' Leporinus macrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I.M.A. Ribeiro

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se metodologias de criopreservação para o sêmen do piau-açu Leporinus macrocephalus (Teleostei, Anostomidae. O volume de sêmen coletado diretamente dos testículos de seis peixes (446,7±165,1g de peso corporal foi de 0,4±0,2 ml. Testou-se a toxicidade dos crioprotetores dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO, dimetilacetamida, propilenoglicol, etilenoglicol e metanol nas concentrações de 5%, 10% e 15%. DMSO, dimetilacetamida e propilenoglicol foram os menos tóxicos e, por isso, utilizados na criopreservação do sêmen. Para este teste, o sêmen foi diluído 1:8 (v:v em soluções de cada crioprotetor(8,9%, concentração final às quais adicionaram-se gema de ovo de galinha (8,9%, concentração final, glicose (5% e água destilada (75%. A mistura foi então envasada em palhetas de 5ml de capacidade e imediatamente colocada em botijão de vapor de nitrogênio líquido. A taxa de motilidade espermática pós-descongelamento mais alta (40,8± 13,6 % foi obtida com sêmen criopreservado em diluente contendo DMSO e ativado em solução de NaHCO3 119mM. A taxa de fertilização, correspondente a 84,3±9,4% do controle, foi obtida com ovócitos de piau-açu fertilizados com sêmen congelado em solução de DMSO (8%, concentração final.Methods for cryopreservation of 'piau-açu' Leporinus macrocephalus (Teleostei, Anostomidae sperm were evaluated. Sperm collected directly from the testes of six fish (446.7±165.1g of body weight yielded 0.4±0.2 ml. The toxicity of the cryoprotectants dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO, dimethyl acetamide, propylene glycol, ethylene glycol and methanol, at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15%, was tested. DMSO, dimethyl acetamide and propylene glycol were the least toxic and were used to freeze the sperm. Sperm was diluted 1:8 (v:v in solutions made of 8.9% (final concentration of one of those crioprotectants to which 8.9% (final concentration of chicken yolk egg, 5% glucose and 75% distilled water were added. The mixture

  6. Macrozooplâncton da Zona Econômica Exclusiva do Nordeste do Brasil (segunda expedição oceanográfica - REVIZEE/NE II com ênfase em Copepoda (Crustacea

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    Eliane Aparecida Holanda Cavalcanti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se caracterizar a densidade, abundância relativa, freqüência de ocorrência, diversidade específica e associação de espécies do macrozooplâncton oceânico da "Zona Econômica Exclusiva" foi realizado o presente estudo. A região prospectada encontra-se localizada entre os paralelos 7º28'56"S - 34º32'45"W, referente a segunda expedição oceanográfica do Programa REVIZEE/NE, realizada pelo Noc. Antares da DHN/Marinha do Brasil. As amostras foram coletadas com rede de plâncton tipo bongo com malha de 300 e 500µm, no período de 31/01 a 07/02/97 em 21 estações, totalizando 42 amostras. Foram identificados 78 taxa. A densidade total dos organismos (exceto Copepoda variou de 2,31 a 6,06 org.m-3 (estações 55 e 56 e, para os Copepoda de 0,99 a 4,75 org.m-3 (estações 48 e 57. Em termos de freqüência de ocorrência Crustacea e Chaetognatha foram muito freqüentes; Cnidaria e Teleostei (ovos e larvas freqüentes; Mollusca, Annelida e Chordata pouco freqüentes e Protozoa raros. A diversidade específica variou de 0,648 a 4,037 ind.bits-1. A equitabilidade variou de 0,279 a 1,0. Os baixos valores de diversidade e equitabilidade ocorreram devido à dominância de Undinula vulgaris (Dana, 1849 e Calanopia americana F. Dahl, 1894. A análise cofenética revelou um r The present study was performed with the objective to characterise the density, relative abundance, frequency of occurrence, specific diversity and species associations of the oceanic macrozooplankton of the "Exclusive Economic Zone". The area under investigation is located between 7º28'56"S - 34º32'45"W and 3º21'08"S - 38º40'29"W, sampled during the second oceanographic expedition REVIZEE/NE on board OV Antares of the Brazilian Navy. Twenty-one samples were taken with bongo type plankton net with 300µm mesh size between 0 and 200 m depth. 63 (sixty and three taxa were identified. Total density varied from 2,31 to 6,06 ind.m-3 (station 55 and 56 for the whole

