WorldWideScience

Sample records for angle-resolved photoemission studies

  1. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies of cuprate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palczewski, Ari Deibert [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of three different angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies on cuprate superconductors. The first study compares the band structure from two different single layer cuprates Tl2Ba2CuO6+δ (Tl2201) Tc, max ≈ 95 K and (Bi 1.35Pb0.85)(Sr1.47La0.38)CuO6+δ (Bi2201) Tc, max ≈ 35 K. The aim of the study was to provide some insight into the reasons why single layer cuprate's maximum transition temperatures are so different. The study found two major differences in the band structure. First, the Fermi surface segments close to (π,0) are more parallel in Tl2201 than in Bi2201. Second, the shadow band usually related to crystal structure is only present in Bi2201, but absent in higher Tc Tl2201. The second study looks at the different ways of doping Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi2212) in-situ by only changing the post bake-out vacuum conditions and temperature. The aim of the study is to systematically look into the generally overlooked experimental conditions that change the doping of a cleaved sample in ultra high vacuum (UHV) experiments. The study found two major experimental facts. First, in inadequate UHV conditions the carrier concentration of Bi2212 increases with time, due to the absorption of oxygen from CO2/CO molecules, prime contaminants present in UHV systems. Second, in a very clean UHV system at elevated temperatures (above about 200 K), the carrier concentration decreases due to the loss of oxygen atoms from the Bi-O layer. The final study probed the particle-hole symmetry of the pseudogap phase in high temperature superconducting cuprates by looking at the thermally excited bands above the Fermi level. The data showed a particle-hole symmetric pseudogap which symmetrically closes away from the nested FS before the node. The data is

  2. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies of cuprate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palczewski, Ari Deibert [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of three different angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies on cuprate superconductors. The first study compares the band structure from two different single layer cuprates Tl2Ba2CuO6+δ (Tl2201) Tc,max ~95 K and (Bi1.35Pb0.85)(Sr1.47La0.38)CuO6+δ (Bi2201) Tc,max 35 K. The aim of the study was to provide some insight into the reasons why single layer cuprate's maximum transition temperatures are so different. The study found two major di erences in the band structure. First, the Fermi surface segments close to ( π,0) are more parallel in Tl2201 than in Bi2201. Second, the shadow band usually related to crystal structure is only present in Bi2201, but absent in higher Tc Tl2201. The second study looks at the different ways of doping Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi2212) in-situ by only changing the post bake-out vacuum conditions and temperature. The aim of the study is to systematically look into the generally overlooked experimental conditions that change the doping of a cleaved sample in ultra high vacuum (UHV) experiments. The study found two major experimental facts. First, in inadequate UHV conditions the carrier concentration of Bi2212 increases with time, due to the absorption of oxygen from CO2/CO molecules, prime contaminants present in UHV systems. Second, in a very clean UHV system at elevated temperatures (above about 200 K), the carrier concentration decreases due to the loss of oxygen atoms from the Bi-O layer. The final study probed the particle-hole symmetry of the pseudogap phase in high temperature superconducting cuprates by looking at the thermally excited bands above the Fermi level. The data showed a particle-hole symmetric pseudogap which symmetrically closes away from the nested FS before the node. The data is consistent with

  3. Angle-resolved photoemission study of NiO and CoO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Z.X.; Lindberg, P.A.P.; Shih, C.K.; Spicer, W.E.; Lindau, I.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report an angle-resolved photoemission investigation of the electronic structures of NiO and CoO. The lattice effects on the photoemission spectra of these highly correlated materials are important. The magnitudes of dispersions of the oxygen bands agree with band calculations, but the experimental data of the localized 3d bands do not agree with the band calculations

  4. a Study on SODIUM(110) and Other Nearly Free Electron Metals Using Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyo, In-Whan

    Electronic properties of the epitaxially grown Na(110) film have been studied using angle resolved ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation as the light source. Na provides an ideal ground to study the fundamental aspects of the electron-electron interactions in metals, because of its simple Fermi surface and small pseudopotential. The absolute band structure of Na(110) using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been mapped out using the extrema searching method. The advantage of this approach is that the usual assumption of the unoccupied state dispersion is not required. We have found that the dispersion of Na(1l0) is very close to the parabolic band with the effective mass 1.21 M_{rm e} at 90 K. Self-consistent calculations of the self-energy for the homogeneous electron gas have been performed using the Green's function technique within the framework of the GW approximation, in the hope of understanding the narrowing mechanism of the bandwidth observed for all the nearly-free-electron (NFE) metals. Good agreements between the experimental data and our calculated self-energy were obtained not only for our data on k-dependency from Na(l10), but also for the total bandwidth corrections for other NFE metals, only if dielectric functions beyond the random phase approximation were used. Our findings emphasize the importance of the screening by long wavelength plasmons. Off-normal spectra of angle resolved photoemission from Na(110) show strong asymmetry of the bulk peak intensity for the wide range of photon energies. Using a simple analysis, we show this asymmetry has an origin in the interference of the surface Umklapp electrons with the normal electrons. We have also performed the detailed experimental studies of the anomalous Fermi level structure observed in the forbidden gap region of Na. This was claimed by A. W. Overhauser as the evidence of the charge density wave in the alkali metal. The possibility of this hypothesis is

  5. Electronic structure of Sr2RuO4 studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasawa, H.; Aiura, Y.; Saitoh, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Hase, I.; Ikeda, S.I.; Bando, H.; Kubota, M.; Ono, K.

    2007-01-01

    Electronic structure of the monolayer strontium ruthenate Sr 2 RuO 4 was investigated by high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We present photon-energy (hν) dependence of the electronic structure near the Fermi level along the ΓM line. The hν dependence has shown a strong spectral weight modulation of the Ru 4d xy and 4d zx bands

  6. Electronic properties of novel topological quantum materials studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-12-17

    The discovery of quantum Hall e ect has motivated the use of topology instead of broken symmetry to classify the states of matter. Quantum spin Hall e ect has been proposed to have a separation of spin currents as an analogue of the charge currents separation in quantum Hall e ect, leading us to the era of topological insulators. Three-dimensional analogue of the Dirac state in graphene has brought us the three-dimensional Dirac states. Materials with three-dimensional Dirac states could potentially be the parent compounds for Weyl semimetals and topological insulators when time-reversal or space inversion symmetry is broken. In addition to the single Dirac point linking the two dispersion cones in the Dirac/Weyl semimetals, Dirac points can form a line in the momentum space, resulting in a topological node line semimetal. These fascinating novel topological quantum materials could provide us platforms for studying the relativistic physics in condensed matter systems and potentially lead to design of new electronic devices that run faster and consume less power than traditional, silicon based transistors. In this thesis, we present the electronic properties of novel topological quantum materials studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES).

  7. Direct angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since 1997 we systematically perform direct angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) on in-situ grown thin (< 30 nm) cuprate films. Specifically, we probe low-energy electronic structure and properties of high-c superconductors (HTSC) under different degrees of epitaxial (compressive vs. tensile) strain.

  8. Angle-resolved photoemission studies of the superconducting gap symmetry in Fe-based superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-B. Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The superconducting gap is the fundamental parameter that characterizes the superconducting state, and its symmetry is a direct consequence of the mechanism responsible for Cooper pairing. Here we discuss about angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements of the superconducting gap in the Fe-based high-temperature superconductors. We show that the superconducting gap is Fermi surface dependent and nodeless with small anisotropy, or more precisely, a function of the momentum location in the Brillouin zone. We show that while this observation seems inconsistent with weak coupling approaches for superconductivity in these materials, it is well supported by strong coupling models and global superconducting gaps. We also suggest that a smaller lifetime of the superconducting Cooper pairs induced by the momentum dependent interband scattering inherent to these materials could affect the residual density of states at low energies, which is critical for a proper evaluation of the superconducting gap.

  9. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    Measurements of the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the S(1s) core level of a c(2 x 2)S/Ni(001) are analyzed to determine the spacing between the S overlayer and the first and second Ni layers. ARPEFS is a type of photoelectron diffraction measurement in which the photoelectron kinetic energy is swept typically from 100 to 600 eV. By using this wide range of intermediate energies we add high precision and theoretical simplification to the advantages of the photoelectron diffraction technique for determining surface structures. We report developments in the theory of photoelectron scattering in the intermediate energy range, measurement of the experimental photoemission spectra, their reduction to ARPEFS, and the surface structure determination from the ARPEFS by combined Fourier and multiple-scattering analyses. 202 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs

  10. High Resolution Angle Resolved Photoemission Studies on Quasi-Particle Dynamics in Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leem, C.S.

    2010-06-02

    We obtained the spectral function of the graphite H point using high resolution angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). The extracted width of the spectral function (inverse of the photo-hole lifetime) near the H point is approximately proportional to the energy as expected from the linearly increasing density of states (DOS) near the Fermi energy. This is well accounted by our electron-phonon coupling theory considering the peculiar electronic DOS near the Fermi level. And we also investigated the temperature dependence of the peak widths both experimentally and theoretically. The upper bound for the electron-phonon coupling parameter is 0.23, nearly the same value as previously reported at the K point. Our analysis of temperature dependent ARPES data at K shows that the energy of phonon mode of graphite has much higher energy scale than 125K which is dominant in electron-phonon coupling.

  11. Band structure and Fermi surface of UPd2Al3 studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Shin-ichi; Saitoh, Yuji; Okane, Tetsuo; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Fujimori, Atsushi; Haga, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Onuki, Yoshichika

    2007-01-01

    We have observed the band structure and Fermi surfaces of the heavy Fermion superconductor UPd 2 Al 3 by angle-resolved photoemission experiments in the soft X-ray region. We observed renormalized quasi-particle bands in the vicinity of the Fermi level and strongly dispersive bands on the higher binding energy side. Our observation suggests that the structure previously assigned to contributions from localized states in the U 5f spectrum has strong energy dispersions

  12. An Angle Resolved Photoemission Study of a Mott Insulator and Its Evolution to a High Temperature Superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronning, Filip

    2002-03-19

    One of the most remarkable facts about the high temperature superconductors is their close proximity to an antiferromagnetically ordered Mott insulating phase. This fact suggests that to understand superconductivity in the cuprates we must first understand the insulating regime. Due to material properties the technique of angle resolved photoemission is ideally suited to study the electronic structure in the cuprates. Thus, a natural starting place to unlocking the secrets of high Tc would appears to be with a photoemission investigation of insulating cuprates. This dissertation presents the results of precisely such a study. In particular, we have focused on the compound Ca{sub 2-x}Na{sub x}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. With increasing Na content this system goes from an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator with a Neel transition of 256K to a superconductor with an optimal transition temperature of 28K. At half filling we have found an asymmetry in the integrated spectral weight, which can be related to the occupation probability, n(k). This has led us to identify a d-wave-like dispersion in the insulator, which in turn implies that the high energy pseudogap as seen by photoemission is a remnant property of the insulator. These results are robust features of the insulator which we found in many different compounds and experimental conditions. By adding Na we were able to study the evolution of the electronic structure across the insulator to metal transition. We found that the chemical potential shifts as holes are doped into the system. This picture is in sharp contrast to the case of La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} where the chemical potential remains fixed and states are created inside the gap. Furthermore, the low energy excitations (ie the Fermi surface) in metallic Ca{sub 1.9}Na{sub 0.1}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} is most well described as a Fermi arc, although the high binding energy features reveal the presence of shadow bands. Thus, the results in this dissertation provide a

  13. Studies of Dirac and Weyl fermions by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lunan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three parts. First, we study magnetic domains in Nd2Fe14B single crystals using high resolution magnetic force microscopy (MFM). In addition to the elongated, wavy nano-domains reported by a previous MFM study, we found that the micrometer size, star-shaped fractal pattern is constructed of an elongated network of nano-domains about 20 nm in width, with resolution-limited domain walls thinner than 2 nm. Second, we studied extra Dirac cones of multilayer graphene on SiC surface by ARPES and SPA-LEED. We discovered extra Dirac cones on Fermi surface due to SiC 6 x 6 and graphene 6√ 3 6√ 3 coincidence lattice on both single-layer and three-layer graphene sheets. We interpreted the position and intensity of the Dirac cone replicas, based on the scattering vectors from LEED patterns. We found the positions of replica Dirac cones are determined mostly by the 6 6 SiC superlattice even graphene layers grown thicker. Finally, we studied the electronic structure of MoTe2 by ARPES and experimentally con rmed the prediction of type II Weyl state in this material. By combining the result of Density Functional Theory calculations and Berry curvature calculations with out experimental data, we identi ed Fermi arcs, track states and Weyl points, all features predicted to exist in a type II Weyl semimetal. This material is an excellent playground for studies of exotic Fermions.

  14. Comparative study of rare earth hexaborides using high resolution angle-resolved photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramankutty, S.V., E-mail: s.v.ramankutty@uva.nl [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jong, N. de; Huang, Y.K.; Zwartsenberg, B. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Massee, F. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Bay, T.V. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Golden, M.S., E-mail: m.s.golden@uva.nl [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Frantzeskakis, E., E-mail: e.frantzeskakis@uva.nl [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • ARPES electronic structure study of rare-earth (RE) hexaborides SmB{sub 6}, CeB{sub 6} and YbB{sub 6}. • Increasing RE valence Yb[II], Sm[II/III], Ce[III] increases d-band occupancy. • YbB{sub 6} and SmB{sub 6} posses 2D states at E{sub F}, whereas the Fermi surface of CeB{sub 6} is 3D. • ARPES, LEED and STM data prove structural relaxation of the SmB{sub 6}(001) surface. - Abstract: Strong electron correlations in rare earth hexaborides can give rise to a variety of interesting phenomena like ferromagnetism, Kondo hybridization, mixed valence, superconductivity and possibly topological characteristics. The theoretical prediction of topological properties in SmB{sub 6} and YbB{sub 6} has rekindled the scientific interest in the rare earth hexaborides, and high-resolution ARPES has been playing a major role in the debate. The electronic band structure of the hexaborides contains the key to understand the origin of the different phenomena observed, and much can be learned by comparing the experimental data from different rare earth hexaborides. We have performed high-resolution ARPES on the (001) surfaces of YbB{sub 6}, CeB{sub 6} and SmB{sub 6}. On the most basic level, the data show that the differences in the valence of the rare earth element are reflected in the experimental electronic band structure primarily as a rigid shift of the energy position of the metal 5d states with respect to the Fermi level. Although the overall shape of the d-derived Fermi surface contours remains the same, we report differences in the dimensionality of these states between the compounds studied. Moreover, the spectroscopic fingerprint of the 4f states also reveals considerable differences that are related to their coherence and the strength of the d–f hybridization. For the SmB{sub 6} case, we use ARPES in combination with STM imaging and electron diffraction to reveal time dependent changes in the structural symmetry of the highly debated SmB{sub 6

  15. Angle resolved photoemission study of Fermi surfaces and single-particle excitations of quasi-low dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gweon, Gey-Hong

    Using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) as the main experimental tool and the single particle Green's function as the main theoretical tool, materials of various degrees of low dimensionality and different ground states are studied. The underlying theme of this thesis is that of one dimensional physics, which includes charge density waves (CDW's) and the Luttinger liquid (LL). The LL is the prime example of a lattice non-Fermi liquid (non-FL) and CDW fluctuations also give non-FL behaviors. Non-FL physics is an emerging paradigm of condensed matter physics. It is thought by some researchers that one dimensional LL behavior is a key element in solving the high temperature superconductivity problem. TiTe2 is a quasi-2 dimensional (quasi-2D) Fermi liquid (FL) material very well suited for ARPES lineshape studies. I report ARPES spectra at 300 K which show an unusual behavior of a peak moving through the Fermi energy (EF). I also report a good fit of the ARPES spectra at 25 K obtained by using a causal Green's function proposed by K. Matho. SmTe3 is a quasi-2D CDW material. The near EF ARPES spectra and intensity map reveal rich details of an anisotropic gap and imperfectly nested Fermi surface (FS) for a high temperature CDW. A simple model of imperfect nesting can be constructed from these data and predicts a CDW wavevector in very good agreement with the value known from electron diffraction. NaMo6O17 and KMo 6O17 are also quasi-2D CDW materials. The "hidden nesting" or "hidden 1 dimensionality" picture for the CDW is confirmed very well by our direct image of the FS. K0.3MoO3, the so-called "blue bronze," is a quasi-1 dimensional (quasi-1D) CDW material. Even in its metallic phase above the CDW transition temperature, its photoemission spectra show an anomalously weak intensity at EF and no clear metallic Fermi edge. I compare predictions of an LL model and a CDW fluctuation model regarding these aspects, and find that the LL scenario explains them

  16. Electronic structure studies of ferro-pnictide superconductors and their parent compounds using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setti, Thirupathaiah

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of high temperature superconductivity in the iron pnictide compound LaO 1-x F x FeAs with T c = 26 K as created enormous interest in the high-T c superconductor community. So far, four prototypes of crystal structures have been found in the Fe-pnictide family. All four show a structural deformation followed or accompanied by a magnetic transition from a high temperature paramagnetic conductor to a low temperature antiferromagnetic metal whose transition temperature T N varies between the compounds. Charge carrier doping, isovalent substitution of the As atoms or the application of pressure suppresses the antiferromagnetic spin density wave (SDW) order and leads to a superconducting phase. More recently high Tc superconductivity has been also detected in iron chalchogenides with similar normal state properties. Since superconductivity is instability of the normal state, the study of normal state electronic structure in comparison with superconducting state could reveal important information on the pairing mechanism. Therefore, it is most important to study the electronic structure of these new superconductors, i.e., to determine Fermi surfaces and band dispersions near the Fermi level at the high symmetry points in order to obtain a microscopic understanding of the superconducting properties. Using the technique angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) one measures the electrons ejected from a sample when photons impinge on it. In this way one can map the Fermi surface which provides useful information regarding the physics behind the Fermi surface topology of high T c superconductors. Furthermore, this technique provides information on the band dispersion, the orbital character of the bands, the effective mass, the coupling to bosonic excitations, and the superconducting gap. This emphasizes the importance of studying the electronic structure of the newly discovered Fe-pnictides using ARPES. In this work we have studied the electronic

  17. Electronic structure studies of ferro-pnictide superconductors and their parent compounds using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setti, Thirupathaiah

    2011-07-14

    The discovery of high temperature superconductivity in the iron pnictide compound LaO{sub 1-x}F{sub x}FeAs with T{sub c} = 26 K as created enormous interest in the high-T{sub c} superconductor community. So far, four prototypes of crystal structures have been found in the Fe-pnictide family. All four show a structural deformation followed or accompanied by a magnetic transition from a high temperature paramagnetic conductor to a low temperature antiferromagnetic metal whose transition temperature T{sub N} varies between the compounds. Charge carrier doping, isovalent substitution of the As atoms or the application of pressure suppresses the antiferromagnetic spin density wave (SDW) order and leads to a superconducting phase. More recently high Tc superconductivity has been also detected in iron chalchogenides with similar normal state properties. Since superconductivity is instability of the normal state, the study of normal state electronic structure in comparison with superconducting state could reveal important information on the pairing mechanism. Therefore, it is most important to study the electronic structure of these new superconductors, i.e., to determine Fermi surfaces and band dispersions near the Fermi level at the high symmetry points in order to obtain a microscopic understanding of the superconducting properties. Using the technique angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) one measures the electrons ejected from a sample when photons impinge on it. In this way one can map the Fermi surface which provides useful information regarding the physics behind the Fermi surface topology of high T{sub c} superconductors. Furthermore, this technique provides information on the band dispersion, the orbital character of the bands, the effective mass, the coupling to bosonic excitations, and the superconducting gap. This emphasizes the importance of studying the electronic structure of the newly discovered Fe-pnictides using ARPES. In this work we have

  18. Angle-resolved photoemission study and first-principles calculation of the electronic structure of LaSb2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acatrinei, Alice I; Browne, D; Losovyj, Y B; Young, D P; Moldovan, M; Chan, Julia Y; Sprunger, P T; Kurtz, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    In this work we present valence band studies of LaSb 2 using angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation and compare these data with band structure calculations. Valence band spectra reveal that Sb 5p states are dominant near the Fermi level and are hybridized with the La 5d states just below. The calculations show a fair agreement with the experimentally determined valence band spectra, allowing an identification of the observed features. We measured some dispersion for kbar, especially for Sb 5p states; no significant dispersion was found for k || . (letter to the editor)

  19. Unusually large chemical potential shift in a degenerate semiconductor: Angle-resolved photoemission study of SnSe and Na-doped SnSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Mizokawa, T.; Saini, N. L.; Arita, M.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Tan, G.; Zhao, L. D.; Kanatzidis, M. G.

    2018-03-01

    We have studied the electronic structure of SnSe and Na-doped SnSe by means of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The valence-band top reaches the Fermi level by the Na doping, indicating that Na-doped SnSe can be viewed as a degenerate semiconductor. However, in the Na-doped system, the chemical potential shift with temperature is unexpectedly large and is apparently inconsistent with the degenerate semiconductor picture. The large chemical potential shift and anomalous spectral shape are key ingredients for an understanding of the novel metallic state with the large thermoelectric performance in Na-doped SnSe.

  20. The electronic structure of clean and adsorbate-covered Bi2Se3: an angle-resolved photoemission study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Marco; Hatch, Richard; Guan, Dandan

    2012-01-01

    Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is used for a detailed study of the electronic structure of the topological insulator Bi2Se3. Nominally stoichiometric and calcium-doped samples were investigated. The pristine surface shows the topological surface state in the bulk band gap. As time passes....... For a sufficiently strong band bending, additional states appear at the Fermi level. These are interpreted as quantized conduction band states. For large band bendings, these states are found to undergo a strong Rashba splitting. The formation of quantum well states is also observed for the valence band states......, the Dirac point moves to higher binding energies, indicating an increasingly strong downward bending of the bands near the surface. This time-dependent band bending is related to a contamination of the surface and can be accelerated by intentionally exposing the surface to carbon monoxide and other species...

  1. Charge-density-wave partial gap opening in quasi-2D KMo 6O 17 purple bronze studied by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, M. A.; Avila, J.; Pantin, V.; Drouard, S.; Guyot, H.; Asensio, M. C.

    2006-05-01

    Low dimensional (LD) metallic oxides have been a subject of continuous interest in the last two decades, mainly due to the electronic instabilities that they present at low temperatures. In particular, charge density waves (CDW) instabilities associated with a strong electron-phonon interaction have been found in Molybdenum metallic oxides such as KMo 6O 17 purple bronze. We report an angle resolved photoemission (ARPES) study from room temperature (RT) to T ˜40 K well below the Peierls transition temperature for this material, with CDW transition temperature TCDW ˜120 K. We have focused on photoemission spectra along ΓM high symmetry direction as well as photoemission measurements were taken as a function of temperature at one representative kF point in the Brillouin zone in order to look for the characteristic gap opening after the phase transition. We found out a pseudogap opening and a decrease in the density of states near the Fermi energy, EF, consistent with the partial removal of the nested portions of the Fermi surface (FS) at temperature below the CDW transition. In order to elucidate possible Fermi liquid (FL) or non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behaviour we have compared the ARPES data with that one reported on quasi-1D K 0.3MoO 3 blue bronze.

  2. Charge-density-wave partial gap opening in quasi-2D KMo6O17 purple bronze studied by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valbuena, M.A.; Avila, J.; Pantin, V.; Drouard, S.; Guyot, H.; Asensio, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Low dimensional (LD) metallic oxides have been a subject of continuous interest in the last two decades, mainly due to the electronic instabilities that they present at low temperatures. In particular, charge density waves (CDW) instabilities associated with a strong electron-phonon interaction have been found in Molybdenum metallic oxides such as KMo 6 O 17 purple bronze. We report an angle resolved photoemission (ARPES) study from room temperature (RT) to T ∼40 K well below the Peierls transition temperature for this material, with CDW transition temperature T CDW ∼120 K. We have focused on photoemission spectra along ΓM high symmetry direction as well as photoemission measurements were taken as a function of temperature at one representative k F point in the Brillouin zone in order to look for the characteristic gap opening after the phase transition. We found out a pseudogap opening and a decrease in the density of states near the Fermi energy, E F , consistent with the partial removal of the nested portions of the Fermi surface (FS) at temperature below the CDW transition. In order to elucidate possible Fermi liquid (FL) or non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behaviour we have compared the ARPES data with that one reported on quasi-1D K 0.3 MoO 3 blue bronze

  3. Charge-density-wave partial gap opening in quasi-2D KMo{sub 6}O{sub 17} purple bronze studied by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valbuena, M.A. [LURE, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, Bat. 209D, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Avila, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM - CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - B.P. 48, 91192 GIF-SUR-YVETTE Cedex (France); Pantin, V. [LURE, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, Bat. 209D, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Drouard, S. [LEPES-CENES, B.P. 166x, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Guyot, H. [LEPES-CENES, B.P. 166x, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Asensio, M.C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM - CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain) and Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - B.P. 48, 91192 GIF-SUR-YVETTE Cedex (France)]. E-mail: asensio@synchrotron-soleil.fr

    2006-05-30

    Low dimensional (LD) metallic oxides have been a subject of continuous interest in the last two decades, mainly due to the electronic instabilities that they present at low temperatures. In particular, charge density waves (CDW) instabilities associated with a strong electron-phonon interaction have been found in Molybdenum metallic oxides such as KMo{sub 6}O{sub 17} purple bronze. We report an angle resolved photoemission (ARPES) study from room temperature (RT) to T {approx}40 K well below the Peierls transition temperature for this material, with CDW transition temperature T {sub CDW} {approx}120 K. We have focused on photoemission spectra along {gamma}M high symmetry direction as well as photoemission measurements were taken as a function of temperature at one representative k {sub F} point in the Brillouin zone in order to look for the characteristic gap opening after the phase transition. We found out a pseudogap opening and a decrease in the density of states near the Fermi energy, E {sub F}, consistent with the partial removal of the nested portions of the Fermi surface (FS) at temperature below the CDW transition. In order to elucidate possible Fermi liquid (FL) or non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behaviour we have compared the ARPES data with that one reported on quasi-1D K{sub 0.3}MoO{sub 3} blue bronze.

  4. Electronic structure investigation of MoS2 and MoSe2 using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and ab initio band structure studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahatha, S K; Patel, K D; Menon, Krishnakumar S R

    2012-11-28

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and ab initio band structure calculations have been used to study the detailed valence band structure of molybdenite, MoS(2) and MoSe(2). The experimental band structure obtained from ARPES has been found to be in good agreement with the theoretical calculations performed using the linear augmented plane wave (LAPW) method. In going from MoS(2) to MoSe(2), the dispersion of the valence bands decreases along both k(parallel) and k(perpendicular), revealing the increased two-dimensional character which is attributed to the increasing interlayer distance or c/a ratio in these compounds. The width of the valence band and the band gap are also found to decrease, whereas the valence band maxima shift towards the higher binding energy from MoS(2) to MoSe(2).

  5. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on iron-chalcogenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maletz, Janek; Zabolotnyy, Volodymyr; Evtushinsky, Daniil; Thirupathaiah, Setti; Wolter-Giraud, Anja; Harnagea, Luminita; Kordyuk, Alexander; Borisenko, Sergey [IFW Dresden (Germany); Yaresko, Alexander [MPI-FKF, Stuttgart (Germany); Vasiliev, Alexander [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Chareev, Dimitri [RAS, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Rienks, Emile [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (Germany); Buechner, Bernd [IFW Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden (Germany); Shermadini, Zurab; Luetkens, Hubertus; Sedlak, Kamil; Khasanov, Rustem; Amato, Alex; Krzton-Maziopa, Anna; Conder, Kazimierz; Pomjakushina, Ekaterina [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Klauss, Hans-Henning [TU Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The electronic structure of the iron chalcogenide superconductors FeSe{sub 1-x} and Rb{sub 0.77}Fe{sub 1.61}Se{sub 2} was investigated by high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). The results were compared to DFT calculations and μSR measurements. Both compounds share ''cigar-shaped'' Fermi surface sheets in their electronic structure, that can be found in almost all iron-pnictide superconductors. These features originate from a strong interplay of two hole- and electron-like bands in the Brillouin zone center, leading to a pronounced singularity in the density of states just below the Fermi level. This facilitates the coupling to a bosonic mode responsible for superconductivity.

  6. High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission studies of high Tc superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rong.

    1990-01-01

    An angle-resolved photoemission study of the normal and superconducting states in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 was performed. Measurements in the normal state show bands dispersing through the Fermi level from at least 350 meV below E F . The Fermi level crossings are consistant with local-density band calculation, including a point calculated to be of Bi-O character. Additional measurements were made where bands crossed the Fermi level between 100 and 250K, along with measurements on an adjacent Pt foil. The Fermi edges of both materials agree to within the noise. Below the Fermi level, the spectra show correlation effects on the form of an increased effective mass. The shape of the spectra can be explained by a lifetime-broadened photohole and secondary electrons. The effective inverse photohole lifetime is linear in energy. A superconducting gap has been measured at a number of points where there is density at the Fermi level in the normal state. By proper modeling, a gap of 24 meV was obtained for all these points, including points of Cu-O and Bi-O character respectively, according to band calculation. The lack of gap anisotropy in the basal plane suggests that pinning in this material is not d-wave pairing

  7. Angle-resolved-photoemission study of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ: Metallicity of the Bi-O plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, B.O.; Shen, Z.; Dessau, D.S.; Spicer, W.E.; Olson, C.G.; Mitzi, D.B.; Kapitulnik, A.; List, R.S.; Arko, A.

    1990-01-01

    We have performed high-resolution angle-resolved-photoemission experiments on Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ single crystals with different annealing histories. By depositing a small amount of Au on the surface, we were able to distinguish electronic states associated with the Bi-O surface layer. We found that the Bi-O atomic surface layer is metallic and superconducting for samples that were high-temperature annealed in oxygen but not for as-grown samples. The Cu-O plane is found to be superconducting in all samples

  8. Exploring electronic structure of one-atom thick polycrystalline graphene films: A nano angle resolved photoemission study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, José; Razado, Ivy; Lorcy, Stéphane; Fleurier, Romain; Pichonat, Emmanuelle; Vignaud, Dominique; Wallart, Xavier; Asensio, María C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to produce large, continuous and defect free films of graphene is presently a major challenge for multiple applications. Even though the scalability of graphene films is closely associated to a manifest polycrystalline character, only a few numbers of experiments have explored so far the electronic structure down to single graphene grains. Here we report a high resolution angle and lateral resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (nano-ARPES) study of one-atom thick graphene films on thin copper foils synthesized by chemical vapor deposition. Our results show the robustness of the Dirac relativistic-like electronic spectrum as a function of the size, shape and orientation of the single-crystal pristine grains in the graphene films investigated. Moreover, by mapping grain by grain the electronic dynamics of this unique Dirac system, we show that the single-grain gap-size is 80% smaller than the multi-grain gap recently reported by classical ARPES. PMID:23942471

  9. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure: Multiple layers of emitters and multiple initial states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, W.R.A.; Kellar, S.A.; Moler, E.J.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA; Chen, Y.; Wu, H.; Shirley, D.A.; Hussain, Z.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS) has been applied to experimental systems involving multiple layers of emitters and non-s core-level photoemission in an effort to broaden the utility of the technique. Most of the previous systems have been comprised of atomic or molecular overlayers adsorbed onto a single-crystal, metal surface and the photoemission data were taken from an s atomic core-level in the overlayer. For such a system, the acquired ARPEFS data is dominated by the p o final state wave backscattering from the substrate atoms and is well understood. In this study, we investigate ARPEFS as a surface-region structure determination technique when applied to experimental systems comprised of multiple layers of photoemitters and arbitrary initial state core-level photoemission. Understanding the data acquired from multiple layers of photoemitters is useful for studying multilayer interfaces, ''buried'' surfaces, and clean crystals in ultra- high vacuum. The ability to apply ARPEFS to arbitrary initial state core-level photoemission obviously opens up many systems to analysis. Efforts have been ongoing to understand such data in depth. We present clean Cu(111) 3s, 3p, and 3d core-level, normal photoemission data taken on a high resolution soft x-ray beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, California and clean Ni(111) 3p normal photoemission data taken at the National Synchrotron Light Source in Upton, New York, USA

  10. Effects of strain on the electronic structure, superconductivity, and nematicity in FeSe studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, G. N.; Nakayama, K.; Sugawara, K.; Sato, T.; Urata, T.; Tanabe, Y.; Tanigaki, K.; Nabeshima, F.; Imai, Y.; Maeda, A.; Takahashi, T.

    2017-06-01

    One of central issues in iron-based superconductors is the role of structural change to the superconducting transition temperature (Tc). It was found in FeSe that the lattice strain leads to a drastic increase in Tc, accompanied by suppression of nematic order. By angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on tensile- or compressive-strained and strain-free FeSe, we experimentally show that the in-plane strain causes a marked change in the energy overlap (Δ Eh -e ) between the hole and electron pockets in the normal state. The change in Δ Eh -e modifies the Fermi-surface volume, leading to a change in Tc. Furthermore, the strength of nematicity is also found to be characterized by Δ Eh -e . These results suggest that the key to understanding the phase diagram is the fermiology and interactions linked to the semimetallic band overlap.

  11. Electronic structure of superconducting Bi2212 crystal by angle resolved ultra violet photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, N.L.; Shrivastava, P.; Garg, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    The electronic structure of a high quality superconducting Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 Osub(8+δ) (Bi2212) single crystal is studied by angle resolved ultra violet photoemission (ARUPS) using He I (21.2 eV). Our results appear to show two bands crossing the Fermi level in ΓX direction of the Brillouin zone as reported by Takahashi et al. The bands at higher binding energy do not show any appreciable dispersion. The nature of the states near the Fermi level is discussed and the observed band structure is compared with the band structure calculations. (author)

  12. Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy Studies of the Mott Insulator to Superconductor Evolution in Ca2-xNaxCuO2Cl2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Kyle Michael

    2005-09-02

    It is widely believed that many of the exotic physical properties of the high-T{sub c} cuprate superconductors arise from the proximity of these materials to the strongly correlated, antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state. Therefore, one of the fundamental questions in the field of high-temperature superconductivity is to understand the insulator-to-superconductor transition and precisely how the electronic structure of Mott insulator evolves as the first holes are doped into the system. This dissertation presents high-resolution, doping dependent angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) studies of the cuprate superconductor Ca{sub 2-x}Na{sub x}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, spanning from the undoped parent Mott insulator to a high-temperature superconductor with a T{sub c} of 22 K. A phenomenological model is proposed to explain how the spectral lineshape, the quasiparticle band dispersion, and the chemical potential all progress with doping in a logical and self-consistent framework. This model is based on Franck-Condon broadening observed in polaronic systems where strong electron-boson interactions cause the quasiparticle residue, Z, to be vanishingly small. Comparisons of the low-lying states to different electronic states in the valence band strongly suggest that the coupling of the photohole to the lattice (i.e. lattice polaron formation) is the dominant broadening mechanism for the lower Hubbard band states. Combining this polaronic framework with high-resolution ARPES measurements finally provides a resolution to the long-standing controversy over the behavior of the chemical potential in the high-T{sub c} cuprates. This scenario arises from replacing the conventional Fermi liquid quasiparticle interpretation of the features in the Mott insulator by a Franck-Condon model, allowing the reassignment of the position of the quasiparticle pole. As a function of hole doping, the chemical potential shifts smoothly into the valence band while spectral weight is transferred

  13. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with quantum gas microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrdt, A.; Greif, D.; Demler, E.; Knap, M.; Grusdt, F.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum gas microscopes are a promising tool to study interacting quantum many-body systems and bridge the gap between theoretical models and real materials. So far, they were limited to measurements of instantaneous correlation functions of the form 〈O ̂(t ) 〉 , even though extensions to frequency-resolved response functions 〈O ̂(t ) O ̂(0 ) 〉 would provide important information about the elementary excitations in a many-body system. For example, single-particle spectral functions, which are usually measured using photoemission experiments in electron systems, contain direct information about fractionalization and the quasiparticle excitation spectrum. Here, we propose a measurement scheme to experimentally access the momentum and energy-resolved spectral function in a quantum gas microscope with currently available techniques. As an example for possible applications, we numerically calculate the spectrum of a single hole excitation in one-dimensional t -J models with isotropic and anisotropic antiferromagnetic couplings. A sharp asymmetry in the distribution of spectral weight appears when a hole is created in an isotropic Heisenberg spin chain. This effect slowly vanishes for anisotropic spin interactions and disappears completely in the case of pure Ising interactions. The asymmetry strongly depends on the total magnetization of the spin chain, which can be tuned in experiments with quantum gas microscopes. An intuitive picture for the observed behavior is provided by a slave-fermion mean-field theory. The key properties of the spectra are visible at currently accessible temperatures.

  14. Theory of angle-resolved photoemission from the cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedegard, P.; Pedersen, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    We show that the photoemission spectrum for an RVB state with bosonic spins and fermionic charges consists of a peak on top of a broad background. The 'Fermi surface' corresponds to hole pockets around certain k-vectors. The theoretical predictions are compared with the available experimental data, and with the results obtained by other approaches. (orig.)

  15. General theoretical description of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of van der Waals structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, B.

    2018-04-01

    We develop a general theory to model the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) of commensurate and incommensurate van der Waals (vdW) structures, formed by lattice mismatched and/or misaligned stacked layers of two-dimensional materials. The present theory is based on a tight-binding description of the structure and the concept of generalized umklapp processes, going beyond previous descriptions of ARPES in incommensurate vdW structures, which are based on continuous, low-energy models, being limited to structures with small lattice mismatch/misalignment. As applications of the general formalism, we study the ARPES bands and constant energy maps for two structures: twisted bilayer graphene and twisted bilayer MoS2. The present theory should be useful in correctly interpreting experimental results of ARPES of vdW structures and other systems displaying competition between different periodicities, such as two-dimensional materials weakly coupled to a substrate and materials with density wave phases.

  16. Correlation, temperature and disorder: Recent developments in the one-step description of angle-resolved photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jürgen; Minár, Ján; Ebert, Hubert

    2018-04-01

    Various apparative developments extended the potential of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy tremendously during the last two decades. Modern experimental arrangements consisting of new photon sources, analyzers and detectors supply not only extremely high angle and energy resolution but also spin resolution. This provides an adequate platform to study in detail new materials like low-dimensional magnetic structures, Rashba systems, topological insulator materials or high TC superconductors. The interest in such systems has grown enormously not only because of their technological relevance but even more because of exciting new physics. Furthermore, the use of photon energies from few eV up to several keV makes this experimental technique a rather unique tool to investigate the electronic properties of solids and surfaces. The following article reviews the corresponding recent theoretical developments in the field of angle-resolved photoemission with a special emphasis on correlation effects, temperature and relativistic aspects. The most successful theoretical approach to deal with angle-resolved photoemission is the so-called spectral function or one-step formulation of the photoemission process. Nowadays, the one-step model allows for photocurrent calculations for photon energies ranging from a few eV to more than 10 keV, to deal with arbitrarily ordered and disordered systems, to account for finite temperatures, and considering in addition strong correlation effects within the dynamical mean-field theory or similar advanced approaches.

  17. Angle-resolved environmental X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: A new laboratory setup for photoemission studies at pressures up to 0.4 Torr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangolini, F.; Wabiszewski, G. E.; Egberts, P.; Åhlund, J.; Backlund, K.; Karlsson, P. G.; Adiga, V. P.; Streller, F.; Wannberg, B.; Carpick, R. W.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the development and demonstrates the capabilities of a new laboratory-based environmental X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy system incorporating an electrostatic lens and able to acquire spectra up to 0.4 Torr. The incorporation of a two-dimensional detector provides imaging capabilities and allows the acquisition of angle-resolved data in parallel mode over an angular range of 14° without tilting the sample. The sensitivity and energy resolution of the spectrometer have been investigated by analyzing a standard Ag foil both under high vacuum (10 −8 Torr) conditions and at elevated pressures of N 2 (0.4 Torr). The possibility of acquiring angle-resolved data at different pressures has been demonstrated by analyzing a silicon/silicon dioxide (Si/SiO 2 ) sample. The collected angle-resolved spectra could be effectively used for the determination of the thickness of the native silicon oxide layer.

  18. A study of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure as applied to the Ni 3p, Cu 3s, and Cu 3p core levels of the respective clean (111) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, W.R.A.; Moler, E.J.; Kellar, S.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The first non-s initial state angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS) study of clean surfaces for the purpose of further understanding the technique is reported. The surface structure sensitivity of ARPEFS applied to clean surfaces and to arbitrary initial states is studied using normal photoemission data taken from the Ni 3p core levels of a Ni(111) single crystal and the Cu 3s and the Cu 3p core-levels of a Cu(111) single crystal. The Fourier transforms of these clean surface data are dominated by backscattering. Unlike the s initial state data, the p initial state data show a peak in the Fourier transform corresponding to in-plane scattering from the six nearest-neighbors to the emitter. Evidence was seen for single-scattering events from in the same plane as the emitters and double-scattering events. Using a newly developed, multiple-scattering calculation program, ARPEFS data from clean surfaces and from p initial states can be modeled to high precision. Although there are many layers of emitters when measuring photoemission from a clean surface, test calculations show that the ARPEFS signal is dominated by photoemission from atoms in the first two crystal layers. Thus, ARPEFS applied to clean surfaces is sensitive to surface reconstruction. The known contraction of the first two Cu(111) layers is confirmed. The best-fit calculation for clean Ni(111) indicates an expansion of the first two layers. To better understand the ARPEFS technique, the authors studied s and non-s initial state photoemission from clean metal surfaces.

  19. A tunable low-energy photon source for high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harter, John W.; Monkman, Eric J.; Shai, Daniel E.; Nie Yuefeng; Uchida, Masaki; Burganov, Bulat; Chatterjee, Shouvik; King, Philip D. C.; Shen, Kyle M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a tunable low-energy photon source consisting of a laser-driven xenon plasma lamp coupled to a Czerny-Turner monochromator. The combined tunability, brightness, and narrow spectral bandwidth make this light source useful in laboratory-based high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy experiments. The source supplies photons with energies up to ∼7 eV, delivering under typical conditions >10 12 ph/s within a 10 meV spectral bandwidth, which is comparable to helium plasma lamps and many synchrotron beamlines. We first describe the lamp and monochromator system and then characterize its output, with attention to those parameters which are of interest for photoemission experiments. Finally, we present angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data using the light source and compare its performance to a conventional helium plasma lamp.

  20. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of rare earth LaSb{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michiardi, Matteo; Arnold, Fabian; Faerch Fisher, Karl Frederik; Svane, Axel; Bianchi, Marco; Brummerstedt Iversen, Bo; Hofmann, Philip [Aarhus University (Denmark); Shwetha, G.; Kanchana, V. [IIT-Hyderabad (India); Ganapathy, Vaitheeswaran [University of Hyderabad (India)

    2016-07-01

    Several rare earth diantimonides have been found to exhibit intriguing electronic properties such as anisotropic linear and non-saturating magnetoresistance. Among these materials, LaSb{sub 2} is not only considered for application in magnetoresistive devices but it is also found to be superconducting at low temperatures and it is investigated as candidate material to host charge density wave phases. Despite the several studies on its transport properties, the electronic structure of LaSb{sub 2} is still largely unknown. Here we present an angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and ab-initio calculation study of LaSb{sub 2}(001). The observed band structure is found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Our results reveal that LaSb{sub 2} is a semimetal with a strongly nested two-dimensional Fermi surface. The low energy spectrum is characterized by four massive hole pockets and by four shallow, strongly directional, electron pockets that exhibit Dirac-like dispersion. We speculate on the possibility that this peculiar electronic structure drives the magnetoresistance to its quantum limit, explaining its unconventional behavior.

  1. High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission investigation of potassium and phosphate tungsten bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Sanhita; Kumari, Spriha; Raj, Satyabrata

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electronic structure of potassium and phosphate tungsten bronzes. • Origin of transport anomalies in bronzes. • Flat segments of Fermi surfaces are connected by a nesting vector, q. • Nesting driven charge-density wave is responsible for the anomalies. - Abstract: We have performed high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and density functional ab initio theoretical calculation to study the electronic structure of potassium (K_0_._2_5WO_3) and phosphate (P_4W_1_2O_4_4) tungsten bronzes. We have experimentally determined the band dispersions and Fermi surface topology of these bronzes and compared with our theoretical calculations and a fair agreement has been seen between them. Our experimental as well as theoretical investigation elucidates the origin of transport anomalies in these bronzes. The Fermi surfaces of these bronzes consist of flat patches, which can be connected with each other by a constant nesting wave vector, q. The scattering wave vectors found from diffraction measurements match with these nesting vectors and the anomalies in the transport properties of these bronzes can be well explained by the evolution of charge-density wave with a partial nesting between the flat segments of the Fermi surfaces.

  2. Angle-resolved photoemission in high Tc cuprates from theoretical viewpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohyama, T.; Maekawa, S.

    2000-01-01

    The angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) technique has been developed rapidly over the last decade, accompanied by the improvement of energy and momentum resolutions. This technique has been established as the most powerful tool to investigate the high T c cuprate superconductors. We review recent ARPES data on the cuprates from a theoretical point of view, with emphasis on the systematic evolution of the spectral weight near the momentum (π, 0) from insulator to overdoped systems. The effects of charge stripes on the ARPES spectra are also reviewed. Some recent experimental and theoretical efforts to understand the superconducting state and the pseudogap phenomenon are discussed. (author)

  3. Determination of electronic states in crystalline semiconductors and metals by angle-resolved photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, K.A.

    1979-08-01

    An important part of the theoretical description of the solid state is band structure, which relies on the existence of dispersion relations connecting the electronic energy and wavevector in materials with translational symmetry. These relations determine the electronic behavior of such materials. The elaboration of accurate band structures, therefore, is of considerable fundamental and practical importance. Angle-resolved photoemission (ARP) spectroscopy provides the only presently available method for the detailed experimental investigation of band structures. This work is concerned with its application to both semiconducting and metallic single crystals

  4. Simple surface structure determination from Fourier transforms of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Shirley, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The authors show by Fourier analyses of experimental data, with no further treatment, that the positions of all the strong peaks in Fourier transforms of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS) from adsorbed surfaces can be explicitly predicted from a trial structure with an accuracy of about {+-} 0.3 {angstrom} based on a single-scattering cluster model together with the concept of a strong backscattering cone, and without any additional analysis. This characteristic of ARPEFS Fourier transforms can be developed as a simple method for determining the structures of adsorbed surfaces to an accuracy of about {+-} 0.1 {angstrom}.

  5. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of liquid water at 29.5 eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Junichi; West, Christopher W; Suzuki, Toshinori

    2017-07-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of liquid water was performed using extreme ultraviolet radiation at 29.5 eV and a time-of-flight photoelectron spectrometer. SiC/Mg coated mirrors were employed to select the single-order 19th harmonic from laser high harmonics, which provided a constant photon flux for different laser polarizations. The instrument was tested by measuring photoemission anisotropy for rare gases and water molecules and applied to a microjet of an aqueous NaI solution. The solute concentration was adjusted to eliminate an electric field gradient around the microjet. The observed photoelectron spectra were analyzed considering contributions from liquid water, water vapor, and an isotropic background. The anisotropy parameters of the valence bands (1 b 1 , 3 a 1 , and 1 b 2 ) of liquid water are considerably smaller than those of gaseous water, which is primarily attributed to electron scattering in liquid water.

  6. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of liquid water at 29.5 eV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Nishitani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of liquid water was performed using extreme ultraviolet radiation at 29.5 eV and a time-of-flight photoelectron spectrometer. SiC/Mg coated mirrors were employed to select the single-order 19th harmonic from laser high harmonics, which provided a constant photon flux for different laser polarizations. The instrument was tested by measuring photoemission anisotropy for rare gases and water molecules and applied to a microjet of an aqueous NaI solution. The solute concentration was adjusted to eliminate an electric field gradient around the microjet. The observed photoelectron spectra were analyzed considering contributions from liquid water, water vapor, and an isotropic background. The anisotropy parameters of the valence bands (1b1, 3a1, and 1b2 of liquid water are considerably smaller than those of gaseous water, which is primarily attributed to electron scattering in liquid water.

  7. Angle-resolved photoemission investigation of SmB{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlawenka, Peter; Rader, Oliver; Siemensmeyer, Konrad; Weschke, Eugen; Varykhalov, Andrei; Rienks, Emile [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (Germany); Shitsevalova, Natalya [Institute for Problems of Material Science, Kiev (Ukraine); Gabani, Slavomir; Flachbart, Karol [IEP, Slovak Academy of Science, Kosice (Slovakia)

    2015-07-01

    Recently the mixed valence compound SmB{sub 6} has drawn great attention. Theoretically predicted surface states, which should result from a hybridisation of localised f-bands with conduction electrons and a band inversion, would make SmB{sub 6} the first realisation of a so called topological Kondo insulator. Conductivity and transport measurements, as well as spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy seem to fortify the scenario of a topological nature of the conductive surface. We investigate the surface electronic structure of SmB{sub 6} by means of high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements below 1 K. We will present new insights into the surface states that determine the low temperature conductivity of this material.