  7. First known feeding trace of the eocene bottom-dwelling fish Notogoneus osculus and its paleontological significance.

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    Anthony J Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Green River Formation (early Eocene, about 42-53 Ma at and near Fossil Butte National Monument in Wyoming, USA, is world famous for its exquisitely preserved freshwater teleost fish in the former Fossil Lake. Nonetheless, trace fossils attributed to fish interacting with the lake bottom are apparently rare, and have not been associated directly with any fish species. Here we interpret the first known feeding and swimming trace fossil of the teleost Notogoneus osculus Cope (Teleostei: Gonorynchidae, which is also represented as a body fossil in the same stratum. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A standard description of the trace fossil, identified as Undichna cf. U. simplicatas, was augmented by high-resolution digital images and spatial and mathematical analyses, which allowed for detailed interpretations of the anatomy, swimming mode, feeding behavior, and body size of the tracemaker. Our analysis indicates that the tracemaker was about 45 cm long; used its caudal, anal, and pelvic fins (the posterior half of its body to make the swimming traces; and used a ventrally oriented mouth to make overlapping feeding marks. We hypothesize that the tracemaker was an adult Notogoneus osculus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results are the first to link a specific teleost tracemaker with a trace fossil from the Green River Formation, while also interpreting the size and relative age of the tracemaker. The normal feeding and swimming behaviors indicated by the trace fossil indicate temporarily oxygenated benthic conditions in the deepest part of Fossil Lake, counter to most paleoecological interpretations of this deposit. Lastly, our spatial and mathematical analyses significantly update and advance previous approaches to the study of teleost trace fossils.

  8. Lineage-specific evolution of the vertebrate Otopetrin gene family revealed by comparative genomic analyses

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    Ryan Joseph F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the Otopetrin 1 gene (Otop1 in mice and fish produce an unusual bilateral vestibular pathology that involves the absence of otoconia without hearing impairment. The encoded protein, Otop1, is the only functionally characterized member of the Otopetrin Domain Protein (ODP family; the extended sequence and structural preservation of ODP proteins in metazoans suggest a conserved functional role. Here, we use the tools of sequence- and cytogenetic-based comparative genomics to study the Otop1 and the Otop2-Otop3 genes and to establish their genomic context in 25 vertebrates. We extend our evolutionary study to include the gene mutated in Usher syndrome (USH subtype 1G (Ush1g, both because of the head-to-tail clustering of Ush1g with Otop2 and because Otop1 and Ush1g mutations result in inner ear phenotypes. Results We established that OTOP1 is the boundary gene of an inversion polymorphism on human chromosome 4p16 that originated in the common human-chimpanzee lineage more than 6 million years ago. Other lineage-specific evolutionary events included a three-fold expansion of the Otop genes in Xenopus tropicalis and of Ush1g in teleostei fish. The tight physical linkage between Otop2 and Ush1g is conserved in all vertebrates. To further understand the functional organization of the Ushg1-Otop2 locus, we deduced a putative map of binding sites for CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF, a mammalian insulator transcription factor, from genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq data in mouse and human embryonic stem (ES cells combined with detection of CTCF-binding motifs. Conclusions The results presented here clarify the evolutionary history of the vertebrate Otop and Ush1g families, and establish a framework for studying the possible interaction(s of Ush1g and Otop in developmental pathways.

  9. Housekeeping genes for quantitative expression studies in the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

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    Becker Sven

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last years the quantification of immune response under immunological challenges, e.g. parasitation, has been a major focus of research. In this context, the expression of immune response genes in teleost fish has been surveyed for scientific and commercial purposes. Despite the fact that it was shown in teleostei and other taxa that the gene for beta-actin is not the most stably expressed housekeeping gene (HKG, depending on the tissue and experimental treatment, the gene has been used as a reference gene in such studies. In the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, other HKG than the one for beta-actin have not been established so far. Results To establish a reliable method for the measurement of immune gene expression in Gasterosteus aculeatus, sequences from the now available genome database and an EST library of the same species were used to select oligonucleotide primers for HKG, in order to perform quantitative reverse-transcription (RT PCR. The expression stability of ten candidate reference genes was evaluated in three different tissues, and in five parasite treatment groups, using the three algorithms BestKeeper, geNorm and NormFinder. Our results showed that in most of the tissues and treatments HKG that could not be used so far due to unknown sequences, proved to be more stably expressed than the one for beta-actin. Conclusion As they were the most stably expressed genes in all tissues examined, we suggest using the genes for the L13a ribosomal binding protein and ubiquitin as alternative or additional reference genes in expression analysis in Gasterosteus aculeatus.