  8. An experimentalist's guide to the matrix element in angle resolved photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An introduction to the art of angle resolved photoemission is presented. • Matrix element effects are described by a nearly free electron final state model. • ARPES spectral weight of a Bloch band can be calculated from the Fourier transform of its Wannier orbital. • Experimental handedness and improper polarization introduce dichroism. • Instructive showcases from modern ARPES are discussed in detail. - Abstract: Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is commonly known as a powerful probe of the one-electron removal spectral function in ordered solid state. With increasing efficiency of light sources and spectrometers, experiments over a wide range of emission angles become more and more common. Consequently, the angular variation of ARPES spectral weight – often times termed “matrix element effect” – enters as an additional source of information. In this tutorial, we develop a simple but instructive free electron final state approach based on the three-step model to describe the intensity distribution in ARPES. We find a compact expression showing that the ARPES spectral weight of a given Bloch band is essentially determined by the momentum distribution (the Fourier transform) of its associated Wannier orbital – times a polarization dependent pre-factor. While the former is giving direct information on the symmetry and shape of the electronic wave function, the latter can give rise to surprising geometric effects. We discuss a variety of modern and instructive experimental showcases for which this simplistic formalism works astonishingly well and discuss the limits of this approach.

  9. An experimentalist's guide to the matrix element in angle resolved photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Simon, E-mail: skmoser@lbl.gov [Advanced Light Source (ALS), Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Institute of Physics (IPHYS), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • An introduction to the art of angle resolved photoemission is presented. • Matrix element effects are described by a nearly free electron final state model. • ARPES spectral weight of a Bloch band can be calculated from the Fourier transform of its Wannier orbital. • Experimental handedness and improper polarization introduce dichroism. • Instructive showcases from modern ARPES are discussed in detail. - Abstract: Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is commonly known as a powerful probe of the one-electron removal spectral function in ordered solid state. With increasing efficiency of light sources and spectrometers, experiments over a wide range of emission angles become more and more common. Consequently, the angular variation of ARPES spectral weight – often times termed “matrix element effect” – enters as an additional source of information. In this tutorial, we develop a simple but instructive free electron final state approach based on the three-step model to describe the intensity distribution in ARPES. We find a compact expression showing that the ARPES spectral weight of a given Bloch band is essentially determined by the momentum distribution (the Fourier transform) of its associated Wannier orbital – times a polarization dependent pre-factor. While the former is giving direct information on the symmetry and shape of the electronic wave function, the latter can give rise to surprising geometric effects. We discuss a variety of modern and instructive experimental showcases for which this simplistic formalism works astonishingly well and discuss the limits of this approach.

  10. Evidence of the nature of core-level photoemission satellites using angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, E.J.; Kellar, S.A.; Huff, W.R.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The authors present a unique method of experimentally determining the angular momentum and intrinsic/extrinsic origin of core-level photoemission satellites by examining the satellite diffraction pattern in the Angle Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) mode. They show for the first time that satellite peaks not associated with chemically differentiated atomic species display an ARPEFS intensity oscillation. They present ARPEFS data for the carbon 1s from ({radical}3x{radical}3)R30 CO/Cu(111) and p2mg(2xl)CO/Ni(110), nitrogen 1s from c(2x2) N{sub 2}/Ni(100), cobalt 1s from p(1x1)Co/Cu(100), and nickel 3p from clean nickel (111). The satellite peaks and tails of the Doniach-Sunjic line shapes in all cases exhibit ARPEFS curves which indicate an angular momentum identical to the main peak and are of an intrinsic nature.

  11. Evidence of the nature of core-level photoemission satellites using angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moler, E.J.; Kellar, S.A.; Huff, W.R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a unique method of experimentally determining the angular momentum and intrinsic/extrinsic origin of core-level photoemission satellites by examining the satellite diffraction pattern in the Angle Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) mode. They show for the first time that satellite peaks not associated with chemically differentiated atomic species display an ARPEFS intensity oscillation. They present ARPEFS data for the carbon 1s from (√3x√3)R30 CO/Cu(111) and p2mg(2xl)CO/Ni(110), nitrogen 1s from c(2x2) N 2 /Ni(100), cobalt 1s from p(1x1)Co/Cu(100), and nickel 3p from clean nickel (111). The satellite peaks and tails of the Doniach-Sunjic line shapes in all cases exhibit ARPEFS curves which indicate an angular momentum identical to the main peak and are of an intrinsic nature

  12. Soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of heavily boron-doped superconducting diamond films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yokoya, T. Nakamura, T. Matushita, T. Muro, H. Okazaki, M. Arita, K. Shimada, H. Namatame, M. Taniguchi, Y. Takano, M. Nagao, T. Takenouchi, H. Kawarada and T. Oguchi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have performed soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (SXARPES of microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition diamond films with different B concentrations in order to study the origin of the metallic behavior of superconducting diamond. SXARPES results clearly show valence band dispersions with a bandwidth of ~23 eV and with a top of the valence band at gamma point in the Brillouin zone, which are consistent with the calculated valence band dispersions of pure diamond. Boron concentration-dependent band dispersions near the Fermi level (EF exhibit a systematic shift of EF, indicating depopulation of electrons due to hole doping. These SXARPES results indicate that diamond bands retain for heavy boron doping and holes in the diamond band are responsible for the metallic states leading to superconductivity at low temperature. A high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy spectrum near EF of a heavily boron-doped diamond superconductor is also presented.

  13. Method to map one-dimensional electronic wave function by using multiple Brillouin zone angle resolved photoemission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Wook Lee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES is a powerful tool to investigate electronic structures in solids and has been widely used in studying various materials. The electronic structure information by ARPES is obtained in the momentum space. However, in the case of one-dimensional system, we here show that we extract the real space information from ARPES data taken over multiple Brillouin zones (BZs. Intensities in the multiple BZs are proportional to the photoemission matrix element which contains information on the coefficient of the Bloch wave function. It is shown that the Bloch wave function coefficients can be extracted from ARPES data, which allows us to construct the real space wave function. As a test, we use ARPES data from proto-typical one-dimensional system SrCuO2 and construct the real space wave function.

  14. Fingerprints of entangled spin and orbital physics in itinerant ferromagnets via angle-resolved resonant photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Pieve, F.

    2016-01-01

    A method for mapping the local spin and orbital nature of the ground state of a system via corresponding flip excitations is proposed based on angle-resolved resonant photoemission and related diffraction patterns, obtained here via an ab initio modified one-step theory of photoemission. The analysis is done on the paradigmatic weak itinerant ferromagnet bcc Fe, whose magnetism, a correlation phenomenon given by the coexistence of localized moments and itinerant electrons, and the observed non-Fermi-Liquid behavior at extreme conditions both remain unclear. The combined analysis of energy spectra and diffraction patterns offers a mapping of local pure spin-flip, entangled spin-flip-orbital-flip excitations and chiral transitions with vortexlike wave fronts of photoelectrons, depending on the valence orbital symmetry and the direction of the local magnetic moment. Such effects, mediated by the hole polarization, make resonant photoemission a promising tool to perform a full tomography of the local magnetic properties even in itinerant ferromagnets or macroscopically nonmagnetic systems.

  15. Dimensional Crossover in a Charge Density Wave Material Probed by Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, C. W.; Berthod, C.; Puppin, M.; Berger, H.; Wolf, M.; Hoesch, M.; Monney, C.

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data reveal evidence of a crossover from one-dimensional (1D) to three-dimensional (3D) behavior in the prototypical charge density wave (CDW) material NbSe3 . In the low-temperature 3D regime, gaps in the electronic structure are observed due to two incommensurate CDWs, in agreement with x-ray diffraction and electronic-structure calculations. At higher temperatures we observe a spectral weight depletion that approaches the power-law behavior expected in one dimension. From the warping of the quasi-1D Fermi surface at low temperatures, we extract the energy scale of the dimensional crossover. This is corroborated by a detailed analysis of the density of states, which reveals a change in dimensional behavior dependent on binding energy. Our results offer an important insight into the dimensionality of excitations in quasi-1D materials.

  16. An ultrafast angle-resolved photoemission apparatus for measuring complex materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, Christopher L.; Lanzara, Alessandra; Jozwiak, Christopher; Zhang Wentao

    2012-01-01

    We present technical specifications for a high resolution time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy setup based on a hemispherical electron analyzer and cavity-dumped solid state Ti:sapphire laser used to generate pump and probe beams, respectively, at 1.48 and 5.93 eV. The pulse repetition rate can be tuned from 209 Hz to 54.3 MHz. Under typical operating settings the system has an overall energy resolution of 23 meV, an overall momentum resolution of 0.003 Å −1 , and an overall time resolution of 310 fs. We illustrate the system capabilities with representative data on the cuprate superconductor Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ . The descriptions and analyses presented here will inform new developments in ultrafast electron spectroscopy.

  17. An ultrafast angle-resolved photoemission apparatus for measuring complex materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Christopher L.; Jozwiak, Christopher; Zhang, Wentao; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2012-12-01

    We present technical specifications for a high resolution time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy setup based on a hemispherical electron analyzer and cavity-dumped solid state Ti:sapphire laser used to generate pump and probe beams, respectively, at 1.48 and 5.93 eV. The pulse repetition rate can be tuned from 209 Hz to 54.3 MHz. Under typical operating settings the system has an overall energy resolution of 23 meV, an overall momentum resolution of 0.003 Å-1, and an overall time resolution of 310 fs. We illustrate the system capabilities with representative data on the cuprate superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. The descriptions and analyses presented here will inform new developments in ultrafast electron spectroscopy.

  18. Direct observation of superconducting gaps in MgB 2 by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souma, S.; Machida, Y.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Matsui, H.; Wang, S.-C.; Ding, H.; Kaminski, A.; Campuzano, J. C.; Sasaki, S.; Kadowaki, K.

    2004-08-01

    High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been carried out to clarify the anomalous superconductivity of MgB 2. We observed three bands crossing the Fermi level, which are ascribed to B2p-σ, π and surface bands. We have succeeded for the first time in directly observing the superconducting gaps of these bands separately. We have found that the superconducting-gap sizes of σ and surface bands are 6.5 ± 0.5 and 6.0 ± 0.5 meV, respectively, while that of the π band is much smaller (1.5 ± 0.5 meV). The present experimental result unambiguously demonstrates the validity of the two-band superconductivity in MgB 2.

  19. Direct observation of superconducting gaps in MgB2 by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souma, S.; Machida, Y.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Matsui, H.; Wang, S.-C.; Ding, H.; Kaminski, A.; Campuzano, J.C.; Sasaki, S.; Kadowaki, K.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been carried out to clarify the anomalous superconductivity of MgB 2 . We observed three bands crossing the Fermi level, which are ascribed to B2p-σ, π and surface bands. We have succeeded for the first time in directly observing the superconducting gaps of these bands separately. We have found that the superconducting-gap sizes of σ and surface bands are 6.5 ± 0.5 and 6.0 ± 0.5 meV, respectively, while that of the π band is much smaller (1.5 ± 0.5 meV). The present experimental result unambiguously demonstrates the validity of the two-band superconductivity in MgB 2

  20. Invited Article: High resolution angle resolved photoemission with tabletop 11 eV laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yu; Vishik, Inna M.; Yi, Ming; Yang, Shuolong; Lee, James J.; Chen, Sudi; Rebec, Slavko N.; Leuenberger, Dominik; Shen, Zhi-Xun [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Liu, Zhongkai [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zong, Alfred [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Jefferson, C. Michael; Merriam, Andrew J. [Lumeras LLC, 207 McPherson St, Santa Cruz, California 95060 (United States); Moore, Robert G.; Kirchmann, Patrick S. [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with 113.778 nm wavelength (10.897 eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10 MHz, provides a flux of 2 × 10{sup 12} photons/s, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2 meV and 0.012 Å{sup −1}, respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2 meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2 Å{sup −1}, granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source and showcase its performance for rare earth metal tritellurides, high temperature cuprate superconductors, and iron-based superconductors.

  1. Extracting the temperature of hot carriers in time- and angle-resolved photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulstrup, Søren; Hofmann, Philip; Johannsen, Jens Christian; Grioni, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of light with a material's electronic system creates an out-of-equilibrium (non-thermal) distribution of optically excited electrons. Non-equilibrium dynamics relaxes this distribution on an ultrafast timescale to a hot Fermi-Dirac distribution with a well-defined temperature. The advent of time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TR-ARPES) experiments has made it possible to track the decay of the temperature of the excited hot electrons in selected states in the Brillouin zone, and to reveal their cooling in unprecedented detail in a variety of emerging materials. It is, however, not a straightforward task to determine the temperature with high accuracy. This is mainly attributable to an a priori unknown position of the Fermi level and the fact that the shape of the Fermi edge can be severely perturbed when the state in question is crossing the Fermi energy. Here, we introduce a method that circumvents these difficulties and accurately extracts both the temperature and the position of the Fermi level for a hot carrier distribution by tracking the occupation statistics of the carriers measured in a TR-ARPES experiment

  2. Extracting the temperature of hot carriers in time- and angle-resolved photoemission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulstrup, Søren; Johannsen, Jens Christian; Grioni, Marco; Hofmann, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of light with a material's electronic system creates an out-of-equilibrium (non-thermal) distribution of optically excited electrons. Non-equilibrium dynamics relaxes this distribution on an ultrafast timescale to a hot Fermi-Dirac distribution with a well-defined temperature. The advent of time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TR-ARPES) experiments has made it possible to track the decay of the temperature of the excited hot electrons in selected states in the Brillouin zone, and to reveal their cooling in unprecedented detail in a variety of emerging materials. It is, however, not a straightforward task to determine the temperature with high accuracy. This is mainly attributable to an a priori unknown position of the Fermi level and the fact that the shape of the Fermi edge can be severely perturbed when the state in question is crossing the Fermi energy. Here, we introduce a method that circumvents these difficulties and accurately extracts both the temperature and the position of the Fermi level for a hot carrier distribution by tracking the occupation statistics of the carriers measured in a TR-ARPES experiment.

  3. Surface State Dynamics of Topological Insulators Investigated by Femtosecond Time- and Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamoon Hedayat

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Topological insulators (TI are known for striking quantum phenomena associated with their spin-polarized topological surface state (TSS. The latter in particular forms a Dirac cone that bridges the energy gap between valence and conduction bands, providing a unique opportunity for prospective device applications. In TI of the BixSb2−xTeySe3−y (BSTS family, stoichiometry determines the morphology and position of the Dirac cone with respect to the Fermi level. In order to engineer specific transport properties, a careful tuning of the TSS is highly desired. Therefore, we have systematically explored BSTS samples with different stoichiometries by time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TARPES. This technique provides snapshots of the electronic structure and discloses the carrier dynamics in surface and bulk states, providing crucial information for the design of electro-spin current devices. Our results reveal the central role of doping level on the Dirac cone structure and its femtosecond dynamics. In particular, an extraordinarily long TSS lifetime is observed when the the vertex of the Dirac cone lies at the Fermi level.

  4. The Fermi surface and band folding in La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}, probed by angle-resolved photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razzoli, E; Radovic, M; Patthey, L; Shi, M [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Sassa, Y; Chang, J [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Drachuck, G; Keren, A; Shay, M [Department of Physics, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Maansson, M; Mesot, J [Laboratory for Synchrotron and Neutron Spectroscopy, EPF Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Berntsen, M H; Tjernberg, O [Materials Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, S-16440 Kista (Sweden); Pailhes, S [CEA, CNRS, CE Saclay, Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Momono, N [Department of Applied Sciences, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan); Oda, M; Ido, M [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Lipscombe, O J; Hayden, S M, E-mail: ming.shi@psi.c [H H Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    A systematic angle-resolved photoemission study of the electronic structure of La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} in a wide doping range is presented in this paper. In addition to the main energy band, we observed a weaker additional band, the ({pi}, {pi}) folded band, which shows unusual doping dependence. The appearance of the folded band suggests that a Fermi surface reconstruction is doping dependent and could already occur at zero magnetic field.

  5. Tetragonal and collapsed-tetragonal phases of CaFe2As2 : A view from angle-resolved photoemission and dynamical mean-field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roekeghem, Ambroise; Richard, Pierre; Shi, Xun; Wu, Shangfei; Zeng, Lingkun; Saparov, Bayrammurad; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Qian, Tian; Sefat, Athena S.; Biermann, Silke; Ding, Hong

    2016-06-01

    We present a study of the tetragonal to collapsed-tetragonal transition of CaFe2As2 using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and dynamical mean field theory-based electronic structure calculations. We observe that the collapsed-tetragonal phase exhibits reduced correlations and a higher coherence temperature due to the stronger Fe-As hybridization. Furthermore, a comparison of measured photoemission spectra and theoretical spectral functions shows that momentum-dependent corrections to the density functional band structure are essential for the description of low-energy quasiparticle dispersions. We introduce those using the recently proposed combined "screened exchange + dynamical mean field theory" scheme.

  6. Development of a high-resolution soft x-ray (30--1500 eV) beamline at the Advanced Light Source and its use for the study of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, W.R.A.

    1996-02-01

    ALS Bending magnet beamline 9.3.2 is for high resolution spectroscopy, with circularly polarized light. Fixed included-angle SGM uses three gratings for 30--1500 eV photons; circular polarization is produced by an aperture for selecting the beam above or below the horizontal plane. Photocurrent from upper and lower jaws of entrance slit sets a piezoelectric drive feedback loop on the vertically deflecting mirror for stable beam. End station has a movable platform. With photomeission data from Stanford, structure of c(2x2)P/Fe(100) was determined using angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS). Multiple-scattering spherical-wave (MSSW) calculations indicate that P atoms adsorb in fourfold hollow sites 1.02A above the first Fe layer. Self-consistent-field Xα scattered wave calculation confirm that the Fe 1 -Fe 2 space is contracted for S/Fe but not for P/Fe; comparison is made to atomic N and O on Fe(100). Final-state effects on ARPEFS curves used literature data from the S 1s and 2p core levels of c(2x2)S/Ni(001); a generalized Ramsauer-Townsend splitting is present in the 1s but not 2p data. An approximate method for analyzing ARPEFS data from a non-s initial state using only the higher-ell partial wave was tested successfully. ARPEFS data from clean surfaces were collected normal to Ni(111) (3p core levels) and 5 degree off-normal from Cu(111)(3s, 3p). Fourier transforms (FT) resemble adsorbate systems, showing backscattering signals from atoms up to 4 layers below emitters. 3p FTs show scattering from 6 nearest neighbors in the same crystal layer as the emitters. MSSW calulation indicate that Cu 3p photoemission is mostly d-wave. FTs also indicate double-scattering and single-scattering from laterally distant atoms; calculations indicate that the signal is dominated by photoemission from the first 2 crystal layers

  7. Gauge invariance in the theoretical description of time-resolved angle-resolved pump/probe photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freericks, J. K.; Krishnamurthy, H. R.; Sentef, M. A.; Devereaux, T. P.

    2015-10-01

    Nonequilibrium calculations in the presence of an electric field are usually performed in a gauge, and need to be transformed to reveal the gauge-invariant observables. In this work, we discuss the issue of gauge invariance in the context of time-resolved angle-resolved pump/probe photoemission. If the probe is applied while the pump is still on, one must ensure that the calculations of the observed photocurrent are gauge invariant. We also discuss the requirement of the photoemission signal to be positive and the relationship of this constraint to gauge invariance. We end by discussing some technical details related to the perturbative derivation of the photoemission spectra, which involve processes where the pump pulse photoexcites electrons due to nonequilibrium effects.

  8. Temperature-induced band shift in bulk γ-InSe by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanfeng; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Yafei; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Feng, Yue; Tu, Jian; Gu, Chenyi; Sun, Yizhe; Liu, Chang; Nie, Yuefeng; Edmond Turcu, Ion C.; Xu, Yongbing; He, Liang

    2018-05-01

    Indium selenide (InSe) has recently become popular research topics because of its unique layered crystal structure, direct band gap and high electron mobilities. In this work, we have acquired the electronic structure of bulk γ-InSe at various temperatures using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). We have also found that as the temperature decreases, the valence bands of γ-InSe exhibit a monotonic shift to lower binding energies. This band shift is attributed to the change of lattice parameters and has been validated by variable temperature X-ray diffraction measurements and theoretical calculations.

  9. Electronic structure of C r2AlC as observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takahiro; Pinek, Damir; Fujita, Taishi; Nakatake, Masashi; Ideta, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Kiyohisa; Ouisse, Thierry

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the electronic band structure and Fermi surfaces (FSs) of C r2AlC single crystals with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We evidence hole bands centered around the M points and electron bands centered around the Γ point in reciprocal space. Electron and hole bands exhibit an open, tubular structure along the c axis, confirming the quasi-two-dimensional character of this highly anisotropic, nanolamellar compound. Dependence of the photoionization cross sections on beam light polarization and orientation allows us to assess the orbital character of each observed band locally. Despite some differences, density functional theory calculations show a good agreement with experiment.

  10. Fermi Surface and Band Structure of (Ca,La)FeAs2 Superconductor from Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xu; Liu De-Fa; Zhao Lin; Guo Qi; Mu Qing-Ge; Chen Dong-Yun; Shen Bing; Yi He-Mian; Huang Jian-Wei; He Jun-Feng; Peng Ying-Ying; Liu Yan; He Shao-Long; Liu Guo-Dong; Dong Xiao-Li; Zhang Jun; Ren Zhi-An; Zhou Xing-Jiang; Chen Chuang-Tian; Xu Zu-Yan

    2013-01-01

    The (Ca,R)FeAs 2 (R=La, Pr, etc.) superconductors with a signature of superconductivity transition above 40 K possess a new kind of block layers that consist of zig-zag As chains. We report the electronic structure of the new (Ca,La)FeAs 2 superconductor investigated by both band structure calculations and high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements. Band structure calculations indicate that there are four hole-like bands around the zone center Γ(0,0) and two electron-like bands near the zone corner M(π, π) in CaFeAs 2 . In our angle-resolved photoemission measurements on (Ca 0.9 La 0.1 )FeAs 2 , we have observed three hole-like bands around the Γ point and one electron-like Fermi surface near the M(π, π) point. These results provide important information to compare and contrast with the electronic structure of other iron-based compounds in understanding the superconductivity mechanism in the iron-based superconductors. (express letter)

  11. Electronic structure of the dilute magnetic semiconductor G a1 -xM nxP from hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and angle-resolved photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keqi, A.; Gehlmann, M.; Conti, G.; Nemšák, S.; Rattanachata, A.; Minár, J.; Plucinski, L.; Rault, J. E.; Rueff, J. P.; Scarpulla, M.; Hategan, M.; Pálsson, G. K.; Conlon, C.; Eiteneer, D.; Saw, A. Y.; Gray, A. X.; Kobayashi, K.; Ueda, S.; Dubon, O. D.; Schneider, C. M.; Fadley, C. S.

    2018-04-01

    We have investigated the electronic structure of the dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) G a0.98M n0.02P and compared it to that of an undoped GaP reference sample, using hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HXPS) and hard x-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (HARPES) at energies of about 3 keV. We present experimental data, as well as theoretical calculations, to understand the role of the Mn dopant in the emergence of ferromagnetism in this material. Both core-level spectra and angle-resolved or angle-integrated valence spectra are discussed. In particular, the HARPES experimental data are compared to free-electron final-state model calculations and to more accurate one-step photoemission theory. The experimental results show differences between G a0.98M n0.02P and GaP in both angle-resolved and angle-integrated valence spectra. The G a0.98M n0.02P bands are broadened due to the presence of Mn impurities that disturb the long-range translational order of the host GaP crystal. Mn-induced changes of the electronic structure are observed over the entire valence band range, including the presence of a distinct impurity band close to the valence-band maximum of the DMS. These experimental results are in good agreement with the one-step photoemission calculations and a prior HARPES study of G a0.97M n0.03As and GaAs [Gray et al., Nat. Mater. 11, 957 (2012), 10.1038/nmat3450], demonstrating the strong similarity between these two materials. The Mn 2 p and 3 s core-level spectra also reveal an essentially identical state in doping both GaAs and GaP.

  12. Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy on Electronic Structure and Electron-Phonon Coupling in Cuprate Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, X.J.

    2010-04-30

    In addition to the record high superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}), high temperature cuprate superconductors are characterized by their unusual superconducting properties below T{sub c}, and anomalous normal state properties above T{sub c}. In the superconducting state, although it has long been realized that superconductivity still involves Cooper pairs, as in the traditional BCS theory, the experimentally determined d-wave pairing is different from the usual s-wave pairing found in conventional superconductors. The identification of the pairing mechanism in cuprate superconductors remains an outstanding issue. The normal state properties, particularly in the underdoped region, have been found to be at odd with conventional metals which is usually described by Fermi liquid theory; instead, the normal state at optimal doping fits better with the marginal Fermi liquid phenomenology. Most notable is the observation of the pseudogap state in the underdoped region above T{sub c}. As in other strongly correlated electrons systems, these unusual properties stem from the interplay between electronic, magnetic, lattice and orbital degrees of freedom. Understanding the microscopic process involved in these materials and the interaction of electrons with other entities is essential to understand the mechanism of high temperature superconductivity. Since the discovery of high-T{sub c} superconductivity in cuprates, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has provided key experimental insights in revealing the electronic structure of high temperature superconductors. These include, among others, the earliest identification of dispersion and a large Fermi surface, an anisotropic superconducting gap suggestive of a d-wave order parameter, and an observation of the pseudogap in underdoped samples. In the mean time, this technique itself has experienced a dramatic improvement in its energy and momentum resolutions, leading to a series of new discoveries not

  13. Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy on Electronic Structure and Electron-Phonon Coupling in Cuprate Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.J.

    2010-01-01

    In addition to the record high superconducting transition temperature (T c ), high temperature cuprate superconductors are characterized by their unusual superconducting properties below T c , and anomalous normal state properties above T c . In the superconducting state, although it has long been realized that superconductivity still involves Cooper pairs, as in the traditional BCS theory, the experimentally determined d-wave pairing is different from the usual s-wave pairing found in conventional superconductors. The identification of the pairing mechanism in cuprate superconductors remains an outstanding issue. The normal state properties, particularly in the underdoped region, have been found to be at odd with conventional metals which is usually described by Fermi liquid theory; instead, the normal state at optimal doping fits better with the marginal Fermi liquid phenomenology. Most notable is the observation of the pseudogap state in the underdoped region above T c . As in other strongly correlated electrons systems, these unusual properties stem from the interplay between electronic, magnetic, lattice and orbital degrees of freedom. Understanding the microscopic process involved in these materials and the interaction of electrons with other entities is essential to understand the mechanism of high temperature superconductivity. Since the discovery of high-T c superconductivity in cuprates, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has provided key experimental insights in revealing the electronic structure of high temperature superconductors. These include, among others, the earliest identification of dispersion and a large Fermi surface, an anisotropic superconducting gap suggestive of a d-wave order parameter, and an observation of the pseudogap in underdoped samples. In the mean time, this technique itself has experienced a dramatic improvement in its energy and momentum resolutions, leading to a series of new discoveries not thought possible

  14. Electronic structure of heavy fermion system CePt2In7 from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Bing; Yu Li; Lyu Shou-Peng; Jia Xiao-Wen; Zhang Yan; Wang Chen-Lu; Hu Cheng; Ding Ying; Sun Xuan; Hu Yong; Liu Jing; Gao Qiang; Zhao Lin; Liu Guo-Dong; Liu Kai; Lu Zhong-Yi; Bauer, E D; Thompson, J D; Xu Zu-Yan; Chen Chuang-Tian

    2017-01-01

    We have carried out high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurements on the Ce-based heavy fermion compound CePt 2 In 7 that exhibits stronger two-dimensional character than the prototypical heavy fermion system CeCoIn 5 . Multiple Fermi surface sheets and a complex band structure are clearly resolved. We have also performed detailed band structure calculations on CePt 2 In 7 . The good agreement found between our measurements and the calculations suggests that the band renormalization effect is rather weak in CePt 2 In 7 . A comparison of the common features of the electronic structure of CePt 2 In 7 and CeCoIn 5 indicates that CeCoIn 5 shows a much stronger band renormalization effect than CePt 2 In 7 . These results provide new information for understanding the heavy fermion behaviors and unconventional superconductivity in Ce-based heavy fermion systems. (paper)

  15. A Polarization-Adjustable Picosecond Deep-Ultraviolet Laser for Spin- and Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Feng-Feng; Yang Feng; Zhang Shen-Jin; Wang Zhi-Min; Xu Feng-Liang; Peng Qin-Jun; Zhang Jing-Yuan; Xu Zu-Yan; Wang Xiao-Yang; Chen Chuang-Tian

    2012-01-01

    We report on a polarization-adjustable picosecond deep-ultraviolet (DUV) laser at 177.3 nm. The DUV laser was produced by second harmonic generation from a mode-locked laser at 355 nm in nonlinear optical crystal KBBF. The laser delivered a maximum average output power of 1.1 mW at 177.3 nm. The polarization of the 177.3 nm beam was adjusted with linear and circular polarization by means of λ/4 and λ/2 wave plates. To the best of our knowledge, the laser has been employed as the circularly polarized and linearly polarized DUV light source for a spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with high resolution for the first time. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  16. Direct observation of superconducting gaps in MgB{sub 2} by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souma, S.; Machida, Y.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Matsui, H.; Wang, S.-C.; Ding, H.; Kaminski, A.; Campuzano, J.C.; Sasaki, S.; Kadowaki, K

    2004-08-01

    High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been carried out to clarify the anomalous superconductivity of MgB{sub 2}. We observed three bands crossing the Fermi level, which are ascribed to B2p-{sigma}, {pi} and surface bands. We have succeeded for the first time in directly observing the superconducting gaps of these bands separately. We have found that the superconducting-gap sizes of {sigma} and surface bands are 6.5 {+-} 0.5 and 6.0 {+-} 0.5 meV, respectively, while that of the {pi} band is much smaller (1.5 {+-} 0.5 meV). The present experimental result unambiguously demonstrates the validity of the two-band superconductivity in MgB{sub 2}.

  17. The UHV Experimental Chamber For Optical Measurements (Reflectivity and Absorption) and Angle Resolved Photoemission of the BEAR Beamline at ELETTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquali, L.; Nannarone, S.; De Luisa, A.

    2004-01-01

    The experimental station of the BEAR (Bending magnet for Emission, Absorption and Reflectivity) beamline at ELETTRA (Trieste, Italy) is an UHV chamber conceived to fully exploit the spectroscopic possibilities offered by the light spot produced by the beamline. Spectroscopies include reflectivity (θ-2θ and diffuse), optical absorption, fluorescence and angle resolved photoemission. The chamber can be rotated around the beam axis to select the s (TE) or p (TM) incidence conditions and/or the position of the ellipse of polarization with respect to the sample. Photon detectors (e.g. photodiodes) and electron detector (hemispherical analyzer - 1 deg. angular resolution, 20 meV energy resolution) cover about completely the full 2π solid angle above the sample surface in any light incidence condition

  18. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of band tails in lightly doped cuprates

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrov, A. S.; Reynolds, K.

    2007-01-01

    We amend ab initio strongly-correlated band structures by taking into account the band-tailing phenomenon in doped charge-transfer Mott-Hubbard insulators. We show that the photoemission from band tails accounts for sharp "quasi-particle" peaks, rapid loss of their intensities in some directions of the Brillouin zone ("Fermi-arcs") and high-energy "waterfall" anomalies as a consequence of matrix-element effects of disorder-localised states in the charge-transfer gap of doped cuprates.

  19. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of strontium lanthanum copper oxide thin films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, John Wallace

    Among the multitude of known cuprate material families and associated structures, the archetype is "infinite-layer" ACuO2, where perfectly square and flat CuO2 planes are separated by layers of alkaline earth atoms. The infinite-layer structure is free of magnetic rare earth ions, oxygen chains, orthorhombic distortions, incommensurate superstructures, ordered vacancies, and other complications that abound among the other material families. Furthermore, it is the only cuprate that can be made superconducting by both electron and hole doping, making it a potential platform for decoding the complex many-body interactions responsible for high-temperature superconductivity. Research on the infinite-layer compound has been severely hindered by the inability to synthesize bulk single crystals, but recent progress has led to high-quality superconducting thin film samples. Here we report in situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements of epitaxially-stabilized Sr1-chiLa chiCuO2 thin films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. At low doping, the material exhibits a dispersive lower Hubbard band typical of other cuprate parent compounds. As carriers are added to the system, a continuous evolution from Mott insulator to superconducting metal is observed as a coherent low-energy band develops on top of a concomitant remnant lower Hubbard band, gradually filling in the Mott gap. For chi = 0.10, our results reveal a strong coupling between electrons and (pi,pi) anti-ferromagnetism, inducing a Fermi surface reconstruction that pushes the nodal states below the Fermi level and realizing nodeless superconductivity. Electron diffraction measurements indicate the presence of a surface reconstruction that is consistent with the polar nature of Sr1-chiLachiCuO2. Most knowledge about the electron-doped side of the cuprate phase diagram has been deduced by generalizing from a single material family, Re2-chi CechiCuO4, where robust antiferromagnetism has been observed past chi

  20. Bulk electronic structures of n-type superconductor Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4 probed by high energy angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunekawa, M.; Sekiyama, A.; Kasai, S.; Yamasaki, A.; Fujiwara, H.; Sing, M.; Shigemoto, A.; Imada, S.; Onose, Y.; Tokura, Y.; Muro, T.; Suga, S.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a high-energy angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) study of the n-type high-T C cuprate, Nd 1.85 Ce 0.15 CuO 4 (NCCO). Our bulk sensitive results suggest a hole-like Fermi surface as seen by the so far reported low-energy ARPES studies. The soft X-ray Cu 2p core-level photoemission spectra show clear polar-angle dependence, suggesting the difference in electron states between the bulk and surface

  1. Electronic structure of charge-density-wave state in quasi-2D KMo6O17 purple bronze characterized by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, M. A.; Avila, J.; Drouard, S.; Guyot, H.; Asensio, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    We report on an angle-resolved-photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) investigation of layered quasi-two dimensional (2D) Molybdenum purple bronze KMo6O17 in order to study and characterizes the transition to a charge-density-wave (CDW) state. We have performed photoemission temperature dependent measurements cooling down from room temperature (RT) to 32 K, well below the Peierls transition for this material, with CDW transition temperature Tc =110 K. The spectra have been taken at a selected kF point of the Fermi surface (FS) that satisfies the nesting condition of the FS, looking for the characteristic pseudo-gap opening in this kind of materials. The pseudogap has been estimated and it result to be in agreement with our previous works. The shift to lower binding energy of crossing Fermi level ARPES feature have been also confirmed and studied as a function of temperature, showing a rough like BCS behaviour. Finally we have also focused on ARPES measurements along ΓM¯ high symmetry direction for both room and low temperature states finding some insight for ‘shadow’ or back folded bands indicating the new periodicity of real lattice after the CDW lattice distortion.

  2. Electronic structure of transition metal dichalcogenides PdTe2 and Cu0.05PdTe2 superconductors obtained by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Zhao Jian-Zhou; Yu Li; Hu Cheng; Liu De-Fa; Peng Ying-Ying; Xie Zhuo-Jin; He Jun-Feng; Chen Chao-Yu; Feng Ya; Yi He-Mian; Liu Xu; Zhao Lin; He Shao-Long; Liu Guo-Dong; Dong Xiao-Li; Zhang Jun; Lin Cheng-Tian; Chen Chuang-Tian; Xu Zu-Yan

    2015-01-01

    The layered transition metal chalcogenides have been a fertile land in solid state physics for many decades. Various MX 2 -type transition metal dichalcogenides, such as WTe 2 , IrTe 2 , and MoS 2 , have triggered great attention recently, either for the discovery of novel phenomena or some extreme or exotic physical properties, or for their potential applications. PdTe 2 is a superconductor in the class of transition metal dichalcogenides, and superconductivity is enhanced in its Cu-intercalated form, Cu 0.05 PdTe 2 . It is important to study the electronic structures of PdTe 2 and its intercalated form in order to explore for new phenomena and physical properties and understand the related superconductivity enhancement mechanism. Here we report systematic high resolution angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) studies on PdTe 2 and Cu 0.05 PdTe 2 single crystals, combined with the band structure calculations. We present in detail for the first time the complex multi-band Fermi surface topology and densely-arranged band structure of these compounds. By carefully examining the electronic structures of the two systems, we find that Cu-intercalation in PdTe 2 results in electron-doping, which causes the band structure to shift downwards by nearly 16 meV in Cu 0.05 PdTe 2 . Our results lay a foundation for further exploration and investigation on PdTe 2 and related superconductors. (rapid communication)

  3. High-Energy Anomaly in the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectra of Nd2-xCexCuO4: Evidence for a Matrix Element Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienks, E. D. L.; ńrrälä, M.; Lindroos, M.; Roth, F.; Tabis, W.; Yu, G.; Greven, M.; Fink, J.

    2014-09-01

    We use polarization-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the high-energy anomaly (HEA) in the dispersion of Nd2-xCexCuO4, x =0.123. We find that at particular photon energies the anomalous, waterfall-like dispersion gives way to a broad, continuous band. This suggests that the HEA is a matrix element effect: it arises due to a suppression of the intensity of the broadened quasiparticle band in a narrow momentum range. We confirm this interpretation experimentally, by showing that the HEA appears when the matrix element is suppressed deliberately by changing the light polarization. Calculations of the matrix element using atomic wave functions and simulation of the ARPES intensity with one-step model calculations provide further evidence for this scenario. The possibility to detect the full quasiparticle dispersion further allows us to extract the high-energy self-energy function near the center and at the edge of the Brillouin zone.

  4. High-energy anomaly in the angle-resolved photoemission spectra of Nd(2-x)Ce(x)CuO₄: evidence for a matrix element effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienks, E D L; Ärrälä, M; Lindroos, M; Roth, F; Tabis, W; Yu, G; Greven, M; Fink, J

    2014-09-26

    We use polarization-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the high-energy anomaly (HEA) in the dispersion of Nd(2-x)Ce(x)CuO₄, x=0.123. We find that at particular photon energies the anomalous, waterfall-like dispersion gives way to a broad, continuous band. This suggests that the HEA is a matrix element effect: it arises due to a suppression of the intensity of the broadened quasiparticle band in a narrow momentum range. We confirm this interpretation experimentally, by showing that the HEA appears when the matrix element is suppressed deliberately by changing the light polarization. Calculations of the matrix element using atomic wave functions and simulation of the ARPES intensity with one-step model calculations provide further evidence for this scenario. The possibility to detect the full quasiparticle dispersion further allows us to extract the high-energy self-energy function near the center and at the edge of the Brillouin zone.

  5. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with 9-eV photon-energy pulses generated in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Bromberger, H.; Ermolov, A.; Belli, F.; Liu, H.; Calegari, F.; Chavez-Cervantes, M.; Li, M. T.; Lin, C. T.; Abdolvand, A.; Russell, P. St. J.; Cavalleri, A.; Travers, J. C.; Gierz, I.

    2015-01-01

    A recently developed source of ultraviolet radiation, based on optical soliton propagation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, is applied here to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Near-infrared femtosecond pulses of only few {\\mu}J energy generate vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation between 5.5 and 9 eV inside the gas-filled fiber. These pulses are used to measure the band structure of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 with a signal to noise ratio comparable to ...

  6. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with 9-eV photon-energy pulses generated in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberger, H.; Ermolov, A.; Belli, F.; Liu, H.; Calegari, F.; Chávez-Cervantes, M.; Li, M. T.; Lin, C. T.; Abdolvand, A.; Russell, P. St. J.; Cavalleri, A.; Travers, J. C.; Gierz, I.

    2015-08-01

    A recently developed source of ultraviolet radiation, based on optical soliton propagation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, is applied here to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Near-infrared femtosecond pulses of only few μJ energy generate vacuum ultraviolet radiation between 5.5 and 9 eV inside the gas-filled fiber. These pulses are used to measure the band structure of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 with a signal to noise ratio comparable to that obtained with high order harmonics from a gas jet. The two-order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency promises time-resolved ARPES measurements at repetition rates of hundreds of kHz or even MHz, with photon energies that cover the first Brillouin zone of most materials.

  7. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with 9-eV photon-energy pulses generated in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromberger, H.; Liu, H.; Chávez-Cervantes, M.; Gierz, I.; Ermolov, A.; Belli, F.; Abdolvand, A.; Russell, P. St. J.; Travers, J. C.; Calegari, F.; Li, M. T.; Lin, C. T.; Cavalleri, A.

    2015-01-01

    A recently developed source of ultraviolet radiation, based on optical soliton propagation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, is applied here to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Near-infrared femtosecond pulses of only few μJ energy generate vacuum ultraviolet radiation between 5.5 and 9 eV inside the gas-filled fiber. These pulses are used to measure the band structure of the topological insulator Bi 2 Se 3 with a signal to noise ratio comparable to that obtained with high order harmonics from a gas jet. The two-order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency promises time-resolved ARPES measurements at repetition rates of hundreds of kHz or even MHz, with photon energies that cover the first Brillouin zone of most materials

  8. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with 9-eV photon-energy pulses generated in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberger, H., E-mail: Hubertus.Bromberger@mpsd.mpg.de; Liu, H.; Chávez-Cervantes, M.; Gierz, I. [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ermolov, A.; Belli, F.; Abdolvand, A.; Russell, P. St. J.; Travers, J. C. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Calegari, F. [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies, IFN-CNR, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Li, M. T.; Lin, C. T. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Cavalleri, A. [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Rd. Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-31

    A recently developed source of ultraviolet radiation, based on optical soliton propagation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, is applied here to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Near-infrared femtosecond pulses of only few μJ energy generate vacuum ultraviolet radiation between 5.5 and 9 eV inside the gas-filled fiber. These pulses are used to measure the band structure of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} with a signal to noise ratio comparable to that obtained with high order harmonics from a gas jet. The two-order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency promises time-resolved ARPES measurements at repetition rates of hundreds of kHz or even MHz, with photon energies that cover the first Brillouin zone of most materials.

  9. Time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with optimized high-harmonic pulses using frequency-doubled Ti:Sapphire lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eich, S.; Stange, A.; Carr, A.V.; Urbancic, J.; Popmintchev, T.; Wiesenmayer, M.; Jansen, K.; Ruffing, A.; Jakobs, S.; Rohwer, T.; Hellmann, S.; Chen, C.; Matyba, P.; Kipp, L.; Rossnagel, K.; Bauer, M.; Murnane, M.M.; Kapteyn, H.C.; Mathias, S.; Aeschlimann, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a scheme to generate high intensity XUV pulses from HHG with variable time-bandwidth product. • Shorter-wavelength driven high-harmonic XUV trARPES provides higher photon flux and increased energy resolution. • High-quality high-harmonic XUV trARPES data with sub 150 meV energy and sub 30 fs time resolution is presented. - Abstract: Time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (trARPES) using femtosecond extreme ultraviolet high harmonics has recently emerged as a powerful tool for investigating ultrafast quasiparticle dynamics in correlated-electron materials. However, the full potential of this approach has not yet been achieved because, to date, high harmonics generated by 800 nm wavelength Ti:Sapphire lasers required a trade-off between photon flux, energy and time resolution. Photoemission spectroscopy requires a quasi-monochromatic output, but dispersive optical elements that select a single harmonic can significantly reduce the photon flux and time resolution. Here we show that 400 nm driven high harmonic extreme-ultraviolet trARPES is superior to using 800 nm laser drivers since it eliminates the need for any spectral selection, thereby increasing photon flux and energy resolution to <150 meV while preserving excellent time resolution of about 30 fs

  10. Review of the theoretical description of time-resolved angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy in electron-phonon mediated superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, A.F. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Sentef, M.A. [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Moritz, B. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences (SIMES), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Devereaux, T.P. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences (SIMES), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Freericks, J.K. [Department of Physics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-09-15

    We review recent work on the theory for pump/probe photoemission spectroscopy of electron-phonon mediated superconductors in both the normal and the superconducting states. We describe the formal developments that allow one to solve the Migdal-Eliashberg theory in nonequilibrium for an ultrashort laser pumping field, and explore the solutions which illustrate the relaxation as energy is transferred from electrons to phonons. We focus on exact results emanating from sum rules and approximate numerical results which describe rules of thumb for relaxation processes. In addition, in the superconducting state, we describe how Anderson-Higgs oscillations can be excited due to the nonlinear coupling with the electric field and describe mechanisms where pumping the system enhances superconductivity. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Effect of Cleaving Temperature on the Surface and Bulk Fermi Surface of Sr2RuO4 Investigated by High Resolution Angle-Resolved Photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shan-Yu; Zhang Wen-Tao; Weng Hong-Ming; Zhao Lin; Liu Hai-Yun; Jia Xiao-Wen; Liu Guo-Dong; Dong Xiao-Li; Zhang Jun; Dai Xi; Fang Zhong; Zhou Xing-Jiang; Mao Zhi-Qiang; Chen Chuang-Tian; Xu Zu-Yan

    2012-01-01

    High resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurements are carried out to systematically investigate the effect of cleaving temperature on the electronic structures and Fermi surfaces of Sr 2 RuO 4 . Unlike previous reports, which found that a high cleaving temperature can suppress the surface Fermi surface, we find that the surface Fermi surface remains obvious and strong in Sr 2 RuO 4 cleaved at high temperature, even at room temperature. This indicates that cleaving temperature is not a key effective factor in suppressing surface bands. On the other hand, the bulk bands can be enhanced in an aged surface of Sr 2 RuO 4 that has been cleaved and held for a long time. We have also carried out laser ARPES measurements on Sr 2 RuO 4 by using a vacuum ultra-violet laser (photon energy at 6.994 eV) and found an obvious enhancement of bulk bands even for samples cleaved at low temperature. This information is important for realizing an effective approach to manipulating and detecting the surface and bulk electronic structure of Sr 2 RuO 4 . In particular, the enhancement of bulk sensitivity, along with the super-high instrumental resolution of VUV laser ARPES, will be advantageous in investigating fine electronic structure and superconducting properties of Sr 2 RuO 4 in the future. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  12. A universal high energy anomaly in angle resolved photoemission spectra of high temperature superconductors -- possible evidence of spinon and holon branches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, J.; Gweon, G.-H.; McElroy, K.; Zhou, S.Y.; Jozwiak, C.; Rotenberg, E.; Bill, A.; Sasagawa, T.; Eisaki, H.; Uchida, S.; Takagi, H.; Lee, D.-H.; Lanzara, A.

    2006-01-01

    A universal high energy anomaly in the single particle spectral function is reported in three different families of high temperature superconductors by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. As we follow the dispersing peak of the spectral function from the Fermi energy to the valence band complex, we find dispersion anomalies marked by two distinctive high energy scales, E 1 approx 0.38eV and E 2 approx 0.8 eV. E 1 marks the energy above which the dispersion splits into two branches. One is a continuation of the near parabolic dispersion, albeit with reduced spectral weight, and reaches the bottom of the band at the Gamma point at approx 0.5 eV. The other is given by a peak in the momentum space, nearly independent of energy between E 1 and E 2 . Above E 2 , a band-like dispersion re-emerges. We conjecture that these two energies mark the disintegration of the low energy quasiparticles into a spinon and holon branch in the high T c cuprates

  13. Adsorption site and structure determination of c(2x2) N{sub 2}/Ni(100) using angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, E.J.; Kellar, S.A.; Huff, W.R.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The authors have determined the atomic spatial structure of c(2x2) N2Ni(100) with Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the nitrogen 1s core level using monochromatized x-rays from beamline 6.1 at SSRL and beamline 9.3.2 at the ALS. The chemically shifted N 1s peak intensities were summed together to obtain ARPEFS curves for both nitrogen atoms in the molecule. They used a new, highly-optimized program based on the Rehr-Albers scattering matrix formalism to find the adsorption site and to quantitatively determine the bond-lengths. The nitrogen molecule stands upright at an atop site, with a N-Ni bond length of 2.25(1) {angstrom}, a N-N bond length of 1.10(7) {angstrom}, and a first layer Ni-Ni spacing of 1.76(4) {angstrom}. The shake-up peak shows an identical ARPEFS diffraction pattern, confirming its intrinsic nature and supporting a previous use of this feature to decompose the peak into contributions from the chemically inequivalent nitrogen atoms. Comparison to a previously published theoretical treatment of N-N-Ni and experimental structures of analogous adsorbate systems demonstrates the importance of adsorbate-adsorbate interactions in weakly chemisorbed systems.

  14. Rapid high-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with pulsed laser source and time-of-flight spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlieb, K.; Hussain, Z.; Bostwick, A.; Lanzara, A.; Jozwiak, C.