  10. Delta-8 desaturation activity varies among fatty acyl desaturases of teleost fish: high activity in delta-6 desaturases of marine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Oscar; Li, Yuanyou; Tocher, Douglas R

    2011-08-01

    The benefits of dietary fish and fish oil are derived from n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) that have beneficial effects in a range of human diseases and pathologies such as cardiovascular and other inflammatory disorders, neural development and neurological pathologies. The precursor of n-3 LC-PUFA, 18:3n-3 does not have the same beneficial effects prompting interest in the pathways of endogenous synthesis of LC-PUFA in vertebrates. The LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway classically involves Δ6 and Δ5 fatty acyl desaturases (Fad), but it was recently shown that Δ6 Fad in mammals also displayed Δ8 activity demonstrating a possible alternative "Δ8-pathway" for the synthesis of LC-PUFA. Our primary hypothesis was that Δ8 desaturase activity would be a common feature of vertebrate Δ6 Fads, and so the aim of the present study was to determine the ability of teleostei Fads for Δ8 desaturation activity. To this end, cDNAs for Fads from a range of freshwater, diadromous and marine teleost fish species were assayed for Δ8 activity in the heterologous yeast expression system. In summary, the present study has demonstrated that Δ8 desaturation activity was also a characteristic of fish orthologs, although the activity varied notably between freshwater/diadromous and marine fish species, with the latter possessing Fads2-like proteins with Δ8 activity far higher than mammalian FADS2. The data showed that, generally, the fish Fad are technically υ-3 desaturases, with new double bonds introduced 3C beyond a pre-existing double bond. However, the ability of zebrafish and rabbitfish Fads, previously characterised as Δ6/Δ5 bifunctional desaturases, to introduce non-methylene interrupted double bonds in 20:3n-3 and 20:2n-6 suggested that a novel combination of regioselectivity modes operates within these enzymes.

  11. Bipteria vetusta n. sp. – an old parasite in an old host: tracing the origin of myxosporean parasitism in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodádková, Alena; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; Holzer, Astrid S; Fiala, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    Myxosporea (Myxozoa), a group of parasitic Cnidaria, use mostly bony fishes (Teleostei) as intermediate hosts; however, they can also parasitize other vertebrates such as cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes). Molecular data of myxosporeans from sharks and rays (Elasmobranchii) revealed these parasites to be one of the most basal representatives in the myxosporean phylogenetic tree, suggesting their ancient evolutionary history. A new myxosporean species, Bipteria vetusta n. sp., was found in the gall bladder of rabbit fish, Chimaera monstrosa (Holocephali; Chondrichthyes), and ssrDNA-based phylogeny revealed its basal position within the marine myxosporean lineage. Molecular dating based on ssrDNA analysis suggested the origin of a stem lineage leading to the marine myxosporean lineage at the time of the origin of Chondrichthyes in the Silurian era. The two common lineages of Myxozoa, Myxosporea and Malacosporea, were estimated to have split from their common ancestor in the Cambrian era. Tracing the history of evolution of the "vertebrate host type" character in the context of molecular dating showed that cartilaginous fish represented an ancestral state for all myxosporeans. Teleosts were very likely subsequently parasitized by myxozoans four times, independently. Myxosporean radiation and diversification appear to correlate with intermediate host evolution. The first intermediate hosts of myxosporeans were cartilaginous fish. When bony fish evolved and radiated, myxosporeans switched and adapted to bony fish, and subsequently greatly diversified in this new host niche. We believe that the present study is the first attempt at molecular dating of myxozoan evolution based on an old myxosporean species – a living myxosporean fossil. PMID:25659495

  12. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 50. Oviparous gyrodactylids from loricariid and pimelodid catfishes in Brazil, with the proposal of Phanerothecioides n. g., Onychogyrodactylus n. g. and Aglaiogyrodactylus n. g. (Polyonchoinea: Gyrodactylidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Vianna, Rogério T; Boeger, Walter A

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of Phanerothecium Kritsky & Thatcher, 1977 is amended, and Phanerothecioides n. g., Onychogyrodactylus n. g. and Aglaiogyrodactylus n. g., all comprised of oviparous gyrodactylids (Monogenoidea: Polyonchoinea), are proposed to accommodate 11 of the 15 species (14 new to science) herein described and/or reported from loricariid and pimelodid catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes) in Brazil: Phanerothecium harrisi Kritsky & Boeger, 1991, P. spinatoides n. sp. and P. deiropedeum n. sp. all from Hypostomus spp.; P. spinulatum n. sp. from Hypostomus cf. regani; Phanerothecioides agostinhoi n. g., n. sp. (type-species) from Hypostomus spp. and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum; Onychogyrodactylus sudis n. g., n. sp. (type-species) and O. hydaticus n. sp. both from Ancistrus multispinus; Aglaiogyrodactylus forficulatus n. g., n. sp. (type-species) from Kronichthys lacerta; A. pedunculatus n. sp. from Hisonotus sp.; A. guttus n. sp. from Pseudotothyris obtusa; A. salebrosus n. sp., A. conei n. sp. and A. ctenistus n. sp. all from Pareiorhaphis parmula; and A. calamus n. sp. and A. forficuloides n. sp. both from Schizolecis guntheri. Phanerothecioides n. g. is characterised by oviparous forms lacking superficial and deep haptoral bars and pregermarial vitelline follicles, and by having a conspicuous testis in adult specimens, a syncytial prostatic gland, a reduced copulatory sac and vitelline ducts in the form of an inverted 'U'. Onychogyrodactylus n. g. is differentiated from all other oviparous gyrodactylid genera by its members having a spine-like accessory sclerite enclosed in a separate pouch associated with the terminal male genitalia. Species of Aglaiogyrodactylus n. g. possess H-shaped vitelline ducts and a complex accessory piece and sclerotised or non-sclerotised male copulatory organ enclosed within the copulatory sac. PMID:16972154