    2013-09-01

    A high-efficiency spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES) spectrometer is coupled with a laboratory-based laser for rapid high-resolution measurements. The spectrometer combines time-of-flight (TOF) energy measurements with low-energy exchange scattering spin polarimetry for high detection efficiencies. Samples are irradiated with fourth harmonic photons generated from a cavity-dumped Ti:sapphire laser that provides high photon flux in a narrow bandwidth, with a pulse timing structure ideally matched to the needs of the TOF spectrometer. The overall efficiency of the combined system results in near-EF spin-resolved ARPES measurements with an unprecedented combination of energy resolution and acquisition speed. This allows high-resolution spin measurements with a large number of data points spanning multiple dimensions of interest (energy, momentum, photon polarization, etc.) and thus enables experiments not otherwise possible. The system is demonstrated with spin-resolved energy and momentum mapping of the L-gap Au(111) surface states, a prototypical Rashba system. The successful integration of the spectrometer with the pulsed laser system demonstrates its potential for simultaneous spin- and time-resolved ARPES with pump-probe based measurements.

  15. Development of soft x-ray time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy system with a two-dimensional angle-resolved time-of-flight analyzer at SPring-8 BL07LSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Manami; Yamamoto, Susumu; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Yukawa, Ryu; Fukushima, Akiko; Harasawa, Ayumi; Kakizaki, Akito; Matsuda, Iwao [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Kousa, Yuka; Kondoh, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Tanaka, Yoshihito [RIKEN/SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    We have developed a soft x-ray time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy system using synchrotron radiation (SR) at SPring-8 BL07LSU and an ultrashort pulse laser system. Two-dimensional angle-resolved measurements were performed with a time-of-flight-type analyzer. The photoemission spectroscopy system is synchronized to light pulses of SR and laser using a time control unit. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated by mapping the band structure of a Si(111) crystal over the surface Brillouin zones and observing relaxation of the surface photo-voltage effect using the pump (laser) and probe (SR) method.

  16. Angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of square antidot lattices studied by Brillouin light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IOM-CNR), Sede di Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Montoncello, F.; Giovannini, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via G. Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Madami, M.; Carlotti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A. O. [Information Storage Materials Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2015-06-29

    The Brillouin light scattering technique has been exploited to study the angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of squared Permalloy antidot lattice. Frequency dispersion of spin waves has been measured for a set of fixed wave vector magnitudes, while varying the wave vector in-plane orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field. The magnonic band gap between the two most dispersive modes exhibits a minimum value at an angular position, which exclusively depends on the product between the selected wave vector magnitude and the lattice constant of the array. The experimental data are in very good agreement with predictions obtained by dynamical matrix method calculations. The presented results are relevant for magnonic devices where the antidot lattice, acting as a diffraction grating, is exploited to achieve multidirectional spin wave emission.

  17. Electronic structure, Dirac points and Fermi arc surface states in three-dimensional Dirac semimetal Na3Bi from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Aiji; Chen Chaoyu; Wang Zhijun; Shi Youguo; Feng Ya; Yi Hemian; Xie Zhuojin; He Shaolong; He Junfeng; Peng Yingying; Liu Yan; Liu Defa; Hu Cheng; Zhao Lin; Liu Guodong; Dong Xiaoli; Zhang Jun; Nakatake, M; Iwasawa, H; Shimada, K

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetals have linearly dispersive 3D Dirac nodes where the conduction band and valence band are connected. They have isolated 3D Dirac nodes in the whole Brillouin zone and can be viewed as a 3D counterpart of graphene. Recent theoretical calculations and experimental results indicate that the 3D Dirac semimetal state can be realized in a simple stoichiometric compound A 3 Bi ( A = Na, K, Rb). Here we report comprehensive high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) measurements on the two cleaved surfaces, (001) and (100), of Na 3 Bi. On the (001) surface, by comparison with theoretical calculations, we provide a proper assignment of the observed bands, and in particular, pinpoint the band that is responsible for the formation of the three-dimensional Dirac cones. We observe clear evidence of 3D Dirac cones in the three-dimensional momentum space by directly measuring on the k x – k y plane and by varying the photon energy to get access to different out-of-plane k z s. In addition, we reveal new features around the Brillouin zone corners that may be related with surface reconstruction. On the (100) surface, our ARPES measurements over a large momentum space raise an issue on the selection of the basic Brillouin zone in the (100) plane. We directly observe two isolated 3D Dirac nodes on the (100) surface. We observe the signature of the Fermi-arc surface states connecting the two 3D Dirac nodes that extend to a binding energy of ∼150 meV before merging into the bulk band. Our observations constitute strong evidence on the existence of the Dirac semimetal state in Na 3 Bi that are consistent with previous theoretical and experimental work. In addition, our results provide new information to clarify on the nature of the band that forms the 3D Dirac cones, on the possible formation of surface reconstruction of the (001) surface, and on the issue of basic Brillouin zone selection for the (100) surface. (rapid communication)

  18. Spatial structure determination of (√3 x √3)R30 degrees and (1.5 x 1.5)R18 degrees CO on Cu(111) using angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moler, E.J.; Kellar, S.A.; Huff, W.R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The authors report a study of the spatial structure of (√3 x √3)R30 degrees (low coverage) and (1.5 x 1.5)R18 degrees (intermediate coverage) CO adsorbed on Cu(111), using the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) technique at beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source. The CO molecule adsorbs on an atop site for both adsorption phases. Full multiple-scattering spherical-wave (MSSW) calculations were used to extract the C-Cu. bond length and the first Cu-Cu layer spacing for each adsorption phase. The authors find that the C-Cu bond length remains unchanged with increasing coverage, but the 1st Cu-Cu layer spacing contracts at the intermediate coverage. They calculate the bending mode force constant in the (1.5 x 1.5)R18 degrees phase to be K δ = 2.2 (1) x 10 -12 dyne-cm/rad from their experimentally determined bond lengths combined with previously published infra-red absorption frequencies

  19. Quasiparticle dynamics across the full Brillouin zone of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ traced with ultrafast time and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi L. Dakovski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark in the cuprate family of high-temperature superconductors is the nodal-antinodal dichotomy. In this regard, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES has proven especially powerful, providing band structure information directly in energy-momentum space. Time-resolved ARPES (trARPES holds great promise of adding ultrafast temporal information, in an attempt to identify different interaction channels in the time domain. Previous studies of the cuprates using trARPES were handicapped by the low probing energy, which significantly limits the accessible momentum space. Using 20.15 eV, 12 fs pulses, we show for the first time the evolution of quasiparticles in the antinodal region of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ and demonstrate that non-monotonic relaxation dynamics dominates above a certain fluence threshold. The dynamics is heavily influenced by transient modification of the electron-phonon interaction and phase space restrictions, in stark contrast to the monotonic relaxation in the nodal and off-nodal regions.

  20. Spatial structure determination of ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30{degrees} and (1.5 x 1.5)R18{degrees}CO on Cu(111) using angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, E.J.; Kellar, S.A.; Huff, W.R.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The authors report a study of the spatial structure of ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30{degrees} (low coverage) and (1.5 x 1.5)R18{degrees} (intermediate coverage) CO adsorbed on Cu(111), using the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) technique at beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source. The CO molecule adsorbs on an atop site for both adsorption phases. Full multiple-scattering spherical-wave (MSSW) calculations were used to extract the C-Cu. bond length and the first Cu-Cu layer spacing for each adsorption phase. The authors find that the C-Cu bond length remains unchanged with increasing coverage, but the 1st Cu-Cu layer spacing contracts at the intermediate coverage. They calculate the bending mode force constant in the (1.5 x 1.5)R18{degrees} phase to be K{sub {delta}} = 2.2 (1) x 10{sup {minus}12} dyne-cm/rad from their experimentally determined bond lengths combined with previously published infra-red absorption frequencies.

  1. Formation of complexes between functionalized chitosan membranes and copper: A study by angle resolved XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado-López, Belén [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Vieira, Rodrigo Silveira [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Rabelo, Rodrigo Balloni; Beppu, Marisa Masumi [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6066, 13081-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Casado, Juan [Departamento de Química-Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique, E-mail: castellon@uma.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain)

    2017-01-01

    Chitosan is a biopolymer with potential applications in various fields. Recently, it has been used for heavy metals removal like copper, due to the presence of amino and hydroxyl groups in its structure. Chitosan membranes were crosslinked with epichlorohydrin and bisoxirano and functionalized with chelating agents, such as iminodiacetic acid, aspartic acid and tris-(2-amino-ethyl) polyamine. These membranes were used for copper adsorption and the formed complexes were characterized. Thermal and crystalline properties of chitosan membranes were studied by TG-DCS and X-ray diffraction. Raman, XPS and FT-IR data confirmed that copper is linked to the modified chitosan membranes by the amino groups. The oxidation state of copper-chitosan membranes were also studied by angle resolved XPS, and by UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Chitosan membranes were crosslinked with epichlorohydrin and bisoxirano and functionalized with chelating agents. • The chelating agent were iminodiacetic acid, aspartic acid and tris-(2-amino-ethyl) polyamine. • The functionalized membranes were used for copper adsorption and studied by ARXPS, Raman, TG-DCS, FT-IR and XRD. • Spectroscopic data confirmed that copper is linked to the modified chitosan membranes by the amino groups.

  2. Simulation of angle-resolved photoemission spectra by approximating the final state by a plane wave: From graphene to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puschnig, Peter, E-mail: peter.puschnig@uni-graz.at; Lüftner, Daniel

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Computational study on angular dependent photoemission spectroscopy. • Graphene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules. • Plane wave final state approximation accounts for experimental findings. - Abstract: We present a computational study on the angular-resolved photoemission spectra (ARPES) from a number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and graphene. Our theoretical approach is based on ab-initio density functional theory and the one-step model where we greatly simplify the evaluation of the matrix element by assuming a plane wave for the final state. Before comparing our ARPES simulations with available experimental data, we discuss how typical approximations for the exchange-correlation energy affect orbital energies. In particular, we show that by employing a hybrid functional, considerable improvement can be obtained over semi-local functionals in terms of band widths and relative energies of π and σ states. Our ARPES simulations for graphene show that the plane wave final state approximation provides indeed an excellent description when compared to experimental band maps and constant binding energy maps. Furthermore, our ARPES simulations for a number of polycyclic aromatic molecules from the oligo-acene, oligo-phenylene, phen-anthrene families as well as for disc-shaped molecules nicely illustrate the evolution of the electronic structure from molecules with increasing size towards graphene.

  3. Valence band photoemission studies of clean metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, P.S.

    1978-04-01

    The application of Angle-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARPES) to crystalline solids and the utilization of such studies to illuminate several questions concerning the detailed electronic structure of such materials, are discussed. Specifically, by construction of a Direct Transition (DT) model and the utilization of energy-dependent angle-resolved normal photoemission in the photon energy range 32 eV < or = hν < or = 200 eV, the bulk band structure of copper is experimentally mapped out along three different directions in the Brillouin Zone; GAMMA to K, GAMMA to L, and GAMMA to X. In addition, various effects which influence the obtainable resolution in vector k-space, namely, thermal disorder, momentum broadening, and band mixing, are discussed and are shown to place severe limitations on the applicability of the DT model. Finally, a model for Angle-Resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) based on the symmetry of the initial-state wavefunctions is presented and compared to experimental results obtained from copper single crystals

  4. Band structures of 4f and 5f materials studied by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Shin-ichi

    2016-04-20

    Recent remarkable progress in angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) has enabled the direct observation of the band structures of 4f and 5f materials. In particular, ARPES with various light sources such as lasers (hν ~ 7 eV) or high-energy synchrotron radiations (hν >/~ 400 eV) has shed light on the bulk band structures of strongly correlated materials with energy scales of a few millielectronvolts to several electronvolts. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the behaviors of 4f and 5f band structures of various rare-earth and actinide materials observed by modern ARPES techniques, and understand how they can be described using various theoretical frameworks. For 4f-electron materials, ARPES studies of CeMIn5(M = Rh, Ir, and Co) and YbRh2Si2 with various incident photon energies are summarized. We demonstrate that their 4f electronic structures are essentially described within the framework of the periodic Anderson model, and that the band-structure calculation based on the local density approximation cannot explain their low-energy electronic structures. Meanwhile, electronic structures of 5f materials exhibit wide varieties ranging from itinerant to localized states. For itinerant U5f compounds such as UFeGa5, their electronic structures can be well-described by the band-structure calculation assuming that all U5f electrons are itinerant. In contrast, the band structures of localized U5f compounds such as UPd3 and UO2 are essentially explained by the localized model that treats U5f electrons as localized core states. In regards to heavy fermion U-based compounds such as the hidden-order compound URu2Si2, their electronic structures exhibit complex behaviors. Their overall band structures are generally well-explained by the band-structure calculation, whereas the states in the vicinity of EF show some deviations due to electron correlation effects. Furthermore, the electronic structures of URu2Si2 in the paramagnetic and hidden-order phases are

  5. Investigation of the electron dynamics of Si(111) 7 x 7 and development of a time-of-flight spectrometer for time- and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damm, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This thesis consists of two main parts. The first one reports about recent investigations of the electron dynamics on the Si(111) 7 x 7 surface employing time- and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission (2PPE). The second part describes the construction and demonstration of the capabilities of a new electron time-of-flight spectrometer. It is shown that the electron dynamics of this surface are governed by adatom and bulk states. Variation of different experimental parameters leads to the suggestion that electrons scatter from the adatom states into the conduction band of Silicon. The localization in real space can be estimated from the distribution of the photoemission intensity in momentum space to be within one 7 x 7 unit cell. The electron population in the conduction band as well as those in the adatom band show a very long-living component. In addition to recombination through defect states, these electrons can undergo radiative recombination with holes in the valence band. The second part of this thesis reports about the design, construction and demonstration of the capabilities of a new electron time-of-flight spectrometer for applications in time- and angle-resolved 2PPE experiments. The new spectrometer is designed in a flexible manner to maximize either the energy resolution or the acceptance angle, respectively. By employing a position-sensitive electron detector it is possible for the first time to measure the energy as well as all components of the parallel momentum of the photoemitted electrons and thereby to fully characterize electrons from surface states. The time-resolution can be estimated from the width of a peak induced by photons scattered from the sample to be better than 150 ps. At the minimum of about 40 mm of the adjustable drift distance this leads to a energy resolution below 5 meV for electrons with kinetic energies of 1 eV. Thereby, the parallel momentum resolution is below 5 mA -1 for parallel momentum values k parallel ≤1A -1

  6. Time-dependent first-principles study of angle-resolved secondary electron emission from atomic sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Yasumitsu; Watanabe, Kazuyuki

    2018-02-01

    Angle-resolved secondary electron emission (ARSEE) spectra were analyzed for two-dimensional atomic sheets using a time-dependent first-principles simulation of electron scattering. We demonstrate that the calculated ARSEE spectra capture the unoccupied band structure of the atomic sheets. The excitation dynamics that lead to SEE have also been revealed by the time-dependent Kohn-Sham decomposition scheme. In the present study, the mechanism for the experimentally observed ARSEE from atomic sheets is elucidated with respect to both energetics and the dynamical aspects of SEE.

  7. Electronic structure of ion arsenic high temperature superconductors studied by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the present thesis is to present our ARPES results on the iron arsenic superconductors. As revealed by a series of ARPES measurements on both the AEFe2As2 and the RFeAs(O,F) families (parent compound and carrier-doped systems), the electronic structures of the pnictides are complicated, three dimensional, and closely linked to their superconducting behavior (13; 14; 15; 16; 17; 18; 19). Parent compounds of these materials exhibit the basic hole-electron pocket dual plus an apparent Fermi surface reconstruction caused by long range antiferromagnetism (13; 15). When carriers are introduced, the chemical potential shifts in accordance with the Luttinger theorem and the rigid band shifting picture (13). Importantly, both the appearance and disappearance of the superconducting dome at low and high doping levels have intimate relation with topological changes at the Fermi surfaces, resulting in a specific Fermi topology being favored by superconductivity (15; 16). On the low doping side, superconductivity emerges in the phase diagram once the antiferromagnetic reconstruction disappears below the Fermi level, returning the Fermi surface to its paramagnetic-like appearance. On the high doping side, superconductivity disappears around a doping level at which the central hole pocket vanishes due to increasing electron concentration. Such phenomena are evidence for the governing role the electronic structure plays in their superconducting behavior.

  8. Tuning the electronic structure of bulk FeSe with chemical pressure using quantum oscillations and angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldea, Amalia

    FeSe is a unique and intriguing superconductor which can be tuned into a high temperature superconducting state using applied pressure, chemical intercalation and surface doping. In the absence of magnetism, the structural transition in FeSe is believed to be electronically driven, with the orbital degrees of freedom playing an important part. This scenario supports the stabilization of a nematic state in FeSe, which manifests as a Fermi surface deformation in the presence of strong interactions, as detected by ARPES. Another manifestation of the nematicity is the enhanced nematic susceptibility determined from elastoresistance measurements under applied strain. Isovalent Sulphur substitution onto the Selenium site constitutes a chemical pressure, which subtly modifies the electronic structure of FeSe, suppressing the structural transition without inducing high temperature superconductivity. I will present the evolution of the electronic structure with chemical pressure in FeSe, as determined from quantum oscillations and ARPES studies and I will discuss the suppression of the nematic electronic state and the role of electronic correlations. Experiments were performed at high magnetic field facilities in Tallahassee, Nijmegen and Toulouse and Diamond Light Source, UK. This work is mainly supported by EPSRC, UK (EP/I004475/1, EP/I017836/1) and I acknowledge my collaborators from Refs. .

  9. Depth-Resolved Composition and Electronic Structure of Buried Layers and Interfaces in a LaNiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} Superlattice from Soft- and Hard- X-ray Standing-Wave Angle-Resolved Photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiteneer, D. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Pálsson, G.K., E-mail: gunnar.palsson@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Nemšák, S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Peter-Grünberg-Institut PGI-6, Forschungszentrum Julich, 52425 Julich (Germany); Gray, A.X. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Kaiser, A.M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Son, J.; LeBeau, J. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Conti, G. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); and others

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Depth resolved electronic structure of LaNiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} superlattices is measured. • The structure is determined by x-ray standing wave angle-resolved photoemission. • Similarity to the electronic structure of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} is discussed. - Abstract: LaNiO{sub 3} (LNO) is an intriguing member of the rare-earth nickelates in exhibiting a metal-insulator transition for a critical film thickness of about 4 unit cells [Son et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 062114 (2010)]; however, such thin films also show a transition to a metallic state in superlattices with SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) [Son et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 202109 (2010)]. In order to better understand this transition, we have studied a strained LNO/STO superlattice with 10 repeats of [4 unit-cell LNO/3 unit-cell STO] grown on an (LaAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.3}(Sr{sub 2}AlTaO{sub 6}){sub 0.7} substrate using soft x-ray standing-wave-excited angle-resolved photoemission (SWARPES), together with soft- and hard- x-ray photoemission measurements of core levels and densities-of-states valence spectra. The experimental results are compared with state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) calculations of band structures and densities of states. Using core-level rocking curves and x-ray optical modeling to assess the position of the standing wave, SWARPES measurements are carried out for various incidence angles and used to determine interface-specific changes in momentum-resolved electronic structure. We further show that the momentum-resolved behavior of the Ni 3d e{sub g} and t{sub 2g} states near the Fermi level, as well as those at the bottom of the valence bands, is very similar to recently published SWARPES results for a related La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} superlattice that was studied using the same technique (Gray et al., Europhysics Letters 104, 17004 (2013)), which further validates this experimental approach and our conclusions. Our

  10. Combined angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, density functional theory and kinetic study of nitridation of gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, H.; Monier, G.; Hoggan, P. E.; Bideux, L.; Robert-Goumet, C.; Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2018-01-01

    The high density of interface and surface states that cause the strong Fermi pinning observed on GaAs surfaces can be reduced by depositing GaN ultra-thin films on GaAs. To further improve this passivation, it is necessary to investigate the nitridation phenomena by identifying the distinct steps occurring during the process and to understand and quantify the growth kinetics of GaAs nitridation under different conditions. Nitridation of the cleaned GaAs substrate was performed using N2 plasma source. Two approaches have been combined. Firstly, an AR-XPS (Angle Resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) study is carried out to determine the chemical environments of the Ga, As and N atoms and the composition depth profile of the GaN thin film which allow us to summarize the nitridation process in three steps. Moreover, the temperature and time treatment have been investigated and show a significant impact on the formation of the GaN layer. The second approach is a refined growth kinetic model which better describes the GaN growth as a function of the nitridation time. This model clarifies the exchange mechanism of arsenic with nitrogen atoms at the GaN/GaAs interface and the phenomenon of quasi-saturation of the process observed experimentally.

  11. Photoemission study of electronic structure of the half-metallic ferromagnet Co₃Sn₂S₂

    OpenAIRE

    Holder, M.; Dedkov, Y.; Kade, A.; Rosner, H.; Schnelle, W.; Leithe-Jasper, A.; Weihrich, R.; Molodtsov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Surface electronic structure of polycrystalline and single-crystalline samples of the half-metallic ferromagnet Co₃Sn₂S₂ was studied by means of angle-resolved and core-level photoemissions. The experiments were performed in temperature regimes both above and below a Curie temperature of 176.9 K. The spectroscopic results are compared to local-spin density approximation band-structure calculations for the bulk samples. It is found that the surface sensitive experimental data are generally rep...

  12. Photoelectron spectroscopy at a free-electron laser. Investigation of space-charge effects in angle-resolved and core-level spectroscopy and realizaton of a time-resolved core-level photoemission experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczynski-Buehlow, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The free-electron laser (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH) is a very interesting light source with which to perform photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) experiments. Its special characteristics include highly intense photon pulses (up to 100 J/pulse), a photon energy range of 30 eV to 1500 eV, transverse coherence as well as pulse durations of some ten femtoseconds. Especially in terms of time-resolved PES (TRPES), the deeper lying core levels can be reached with photon energies up to 1500 eV with acceptable intensity now and, therefore, element-specific, time-resolved core-level PES (XPS) is feasible at FLASH. During the work of this thesis various experimental setups were constructed in order to realize angle-resolved (ARPES), core-level (XPS) as well as time-resolved PES experiments at the plane grating monochromator beamline PG2 at FLASH. Existing as well as newly developed systems for online monitoring of FEL pulse intensities and generating spatial and temporal overlap of FEL and optical laser pulses for time-resolved experiments are successfully integrated into the experimental setup for PES. In order to understand space-charge effects (SCEs) in PES and, therefore, being able to handle those effects in future experiments using highly intense and pulsed photon sources, the origin of energetic broadenings and shifts in photoelectron spectra are studied by means of a molecular dynamic N-body simulation using a modified Treecode Algorithm for sufficiently fast and accurate calculations. It turned out that the most influencing parameter is the ''linear electron density'' - the ratio of the number of photoelectrons to the diameter of the illuminated spot on the sample. Furthermore, the simulations could reproduce the observations described in the literature fairly well. Some rules of thumb for XPS and ARPES measurements could be deduced from the simulations. Experimentally, SCEs are investigated by means of ARPES as well as XPS measurements as a function of FEL pulse

  13. Photoelectron spectroscopy at a free-electron laser. Investigation of space-charge effects in angle-resolved and core-level spectroscopy and realizaton of a time-resolved core-level photoemission experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marczynski-Buehlow, Martin

    2012-01-30

    The free-electron laser (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH) is a very interesting light source with which to perform photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) experiments. Its special characteristics include highly intense photon pulses (up to 100 J/pulse), a photon energy range of 30 eV to 1500 eV, transverse coherence as well as pulse durations of some ten femtoseconds. Especially in terms of time-resolved PES (TRPES), the deeper lying core levels can be reached with photon energies up to 1500 eV with acceptable intensity now and, therefore, element-specific, time-resolved core-level PES (XPS) is feasible at FLASH. During the work of this thesis various experimental setups were constructed in order to realize angle-resolved (ARPES), core-level (XPS) as well as time-resolved PES experiments at the plane grating monochromator beamline PG2 at FLASH. Existing as well as newly developed systems for online monitoring of FEL pulse intensities and generating spatial and temporal overlap of FEL and optical laser pulses for time-resolved experiments are successfully integrated into the experimental setup for PES. In order to understand space-charge effects (SCEs) in PES and, therefore, being able to handle those effects in future experiments using highly intense and pulsed photon sources, the origin of energetic broadenings and shifts in photoelectron spectra are studied by means of a molecular dynamic N-body simulation using a modified Treecode Algorithm for sufficiently fast and accurate calculations. It turned out that the most influencing parameter is the ''linear electron density'' - the ratio of the number of photoelectrons to the diameter of the illuminated spot on the sample. Furthermore, the simulations could reproduce the observations described in the literature fairly well. Some rules of thumb for XPS and ARPES measurements could be deduced from the simulations. Experimentally, SCEs are investigated by means of ARPES as well as XPS measurements as a function of

  14. Study of III-V semiconductor band structure by synchrotron photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.; Cerrina, F.; Anderson, J.; Lapeyre, G.J.; Smith, R.J.; Hermanson, J.; Knapp, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Angle-resolved synchrotron photoemission studies of six III-V semiconductors have been carried out. For emission normal to the (110) plane of these materials, peaks in the experimental spectra were identified with the bands involved in the transitions, and the critical point energies X 3 , X 5 , and Σ 1 /sup min/, were determined. The data indicate that k perpendicular is conserved in the transitions. Comparison of the data with theoretical bands permits an evaluation of k perpendicular associated with the experimentally observed transition, and from this information the bands were plotted out

  15. Energy and angle resolved studies of double photo-ionisation of helium by electron time-of-flight coincidence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viefhaus, J.; Avaldi, L.; Heiser, F.; Hentges, R.; Gessner, O.; Ruedel, A.; Wiedenhoeft, M.; Wieliczek, K.; Becker, U. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany)

    1996-10-28

    Helium double photo-ionization is studied by a novel coincidence technique which employs time-of-flight spectrometers. Using this technique it is possible to collect simultaneously all the electron pairs, with different energy sharing, emitted by the absorption of a single energetic incident photon. The measurements, in a configuration where the two electrons emerge at 180{sup o} relative angle, provide the more complete information on the contribution of the ungerade amplitude to the triple differential cross section and allow the establishment of a relative scale for the full coincidence angular distribution measured by other experiments at the same photon energies, but only for a few selected energy-sharing conditions. (author).

  16. Photoemission studies of mixed valent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, R.D.; Raaen, S.; denBoer, M.L.; Williams, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Photoemission spectroscopy has been used to study a number of aspects of the mixed valent state (corresponding to non-integral 4f occupation) in rare earth systems. Deep core photoemission (e.g., from 3d or 4d levels) allows the measurement of the 4f occupancy and surface valence shifts, and, as well, the indirect measurement of the effect of solid state environment on the energy of hybridization between 4f electrons and conduction electrons. 4f-Derived photoemission has been used to study surface valance and chemical shifts and to infer the nature of the mixed valent ground state. A combination of 4f-derived photoemission and add-electron spectroscopy provides a measurement of the rf Coulomb correlation energy, an important parameter in the mixed valent problem. A review of these approaches will be presented, with emphasis on Ce-based systems, whose behavior falls outside the usual description of 4f-unstable systems

  17. Photoemission studies of semiconductor nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, K.S.; Roth, R.; Alivisatos, A.P.

    1997-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals have been the focus of much attention in the last ten years due predominantly to their size dependent optical properties. Namely, the band gap of nanocrystals exhibits a shift to higher energy with decreasing size due to quantum confinement effects. Research in this field has employed primarily optical techniques to study nanocrystals, and in this respect this system has been investigated extensively. In addition, one is able to synthesize monodisperse, crystalline particles of CdS, CdSe, Si, InP, InAs, as well as CdS/HgS/CdS and CdSe/CdS composites. However, optical spectroscopies have proven ambiguous in determining the degree to which electronic excitations are interior or surface admixtures or giving a complete picture of the density of states. Photoemission is a useful technique for understanding the electronic structure of nanocrystals and the effects of quantum confinement, chemical environments of the nanocrystals, and surface coverages. Of particular interest to the authors is the surface composition and structure of these particles, for they have found that much of the behavior of nanocrystals is governed by their surface. Previously, the authors had performed x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on CdSe nanocrystals. XPS has proven to be a powerful tool in that it allows one to determine the composition of the nanocrystal surface

  18. Photoemission studies of clean and adsorbate covered metal surfaces using synchrotron and uv radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apai, G.R. II.

    1977-09-01

    Photoemission energy distribution experiments on clean metal and adsorbate-covered surfaces were performed under ultrahigh vacuum conditions by using x-ray and ultraviolet photon sources in the laboratory as well as continuously-tunable, highly polarized synchrotron radiation obtainable at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). Studies focused on two general areas: cross-section modulation in the photoemission process was studied as a function of photon energy and orbital composition. Sharp decreases in intensity of the valence bands of several transition metals (i.e., Ag, Au, and Pt) are attributed to the radial nodes in the respective wave functions. Adsorbate photoemission studies of CO adsorbed on platinum single crystals have demonstrated a very high spectral sensitivity to the 4sigma and (1π + 5sigma) peaks of CO at photon energies of 150 eV. Angle-resolved photoemission allowed determination of the orientation of CO chemisorbed on a Pt (111) or Ni(111) surface. Prelinimary results at high photon energies (approximately 150 eV) indicated scattering from the substrate which could yield chemisorption site geometries

  19. Photoelectron spectra of N2 +: Rotational line profiles studied with He;I endash excited angle-resolved spectroscopy and with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehrwall, G.; Baltzer, P.; Bozek, J.

    1999-01-01

    We have recorded angle-resolved He I photoelectron spectra of the three outermost valence states in N 2 + , with high enough resolution to observe rotational line profiles. For the two Σ states, the X 2 Σ g + and the B 2 Σ u + , we found that the rotational branches corresponding to different changes in rotational quantum number can differ dramatically in β value. The well-known difference in β value for the ν=0 and ν=1 vibrations of the X 2 Σ g + state was found to be due to different rotational branching ratios and also different β values of the rotational branches. For the ν=0 endash 2 vibrations of the A 2 Π u state, the β value difference between rotational branches is much less pronounced than in the X and B states. We have also recorded synchrotron-radiation-excited photoelectron spectra of the ν=0 vibrational peaks of the X 2 Σ g + and B 2 Σ u + states where rotational line profiles are resolved. The intensities of the rotational branches were studied as function of photon energy, the X state between 23 and 65 eV, and the B state between 23 and 45 eV. The results for the X state have recently been presented in a Letter [G. Oehrwall, P. Baltzer, and J. Bozek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 546, 1998]. The rotational branching ratios of the two states have very different behaviors as functions of photon energy. The relative intensities of the rotational branches in the X state change significantly over the studied energy range. The 3σ g →kσ u shape resonance apparently gives rise to a non-Franck-Condon-like behavior for the rotational branching ratio of the X state. In the B state, the rotational branching ratios remain essentially constant over the studied energy range. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  20. Photoelectron spectra of N2+: Rotational line profiles studied with HeI-excited angle-resolved spectroscopy and with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohrwall, G.; Baltzer, P.; Bozek, J.

    2004-01-01

    We have recorded angle-resolved He I photoelectron spectra of the three outer most valence states in N+2, with high enough resolution to observe rotational line profiles. For the two Sigma states, the X 2 Sigma +g and the B 2 Sigma +u, we found that the rotational branches corresponding to different changes in rotational quantum number can differ dramatically in beta value. The well-known difference in beta value for the nu=0 and nu =1 vibrations of the X 2 Sigma +g state was found to be due to different rotational branching ratios and also different beta values of the rotational branches. For the nu=0-2 vibrations of the A 2 Pi u state, the beta value difference between rotational branches is much less pronounced than in the X and B states. We have also recorded synchrotron-radiation-excited photoelectron spectra of the nu=0 vibrational peaks of the X 2 Sigma +g and B 2 Sigma +u states where rotational line profiles are resolved. The intensities of the rotational branches were studied as function of photon energy, the X state between 23 and 65 eV, and We have recorded angle-resolved He I photoelectron spectra of the three outermost valence states in N+2, with high enough resolution to observe rotational line profiles. For the two Sigma states, the X 2 Sigma +g and the B 2 Sigma +u, we found that the rotational branches corresponding to different changes in rotational quantum number can differ dramatically in beta value. The well-known difference in beta value for the nu=0 and nu=1 vibrations of the X 2 Sigma +g state was found to be due to different rotational branching ratios and also different beta values of the rotational branches. For the nu=0-2 vibrations of the A 2 Pi u state, the beta value difference between rotational branches is much less pronounced than in the X and B states. We have also recorded synchrotron-radiation-excited photoelectron spectra of the nu=0 vibrational peaks of the X 2 Sigma +g and B 2 Sigma +u states where rotational line profiles a

  1. Photoemission study of electronic structure of the half-metallic ferromagnet Co3Sn2S2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, M.; Dedkov, Yu. S.; Kade, A.; Rosner, H.; Schnelle, W.; Leithe-Jasper, A.; Weihrich, R.; Molodtsov, S. L.

    2009-05-01

    Surface electronic structure of polycrystalline and single-crystalline samples of the half-metallic ferromagnet Co3Sn2S2 was studied by means of angle-resolved and core-level photoemissions. The experiments were performed in temperature regimes both above and below a Curie temperature of 176.9 K. The spectroscopic results are compared to local-spin density approximation band-structure calculations for the bulk samples. It is found that the surface sensitive experimental data are generally reproduced by the bulk computation suggesting that the theoretically predicted half-metallic properties of Co3Sn2S2 are retained at the surface.

  2. Synchrotron radiation photoemission spectrum study on K3C60 film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏年; 徐亚伯; 鲍世宁; 李海洋; 何丕模; 钱海杰; 刘风琴; 奎热西·易卜拉欣

    2000-01-01

    K3C60 single crystal film was prepared on the cleaved (111) surface of C60 single crystal. Synchrotron radiation angle-resolved photoemission spectra were measured at normal emission with sample temperature at - 150K. Up to four subpeaks of LUMO-derived band were observed. These sub-peaks exhibit distinct energy dispersions which resemble in general the theoretical ones calculated for K3C60 at low temperature with the so-called one-dimensional disordered structure. But there is large deviation of experimental sub-band intervals from the theoretical values. This result is meaningful for the studies of the physical properties of alkali-doped C60 solids, e.g. the mechanism for superconductivity.

  3. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy studies of the many-body effects in the electronic structure of high-T{sub c} cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inosov, Dmytro S.

    2008-06-18

    In the present work some steps are done towards understanding the anomalous effects observed in the single-particle excitation spectra of cuprates. First, the electronic properties of BSCCO are considered. The main result of this part of the work is a model of the Green's function that is later used for calculating the two-particle excitation spectrum. Then, the matrix element effects in the photoemission spectra of cuprates are discussed. After a general introduction to the problem, the thesis focuses on the recently discovered anomalous behavior of the ARPES spectra that partially originates from the momentum-dependent photoemission matrix element. The momentum- and excitation energy dependence of the anomalous high-energy dispersion, termed ''waterfalls'', is covered in full detail. Understanding the role of the matrix element effects in this phenomenon proves crucial, as they obstruct the view of the underlying excitation spectrum that is of indisputable interest. For the optimally doped bilayer Bi-based cuprate, the renormalized two-particle correlation function in the superconducting state is calculated from ARPES data within an itinerant model based on the random phase approximation (RPA). (orig.)

  4. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy studies of the many-body effects in the electronic structure of high-Tc cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inosov, Dmytro S.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work some steps are done towards understanding the anomalous effects observed in the single-particle excitation spectra of cuprates. First, the electronic properties of BSCCO are considered. The main result of this part of the work is a model of the Green's function that is later used for calculating the two-particle excitation spectrum. Then, the matrix element effects in the photoemission spectra of cuprates are discussed. After a general introduction to the problem, the thesis focuses on the recently discovered anomalous behavior of the ARPES spectra that partially originates from the momentum-dependent photoemission matrix element. The momentum- and excitation energy dependence of the anomalous high-energy dispersion, termed ''waterfalls'', is covered in full detail. Understanding the role of the matrix element effects in this phenomenon proves crucial, as they obstruct the view of the underlying excitation spectrum that is of indisputable interest. For the optimally doped bilayer Bi-based cuprate, the renormalized two-particle correlation function in the superconducting state is calculated from ARPES data within an itinerant model based on the random phase approximation (RPA). (orig.)

  5. Photoemission electronic states of epitaxially grown magnetite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalecki, R.; Kolodziejczyk, A.; Korecki, J.; Spiridis, N.; Zajac, M.; Kozlowski, A.; Kakol, Z.; Antolak, D.

    2007-01-01

    The valence band photoemission spectra of epitaxially grown 300 A single crystalline magnetite films were measured by the angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (ARUPS) at 300 K. The samples were grown either on MgO(0 0 1) (B termination) or on (0 0 1) Fe (iron-rich A termination), thus intentionally presenting different surface stoichiometry, i.e. also different surface electronic states. Four main features of the electron photoemission at about -1.0, -3.0, -5.5 and -10.0 eV below a chemical potential show systematic differences for two terminations; this difference depends on the electron outgoing angle. Our studies confirm sensitivity of angle resolved PES technique on subtleties of surface states

  6. Angle-resolved diffraction grating biosensor based on porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Changwu; Li, Peng [School of Physical Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Jia, Zhenhong, E-mail: jzhh@xju.edu.cn; Liu, Yajun; Mo, Jiaqing; Lv, Xiaoyi [College of Information Science and Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China)

    2016-03-07

    In this study, an optical biosensor based on a porous silicon composite structure was fabricated using a simple method. This structure consists of a thin, porous silicon surface diffraction grating and a one-dimensional porous silicon photonic crystal. An angle-resolved diffraction efficiency spectrum was obtained by measuring the diffraction efficiency at a range of incident angles. The angle-resolved diffraction efficiency of the 2nd and 3rd orders was studied experimentally and theoretically. The device was sensitive to the change of refractive index in the presence of a biomolecule indicated by the shift of the diffraction efficiency spectrum. The sensitivity of this sensor was investigated through use of an 8 base pair antifreeze protein DNA hybridization. The shifts of the angle-resolved diffraction efficiency spectrum showed a relationship with the change of the refractive index, and the detection limit of the biosensor reached 41.7 nM. This optical device is highly sensitive, inexpensive, and simple to fabricate. Using shifts in diffraction efficiency spectrum to detect biological molecules has not yet been explored, so this study establishes a foundation for future work.

  7. Optical and photoemission studies of lanthanum hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, D.J.; Peterson, D.T.; Weaver, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    The results of optical absorptivity and photoemission measurements on lanthanum hydrides, LaH/sub x/ (1.98 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 2.89) are reported. The low energy (hν less than or equal to 0.5 eV) optical features in LaH/sub x/ are attributed to the filling of octahedral sites. Higher energy interband absorption involves states within the d-band complex, analogous to other dihydrides. As x increases above 2.0, the optical features change rapidly due to the increase in the number of occupied octahedral sites. Various band structure studies suggest that LaH 3 might be a semiconductor. Photoemission results show that as x increases, the d-derived states at E/sub F/ are drawn down and that for LaH 2 89 only very weak valence band emission is observed. The hydrogen-derived bonding bands are shown centered approx. 5 eV below E/sub F/. Observed chemical shifts in the La 5p/sub 1/2 3/2/ cores are discussed for 1.98 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 2.89

  8. Photoemission and electron-stimulated desorption studies of H on W(110): Single- versus two-binding-site models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, S.

    1982-01-01

    The chemisorption of H on W(110) at room temperature is studied with the use of angle-integrated photoemission and electron-stimulated desorption (ESD). The ESD cross sections of H + are found to be sol low that no significant H + signals with meaningful ion energy distributions are observed. The photoemission results show, however, two types of H adatoms, referred to as β 2 and β 1 states, for this chemisorptive system. Both states are found to appear simultaneously rather than sequentially as suggested by previous studies, and exhibit a simple 1-theta adsorption kinetics with different initial sticking coefficients. The β 2 state induces two binding energy levels at -2.0 and -6.0 eV, respectively, whereas the β 1 state induces a level at -3.8 eV. The work-function change (with a maximum value of -0.45 eV) is found to follow exactly with the intensity of the β 2 state. These results are found to be compatible with the two-binding-site model, inherently suggested by the reflection high-enery electron-diffraction data. However, the results can also be consistent with a single-binding-site model suggested by a recent angle-resolved photoemission and inelastic electron scattering study. A model based on the present results is proposed and critically compared with previous studies. Unresolved problems associated with both single- and two-binding-site models are also discussed

  9. Probing long-range structural order in SnPc/Ag(111) by umklapp process assisted low-energy angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauernik, Stephan; Hein, Petra; Gurgel, Max; Falke, Julian; Bauer, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Laser-based angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is performed on tin-phthalocyanine (SnPc) adsorbed on silver Ag(111). Upon adsorption of SnPc, strongly dispersing bands are observed which are identified as secondary Mahan cones formed by surface umklapp processes acting on photoelectrons from the silver substrate as they transit through the ordered adsorbate layer. We show that the photoemission data carry quantitative structural information on the adsorbate layer similar to what can be obtained from a conventional low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) study. More specifically, we compare photoemission data and LEED data probing an incommensurate-to-commensurate structural phase transition of the adsorbate layer. Based on our results we propose that Mahan-cone spectroscopy operated in a pump-probe configuration can be used in the future to probe structural dynamics at surfaces with a temporal resolution in the sub-100-fs regime.

  10. Photoemission study of K on graphite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennich, P.; Puglia, C.; Brühwiler, P.A.; Nilsson, A.; Sandell, A.; Mårtensson, N.; Rudolf, P.

    1999-01-01

    The physical and electronic structure of the dispersed and (2×2) phases of K/graphite have been characterized by valence and core-level photoemission. Charge transfer from K to graphite is found to occur at all coverages, and includes transfer of charge to the second graphite layer. A rigid band

  11. Angle-resolved effective potentials for disk-shaped molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.heinemann@tu-berlin.de; Klapp, Sabine H. L., E-mail: klapp@physik.tu-berlin.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Palczynski, Karol, E-mail: karol.palczynski@helmholtz-berlin.de; Dzubiella, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.dzubiella@helmholtz-berlin.de [Institut für Physik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB), Institute of Soft Matter and Functional Materials, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-12-07

    We present an approach for calculating coarse-grained angle-resolved effective pair potentials for uniaxial molecules. For integrating out the intramolecular degrees of freedom we apply umbrella sampling and steered dynamics techniques in atomistically-resolved molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. Throughout this study we focus on disk-like molecules such as coronene. To develop the methods we focus on integrating out the van der Waals and intramolecular interactions, while electrostatic charge contributions are neglected. The resulting coarse-grained pair potential reveals a strong temperature and angle dependence. In the next step we fit the numerical data with various Gay-Berne-like potentials to be used in more efficient simulations on larger scales. The quality of the resulting coarse-grained results is evaluated by comparing their pair and many-body structure as well as some thermodynamic quantities self-consistently to the outcome of atomistic MD simulations of many-particle systems. We find that angle-resolved potentials are essential not only to accurately describe crystal structures but also for fluid systems where simple isotropic potentials start to fail already for low to moderate packing fractions. Further, in describing these states it is crucial to take into account the pronounced temperature dependence arising in selected pair configurations due to bending fluctuations.

  12. Linear and circular dichroism in angle resolved Fe 3p photomission. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, E.; Waddill, G.D.; Tobin, J.G.; Sterne, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Using a recently developed spin-polarized, fully relativistic, multiple scattering approach based on the layer KKR Green function method, we have reproduced the Fe 3p angle-resolved soft x-ray photoemission spectra and analyzed the associated large magnetic dichroism effects for excitation with both linearly and circularly polarized light. Comparison between theory and experiment yields a spin-orbit splitting of 1.0--1.2 eV and an exchange splitting of 0.9-- 1.0 eV for Fe 3p. These values are 50--100% larger than those hitherto obtained experimentally

  13. Size effects in van der Waals clusters studied by spin and angle-resolved electron spectroscopy and multi-coincidence ion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolles, D; Pesic, Z D; Zhang, H; Bilodeau, R C; Bozek, J D; Berrah, N

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the valence and inner-shell photoionization of free rare-gas clusters by means of angle and spin resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and momentum resolving electron-multi-ion coincidence spectroscopy. The electron measurements probe the evolution of the photoelectron angular distribution and spin polarization parameters as a function of photon energy and cluster size, and reveal a strong cluster size dependence of the photoelectron angular distributions in certain photon energy regions. In contrast, the spin polarization parameter of the cluster photoelectrons is found to be very close to the atomic value for all covered photon energies and cluster sizes. The ion imaging measurements, which probe the fragmentation dynamics of multiply charged van der Waals clusters, also exhibit a pronounced cluster size dependence

  14. A photoemission study of evaporated manganese on gallium arsenide at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, D.; Tadich, A.; Riley, J.; Leckey, R.; Emtsev, K.; Seyller, T.; Ley, L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The interaction between metals and semiconductors has been extensively researched to achieve an understanding of the formation of Schottky barriers and conditions for low resistance electrical connections to devices. The possibility of the use of magnetic materials to generate spin polarised currents, so called spintronics, and has extended this interest to metals that have not traditionally been used for such contacts. Manganese has recently been used as one element in GaAs and ZnSe based devices so its interaction with such surfaces is of interest. An interest that motivates this study is the possibility of lattice-matched growth of transition metal layers on semiconductors. Lattice mismatch initially appeared to inhibit single crystal transition metal growth, but it has been reported that lattice matched growth can occur in some cases. It is thought that reactions at the interface form a buffer layer, which allows for epitaxial growth via a more comparable lattice constant. We report studies of the growth of manganese films on GaAs(100) at several substrate temperatures using angle resolved photoemission, the diffusion of the Mn in the GaAs substrates using SIMS and the morphology of the layers using AFM images

  15. Band alignment in organic devices: Photoemission studies of model oligomers on In2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, R. I. R.; Duschek, R.; Koller, G.; Netzer, F. P.; Ramsey, M. G.

    2001-01-01

    The interfaces of In 2 O 3 , a model for indium - tin - oxide (ITO), with benzene, thiophene, and benzaldehyde, models for technologically important organic molecules, are studied using angle resolved ultraviolet photoemission and work function measurements. Band alignment diagrams for hypothetical Al/organic/ITO devices have been drawn, using values determined from this work and previously published studies of these molecules on Al(111). The similarity between the bonding of benzene and thiophene on Al(111) and In 2 O 3 , i.e., largely electrostatic, leads to near identical alignment at both metal and oxide interfaces. This indicates that clean Al and ITO will make a very poor electron/hole injecting pair. We suggest that the apparent efficiency of Al as an electron injecting contact in real devices is due to the presence of oxygen at the Al/organic interface. For benzaldehyde the interaction with In 2 O 3 is largely electrostatic, in contrast to the covalent bonds formed on Al(111). This leads to very different alignment at the Al and oxide interfaces, showing the importance of the particular organic - inorganic interaction in determining band alignment. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  16. Indoor Measurement of Angle Resolved Light Absorption by Black Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amdemeskel, Mekbib Wubishet; Iandolo, Beniamino; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    Angle resolved optical spectroscopy of photovoltaic (PV) samples gives crucial information on PV panels under realistic working conditions. Here, we introduce measurements of angle resolved light absorption by PV cells, performed indoors using a collimated high radiance broadband light source. Our...... indoor method offers a significant simplification as compared to measurements by solar trackers. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we show characterization of black silicon solar cells. The experimental results showed stable and reliable optical responses that makes our setup suitable for indoor......, angle resolved characterization of solar cells....

  17. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of formaldehyde and methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, P. R.; Taylor, J. W.; Grimm, F. A.; Carlson, Thomas A.

    1984-10-01

    Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to obtain the angular distribution parameter, β, for the valence orbitals (IP < 21.1 eV) of formaldehyde and methanol over the 10-30 eV photon energy range using dispersed polarized synchrotron radiation as the excitation source. It was found that the energy dependence of β in the photoelectron energy range between 2 and 10 eV can be related to the molecular-orbital type from which ionization occurs. This generalized energy behavior is discussed with regard to earlier energy-dependence studies on molecules of different orbital character. Evidence is presented for the presence of resonance photoionization phenomena in formaldehyde in agreement with theoretical cross-section calculations.

  18. Magnetic dichroism in UV photoemission at off-normal emission: Study of the valence bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venus, D.; Kuch, W.; Lin, M.; Schneider, C.M.; Ebert, H.; Kirschner, J.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic dichroism of angle-resolved UV photoemission from fcc Co/Cu(001) thin films has been measured using linearly p-polarized light, and a coplanar geometry where the light and photoelectron wave vectors are antiparallel, and both are perpendicular to the in-plane sample magnetization. This geometry emphasizes information about state dispersion due to the crystalline symmetry. An orderly dispersion of the features in the magnetic dichroism over a wide range of off-normal angles of electron emission is related in detail to the bulk band structure of fcc Co. The measurements confirm the practical utility of magnetic dichroism experiments as a relatively simple complement to spin-resolved photoemission. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  19. Photoemission studies using laboratory and synchrotron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation sources, providing intense, polarized and stable beams of ultra violet soft and hard X-ray photons, are having great impact on physics, chemistry, biology materials science and other areas research. In particular synchrotron radiation has revolutionized photoelectron spectroscopy by enhancing its capabilities for investigating the electronic properties of solids. The first Indian synchrotron storage ring, Indus- 1 is in operation at RRCAT, Indore. The UGC-DAE CSR with the help of university scientist had designed and developed an angle integrated photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) beamline on this 450 MeV storage ring. A storage ring of this kind is most suitable for investigation in the energy range from few electron volts to around five hundred electron volts. In this lecture we will describe the details of PES beamline and its experimental station. Till date the different university users carried out photoemission measurements on variety of samples. Some of the spectra recorded by users will be presented in order to show the capability of this beamline. In the later part we will report a review of our recent research work carried out on dilute magnetic thin films using this beamline. (author)

  20. Photoemission spectroscopy study of a multi-alkali photocathode

    CERN Document Server

    Ettema, A R H

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a photoemission study of the highest core levels of the elements and the electron escape barrier (work function) in a multi-alkali photocathode are presented. The core levels indicate that the alkali atoms are in an oxidized state and therefore the compound Na sub 2 KSb can be regarded as an ionic semiconductor. The measured escape barrier of the Cs sub 2 O surface layer is determined as 2.3 eV.

  1. Energy- and angled-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegg, D.J.; Thompson, J.S.; Compton, R.N.; Alton, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Energy- and angle-resolved photoelectron detachment spectroscopy is currently being used to investigate the structure of negative ions and their interaction with radiation. Measurements of the electron affinity of the Ca atom and the partial cross sections for photodetachment of the metastable negative ion, He - (1s2s2p 4 P), are reported. 5 refs., 5 figs

  2. Precision angle-resolved autoionization resonances in Ar and Ne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrah, N.; Langer, B.; Gorczyca, T.W. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Theoretical work has shown that the electron angular distribution and the shape of the autoionization resonances are crucial to the understanding of certain types of electron-electron correlation. Autoionization resonances in Ne (Ar) result from the decay of the excited discrete state Ne{sup *} 2s2p{sup 6} np (Ar{sup *} 3s3p{sup 6} np) into the continuum state Ne{sup +} 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5} + e{sup {minus}} (ks,kd) (Ar{sup +} 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5} + e{sup {minus}} (ks,kd)). Since the continuum can also be reached by direct photoionization, both paths add coherently, giving rise to interferences that produce the characteristic Beutler-Fano line shape. In this work, the authors report on quantitative angle-resolved electron spectrometry studies of (a) the Ne 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 2s2p{sup 6} np (n=3-5) autoionizing resonances and the 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 2p{sup 4}3s3p doubly excited resonance, (b) the Ar 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 3s3p{sup 6} np (n=4-9) autoionization resonances and extended R-matrix calculations of the angular-distribution parameters for both Ne and Ar measurements. Their results are compared with previous theoretical work by Taylor.

  3. Photoemission study of S adsorption on GaAs (0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasser, T; Kipp, L; Skibowski, M; Schattke, W

    2005-01-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectra have been calculated with the one-step model for S/GaAs(0 0 1) and compared with experimental distributions. The data are analysed in terms of the ideal 1 x 1 and, furthermore, of the reconstructed 2 x 6 surface which is assumed to be closest to the experimentally realized structure. Emissions are characterized by electronic structure terms such as energy bands and orbital composition, though partly also by geometric properties. In particular, the determination of the second layer as consisting of Ga atoms has been achieved because of the distinct differences in the theoretical spectra with S-Ga and those with S-As bonds

  4. Synchrotron photoemission study of (Zn,Co)O films with uniform Co distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guziewicz, E.; Lukasiewicz, M. I.; Wachnicki, L.

    2011-01-01

    of foreign phases and metal accumulations as indicated by TEM data. The electronic structure of (Zn,Co)O films was studied by Resonant Photoemission Spectroscopy across the Co3p–Co3d photoionization threshold. We have observed that the resonant enhancement of the photoemission intensity from the Co3d shell...

  5. Future directions in standing-wave photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Alexander X., E-mail: axgray@temple.edu

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Probing magnetic properties at the buried interface with SW-MCD. • Probing electronic structure at the buried interface with resonant SW-XPS and SW-HAXPES. • Probing momentum-resolved electronic structure at a buried interface with SWARPES. • Adding depth resolution to photoemission microscopy with standing-wave excitation. • Standing-wave localization, total reflection and waveguide effects. - Abstract: Over the past decade, standing-wave photoemission (SW-XPS) has evolved into a powerful and versatile non-destructive technique for probing element-specific electronic, magnetic, and structural properties of buried layers and interfaces with sub-nanometer depth resolution. In this article, I will discuss several promising future directions in this emergent field stemming from experimental and theoretical studies wherein SW-XPS is combined with other X-ray techniques, such as magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES), angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES), and photoemission microscopy (PEEM), adding extra dimensions to the measurement and thus widening the scope of scientific and technological questions accessible via the use of standing waves. I will further discuss examples of recently developed methods for X-ray standing-wave data analysis, which yield layer-resolved matrix-element-weighted densities of states at interfaces as well as Ångstrom-level changes in periodicity of synthetic superlattices. Finally, I will explore the possibility of localizing the standing waves near the surface and within a buried layer by the use of aperiodic superlattices, total reflection, and X-ray waveguide effects.

  6. Future directions in standing-wave photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Alexander X.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Probing magnetic properties at the buried interface with SW-MCD. • Probing electronic structure at the buried interface with resonant SW-XPS and SW-HAXPES. • Probing momentum-resolved electronic structure at a buried interface with SWARPES. • Adding depth resolution to photoemission microscopy with standing-wave excitation. • Standing-wave localization, total reflection and waveguide effects. - Abstract: Over the past decade, standing-wave photoemission (SW-XPS) has evolved into a powerful and versatile non-destructive technique for probing element-specific electronic, magnetic, and structural properties of buried layers and interfaces with sub-nanometer depth resolution. In this article, I will discuss several promising future directions in this emergent field stemming from experimental and theoretical studies wherein SW-XPS is combined with other X-ray techniques, such as magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES), angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES), and photoemission microscopy (PEEM), adding extra dimensions to the measurement and thus widening the scope of scientific and technological questions accessible via the use of standing waves. I will further discuss examples of recently developed methods for X-ray standing-wave data analysis, which yield layer-resolved matrix-element-weighted densities of states at interfaces as well as Ångstrom-level changes in periodicity of synthetic superlattices. Finally, I will explore the possibility of localizing the standing waves near the surface and within a buried layer by the use of aperiodic superlattices, total reflection, and X-ray waveguide effects

  7. Angle-resolved photoemission on the Kondo surface alloy CePd{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulazzi, Mattia; Seibel, Christoph; Schwab, Holger [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII (Germany); Shimada, Kenya; Jiang, Jiang [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Reinert, Friedrich [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Gemeinschaftslabor fuer Nanoanalytik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    This films of the Cerium were evaporated on a Pd(001) substrate an further annealed to obtain a thin surface alloy layer of stoichiometry CePd{sub 7}, as observed by Auger spectroscopy. From LEED measurements it was possible to determine that the alloy has a (√(5) x √(5))R26.6 {sup circle} reconstruction, commensurate to the Palladium substrate. Photon-energy dependent ARPES measurements crossing the 4d-4f resonance show the presence of a strong peak near the Fermi level, having actually two components, the actual Kondo peak at the Fermi level and the spin-orbit peak at 280 meV binding energy. Resonant and non-resonant Fermi surface maps shows large intensity variations of the Pd bands, when measured at the resonance, a sign of strong hybridization between the conduction and the 4f electrons. While previous work assigns the CePd7 to the class of intermediate valence systems, our work shows that it is actually a Kondo system, with a rather high Kondo temperature.

  8. A picosecond widely tunable deep-ultraviolet laser for angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Feng-Feng; Yang Feng; Zhang Shen-Jin; Xu Zhi; Wang Zhi-Min; Xu Feng-Liang; Peng Qin-Jun; Zhang Jing-Yuan; Xu Zu-Yan; Wang Xiao-Yang; Chen Chuang-Tian

    2013-01-01

    We develop a picosecond widely tunable laser in a deep-ultraviolet region from 175 nm to 210 nm, generated by two stages of frequency doubling of a 80-MHz mode-locked picosecond Ti:sapphire laser. A β-BaB 2 O 4 walk-off compensation configuration and a KBe 2 BO 3 F 2 prism-coupled device are adopted for the generation of second harmonic and fourth harmonics, respectively. The highest power is 3.72 mW at 193 nm, and the fluctuation at 2.85 mW in 130 min is less than ±2%

  9. Phonon contribution to quasiparticle lifetimes in Cu measured by angle-resolved photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, B.A.; Balasubramanian, T.; Jensen, E.

    1995-01-01

    The line shape of the photoelectron spectrum emitted from the sp-derived surface state at bar Γ on Cu(111) is investigated. The line shape is Lorentzian, and the temperature dependence of the width is linear, varying from 30 meV at 30 K to 75 meV at 625 K. Less than 5-meV variation with binding energy is observed. The temperature dependence is explained as the phonon contribution to the inverse hole lifetime, predicted to be 2πλk b T allowing the determination that the electron-phonon mass enhancement parameter λ=0.14±0.02 for this surface state at bar Γ. This is compared to λ=0.15 reported as an average over the bulk Fermi surface

  10. Extracting the temperature of hot carriers in time- and angle-resolved photoemission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulstrup, Søren; Johannsen, Jens Christian; Grioni, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of light with a material’s electronic system creates an out-of-equilibrium (nonthermal) distribution of optically excited electrons. Non-equilibrium dynamics relaxes this distribution on an ultrafast timescale to a hot Fermi-Dirac distribution with a well-defined temperature......, we introduce a method that circumvents these difficulties and accurately extracts both the temperature and the position of the Fermi level for a hot carrier distribution by tracking the occupation statistics of the carriers measured in a TR-ARPES experiment...

  11. UV photoemission studies of metal photocathodes for particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.

    1988-01-01

    Photoemission from several metals was studied with 10 ps laser pulses at 266 nm. The yield was linear with energy and with area. Quantum efficiencies (/eta/) were determined (up to 10/sup /minus/3/ e/photons for samarium), and found to vary as (hν-/phi/) 2 . /eta/ also increased with the field. The field assisted efficiencies were calculated for some metals and confirmed by experiment for gold, up to surface fields of /approximately/3/times/10 8 V/m. High charge and current densities, close to 10 5 A/cm 2 from macroscopic areas, were measured or indicated. Results are then related to applications in accelerators. 18 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  12. New developments in laser-based photoemission spectroscopy and its scientific applications: a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingjiang; He, Shaolong; Liu, Guodong; Zhao, Lin; Yu, Li; Zhang, Wentao

    2018-06-01

    The significant progress in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) in last three decades has elevated it from a traditional band mapping tool to a precise probe of many-body interactions and dynamics of quasiparticles in complex quantum systems. The recent developments of deep ultraviolet (DUV, including ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet) laser-based ARPES have further pushed this technique to a new level. In this paper, we review some latest developments in DUV laser-based photoemission systems, including the super-high energy and momentum resolution ARPES, the spin-resolved ARPES, the time-of-flight ARPES, and the time-resolved ARPES. We also highlight some scientific applications in the study of electronic structure in unconventional superconductors and topological materials using these state-of-the-art DUV laser-based ARPES. Finally we provide our perspectives on the future directions in the development of laser-based photoemission systems.

  13. Energy dispersions of single-crystalline Bi2.0Sr1.8Ca0.8La0.3Cu2.1O8+δ superconductors determined using angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, P.A.P.; Shen, Z.; Dessau, D.S.; Wells, B.O.; Mitzi, D.B.; Lindau, I.; Spicer, W.E.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1989-01-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission studies of single-crystalline La-doped Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu- 90-K superconductors (Bi 2.0 Sr 1.8 Ca 0.8 La 0.3 Cu 2.1 O 8+δ ) were performed utilizing synchrotron radiation covering the photon energy range 10--40 eV. The data conclusively reveal a dispersionless character of the valence-band states as a function of the wave-vector component parallel to the c axis, in agreement with the predictions of band calculations. Band effects are evident from both intensity modulations of the spectral features in the valence band and from energy dispersions as a function of the wave vector component lying in the basal a-b plane

  14. High-energy photoemission studies of oxide interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessen, Ralph

    2015-03-01

    The interfaces of complex oxide heterostructures can host novel quantum phases not existing in the bulk of the constituents, with the high-mobility 2D electron system (2DES) in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) representing a prominent example. Despite extensive research the origin of the 2DES and its unusual properties - including the supposed coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism - are still a matter of intense debate. Photoelectron spectroscopy, recently extended into the soft (SX-ARPES) and hard (HAXPES) X-ray regime, is a powerful method to provide detailed insight into the electronic structure of these heterostructures and, in particular, of the buried interface. This includes the identification of the orbital character of the 2DES as well as the determination of vital band structure information, such as band alignment, band bending, and even k-resolved band dispersions and Fermi surface topology. Moreover, resonant photoemission at the Ti L-edge reveals the existence of two different species of Ti 3d states, localized and itinerant, which can be distinguished and identified by their different resonance behavior. The role of oxygen vacancies is studied by controlled in-situ oxidation, which allows us to vary the composition from fully stoichiometric to strongly O-deficient. By comparison to free STO surfaces we can thus demonstrate that the metallicity of the heteointerfaces is intrinsic, i . e . it persists even in the absence of O defects. I will discuss our photoemission results on LAO/STO heterostructures in both (100) and (111) orientation as well as on the related system γ-Al2O3/STO(100), which also hosts a 2DES with an even higher mobility. Work in collaboration with J. Mannhart (MPI-FKF, Stuttgart), N. Pryds (TU Denmark), G. Rijnders (U Twente), S. Suga (U Osaka), M. Giorgoi (BESSY, HZB), W. Drube (DESY Photon Science), V.N. Strocov (Swiss Light Source), J. Denlinger (Advanced Light Source, LBNL), and T.-L. Lee (Diamond Light Source). Support by

  15. Angle resolved mass spectrometry of positive ions transmitted through high aspect ratio channels in a radio frequency discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels - Adamowicz, E.; Stoffels, W.W.; Tachibana, K.; Imai, S.

    1997-01-01

    The behavior of positive ions in high aspect ratio structures, relevant to the reactive ion etching of deep trenches, has been studied by means of energy resolved mass spectrometry. High aspect ratio trenches are simulated by capillary plates with various aspect ratios. Angle resolved measurements

  16. Initial angle resolved measurements of fast neutrals using a multichannel linear AXUV detector system on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veshchev, E. A.; Ozaki, T.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sudo, S.

    2006-01-01

    A new multichannel diagnostic for fast ion distribution studies has been developed and successfully tested on the Large Helical Device (LHD) in different plasma heating conditions. The diagnostic is based on a linear array AXUV detector consisting of 20 segments, charge sensitive preamplifiers, and a set of pulse height analysis channels. The main advantage of this system is the possibility to make time, energy, and angle-resolved measurements of charge exchange neutral particles in a single plasma discharge. This feature makes the new diagnostic a very helpful and powerful tool intended to contribute to the understanding of fast ion behavior in a complex helical plasma geometry like the one of LHD

  17. Energy and angle resolved ion scattering spectroscopy: new possibilities for surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellings, G.J.A.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the design and development of a novel, very sensitive and high-resolving spectrometer for surface analysis is described. This spectrometer is designed for Energy and Angle Resolved Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (EARISS). There are only a few techniques that are sensitive enough to study the outermost atomic layer of surfaces. One of these techniques, Low-Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS), is discussed in chapter 2. Since LEIS is destructive, it is important to make a very efficient use of the scattered ions. This makes it attractive to simultaneously carry out energy and angle dependent measurements (EARISS). (Auth.)

  18. Photoemission study of Ca-intercalated graphite superconductor CaC6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Rikiya; Iwai, Keisuke; Noami, Kengo; Muro, Takayuki; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Wakita, Takanori; Muraoka, Yuji; Hirai, Masaaki; Tomioka, Fumiaki; Takano, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Asami; Toyoda, Masahiro; Oguchi, Tamio; Yokoya, Takayoshi

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we have performed resonant photoemission studies of Ca-intercalated graphite superconductor CaC 6 . Using photon energy of the Ca 2p-3d threshold, the photoemission intensity of the peak at Fermi energy (E F ) is resonantly enhanced. This result provides spectroscopic evidence for the existence of Ca 3d states at E F , and strongly supports that Ca 3d state plays a crucial role for the superconductivity of this material with relatively high T c .

  19. Angle-resolved photoluminescence spectrum of a uniform phosphor layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Ichiro; Ohta, Masamichi

    2017-10-01

    A photoluminescence spectrum depends on an emission angle due to self-absorption in a phosphor material. Assuming isotropic initial emission and Lambert-Beer's law, we have derived simple expressions for the angle-resolved spectra emerging from the top and bottom surfaces of a uniform phosphor layer. The transmittance of an excitation light through the phosphor layer can be regarded as a design parameter. For a strongly-absorbing phosphor layer, the forward flux is less intense and more red-shifted than the backward flux. The red-shift is enhanced as the emission direction deviates away from the plane normal. When we increase the transmittance, the backward flux decreases monotonically. The forward flux peaks at a certain transmittance value. The two fluxes become similar to each other for a weakly-absorbing phosphor layer. We have observed these behaviors in experiment. In a practical application, self-absorption decreases the efficiency of conversion and results in angle-dependent variations in chromaticity coordinates. A patterned phosphor layer with a secondary optical element such as a remote reflector alleviates these problems.

  20. Resonant photoemission study of CeRu4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hiroyoshi; Miyahara, Tsuneaki; Takayama, Yasuhiro; Shiozawa, Hidetsugu; Obu, Kenji; Matsuda, Tatsuma D.; Aoki, Yuji; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Sato, Hideyuki

    2005-01-01

    We have measured the Ce 4d-4f and Ce 3d-4f resonant photoemission spectra of CeRu 4 Sb 12 . The Ce 4f spectra show the spectral features corresponding to a weakly hybridized system. The number of 4f electrons is estimated to be ∼1.0

  1. Angle-resolved reflection spectroscopy of high-quality PMMA opal crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtsev, Ivan V.; Tambasov, Igor A.; Ivanenko, Alexander A.; Zyryanov, Victor Ya.

    2018-02-01

    PMMA opal crystal was prepared by a simple hybrid method, which includes sedimentation, meniscus formation and evaporation. We investigated three surfaces of this crystal by angle-resolved reflective light spectroscopy and SEM study. The angle-resolved reflective measurements were carried out in the 400-1100 nm range. We have determined the high-quality ordered surface of the crystal region. Narrow particle size distribution of the surface has been revealed. The average particle diameter obtained with SEM was nearly 361 nm. The most interesting result was that reflectivity of the surface turned out up to 98% at normal light incidence. Using a fit of dependences of the maximum reflectivity wavelength from an angle based on the Bragg-Snell law, the wavelength of maximum 0° reflectivity, the particle diameter and the fill factor have been determined. For the best surface maximum reflectivity wavelength of a 0° angle was estimated to be 869 nm. The particle diameter and fill factor were calculated as 372 nm and 0.8715, respectively. The diameter obtained by fitting is in excellent agreement with the particle diameter obtained with SEM. The reflectivity maximum is assumed to increase significantly when increasing the fill factor. We believe that using our simple approach to manufacture PMMA opal crystals will significantly increase the fabrication of high-quality photonic crystal templates and thin films.

  2. Rb-intercalated C60 compounds studied by photoemission spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, A.; Giovanelli, L.; Vilmercati, P.; Cattoni, A.; Biagioni, P.; Goldoni, A.; Finazzi, M.; Duo, L.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a combined photoemission and inverse photoemission spectroscopy analysis on Rb x C 60 compounds with different stoichiometries (0-bar x-bar 6). Apart from shifts and broadening of the spectral features associated to the different phase formed, we observe in the RbC 60 phase the presence of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) shoulder and of its symmetric (with respect to the Fermi level) empty state. According to calculations, the metallicity of this phase and the presence of these electronic states may be taken as a fingerprint of the interplay between electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in determining the electronic behavior of alkali metal fullerides

  3. Inner-shell photoemission from atoms and molecules using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindle, D.W.

    1983-12-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy, in conjunction with synchrotron radiation, has been used to study inner-shell photoemission from atoms and molecules. The time structure of the synchrotron radiation permits the measurements of time-of-flight (TOF) spectra of Auger and photoelectrons, thereby increasing the electron collection efficiency. The double-angle TOF method yielded angle-resolved photoelectron intensities, which were used to determine photoionization cross sections and photoelectron angular distributions in several cases. Comparison to theoretical calculations has been made where possible to help explain observed phenomena in terms of the electronic structure and photoionization dynamics of the systems studied. 154 references, 23 figures, 7 tables

  4. X-ray photoemission study of plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptist, R.

    1982-01-01

    The x-ray induced photoemission from clean pure plutonium metal is described and the results for both core and valence levels are compared with previous measurements on light actinides. It is found that, as in thorium and urnaium, the configuration interaction plays an important role for core levels, in particular for those of the n=5 shell. The experimental valence-band spectrum confirms the existence of 5f states at the Fermi level and is compared with a density of states of FCC Pu derived from a recent relativistic band structure calculation. (author)

  5. Study of Si-N amorphous compounds combining XPS (X photoemission) and EELS (electron energy loss spectra) optical measurements. Internal levels photoemission. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guraya, M.M.; Acolani, H.; Zampieri, G.E.; Silva, J.H. Dias da; Cisneros, J.I.; Cantao, M.; Marques, F.C.

    1990-01-01

    A Si-N non-stoichiometric hydrogenated amorphous compounds study with different N- contents is presented. The shape and shifts of the photoemission peaks corresponding to the N - 1s and Si - 2p internal levels are analyzed. Based on the latter, the homogeneity of the samples and the Si - N bonds charge transfer is discussed. (Author) [es

  6. Robust depth selectivity in mesoscopic scattering regimes using angle-resolved measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, P; Kim, A D; Moscoso, M

    2013-03-01

    We study optical imaging of tissues in the mesoscopic scattering regime in which light multiply scatters in tissues but is not fully diffusive. We use the radiative transport equation to model light propagation and an ℓ1-optimization method to solve the inverse source problem. We show that recovering the location and strength of several point-like sources that are close to each other is not possible when using angle-averaged measurements. The image reliability is limited by a spatial scale that is on the order of the transport mean-free path, even under the most ideal conditions. However, by using just a few angle-resolved measurements, the proposed method is able to overcome this limitation.

  7. Study of the local structure of binary surfaces by electron diffraction (XPS, LEED)

    OpenAIRE

    Gereová, Katarína

    2006-01-01

    Study of local structure of binary surface with usage of ultra-thin film of cerium deposited on a Pd (111) single-crystal surface is presented. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and diffraction (XPS, XPD), angle resolved UV photoemission spectroscopy (ARUPS) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) was used for our investigations. LEED and X-ray excited photoemission intensities results represent a surface-geometrical structure. As well, mapping of ultra-violet photoelectron intensities as a...

  8. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectrometry: new electron optics and detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoof, H.A. van.

    1980-01-01

    A new spectrometer system is described, designed to measure angle-resolved energy distributions of photoemitted electrons efficiently. Some results are presented of measurements on a Si(001) surface. (Auth.)

  9. A New Spin on Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozwiak, Chris [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The electronic spin degree of freedom is of general fundamental importance to all matter. Understanding its complex roles and behavior in the solid state, particularly in highly correlated and magnetic materials, has grown increasingly desirable as technology demands advanced devices and materials based on ever stricter comprehension and control of the electron spin. However, direct and efficient spin dependent probes of electronic structure are currently lacking. Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES) has become one of the most successful experimental tools for elucidating solid state electronic structures, bolstered by-continual breakthroughs in efficient instrumentation. In contrast, spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has lagged behind due to a lack of similar instrumental advances. The power of photoemission spectroscopy and the pertinence of electronic spin in the current research climate combine to make breakthroughs in Spin and Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (SARPES) a high priority . This thesis details the development of a unique instrument for efficient SARPES and represents a radical departure from conventional methods. A custom designed spin polarimeter based on low energy exchange scattering is developed, with projected efficiency gains of two orders of magnitude over current state-of-the-art polarimeters. For energy analysis, the popular hemispherical analyzer is eschewed for a custom Time-of-Flight (TOF) analyzer offering an additional order of magnitude gain in efficiency. The combined instrument signifies the breakthrough needed to perform the high resolution SARPES experiments necessary for untangling the complex spin-dependent electronic structures central to today's condensed matter physics.

  10. Photoemission study of Kr 3d→np autoionization resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindle, D.W.; Heimann, P.A.; Ferrett, T.A.; Piancastelli, M.N.; Shirley, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Resonant photoelectron spectra of Kr have been taken in the photon-energy ranges of the 3d/sub 5/2/→5p,6p and 3d/sub 3/2/→5p excitations. The spectra, which closely resemble normal Kr + 3d/sup -1/ Auger spectra, illustrate the importance of ''spectator'' Auger-like decay for inner-shell resonances, in which the initially excited electron does not participate in the core-hole deexcitation process, except to respond to the change in the atomic potential. Possible assignments for some of the spectator decay channels are discussed based on photoemission intensity measurements at the different 3d resonances. These assignments suggest that shake-up (e.g., 5p→6p) of the ''spectator'' electron during the decay process is not quite as important as previously suspected. The resonance profiles of some of the more intense satellites have been determined over the 3d→np resonances. Very small resonance effects also were observed in the partial cross section for 4p subshell ionization, which produced asymmetric Fano-type profiles. The 4p angular distribution, in contrast, exhibits a pronounced effect in the resonance energy range. The 4p results demonstrate that nonspectator autoionization also is present

  11. Photoemission studies using femtosecond pulses for high brightness electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Tsang, T.; Fischer, J.

    1990-06-01

    We present the results of a series of experiments where various metal photocathodes are irradiated with ultrashort laser pulses, whose characteristics are: λ = 625 nm, τ = 100 fs, PRR = 89.5 MHz, Hν = 2 eV and average power 25 mW in each of the two beams. The quantum efficiency of the metals range from ∼10 -12 to 10 -8 at a power density of 100 MW/cm 2 at normal incidence. Since all the electrons are emitted due to multiphoton processes, these efficiencies are expected to increase substantially at large intensities. The efficiency at 100 MW/cm 2 has been increased by using p-polarized light at oblique incidence by ∼20x and by mediating the electron emission through surface plasmon excitation by ∼10 3 x. For the low intensities used in these experiments, the electron pulse duration is almost the same as the laser pulse duration for both the bulk and the surface plasmon mediated photoemission. 7 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Theoretical Studies of Magnetic Systems. Final Report, August 1, 1994 - November 30, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor`kov, L. P.; Novotny, M. A.; Schrieffer, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    During the grant period the authors have studied five areas of research: (1) low dimensional ferrimagnets; (2) lattice effects in the mixed valence problem; (3) spin compensation in the one dimensional Kondo lattice; (4) the interaction of quasi particles in short coherence length superconductors; and (5) novel effects in angle resolved photoemission spectra from nearly antiferromagnetic materials. Progress in each area is summarized.

  13. Angle-resolved imaging of single-crystal materials with MeV helium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strathman, M D; Baumann, S [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The simplest form of angle-resolved mapping for single-crystal materials is the creation of a channeling angular scan. Several laboratories have expanded this simple procedure to include mapping as a function of two independent tilts. These angle-resolved images are particularly suited to the assessment of crystal parameters including disorder, lattice location of impurities, and lattice stress. This paper will describe the use of the Charles Evans and Associates RBS-400 scattering chamber for acquisition, display, and analysis of angle-resolved images obtained from backscattered helium ions. Typical data acquisition times are 20 min for a {+-}2deg X-Y tilt scan with 2500 pixels (8/100deg resolution), and 10 nC per pixel. In addition, we will present a method for automatically aligning crystals for channeling measurements based on this imaging technology. (orig.).

  14. Angle-resolved imaging of single-crystal materials with MeV helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strathman, M.D.; Baumann, S.

    1992-01-01

    The simplest form of angle-resolved mapping for single-crystal materials is the creation of a channeling angular scan. Several laboratories have expanded this simple procedure to include mapping as a function of two independent tilts. These angle-resolved images are particularly suited to the assessment of crystal parameters including disorder, lattice location of impurities, and lattice stress. This paper will describe the use of the Charles Evans and Associates RBS-400 scattering chamber for acquisition, display, and analysis of angle-resolved images obtained from backscattered helium ions. Typical data acquisition times are 20 min for a ±2deg X-Y tilt scan with 2500 pixels (8/100deg resolution), and 10 nC per pixel. In addition, we will present a method for automatically aligning crystals for channeling measurements based on this imaging technology. (orig.)

  15. Development of angle-resolved low coherence interferometry for clinical detection of dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizheng Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the development of angle-resolved low coherence interferometry (a/LCI from initial development through clinical application. In the first applications, the approach used a time-domain interferometry scheme and was validated using animal models of carcinogenesis to assess the feasibility of detecting dysplasia in situ. Further development of the approach led to Fourier-domain interferometry schemes with higher throughput and endoscope-compatible probes to enable clinical application. These later implementations have been applied to clinical studies of dysplasia in Barrett′s esophagus tissues, a metaplastic tissue type that is associated with an increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. As an alternative to systematic biopsy, the a/LCI approach offers high sensitivity and specificity for detecting dysplasia in these tissues while avoiding the need for tissue removal or exogenous contrast agents. Here, the various implementations of a/LCI are discussed and the results of the preliminary animal experiments and ex vivo human tissue studies are reviewed. A review of a recent in vivo clinical study is also presented.

  16. The development of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy; 1900-1960

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, J.G.; La Trobe Univ., Bundoora

    1981-01-01

    Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) is now a sophisticated and particularly powerful technique for studying the electronic structure of matter, in addition the photoelectric effect has been of great significance in the history of 20th-century physics. This article seeks to uncover the origins and chart the development of the ARPES field, and focusses on the first half of this century; that is, up to the beginnings of the modern phase in the late 1960's. It is suggested that present workers will find interest in, and indeed profit from a knowledge of, the enormous experimental effort that was made to acquire quality data, the frustrating attempts that were initially made to understand them theoretically, and the contribution of early wave-mechanics, which brought order to a troubled field and thereby provided the necessary foundation for current studies. In addition, it is noted that the physicists involved often obtained inspiration and important insights which led them into studies of other significant problems of 20th-century physics. (orig.)

  17. Electronic Structures of Purple Bronze KMo6O17 Studied by X-Ray Photoemission Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaokui; Wei, Junyin; Shi, Jing; Tian, Mingliang; Chen, Hong; Tian, Decheng

    X-ray photoemission spectroscopy study has been performed for the purple bronze KMo6O17. The structures of conduction band and valence band are analogous to the results of ultraviolet photoemission spectra and are also consistent with the model of Travaglini et al., but the gap between conduction and valence band is insignificant. The shape of asymmetric and broadening line of O-1s is due to unresolved contributions from the many inequivalent oxygen sites in this crystal structure. Mo 3d core-level spectrum reveals that there are two kinds of valence states of Molybdenum (Mo+5 and Mo+6). The calculated average valence state is about +5.6, which is consistent with the expectation value from the composition of this material. The tail of Mo-3d spectrum toward higher binding energy is the consequence of the excitation of electron-hole pairs with singularity index of 0.21.

  18. Intra- and intercycle interference of angle-resolved electron emission in laser-assisted XUV atomic ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramajo, A. A.; Della Picca, R.; López, S. D.; Arbó, D. G.

    2018-03-01

    A theoretical study of ionization of the hydrogen atom due to an XUV pulse in the presence of an infrared (IR) laser is presented. Well-established theories are usually used to describe the laser-assisted photoelectron effect: the well-known soft-photon approximation firstly posed by Maquet et al (2007 J. Mod. Opt. 54 1847) and Kazansky’s theory in (2010 Phys. Rev. A 82, 033420). However, these theories completely fail to predict the electron emission perpendicularly to the polarization direction. Making use of a semiclassical model (SCM), we study the angle-resolved energy distribution of PEs for the case that both fields are linearly polarized in the same direction. We thoroughly analyze and characterize two different emission regions in the angle-energy domain: (i) the parallel-like region with contribution of two classical trajectories per optical cycle and (ii) the perpendicular-like region with contribution of four classical trajectories per optical cycle. We show that our SCM is able to assess the interference patterns of the angle-resolved PE spectrum in the two different mentioned regions. Electron trajectories stemming from different optical laser cycles give rise to angle-independent intercycle interferences known as sidebands. These sidebands are modulated by an angle-dependent coarse-grained structure coming from the intracycle interference of the electron trajectories born during the same optical cycle. We show the accuracy of our SCM as a function of the time delay between the IR and the XUV pulses and also as a function of the laser intensity by comparing the semiclassical predictions of the angle-resolved PE spectrum with the continuum-distorted wave strong field approximation and the ab initio solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation.

  19. Theory of tunneling and photoemission spectroscopy for high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouznetsov, K.; Coffey, L.

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis is presented of the tunneling conductance and angle-resolved photoemission spectra in high-temperature superconductors. It is shown that unexplained features of the tunneling and photoemission spectra such as broad backgrounds, dips, and asymmetry of the tunneling conductance can arise in a model of spin-fluctuation mediated inelastic tunneling. Effects of directionality in tunneling play an important role in determining the behavior of the tunneling conductance. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. Photoemission and the origin of high temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, M. R.; Randeria, M.; Janko, B.; Campuzano, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    The condensation energy can be shown to be a moment of the change in the occupied part of the spectral function when going from the normal to the superconducting state. As a consequence, there is a one to one correspondence between the energy gain associated with forming the superconducting ground state, and the dramatic changes seen in angle resolved photoemission spectra. Some implications this observation has are offered

  1. A fermi liquid electric structure and the nature of the carriers in high-T/sub c/ cuprates: A photoemission study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arko, A.J.; List, R.S.; Bartlett, R.J.; Cheong, S.W.; Fisk, Z.; Thompson, J.D.; Olson, C.G.; Yang, A.B.; Liu, R.; Gu, C.; Veal, B.W.; Liu, J.Z.; Paulikas, A.P.; Vandervoort, K.; Claus, H.; Campuzano, J.C.; Schirber, J.E.; Shinn, N.D.

    1989-01-01

    We have performed angle-integrated and angle-resolved photoemission measurements at 20 K on well-characterized single crystals of high-T/sub c/ cuprates (both 1:2:3-type and 2:2:1:2-type) cleaved in situ, and find a relatively large, resolution limited Fermi edge which shows large amplitude variations with photon energy, indicative of band structure final state effects. The lineshapes of the spectra of the 1:2:3 materials as a function of photon energy are well reproduced by band structure predictions, indicating a correct mix of 2p and 3d orbitals on the calculations, while the energy positions of the peaks agree with calculated bands only to within /approx/0.5 eV. This may yet prove to reflect the effects of Coulomb correlation. We nevertheless conclude that a Fermi liquid approach to conductivity is appropriate. Angle-resolved data, while still incomplete, suggest agreement with the Fermi surface predicted by the LDA calculations. A BCS-like energy gap is observed in the 2:2:1:2 materials, whose magnitude is twice the weak coupling BCS value (i.e., 2/Delta/ = 7 KT/sub c/). 49 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Experimental studies on the photoemission of gallium arsenide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westermann, M.

    2003-04-01

    In this thesis the study influence of residual gases on the lifetime, the temperature dependence of the quantum yield, and the influence of activation with potassium on both effects for GaAs-photocathodes is described. (HSI)

  3. Photoemission-monitored x-ray standing wave studies of molecular adsorbate surface structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, John Jethro

    2002-01-01

    The influence of non-dipole photoemission terms on the accuracy of photoemission-monitored NIXSW structure determinations has been studied. An experimental survey has been made of values of the incoherent dipole-quadrupole parameter as a function of energy and atomic number for the Is states of elements between carbon and chlorine inclusive. These values are compared with recent theoretical calculations. The contribution of the coherent dipole-quadrupole interference terms, whose form has been theoretically derived recently, has been experimentally measured for Is photoemission from clean Al(111). The coherent dipole-quadrupole effect is found to be small and easily corrected for, while the previously-known incoherent effect is shown to result in tolerable errors in most cases. Adsorption of methyl thiol (CH 3 SH) on Pt(111), followed by annealing to ∼ 220 K is believed to result in the formation of methyl thiolate (-SCH 3 ). Two structural models are consistent with NIXSW data presented here: co-occupation of fcc and hcp sites, and a tilted atop-bonded geometry. On annealing to ∼500 K, complete dissociation occurs, and the remaining S atoms are found to lie in fcc sites, with evidence of partial occupation of a more complex phase. The adsorption of CO, NO and O on Ni(111), and the O+CO and O+NO coadsorbate systems have been investigated with NIXSW. The sites found for O, CO and NO are consistent with previous quantitative structure determinations. In the presence of a precoverage of oxygen, the conclusion of a recent photoelectron diffraction study that the preferred CO site is atop a substrate Ni atom is confirmed. In contrast, NO adsorption onto a (2 x 2)-O precovered surface is found to result in the restructuring of the oxygen layer, with NO adsorbing in the hollow sites, as in the pure-NO layer. Discrepancies in bond lengths between these NIXSW results and previous quantitative determinations are discussed. (author)

  4. orbital selective correlation reduce in collapse tetragonal phase of CaFe2(As0.935P0.065)2 and electronic structure reconstruction studied by angel resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lingkun

    We performed an angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) study of the CaFe2(As0.935P0.065)2 in the collapse tetragonal(CT) phase and uncollapse tetragonal(UCT) phase. We find in the CT phase the electronic correlation dramatically reduces respective to UCT phase. Meanwhile, the reduction of correlation in CT phase show an orbital selective effect: correlation in dxy reduces the most, and then dxz/yz, while the one in dz2-r2 almost keeps the same. In CT phase, almost all bands sink downwards to higher binding energy, leading to the hole like bands around Brillouin zone(BZ) center sink below EF compared with UCT phase. However, the electron pocket around Brillouin Zone(BZ) corner(M) in UCT phase, forms a hole pocket around BZ center(Z point) in CT phase. Moreover, the dxy exhibits larger movement down to higher binding energy, resulting in farther away from dyz/xz and closer to dxy.We propose the electron filling ,namely high spin state in UCT phase to low spin state in CT phase(due to competing between crystal structure field and Hund's coupling), other than the Fermi surface nesting might be responsible for the absent of magnetic ordering.

  5. Layer- and lateral-resolved magnetization studies using photoemission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, D.H.; Hsu, Y.J.; Lin, C.-C.; Lai, C.-H.; Ou, J.Y.; Wu, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic circular dichroism in X-ray absorption is employed to study the element-specific magnetization in a TbFe/Co bilayer system and patterned Ni 80 Fe 20 film. Taking advantage of the energy tunability as well as the penetration power of synchrotron radiation, the magnetization directions of Co and Fe deposited in different layers were examined as a function of Co film thickness. For patterned films, the photoemission electron microscope reveals a clear correlation between the magnetic configurations and geometries of the patterns

  6. Optical study of HgCdTe infrared photodetectors using internal photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lao, Yan-Feng; Unil Perera, A. G.; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S.

    2014-01-01

    We report a study of internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) applied to a n-type Hg 1−x Cd x Te/Hg 1−y Cd y Te heterojunction. An exponential line-shape of the absorption tail in HgCdTe is identified by IPE fittings of the near-threshold quantum yield spectra. The reduction of quantum yield (at higher photon energy) below the fitting value is explained as a result of carrier-phonon scatterings. In addition, the obtained bias independence of the IPE threshold indicates a negligible electron barrier at the heterojunction interface

  7. Studies on a laser driven photoemissive high-brightness electron source and novel photocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Rongli; Song Jinhu; Yu Jin

    1997-01-01

    A laser driven photoemissive high-brightness electron source at Beijing University is reported. Through a DC accelerating gap of 100 kV voltage, the device is capable of delivering high-brightness electron beam of 35-100 ps pulse duration when irradiated with a mode-locked YAG laser. The geometry of the gun is optimized with the aid of simulation codes EGUN and POISSON. The results of experimental studies on ion implanted photocathode and cesium telluride photocathode are given. The proposed laser driven superconducting RF gun is also discussed

  8. Photoemission studies of fluorine functionalized porous graphitic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganegoda, Hasitha; Jensen, David S.; Olive, Daniel; Cheng, Lidens; Segre, Carlo U.; Linford, Matthew R.; Terry, Jeff

    2012-03-01

    Porous graphitic carbon (PGC) has unique properties desirable for liquid chromatography applications when used as a stationary phase. The polar retention effect on graphite (PREG) allows efficient separation of polar and non-polar solutes. Perfluorinated hydrocarbons however lack polarizabilty and display strong lipo- and hydrophobicity, hence common lipophilic and hydrophilic analytes have low partition coefficiency in fluorinated stationary phases. Attractive interaction between fluorinated stationary phase and fluorinated analytes results in strong retention compared to non-fluorinated analytes. In order to change the selectivities of PGC, it is necessary to develop a bonded PGC stationary phase. In this study, we have synthesized perfluorinated, PGC using hepatadecafluoro-1-iodooctane, under different temperature conditions. Surface functionalization of the raw material was studied using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). Results indicate the existence of fluorine containing functional groups, -CF, -CF2 along with an intercalated electron donor species. Multiple oxygen functional groups were also observed, likely due to the presence of oxygen in the starting material. These oxygen species may be responsible for significant modifications to planer and tetrahedral carbon ratios.

  9. Photoemission studies of fluorine functionalized porous graphitic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganegoda, Hasitha; Olive, Daniel; Cheng, Lidens; Segre, Carlo U.; Terry, Jeff [Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Jensen, David S.; Linford, Matthew R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Porous graphitic carbon (PGC) has unique properties desirable for liquid chromatography applications when used as a stationary phase. The polar retention effect on graphite (PREG) allows efficient separation of polar and non-polar solutes. Perfluorinated hydrocarbons however lack polarizabilty and display strong lipo- and hydrophobicity, hence common lipophilic and hydrophilic analytes have low partition coefficiency in fluorinated stationary phases. Attractive interaction between fluorinated stationary phase and fluorinated analytes results in strong retention compared to non-fluorinated analytes. In order to change the selectivities of PGC, it is necessary to develop a bonded PGC stationary phase. In this study, we have synthesized perfluorinated, PGC using hepatadecafluoro-1-iodooctane, under different temperature conditions. Surface functionalization of the raw material was studied using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). Results indicate the existence of fluorine containing functional groups, -CF, -CF{sub 2} along with an intercalated electron donor species. Multiple oxygen functional groups were also observed, likely due to the presence of oxygen in the starting material. These oxygen species may be responsible for significant modifications to planer and tetrahedral carbon ratios.

  10. VUV photoemission studies of candidate LHC vacuum chamber materials

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, V; Collins, I R

    1998-01-01

    In the context of future accelerators and, in particular, the beam vacuum of the LargeHadron Collider (LHC), a 27 km circumference proton collider to be built at CERN, VUVsynchrotron radiation (SR) has been used to study both qualitatively and quantitatively candidatevacuum chamber materials. Emphasis is given to show that angle and energy resolvedphotoemission is an extremely powerful tool to address important issues relevant to the LHC, suchas the emission of electrons that contribute to the creation of an electron cloud which may causeserious beam instabilities. Here we present not only the measured photoelectron yields (PY)from the proposed materials, prepared on an industrial scale, but also the energy and, in some cases,the angular dependence of the emitted electrons when excited with either a white light (WL)spectrum, simulating that in the arcs of the LHC or monochromatic light in the photon energy rangeof interest. The effects on the materials examined of WL irradiation and/or ion sputtering,simulati...

  11. Development of Field Angle Resolved Specific Heat Measurement System for Unconventional Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Matsubara, Takeshi; Machida, Yo; Izawa, Koichi; Onuki, Yoshichika; Salce, Bernard; Flouquet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    We developed a measurement system for field angle resolved specific heat under multiple extreme conditions at low temperature down to 50 mK, in magnetic field up to 7 T, and under high pressure up to 10 GPa. We demonstrated the performance of our developed system by measuring field angle dependence of specific heat of pressure induced unconventional superconductor CeIrSi 3

  12. Angle-resolved ion TOF spectrometer with a position sensitive detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Norio [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Heiser, F; Wieliczec, K; Becker, U

    1996-07-01

    A angle-resolved ion time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a position sensitive anode has been investigated. Performance of this spectrometer has been demonstrated by measuring an angular distribution of a fragment ion pair, C{sup +} + O{sup +}, from CO at the photon energy of 287.4 eV. The obtained angular distribution is very close to the theoretically expected one. (author)

  13. Electronic structure of Mo1-x Re x alloys studied through resonant photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Shyam; Banik, Soma; Sharath Chandra, L. S.; Chattopadhyay, M. K.; Ganguli, Tapas; Lodha, G. S.; Pandey, Sudhir K.; Phase, D. M.; Roy, S. B.

    2016-08-01

    We studied the electronic structure of Mo-rich Mo1-x Re x alloys (0≤slant x≤slant 0.4 ) using valence band photoemission spectroscopy in the photon energy range 23-70 eV and density of states calculations. Comparison of the photoemission spectra with the density of states calculations suggests that, with respect to the Fermi level E F, the d states lie mostly in the binding energy range 0 to  -6 eV, whereas s states lie in the binding energy range  -4 to  -10 eV. We observed two resonances in the photoemission spectra of each sample, one at about 35 eV photon energy and the other at about 45 eV photon energy. Our analysis suggests that the resonance at 35 eV photon energy is related to the Mo 4p-5s transition and the resonance at 45 eV photon energy is related to the contribution from both the Mo 4p-4d transition (threshold: 42 eV) and the Re 5p-5d transition (threshold: 46 eV). In the constant initial state plot, the resonance at 35 eV incident photon energy for binding energy features in the range E F (BE  =  0) to  -5 eV becomes progressively less prominent with increasing Re concentration x and vanishes for x  >  0.2. The difference plots obtained by subtracting the valence band photoemission spectrum of Mo from that of Mo1-x Re x alloys, measured at 47 eV photon energy, reveal that the Re d-like states appear near E F when Re is alloyed with Mo. These results indicate that interband s-d interaction, which is weak in Mo, increases with increasing x and influences the nature of the superconductivity in alloys with higher x.

  14. Femtosecond time-resolved two-photon photoemission study of organic semiconductor copper phthalocyanine film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, A.; Tohoku University; University of Rochester, NY; Yan, L.; Watkins, N.J.; Gao, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Organic semiconductors are recently attracting much interest from the viewpoints of both device and fundamental physics. These organic semiconductors are considered to be important constituents of the future devices, such as organic light-emitting diode, organic field effect transistor, and organic solid-state injection laser. In order to elucidate their detailed physical properties and to develop the future devices, it is indispensable to understand their excited-state dynamics as well as their electronic structures. The femtosecond time-resolved two-photon photoemission (TR-2PPE) spectroscopy is attracting much interest because of its capability to observe the energy-resolved excited electron dynamics. In this work, we have carried out a TR-2PPE study of the organic semiconductor copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) film. Furthermore, we have investigated the detailed electronic structure of CuPc film using the photoemission (PES) and inverse photoemission (IPES) spectroscopies. From the simultaneous PES and IPES measurements for CuPc film with a thickness of 100 nm, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), highest occupied molecular orbital, and ionization potential of CuPc film have been directly determined. The observed two-photon photoemission (2PPE) spectrum of the present CuPc film, measured with photon energy of about hv=3.3 eV, exhibits a broad feature. From the energy diagram of CuPc film determined by the PES and IPES measurements, the intermediate state observed in the present 2PPE spectrum of CuPc film corresponds to the energy region between about 0.4 and 1.7 eV above the LUMO energy. From the time-resolved pump-probe measurements, it is found that the relaxation lifetimes of excited states in the present CuPc films are very short (all below 50 fs) and monotonously become faster with increasing excitation energy. We attribute this extremely fast relaxation process of photoexcitation to a rapid internal conversion process. From these results

  15. Instrument developments for inverse photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenac, A.

    1987-02-01

    Experimental developments principally concerning electron sources for inverse photoemission are presented. The specifications of the electron beam are derived from experiment requirements, taking into account the limitations encountered (space charge divergence). For a wave vector resolution of 0.2 A -1 , the maximum current is 25 microA at 20 eV. The design of a gun providing such a beam in the range 5 to 50 eV is presented. Angle-resolved inverse photoemission experiments show angular effects at 30 eV. For an energy of 10 eV, angular effects should be stronger, but the low efficiency of the spectrometer in this range makes the experiments difficult. The total energy resolution of 0.3 eV is the result mainly of electron energy spread, as expected. The electron sources are based on field effect electron emission from a cathode consisting of a large number of microtips. The emission arises from a few atomic cells for each tip. The ultimate theoretical energy spread is 0.1 eV. This value is not attained because of an interface resistance problem. A partial solution of this problem allows measurement of an energy spread of 0.9 eV for a current of 100 microA emitted at 60 eV. These cathodes have a further advantage in that emission can occur at a low temperature [fr

  16. Electron Band Alignment at Interfaces of Semiconductors with Insulating Oxides: An Internal Photoemission Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri V. Afanas'ev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of the electron energy band alignment at interfaces between different semiconductors and wide-gap oxide insulators is examined using the internal photoemission spectroscopy, which is based on observations of optically-induced electron (or hole transitions across the semiconductor/insulator barrier. Interfaces of various semiconductors ranging from the conventional silicon to the high-mobility Ge-based (Ge, Si1-xGex, Ge1-xSnx and AIIIBV group (GaAs, InxGa1-xAs, InAs, GaP, InP, GaSb, InSb materials were studied revealing several general trends in the evolution of band offsets. It is found that in the oxides of metals with cation radii larger than ≈0.7 Å, the oxide valence band top remains nearly at the same energy (±0.2 eV irrespective of the cation sort. Using this result, it becomes possible to predict the interface band alignment between oxides and semiconductors as well as between dissimilar insulating oxides on the basis of the oxide bandgap width which are also affected by crystallization. By contrast, oxides of light elements, for example, Be, Mg, Al, Si, and Sc exhibit significant shifts of the valence band top. General trends in band lineup variations caused by a change in the composition of semiconductor photoemission material are also revealed.