  13. Response paper: Morphometric article by Mejía et al. 2015 alluding genera Herichthys and Nosferatu displays serious inconsistencies

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    Mauricio de la Maza-Benignos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present response paper, the article entitled "Morphometric variation of the Herichthys bartoni (Bean, 1892 species group (Teleostei: Cichlidae: How many species comprise H. labridens (Pellegrin, 1903?" by Mejía et al . 2015 is critically reviewed. The current review pinpoints some of the more conspicuous conceptual inconsistencies and fundamental errors found in the study by Mejía et al . (2015, It is contended that the authors fail to provide any new insights into the complex biogeography and evolutionary history of the Nosferatu and Herichthys genus groups, and that while results of their Cox1 molecular analysis are comparable to those by De la Maza-Benignos et al . (2015, the conclusions of the two studies are not comparable. In addition, it is contested that, whereas the designation of genus Nosferatu by De la Maza-Benignos et al . (2015 was found on the principles of the biological and phylogenetic species concepts, the rejection of the genus by Mejía et al . (2015 is solely based "on the presence of (overlapping morphometric characters" between genera. The assumption by Mejía et al . (2015,that because their geometric morphometrics analysis failed to provide separation of species, then Nosferatu genus does not correspond to a valid taxon; and their suggesting geometric morphometrics "as useful tool to discriminate species, because it allows to propose diagnostic characters" were not supported by their results. While Mejía et al . present some interesting thoughts on the systematics of Nosferatu , they unfortunately fail to provide any data that can be objectively assessed as relevant to motivate any changes in the current taxonomy.

  14. Different processes lead to similar patterns: a test of codivergence and the role of sea level and climate changes in shaping a southern temperate freshwater assemblage

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    Barber Brian R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how freshwater assemblages have been formed and maintained is a fundamental goal in evolutionary and ecological disciplines. Here we use a historical approach to test the hypothesis of codivergence in three clades of the Chilean freshwater species assemblage. Molecular studies of freshwater crabs (Aegla: Aeglidae: Anomura and catfish (Trichomycterus arealatus: Trichomycteridae: Teleostei exhibited similar levels of genetic divergences of mitochondrial lineages between species of crabs and phylogroups of the catfish, suggesting a shared evolutionary history among the three clades in this species assemblage. Results A phylogeny was constructed for Trichomycterus areolatus under the following best-fit molecular models of evolution GTR + I + R, HKY + I, and HKY for cytochrome b, growth hormone, and rag 1 respectively. A GTR + I + R model provided the best fit for both 28S and mitochondrial loci and was used to construct both Aegla phylogenies. Three different diversification models were observed and the three groups arose during different time periods, from 2.25 to 5.05 million years ago (Ma. Cladogenesis within Trichomycterus areolatus was initiated roughly 2.25 Ma (Late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene some 1.7 - 2.8 million years after the basal divergences observed in both Aegla clades. These results reject the hypothesis of codivergence. Conclusions The similar genetic distances between terminal sister-lineages observed in these select taxa from the freshwater Chilean species assemblage were formed by different processes occurring over the last ~5.0 Ma. Dramatic changes in historic sea levels documented in the region appear to have independently shaped the evolutionary history of each group. Our study illustrates the important role that history plays in shaping a species assemblage and argues against assuming similar patterns equal a shared evolutionary history.

  15. Mastacembelid eels support Lake Tanganyika as an evolutionary hotspot of diversification

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    Bills Roger

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lake Tanganyika (LT is the oldest of the African Rift Lakes and is one of the richest freshwater ecosystems on Earth, with high levels of faunal diversity and endemism. The endemic species flocks that occur in this lake, such as cichlid fishes, gastropods, catfish and crabs, provide unique comparative systems for the study of patterns and processes of speciation. Mastacembelid eels (Teleostei: Mastacembelidae are a predominately riverine family of freshwater fish, occurring across Africa and Asia, but which also form a small species flock in LT. Methods Including 25 species across Africa, plus Asian representatives as outgroups, we present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis for the group, focusing particularly on the evolutionary history and biodiversity of LT mastacembelid eels. A combined matrix of nuclear and mitochondrial genes based on 3118 bp are analysed implementing different phylogenetic methods, including Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood. Results LT Mastacembelus are recovered as monophyletic, and analyses reveal the rapid diversification of five main LT lineages. Relaxed molecular clock dates provide age estimates for the LT flock at ~7-8 Myr, indicating intralacustrine diversification, with further speciation events coinciding with periods of lower lake level. Our analyses also reveal as yet undescribed diversity of lacustrine and riverine species. A Southern-Eastern African clade, that is younger than the LT flock, is also recovered, while West African taxa are basal members of the African mastacembelid clade. Conclusions That the LT species flock of mastacembelid eels appears to have colonised and immediately diversified soon after the formation of the lake, supports the view of LT as an evolutionary hotspot of diversification. We find evidence for biogeographic clades mirroring a similar pattern to other ichthyological faunas. In addition, our analyses also highlight a split of African and Asian