  17. Interfacial electronic structure of Na deposited on rubrene thin film studied by synchrotron radiation photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Ching-Hsuan; Cheng, Chiu-Ping; Lin, Hong-Cheu; Pi, Tun-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Na deposited on rubrene had undergone three-stage development process via (1) atomic diffusion, (2) atomic incorporation in the surface region, (3) formation of a metallic film. • High resolution core-level photoemission was used to determine the location of the doped Na atoms, which is affiliated at the end position of the tetracene-like backbone. • Na metal was formed on the rubrene thin film. • Ionization potential of the organic molecule regulated with different Na doping concentration could be controllable and favorable in practical applications. - Abstract: The electronic structure of rubrene doped with various concentrations of Na was studied by synchrotron-radiation photoemission. Three stages of development were found with increasing Na concentration; Na penetrating deep into the organic film, followed by development of gap states, and ended with a metallic Na film. The charge transfer from Na to rubrene resulted in a vacuum-level shift. By doping Na into rubrene, we could control the IP of the organic molecule, which is favorable for application in organic semiconductor devices.

  18. Photoemission spectroscopy study on interfacial energy level alignments in tandem organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Qing-Dong; Li, Chi; Li, Yan-Qing, E-mail: yqli@suda.edu.cn; Tang, Jian-Xin, E-mail: jxtang@suda.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • The interface energetics of tandem OLEDs is overviewed. • Energy level alignment in CGLs is addressed via photoemission spectroscopy. • The n-type doping effect with cesium compounds is discussed. • Hole injection barrier is dependent on oxygen vacancies in transition metal oxides. • Device lifetime of tandem OLEDs is sensitive to interfacial stability of CGLs. - Abstract: Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using a tandem structure offer a highly attractive option for the applications of next-generation flat panel displays and solid-state lighting due to the extremely high brightness and efficiency along with the long operational lifetime. In general, reliable information about interface energetics of the charge generation layers (CGLs), which plays the central role in charge generation and carrier injection into the stacked emission units, is highly desirable and advantageous for interface engineering and the performance optimization of tandem OLEDs. In this review, our recent studies on tandem OLEDs are overviewed, especially from interface energetics perspective via photoemission spectroscopy. The electronic structures of various transition metal oxide (TMO)-based CGLs and their role in charge generation process are reviewed, addressing the n-type doping impact of organic layers in CGLs, thermal annealing-induced oxygen vacancy in TMOs, and the interfacial stability of CGLs on the device operational lifetime. The resulting energy level alignments are summarized in correspondence with tandem OLED performance.

  19. Photoemission from solids: the transition from solid-state to atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.A.

    1980-08-01

    As the photon energy is increased, photoemission from solids undergoes a slow transition from solid-state to atomic behavior. However, throughout the energy range hν = 10 to 1000 eV or higher both types of phenomena are present. Thus angle-resolved photoemission can only be understood quantitatively if each experimenter recognizes the presence of band-structure, photoelectron diffraction, and photoelectron asymmetry effects. The quest for this understanding will build some interesting bridges between solid-state and atomic physics and should also yield important new insights about the phenomena associated with photoemission

  20. Quantifying electronic band interactions in van der Waals materials using angle-resolved reflected-electron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobst, Johannes; van der Torren, Alexander J H; Krasovskii, Eugene E; Balgley, Jesse; Dean, Cory R; Tromp, Rudolf M; van der Molen, Sense Jan

    2016-11-29

    High electron mobility is one of graphene's key properties, exploited for applications and fundamental research alike. Highest mobility values are found in heterostructures of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride, which consequently are widely used. However, surprisingly little is known about the interaction between the electronic states of these layered systems. Rather pragmatically, it is assumed that these do not couple significantly. Here we study the unoccupied band structure of graphite, boron nitride and their heterostructures using angle-resolved reflected-electron spectroscopy. We demonstrate that graphene and boron nitride bands do not interact over a wide energy range, despite their very similar dispersions. The method we use can be generally applied to study interactions in van der Waals systems, that is, artificial stacks of layered materials. With this we can quantitatively understand the 'chemistry of layers' by which novel materials are created via electronic coupling between the layers they are composed of.

  1. Interband quasiparticle scattering in superconducting LiFeAs reconciles photoemission and tunneling measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Christian; Sykora, Steffen; Hänke, Torben; Schlegel, Ronny; Baumann, Danny; Zabolotnyy, Volodymyr B; Harnagea, Luminita; Wurmehl, Sabine; van den Brink, Jeroen; Büchner, Bernd

    2013-01-04

    Several angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies reveal a poorly nested Fermi surface of LiFeAs, far away from a spin density wave instability, and clear-cut superconducting gap anisotropies. On the other hand a very different, more nested Fermi surface and dissimilar gap anisotropies have been obtained from quasiparticle interference (QPI) data, which were interpreted as arising from intraband scattering within holelike bands. Here we show that this ARPES-QPI paradox is completely resolved by interband scattering between the holelike bands. The resolution follows from an excellent agreement between experimental quasiparticle scattering data and T-matrix QPI calculations (based on experimental band structure data), which allows disentangling interband and intraband scattering processes.

  2. Short-period oscillations in photoemission from thin films of Cr(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyalikh, Denis V.; Zahn, Peter; Richter, Manuel; Dedkov, Yu. S.; Molodtsov, S. L.

    2005-07-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission (PE) study of thin films of Cr grown on Fe(100) reveals thickness-dependent short-period oscillations of the PE intensity close to the Fermi energy at k‖˜0 . The oscillations are assigned to quantum-well states (QWS) caused by the nesting between the Fermi-surface sheets around the Γ and the X points in the Brillouin zone of antiferromagnetic Cr. The experimental data are confirmed by density-functional calculations applying a screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green’s function method. The period of the experimentally observed QWS oscillations amounts to about 2.6 monolayers and is larger than the fundamental 2-monolayer period of antiferromagnetic coupling in Cr.

  3. Angle resolved characterization of nanostructured and conventionally textured silicon solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Ormstrup, Jeppe; Ommen, Martin Lind

    2015-01-01

    current, open circuit voltage, fill factor (FF) and power conversion efficiency are each measured as function of the relative incident angle between the solar cell and the light source. The relative incident angle is varied from 0° to 90° in steps of 10° in orthogonal axes, such that each solar cell......We report angle resolved characterization of nanostructured and conventionally textured silicon solar cells. The nanostructured solar cells are realized through a single step, mask-less, scalable reactive ion etching (RIE) texturing of the surface. Photovoltaic properties including short circuit...

  4. A photoemission study of interfaces between organic semiconductors and Co as well as Al2O3/Co contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grobosch, M.; Schmidt, C.; Naber, W.J.M.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Knupfer, M.

    We have studied the energy-level alignment of ex situ, acetone cleaned Co and Al2O3/Co contacts to the organic semiconductors pentacene and rubrene by combined X-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. Our results demonstrate that the work function under these conditions is smaller than in

  5. Reactive molecular beam epitaxial growth and in situ photoemission spectroscopy study of iridate superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Fan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available High-quality (001-oriented perovskite [(SrIrO3m/(SrTiO3] superlattices (m=1/2, 1, 2, 3 and ∞ films have been grown on SrTiO3(001 epitaxially using reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Compared to previously reported superlattices synthesized by pulsed laser deposition, our superlattices exhibit superior crystalline, interface and surface structure, which have been confirmed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The transport measurements confirm a novel insulator-metal transition with the change of dimensionality in these superlattices, and our first systematic in situ photoemission spectroscopy study indicates that the increasing strength of effective correlations induced by reducing dimensionality would be the dominating origin of this transition.

  6. The interaction of oxygen with TiC(001): Photoemission and first-principles studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.A.; Liu, P.; Dvorak, J.; Jirsak, T.; Gomes, J.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakamura, K.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution photoemission and first-principles density-functional slab calculations were used to study the interaction of oxygen with a TiC(001) surface. Atomic oxygen is present on the TiC(001) substrate after small doses of O 2 at room temperature. A big positive shift (1.5-1.8 eV) was detected for the C 1s core level. These photoemission studies suggest the existence of strong O↔C interactions. A phenomenon corroborated by the results of first-principles calculations, which show a CTiTi hollow as the most stable site for the adsorption of O. Ti and C atoms are involved in the adsorption and dissociation of the O 2 molecule. In general, the bond between O and the TiC(001) surface contains a large degree of ionic character. The carbide→O charge transfer is substantial even at high coverages (>0.5 ML) of oxygen. At 500 K and large doses of O 2 , oxidation of the carbide surface occurs with the removal of C and formation of titanium oxides. There is an activation barrier for the exchange of Ti-C and Ti-O bonds which is overcome only by the formation of C-C or C-O bonds on the surface. The mechanism for the removal of a C atom as CO gas involves a minimum of two O adatoms, and three O adatoms are required for the formation of CO 2 gas. Due to the high stability of TiC, an O adatom alone cannot induce the generation of a C vacancy in a flat TiC(001) surface

  7. Setup for angle-resolved electron spectrometry using monochromatised synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenbach, H.; Franke, C.; Malutzki, R.; Wachter, A.; Schmidt, V.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus is described which is well suited for angle-resolved electron spectrometry of free atoms and molecules using monochromatised synchrotron radiation. Two variations are presented, one for room temperature gaseous species, the other for metallic vapours. The analyser is of the cylindrical mirror type, designed, however, so as to accept with one sector the entire source volume independently of the photon beam diameter. It can be equipped with a positon-sensitive detector instead of a channeltron, which extends its potentiality. The system consists of up to three cylindrical mirror sector analysers (CMAs) where a double-sector CMA can be rotated around the photon beam direction, allowing angular distribution measurements, and another sector CMA is mounted in a fixed position providing a signal for reference purposes. A detailed description and experimental tests are given for the performance of the CMA, i.e. its imaging properties, resolution and transmissions, as well as for possible instrumental asymmetries affecting angle-resolved experiments. (orig.)

  8. General survey of recent development of photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edamoto, Kazuyuki

    1994-01-01

    On the present state of the recent development of photoemission spectroscopy, by limiting the topics to the development of the spectroscopy proper and the development contributing to the progress of surface science, general explanation is made. As to the development that enabled to heighten spectrum resolution, surface core-level shift and the precise measurement of the Fermi surface of surface level are described, showing the example. Also a number of the developments which enabled the utilization of the light source, of which the wavelength is variable, and which was brought about by synchrotron radiation beam, were mentioned. Besides, spin polarized photoelectron spectroscopy, the development of photoelectron microscope and others are outlined. Photoemission spectroscopy is very useful for analyzing the electron condition of solid surfaces. There are two factors in heightening core level spectrum resolution, namely, heightening the resolution of an electron energy analyzer proper and the utilization of synchrotron radiation as a light source. High resolution core-level spectra, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and as the light source of which the wavelength is variable, resonance photoemission spectroscopy, constant initial state spectroscopy and soft X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and as the recently developed spectroscopy, spin polarized photoemission spectroscopy, Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy and photoelectron microscope are explained. (K.I.)

  9. Angle-resolved X-ray fluorescence spectrometry using synchrotron radiation at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, W.; Rothe, J.; Hormes, J.; Gries, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements on the centroid depth of ion-implanted phosphorus-in-silicon specimen by the method of angle-resolved, self-ratio X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (AR/SR/XFS) have been carried out using 'white' synchrotron radiation (SR). The measurements were performed using a modified wavelength-dispersive fluorescence spectrometer. Problems due to the use of SR, like carbonaceous specimen contamination and sample heating were overcome by flooding the specimen chamber with helium and by pre-absorbing the non-exciting parts of the incident SR with suitable filters, respectively. The decaying primary intensity was monitored by measuring the compensation current of the photoelectrons emitted from a tungsten wire stretched across the primary beam. Results have been obtained for specimen with dose density levels of 10 16 cm -2 and 3x10 15 cm -2 . (orig.)

  10. Electron-plasmon and electron-phonon satellites in the angle-resolved photoelectron spectra of n -doped anatase TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Fabio; Verdi, Carla; Poncé, Samuel; Giustino, Feliciano

    2018-04-01

    We develop a first-principles approach based on many-body perturbation theory to investigate the effects of the interaction between electrons and carrier plasmons on the electronic properties of highly doped semiconductors and oxides. Through the evaluation of the electron self-energy, we account simultaneously for electron-plasmon and electron-phonon coupling in theoretical calculations of angle-resolved photoemission spectra, electron linewidths, and relaxation times. We apply this methodology to electron-doped anatase TiO2 as an illustrative example. The simulated spectra indicate that electron-plasmon coupling in TiO2 underpins the formation of satellites at energies comparable to those of polaronic spectral features. At variance with phonons, however, the energy of plasmons and their spectral fingerprints depends strongly on the carrier concentration, revealing a complex interplay between plasmon and phonon satellites. The electron-plasmon interaction accounts for approximately 40% of the total electron-boson interaction strength, and it is key to improve the agreement with measured quasiparticle spectra.

  11. Design of angle-resolved illumination optics using nonimaging bi-telecentricity for 193 nm scatterfield microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Martin Y; Barnes, Bryan M; Silver, Richard M

    2018-03-01

    Accurate optics-based dimensional measurements of features sized well-below the diffraction limit require a thorough understanding of the illumination within the optical column and of the three-dimensional scattered fields that contain the information required for quantitative metrology. Scatterfield microscopy can pair simulations with angle-resolved tool characterization to improve agreement between the experiment and calculated libraries, yielding sub-nanometer parametric uncertainties. Optimized angle-resolved illumination requires bi-telecentric optics in which a telecentric sample plane defined by a Köhler illumination configuration and a telecentric conjugate back focal plane (CBFP) of the objective lens; scanning an aperture or an aperture source at the CBFP allows control of the illumination beam angle at the sample plane with minimal distortion. A bi-telecentric illumination optics have been designed enabling angle-resolved illumination for both aperture and source scanning modes while yielding low distortion and chief ray parallelism. The optimized design features a maximum chief ray angle at the CBFP of 0.002° and maximum wavefront deviations of less than 0.06 λ for angle-resolved illumination beams at the sample plane, holding promise for high quality angle-resolved illumination for improved measurements of deep-subwavelength structures using deep-ultraviolet light.

  12. Photoemission electron microscopy for the study of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Simone; Scholl, Andreas; Nolting, Frithjof; Padmore, Howard A.; Luening, Jan; Stoehr, Joachim; Scheinfein, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) is a full field imaging technique where x-ray exited electrons are used to form an image of the sample surface as a function of the x-ray photon energy and polarization. Contrast in PEEM can be due to a number of mechanisms including topographical, work function, elemental, chemical, polarization, x-ray magnetic circular and linear dichroism contrast. This wide range of contrast mechanisms together with the surface sensitivity and high spatial resolution make PEEM a very useful tool for the study of magnetic materials. PEEM-II is a new microscope installed at the bending magnet beamline 7.3.1.1 of the Advanced Light Source. In the present paper we describe the design and features of PEEM-II, and show results of our recent studies. Using PEEM and its elemental specificity, it is possible to investigate the various layers in magnetic multilayer structures independently. The experiments described here include the investigation of the switching behavior of magnetic multilayer structures that are of interest for magnetic RAM applications. The study of antiferromagnetic surfaces and thin films are of great importance for devices based on the effect of exchange bias. To date, studies at high-spatial-resolution of exchange bias systems has been difficult because of the lack of appropriate investigation methods. Here we demonstrate how PEEM has been used to image antiferromagnetic structure on surfaces with high spatial resolution

  13. X-ray photoemission electron microscopy for the study of semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Simone; Stammler, Thomas; Padmore, Howard A.; Terminello, Louis J.; Jankowski, Alan F.; Stoehr, Joachim; Diaz, Javier; Cossy-Favre, Aline; Singh, Sangeet

    1998-01-01

    Photoemission Electron Microscopy using X-rays (X-PEEM) is a novel combination of two established materials analysis techniques--PEEM using UV light, and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. This combination allows the study of elemental composition and bonding structure of the sample by NEXAFS spectroscopy with a high spatial resolution given by the microscope. A simple, two lens, 10 kV operation voltage PEEM has been used at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley to study various problems including materials of interest for the semiconductor industry. In the present paper we give a short overview over the method and the instrument which was used, and describe in detail a number of applications. These applications include the study of the different phases of titanium disilicide, various phases of boron nitride, and the analysis of small particles. A brief outlook is given on possible new fields of application of the PEEM technique, and the development of new PEEM instruments

  14. Photoemission study of the development of the Ti/GaAs(110) interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruckman, M.W.; del Giudice, M.; Joyce, J.J.; Weaver, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Photoemission spectra of the Ga and As 3d core levels, the Ti 3p core levels, and the valence bands have been used to study the formation of the Ti/GaAs(110) interface. These results indicate that a multicomponent interfacial zone forms with reaction initiated at ultralow coverage and a rapid shift of E/sub F/ as the Schottky barrier forms (core-level shift 625 meV). After the onset of reaction, the Ga 3d core level shifts continuously to lower binding energy with increasing coverage (total shift of 1.66 eV by roughly-equal60 A Ti deposition). The As core-level profile indicates immediate reaction, the formation of two Ti: As bonding configurations at low coverage, and the appearance of another which persists to very high Ti coverage (> or =160 A) and is characteristic of a Ti-metal-rich environment. Core-level intensity profiles show preferential out-diffusion of As at every stage of interface formation. Core studies of the evolving Ti 3p emission show gradual convergence to bulk Ti as the overlayer becomes increasingly Ti rich. Likewise, valence-band studies reveal predominantly As-derived states below metal d states at E/sub F/. Comparison to previous results for Cr, V, Ce, and Sm overlayers on GaAs shows parallel trends in interface formation with differences related to the metal overlayer

  15. Photoemission study on the formation of Mo contacts to CuInSe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.J.; Niles, D.W.; Kazmerski, L.L.; Rioux, D.; Patel, R.; Hoechst, H.

    1992-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation soft-x-ray photoemission spectroscopy was used to investigate the development of the electronic structure at the Mo/CuInSe 2 interface. Mo overlayers were e-beam deposited in steps on single-crystal n-type CuInSe 2 at ambient temperature. Photoemission measurements were acquired after each growth in order to observe changes in the valence-band electronic structure as well as changes in the In 4d, Se 3d, and Mo 4d core lines. Photoemission measurements on the valence-band and core lines were also obtained after annealing. The results were used to correlate the interface chemistry with the electronic structure at this interface and to directly determine the maximum possible Schottky barrier height φ b to be ≤0.2 eV at the Mo/CuInSe 2 junction before annealing, thus showing that this contact is essentially ohmic

  16. Soft X-ray photoemission study of organic conductors BEDT-TTF and BEDO-TTF salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunekawa, M.; Sekiyama, A.; Imada, S.; Saita, T.; Maesato, M.; Yamochi, H.; Saito, G.; Suga, S.

    2005-01-01

    We have performed a soft X-ray photoemission (PES) study of quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors BEDT-TTF (ET) and BEDO-TTF (BO) salts. We have clarified the difference in the electronic states between the bulk and surface insulating layers. The difference of the electronic states between ET and BO molecules is also found. On the other hand, the spectral weight in the vicinity of Fermi level is suppressed as reported by the low-energy PES

  17. Band alignments in Fe/graphene/Si(001) junctions studied by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Breton, J.-C.; Tricot, S.; Delhaye, G.; Lépine, B.; Turban, P.; Schieffer, P.

    2016-08-01

    The control of tunnel contact resistance is of primary importance for semiconductor-based spintronic devices. This control is hardly achieved with conventional oxide-based tunnel barriers due to deposition-induced interface states. Manipulation of single 2D atomic crystals (such as graphene sheets) weakly interacting with their substrate might represent an alternative and efficient way to design new heterostructures for a variety of different purposes including spin injection into semiconductors. In the present paper, we study by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy the band alignments and interface chemistry of iron-graphene-hydrogenated passivated silicon (001) surfaces for a low and a high n-doping concentration. We find that the hydrogen passivation of the Si(001) surface remains efficient even with a graphene sheet on the Si(001) surface. For both doping concentrations, the semiconductor is close to flat-band conditions which indicates that the Fermi level is unpinned on the semiconductor side of the Graphene/Si(001):H interface. When iron is deposited on the graphene/Si(001):H structures, the Schottky barrier height remains mainly unaffected by the metallic overlayer with a very low barrier height for electrons, a sought-after property in semiconductor based spintronic devices. Finally, we demonstrate that the graphene layer intercalated between the metal and semiconductor also serves as a protection against iron-silicide formation even at elevated temperatures preventing from the formation of a Si-based magnetic dead layer.

  18. Band alignments in Fe/graphene/Si(001) junctions studied by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Breton, J.-C.; Tricot, S.; Delhaye, G.; Lépine, B.; Turban, P.; Schieffer, P.

    2016-01-01

    The control of tunnel contact resistance is of primary importance for semiconductor-based spintronic devices. This control is hardly achieved with conventional oxide-based tunnel barriers due to deposition-induced interface states. Manipulation of single 2D atomic crystals (such as graphene sheets) weakly interacting with their substrate might represent an alternative and efficient way to design new heterostructures for a variety of different purposes including spin injection into semiconductors. In the present paper, we study by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy the band alignments and interface chemistry of iron–graphene-hydrogenated passivated silicon (001) surfaces for a low and a high n-doping concentration. We find that the hydrogen passivation of the Si(001) surface remains efficient even with a graphene sheet on the Si(001) surface. For both doping concentrations, the semiconductor is close to flat-band conditions which indicates that the Fermi level is unpinned on the semiconductor side of the Graphene/Si(001):H interface. When iron is deposited on the graphene/Si(001):H structures, the Schottky barrier height remains mainly unaffected by the metallic overlayer with a very low barrier height for electrons, a sought-after property in semiconductor based spintronic devices. Finally, we demonstrate that the graphene layer intercalated between the metal and semiconductor also serves as a protection against iron-silicide formation even at elevated temperatures preventing from the formation of a Si-based magnetic dead layer.

  19. High resolution photoemission study of Nd1-xSrxMnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, T.; Osawa, H.; Shin, S.; Tanaka, K.; Isozumi, Y.; Iwazumi, T.; Nozawa, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text:Nd 1-x SrxMnO 3 shows the negative colossal magnetoresistance and various electronic phases. In order to reveal their states, we have performed a high- resolution Mn 2p-3d resonance photoemission (RPES) study of Nd 1-x SrxMnO 3 with an energy resolution of 100 meV at BL25SU in SPring-8. Figure 1 shows the Mn 2p-3d RPES spectra of Nd 1-x SrxMnO 3 . It is found that the spectral line shape in the ground-state phases (GS) at low temperatures is closely related to the shape of MnO 6 octahedra depending on x due to a static Jahn- Teller (JT) effect while the line shape in the paramagnetic insulator (PI) phase near room temperature is qualitatively similar to each other irrespective of x. These results strongly suggest that the dynamical and static JT effects are responsible for the 3d electronic states at high and low temperatures, respectively

  20. VUV photoemission studies of candidate Large Hadron Collider vacuum chamber materials

    CERN Document Server

    Cimino, R; Baglin, V

    1999-01-01

    In the context of future accelerators and, in particular, the beam vacuum of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a 27 km circumference proton collider to be built at CERN, VUV synchrotron radiation (SR) has been used to study both qualitatively and quantitatively candidate vacuum chamber materials. Emphasis is given to show that angle and energy resolved photoemission is an extremely powerful tool to address important issues relevant to the LHC, such as the emission of electrons that contributes to the creation of an electron cloud which may cause serious beam instabilities and unmanageable heat loads on the cryogenic system. Here we present not only the measured photoelectron yields from the proposed materials, prepared on an industrial scale, but also the energy and in some cases the angular dependence of the emitted electrons when excited with either a white light (WL) spectrum, simulating that in the arcs of the LHC, or monochromatic light in the photon energy range of interest. The effects on the materials ...

  1. Rotatable spin-polarized electron source for inverse-photoemission experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolwijk, S. D.; Wortelen, H.; Schmidt, A. B.; Donath, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a ROtatable Spin-polarized Electron source (ROSE) for the use in spin- and angle-resolved inverse-photoemission (SR-IPE) experiments. A key feature of the ROSE is a variable direction of the transversal electron beam polarization. As a result, the inverse-photoemission experiment becomes sensitive to two orthogonal in-plane polarization directions, and, for nonnormal electron incidence, to the out-of-plane polarization component. We characterize the ROSE and test its performance on the basis of SR-IPE experiments. Measurements on magnetized Ni films on W(110) serve as a reference to demonstrate the variable spin sensitivity. Moreover, investigations of the unoccupied spin-dependent surface electronic structure of Tl/Si(111) highlight the capability to analyze complex phenomena like spin rotations in momentum space. Essentially, the ROSE opens the way to further studies on complex spin-dependent effects in the field of surface magnetism and spin-orbit interaction at surfaces

  2. Dual analyzer system for surface analysis dedicated for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy at liquid surfaces and interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedermaier, Inga; Kolbeck, Claudia; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Maier, Florian, E-mail: florian.maier@fau.de [Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II, FAU Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    The investigation of liquid surfaces and interfaces with the powerful toolbox of ultra-high vacuum (UHV)-based surface science techniques generally has to overcome the issue of liquid evaporation within the vacuum system. In the last decade, however, new classes of liquids with negligible vapor pressure at room temperature—in particular, ionic liquids (ILs)—have emerged for surface science studies. It has been demonstrated that particularly angle-resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) allows for investigating phenomena that occur at gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces on the molecular level. The results are not only relevant for IL systems but also for liquids in general. In all of these previous ARXPS studies, the sample holder had to be tilted in order to change the polar detection angle of emitted photoelectrons, which restricted the liquid systems to very thin viscous IL films coating a flat solid support. We now report on the concept and realization of a new and unique laboratory “Dual Analyzer System for Surface Analysis (DASSA)” which enables fast ARXPS, UV photoelectron spectroscopy, imaging XPS, and low-energy ion scattering at the horizontal surface plane of macroscopically thick non-volatile liquid samples. It comprises a UHV chamber equipped with two electron analyzers mounted for simultaneous measurements in 0° and 80° emission relative to the surface normal. The performance of DASSA on a first macroscopic liquid system will be demonstrated.

  3. Dual analyzer system for surface analysis dedicated for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy at liquid surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermaier, Inga; Kolbeck, Claudia; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Maier, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of liquid surfaces and interfaces with the powerful toolbox of ultra-high vacuum (UHV)-based surface science techniques generally has to overcome the issue of liquid evaporation within the vacuum system. In the last decade, however, new classes of liquids with negligible vapor pressure at room temperature—in particular, ionic liquids (ILs)—have emerged for surface science studies. It has been demonstrated that particularly angle-resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) allows for investigating phenomena that occur at gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces on the molecular level. The results are not only relevant for IL systems but also for liquids in general. In all of these previous ARXPS studies, the sample holder had to be tilted in order to change the polar detection angle of emitted photoelectrons, which restricted the liquid systems to very thin viscous IL films coating a flat solid support. We now report on the concept and realization of a new and unique laboratory “Dual Analyzer System for Surface Analysis (DASSA)” which enables fast ARXPS, UV photoelectron spectroscopy, imaging XPS, and low-energy ion scattering at the horizontal surface plane of macroscopically thick non-volatile liquid samples. It comprises a UHV chamber equipped with two electron analyzers mounted for simultaneous measurements in 0° and 80° emission relative to the surface normal. The performance of DASSA on a first macroscopic liquid system will be demonstrated.

  4. Relaxation and cross section effects in valence band photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFeely, F.R.

    1976-09-01

    Various problems relating to the interpretation of valence band x-ray photoemission (XPS) spectra of solids are discussed. The experiments and calculations reported herein deal with the following questions: (1) To what extent do many-body effects manifest themselves in an XPS valence band spectrum, and thus invalidate a direct comparison between the photoemission energy distribution, I(E), and the density of states, N(E), calculated on the basis of ground-state one-electron theory. (2) The effect of the binding-energy-dependent photoemission cross section on I(E) at XPS energies. (3) In favorable cases indicated by (1) and (2) we examine the effect of the interaction of the crystal field with the apparent spin-orbit splittings of core levels observed in XPS spectra. (4) The use of tight binding band structure calculations to parameterize the electronic band structure from XPS and other data is described. (5) The use of high energy angle-resolved photoemission on oriented single crystals to gain orbital symmetry information is discussed. (6) The evolution of the shape of the photoemission energy distribution (of polycrystalline Cu) as a function of photon energy from 50 less than or equal h ω less than or equal 175 is discussed

  5. Fourier-domain angle-resolved low coherence interferometry for clinical detection of dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Neil G.; Zhu, Yizheng; Wax, Adam

    2010-02-01

    Improved methods for detecting dysplasia, or pre-cancerous growth are a current clinical need, particularly in the esophagus. The currently accepted method of random biopsy and histological analysis provides only a limited examination of tissue in question while being coupled with a long time delay for diagnosis. Light scattering spectroscopy, in contrast, allows for inspection of the cellular structure and organization of tissue in vivo. Fourier-domain angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry (a/LCI) is a novel light scattering spectroscopy technique that provides quantitative depth-resolved morphological measurements of the size and optical density of the examined cell nuclei, which are characteristic biomarkers of dysplasia. Previously, clinical viability of the a/LCI system was demonstrated through analysis of ex vivo human esophageal tissue in Barrett's esophagus patients using a portable a/LCI, as was the development of a clinical a/LCI system. Data indicating the feasibility of the technique in other organ sites (colon, oral cavity) will be presented. We present an adaptation of the a/LCI system that will be used to investigate the presence of dysplasia in vivo in Barrett's esophagus patients.

  6. Spin-resolved x-ray photoemission studies of ferromagnetic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klebanoff, L.E.

    1996-01-01

    Recent spin-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SRXPS) studies of ferromagnetic metals are reviewed. SRXPS studies of metallic Fe, Co, Co 66 Fe 4 Ni 1 B 14 Si 15 , and Ni demonstrate that core-level photoemission, and the itinerant electron response to core-hole creation, are highly spin-dependent. The exchange splitting of the Fe 2p 3/2 level is found to be 0.48±0.05 eV. Lifetime broadening results for the Fe 2p 3/2 N↑ (majority spin) and N↓ (minority spin) components indicate conservation of spin in core-hole filling processes involving the valence band. SRXPS study of the Fe 2p 3/2 peak asymmetry α reveals a dependence of electron endash hole excitation on the spin of the core hole. Spin analysis of the Fe 3s XPS line shape shows it to be a three-component spectrum, rather than the two-component line shape assumed previously. A photon energy dependence of one of the Fe 3s components explains disagreement among previous Fe 3s XPS results. Comparisons of SRXPS from Co metal and Co 66 Fe 4 Ni 1 B 14 Si 15 directly demonstrate the effect of a reduced atomic magnetic moment on the spin dependence of core-level XPS. The behavior of lifetime broadenings for the N↑ and N↓ Co 2p 3/2 components show that the reduced Co magnetic moment found in the Co 66 Fe 4 Ni 1 B 14 Si 15 amorphous glass is due to the transfer of ↑-spin valence electron density to the ↓-spin valence band upon glass formation. SRXPS also allows investigation of spin-dependent core-hole screening processes and satellite production, as demonstrated in SRXPS studies of ferromagnetic Ni. Future directions of SRXPS are also explored. copyright 1996 American Vacuum Society

  7. Chemical bonding in Tl cuprates studied by x-ray photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, R.P.; Siegal, M.P.; Overmyer, D.L.; Ren, Z.F.; Lao, J.Y.; Wang, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Epitaxial thin films of the Tl cuprate superconductors Tl 2 Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 8 , Tl 2 Ba 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 , and Tl 0.78 Bi 0.22 Ba 0.4 Sr 1.6 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 9-δ are studied with x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. These data, together with previous measurements in this lab of Tl 2 Ba 2 CuO 6+δ and TlBa 2 CaCu 2 O 7-δ , comprise a comprehensive data set for a comparative study of Tl cuprates with a range of chemical and electronic properties. In the Cu 2p spectra, a larger energy separation between the satellite and main peaks (E s -E m ) and a lower intensity ratio (I s /I m ) are found to correlate with higher values of T c . Analysis of these spectra within a simple configuration interaction model suggests that higher values of T c are related to low values of the O 2p→Cu 3d charge transfer energy. In the O 1s region, a smaller bond length between Ba and Cu-O planar oxygen is found to correlate with a lower binding energy for the signal associated with Cu-O bonding, most likely resulting from the increased polarization screening by Ba 2+ ions. For samples near optimum doping, maximum T c is observed to occur when the Tl 4f 7/2 binding energy is near 117.9 eV, which is near the middle of the range of values observed for Tl cuprates. Higher Tl 4f 7/2 binding energies, corresponding to formal oxidation states nearer Tl 1+ , are also found to correlate with longer bond lengths between Ba and Tl-O planar oxygen, and with higher binding energies of the O 1s signal associated with Tl-O bonding. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  8. A photoemission study of Mn grown on GaAs(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, D.; Riley, J.; Leckey, R.; Usher, B.; Sieber, N.; Seyller, Th.; Ley, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Metal contacts on semiconductors have been an important area for device manufacture. The possibility of lattice matched growth of magnetic metals on semiconductors was once thought to be a unobtainable goal. More recently it has been found that transition metals can react with the semiconductor substrates, forming another lattice with a more comparable lattice constant, from which epitaxial growth can then proceed. Al grows epitaxially on GaN even with a lattice mismatch greater than 10%. In this instance, Al displaces Ga being driven by a larger heat of formation to produce an AlN buffer layer, on which Al can then grow. This paper investigates the room temperature deposition of Mn onto GaAs(100) at room temperature. The Photoemission study was carried out at the UEL56/2 PGM2 beam line at BESSY II in Berlin, Germany. Synchrotron radiation was used to observe the surface as thin layers of Mn were deposited. The interaction of manganese with the substrate tends to donate electron density to neighbouring atoms, decreasing binding energy. No further segregation of substitutional or interstitial Mn and Ga can be seen from angle dependence data at this temperature, with metallic manganese eventually attenuating the bulk Ga signal to the point where it is indistinguishable from the background. It is concluded that there the metal reacts with the semiconductor surface with some indiffusion as confirmed using SIMS. Previously, the reaction was only thought to have taken place above room temperature. The resulting structure consists of a Ga-As-Mn buffer layer as with the higher temperature depositions

  9. Large Band Gap of alpha-RuCl3 Probed by Photoemission and Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, Soobin; Kim, Choong Hyun; Sandilands, Luke; Lee, Kyungdong; Won, Choongjae; Oh, Ji Seop; Han, Moonsup; Chang, Young Jun; Hur, Namjung; Sato, Hitoshi; Park, Byeong-Gyu; Kim, Changyoung; Kim, Hyeong-Do; Noh, Tae Won

    The Kitaev honeycomb lattice model has attracted great attention because of its possibility to stabilize a quantum spin liquid ground state. Recently, it was proposed that alpha-RuCl3 is its material realization and the first 4 d relativistic Mott insulator from an optical spectrum and LDA + U + SO calculations. Here, we present photoemission and inverse photoemission spectra of alpha-RuCl3. The observed band gap is about 1.8 eV, which suggests that the previously assigned optical gap of 0.3 eV is misinterpreted, and that the strong peak at about 1.2 eV in the optical spectrum may be associated with an actual optical gap. Assuming a strong excitonic effect of 0.6 eV in the optical spectrum, all the structures except for the peak at 0.3 eV are consistent with our electronic spectra. When compared with LDA + U + SO calculations, the value of U should be considerably larger than the previous one, which implies that the spin-orbit coupling is not a necessary ingredient for the insulating mechanism of alpha-RuCl3. We also present angle-resolved photoemission spectra to be compared with LDA + U + SO and LDA +DMFT calculations.

  10. Core and valence level photoemission and photoabsorption study of icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, K; Theis, W; Paggel, J J; Barman, S R; Rotenberg, E; Ebert, Ph; Urban, K

    2006-01-01

    The electronic structure of quasicrystalline Al-Pd-Mn is investigated by means of valence and core level photoelectron spectroscopy. Variations of the photoionization cross section in the constituents' valence electronic levels as a function of photon energy are used to identify contributions from the different atomic species, in particular near the Pd 4d Cooper minimum. Resonant photoemission at the Mn 2p absorption edge shows the contribution of the Mn 3d states to the density of states in a region near the Fermi level. The asymmetry of Pd 3d and Mn 2p core level photoemission lines, and its difference for emission from metallic and quasicrystalline phases, are utilized to infer the contributions of the different constituents to the density of states at the Fermi level

  11. Rb-intercalated C{sub 60} compounds studied by photoemission spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, A [INFM - Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, p.za L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Giovanelli, L [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Strada Statale 14, Km 163.5, I-34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Vilmercati, P [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Strada Statale 14, Km 163.5, I-34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Cattoni, A [INFM - Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, p.za L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Biagioni, P [INFM - Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, p.za L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Goldoni, A [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Strada Statale 14, Km 163.5, I-34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Finazzi, M [INFM - Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, p.za L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Duo, L [INFM - Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, p.za L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy)

    2005-06-15

    We report on a combined photoemission and inverse photoemission spectroscopy analysis on Rb{sub x}C{sub 60} compounds with different stoichiometries (0-bar x-bar 6). Apart from shifts and broadening of the spectral features associated to the different phase formed, we observe in the RbC{sub 60} phase the presence of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) shoulder and of its symmetric (with respect to the Fermi level) empty state. According to calculations, the metallicity of this phase and the presence of these electronic states may be taken as a fingerprint of the interplay between electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in determining the electronic behavior of alkali metal fullerides.

  12. Comparison of models and measurements of angle-resolved scatter from irregular aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milstein, Adam B.; Richardson, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed and validated a method for modeling the elastic scattering properties of biological and inert aerosols of irregular shape at near- and mid-wave infrared wavelengths. The method, based on Gaussian random particles, calculates the ensemble-average optical cross section and Mueller scattering matrix, using the measured aerodynamic size distribution and previously-reported refractive index as inputs. The utility of the Gaussian particle model is that it is controlled by only two parameters (σ and Γ) which we have optimized such that the model best reproduces the full angle-resolved Mueller scattering matrices measured at λ=1.55 µm in the Standoff Aerosol Active Signature Testbed (SAAST). The method has been applied to wet-generated singlet biological spore samples, dry-generated biological spore clusters, and kaolin. The scattering computation is performed using the Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA), which requires significant computational resources, and is thus implemented on LLGrid, a large parallel grid computer. For the cases presented, the best fit Gaussian particle model is in good qualitative correspondence with microscopy images of the corresponding class of particles. The measured and computed cross sections agree well within a factor of two overall, with certain cases bearing closer correspondence. In particular, the DDA reproduces the shape of the measured scatter function more accurately than Mie predictions. The DDA-computed depolarization factors are also in good agreement with measurement. - Highlights: • We model elastic scattering of biological and inert aerosols of irregular shape. • We calculate cross sections and Mueller matrix using random particle shape model. • Scatter models employ refractive index and measured size distribution as inputs. • Discrete dipole approximation (DDA) with parallelization enables model calculations. • DDA-modeled cross section and Mueller matrix agree well with measurements at 1.55 μm

  13. Dilution effect on the U 5f states in Au matrix: a photoemission spectroscopy study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eloirdi, R.; Gouder, T.; Wastin, F.; Huber, F.; Shick, Alexander; Kolorenč, Jindřich

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 23 (2011), 235143/1-235143/7 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/10/0330; GA AV ČR IAA100100912 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : x-ray photoemission * electronic-structure * photoelectron- spectroscopy * fermion systems Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.691, year: 2011

  14. Rb-intercalated C60 compounds studied by Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finazzi, M.; Brambilla, A; Biagioni, P.; Cattoni, A.; Duo, L.; Ciccacci, F.; Braicovich, L.; Giovanelli, L.; Goldoni, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Since the discovery of superconductivity in alkali-doped solid C 60 , the electronic structure of the host material (C 60 ) and the doped compounds (A x C 60 , where A is an alkali metal), has been the subject of a considerable amount of work, both theoretical and experimental. The spectroscopic investigations of the alkali-doped C 60 compounds has been mainly focussed on the valence states, while much less information is available on the unoccupied states. In particular, inverse photoemission data on the complete set of stable Rb x C 60 compounds was, so far, still missing. We have performed Inverse Photoemission (IPE) spectroscopy on Rb x C 60 compounds (x = 1, 3, 4, 6). IPE spectra were obtained using a band-pass photon detector (hv = 9.4 eV, FWHM = 0.7 eV) and scanning the kinetic energy of the electrons impinging on the sample. Rb was evaporated on C 60 films (thickness = 6-12 atomic layers) grown in situ on a Cu(100) substrate. The temperature of the substrate was kept equal to T = 100 deg C, which is lower than the C 60 sublimation temperature. The amount of Rb was checked by measuring the intensity of the C1s and Rb3d photoemission lines. After the required amount of Rb had been deposited, the samples were annealed to distillate the desired stable phase

  15. Angle Integrated Photoemission Study of SmO0.85F0.15FeAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Wei, Ou; Jia-Feng, Zhao; Yan, Zhang; Da-Wei, Shen; Bo, Zhou; Le-Xian, Yang; Cheng, He; Fei, Chen; Min, Xu; Yan, Chen; Dong-Lai, Feng; Tao, Wu; Xian-Hui, Chen

    2008-01-01

    The electronic structure of the new superconductor SmO 1-x F x FeAs (x = 0.15) is studied by angle-integrated photoemission spectroscopy. Our data show a sharp feature very close to the Fermi energy, and a relative flat distribution of the density of states between 0.5eV and 3eV binding energy, which agrees well with the band structure calculations considering an antiferromagnetic ground state. No noticeable gap opening is observed at 12K below the superconducting transition temperature, indicating the existence of large ungapped regions in the Brillouin zone. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. Ga droplet morphology on GaAs(001) studied by Lloyd's mirror photoemission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, W X; Jesson, D E; Pavlov, K M; Morgan, M J [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Usher, B F [Department of Electronic Engineering, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia)

    2009-08-05

    We apply Lloyd's mirror photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) to study the surface shape of Ga droplets on GaAs(001). An unusual rectangular-based droplet shape is identified and the contact angle is determined in situ. It is shown that quenching does not appreciably affect droplet shape and ex situ measurements of the contact angle by atomic force microscopy are in good agreement with Lloyd's mirror PEEM. Extension of Lloyd's mirror technique to reconstruct general three-dimensional (3D) surface shapes and the potential use of synchrotron radiation to improve vertical resolution is discussed.

  17. Chemical Bonding in Tl Cuprates Studied by X-Ray Photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lao, J.Y.; Overmyer, D.L.; Ren, Z.F.; Siegal, M.P.; Vasquez, R.P.; Wang, J.H.

    1999-04-05

    Epitaxial thin films of the Tl cuprate superconductors Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}, Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10}, and TL{sub 0.78}Bi{sub 0.22}Ba{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 1.6}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 9{minus}{delta}} are studied with x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. These data, together with previous measurements in this lab of Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CuO{sub 6+{delta}} and TlBa{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}}, comprise a comprehensive data set for a comparative study of Tl cuprates with a range of chemical and electronic properties. In the Cu 2p spectra, a larger energy separation between the satellite and main peaks (E{sub s}-E{sub m}) and a lower intensity ratio (I{sub s}/I{sub m}) are found to correlate with higher values of T{sub c}. Analysis of these spectra within a simple configuration interaction model suggests that higher values of T{sub c} are related to low values of the O 2p {r_arrow} Cu 3d charge transfer energy. In the O 1s region, a smaller bond length between Ba and Cu-O planar oxygen is found to correlate with a lower binding energy for the signal associated with Cu-O bonding, most likely resulting from the increased polarization screening by Ba{sup 2+} ions. For samples near optimum doping, maximum T{sub c} is observed to occur when the Tl 4f{sub 7/2} binding energy is near 117.9 eV, which is near the middle of the range of values observed for Tl cuprates. Higher Tl 4f{sub 7/2} binding energies, corresponding to formal oxidation states nearer Tl{sup 1+}, are also found to correlate with longer bond lengths between Ba and Tl-O planar oxygen, and with higher binding energies of the O 1s signal associated with Tl-O bonding.

  18. Chemical bonding in Tl cuprates studied by x-ray photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, R.P. [Center for Space Microelectronics Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109-8099 (United States); Siegal, M.P.; Overmyer, D.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Ren, Z.F.; Lao, J.Y.; Wang, J.H. [Materials Synthesis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260-3000 (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Epitaxial thin films of the Tl cuprate superconductors Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}, Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10}, and Tl{sub 0.78}Bi{sub 0.22}Ba{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 1.6}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 9{minus}{delta}} are studied with x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. These data, together with previous measurements in this lab of Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CuO{sub 6+{delta}} and TlBa{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}}, comprise a comprehensive data set for a comparative study of Tl cuprates with a range of chemical and electronic properties. In the Cu 2p spectra, a larger energy separation between the satellite and main peaks (E{sub s}{minus}E{sub m}) and a lower intensity ratio (I{sub s}/I{sub m}) are found to correlate with higher values of T{sub c}. Analysis of these spectra within a simple configuration interaction model suggests that higher values of T{sub c} are related to low values of the O&hthinsp;2p{r_arrow}Cu&hthinsp;3d charge transfer energy. In the O&hthinsp;1s region, a smaller bond length between Ba and Cu-O planar oxygen is found to correlate with a lower binding energy for the signal associated with Cu-O bonding, most likely resulting from the increased polarization screening by Ba{sup 2+} ions. For samples near optimum doping, maximum T{sub c} is observed to occur when the Tl 4f{sub 7/2} binding energy is near 117.9 eV, which is near the middle of the range of values observed for Tl cuprates. Higher Tl&hthinsp;4f{sub 7/2} binding energies, corresponding to formal oxidation states nearer Tl{sup 1+}, are also found to correlate with longer bond lengths between Ba and Tl-O planar oxygen, and with higher binding energies of the O&hthinsp;1s signal associated with Tl-O bonding. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. VUV photoemission studies of candidate Large Hadron Collider vacuum chamber materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cimino

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of future accelerators and, in particular, the beam vacuum of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC, a 27 km circumference proton collider to be built at CERN, VUV synchrotron radiation (SR has been used to study both qualitatively and quantitatively candidate vacuum chamber materials. Emphasis is given to show that angle and energy resolved photoemission is an extremely powerful tool to address important issues relevant to the LHC, such as the emission of electrons that contributes to the creation of an electron cloud which may cause serious beam instabilities and unmanageable heat loads on the cryogenic system. Here we present not only the measured photoelectron yields from the proposed materials, prepared on an industrial scale, but also the energy and in some cases the angular dependence of the emitted electrons when excited with either a white light (WL spectrum, simulating that in the arcs of the LHC, or monochromatic light in the photon energy range of interest. The effects on the materials examined of WL irradiation and /or ion sputtering, simulating the SR and ion bombardment expected in the LHC, were investigated. The studied samples exhibited significant modifications, in terms of electron emission, when exposed to the WL spectrum from the BESSY Toroidal Grating Monochromator beam line. Moreover, annealing and ion bombardment also induce substantial changes to the surface thereby indicating that such surfaces would not have a constant electron emission during machine operation. Such characteristics may be an important issue to define the surface properties of the LHC vacuum chamber material and are presented in detail for the various samples analyzed. It should be noted that all the measurements presented here were recorded at room temperature, whereas the majority of the LHC vacuum system will be maintained at temperatures below 20 K. The results cannot therefore be directly applied to these sections of the machine until

  20. Hot Electron Photoemission from Plasmonic Nanostructures: The Role of Surface Photoemission and Transition Absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Ikhsanov, Renat Sh

    2015-01-01

    We study mechanisms of photoemission of hot electrons from plasmonic nanoparticles. We analyze the contribution of "transition absorption", i.e., loss of energy of electrons passing through the boundary between different materials, to the surface mechanism of photoemission. We calculate photoemis......We study mechanisms of photoemission of hot electrons from plasmonic nanoparticles. We analyze the contribution of "transition absorption", i.e., loss of energy of electrons passing through the boundary between different materials, to the surface mechanism of photoemission. We calculate...... photoemission rate and transition absorption for nanoparticles surrounded by various media with a broad range of permittivities and show that photoemission rate and transition absorption follow the same dependence on the permittivity. Thus, we conclude that transition absorption is responsible...