  16. Diet composition of the round sardinella Sardinella aurita Valenciennes, 1847 (Osteichthyes: Clupeidae in the Turkish Aegean Sea

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    Bahar Bayhan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sardinella aurita, a round sardinella from Clupeidae family, is a pelagic fish found in tropical and temperate seas, just like other members of its family. The species has a wide distribution and its contribution to Mediterranean and international fisheries production potential is high. In Turkey, this species has a wide distribution in the Mediterranean Sea and the Aegean Sea, on the other hand, it is rarely seen in the Black Sea and Marmara Sea. Apart from its economic contribution to the world fisheries industry, the species has an important role in the food chain in regions it is found as it takes part in diet composition of its predators such as greater amberjack, and common dolphinfish. Nowadays, trophic levels are used in order to develop ecosystem based fisheries management strategies. For this purpose, diet composition of the round sardinella was investigated. Samples were obtained from commercial fishermen, who generally use purse seine and gill nets in Izmir Bay concerned during October 2010 - September 2011. A total of 434 S. aurita were collected all year round, with total lengths ranging 12.1 to 27.1 cm. Fish were dissected immediately after capture, stomachs removed and stored in formalin (10% until the contents were analysed. Stomach contents examined using a SZX7 Olympus stereo microscope. Prey items were identified to the lowest possible taxon. Forty eight species were identified, belonging to six major groups: Polychaeta, Crustacea, Mollusca, Chaetognatha, Tunicate and Teleostei. Finally crustaceans were the most important food item in terms of index of relative importance. At least 31 copepod species were identified, where Calanoida, Oithona nana, Oncaea media and Oithona plumifera appeared all year round with %IRI ≥ 10. With this study, the feeding regime of round sardinella, was identified in detail for the Aegean Sea of Turkey for the first time.

  17. Feeding habits of the bluemouth, Helicolenus dactylopterus dactylopterus (Delaroche, 1809) (Pisces: Sebastidae) in the Portuguese coast

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    Neves, Ana; Sequeira, Vera; Paiva, Rafaela Barros; Vieira, Ana Rita; Gordo, Leonel Serrano

    2012-06-01

    In order to investigate the feeding habits of Helicolenus dactylopterus dactylopterus along the continental Portuguese coast, a total of 619 individuals were sampled of which 60% contained food in their stomach and 35% had more than one prey item. Among the 81 prey items that were identified in the stomachs, benthic and benthopelagic prey prevail on this species diet. Acantephyra sp, Pasiphaea sp, mysidacea, and teleostei n.i. were the prey with the higher percent index of relative importance (%IRI) value. Three length groups (5-20 cm, 21-27 cm, and 28-48 cm) were defined through cluster analysis of the mean abundance of prey items. A permutational MANOVA detected significant differences in the diet and stomach fullness index for TLG, season, and maturation stage. Smaller fishes had a generalized diet, feeding mainly on mysidacea changing their diet above 20 cm TL, where a major consumption of natantia was found. The larger individuals, >28 cm TL, present a less generalized diet with pisces as dominant prey group. Seasonally, natantia and pisces were the principal prey groups during spring and winter, respectively, while mysidacea and other crustaceans were predominant during the rest of the year. Mysidacea were also the main prey group for immature individuals while natantia and pisces were the principal prey groups to the other maturity stages. The results of this study indicate that H. d. dactylopterus has a diverse diet focused on small crustaceans such as misyds and as specimens grow shrimps and fishes become more consumed, with larger specimens having a more specialized diet. The different nutritional needs during spawning season also seemed to influence the feeding habits of H. d. dactylopterus.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of Middle American cichlids (Cichlidae, Heroini) based on combined evidence from nuclear genes, mtDNA, and morphology.