  1. Band structure of Heusler compounds studied by photoemission and tunneling spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbelo Jorge, Elena

    2011-07-01

    Heusler compounds are key materials for spintronic applications. They have attracted a lot of interest due to their half-metallic properties predicted by band structure calculations. The aim of this work is to evaluate experimentally the validity of the predictions of half metallicity by band structure calculations for two specific Heusler compounds, Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.3}Si{sub 0.7} and Co{sub 2}MnGa. Two different spectroscopy methods for the analysis of the electronic properties were used: Angular Resolved Ultraviolet Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARUPS) and Tunneling Spectroscopy. Heusler compounds are prepared as thin films by RF-sputtering in an ultra high vacuum system. For the characterization of the samples, bulk and surface crystallographic and magnetic properties of Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.3}Si{sub 0.7} and Co{sub 2}MnGa are studied. X-ray and electron diffraction reveal a bulk and surface crossover between two different types of sublattice order (from B2 to L2{sub 1}) with increasing annealing temperature. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism results show that the magnetic properties in the surface and bulk are identical, although the magnetic moments obtained are 5 % below from the theoretically predicted. By ARUPS evidence for the validity of the predicted total bulk density of states (DOS) was demonstrated for both Heusler compounds. Additional ARUPS intensity contributions close to the Fermi energy indicates the presence of a specific surface DOS. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the crystallographic order, controlled by annealing, plays an important role on broadening effects of DOS features. Improving order resulted in better defined ARUPS features. Tunneling magnetoresistance measurements of Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.3}Si{sub 0.7} and Co{sub 2}MnGa based MTJ's result in a Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.3}Si{sub 0.7} spin polarization of 44 %, which is the highest experimentally obtained value for this compound, although it is lower than the 100 % predicted. For Co

  2. Rb-intercalated C{sub 60} compounds studied by Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finazzi, M; Brambilla, A; Biagioni, P; Cattoni, A; Duo, L; Ciccacci, F; Braicovich, L [INFM and Dip di Fisica del Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Giovanelli, L; Goldoni, A [ELETTRA Basovizza (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    Full text: Since the discovery of superconductivity in alkali-doped solid C{sub 60}, the electronic structure of the host material (C{sub 60}) and the doped compounds (A{sub x}C{sub 60}, where A is an alkali metal), has been the subject of a considerable amount of work, both theoretical and experimental. The spectroscopic investigations of the alkali-doped C{sub 60} compounds has been mainly focussed on the valence states, while much less information is available on the unoccupied states. In particular, inverse photoemission data on the complete set of stable Rb{sub x}C{sub 60} compounds was, so far, still missing. We have performed Inverse Photoemission (IPE) spectroscopy on Rb{sub x}C{sub 60} compounds (x = 1, 3, 4, 6). IPE spectra were obtained using a band-pass photon detector (hv = 9.4 eV, FWHM = 0.7 eV) and scanning the kinetic energy of the electrons impinging on the sample. Rb was evaporated on C{sub 60} films (thickness = 6-12 atomic layers) grown in situ on a Cu(100) substrate. The temperature of the substrate was kept equal to T = 100 deg C, which is lower than the C{sub 60} sublimation temperature. The amount of Rb was checked by measuring the intensity of the C1s and Rb3d photoemission lines. After the required amount of Rb had been deposited, the samples were annealed to distillate the desired stable phase.

  3. The use of angle resolved electron and photon stimulated desorption for the determination of molecular structure at surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madey, T.E.; Stockbauer, R.

    1983-01-01

    A brief review of recent data related to the use of angle-resolved electron stimulated desorption and photon stimulated desorption in determining the structures of molecules at surfaces is made. Examples include a variety of structural assignments based on ESIAD (electron stimulated desorption ion angular distributions), the observation of short-range local ordering effects induced in adsorbed molecules by surface impurities, and the application of photon stimulated desorption to both ionic and covalent adsorbate systems. (Author) [pt

  4. High-resolution photoemission study of Nd1-xSrxMnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, H.; Sekiyama, A.; Higashiya, A.; Konoike, K.; Tsunekawa, M.; Yamasaki, A.; Irizawa, A.; Imada, S.; Muro, T.; Noda, K.; Kuwahara, H.; Tokura, Y.; Suga, S.

    2005-01-01

    We have performed the bulk sensitive Mn 2p-3d resonant photoemission for Nd 1-x Sr x MnO 3 (x=0.40, 0.47, 0.50, 0.63) in order to reveal the Mn 3d electronic states. We will report the temperature and doping dependence of the Mn 3d spectral functions. The sudden spectral change for x=0.50 across the FM-COI transition shows the strong influence of the charge-ordering on the Mn 3d electronic states

  5. Laser-excited photoemission spectroscopy study of superconducting boron-doped diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ishizaka, R. Eguchi, S. Tsuda, T. Kiss, T. Shimojima, T. Yokoya, S. Shin, T. Togashi, S. Watanabe, C.-T. Chen, C.Q. Zhang, Y. Takano, M. Nagao, I. Sakaguchi, T. Takenouchi and H. Kawarada

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the low-energy electronic state of boron-doped diamond thin film by the laser-excited photoemission spectroscopy. A clear Fermi-edge is observed for samples doped above the semiconductor–metal boundary, together with the characteristic structures at 150×n meV possibly due to the strong electron–lattice coupling effect. In addition, for the superconducting sample, we observed a shift of the leading edge below Tc indicative of a superconducting gap opening. We discuss the electron–lattice coupling and the superconductivity in doped diamond.

  6. Synchrotron-radiation photoemission study of CdS/CuInSe2 heterojunction formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.J.; Gebhard, S.; Rockett, A.; Colavita, E.; Engelhardt, M.; Hoechst, H.

    1990-01-01

    Synchrotron-radiation soft-x-ray photoemission spectroscopy was used to investigate the development of the electronic structure at the CdS/CuInSe 2 heterojunction interface. CdS overlayers were deposited in steps on single-crystal p- and n-type CuInSe 2 at 250 degree C. Results indicate that the CdS grows in registry with the substrate, initially in a two-dimensional growth mode followed by three-dimensional island growth as is corroborated by reflection high-energy electron-diffraction analysis. Photoemission measurements were acquired after each growth in order to observe changes in the valence-band electronic structure as well as changes in the In 4d, Se 3d, Cd 4d, and S 2p core lines. The results were used to correlate the interface chemistry with the electronic structure at these interfaces and to directly determine the CdS/CuInSe 2 heterojunction valence-band discontinuity and the consequent heterojunction band diagram. These results show that the Katnani-Margaritondo method is unreliable in determining offsets for heterojunctions where significant Fermi-level pinning may occur and where the local structure and chemistry of the interface depends strongly on the specific heterojunction

  7. Photoemission study of the skutterudite compounds CoSb sub 3 and RhSb sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, H; Fujimori, A; Nagamoto, Y; Koyanagi, T; Sofo, J O

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the electronic structure of the skutterudite compounds CoSb sub 3 and Co(Sb sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 6 Te sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 4) sub 3 by photoemission spectroscopy. Valence-band spectra revealed that a significant amount Sb 5p states are present near the Fermi level and are hybridized with Co 3d states just below it. The spectra are well reproduced by the band-structure calculation, suggesting that the effect of electron correlations is not important. When Te is substituted for Sb and n-type carriers are doped into CoSb sub 3 , the spectra are shifted to higher binding energies as described by the rigid-band model. From this shift and the free-electron model for the conduction and valence bands, we have estimated the band gap of CoSb sub 3 to be 0.03-0.04 eV, consistent with transport measurements. Photoemission spectra of RhSb sub 3 have also been measured and revealed expected similarities to and differences from those of CoSb sub 3. Unusual temperature dependence has been observed for the s...

  8. Introductory photoemission theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Hiroko; Fujikawa, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    An introductory review is presented on the basis of many-body scattering theory. Some fundamental aspects of photoemission theory are discussed in detail. A few applications are also discussed; photoelectron diffraction, depth distribution function and multi-atom resonant photoemission are also discussed briefly. (author)

  9. Study of adsorption states for lubricant molecule using hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikenaga, E.; Kobata, M.; Kim, J.J.; Wakabayashi, A.; Nishino, Y.; Tamasaku, K.; Sakane, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Komiya, S.; Kobayashi, K.

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption states for lubricant molecules have been investigated using hard X-ray (hν = 7.95 keV) photoemission spectroscopy (HX-PES). This method has the advantage for the organic molecules to be able to measure damage few. Being aware of the fact that P atoms exist only in cyclotriphosphazene base, we measured the take-off angle dependence of the P1s spectra. Each spectrum consists from two peaks, that is, substrate NiP peak and cyclotriphosphazene P peak. The cyclotriphosphazene P peak rapidly disappears with increasing take-off angle. We have also measured C1s spectra. Combining these experimental results, we have found that the adsorption state of cyclotriphosphazene end group is undergoing

  10. Preparation of solid-state samples of a transition metal coordination compound for synchrotron radiation photoemission studies

    CERN Document Server

    Crotti, C; Celestino, T; Fontana, S

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify a sample preparation method suitable for the study of transition metal complexes by photoemission spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation as the X-ray source, even in the case where the compound is not evaporable. Solid-phase samples of W(CO) sub 4 (dppe) [dppe=1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane] were prepared according to different methods and their synchrotron radiation XPS spectra measured. The spectra acquired from samples prepared by spin coating show core level peaks only slightly broader than the spectrum recorded from UHV evaporated samples. Moreover, for these samples the reproducibility of the binding energy values is excellent. The dependence of the spin coating technique on parameters such as solvent and solution concentration, spinning speed and support material was studied. The same preparation method also allowed the acquisition of valence band spectra, the main peaks of which were clearly resolved. The results suggest that use of the spin coating techniqu...

  11. Effect of phase formation on valence band photoemission and photoresonance study of Ti/Ni multilayers using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Pramod; Chaudhari, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents investigation of Ti-Ni alloy phase formation and its effect on valence band (VB) photoemission and photoresonance study of as-deposited as well as annealed Ti/Ni multilayers (MLs) up to 600 deg. C using synchrotron radiation. For this purpose [Ti (50 A)/Ni (50 A)]X 10 ML structures were deposited by using electron-beam evaporation technique under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. Formation of different phases of Ti-Ni alloy due to annealing treatment has been confirmed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The XRD pattern corresponding as-deposited ML sample shows crystalline nature of both Ti and Ni deposited layers, whereas 300 deg. C annealed ML sample show solid-state reaction (SSR) leading to amorphization and subsequent recrystallisation at higher temperatures of annealing (≥400 deg. C) with the formation of TiNi, TiNi 3 and Ti 2 Ni alloy phases. The survey scans corresponding to 400, 500 and 600 deg. C annealed ML sample shows interdiffusion and intermixing of Ni atoms into Ti layers leading to chemical Ti-Ni alloys phase formation at interface. The corresponding recorded VB spectra using synchrotron radiation at 134 eV on as-deposited ML sample with successive sputtering shows alternately photoemission bands due to Ti 3d and Ni 3d, respectively, indicating there is no mixing of the consequent layers and any phase formation at the interface during deposition. However, ML samples annealed at higher temperatures of annealing, particularly at 400, 500 and 600 deg. C show a clear shift in Ni 3d band and its satellite peak position to higher BE side indicates Ti-Ni alloy phase formation. In addition to this, reduction of satellite peak intensity and Ni 3d density of states (DOS) near Fermi level is also observed due to Ti-Ni phase formation with higher annealing temperatures. The variable photon energy VB measurements on as-deposited and ML samples annealed at 400 deg. C confirms existence and BE position of observed Ni 3d satellite

  12. Thickness determination of thin solid films by angle-resolved X-ray fluorescence spectrometry using monochromatized synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, W.; Drotbohm, P.; Rothe, J.; Hormes, J.; Ottermann, C. R.; Bange, K.

    1995-05-01

    Thickness measurements by the method of angle-resolved, self-ratio X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (AR/SR/XFS) have been carried out on thin solid films using monochromatized synchrotron radiation at the Bonn storage ring ELSA. Synchrotron radiation was monochromatized by means of a double-crystal monochromator and fluorescence radiation was detected by a Si(Li) semiconductor detector. The results for sample systems consisting of Au on Si, Cr on SiO2 and TiO2 on alkali-free glass are very satisfactory and agree well with results obtained by other methods.

  13. Adsorption of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) on noble metal surfaces: A photoemission and X-ray absorption study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquali, L.; Terzi, F.; Montecchi, M.; Doyle, B.P.; Lukkari, J.; Zanfrognini, B.; Seeber, R.; Nannarone, S.

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) on Au and Pt surfaces is studied by core level and valence band photoemission using synchrotron radiation and by near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. To closer simulate real applications, the films are grown from aqueous solution at room temperature and are compared to an 'ideal' film prepared by dosing the molecules from the vapour phase on a clean Au(1 1 1) single crystal. The S 2p, C 1s and O 1s levels show multiple components which are associated to molecular fragmentation. NEXAFS confirms that fragmentation takes place at the surface. Thiophene species as well as alkyl chains and S n species are identified as the most probable fragmentation products.

  14. A study of Al/Si interface by photoemission, Auger electron yield and Auger electron spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.L.I.; Barth, J.; Gerken, F.; Kunz, C.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

    1980-06-01

    Photoemission, Auger electron yield and Auger electron spectra were observed for Al/Si(111) interfaces with various Al coverage prepared by successive deposition using a molecular beam source. The Al 3p derived states are introduced at around the top of the valence band by the Al coverage of less than one monolayer. The Al surface layer behaves as a 'metal' and the Fermi level is stabilized in the Al 3p derived states at about 0.3 eV above the top of the valence band of Si. The Schottky barrier height in this stage is about 0.8 eV and further increase in Al coverage does not change the barrier height. A covalent bonding model of the Al/Si interface based on the experimental results is proposed. The present result favors the on-top geometry of Al atoms on Si(111) surface among the geometries used in the pseudopotential calculation by Zhang and Schlueter. (orig.)

  15. Photoemission microscopy study of picosecond magnetodynamics in spin-valve-type thin film elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, C.M.; Kaiser, A.; Wiemann, C.; Tieg, C.; Cramm, S.

    2010-01-01

    Exploring ultimate time scales of magnetic switching processes is an important issue in spin electronics. In spin valves or magnetic tunnelling junctions magnetic anisotropies and coupling phenomena alter the magnetodynamic response of the entire system. Understanding the role of these interactions is a key to the design of optimized devices. We have employed time-resolved X-ray photoemission microscopy to address the magnetodynamics in spin-valve-type model systems in the ns- and ps-regime. In Co/Cr/Fe(0 0 1) single crystal elements we find a strong influence of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy, which tends to suppress rotation processes. In addition, we observe a dynamic 'decoupling' of the layers. In low-anisotropy FeNi/Cr/FeCo trilayers, the interlayer coupling character determines the dynamic response. Particularly, rotational processes in the FeNi and FeCo layers are temporarily shifted to each other, which can be related to different coercivities of the individual layers. By contrast, the domain wall motion in both layers closely agrees, caused by an enhanced coupling due to the domain wall stray fields. Our examples demonstrate that the detailed magnetodynamics in coupled magnetic layers is quite complex and depends strongly on the timescale under consideration.

  16. Pump laser-induced space-charge effects in HHG-driven time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oloff, L.-P., E-mail: oloff@physik.uni-kiel.de; Hanff, K.; Stange, A.; Rohde, G.; Diekmann, F.; Bauer, M.; Rossnagel, K., E-mail: rossnagel@physik.uni-kiel.de [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-06-14

    With the advent of ultrashort-pulsed extreme ultraviolet sources, such as free-electron lasers or high-harmonic-generation (HHG) sources, a new research field for photoelectron spectroscopy has opened up in terms of femtosecond time-resolved pump-probe experiments. The impact of the high peak brilliance of these novel sources on photoemission spectra, so-called vacuum space-charge effects caused by the Coulomb interaction among the photoemitted probe electrons, has been studied extensively. However, possible distortions of the energy and momentum distributions of the probe photoelectrons caused by the low photon energy pump pulse due to the nonlinear emission of electrons have not been studied in detail yet. Here, we systematically investigate these pump laser-induced space-charge effects in a HHG-based experiment for the test case of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Specifically, we determine how the key parameters of the pump pulse—the excitation density, wavelength, spot size, and emitted electron energy distribution—affect the measured time-dependent energy and momentum distributions of the probe photoelectrons. The results are well reproduced by a simple mean-field model, which could open a path for the correction of pump laser-induced space-charge effects and thus toward probing ultrafast electron dynamics in strongly excited materials.

  17. New ambient pressure photoemission endstation at Advanced Light Source beamline 9.3.2

    KAUST Repository

    Grass, Michael E.; Karlsson, Patrik G.; Aksoy, Funda; Lundqvist, Måns; Wannberg, Björn; Mun, Bongjin S.; Hussain, Zahid; Liu, Zhi

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, the application of ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy (APPES) has been recognized as an important in situ tool to study environmental and materials science, energy related science, and many other fields. Several APPES endstations are currently under planning or development at the USA and international light sources, which will lead to a rapid expansion of this technique. The present work describes the design and performance of a new APPES instrument at the Advanced Light Source beamline 9.3.2 at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This new instrument, Scienta R4000 HiPP, is a result of collaboration between Advanced Light Source and its industrial partner VG-Scienta. The R4000 HiPP provides superior electron transmission as well as spectromicroscopy modes with 16 μm spatial resolution in one dimension and angle-resolved modes with simulated 0.5° angular resolution at 24° acceptance. Under maximum transmission mode, the electron detection efficiency is more than an order of magnitude better than the previous endstation at beamline 9.3.2. Herein we describe the design and performance of the system, which has been utilized to record spectra above 2 mbar. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  18. Experimental investigation of nondipole effects in photoemission at the advanced light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemin, Renaud; Hemmers, Oliver; Lindle, Dennis W.; Manson, Steven T.

    2005-01-01

    Breakdowns in the dipole approximation in the soft-X-ray photon-energy range (hν<5keV) were first observed 30 years ago and have been studied theoretically for many years. However, only recently their significance at low energies has been appreciated when advances in gas-phase-photoemission experiments using synchrotron radiation began to highlight numerous examples of significant nondipole effects at photon energies as low as tens of eV. In a previous publication [Hemmers et al., 2004a. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 70, 123-147], we presented a description of the recent advances made in the investigation of nondipole effects in photoionization from an experimental perspective. In this article, we report the results obtained by the X-ray atomic and molecular spectroscopy (XAMS) group at the Advanced Light Source, over the last 10 years, on the limits of the dipole approximation, probed by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy for atoms and molecules in gas phase

  19. Widespread spin polarization effects in photoemission from topological insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozwiak, C.; Chen, Y. L.; Fedorov, A. V.; Analytis, J. G.; Rotundu, C. R.; Schmid, A. K.; Denlinger, J. D.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Lee, D.-H.; Fisher, I. R.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Shen, Z.-X.; Hussain, Z.; Lanzara, A.

    2011-06-22

    High-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES) was performed on the three-dimensional topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} using a recently developed high-efficiency spectrometer. The topological surface state's helical spin structure is observed, in agreement with theoretical prediction. Spin textures of both chiralities, at energies above and below the Dirac point, are observed, and the spin structure is found to persist at room temperature. The measurements reveal additional unexpected spin polarization effects, which also originate from the spin-orbit interaction, but are well differentiated from topological physics by contrasting momentum and photon energy and polarization dependencies. These observations demonstrate significant deviations of photoelectron and quasiparticle spin polarizations. Our findings illustrate the inherent complexity of spin-resolved ARPES and demonstrate key considerations for interpreting experimental results.

  20. Elasticity of Tantalum to 105 Gpa using a stress and angle-resolved x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cynn, H; Yoo, C S

    1999-01-01

    Determining the mechanical properties such as elastic constants of metals at Mbar pressures has been a difficult task in experiment. Following the development of anisotropic elastic theory by Singh et al.[l], Mao et a1.[2] have recently developed a novel experimental technique to determine the elastic constants of Fe by using the stress and energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (SEX). In this paper, we present an improved complementary technique, stress and angle-resolved x-ray diffraction (SAX), which we have applied to determine the elastic constants of tantalum to 105 GPa. The extrapolation of the tantalum elastic data shows an excellent agreement with the low-pressure ultrasonic data[3]. We also discuss the improvement of this SAX method over the previous SEX.[elastic constant, anisotropic elastic theory, angle-dispersive synchrotron x-ray diffraction, mechanical properties

  1. Depth profile analysis of polymerized fluorine compound on photo-resist film with angle-resolved XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Yoshitoki; Kubota, Toshio; Oinaka, Syuhei

    2013-01-01

    Angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) is an observation technique which is very effective in chemical depth analysis method less than photoelectron detected depth. For the analysis of depth profile, several analysis methods have been proposed to calculate the depth profile using the ARXPS method. The present report is the measurements of depth profile of the fluorine in a fluorine-containing photo-resist film using the ARXPS method and the depth profile of concentration have been successfully determined using the ARCtick 1.0 software. It has been observed that thickness of the fluorocarbon enriched surface layer of the photo-resist was 2.7 nm, and so that the convert of the ARXPS data from the angle profile to the depth profile was proved to be useful analysis method for the ultrathin layer depth. (author)

  2. Developments in inverse photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheils, W.; Leckey, R.C.G.; Riley, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    In the 1950's and 1960's, Photoemission Spectroscopy (PES) established itself as the major technique for the study of the occupied electronic energy levels of solids. During this period the field divided into two branches: X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) for photon energies greater than ∼l000eV, and Ultra-violet Photoemission Spectroscopy (UPS) for photon energies below ∼100eV. By the 1970's XPS and UPS had become mature techniques. Like XPS, BIS (at x-ray energies) does not have the momentum-resolving ability of UPS that has contributed much to the understanding of the occupied band structures of solids. BIS moved into a new energy regime in 1977 when Dose employed a Geiger-Mueller tube to obtain density of unoccupied states data from a tantalum sample at a photon energy of ∼9.7eV. At similar energies, the technique has since become known as Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy (IPS), in acknowledgment of its complementary relationship to UPS and to distinguish it from the higher energy BIS. Drawing on decades of UPS expertise, IPS has quickly moved into areas of interest where UPS has been applied; metals, semiconductors, layer compounds, adsorbates, ferromagnets, and superconductors. At La Trobe University an IPS facility has been constructed. This presentation reports on developments in the experimental and analytical techniques of IPS that have been made there. The results of a study of the unoccupied bulk and surface bands of GaAs are presented

  3. Photoemission perspective on pseudogap, superconducting fluctuations, and charge order in cuprates: a review of recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishik, I. M.

    2018-06-01

    In the course of seeking the microscopic mechanism of superconductivity in cuprate high temperature superconductors, the pseudogap phase— the very abnormal ‘normal’ state on the hole-doped side— has proven to be as big of a quandary as superconductivity itself. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is a powerful tool for assessing the momentum-dependent phenomenology of the pseudogap, and recent technological developments have permitted a more detailed understanding. This report reviews recent progress in understanding the relationship between superconductivity and the pseudogap, the Fermi arc phenomena, and the relationship between charge order and pseudogap from the perspective of ARPES measurements.

  4. Spin-resolved photoemission of surface states of W(110)-(1x1)H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochstrasser, M.; Tobin, J.G.; Rotenberg, Eli; Kevan, S.D.

    2002-01-01

    The surface electronic states of W(110)-(1x1)H have been measured using spin- and angle-resolved photoemission. We directly demonstrate that the surface bands are both split and spin-polarized by the spin-orbit interaction in association with the loss of inversion symmetry near a surface. We observe 100 percent spin polarization of the surface states, with the spins aligned in the plane of the surface and oriented in a circular fashion relative to the S-bar symmetry point. In contrast, no measurable polarization of nearby bulk states is observed

  5. Spin-polarized photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Peter D.

    1997-01-01

    Spin-polarized photoemission has developed into a versatile tool for the study of surface and thin film magnetism. In this review, we examine the methodology of the technique and its application to a number of different problems, including both valence band and core level studies. After a detailed review of spin-polarization measurement techniques and the related experimental requirements we consider in detail studies of the bulk properties both above and below the Curie temperature. This section also includes a discussion of observations relating to unique metastable phases obtained via epitaxial growth. The application of the technique to the study of surfaces, both clean and adsorbate covered, is reviewed. The report then examines, in detail, studies of the spin-polarized electronic structure of thin films and the related interfacial magnetism. Finally, observations of spin-polarized quantum well states in non-magnetic thin films are discussed with particular reference to their mediation of the oscillatory exchange coupling in related magnetic multilayers. (author)

  6. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) studies of silicate based glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, D.; Lam, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The application of the x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) technique to study the electronic structure and bonding of heavy metal oxides in alkali- and alkali-earth-silicate glasses had been demonstrated. The bonding characteristics of the iron oxide and uranium oxide in sodium silicate glasses were deduced from the changes in the oxygen 1s levels and the heavy metal core levels. It is reasonable to expect that the effect of leaching on the heavy metal ions can be monitored using the appropriate core levels of these ions. To study the effect of leaching on the glass forming network, the valence band structure of the bridging and nonbridging oxygens in sodium silicate glasses were investigated. The measurement of extended x-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) is a relatively new analytical technique for obtaining short range (<5 A) structural information around atoms of a selected species in both solid and fluid systems. Experiments have recently begun to establish the feasibility of using EXAFS to study the bonding of actinides in silicate glasses. Because of the ability of EXAFS to yield specific structural data even in complex multicomponent systems, it could prove to be an invaluable tool in understanding glass structure

  7. The development of photoemission spectroscopy and its application to the study of semiconductor interfaces Observations on the interplay between basic and applied research (Welch Memorial Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    A sketch is given of the development of photoemission electron spectroscopy (PES) with emphasis on the author's own experience. Emphasis is placed: (1) on the period between 1958-1970; (2) on the various developments which were required for PES to emerge; and (3) on the strong interactions between applied/fundamental and knowledge/empirically based research. A more detailed discussion is given of the recent (1975-present) application of PES to study the interfaces of III-V semiconductors.

  8. Bulk electronic state of high-Tc cuprate La2-xSrxCuO4 observed by high-energy angle integrated and resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, S.; Sekiyama, A.; Tsunekawa, M.; Ernst, P.T.; Shigemoto, A.; Yamasaki, A.; Irizawa, A.; Imada, S.; Sing, M.; Muro, T.; Sasagawa, T.; Takagi, H.; Suga, S.

    2005-01-01

    The high-energy core-level photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements have been performed for La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 (LSCO). Polar-angle dependence of the Cu 2p core-level PES has revealed a discrepancy between bulk and surface. We have observed by the high-energy ARPES that the Fermi surface of LSCO with x=0.16 is electron-like, in contrast to previous low-energy ARPES results

  9. Oxygen stoichiometry of LaTiO{sub 3} thin films studied by in-situ photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheiderer, Philipp; Goessmann, Alex; Sing, Michael; Claessen, Ralph [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Physikalisches Institut and Roentgen Center for Complex Material Systems (RCCM), 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    As in the famous oxide heterostructure LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} (LAO/STO) a two dimensional electron system is found at the interface between the strongly correlated Mott insulator LaTi{sup 3+}O{sub 3} and the band insulator STO. The stabilization of LaTi{sup 3+}O{sub 3} requires strong reducing growth conditions since the thermodynamically stable bulk phase is the oxygen rich La{sub 2}Ti{sup 4+}{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Therefore, we have systematically studied the impact of the oxygen background atmosphere on LaTi{sup 3+}O{sub 3} thin film growth by PLD. Reflection high-energy diffraction intensity oscillations of the specular spot indicate a layer by layer growth mode for thin films, which merges into the formation of islands for thicker films. In-situ photoemission measurements enables us to determine the oxidation state of Ti indicating excess or lack of oxygen present in the prepared samples. Our experiments show that even for films grown in vacuum, strong oxygen excess is present probably due to oxygen out-diffusion from the STO substrate. We find that an LAO buffer layer serves as an effective barrier for this process. The spectral weight of the lower Hubbard band, being a characteristic feature for the Mott insulating phase, is found to scale inversely with the amount of excess oxygen.

  10. Angle-resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy in hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossard, Frédéric; Sponza, Lorenzo; Schué, Léonard; Attaccalite, Claudio; Ducastelle, François; Barjon, Julien; Loiseau, Annick

    2017-09-01

    Electron energy loss spectra were measured on hexagonal boron nitride single crystals employing an electron energy loss spectroscopic setup composed of an electron microscope equipped with a monochromator and an in-column filter. This setup provides high-quality energy-loss spectra and allows also for the imaging of energy-filtered diffraction patterns. These two acquisition modes provide complementary pieces of information, offering a global view of excitations in reciprocal space. As an example of the capabilities of the method we show how easily the core loss spectra at the K edges of boron and nitrogen can be measured and imaged. Low losses associated with interband and/or plasmon excitations are also measured. This energy range allows us to illustrate that our method provides results whose quality is comparable to that obtained from nonresonant x-ray inelastic scattering but with advantageous specificities such as an enhanced sensitivity at low q and a much greater simplicity and versatility that make it well adapted to the study of two-dimensional materials and related heterostructures. Finally, by comparing theoretical calculations to our measures, we are able to relate the range of applicability of ab initio calculations to the anisotropy of the sample and assess the level of approximation required for a proper simulation of our acquisition method.

  11. Local Electronic and Magnetic Structure of Ni below and above TC: A Spin-Resolved Circularly Polarized Resonant Photoemission Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinkovic, B.; Tjeng, L.H.; Brookes, N.B.; Goedkoop, J.B.; Hesper, R.; Pellegrin, E.; Groot, F.M.F. de; Altieri, S.; Hulbert, S.L.; Shekel, E.; Sawatzky, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    We report the measurement of the local Ni 3d spin polarization, not only below but also above the Curie temperature (TC), using the newly developed spin-resolved circularly polarized 2p (L3) resonant photoemission technique. The experiment identifies the presence of 3d8 singlets at high energies

  12. Determining the thickness of aliphatic alcohol monolayers covalently attached to silicon oxide surfaces using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Austin W. H.; Kim, Dongho; Gates, Byron D.

    2018-04-01

    The thickness of alcohol based monolayers on silicon oxide surfaces were investigated using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). Advantages of using alcohols as building blocks for the formation of monolayers include their widespread availability, ease of handling, and stability against side reactions. Recent progress in microwave assisted reactions demonstrated the ease of forming uniform monolayers with alcohol based reagents. The studies shown herein provide a detailed investigation of the thickness of monolayers prepared from a series of aliphatic alcohols of different chain lengths. Monolayers of 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-decanol, and 1-dodecanol were each successfully formed through microwave assisted reactions and characterized by ARXPS techniques. The thickness of these monolayers consistently increased by ∼1.0 Å for every additional methylene (CH2) within the hydrocarbon chain of the reagents. Tilt angles of the molecules covalently attached to silicon oxide surfaces were estimated to be ∼35° for each type of reagent. These results were consistent with the observations reported for thiol based or silane based monolayers on either gold or silicon oxide surfaces, respectively. The results of this study also suggest that the alcohol based monolayers are uniform at a molecular level.

  13. Time and angle resolved phonon absorption in the fractional quantum hall regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devitt, A.M.

    2000-09-01

    The work described in this thesis is a study of the phonon absorption by a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in the fractional quantum Hall regime and also at ν = 1/2. The fractional quantum Hall effect arises in 2DES's in high magnetic fields and is characterised by the quantisation of the transverse or Hall resistance and the vanishing longitudinal conductivity. The filling factor denotes the number of filled Landau levels and the quantum Hall effect occurs when this ratio is at certain rational odd denominator filling factors. The phenomenology of the effect arises due to the existence of an energy gap between the ground state and the lowest excited state. This energy gap is characterised by a deep minimum, or minima, at finite in-plane wavevector. Acoustic phonon absorption is expected to probe the energy gap at wavevectors close to or at the minimum in the dispersion curve. The experiments reported here incorporate the use of a thin film heater to produce a pulse of phonons of which a fraction are absorbed by the 2DES. A fast amplifier and signal averaging board enable detection of small signals due to absorption of phonons. The technique used allows time resolution of the phonon signal which typically takes place over a period of 10 μs or so. The time resolution enables different phonon modes to be studied. By altering the position of the heater relative to the 2DES angular resolution is also possible. The phonon absorption at several different filling factors has been investigated and the energy gaps found are in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions. The absorption at ν 1/2 has also been investigated. Here the composite fermions are expected to have a well defined Fermi wavevector. The absorption at ν = 1/2 and the fractional quantum Hall states is found to be qualitatively and quantitatively different. We see that the change in electron temperature atν = 1/2 is much less than at ν = 1/3 due to the larger heat capacity. At ν = 1

  14. Fourier Transform Photoemission Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, M.B.J.; Drabe, K.E.; Jonkman, H.T.; Sawatzky, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that photoemission spectra can be obtained by exciting the electrons with two phase-correlated wave trains. The phase-correlated wave trains are obtained by sending broad-band ultra-violet light, coming from a deuterium lamp, through a Michelson interferometer. It is possible to

  15. Fourier transform photoemission spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, M.B J; Drabe, K.E.; Jonkman, H.T.; Sawatzky, G.A

    It is shown that photoemission spectra can be obtained by exciting the electrons with two phase-correlated wave trains. The phase-correlated wave trains are obtained by sending broad-band ultra-violet light, coming from a deuterium lamp, through a Michelson interferometer. It is possible to

  16. Internal photoemission study on charge trapping behavior in rapid thermal oxides on strained-Si/SiGe heterolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bera, M.K.; Mahata, C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chakraborty, A.K.; Armstrong, B.M.; Gamble, H.S.; Maiti, C.K.

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study on the nature of defects and their relationship to charge trapping with enhanced photosensitivity has been investigated through magnetic resonance and internal photoemission (IPE) experiments for rapid thermal grown oxides (RTO) on strained-Si/Si 0.8 Ge 0.2 and on co-processed bulk-Si (1 0 0) substrates. Both the band and defect-related electronic states were characterized through EPR, IPE, C-V and I-V measurements under UV-illumination. Surface chemical characterization of as-grown ultrathin oxides (5-7 nm) has been performed using high-resolution XPS. Enhancement in Ge-segregation with increasing oxidation temperature is reported. Comparative studies on interface properties and leakage current behavior of rapid thermal oxides have also been studied through fabricating metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor structures. A degraded electrical property with increasing oxidation temperature is reported. Constant voltage stressing (CVS) in the range of 5.5-7 V was used to study the breakdown characteristics of different samples. We observe a distinguishably different time-to-breakdown (t bd ) phenomenon for bulk-Si and strained-Si/SiGe samples. Whereas the oxide on bulk-Si shows a typical breakdown behavior, the RTO grown oxide on strained-Si/SiGe samples showed a quasi-or soft-breakdown with lower t bd value. It may be pointed out that quasi-breakdown may be a stronger reliability limiting factor for strained-Si/SiGe devices in the oxide thickness range studied

  17. Electronic properties of metal-organic and organic-organic interfaces studied by photoemission and photoabsorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molodtsova, Olga

    2006-07-01

    In this work systematic studies of the organic semiconductor CuPc have been presented. In general the investigation can be devided in three parts. In the first one we have studied the electronic structure of clean CuPc thin film. The next two parts are devoted to organic-organic and metal-organic interface formation, where one of the interface components is CuPc thin film. The main results of this thesis are: - The electronic structure of the pristine organic semiconductor CuPc has been obtained by a combination of conventional and resonant photoemission, near-edge X-ray absorption, as well as by theoretical ab initio quantum-chemical calculations. The contributions of different atomic species as well as sites of the CuPc molecule to the electronic DOS has been established. A combined experimental and theoretical study of the unoccupied electronic density of states of CuPc was presented. - The electronic properties of the organic heterointerfaces between fullerite and pristine copper phthalocyanine were studied. Both interfaces, CuPc/C{sub 60} and C{sub 60}/CuPc, were found to be non-reactive with pronounced shifts of the vacuum level pointing to the formation of an interfacial dipole mainly at the CuPc side of the heterojunctions. The dipole values are close to the difference of the work functions of the two materials. Important interface parameters and hole-injection barriers were obtained. The sequence of deposition does not influence the electronic properties of the interfaces. - CuPc doped with potassium was studied by means of photoemission and photoabsorption spectroscopy. A detailed analysis of the core-level PE spectra allows one to propose possible lattice sites, which harbor the potassium ions. The films prepared in this thesis showed no finite electronic density of states at the Fermi level. - Two stages of the In/CuPc interface formation have been distinguished. The low-coverage stage is characterized by a strong diffusion of the In atoms into the

  18. XPS and angle resolved XPS, in the semiconductor industry: Characterization and metrology control of ultra-thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brundle, C.R.; Conti, Giuseppina; Mack, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the development of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS, used as a characterization and metrology method for ultra-thin films in the semiconductor wafer processing industry. After a brief explanation of how the relative roles of XPS and Auger electron spectroscopy, AES, have changed over the last 15 years or so in the semiconductor industry, we go into some detail as to what is implied by metrology, as opposed to characterization, for thin films in the industry, and then describe how XPS, and particularly angle resolved XPS, ARXPS, have been implemented as a metrology 'tool' for thickness, chemical composition, and non-destructive depth profiling, of transistor gate oxide material, a key requirement in front-end processing. We take a historical approach, dealing first with the early use for SiO 2 films on Si(1 0 0), then moving to silicon oxynitride, SiO x N y in detail, and finally and briefly HfO 2 -based material, which is used today in the most advanced devices (32 nm node).

  19. SmB6 electron-phonon coupling constant from time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzi, A.; Crepaldi, A.; Cilento, F.; Manzoni, G.; Frantzeskakis, E.; Zacchigna, M.; van Heumen, E.; Huang, Y. K.; Golden, M. S.; Parmigiani, F.

    2016-08-01

    SmB6 is a mixed valence Kondo system resulting from the hybridization between localized f electrons and delocalized d electrons. We have investigated its out-of-equilibrium electron dynamics by means of time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The transient electronic population above the Fermi level can be described by a time-dependent Fermi-Dirac distribution. By solving a two-temperature model that well reproduces the relaxation dynamics of the effective electronic temperature, we estimate the electron-phonon coupling constant λ to range from 0.13 ±0.03 to 0.04 ±0.01 . These extremes are obtained assuming a coupling of the electrons with either a phonon mode at 10 or 19 meV. A realistic value of the average phonon energy will give an actual value of λ within this range. Our results provide an experimental report on the material electron-phonon coupling, contributing to both the electronic transport and the macroscopic thermodynamic properties of SmB6.

  20. Photoemission study of the Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/TiO2 interface and the role of 4-Mercaptopyridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calloni, A., E-mail: alberto1.calloni@mail.polimi.it [CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Berti, G.; Ferrari, A.; Brambilla, A.; Bussetti, G. [CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Canesi, E.V.; Petrozza, A. [Center for Nano Science and Technology @ Polimi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Duò, L. [CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-06-02

    We report on a combined X-ray and UV photoemission spectroscopy study (XPS, UPS) of the interface between Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), a key element in the development of hybrid solar cells. We employed the elemental specificity of XPS to directly probe, on the complete P3HT/TiO{sub 2} heterostructure, the changes in the electronic levels alignment at the interface upon the addition of 4-Mercaptopyridine (4-MPy) molecules. We estimate an upper limit of 50 meV to the contribution of 4-MPy to the P3HT/TiO{sub 2} interfacial dipole. In addition, UPS was used to provide a quantitative estimate of the relevant parameters controlling the transfer of charge through the hybrid interface, such as the binding energy of the TiO{sub 2} valence and conduction bands and of the P3HT highest occupied/lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals. In both cases, we confirm that the alignment of P3HT energy levels to those of the substrate is not influenced by the position of the Fermi level inside the TiO{sub 2} band gap. - Highlights: • We studied the electronic structure of the Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/TiO{sub 2} interface. • 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MPy) molecules were used as interface modifiers. • The contribution of 4-MPy to the interfacial dipole is limited to 50 meV. • No pinning of Poly(3-hexylthiophene) energy levels to the Fermi level is observed.

  1. Combined Photoemission Spectroscopy and Electrochemical Study of a Mixture of (Oxy)carbides as Potential Innovative Supports and Electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvillo, Laura; Valero-Vidal, Carlos; Agnoli, Stefano; Sezen, Hikmet; Rüdiger, Celine; Kunze-Liebhäuser, Julia; Granozzi, Gaetano

    2016-08-03

    Active and stable non-noble metal materials, able to substitute Pt as catalyst or to reduce the Pt amount, are vitally important for the extended commercialization of energy conversion technologies, such as fuel cells and electrolyzers. Here, we report a fundamental study of nonstoichiometric tungsten carbide (WxC) and its interaction with titanium oxycarbide (TiOxCy) under electrochemical working conditions. In particular, the electrochemical activity and stability of the WxC/TiOxCy system toward the ethanol electrooxidation reaction (EOR) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are investigated. The chemical changes caused by the applied potential are established by combining photoemission spectroscopy and electrochemistry. WxC is not active toward the ethanol electrooxidation reaction at room temperature but it is highly stable under these conditions thanks to the formation of a passive thin film on the surface, consisting mainly of WO2 and W2O5, which prevents the full oxidation of WxC. In addition, WxC is able to adsorb ethanol, forming ethoxy groups on the surface, which constitutes the first step for the ethanol oxidation. The interaction between WxC and TiOxCy plays an important role in the electrochemical stability of WxC since specific orientations of the substrate are able to stabilize WxC and prevent its corrosion. The beneficial interaction with the substrate and the specific surface chemistry makes tungsten carbide a good electrocatalyst support or cocatalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells. However, WxC is active toward the HER and chemically stable under hydrogen reduction conditions, since no changes in the chemical composition or dissolution of the film are observed. This makes tungsten carbide a good candidate as electrocatalyst support or cocatalyst for the electrochemical production of hydrogen.

  2. Space-charge effects in high-energy photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verna, Adriano, E-mail: adriano.verna@uniroma3.it [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); CNISM Unità di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Greco, Giorgia [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Lollobrigida, Valerio [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Scuola Dottorale in Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Offi, Francesco; Stefani, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); CNISM Unità di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • N-body simulations of interacting photoelectrons in hard X-ray experiments. • Secondary electrons have a pivotal role in determining the energy broadening. • Space charge has negligible effects on the photoelectron momentum distribution. • A simple model provides the characteristic time for energy-broadening mechanism. • The feasibility of time-resolved high-energy experiments with FELs is discussed. - Abstract: Pump-and-probe photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) with femtosecond pulsed sources opens new perspectives in the investigation of the ultrafast dynamics of physical and chemical processes at the surfaces and interfaces of solids. Nevertheless, for very intense photon pulses a large number of photoelectrons are simultaneously emitted and their mutual Coulomb repulsion is sufficiently strong to significantly modify their trajectory and kinetic energy. This phenomenon, referred as space-charge effect, determines a broadening and shift in energy for the typical PES structures and a dramatic loss of energy resolution. In this article we examine the effects of space charge in PES with a particular focus on time-resolved hard X-ray (∼10 keV) experiments. The trajectory of the electrons photoemitted from pure Cu in a hard X-ray PES experiment has been reproduced through N-body simulations and the broadening of the photoemission core-level peaks has been monitored as a function of various parameters (photons per pulse, linear dimension of the photon spot, photon energy). The energy broadening results directly proportional to the number N of electrons emitted per pulse (mainly represented by secondary electrons) and inversely proportional to the linear dimension a of the photon spot on the sample surface, in agreement with the literature data about ultraviolet and soft X-ray experiments. The evolution in time of the energy broadening during the flight of the photoelectrons is also studied. Despite its detrimental consequences on the energy

  3. Angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) analysis of lanthanum oxide for micro-flexography printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, S., E-mail: suhaimihas@uthm.edu.my; Yusof, M. S., E-mail: mdsalleh@uthm.edu.my; Maksud, M. I., E-mail: midris1973@gmail.com [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Embong, Z., E-mail: zaidi@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Micro-flexography printing was developed in patterning technique from micron to nano scale range to be used for graphic, electronic and bio-medical device on variable substrates. In this work, lanthanum oxide (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has been used as a rare earth metal candidate as depositing agent. This metal deposit was embedded on Carbon (C) and Silica (Si) wafer substrate using Magnetron Sputtering technique. The choose of Lanthanum as a target is due to its wide application in producing electronic devices such as thin film battery and printed circuit board. The La{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposited on the surface of Si wafer substrate was then analyzed using Angle Resolve X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS). The position for each synthetic component in the narrow scan of Lanthanum (La) 3d and O 1s are referred to the electron binding energy (eV). The La 3d narrow scan revealed that the oxide species of this particular metal is mainly contributed by La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and La(OH){sub 3}. The information of oxygen species, O{sup 2-} component from O 1s narrow scan indicated that there are four types of species which are contributed from the bulk (O{sup 2−}), two chemisorb component (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and La(OH){sub 3} and physisorp component (OH). Here, it is proposed that from the adhesive and surface chemical properties of La, it is suitable as an alternative medium for micro-flexography printing technique in printing multiple fine solid lines at nano scale. Hence, this paper will describe the capability of this particular metal as rare earth metal for use in of micro-flexography printing practice. The review of other parameters contributing to print fine lines will also be described later.

  4. Angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) analysis of lanthanum oxide for micro-flexography printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S.; Yusof, M. S.; Embong, Z.; Maksud, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    Micro-flexography printing was developed in patterning technique from micron to nano scale range to be used for graphic, electronic and bio-medical device on variable substrates. In this work, lanthanum oxide (La2O3) has been used as a rare earth metal candidate as depositing agent. This metal deposit was embedded on Carbon (C) and Silica (Si) wafer substrate using Magnetron Sputtering technique. The choose of Lanthanum as a target is due to its wide application in producing electronic devices such as thin film battery and printed circuit board. The La2O3 deposited on the surface of Si wafer substrate was then analyzed using Angle Resolve X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS). The position for each synthetic component in the narrow scan of Lanthanum (La) 3d and O 1s are referred to the electron binding energy (eV). The La 3d narrow scan revealed that the oxide species of this particular metal is mainly contributed by La2O3 and La(OH)3. The information of oxygen species, O2- component from O 1s narrow scan indicated that there are four types of species which are contributed from the bulk (O2-), two chemisorb component (La2O3) and La(OH)3 and physisorp component (OH). Here, it is proposed that from the adhesive and surface chemical properties of La, it is suitable as an alternative medium for micro-flexography printing technique in printing multiple fine solid lines at nano scale. Hence, this paper will describe the capability of this particular metal as rare earth metal for use in of micro-flexography printing practice. The review of other parameters contributing to print fine lines will also be described later.

  5. Studies on effect of europium concentration on the photoemission of laser ablated Y2O3:Eu based nano-phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissamudeen, K.M.; Krishnan, Renju R.; Rajan, Geo; Gopchandran, K.G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Phosphors are essential materials in display applications. Oxide-based phosphors are likely to emerge as the potential choice for the FED red phosphor. Among those oxide-based phosphors, there has been significant research interest in the development of Y 2 O 3 :Eu thin films as one of the most promising oxide based red phosphor systems. Yttrium oxide mixed with europium exhibit strong UV and cathode-ray-excited luminescence that are useful in lamp and display applications. Dielectric Y 2 O 3 film has recently attracted much attention for its potential application as an electric insulation layer in electroluminescent devices and high-density dynamic random access memory gate dielectrics because of its high band gap (5.8 eV) and large dielectric constant (14 to 18). Another important application of Y 2 O 3 has been in luminescent displays as a host material for rare-earth ions, specifically europium, in order to get emission of red light. In the present study thin films were deposited under a vacuum of 10 -6 mbar on fused amorphous quartz substrates using a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser, 532 nm, pulse width 9 n sec, and repetition frequency of 10 Hz, with sintered Y 2 O 3 pellets having different europium concentration as target material. Attempts were made to understand the effect of europium concentration and annealing process on the photoemission properties of the films. A europium concentration of 8 wt% and an annealing temperature of 1173 K were found to be optimum conditions for maximum photoemission. The dependence of structure and morphology of the films on the photoemission intensity are described with XRD patterns and images obtained from AFM and SEM studies

  6. Synchronization and Characterization of an Ultra-Short Laser for Photoemission and Electron-Beam Diagnostics Studies at a Radio Frequency Photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Timothy; Ruan, Jinhao; Piot, Philippe; Lumpkin, Alex

    2012-03-01

    A commercially-available titanium-sapphire laser system has recently been installed at the Fermilab A0 photoinjector laboratory in support of photoemission and electron beam diagnostics studies. The laser system is synchronized to both the 1.3-GHz master oscillator and a 1-Hz signal use to trigger the radiofrequency system and instrumentation acquisition. The synchronization scheme and performance are detailed. Long-term temporal and intensity drifts are identified and actively suppressed to within 1 ps and 1.5%, respectively. Measurement and optimization of the laser's temporal profile are accomplished using frequency-resolved optical gating.

  7. Growth of metastable fcc Mn thin film on GaAs(001) and its electronic structure studied by photoemission with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan; Dong Guosheng; Zhang Ming

    1995-01-01

    The epitaxial growth of metastable fcc Mn thin films on GaAs(001) surface has been achieved at a substrate temperature of 400 K. The development of the fcc Mn thin films as a function of coverage is studied by photoemission with synchrotron radiation. The electron density of states below the Fermi edge of the fcc Mn phase is measured. A significant difference of the electronic structures is observed between the metastable fcc Mn phase and the thermodynamically stable α-Mn phase. Possible mechanisms are proposed to interpret the experimental result

  8. Role of photocurrent in low-temperature photoemission studies of Schottky-barrier formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is frequently used to study band bending in semiconductors due to charge stored in surface or interface states. This paper examines how such experimental results are modified by photovoltages generated within the band-bending region not only by ambient light sources, but by the incident x rays themselves. Recent experiments which have suggested dopant-dependent and reversible temperature-dependent band bending in the initial stages of formation of the metal-GaAs(110) interface are used as an example. It is shown here that the reported dependence derives from a photovoltaic effect

  9. Photoemission and STM, STS study of Cs/p-GaAs(110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T.; Fujii, J.; Mizoguchi, T.

    2001-01-01

    Various stage of adsorbed Cs, i.e., one-dimensional (1D) lines, polygons and coherently c(4x4)-ordered polygons, on cleaved p-GaAs(110) are studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopies (STS) with an interest in relation to the photo-electron emission. It is understood that only the coherently c(4x4)-ordered Cs polygon surface (Cs coverage of 0.6 ML and 0.7 ML) can emit photo-electrons due to a sufficient reduction of the local work function down to 1.3 eV to get a negative electron affinity state

  10. Synchrotron-based photoemission study of electronic structure of the Cs/GaN ultrathin interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benemanskaya, G. V.; Kukushkin, S. A.; Dementev, P. A.; Lapushkin, M. N.; Timoshnev, S. N.; Smirnov, D. V.

    2018-03-01

    Electronic structure of the Cs/n-GaN nano-interface has been studied in situ via synchrotron-based photoelectron spectroscopy by excitation in the energy range of 70-400 eV. The GaN sample was grown by an original method of epitaxy of low-defect unstressed nanoscaled films on AlGaN/SiC/Si substrate. Changes in the surface state spectra and in the Ga 3d, Cs 4d, Cs 5p, N 1s core level spectra have been revealed under different cesium coverages. The intrinsic surface states for the clean GaN surface at binding energies of ∼5.0 eV and ∼7.0 eV are attenuated during Cs adsorption. Simultaneously three Cs induced surface states are found to arise. Drastic changes in the surface state spectrum were ascertained and shown to be originated from the local interacting Ga dangling bonds and adsorbed Cs atoms initiating the electron redistribution effect with formation of the semiconductor-like Cs/n-GaN interface.

  11. Photoemission study of metallic iron nanoparticles surface aging in biological fluids. Influence on biomolecules adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canivet, L.; Denayer, F.O.; Champion, Y.; Cenedese, P.; Dubot, P.

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles (nFe) prepared by vaporization and cryogenic condensation process (10–100 nm) has been exposed to Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and the B-Ali cell growth fluids. These media can be used for cellular growth to study nFe penetration through cell membrane and its induced cytotoxicity. Surface chemistry of nFe exposed to such complex fluids has been characterized as the nanoparticles surface can be strongly changed by adsorption or corrosion processes before reaching intracellular medium. Particle size and surface chemistry have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS). Exposition of nFe particles to growth and differentiation media leads to the formation of an oxy-hydroxide layer containing chlorinated species. We found that the passivated Fe 2 O 3 layer of the bare nFe particles is rapidly transformed into a thicker oxy-hydroxide layer that has a greater ability to adsorb molecular ions or ionic biomolecules like proteins or DNA.

  12. Photoemission study of metallic iron nanoparticles surface aging in biological fluids. Influence on biomolecules adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canivet, L.; Denayer, F.O. [Université de Lille 2, Droit et Santé, 42 rue P. Duez, 59000 Lille (France); Champion, Y.; Cenedese, P. [CNRS-ICMPE, 2 rue H. Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Dubot, P., E-mail: pdubot@icmpe.cnrs.fr [CNRS-ICMPE, 2 rue H. Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France)

    2014-07-01

    Iron nanoparticles (nFe) prepared by vaporization and cryogenic condensation process (10–100 nm) has been exposed to Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and the B-Ali cell growth fluids. These media can be used for cellular growth to study nFe penetration through cell membrane and its induced cytotoxicity. Surface chemistry of nFe exposed to such complex fluids has been characterized as the nanoparticles surface can be strongly changed by adsorption or corrosion processes before reaching intracellular medium. Particle size and surface chemistry have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS). Exposition of nFe particles to growth and differentiation media leads to the formation of an oxy-hydroxide layer containing chlorinated species. We found that the passivated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer of the bare nFe particles is rapidly transformed into a thicker oxy-hydroxide layer that has a greater ability to adsorb molecular ions or ionic biomolecules like proteins or DNA.

  13. Photoemission Spectroscopy Studies of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin Films and Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibau, Emmanuel S.

    Organometal halide perovskites have recently emerged as promising materials for fundamentally low-cost, high-performance optoelectronics. In this thesis, we utilize thermal co-evaporation of PbI2 and CH3NH 3 I to fabricate thin films of CH3NH3PbI 3. We first investigate the effect of stoichiometry on some of its structural, optical and electronic properties. Then, we study the energy level alignment of CH3NH3PbI3 with 6 organic semiconductors, revealing good agreement between the data and the theory of vacuum level alignment. Finally, the interface formed between CH3NH 3PbI3 and MoO3 is examined. The findings suggest migration of iodide species into the oxide layer, resulting in deterioration of its chemical and electronic properties. Insertion of an organic interlayer is shown to mitigate these undesirable effects. The results of this work could be of use in device engineering, where knowledge of such interfacial phenomena is of utmost importance in achieving optimized device structures.

  14. Electronic properties of CaF sub 2 nanodimensional islands on Si(0 0 1) An MDS and UPS study

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquali, L; Sokolov, N; Selvaggi, G; D'Addato, S; Nannarone, S

    2002-01-01

    The joint use of metastable deexcitation spectroscopy and angle resolved ultraviolet photoemission gives a valuable contribution to the comprehension of the physical-chemical reactions occurring during the formation of an interface between different materials. This approach has been applied to study the evolution of the surface valence band of CaF sub 2 deposited on Si(0 0 1) at different temperatures. Under suitable growth conditions, CaF sub 2 nanostructures of different shape and size can be obtained. Information regarding the chemical reactions taking place within the first deposited layer and the dependence of the electronic properties on film thickness was derived.

  15. Electronic structure of the Ga1-xCrxN studied by high-energy photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.J.; Makino, H.; Hanada, T.; Cho, M.W.; Yao, T.; Takata, Y.; Nishino, Y.; Tamasaku, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Shin, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Ikenaga, E.; Yabashi, M.; Yamamoto, T.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: It is predicted based on hole-mediated ferromagnetism (FM) that GaMnN may have Curie temperature (Tc) higher than room temperature if doped with high hole concentration (ca 10 20 cm -3 ). The hole-mediated ferromagnetism (FM) can produce reliable estimate of Tc for diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) such as GaMnAs due to the shallow Mn-associated energy states in the GaAs system. Since the energy states of doped transition metals exist as a deep level in a wide band semiconductor like GaN and carriers are localized in these states, different mechanisms for magnetism will play a role in GaN rather than the hole-mediated one. This conjecture is partly supported by the recent report of FM in n-type GaN doped with Cr, although the mechanism of the observed FM has not been elucidated yet. In order to get insight into the mechanism of the FM, we have studied the electronic structure of GaN doped with Cr exploiting bulk-sensitive hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy at a photon energy of 5.95keV at SPring-8. We have observed that Cr-doping does introduce new electronic levels in the band gap and causes some change in the valence band structure. Based on the first principle calculation, the Cr-associated electronic levels in the band gap are assigned to nonbonding and anti-bonding d states, the latter of which pins the Fermi level, while the change of the valence band suggests that the Ga 4s originated states are significantly modified through hybridization with the Cr 3d orbital. The present result evidences that the Ga valence electrons are considerably modified through the interaction with second neighbor Cr atoms. Such hybridization between Ga 4s and Cr 3d may play a significant role in the observed ferromagnetism in Ga 1-x Cr x N

  16. A Dust Grain Photoemission Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, C. C.; Spann, J. F., Jr.; Abbas, M. M.; Comfort, R. H.

    2000-01-01

    A laboratory experiment has been developed at Marshall Space Flight Center to study the interaction of micron-sized particles with plasmas and FUV radiation. The intent is to investigate the conditions under which particles of various compositions and sizes become charged, or discharged, while exposed to an electron beam and/or UV radiation. This experiment uses a unique laboratory where a single charged micron size particle is suspended in a quadrupole trap and then subjected to a controlled environment. Tests are performed using different materials and sizes, ranging from 10 microns to 1 micron, to determine the particle's charge while being subjected to an electron beam and /or UV radiation. The focus of this presentation will be on preliminary results from UV photoemission tests, but past results from electron beam, secondary electron emission tests will also be highlighted. A monochromator is used to spectrally resolve UV in the 120 nm to 300 nm range. This enables photoemission measurements as a function of wavelength. Electron beam tests are conducted using I to 3 micron sized aluminum oxide particles subjected to energies between 100 eV to 3 KeV. It was found that for both positive and negative particles the potential tended toward neutrality over time with possible equilibrium potentials between -0.8 Volts and 0.8 Volts.

  17. Photoemission study of 5f localization in UPd/sub 3-x/(Pt,Rh)/sub x/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arko, A.J.; Koelling, D.D.; Dunlap, B.D.; Mitchell, A.W.

    1987-10-01

    Photoemission measurements in the two systems UPd/sub 3-x/(Pt,Rh)/sub x/ show that the 5f spectra are consistent with localized 5f electrons (peak in spectral weight is below E/sub F/ for all x within the double hexagonal DO 24 phase) while at both phase transitions the 5f peaks lock in at E/sub F/ consistent with intinerancy. A satellite 5f peak representative of d-screening is observed in both localized and itinerant systems. 17 refs., 3 figs

  18. Photoemission study of the temperature-dependent energy-gap formation in the Kondo semiconductor CeRhAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, K.; Arita, M.; Takeda, Y.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Higashiguchi, M.; Oguchi, T.; Sasakawa, T.; Suemitsu, T.; Takabatake, T.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The orthorhombic CeRhAs, known as a Kondo semiconductor, has attracted much interest for its unusual energy-gap formation associated with the successive 1st order phase transitions. In order to elucidate the mechanism of the energy- gap formation, we have done high-resolution temperature-dependent photoemission spectroscopy on the undulator beamlines of a compact electron-storage ring, HiSOR, at Hiroshima University. We have observed directly the energy-gap formation in the Ce 4f states and in the conduction bands. Comparing with the isostructural Kondo semimetal CeRhSb, we discuss the energy gap formation in CeRhAs

  19. Studies of magnetism and exchange scattering in solids using synchrotron radiation and spin polarized photoemission. Final technical report, June 1, 1981-May 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothberg, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Progress has been made toward developing Spin Polarized EXAFS (SPEXAFS) as a technique for studying magnetism in solids. The first observations have been made of EXAFS by means of photoemission with sufficient data to permit a traditional Fourier-transform analysis of atomic structure. Some of the advantages of photoelectron detection of EXAFS are: (1) vuv light may be used thereby extending greatly the useable range of photon energies; (2) the number of elements that may be studied for surface EXAFS is increased; (3) the possibility exists for measurements that cannot be done in other ways. In addition to its intrinsic interest, this result is crucial to the study of the spin dependence of EXAFS. These measurements were carried out on the vuv storage ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Data obtained on the spin dependence of EXAFS in MnF 2 at room temperature tentatively show dependence of the Mn absorber atom phase shift on the exchange interaction within the absorber atom. This effect has not been discussed theoretically. Preliminary observations have been made of the Fano resonance in Mn 3d photoemission at the 3p to 3d threshold

  20. Bulk superconducting gap of V{sub 3}Si studied by low-energy ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T., E-mail: t-sato@arpes.phys.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Souma, S. [WPI Research Center, Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nakayama, K. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Sugawara, K. [WPI Research Center, Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Toyota, N. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Takahashi, T. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); WPI Research Center, Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • We report ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy of A15 compound V{sub 3}Si. • We found a sharp quasiparticle peak due to superconducting-gap opening. • The surface metallic component is negligibly small in the bulk-sensitive measurement. • We show that V{sub 3}Si is a single-gap s-wave superconductor. - Abstract: We have performed low-energy ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy (PES) of A15 compound V{sub 3}Si with a xenon-plasma discharge lamp to elucidate the bulk superconducting gap. Below the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c} = 15.9 K), we found a sharp quasiparticle peak at the Fermi level in the PES spectrum. The gap spectrum is well fitted by a single s-wave superconducting-gap function together with a dip structure at ∼30 meV suggestive of a strong electron-phonon coupling. The anomalous in-gap state previously observed in the PES measurement with high-energy photons is absent or negligibly small in the present bulk-sensitive measurement. The present PES result shows that V{sub 3}Si is a single-gap s-wave superconductor.

  1. Bulk superconducting gap of V_3Si studied by low-energy ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Souma, S.; Nakayama, K.; Sugawara, K.; Toyota, N.; Takahashi, T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We report ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy of A15 compound V_3Si. • We found a sharp quasiparticle peak due to superconducting-gap opening. • The surface metallic component is negligibly small in the bulk-sensitive measurement. • We show that V_3Si is a single-gap s-wave superconductor. - Abstract: We have performed low-energy ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy (PES) of A15 compound V_3Si with a xenon-plasma discharge lamp to elucidate the bulk superconducting gap. Below the superconducting transition temperature (T_c = 15.9 K), we found a sharp quasiparticle peak at the Fermi level in the PES spectrum. The gap spectrum is well fitted by a single s-wave superconducting-gap function together with a dip structure at ∼30 meV suggestive of a strong electron-phonon coupling. The anomalous in-gap state previously observed in the PES measurement with high-energy photons is absent or negligibly small in the present bulk-sensitive measurement. The present PES result shows that V_3Si is a single-gap s-wave superconductor.

  2. Ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy of metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baikie, Iain D., E-mail: iain@kptechnology.ltd.uk; Grain, Angela C.; Sutherland, James; Law, Jamie

    2014-12-30

    Highlights: • Ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy of metals. • Rastered photon energy scan overcomes inelastic scattering. • Relationship between photoemission threshold and contact potential difference. - Abstract: We describe a novel photoemission technique utilizing a traditional Kelvin probe as a detector of electrons/atmospheric ions ejected from metallic surfaces (Au, Ag, Cu, Fe, Ni, Ti, Zn, Al) illuminated by a deep ultra-violet (DUV) source under ambient pressure. To surmount the limitation of electron scattering in air the incident photon energy is rastered rather than applying a variable retarding electric field as is used with UPS. This arrangement can be applied in several operational modes: using the DUV source to determine the photoemission threshold (Φ) with 30–50 meV resolution and also the Kelvin probe, under dark conditions, to measure contact potential difference (CPD) between the Kelvin probe tip and the metallic sample with an accuracy of 1–3 meV. We have studied the relationship between the photoelectric threshold and CPD of metal surfaces cleaned in ambient conditions. Inclusion of a second spectroscopic visible source was used to confirm a semiconducting oxide, possibly Cu{sub 2}O, via surface photovoltage measurements with the KP. This dual detection system can be easily extended to controlled gas conditions, relative humidity control and sample heating/cooling.

  3. Thickness-dependent change in the valence band offset of the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface studied using synchrotron-radiation photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, S., E-mail: toyoda.satoshi.4w@kyoto-u.ac.jp; Oshima, M. [Department of Applied Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-08-28

    We have studied the thickness-dependent change in the valence band offset (VBO) of the SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) interface using synchrotron-radiation photoemission spectroscopy with soft and hard X-rays. The SiO{sub 2}-film thickness (T{sub ox}) and X-ray irradiation time (t{sub irrad}) were systematically parameterized to distinguish between the “intrinsic” T{sub ox} effects in the VBOs and the “extrinsic” differential charging phenomena in SiO{sub 2} films on Si substrates. The results revealed that at a spontaneous time (t{sub irrad} ≈ 5 s) that suppresses the differential charging phenomena as much as possible, the experimental VBO abruptly increases as a function of T{sub ox} and gradually saturates to the traditional VBO value range determined by the internal photoemission and photoconduction measurements. This effect is not attributed to the differential charging phenomena, but rather it is attributed to the “intrinsic” T{sub ox}-dependent change in the VBO. The two possible physical behaviors include electronic polarization and image charge. We have derived the electronic polarization contribution from experimental data by carefully describing the effects of the long-range image charges based on the classical dielectric-screening model.

  4. ARPES studies of the electronic structure of LaOFe(P,As)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Analytis, J.G.

    2010-06-02

    We report a comparison study of LaOFeP and LaOFeAs, two parent compounds of recently discovered iron-pnictide superconductors, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Both systems exhibit some common features that are very different from well-studied cuprates. In addition, important differences have also been observed between these two ferrooxypnictides. For LaOFeP, quantitative agreement can be found between our photoemission data and the LDA band structure calculations, suggesting that a weak coupling approach based on an itinerant ground state may be more appropriate for understanding this new superconducting compound. In contrast, the agreement between LDA calculations and experiments in LaOFeAs is relatively poor, as highlighted by the unexpected Fermi surface topology around ({pi},{pi}). Further investigations are required for a comprehensive understanding of the electronic structure of LaOFeAs and related compounds.

  5. Chlorine-induced modifications in the electronic structure of Ag surfaces: a metastable deexcitation spectroscopy and photoemission comparative study

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquali, L; Canepa, M; Staicu-Casagrande, E M; Esaulov, V A

    2003-01-01

    Surface-sensitive spectroscopic techniques, namely metastable deexcitation spectroscopy (MDS) and ultraviolet photoemission (UPS), have been applied to investigate the effects of chlorine chemisorption on the electronic properties (surface density of states and charge density) of Ag(100), Ag(110) and Ag(111) surfaces. Initial stages of chemisorption, up to the formation of a saturated Cl overlayer, have been examined. In particular, MDS permitted us to observe at low Cl gas exposure a progressive depletion of the Ag (5s) charge due to transfer and bonding with Cl atoms. From both MDS and UPS it was possible to observe the development of Cl (3p) bonding and anti-bonding states, the amount of their splitting increasing with coverage. Differences between chemisorption at the three surfaces have been noticed and they have been justified in terms of the different adatom packing and possible formation of small AgCl clusters (especially for the Ag(111) surface).

  6. Electronic structure of the Ga1-xCr xN studied by high-energy photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.J.; Makino, H.; Yao, T.; Takata, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Hanada, T.; Cho, M.W.; Ikenaga, E.; Yabashi, M.; Miwa, D.; Nishino, Y.; Tamasaku, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Shin, S.

    2005-01-01

    Valence band spectra of Ga 1-x Cr x N have been investigated by high-energy photoemission spectroscopy at the photon energy of 5.95 keV. Cr doping does introduce a novel electronic structure in the bandgap and causes some change in valence band structure. Based on the first-principle calculation, Cr-associated electronic levels in the bandgap are assigned to nonbonding and antibonding d states while the change of the valence band suggests that the Ga 4s originated states are significantly modified through hybridization with the Cr 3d orbital. The present result evidences that the Ga valence electrons are considerably modified through the interaction with the second nearest-neighbour Cr atoms

  7. Chlorine-induced modifications in the electronic structure of Ag surfaces: a metastable deexcitation spectroscopy and photoemission comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquali, L; Nannarone, S; Canepa, M; Staicu-Casagrande, E M; Esaulov, V A

    2003-01-01

    Surface-sensitive spectroscopic techniques, namely metastable deexcitation spectroscopy (MDS) and ultraviolet photoemission (UPS), have been applied to investigate the effects of chlorine chemisorption on the electronic properties (surface density of states and charge density) of Ag(100), Ag(110) and Ag(111) surfaces. Initial stages of chemisorption, up to the formation of a saturated Cl overlayer, have been examined. In particular, MDS permitted us to observe at low Cl gas exposure a progressive depletion of the Ag (5s) charge due to transfer and bonding with Cl atoms. From both MDS and UPS it was possible to observe the development of Cl (3p) bonding and anti-bonding states, the amount of their splitting increasing with coverage. Differences between chemisorption at the three surfaces have been noticed and they have been justified in terms of the different adatom packing and possible formation of small AgCl clusters (especially for the Ag(111) surface)

  8. Non-destructive determination of ultra-thin GaN cap layer thickness in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure by angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Anshu; Yadav, Brajesh S.; Raman, R.; Kapoor, Ashok K.

    2018-02-01

    Angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) investigations have been carried out to characterize the GaN cap layer in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure. The paper discusses the qualitative (presence or absence of a cap layer) and quantitative (cap layer thickness) characterization of cap layer in HEMT structure non-destructively using ARXPS measurements in conjunction with the theoretical modeling. Further the relative sensitive factor (RSF=σ/Ga σAl ) for Ga to Al ratio was estimated to be 0.963 and was used in the quantification of GaN cap layer thickness. Our results show that Al/Ga intensity ratio varies with the emission angle in the presence of GaN cap layer and otherwise remains constant. Also, the modeling of this intensity ratio gives its thickness. The finding of ARXPS was also substantiated by SIMS depth profiling studies.

  9. Non-destructive determination of ultra-thin GaN cap layer thickness in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure by angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Goyal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS investigations have been carried out to characterize the GaN cap layer in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure. The paper discusses the qualitative (presence or absence of a cap layer and quantitative (cap layer thickness characterization of cap layer in HEMT structure non-destructively using ARXPS measurements in conjunction with the theoretical modeling. Further the relative sensitive factor (RSF=σGaσAl for Ga to Al ratio was estimated to be 0.963 and was used in the quantification of GaN cap layer thickness. Our results show that Al/Ga intensity ratio varies with the emission angle in the presence of GaN cap layer and otherwise remains constant. Also, the modeling of this intensity ratio gives its thickness. The finding of ARXPS was also substantiated by SIMS depth profiling studies.

  10. Inverse photoemission of uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, P.; Morrall, P.; Tull, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the itinerant-localised bonding role of the 5f electrons in the light actinides will afford an insight into their unusual physical and chemical properties. In recent years, the combination of core and valance band electron spectroscopies with theoretic modelling have already made significant progress in this area. However, information of the unoccupied density of states is still scarce. When compared to the forward photoemission techniques, measurements of the unoccupied states suffer from significantly less sensitivity and lower resolution. In this paper, we report on our experimental apparatus, which is designed to measure the inverse photoemission spectra of the light actinides. Inverse photoemission spectra of UO 2 and UO 2.2 along with the corresponding core and valance electron spectra are presented in this paper. UO 2 has been reported previously, although through its inclusion here it allows us to compare and contrast results from our experimental apparatus to the previous Bremsstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy and Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy investigations

  11. Differences between GaAs/GaInP and GaAs/AlInP interfaces grown by movpe revealed by depth profiling and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Escalante, M.C.; Gabás, M.; García, I.; Barrigón, E.; Rey-Stolle, I.; Algora, C.; Palanco, S.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • GaAs, AlInP and GaInP epi-layers grown in a MOVPE facility. • GaAs/GaInP and GaAs/AlInP interfaces studied through the combination of angle resolved and depth profile X-ray photoelectros spectroscopies. • GaAs/GaInP interface shows no features appart from GaAs, GaInP and mixed GaInAs or GaInAsP phases. • GaAs/AlInP interface shows traces of an anomalous P environment, probably due to P-P clusters. - Abstract: GaAs/GaInP and GaAs/AlInP interfaces have been studied using photoelectron spectroscopy tools. The combination of depth profile through Ar + sputtering and angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provides reliable information on the evolution of the interface chemistry. Measurement artifacts related to each particular technique can be ruled out on the basis of the results obtained with the other technique. GaAs/GaInP interface spreads out over a shorter length than GaAs/AlInP interface. The former could include the presence of the quaternary GaInAsP in addition to the nominal GaAs and GaInP layers. On the contrary, the GaAs/AlInP interface exhibits a higher degree of compound mixture. Namely, traces of P atoms in a chemical environment different to the usual AlInP coordination were found at the top of the GaAs/AlInP interface, as well as mixed phases like AlInP, GaInAsP or AlGaInAsP, located at the interface.

  12. Differences between GaAs/GaInP and GaAs/AlInP interfaces grown by movpe revealed by depth profiling and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Escalante, M.C., E-mail: mclopez@uma.es [Nanotech Unit, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Gabás, M. [The Nanotech Unit, Depto. de Física Aplicada I, Andalucía Tech, Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071 Málaga Spain (Spain); García, I.; Barrigón, E.; Rey-Stolle, I.; Algora, C. [Instituto de Energía Solar, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avda. Complutense 30, 28040 Madrid Spain (Spain); Palanco, S.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R. [The Nanotech Unit, Depto. de Física Aplicada I, Andalucía Tech, Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071 Málaga Spain (Spain)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • GaAs, AlInP and GaInP epi-layers grown in a MOVPE facility. • GaAs/GaInP and GaAs/AlInP interfaces studied through the combination of angle resolved and depth profile X-ray photoelectros spectroscopies. • GaAs/GaInP interface shows no features appart from GaAs, GaInP and mixed GaInAs or GaInAsP phases. • GaAs/AlInP interface shows traces of an anomalous P environment, probably due to P-P clusters. - Abstract: GaAs/GaInP and GaAs/AlInP interfaces have been studied using photoelectron spectroscopy tools. The combination of depth profile through Ar{sup +} sputtering and angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provides reliable information on the evolution of the interface chemistry. Measurement artifacts related to each particular technique can be ruled out on the basis of the results obtained with the other technique. GaAs/GaInP interface spreads out over a shorter length than GaAs/AlInP interface. The former could include the presence of the quaternary GaInAsP in addition to the nominal GaAs and GaInP layers. On the contrary, the GaAs/AlInP interface exhibits a higher degree of compound mixture. Namely, traces of P atoms in a chemical environment different to the usual AlInP coordination were found at the top of the GaAs/AlInP interface, as well as mixed phases like AlInP, GaInAsP or AlGaInAsP, located at the interface.

  13. Crystal structure and X-ray photoemission spectroscopic study of A{sub 2}LaMO{sub 6} [A=Ba, Ca; M=Nb, Ta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Alo, E-mail: alo_dutta@yahoo.com [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block-JD, Sector-III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Saha, Sujoy [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, 93/1 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Kumari, Premlata [Department of Chemistry, Government P.G. College, Lansdowne, Pauri-Garhwal 246139 (India); Sinha, T.P. [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, 93/1 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Shannigrahi, Santiranjan [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science Technology and Research, 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore)

    2015-09-15

    The X-ray photoemission spectroscopic (XPS) study of the double perovskite oxides A{sub 2}LaMO{sub 6} [A=Ba, Ca; M=Nb, Ta] synthesized by the solid-state reaction technique has been carried out to investigate the nature of the chemical state of the constituent ions and the bonding between them. The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns suggests the monoclinic crystal structure of all the materials at room temperature. The negative and positive chemical shifts of the core level XPS spectrum of O-1s and Nb-3d{sub 3/2}/Ta-4f{sub 5/2} respectively suggest the covalent bonding between Nb/Ta cations and O ion. The change of the bonding strength between the anion and the cations from one material to another has been analyzed. The vibrational property of the materials is investigated using the room temperature Raman spectra. A large covalency of Ta-based compound than Nb compound is confirmed from the relative shifting of the Raman modes of the materials. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of two perovskite oxides CLN and CLT is investigated. XPS study confirms the two different co-ordination environments of Ca and covalent bonding between B-site cations and O-ion. - Highlights: • Ordered perovskite structure obtained by Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns. • Study of nature of chemical bonding by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. • Opposite chemical shift of d-states of Nb/Ta with respect to O. • Covalent bonding between d-states of Nb/Ta and O. • Relative Raman shifts of CLN and CLT substantiate the more covalent character of Ta than Nb.

  14. Temperature-induced valence transition in EuNi2(Si0.20Ge0.80)2 studied by hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuya; Kamakura, Nozomu; Taguchi, Munetaka; Chainani, Ashish; Takata, Yasutaka; Horiba, Koji; Shin, Shik; Ikenaga, Eiji; Mimura, Kojiro; Shiga, Masayuki; Wada, Hirofumi; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Awaji, Mitsuhiro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Nishino, Yoshinori; Miwa, Daigo; Tamasaku, Kenji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Keisuke

    2005-01-01

    The temperature-induced mixed valence transition in EuNi 2 (Si 0.20 Ge 0.80 ) 2 has been investigated by hard X-ray (5940 eV) photoemission spectroscopy (HX-PES) for fractured surfaces, with a probing depth larger than 5 nm. The Eu 3d core-level states are studied below and above the critical valence transition temperature, T v = 80 K. The HX-PES spectra at 40 and 120 K show the mixed valence transition, with clear changes in the divalent and trivalent Eu 3d chemically shifted features. The Eu 3d HX-PES spectra indicate a mean valence of 2.70 ± 0.03 at 40 K which changes to 2.40 ± 0.03 at 120 K, in good accordance with the results of bulk Eu III -edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements

  15. Plasmon Enhanced Photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Aleksandr [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-08

    Next generation ultrabright light sources will operate at megahertz repetition rates with temporal resolution in the attosecond regime. For an X-Ray Free Electron Laser (FEL) to operate at such repetition rate requires a high quantum efficiency (QE) cathode to produce electron bunches of 300 pC per 1.5 μJ incident laser pulse. Semiconductor photocathodes have sufficient QE in the ultraviolet (UV) and the visible spectrum, however, they produce picosecond electron pulses due to the electron-phonon scattering. On the other hand, metals have two orders of magnitude less QE, but can produce femtosecond pulses, that are required to form the optimum electron distribution for high efficiency FEL operation. In this work, a novel metallic photocathode design is presented, where a set of nano-cavities is introduced on the metal surface to increase its QE to meet the FEL requirements, while maintaining the fast time response. Photoemission can be broken up into three steps: (1) photon absorption, (2) electron transport to the surface, and (3) crossing the metal-vacuum barrier. The first two steps can be improved by making the metal completely absorbing and by localizing the fields closer to the metal surface, thereby reducing the electron travel distance. Both of these effects can be achieved by coupling the incident light to an electron density wave on the metal surface, represented by a quasi-particle, the Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP). The photoemission then becomes a process where the photon energy is transferred to an SPP and then to an electron. The dispersion relation for the SPP defines the region of energies where such process can occur. For example, for gold, the maximum SPP energy is 2.4 eV, however, the work function is 5.6 eV, therefore, only a fourth order photoemission process is possible. In such process, four photons excite four plasmons that together excite only one electron. The yield of such non-linear process depends strongly on the light intensity. In

  16. Photoemission measurements for low energy x-ray detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Photoemission has been studied for nearly 100 years as both a means of investigating quantum physics, and as a practical technique for transducing optical/x-ray photons into electrical currents. Numerous x-ray detection schemes, such as streak cameras and x-ray sensitive diodes, exploit this process because of its simplicity, adaptability, and speed. Recent emphasis on diagnostics for low temperature, high density, and short-lived, plasmas for inertial confinement fusion has stimulated interest in x-ray photoemission in the sub-kilovolt regime. In this paper, a review of x-ray photoemission measurements in the 50 eV to 10 keV x-ray region is given and the experimental techniques are reviewed. A semiempirical model of x-ray photoemission is discussed and compared to experimental measurements. Finally, examples of absolutely calibrated instruments are shown

  17. Theory of temperature dependent photoemission spectrum of heavy fermion semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riseborough, P.S.

    1998-01-01

    The heavy fermion semiconductors are a class of strongly correlated materials, that at high temperatures show properties similar to those of heavy fermion materials, but at low temperatures show a cross-over into a semi-conducting state. The low temperature insulating state is characterized by an anomalously small energy gap, varying between 10 and 100 K. The smallness of the gap is attributed to the result of a many-body renormalization, and is temperature dependent. The temperature dependence of the electronic spectral density of states is calculated, using the Anderson lattice model at half filling. The spectrum is calculated to second order in 1/N, where N is the degeneracy of the 'f' orbitals, using a slave boson technique. The system is an indirect gap semi-conductor, with an extremely temperature dependent electronic spectral density A(k, ω). The indirect gap is subject to a temperature dependent many-body renormalization, and leads to a sharp temperature dependent structure in the angle resolved photo-emission spectrum at the indirect threshold. The theoretical predictions are compared with experimental observations on FeSi. (Copyright (1998) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd)

  18. Electronic Structure of the Kitaev Material α-RuCl3 Probed by Photoemission and Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopies

    OpenAIRE

    Soobin Sinn; Choong Hyun Kim; Beom Hyun Kim; Kyung Dong Lee; Choong Jae Won; Ji Seop Oh; Moonsup Han; Young Jun Chang; Namjung Hur; Hitoshi Sato; Byeong-Gyu Park; Changyoung Kim; Hyeong-Do Kim; Tae Won Noh

    2016-01-01

    Recently, $\\alpha$-$\\textrm{RuCl}_3$ has attracted much attention as a possible material realization of the honeycomb Kitaev model, which may stabilize a quantum-spin-liquid state. Compared to extensive studies on its magnetic properties, there is still a lack of understanding on its electronic structure, which is strongly related with its Kitaev physics. Here, the electronic structure of $\\alpha$-$\\textrm{RuCl}_3$ is investigated by photoemission (PE) and inverse photoemission (IPE) spectros...

  19. A soft x-ray photoemission study of the chemisorption and reaction of diethylsilane on Si(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapiano-Smith, D.A.; Himpsel, F.J.

    1993-06-01

    Soft x-ray synchrotron radiation was utilized as the excitation source in a high-resolution photoemission experiment on chemisorption and subsequent reaction of diethylsilane on the Si(100) surface. We have found that diethylsilane chemisorbs dissociatively to form Si-CH 2 CH 3 surface species on Si(100) following a room temperature exposure. These species are identified by two very sharp peaks observed in the valence band spectra positioned at 17.9 and 14.3 eV binding energy. In addition, C 1s core level spectra, measured following exposures of Si(100) substrates as a function of surface temperature, show that carbon, in some form, exists on the Si surface following exposures at every temperature from room temperature to about 600C. While only -CH 2 CH 3 , ethyl groups are observed on the surface at room temperature, these species appear to partially dehydrogenate at 300C, producing a mixture of -CH 2 CH 3 groups and other intermediate carbonaceous species. At a growth temperature of about 400C the intermixing of elemental carbon with Si begins. At higher temperatures, we observe the continued degradation of diethylsilane to produce a Si + C alloy on the surface at 600C. Results indicate that diethylsilane has potential as a molecular precursor for SiC formation by chemical vapor deposition techniques

  20. Electronic structure of YbNiX{sub 3} (X =Si, Ge) studied by hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Hitoshi; Shimada, Kenya; Namatame, Hirofumi [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 2-313, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Utsumi, Yuki [Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Kodama, Junichi; Nagata, Heisuke [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Avila, Marcos A.; Ribeiro, Raquel A. [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre - SP, 09210-580 (Brazil); Umeo, Kazunori [Cryogenics and Instrumental Analysis Division, N-BARD, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Takabatake, Toshiro [Department of Quantum Matter, AdSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Institute for Advanced Materials Research, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Mimura, Kojiro; Motonami, Satoru; Anzai, Hiroaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Ueda, Shigenori [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Taniguchi, Masaki [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 2-313, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    lectronic structure of the Kondo lattices YbNiX{sub 3} (X =Si, Ge) has been investigated by means of hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES) with hν = 5.95 keV. From the Yb 3d HAXPES spectra, the Yb valence in YbNiSi{sub 3} is estimated to be ∝ 2.92, which is almost temperature-independent. On the other hand, the valence in YbNiGe{sub 3} is estimated to be 2.48 at 300 K, showing significant valence fluctuation, and gradually decreases to 2.41 at 20 K on cooling. The Ni 2p{sub 3/2} and Yb{sup 3+} 4f peaks exhibit opposite energy shifts amounting to ∝ 0.6 eV between YbNiSi{sub 3} and YbNiGe{sub 3}. We propose a simple model for the electronic structure of YbNiX{sub 3} based on the HAXPES results. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Stable five axes cryogenic photoemission manipulator without a differentially pumped rotary feedthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bum Joon; Kim, Hyeong-Do; Cho, Deok-Yong; Kim, Myongjin; Oh, S.-J.; Kim, Changyoung

    2005-01-01

    We report on the design and construction of an ultrahigh vacuum compatible cryogenic manipulator for angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Unlike designs that have been used so far, our design allows five motions (three translational and two angular) without a differentially pumped rotary feedthrough. The design greatly reduces the sample motion upon rotation, which is crucial in automatic data acquisition over a large area in the momentum space. The constructed manipulator shows smooth motions in vacuum and the lowest temperature it could reach is about 8 K at the sample position. Angular reproducibilities are found to be about 0.02 deg. for both of the angular motions. The wobbling motion from the rotation around the vertical rotation axis is found to be virtually nonexistent (less than 0.1 mm)

  2. An angle-resolved, wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for depth profile analysis of ion-implanted semiconductors using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, W.; Hormes, J.; Kuetgens, U.; Gries, W. H.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for angle-resolved, wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation has been built and tested at the beam line BN2 of the Bonn electron stretcher and accelerator (ELSA). The apparatus is to be used for nondestructive depth profile analysis of ion-implanted semiconductors as part of the multinational Versailles Project of Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) project on ion-implanted reference materials. In particular, the centroid depths of depth profiles of various implants is to be determined by use of the angle-resolved signal ratio technique. First results of measurements on implants of phosphorus (100 keV, 1016 cm-2) and sulfur (200 keV, 1014 cm-2) in silicon wafers using ``white'' synchrotron radiation are presented and suggest that it should be generally possible to measure the centroid depth of an implant at dose densities as low as 1014 cm-2. Some of the apparative and technical requirements are discussed which are peculiar to the use of synchrotron radiation in general and to the use of nonmonochromatized radiation in particular.

  3. An angle-resolved, wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for depth profile analysis of ion-implanted semiconductors using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, W.; Hormes, J.; Kuetgens, U.; Gries, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for angle-resolved, wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation has been built and tested at the beam line BN2 of the Bonn electron stretcher and accelerator (ELSA). The apparatus is to be used for nondestructive depth profile analysis of ion-implanted semiconductors as part of the multinational Versailles Project of Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) project on ion-implanted reference materials. In particular, the centroid depths of depth profiles of various implants is to be determined by use of the angle-resolved signal ratio technique. First results of measurements on implants of phosphorus (100 keV, 10 16 cm -2 ) and sulfur (200 keV, 10 14 cm -2 ) in silicon wafers using ''white'' synchrotron radiation are presented and suggest that it should be generally possible to measure the centroid depth of an implant at dose densities as low as 10 14 cm -2 . Some of the apparative and technical requirements are discussed which are peculiar to the use of synchrotron radiation in general and to the use of nonmonochromatized radiation in particular

  4. Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Keisuke

    2009-01-01

    Except in the very early stage of the development of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) by Kai Siegbahn and his coworkers, the excitation sources for XPS studies have predominantly been the Al Kα and Mg Kα emission lines. The advent of synchrotron radiation sources opened up the possibility of tuning the excitation photon energy with much higher throughputs for photoemission spectroscopy, however the excitation energy range was limited to the vacuum ultra violet and soft X-ray regions. Over the past 5-6 years, bulk-sensitive hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy using high-brilliance high-flux X-rays from third generation synchrotron radiation facilities has been developed. This article reviews the history of HXPES covering the period from Kai Siegbahn and his coworkers' pioneering works to the present, and describes the fundamental aspects, instrumentation, applications to solid state physics, applied physics, materials science, and industrial applications of HXPES. Finally, several challenging new developments which have been conducted at SPring-8 by collaborations among several groups are introduced.

  5. Vacuum scanning capillary photoemission microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseyev, S A; Cherkun, A P; Mironov, B N; Petrunin, V V; Chekalin, S V

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of a conical capillary in a scanning probe microscopy for surface analysis. The probe can measure photoemission from a substrate by transmitting photoelectrons along the capillary as a function of probe position. The technique is demonstrated on a model substrate consisting of a gold reflecting layer on a compact disc which has been illuminated by an unfocused laser beam with a wavelength 400nm, from a femtosecond laser with a beam size of 4mm. A quartz capillary with a 2-µm aperture has been used in the experiments. The period of gold microstructure, shown to be 1.6µ, was measured by the conical probe operating in shear force mode. In shear force regime, the dielectric capillary has been used as a "classical" SPM tip, which provided images reflecting the surface topology. In a photoelectron regime photoelectrons passed through hollow tip and entered a detector. The spatial distribution of the recorded photoelectrons consisted of periodic mountain-valley strips, resembling the surface profile of the sample. Submicron spatial resolution has been achieved. This approach paves the way to study pulsed photodesorption of large organic molecular ions with high spatial and element resolution using the combination of a hollow-tip scanner with time-of-flight technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of electronic structure of amorphous InGaZnO/SiO2 interface by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueoka, Y.; Ishikawa, Y.; Maejima, N.; Matsui, F.; Matsui, H.; Yamazaki, H.; Urakawa, S.; Horita, M.; Daimon, H.; Uraoka, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The electronic structures of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) on a SiO 2 layers before and after annealing were observed by constant final state X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (CFS-XPS) and X-ray adsorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES). From the results of angle-resolved CFS-XPS, the change in the electronic state was clearly observed in the a-IGZO bulk rather than in the a-IGZO/SiO 2 interface. This suggests that the electronic structures of the a-IGZO bulk strongly affected the thin-film transistor characteristics. The results of XANES indicated an increase in the number of tail states upon atmospheric annealing (AT). We consider that the increase in the number of tail states decreased the channel mobility of AT samples

  7. Photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.L.I.

    1980-01-01

    It is an epoch making event for photoemission spectroscopy that the light sources of continuous wavelength from vacuum ultra-violet to X-ray region have become available by the advent of synchrotron radiation. Specifically the progress after stable intense light has become obtainable from storage rings is very significant. One of the features of these synchrotron radiation is its extreme polarization of radiating pattern. Though the elementary processes of photoemission out of solids are the basic themes, phenomenalistic 3-stage model is usually applied to the analysis of experiments. In this model, the process of photoemission is considered by dividing into three stages, namely the generation of photoelectrons due to optical transition between electron status -- the transportation of photoelectrons to solid surfaces -- breaking away from the surfaces. The spectrometers, the energy analyzers of photoelectrons, and sample-preparing room used for photoemission spectroscopy are described. Next, energy distribution curves are explained. At the end, photoelectron yield spectroscopy, CFS (constant final energy spectroscopy) and CIS (constant initial energy spectroscopy), Auger yield and interatomic Auger yield, the determination of surface structure by normal emission CIS, and surface EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) are described. As seen above, the application specifically to surface physics is promising in the future. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. X-ray excited optical luminescence, photoluminescence, photostimulated luminescence and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy studies on BaFBr:Eu

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, N; Govinda-Rajan, K; Mohammad-Yousuf; Santanu-Bera; Narasimhan, S V

    1997-01-01

    The results of x-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL), photoluminescence (PL), photostimulated luminescence (PSL) and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) studies on the x-ray storage phosphor BaFBr:Eu are presented in this paper. Analyses of XEOL, PL and PSL spectra reveal features corresponding to the transitions from 4f sup 6 td sup 1 to 4f sup 7 configurations in different site symmetries of Eu sup 2 sup +. Increasing x-ray dose is seen to lead to a red shift in the maximum of the PL excitation spectrum for the 391 nm emission. The XEOL and XPS spectra do not show any signature of Eu sup 3 sup + in the samples studied by us, directly raising doubts about the model of Takahashi et al in which Eu sup 2 sup + is expected to ionize to Eu sup 3 sup + upon x-ray irradiation and remain stable until photostimulation. XEOL and PSL experiments with simultaneous x-ray irradiation and He - Ne laser excitation as well as those with sequential x-ray irradiation and laser stimulation bring out the competition betwe...

  9. Photoemission studies of zinc-noble metal alloys: Zn--Cu, Zn--Ag, and Zn--Au films on Ru(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.A.; Hrbek, J.

    1993-01-01

    Zn and the noble metals alloy when coadsorbed on Ru(001). The properties of Zn--Cu, Zn--Ag, and Zn--Au alloys have been studied using core- and valence-level photoemission and temperature programmed desorption. Alloy formation induces only small shifts (-0.2 to -0.3 eV) in the position of the Zn 2p, 3s, and 3d levels. In contrast, the core and valence levels of the noble metals show large shifts toward higher binding energy. For small amounts of Cu, Ag, and Au dissolved in Zn multilayers, the shifts in the core levels of the nobel metals follow the sequence: Cu(2p 3/2 ), 0.8 eV∼Ag(3d 5/2 ), 0.8 eV 7/2 ), 1.4 eV. The magnitude of the shift increases as the Pauling electronegativity of the noble metal increases. However, the sign of the shifts for the Cu(2p 3/2 ), Ag(3d 5/2 ), or Au(4f 7/2 ) levels is not directly determined by the direction of charge transfer within the corresponding Zn-noble metal bond

  10. Giant Cu 2p Resonances in CuO Valence-Band Photoemission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjeng, L.H.; Chen, C.T.; Ghijsen, J.; Rudolf, P.; Sette, F.

    1991-01-01

    We report the observation of a giant resonance in the Cu 2p resonant-photoemission spectra of CuO. The study allows the unambiguous identification of the local Cu 3d8 configuration in the valence-band photoemission spectrum, providing conclusive evidence for the charge-transfer nature of the

  11. Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of transition-metal oxide thin films and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadati, H.; Fujimori, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Photoemission spectroscopy is a powerful technique to study the electronic structures of transition-metal oxides. •Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HXPES) is a new type of photoemission spectroscopy which can probe bulk states. •HXPES is very suitable for studying oxide thin films such as the composition dependence and the film thickness dependence. -- Abstract: Photoemission spectroscopy is a powerful experimental technique to study the electronic structures of solids, especially of transition-metal oxides. Recently, hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HXPES) has emerged as a more relevant experimental technique to obtain clear information about bulk states. Here, we describe how HXPES can be conveniently applied to study the interesting subjects on oxide thin films such as the composition dependence and the film thickness dependence of the electronic structures and the interfacial electronic structure of multilayers

  12. Extreme regimes of femtosecond photoemission from a copper cathode in a dc electron gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. E. M. Pasmans

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The femtosecond photoemission yield from a copper cathode and the emittance of the created electron beams has been studied in a 12  MeV/m, 100 keV dc electron gun over a wide range of laser fluence, from the linear photoemission regime until the onset of image charge limitations and cathode damaging. The measured photoemission curves can be described well with available theory which includes the Schottky effect, second-order photoemission, and image charge limitation. The second-order photoemission can be explained by thermally assisted one-photon photoemission (1PPE and by above-threshold two-photon photoemission (2PPE. Measurements with a fresh cathode suggest that the 2PPE process is dominant. The beam emittance has been measured for the entire range of initial surface charge densities as well. The emittance measurements of space-charge dominated beams can be described well by an envelope equation with generalized perveance. The dc gun produces 0.1 pC bunches with 25 nm rms normalized emittance, corresponding to a normalized brightness usually associated with rf photoguns. In this experimental study the limits of femtosecond photoemission from a copper cathode have been explored and analyzed in great detail, resulting in improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

  13. Simulation and characterization of the crystal growth by photoemission; Simulation et caracterisation de la croissance cristalline par photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazouan, N

    1994-05-16

    In this thesis, we argue in favour of photoemission as an in-situ characterization tool for the homo-epitaxial growth of GaAs. The first part, is concerned with the interpretation of the origin of the photoemission oscillations as first observed by J.N. Eckstein and al during MBE growth of GaAs. To study this effect, two approaches have been used. These approaches are based on reaction surface and roughness observations to study the growth mode. They associate the photoemission current with the presence of uncovered gallium adatoms, i.e. those which do not have an arsenic atom above them. The first approach is based on chemical rate theory, whereas the second is based on an atomistic simulation of GaAs homo-epitaxy. This last approach introduces the notion of interlayer migration processes and uses a Monte Carlo technique to look at the temporal evolution of the configuration and hence the morphology. It is shown with these two approaches that the photoemission current has similar characteristics as to those of RHEED, c.g.the same oscillation period. The results obtained have shown the relationship between the photoemission oscillations amplitude and the growth mode which are determined by the mechanisms of absorption and diffusion of gallium atoms and arsenic atoms of molecules. Finally, the study of the effect of the surface reactions shows the importance of these in the case where arsenic is supplied in molecular form (As{sub 2}). The last part concerns the experimental measurements at the threshold photoemission current during epitaxial growth of GaAs by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The objective of this experimental study is to test the good running of the photo-assisted MOVPE low pressure system and to study the possibilities offered by this as an in-situ diagnostic tool for MOVPE. (author). 101 refs., 80 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Band alignment of HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N determined by angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Man Hon Samuel, E-mail: m.owen.sg@ieee.org, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org; Bhuiyan, Maruf Amin; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: m.owen.sg@ieee.org, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Ji Sheng [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Tok, Eng Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2014-07-21

    The band-alignment of atomic layer deposited (ALD)-HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N was studied by high resolution angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The band bending near the HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N interface was investigated, and the potential variation across the interface was taken into account in the band alignment calculation. It is observed that the binding energies for N 1s and Al 2p in In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N decreases and the corresponding extracted valence band offsets increases with increasing θ (i.e., closer to the HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N interface), as a result of an upward energy band bending towards the HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N interface. The resultant valence band offset and the conduction band offset for the ALD-HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N interface calculated was found to be 0.69 eV and 1.01 eV, respectively.