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    Rícan, Oldrich; Zardoya, Rafael; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2008-12-01

    Heroine cichlids are the second largest and very diverse tribe of Neotropical cichlids, and the only cichlid group that inhabits Mesoamerica. The taxonomy of heroines is complex because monophyly of most genera has never been demonstrated, and many species groups are without applicable generic names after their removal from the catch-all genus Cichlasoma (sensu Regan, 1905). Hence, a robust phylogeny for the group is largely wanting. A rather complete heroine phylogeny based on cytb sequence data is available [Concheiro Pérez, G.A., Rícan O., Ortí G., Bermingham, E., Doadrio, I., Zardoya, R. 2007. Phylogeny and biogeography of 91 species of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) based on sequences of the cytochrome b gene. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 43, 91-110], and in the present study, we have added and analyzed independent data sets (nuclear and morphological) to further confirm and strengthen the cytb-phylogenetic hypothesis. We have analyzed a combined cytb-nuclear (RAG1 and two S7 introns) data set of 48 species representing main heroine lineages to achieve further resolution of heroine higher taxonomic levels and a combined cytb-morphological data set of 92 species to stabilize generic taxonomy. The recovered phylogenies supported the circumamazonian--CAM--Heroini (sensu Concheiro Peréz et al., 2007) as a monophyletic group, that could be divided into six main clades: (1) australoheroines (the southernmost heroine genus Australoheros), (2) nandopsines (the Antillean genus Nandopsis), (3) caquetaines (including the north western Amazonian genera Caquetaia and Heroina), (4) astatheroines (including Astatheros, Herotilapia and Rocio), (5) amphilophines (including Amphilophus and related genera), and (6) herichthyines (including Herichthyis and related genera). Nuclear and mitochondrial data partitions arrived at highly congruent topologies. Suprageneric relationships were influenced mainly by the nuclear signal, as well as the most basal phylogenetic position

  19. Monogenean anchor morphometry: systematic value, phylogenetic signal, and evolution.

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    Khang, Tsung Fei; Soo, Oi Yoon Michelle; Tan, Wooi Boon; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anchors are one of the important attachment appendages for monogenean parasites. Common descent and evolutionary processes have left their mark on anchor morphometry, in the form of patterns of shape and size variation useful for systematic and evolutionary studies. When combined with morphological and molecular data, analysis of anchor morphometry can potentially answer a wide range of biological questions. Materials and Methods. We used data from anchor morphometry, body size and morphology of 13 Ligophorus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) species infecting two marine mugilid (Teleostei: Mugilidae) fish hosts: Moolgarda buchanani (Bleeker) and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) from Malaysia. Anchor shape and size data (n = 530) were generated using methods of geometric morphometrics. We used 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ITS1 sequence data to infer a maximum likelihood phylogeny. We discriminated species using principal component and cluster analysis of shape data. Adams's K mult was used to detect phylogenetic signal in anchor shape. Phylogeny-correlated size and shape changes were investigated using continuous character mapping and directional statistics, respectively. We assessed morphological constraints in anchor morphometry using phylogenetic regression of anchor shape against body size and anchor size. Anchor morphological integration was studied using partial least squares method. The association between copulatory organ morphology and anchor shape and size in phylomorphospace was used to test the Rohde-Hobbs hypothesis. We created monogeneaGM, a new R package that integrates analyses of monogenean anchor geometric morphometric data with morphological and phylogenetic data. Results. We discriminated 12 of the 13 Ligophorus species using anchor shape data. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in anchor shape. Thus, we discovered new morphological characters based on anchor shaft shape, the length between the inner root point and the outer root

  20. A “Rosetta Stone” for metazoan zooplankton: DNA barcode analysis of species diversity of the Sargasso Sea (Northwest Atlantic Ocean)

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    Bucklin, Ann; Ortman, Brian D.; Jennings, Robert M.; Nigro, Lisa M.; Sweetman, Christopher J.; Copley, Nancy J.; Sutton, Tracey; Wiebe, Peter H.

    2010-12-01

    Species diversity of the metazoan holozooplankton assemblage of the Sargasso Sea, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, was examined through coordinated morphological taxonomic identification of species and DNA sequencing of a ˜650 base-pair region of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) as a DNA barcode (i.e., short sequence for species recognition and discrimination). Zooplankton collections were made from the surface to 5,000 meters during April, 2006 on the R/V R.H. Brown. Samples were examined by a ship-board team of morphological taxonomists; DNA barcoding was carried out in both ship-board and land-based DNA sequencing laboratories. DNA barcodes were determined for a total of 297 individuals of 175 holozooplankton species in four phyla, including: Cnidaria (Hydromedusae, 4 species; Siphonophora, 47); Arthropoda (Amphipoda, 10; Copepoda, 34; Decapoda, 9; Euphausiacea, 10; Mysidacea, 1; Ostracoda, 27); and Mollusca (Cephalopoda, 8; Heteropoda, 6; Pteropoda, 15); and Chaetognatha (4). Thirty species of fish (Teleostei) were also barcoded. For all seven zooplankton groups for which sufficient data were available, Kimura-2-Parameter genetic distances were significantly lower between individuals of the same species (mean=0.0114; S.D. 0.0117) than between individuals of different species within the same group (mean=0.3166; S.D. 0.0378). This difference, known as the barcode gap, ensures that mtCOI sequences are reliable characters for species identification for the oceanic holozooplankton assemblage. In addition, DNA barcodes allow recognition of new or undescribed species, reveal cryptic species within known taxa, and inform phylogeographic and population genetic studies of geographic variation. The growing database of "gold standard" DNA barcodes serves as a Rosetta Stone for marine zooplankton, providing the key for decoding species diversity by linking species names, morphology, and DNA sequence variation. In light of the pivotal position of zooplankton in ocean

  1. Metazoan fish parasites of Macrourus berglax Lacepède, 1801 and other macrourids of the North Atlantic: Invasion of the deep sea from the continental shelf

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    Palm, H. W.; Klimpel, S.

    2008-01-01

    Between 2001 and 2003, a total of 105 Macrourus berglax Lacepède, 1801 were collected from Irminger Sea, at depths between 250 and 450 m, and were studied for parasites. Twenty-four different parasite species were identified. Nematodes (eight spp.) and digeneans (six spp.) were the most species rich, followed by crustaceans (four spp.), cestodes (three spp.), acanthocephalans (two spp.) and monogeneans (one sp.). Core species included the digenean Gonocerca phycidis (maximum 62.9% prevalence), the nematodes Anisakis sp. (62.9%), Capillaria gracilis (65.8%), Hysterothylacium aduncum (60.0%), Neoascarophis macrouri (88.6%), Spinitectus oviflagellis (82.9%), and the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus gadi (97.1%). M. berglax was the final host for most of the parasites, and was infested with only a few larval forms. The species composition, diversity as well as the prevalence and intensity of infestation for most parasite species collected, were similar in the different years, indicating no distinct interannual variation at this deep-sea locality. Comparisons of the parasite fauna of M. berglax with macrourids belonging to the genera Macrourus, Coryphaenoides, Coelorhynchus and Nezumia revealed a similar infestation pattern amongst these deep-sea fish, consisting of the same or closely related species. This observation suggests that the parasite life-cycles in these benthopelagic deep-sea fishes follow similar pathways independent of geographical location. A similar habitat and food preference of macrourids results in a similar parasite fauna. The host specificity of some of the parasites is low, with most species (nine) infesting Teleostei, Gadiformes (six), Macrouridae (two), Macrourus spp. (one) and specifically M. berglax (five). Overlapping infestation patterns of M. berglax parasites with phylogenetically related gadiform fish from the continental shelf region suggest that the deep-sea parasite fauna in macrourids has evolved along with their hosts from parasite

  2. Maximum sustainable speed, energetics and swimming kinematics of a tropical carangid fish, the green jack Caranx caballus.

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    Dickson, K A; Donley, J M; Hansen, M W; Peters, J A

    2012-06-01

    Maximum sustained swimming speeds, swimming energetics and swimming kinematics were measured in the green jack Caranx caballus (Teleostei: Carangidae) using a 41 l temperature-controlled, Brett-type swimming-tunnel respirometer. In individual C. caballus [mean ±s.d. of 22·1 ± 2·2 cm fork length (L(F) ), 190 ± 61 g, n = 11] at 27·2 ± 0·7° C, mean critical speed (U(crit)) was 102·5 ± 13·7 cm s⁻¹ or 4·6 ± 0·9 L(F) s⁻¹. The maximum speed that was maintained for a 30 min period while swimming steadily using the slow, oxidative locomotor muscle (U(max,c)) was 99·4 ± 14·4 cm s⁻¹ or 4·5 ± 0·9 L(F) s⁻¹. Oxygen consumption rate (M in mg O₂ min⁻¹) increased with swimming speed and with fish mass, but mass-specific M (mg O₂ kg⁻¹ h⁻¹) as a function of relative speed (L(F) s⁻¹) did not vary significantly with fish size. Mean standard metabolic rate (R(S) ) was 170 ± 38 mg O₂ kg⁻¹ h⁻¹, and the mean ratio of M at U(max,c) to R(S) , an estimate of factorial aerobic scope, was 3·6 ± 1·0. The optimal speed (U(opt) ), at which the gross cost of transport was a minimum of 2·14 J kg⁻¹ m⁻¹, was 3·8 L(F) s⁻¹. In a subset of the fish studied (19·7-22·7 cm L(F) , 106-164 g, n = 5), the swimming kinematic variables of tailbeat frequency, yaw and stride length all increased significantly with swimming speed but not fish size, whereas tailbeat amplitude varied significantly with speed, fish mass and L(F) . The mean propulsive wavelength was 86·7 ± 5·6 %L(F) or 73·7 ± 5·2 %L(T) . Mean ±s.d. yaw and tailbeat amplitude values, calculated from lateral displacement of each intervertebral joint during a complete tailbeat cycle in three C. caballus (19·7, 21·6 and 22·7 cm L(F) ; 23·4, 25·3 and 26·4 cm L(T) ), were 4·6 ± 0·1 and 17·1 ± 2·2 %L(T) , respectively. Overall, the sustained swimming performance, energetics, kinematics, lateral displacement and intervertebral bending angles measured in C. caballus

  3. Almacenamiento en frío de espermatozoides de trucha arcoiris (Oncorhynchus mykiss: Efectos en la motilidad, superóxido intracelular, integridad de la membrana plasmática y potencial de membrana mitocondrial Cold storage of sperm of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss: Effect on motility, intracellular superoxide, plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential

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    O Berríos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A diferencia de lo que ocurre en mamíferos, en teleósteos la mayoría de los estudios que evalúan la calidad del semen almacenado están orientados a la exposición de los espermatozoides a algunas especies reactivas de oxígeno (ROS, a la incorporación de antioxidantes en la dieta o a la aplicación de éstos en el plasma seminal. No se encuentran trabajos disponibles que traten la presencia del radical superóxido (O2._, ni la función que éste cumple al interior del espermatozoide cuando se encuentran almacenados. En la presente investigación se evaluó el efecto del almacenamiento en el O2._, motilidad, integridad de la membrana plasmática y potencial de membrana mitocondrial (ΔΨMit en espermatozoides de trucha arcoiris (oncorhynchus mykiss. Para ello se extrajo el semen, el cual fue almacenado durante 12 días a 4 ºC. Cada 4 días se evaluó motilidad, ΔΨMit, integridad de la membrana plasmática y se detectó O2._ intracelular en los espermatozoides. Se encontró un 82,59% de células con tinción positiva para O2._ el día de extracción de la muestra, mientras que la motilidad, ΔΨMit y la integridad de la membrana plasmática, solo mostraron deterioro después del octavo día de almacenamiento. Únicamente el ΔΨMit se correlaciona negativamente con O2._ a partir del octavo día de almacenamiento (r = -0,56 P In teleostei, as opposed to what happens in mammals, most of the studies that evaluate the quality storages of semen are oriented toward the exposure of spermatozoa to some reactive oxygen species (ROS, the utilization of antioxidants in the diet, or the incorporation of these in seminal plasma. There is no available the literature covering the presence of superoxide ions (O2._, or the function of these on the interior of the spermatozoa that have been stored. In this study, we evaluated the effect of storage on intracellular O2._, motility, plasmatic membrane integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential (

  4. Gökova Körfezi'nde küçük ölçekli balıkçılıkta birim çabaya düşen av miktarı (CPUE ve av kompozisyonu

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    Hakkı Dereli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gökova Körfezi’nde avcılık yapan küçük ölçekli balıkçı gemilerinin uzatma ağı ve parakete av kompozisyonları ve birim çabaya düşen av miktarları (CPUE, Temmuz 2009 – Mayıs 2011 tarihleri arasında yürütülen çalışmalarla tespit edilmiştir. Toplam 16 deniz çalışması (uzatma ağı ile 5, parakete ile 11 ticari balıkçıların tekne ve av araçlarıyla yürütülmüştür. Balıkçılık çabası (f, CPUE ve günlük av miktarını hesaplamak için ise karaya çıkış noktalarında rasgele seçimle 131 örnekleme (72 kez uzatma ağı, 59 kez paraketeyle gerçekleştirilmiştir. Her iki av aracı birlikte değerlendirildiğinde, Teleostei grubundan 27, Crustacea grubundan 1, Cephalapoda grubundan 2 ve Chondrichthyes grubundan 1 olmak üzere toplam 31 tür tespit edilmiştir. Uzatma ağı ile 19 tür, parakete ile 16 tür yakalanmıştır. Karaya çıkarılan ürün içerisinde, uzatma ağlarında ağırlıklı olarak Pagellus erythrinus, Trachurus mediterraneus ve Scomber japonicus, parakete balıkçığında ise Sparus aurata, Dicentrarchus labrax ve Pagellus erythrinus türleri tespit edilmiştir. Uzatma ağları av kompozisyonu içinde ticari olmayan türlerin oranı (% 50, paraketeninkinden daha yüksektir (% 12. Ortalama CPUE, uzatma ağı için 15,5 ± 19,8 kg/30 posta ağ/gün ve parakete için 1,7 ± 2,8 kg/100 iğne/gün, tekne başına günlük av (kg ortalaması ise uzatma ağı için 10,8 ± 11,0 kg/tekne/gün ve parakete için 5,2 ± 4,3 kg/tekne/gün olarak hesaplanmıştır. Ortalama CPUE değerleri açısından iki av aracı arasında (t:-11,065; p:0,000 ve kooperatifler arasında (uzatma ağı, t:4,382; p:0,000; parakete, t:3,973; p:0,000 istatistiki olarak anlamlı farklılık tespit edilmiştir. Gökova Körfezi’nde uzatma ağı balıkçılığında yakalanan tür sayısının yıllar içerisinde düşüş gösterdiği ve ortalama CPUE değerinin arttığı belirlenmiştir. Parakete bal