  15. Photoemission and low energy electron microscopy study on the formation and nitridation of indium droplets on Si (111)7 × 7 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, B.; Ólafsson, S.; Göthelid, M.; Gislason, H.P.; Agnarsson, B.

    2013-01-01

    The formation and nitridation of indium (In) droplets on Si (111)7 × 7, with regard to In droplet epitaxy growth of InN nanostructures, were studied using a spectroscopic photoemission and low energy electron microscopy, for the In coverages from 0.07 to 2.3 monolayer (ML). The results reveal that the In adatoms formed well-ordered clusters while keeping the Si (111)7 × 7 surface periodicity at 0.07 ML and a single √(3)×√(3) phase at 0.3 ML around 440–470 °C. At 0.82 ML, owing to the presence of structurally defect areas beside the 7 × 7 domains, 3-D In droplets evolved concomitantly with the formation of 4 × 1-In cluster chains, accompanied by a transition in surface electric property from semiconducting to metallic. Further increasing the In to 2.3 ML led to a moderate increase in number density and an appreciable lateral growth of the droplets, as well as the multi-domain In phases. Upon nitridation with NH 3 at ∼ 480 °C, besides the nitridation of the In droplets, the N radicals also dissociated the In-Si bonds to form Si-N. This caused a partial disintegration of the ordered In phase and removal of the In adatoms between the In droplets. - Highlights: ► Formation and nitridation of indium (In) droplets on Si (111) were studied. ► In droplets evolved with the 4 × 1-In cluster chains at 0.82 monolayer (ML). ► In droplets grow in density and lateral size with In coverage increased to 2.3 ML. ► The multi-domain In phases were formed at 2.3 ML. ► Nitridation of In droplets is accompanied by a disintegration of layering In phase

  16. X-ray photo-emission studies of Cu1-xTlxBa2Ca3Cu4O12-y superconductor thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Nawazish A.; Mumtaz, M.; Ahadian, M.M.; Iraji-zad, Azam

    2006-01-01

    X-ray photo-emission spectroscopy (XPS) studies of Cu 1-x Tl x Ba 2 Ca 3 Cu 4 O 12-y superconductor thin films have been carried out for understanding the mechanism of superconductivity and to find out the reasons for the increase of zero resistivity critical temperature T c (R = 0) with post-annealing in a nitrogen atmosphere. It is observed from these studies that reduction of charge state of thallium is a source of doping of carriers to the CuO 2 planes. The reduced charge state of thallium (i.e. Tl 1+ ) promotes lower oxygen concentration in the charge reservoir layer, which possibly results in movement of electrons to the conducting CuO 2 planes. The higher density of electrons in the CuO 2 planes optimizes the hole concentration 'n p ' in these planes. The reduced charge state of thallium in the Cu 1-x Tl x Ba 2 O 4-δ charge reservoir layer is also supported by a shift of the Ba 3d 5/2 and Ba 3d 3/2 XPS lines to lower binding energies with post-annealing in nitrogen atmosphere. Moreover, the movement of the valance band spectrum to lower binding energies suggested that the electronic density of states changes in the valance band with the post-annealing in nitrogen, which possibly becomes a source of doping of carriers to the CuO 2 planes. The increased doping of electrons to the CuO 2 planes optimizes the Fermi-vector K F and Fermi-velocity V F of the carriers and increases the T c (R = 0) of final compound

  17. Molar concentration-depth profiles at the solution surface of a cationic surfactant reconstructed with angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuangye; Morgner, Harald

    2011-01-01

    In the current work, we first reconstructed the molar fraction-depth profiles of cation and anion near the surface of tetrabutylammonium iodide dissolved in formamide by a refined calculation procedure, based on angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. In this calculation procedure, both the transmission functions of the core levels and the inelastic mean free paths of the photoelectrons have been taken into account. We have evaluated the partial molar volumes of surfactant and solvent by the densities of such solutions with different bulk concentrations. With those partial molar volumes, the molar concentration-depth profiles of tetrabutylammonium ion and iodide ion were determined. The surface excesses of both surfactant ions were then achieved directly by integrating these depth profiles. The anionic molar concentration-depth profiles and surface excesses have been compared with their counterparts determined by neutral impact ion scattering spectroscopy. The comparisons exhibit good agreements. Being capable of determining molar concentration-depth profiles of surfactant ions by core levels with different kinetic energies may extend the applicable range of ARXPS in investigating solution surfaces.

  18. Investigation on Surface Polarization of Al2O3-capped GaN/AlGaN/GaN Heterostructure by Angle-Resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Tian Li; Pan, Ji Sheng; Wang, Ning; Cheng, Kai; Yu, Hong Yu

    2017-08-17

    The surface polarization of Ga-face gallium nitride (GaN) (2 nm)/AlGaN (22 nm)/GaN channel (150 nm)/buffer/Si with Al 2 O 3 capping layer is investigated by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). It is found that the energy band varies from upward bending to downward bending in the interface region, which is believed to be corresponding to the polarization variation. An interfacial layer is formed between top GaN and Al 2 O 3 due to the occurrence of Ga-N bond break and Ga-O bond forming during Al 2 O 3 deposition via the atomic layer deposition (ALD). This interfacial layer is believed to eliminate the GaN polarization, thus reducing the polarization-induced negative charges. Furthermore, this interfacial layer plays a key role for the introduction of the positive charges which lead the energy band downward. Finally, a N 2 annealing at 400 °C is observed to enhance the interfacial layer growth thus increasing the density of positive charges.

  19. Valence-band and core-level photoemission study of single-crystal Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Z.; Lindberg, P.A.P.; Wells, B.O.; Mitzi, D.B.; Lindau, I.; Spicer, W.E.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1988-01-01

    High-quality single crystals of Bi 2 CaSr 2 Cu 2 O 8 superconductors have been prepared and cleaved in ultrahigh vacuum. Low-energy electron diffraction measurements show that the surface structure is consistent with the bulk crystal structure. Ultraviolet photoemission and x-ray photoemission experiments were performed on these well-characterized sample surfaces. The valence-band and the core-level spectra obtained from the single-crystal surfaces are in agreement with spectra recorded from polycrystalline samples, justifying earlier results from polycrystalline samples. Cu satellites are observed both in the valence band and Cu 2p core level, signaling the strong correlation among the Cu 3d electrons. The O 1s core-level data exhibit a sharp, single peak at 529-eV binding energy without any clear satellite structures

  20. On the electronic structure of high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.; Nuecker, N.; Romberg, H.; Alexander, M.; Knupfer, M.; Mante, J.; Claessen, R.; Buslaps, T.; Harm, S.; Manzke, R.; Skibowski, M.

    1992-01-01

    Studies of the electronic structure of high-T c superconductors and related compounds by high-energy spectroscopies are reviewed. In particular, we report on investigations by electron energy-loss, angle-resolved photoemission, and inverse angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Information on the symmetry and the character of states close to the Fermi level has been obtained. 25 refs., 8 figs

  1. Characterization of weakly absorbing thin films by multiple linear regression analysis of absolute unwrapped phase in angle-resolved spectral reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jingtao; Lu, Rongsheng

    2018-04-30

    The simultaneous determination of t, n(λ), and κ(λ) of thin films can be a tough task for the high correlation of fit parameters. The strong assumptions about the type of dispersion relation are commonly used as a consequence to alleviate correlation concerns by reducing the free parameters before the nonlinear regression analysis. Here we present an angle-resolved spectral reflectometry for the simultaneous determination of weakly absorbing thin film parameters, where a reflectance interferogram is recorded in both angular and spectral domains in a single-shot measurement for the point of the sample being illuminated. The variations of the phase recovered from the interferogram as functions of t, n, and κ reveals that the unwrapped phase is monotonically related to t, n, and κ, thereby allowing the problem of correlation to be alleviated by multiple linear regression. After removing the 2π ambiguity of the unwrapped phase, the merit function based on the absolute unwrapped phase performs a 3D data cube with variables of t, n and κ at each wavelength. The unique solution of t, n, and κ can then be directly determined from the extremum of the 3D data cube at each wavelength with no need of dispersion relation. A sample of GaN thin film grown on a polished sapphire substrate is tested. The experimental data of t and [n(λ), κ(λ)] are confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy and the comparison with the results of other related works, respectively. The consistency of the results shows the proposed method provides a useful tool for the determination of the thickness and optical constants of weakly absorbing thin films.

  2. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) study of uranium, neptunium and plutonium oxides in silicate-based glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, D.J.; Veal, B.W.; Paulikas, A.P.

    1982-11-01

    Using XPS as the principal investigative tool, we are in the process of examining the bonding properties of selected metal oxides added to silicate glass. In this paper, we present results of XPS studies of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium in binary and multicomponent silicate-based glasses. Models are proposed to account for the very diverse bonding properties of 6+ and 4+ actinide ions in the glasses

  3. Electronic Structure of C60/Zinc Phthalocyanine/V₂O₅ Interfaces Studied Using Photoemission Spectroscopy for Organic Photovoltaic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chang Jin; Park, Min Gyu; Kim, Min Su; Han, Jeong Hwa; Cho, Soohaeng; Cho, Mann-Ho; Yi, Yeonjin; Lee, Hyunbok; Cho, Sang Wan

    2018-02-18

    The interfacial electronic structures of a bilayer of fullerene (C 60 ) and zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) grown on vanadium pentoxide (V₂O₅) thin films deposited using radio frequency sputtering under various conditions were studied using X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of the ZnPc layer and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level of the C 60 layer was determined and compared with that grown on an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. The energy difference of a heterojunction on all V₂O₅ was found to be 1.3~1.4 eV, while that on ITO was 1.1 eV. This difference could be due to the higher binding energy of the HOMO of ZnPc on V₂O₅ than that on ITO regardless of work functions of the substrates. We also determined the complete energy level diagrams of C 60 /ZnPc on V₂O₅ and ITO.

  4. Energy-resolved photoemission studies of Be-containing surfaces for fusion; Energievariierte Photoemissionsstudien an berylliumhaltigen Oberflaechen fuer die Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppen, Martin

    2013-02-04

    . Oxygen diffusion is observed and attributed to diffusion of BeO. Further, the influence of a BeO-interlayer on the carbidisation in the system C-W is investigated. Already at RT small amounts of carbidised W are visible. At 1280 K further carbidisation of W is observed. No reaction between BeO and W is visible. Carbidisation of W shows, that BeO does not serve as a diffusion barrier for C, even at RT. Using energy-resolved XPS and the newly developed quantitative model allows detailed studies of multi-component surface reactions considering the evolution of the depth distribution.

  5. Photoemission for f-electron materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Youngsea.

    1989-01-01

    The dissertation investigates the interpretation of photoemission from f-electron materials. The authors also discuss unusual room temperature solid-state reactions in Yb-Cu films that they discovered. They show the importance of considering the entire system in the photoemission process and that photoemission actually measures the energy difference between total energies of the initial state and the final excited state of the whole system. They point out misconceptions in the current interpretation of photoemission from mixed valent materials. Their results on Yb-Cu system and other high-resolution photoemission measurements on mixed valent Yb-based materials show that the 4f feature is not pinned at the Fermi level though there is a 4f 14 (6s5d) 2 and 4f 13 (6s5d) 3 configuration degeneracy in the ground state. They suggest that this non-pinning is a general phenomenon due to the fact that the final state is not completely relaxed in the photoemission process. They discuss the current competing models of photoemission from Ce-based materials and show problems with their interpretations. As 4f electrons are more itinerant for Ce and Yb, they give a delocalized-localized kind of interpretation for 4f levels of Ce based materials. They employ the Ce-Yb analogy (electron-hole inversion and thereby an energy scale inversion) with the impurity model to photoemission from Yb-based materials and point out contradictory results on YbAl 3 in the literature. In their results on the Yb-Cu system, where the Yb valence varies from ∼3 to ∼2.2, they do not observe the Kondo resonance within the limits of their experimental resolution. They suggest that to date no Kondo resonance has been observed, and speculate either that the impurity model is inadequate for Yb-based materials or that photoemission is unable to detect a Kondo resonance

  6. Photoemission using femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Tsang, T.; Fischer, J.

    1991-10-01

    Successful operation of short wavelength FEL requires an electron bunch of current >100 A and normalized emittance < 1 mm-mrad. Recent experiments show that RF guns with photocathodes as the electron source may be the ideal candidate for achieving these parameters. To reduce the emittance growth due to space charge and RF dynamics effects, the gun may have to operate at high field gradient (hence at high RF frequency) and a spot size small compared to the aperture. This may necessitate the laser pulse duration to be in the subpicosecond regime to reduce the energy spread. We will present the behavior of metal photocathodes upon irradiation with femtosecond laser beams, comparison of linear and nonlinear photoemission, and scalability to high currents. Theoretical estimate of the intrinsic emittance at the photocathode in the presence of the anomalous heating of the electrons, and the tolerance on the surface roughness of the cathode material will be discussed

  7. Coherent and incoherent processes in resonant photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnuson, M.; Karis, O.; Weinelt, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    In this contribution the authors present the distinction between coherent and incoherent processes in resonant photoemission. As a first step they determine whether an autoionization process is photoemission-like or Auger-like. The discussion is based on measurements for a weakly bonded adsorption system, Ar/Pt(111). This type of system is well adapted to investigate these effects since it yields distinctly shifted spectral features depending on the nature of the process. After this, the question of resonance photoemission in metallic systems is addressed. This is done in connection with measurements at the 2p edges for Ni metal. Ni has been one of the prototype systems for resonant photoemission. The resonances have been discussed in connection with the strong correlation and d-band localization effects in this system. Based on the results some general comments about the appearance of resonant effects in metallic systems are made.

  8. Zen and the art of dichroic photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laan, Gerrit van der, E-mail: gerrit.vanderlaan@diamond.ac.uk

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • General theory for angle and spin dependence of dichroic core-level photoemission. • Fundamental spectra give correlation between spin and orbital moments. • Interference term between emission channels results in MLDAD and CDAD. • Core-hole polarization is probed by resonant photoemission. - Abstract: The discovery of magnetic dichroism in photoemission is celebrating its 25th anniversary this year. Here a review of the underlying general theory for the angular and spin dependence of dichroic core-level photoemission is presented using both a single-particle model and a many-body approach. The established methods of angular momentum coupling offer an elegant and powerful way to analyse the magnetic dichroism and spin polarization in photoemission from core and localized valence levels. In the presence of core-valence interactions one can distinguish different fundamental spectra, which via sum rules are related to physical properties described by coupled tensor operators for spin and orbital moments. By separating the angular dependence from the physical information, different geometries can be distinguished to measure the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), linear dichroism (LD), circular dichroism in the angular dependence (CDAD), and magnetic linear dichroism in the angular dependence (MLDAD). Various ways to probe the core-hole polarization are discussed, such as using the angular dependence, moment analysis of the spectral distribution, and resonant photoemission decay.

  9. Development of high current electron source using photoemission from metals with ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, T.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Fischer, J.

    1990-10-01

    We summarize the studies of photoemission from metal photocathodes using picosecond pulses in the UV (4.66 eV) wavelength and femtosecond laser pulses in the visible (2 eV) wavelengths. To achieve high current density yield from metal photocathodes, multiphoton photoemission using femtosecond laser pulses are suggested. Electron yield improvement incorporating surface photoemission and surface plasmon resonance in metals and metal films are demonstrated. We examine the possibility of the nonlinear photoemission process overtaking the linear process, and identity some possible complexity. To extract the large amount of electrons free of space charge, a pulsed high voltage is designed; the results of the preliminary test are presented. Finally, for the first time, the width of the electron temporal profiles are measured, utilizing the nonlinear photoelectric effect, to below 100 fsec time regime. The results indicated that the electron pulse duration follows the laser pulses and are not limited by the material. 8 refs., 15 figs

  10. Quantitative analysis of valence photoemission spectra and quasiparticle excitations at chromophore-semiconductor interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher E; Giustino, Feliciano

    2012-09-14

    Investigating quasiparticle excitations of molecules on surfaces through photoemission spectroscopy forms a major part of nanotechnology research. Resolving spectral features at these interfaces requires a comprehensive theory of electron removal and addition processes in molecules and solids which captures the complex interplay of image charges, thermal effects, and configurational disorder. Here, we develop such a theory and calculate the quasiparticle energy-level alignment and the valence photoemission spectrum for the prototype biomimetic solar cell interface between anatase TiO(2) and the N3 chromophore. By directly matching our calculated photoemission spectrum to experimental data, we clarify the atomistic origin of the chromophore peak at low binding energy. This case study sets a new standard in the interpretation of photoemission spectroscopy at complex chromophore-semiconductor interfaces.

  11. Ab initio electronic band structure study of III-VI layered semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguín, Daniel; Rubio-Ponce, Alberto; Cantarero, Andrés

    2013-08-01

    We present a total energy study of the electronic properties of the rhombohedral γ-InSe, hexagonal ɛ-GaSe, and monoclinic GaTe layered compounds. The calculations have been done using the full potential linear augmented plane wave method, including spin-orbit interaction. The calculated valence bands of the three compounds compare well with angle resolved photoemission measurements and a discussion of the small discrepancies found has been given. The present calculations are also compared with recent and previous band structure calculations available in the literature for the three compounds. Finally, in order to improve the calculated band gap value we have used the recently proposed modified Becke-Johnson correction for the exchange-correlation potential.

  12. Scanning tunneling microscopy study of a newly proposed topological insulator ZrTe{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Timo; Gragnaniello, Luca; Fonin, Mikhail [Universitaet Konstanz (Germany); Autes, Gabriel; Berger, Helmuth; Yazyev, Oleg [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Manzoni, Giulia [Universita degli Studi di Trieste (Italy); Crepaldi, Alberto; Parmigiani, Fulvio [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2016-07-01

    Topological insulators belong to a new kind of material class that posses robust gapless states inside the insulating bulk gap, which makes them promising candidates for achieving dissipationless transport devices. We present a Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) study on a layered material ZrTe{sub 5}, a promising candidate for a new topological insulator. The crystal structure could clearly be identified in topography images. STM measurements enabled direct imaging of standing waves at steps and defects. The standing waves show a clearly dispersive character. Furthermore STS measurements are in good agreement with density functional theory calculations and reveal Landau quantization with applied magnetic field. Comparison with data obtained by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy allows for detailed insights into the electronic properties of this material.

  13. New type of in-gap states at a spinel/perovskite interface: combined resonant soft x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Vladislav; Schuetz, Philipp; Pfaff, Florian; Scheiderer, Philipp; Dudy, Lenart; Zapf, Michael; Gabel, Judith; Christensen, Dennis Valbjorn; Chen, Yunzhong; Pryds, Nini; Strocov, Vladimir; Rogalev, Victor; Schlueter, Christoph; Lee, Tien-Lin; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valenti, Roser; Sing, Michael; Claessen, Ralph

    Oxygen vacancies in oxide heterostructures create a plethora of electronic phenomena not observed in the stoichiometric systems. In this talk we will discuss the presence of a new type of in-gap states at the spinel/perovskite γ-Al2O3/SrTiO3 interface, as observed in soft x-ray resonant photoemission spectroscopy. Based on ab initio calculations and crystal-field analysis of different atomic environments, we identify the origin of this behavior and we argue on the possible origin of the extraordinarily high electron mobility measured in this heterostructure. This work was financially supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft SFB/TR 49 and SFB 1170.

  14. High-resolution photoemission study of Ce1-x La x RhAs: A collapse of the energy gap in the Kondo semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, K.; Higashiguchi, M.; Fujimori, S.-I.; Saitoh, Y.; Fujimori, A.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Sasakawa, T.; Takabatake, T.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution resonance-photoemission spectroscopy has been performed on the Ce 1- x La x RhAs (0≤x≤0.05) single crystal to elucidate a collapse of the energy gap in the Kondo semiconductor CeRhAs by La substitution. With increasing x, the spectral intensity of the Ce4f 1 derived states near the Fermi level decreases and new 4f derived spectral feature appears at a higher binding energy. The Rh4d-derived states, on the other hand, are not significantly changed by the substitution. New 4f-derived states have incoherent nature, which is responsible for the collapse of the semiconducting state for x>∼0.02

  15. Photoemission study on electrical dipole at SiO_2/Si and HfO_2/SiO_2 interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Akio; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Makihara, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2017-01-01

    Electrical dipole at SiO_2/Si and HfO_2/SiO_2 interfaces have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) under monochromatized Al Kα radiation. From the analysis of the cut-off energy for secondary photoelectrons measured at each thinning step of a dielectric layer by wet-chemical etching, an abrupt potential change caused by electrical dipole at SiO_2/Si and HfO_2/SiO_2 interfaces has been clearly detected. Al-gate MOS capacitors with thermally-grown SiO_2 and a HfO_2/SiO_2 dielectric stack were fabricated to evaluate the Al work function from the flat band voltage shift of capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics. Comparing the results of XPS and C-V measurements, we have verified that electrical dipole formed at the interface can be directly measured by photoemission measurements. (author)

  16. A high resolution photoemission study of surface core-level shifts in clean and oxygen-covered Ir(2 1 0) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladys, M.J.; Ermanoski, I.; Jackson, G.; Quinton, J.S.; Rowe, J.E.; Madey, T.E. E-mail: madey@physics.rutgers.edu

    2004-04-01

    High resolution soft X-ray photoemission electron spectroscopy (SXPS), using synchrotron radiation, is employed to investigate 4f core-level features of four differently-prepared Ir(2 1 0) surfaces: clean planar, oxygen-covered planar, oxygen-induced faceted, and clean faceted surfaces. Surface and bulk peak identifications are supported by measurements at different photon energies (thus probing different electron escape depths) and variable emission angles. Iridium 4f{sub 7/2} photoemission spectra are fitted with Doniach-Sunjic lineshapes. The surface components are identified with core levels positioned at lower binding energies than the bulk components, in contrast to previous reports of binding energy inversion on Ir(1 0 0) (1x1) and (5x1) surfaces. For clean planar Ir(2 1 0) three surface Ir 4f{sub 7/2} features are observed with core-level shifts of -765, -529, and -281 meV, with respect to the bulk; these are associated with the first, second and third layers of atoms, respectively, for atomically rough Ir(2 1 0). Adsorption of oxygen onto the planar Ir(2 1 0) surface is found to cause a suppression and shift of the surface features to higher binding energies. Annealing at T{>=}600 K in oxygen produces a faceted surface as verified by low energy electron diffraction (LEED). A comparison of planar and faceted oxygen-covered surfaces reveals minor differences in the normal emission SXPS spectra, while grazing emission spectra exhibit differences. The SXPS spectrum of the clean, faceted Ir(2 1 0) exhibits small differences in comparison to the clean planar case, with surface features having binding energy shifts of -710, -450, and -230 meV.

  17. Study of Ho-doped Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} topological insulator thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, S. E. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Zhang, S. L.; Chen, Y. L.; Hesjedal, T., E-mail: Thorsten.Hesjedal@physics.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Baker, A. A. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Figueroa, A. I.; Laan, G. van der [Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Kellock, A. J.; Pushp, A.; Parkin, S. S. P. [IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, California 95120 (United States); Harris, J. S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-11-02

    Breaking time-reversal symmetry through magnetic doping of topological insulators has been identified as a key strategy for unlocking exotic physical states. Here, we report the growth of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films doped with the highest magnetic moment element Ho. Diffraction studies demonstrate high quality films for up to 21% Ho incorporation. Superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry reveals paramagnetism down to 2 K with an effective magnetic moment of ∼5 μ{sub B}/Ho. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows that the topological surface state remains intact with Ho doping, consistent with the material's paramagnetic state. The large saturation moment achieved makes these films useful for incorporation into heterostructures, whereby magnetic order can be introduced via interfacial coupling.

  18. Calculations of Photoemission from Rutile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjalmarson, Harold; Schultz, Peter; Moore, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Photoemission is a well-known mechanism for release of electrons from a surface during electrical breakdown of a gas such as air. During air breakdown, UV photons, which are emitted from the highly excited gas molecules, are absorbed in the surfaces such as the cathode and the anode. These absorbed photons create energetic electrons, and a small portion of these electrons reach the surface. Those that overcome the potential energy barrier at the surface tend to be emitted. In this talk, the Boltzmann equation that describes these phenomena is formulated. A Monte Carlo probabilistic method is used to obtain the rate of electron emission as a function of photon energy. The role of bandstructure effects will be discussed. This bandstructure information is obtained by using a density-functional theory (DFT) method. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Synchrotron radiation photoemission study of interface formation between MgO and the atomically clean In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Lalit; Hughes, Greg [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2014-02-15

    The evolution of interface formation between MgO and the atomically clean In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As is studied by synchrotron radiation based photoemission. The deposition of MgO in a step wise fashion on the decapped In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As surface at room temperature results in the growth of an ultrathin interfacial oxide layer. Subsequent thermal annealing at 400 C led to the reduction of the As and In oxides and the appearance of a Ga oxide component. The deposition of metallic Mg resulted in the further removal of the interfacial oxide and the out diffusion of In into the overlayer indicating severe disruption of the interface. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Watching Electrons Transfer from Metals to Insulators using Two Photon Photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, James E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Ultrafast angle-resolved two photon photoemission was used to study the dynamics and interfacial band structure of ultrathin films adsorbed onto Ag(111). Studies focused on the image potential state (IPS) in each system as a probe for measuring changes in electronic behavior in differing environments. The energetics and dynamics of the IPS at the toluene/Ag(111) interface are strongly dependent upon coverage. For a single monolayer, the first IPS is bound by 0.81 eV below the vacuum level and has a lifetime of 50 femtoseconds (fs). Further adsorption of toluene creates islands of toluene with an exposed wetting layer underneath. The IPS is then split into two peaks, one corresponding to the islands and one corresponding to the monolayer. The wetting layer IPS shows the same dynamics as the monolayer, while the lifetime of the islands increases exponentially with increasing thickness. Furthermore, the island IPS transitions from delocalized to localized within 500 fs, and electrons with larger parallel momenta decay much faster. Attempts were made using a stochastic model to extract the rates of localization and intraband cooling at differing momenta. In sexithiophene (6T) and dihexyl-sexithiophene (DH6T), the IPS was used as a probe to see if the nuclear motion of spectating side chains can interfere with molecular conduction. The energy and band mass of the IPS was measured for 6T and two geometries of DH6T on Ag(111). Electrons injected into the thicker coverages of DH6T grew exponentially heavier until they were completely localized by 230 fs, while those injected into 6T remained nearly free electron like. Based off of lifetime arguments and the density of defects, the most likely cause for the mass enhancement of the IPS in this system is small polaron formation caused by coupling of the electron to vibrations of the alkyl substituents. The energetic relaxation of the molecular adsorbate was also measured to be 20 meV/100 fs for the DH6T, and 0 meV/100 fs for

  1. Photoemission from valence bands of transition metal-phthalocyanines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Ming-Hui; Nagaosa, Mayumi; Nagamatsu, Shin-ichi; Hosoumi, Shunsuke; Kera, Satoshi; Fujikawa, Takashi; Ueno, Nobuo

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The HOMO mainly comes from the carbon atoms of Pc rings and the central metal atoms almost have no contribution on the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO: a 1u ) distribution of CoPc as well as NiPc. → Influence by central metal atom on the photoemission intensities from the HOMO of two single molecule systems is negligible for the major. → The modification of the distribution for π-orbital upon adsorption as well as the scattering effects of the central metal on the photoemission intensities are negligible for the major. - Abstract: Angular dependencies of ultraviolet photoelectron spectrum of transition metal-phthalocyanines (TM-Pcs), NiPc and CoPc, have been studied by using multiple-scattering theory to explore the electronic structure of the organometallic complexes influenced by central metal atom. The calculated angular distributions of photoelectrons for the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO: a 1u ) from the two single systems are nearly the same and represent well the experimental results obtained for the well-ordered monolayer on the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrate. The central metal atoms almost have no contribution on the HOMO distribution, which mainly comes from the carbon atoms of Pc ring. Moreover, the modification of the distribution for π orbital upon adsorption as well as the scattering effects of the central metal on the photoemission intensities are negligible for the major.

  2. Bulk sensitive hard x-ray photoemission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patt, M., E-mail: m.patt@fz-juelich.de; Wiemann, C. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Weber, N.; Escher, M.; Merkel, M. [Focus GmbH, Neukirchner Str. 2, D-65510 Hünstetten (Germany); Gloskovskii, A.; Drube, W. [DESY Photon Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Schneider, C. M. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Fakultät f. Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) has now matured into a well-established technique as a bulk sensitive probe of the electronic structure due to the larger escape depth of the highly energetic electrons. In order to enable HAXPES studies with high lateral resolution, we have set up a dedicated energy-filtered hard x-ray photoemission electron microscope (HAXPEEM) working with electron kinetic energies up to 10 keV. It is based on the NanoESCA design and also preserves the performance of the instrument in the low and medium energy range. In this way, spectromicroscopy can be performed from threshold to hard x-ray photoemission. The high potential of the HAXPEEM approach for the investigation of buried layers and structures has been shown already on a layered and structured SrTiO{sub 3} sample. Here, we present results of experiments with test structures to elaborate the imaging and spectroscopic performance of the instrument and show the capabilities of the method to image bulk properties. Additionally, we introduce a method to determine the effective attenuation length of photoelectrons in a direct photoemission experiment.

  3. Photoemission Studies of Si Quantum Dots with Ge Core: Dots formation, Intermixing at Si-clad/Ge-core interface and Quantum Confinement Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Darma

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Spherical Si nanocrystallites with Ge core (~20nm in average dot diameter have been prepared by controlling selective growth conditions of low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD on ultrathin SiO2 using alternately pure SiH4 and 5% GeH4 diluted with He. XPS results confirm the highly selective growth of Ge on the pregrown Si dots and subsequently complete coverage by Si selective growth on Ge/Si dots. Compositional mixing and the crystallinity of Si dots with Ge core as a function of annealing temperature in the range of 550-800oC has been evaluated by XPS analysis and confirms the diffusion of Ge atoms from Ge core towards the Si clad accompanied by formation of GeOx at the Si clad surface. The first subband energy at the valence band of Si dot with Ge core has been measured as an energy shift at the top of the valence band density of state using XPS. The systematic shift of the valence band maximum towards higher binding energy with progressive deposition in the dot formation indicate the charging effect of dots and SiO2 layer by photoemission during measurements.

  4. Theoretical and experimental study of resonant 3d X-ray photoemission and resonant L3M45M45 Auger transition of PdO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uozumi, Takayuki; Kotani, Akio

    2000-01-01

    The observed 3d X-ray photoemission spectra (XPS), resonant 3dXPS (RXPS) at the L 3 edge and resonant L 3 M 45 M 45 Auger electron spectra (RAES) of 4d transition metal oxide PdO are successfully analyzed by means of an impurity Anderson model. The importance of Pd 4d-O 2p hybridization effect is especially emphasized in the interpretation of observed spectra. It causes charge transfer satellites in 3dXPS and L 3 M 45 M 45 RAES and mainly determines the structure of resonance enhancements in 3dRXPS. From the analysis of spectra, 4d-2p charge transfer energy Δ, 4d correlation energy U dd and 4d-2p transfer integral pdσ are estimated to be 5.5 eV, 4.5 eV and 2.1 eV, respectively. The character of the insulating energy gap PdO is also theoretically investigated: PdO is classified as an intermediate-type insulator due to the strong 4d-2p hybridization. (author)

  5. Hard x-ray photoemission study of the temperature-induced valence transition system EuNi2(Si1-xGex) 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiki, Katsuya; Mimura, Kojiro; Anzai, Hiroaki; Uozumi, Takayuki; Sato, Hitoshi; Utsumi, Yuki; Ueda, Shigenori; Mitsuda, Akihiro; Wada, Hirofumi; Taguchi, Yukihiro; Shimada, Kenya; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the bulk-derived electronic structure of the temperature-induced valence transition system EuNi2(Si1 -xGex )2 (x =0.70 , 0.79, and 0.82) by means of hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES). The HAXPES spectra clearly show distinct temperature dependencies in the spectral intensities of the Eu2 + and Eu3 +3 d components. For x =0.70 , the changes in the Eu2 + and Eu3 +3 d spectral components with temperature reflect a continuous valence transition, whereas the sudden changes for x =0.79 and 0.82 reflect first-order valence transitions. The Eu 3 d spectral shapes for all x and particularly the drastic changes in the Eu3 +3 d feature with temperature are validated by a theoretical calculation based on the single-impurity Anderson model (SIAM). SIAM analysis reveals that the valence transition for each x is controlled by the c -f hybridization strength and the charge-transfer energy. Furthermore, the c -f hybridization strength governs the valence transition of this system, which is either first order or continuous, consistent with Kondo volume collapse.

  6. Fermi liquid character in the photoemission/inverse photoemission spectra of highly correlated electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riseborough, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    We calculate the photoemission/inverse photoemission spectrum for an N-fold degenerate Hubbard model, in the 1/N approximation. The spectra are broadened, and for sufficiently large Coulomb interaction strengths the spectra show satellites both in the photoemission and the brehmstrahlung isochromat spectroscopy portions of the spectra. The intensity of the spectra at the fermi level are equal to the noninteracting values, in accordance with Luttinger's theorem. We show that this can result in a temperature-dependent peak at the Fermi level; the width of the peak is governed by the quasi-particle lifetime. We relate the temperature dependent peak to the Fermi-liquid properties

  7. Positron studies of defected metals, metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansil, A.

    1991-01-01

    Specific problems proposed under this project included the treatment of electronic structure and momentum density in various disordered and defected systems. Since 1987, when the new high-temperature superconductors were discovered, the project focused extensively on questions concerning the electronic structure and Fermiology of high-T c superconductors, in particular, (i) momentum density and positron experiments, (ii) angle-resolved photoemission intensities, (iii) effects of disorder and substitutions in the high-T c 's

  8. Nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamic approach to photoemission theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Takashi; Arai, Hiroko

    2005-01-01

    A new nonrelativistic many-body theory to analyze X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra has been developed on the basis of quantum electrodynamic (QED) Keldysh Green's function approach. To obtain XPS current density we calculate electron Green's function g which partly includes electron-photon interactions. We first separate longitudinal and transverse parts of these Green's functions in the Coulomb gauge. The transverse electron selfenergy describes the electron-photon interaction, whereas the longitudinal electron selfenergy describes the electron-electron interaction. We derive the QED Hedin's equation from which we obtain systematic skeleton expansion in the power series of the screened Coulomb interaction W and the photon Green's function D kl . We show the present theory provides a sound theoretical tool to study complicated many-body processes such as the electron propagation damping, intrinsic, extrinsic losses and their interference, and furthermore, resonant photoemission processes. We have also found the importance of the mixed photon Green's functions D 0k and D k0 which have been supposed to be unimportant for the XPS analyses. They, however, directly describe the radiation field screening. In this work, photon field screening effects are discussed in one-step theory, where the electron-photon interaction operator Δ is proved to be replaced by ε -1 Δ beyond linear approximation. Beyond free photon Green's function approximation, photon scatterings from the electron density are incorporated within the present QED theory. These photon field effects can directly describe the microscopic photon field spatial variation specific to near the surface region and nanoparticle systems

  9. UV photoemission from metal cathodes for picosecond power switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Srinivasan-RAo, T.; Tsang, T.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported of photoemission studies using laser pulses of 10 ps duration and 4.66 eV photon energy on metal cathodes. These included thin wires, flat surfaces and an yttrium cathode with a grainy surface. The measurements of current density and quantum efficiency under low and high surface fields indicate that field assisted efficiencies exceeding 0.1% and current densities exceeding 10 5 A/cm 2 are obtainable. The results are compared to the requirements of switch power applications. 24 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  10. Pseudogap behavior of RuP probed by photoemission spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, K.; Ootsuki, D.; Wakisaka, Y.; Saini, N. L.; Mizokawa, T.; Arita, M.; Anzai, H.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Hirai, D.; Takagi, H.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the electronic structure of RuP and related Ru pnictides using photoemission spectroscopy. Ru 3d core-level and valence-band spectra of RuP show that the Ru valence is +3 with t_{2g}^5 configuration. The photoemisson spectral weight near the Fermi level is moderately suppressed in the pseudogap phase of RuP, consistent with the pseudogap opening of 2\\Delta/k_BT_c ~ 3 (gap size \\Delta ~ 50 meV and transition temperature T_c ~ 330 K). The Ru 3d peak remains sharp in the pseudoga...

  11. Electronic properties of the layer III-VI semiconductors. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depeursinge, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The electronic properties of the family of layer compounds InSe, GaSe and GaS by the empirical pseudopotential method have been studied. Both atomic positions, which are not accurately known from experiment, and atomic pseudopotentials are adjusted to fit the main optical and photoemission data with the further constraint that the same Se potential should be valid for InSe and GaSe, and the same Ga potential for GaS and GaSe. The charge densities have also been calculated and show that the ionicity of InSe is greater than that of GaS and GaSe, in good agreement with the Phillips electronegativity scale which predicts that InSe is 1.2 and 1.3 times more ionic than GaS and GaSe, respectively. The calculated band structures and charge densities allow a detailed discussion of the integrated and angle-resolved photoemission data as well as of the optical properties of these compounds. (author)

  12. X-ray photoemission studies of Zn doped Cu1-xTl xBa2Ca2Cu 3-yZn yO10-δ (y = 0, 2.65) superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Nawazish A.; Mumtaz, M.; Ahadian, M.M.; Iraji-zad, Azam

    2007-01-01

    The X-ray photoemission (XPS) measurements of Cu 1-x Tl x Ba 2 Ca 2 Cu 3-y Zn y O 10-δ (y = 0, 2.65) superconductors have been performed and compared. These studies revealed that the charge state of thallium in the Cu 0.5 Tl 0.5 Ba 2 O 4-δ charge reservoir layer in Zn doped samples is Tl 1+ , while it is a mix of Tl 1+ and Tl 2+ in Zn free samples. The binding energy of Ba atoms in the Zn doped samples is shifted to higher energy, which when considered along with the presence of Tl 1+ suggested that it more efficiently directed the carriers to ZnO 2 and CuO 2 planes. The evidence of improved inter-plane coupling witnessed in X-ray diffraction is also confirmed by XPS measurements of Ca atoms in the Zn doped samples. The shift of the valance band spectrum in these Zn doped samples to higher energies suggested that the electrons at the top edge of the valance band were tied to a higher binding energy (relative to samples without Zn doping), which most likely resulted in a much lower energy state of the system in the superconducting state. The stronger superconducting state arising out of these effects is witnessed in the form of increased T c (R 0), J c and the extent of diamagnetism in the final compound

  13. A high-efficiency spin-resolved photoemission spectrometer combining time-of-flight spectroscopy with exchange-scattering polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozwiak, Chris M.; Graff, Jeff; Lebedev, Gennadi; Andresen, Nord; Schmid, Andreas; Fedorov, Alexei; El Gabaly, Farid; Wan, Weishi; Lanzara, Alessandra; Hussain, Zahid

    2010-04-13

    We describe a spin-resolved electron spectrometer capable of uniquely efficient and high energy resolution measurements. Spin analysis is obtained through polarimetry based on low-energy exchange scattering from a ferromagnetic thin-film target. This approach can achieve a similar analyzing power (Sherman function) as state-of-the-art Mott scattering polarimeters, but with as much as 100 times improved efficiency due to increased reflectivity. Performance is further enhanced by integrating the polarimeter into a time-of-flight (TOF) based energy analysis scheme with a precise and flexible electrostatic lens system. The parallel acquisition of a range of electron kinetic energies afforded by the TOF approach results in an order of magnitude (or more) increase in efficiency compared to hemispherical analyzers. The lens system additionally features a 90 degrees bandpass filter, which by removing unwanted parts of the photoelectron distribution allows the TOF technique to be performed at low electron drift energy and high energy resolution within a wide range of experimental parameters. The spectrometer is ideally suited for high-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES), and initial results are shown. The TOF approach makes the spectrometer especially ideal for time-resolved spin-ARPES experiments.

  14. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy of hydrogen complex deactivation on InP:Zn(1 0 0) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.D.; Williams, S.C.; Yasharahla, S.A.; Jallow, N.

    2007-01-01

    Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy is used to study the kinetics of the H-Zn complex deactivation in Zn doped InP(1 0 0). Hydrogen injected into the material electronically passivates the local carrier concentration. Reverse-biased anneals of the InP under ultra-high vacuum show a dramatic change in the work function of the material with increasing temperature. Spectral features are also shown to be sensitive to sample temperature. To our knowledge, we show the first view of hydrogen retrapping at the surface using photoemission spectroscopy. A simple photoelectron threshold energy analysis shows the state of charge compensation of the material

  15. Photoemission in nanosecond and picosecond regimes obtained from macro and micro cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussoukaya, M.; Bergeret, H.; Chehab, R.; Leblond, B.; Franco, M.

    1987-03-01

    For Lasertron studies at LAL, results obtained from tests on different photocathodes are given below. Using respectively two Nd: YAG lasers (a nanosecond one and a picosecond one) we have determined the level and the intensity of pulsed photoemission and the photoelectric yield in UV, green and infrared lights. We obtained a total current of more than 1 A with nanosecond width from a single W needle, and photoconversion yield of more than 1 was reached in green and UV lights. In classical pulsed photoemission, obtained photoconversion yield from LaB 6 photocathode was of about 10 -3 in higher fields

  16. Photoemission starting of induction rf-driven multicusp ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, D.S.; Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T.; Ponce, D.M.; Young, A.T.

    1996-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that pulsed and continuous wave, rf-driven hydrogen discharges can be started with photoemission. The extracted H - current from a photoemission-started plasma has been investigated and does not differ significantly from that of a filament-started plasma. The minimum pressure for photoemissive starting was found to be higher than that of filament starting, 17 mTorr compared to 7 mTorr, respectively, in this particular configuration. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. Positron studies of defected metals, metallic surfaces. Final report, July 1, 1985--December 1, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansil, A.

    1991-12-31

    Specific problems proposed under this project included the treatment of electronic structure and momentum density in various disordered and defected systems. Since 1987, when the new high-temperature superconductors were discovered, the project focused extensively on questions concerning the electronic structure and Fermiology of high-{Tc} superconductors, in particular, (i) momentum density and positron experiments, (ii) angle-resolved photoemission intensities, (iii) effects of disorder and substitutions in the high-{Tc}`s.

  18. Bulk band gaps in divalent hexaborides: A soft x-ray emission study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denlinger, Jonathan D.; Gweon, Gey-Hong; Allen, James W.; Bianchi, Andrea D.; Fisk, Zachary

    2001-01-01

    Boron K-edge soft x-ray emission and absorption are used to address the fundamental question of whether divalent hexaborides are intrinsic semimetals or defect-doped bandgap insulators. These bulk sensitive measurements, complementary and consistent with surface-sensitive angle-resolved photoemission experiments, confirm the existence of a bulk band gap and the location of the chemical potential at the bottom of the conduction band

  19. Electronic Structure of the Kitaev Material α-RuCl3 Probed by Photoemission and Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, Soobin; Kim, Choong Hyun; Kim, Beom Hyun; Lee, Kyung Dong; Won, Choong Jae; Oh, Ji Seop; Han, Moonsup; Chang, Young Jun; Hur, Namjung; Sato, Hitoshi; Park, Byeong-Gyu; Kim, Changyoung; Kim, Hyeong-Do; Noh, Tae Won

    2016-12-01

    Recently, α-RuCl3 has attracted much attention as a possible material to realize the honeycomb Kitaev model of a quantum-spin-liquid state. Although the magnetic properties of α-RuCl3 have been extensively studied, its electronic structure, which is strongly related to its Kitaev physics, is poorly understood. Here, the electronic structure of α-RuCl3 was investigated by photoemission (PE) and inverse-photoemission (IPE) spectroscopies. The band gap was directly measured from the PE and IPE spectra and was found to be 1.9 eV, much larger than previously estimated values. Local density approximation (LDA) calculations showed that the on-site Coulomb interaction U could open the band gap without spin-orbit coupling (SOC). However, the SOC should also be incorporated to reproduce the proper gap size, indicating that the interplay between U and SOC plays an essential role. Several features of the PE and IPE spectra could not be explained by the results of LDA calculations. To explain such discrepancies, we performed configuration-interaction calculations for a RuCl63- cluster. The experimental data and calculations demonstrated that the 4d compound α-RuCl3 is a Jeff = 1/2 Mott insulator rather than a quasimolecular-orbital insulator. Our study also provides important physical parameters required for verifying the proposed Kitaev physics in α-RuCl3.

  20. Chemical vapour deposition of graphene on Nk(111) and Co(0001) and intercalation with Au to study Dirac Cone Formation and Rashba splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Barriga, J.; Vescovo, E.; Varykhalov, A.; Scholz, M.R.; Rader, O.; Marchenko, D.; Rybkin, A.

    2010-01-01

    We show in detail monitoring by photoelectron spectroscopy how graphene can be grown by chemical vapor deposition on the transition-metal surfaces Ni(111) and Co(0001) and intercalated by a monoatomic layer of Au. For both systems, a linear E(k) dispersion of massless Dirac fermions appears in the graphene {pi}-band in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. In order to study ferromagnetism and spin-orbit effects by spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, the sample must be magnetized in remanence. To this end, a W(110) substrate is prepared, its cleanliness verified by photoemission from W(110) surface states and surface core levels, and epitaxial Ni(111) and Co(0001) thin films are grown on top. Spin-resolved photoemission from the {pi}-band shows that the ferromagnetic polarization of graphene/Ni(111) and graphene/Co(0001) is negligible and that graphene on Ni(111) is after intercalation of Au spin-orbit split by the Rashba effect.

  1. Transfer of chirality from adsorbed chiral molecules to the substrates highlighted by circular dichroism in angle-resolved valence photoelectron spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contini, G.; Turchini, S.; Sanna, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Studies of self-assembled chiral molecules on achiral metallic surfaces have mostly focused on the determination of the geometry of adsorbates and their electronic structure. The aim of this paper is to provide direct information on the chirality character of the system and on the chirality...... transfer from molecules to substrate by means of circular dichroism in the angular distribution of valence photoelectrons for the extended domain of the chiral self-assembled molecular structure, formed by alaninol adsorbed on Cu(100). We show, by the dichroic behavior of a mixed molecule–copper valence...... state, that the presence of molecular chiral domains induces asymmetry in the interaction with the substrate and locally transfers the chiral character to the underlying metal atoms participating in the adsorption process; combined information related to the asymmetry of the initial electronic state...

  2. Gas-phase photoemission with soft x-rays: cross sections and angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.A.; Kobrin, P.H.; Truesdale, C.M.; Lindle, D.W.; Ferrett, T.A.; Heimann, P.A.; Becker, U.; Kerkhoff, H.G.; Southworth, S.H.

    1983-09-01

    A summary is presented of typical gas-phase photoemission studies based on synchrotron radiation in the 50-5000 eV range, using beam lines at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Three topics are addressed: atomic inner-shell photoelectron cross sections and asymmetries, correlation peaks in rare gases, and core-level shape resonances in molecules

  3. Multiplet splitting of x-ray photoemission spectra core levels in magnetic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalczyk, S.P.; McFeely, F.R.; Ley, L.; Shirley, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The results of high resolution x-ray photoemission studies of the multiplet splitting of the 3s core levels in the 3d transition metals and the 4s, 5s and 4d core levels in the lanthanide metals are reported

  4. UNCONTROLLED PHOTOMULTIPLIER CURRENT IN PHOTOEMISSION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Viazava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of photon energy from energy of photoelectron is base of photoemission radiation analysis. In such photoemission measurements except current of photocathode is always exist a reverse current from the collector of electrons to the photocathode in two-electrode sensors. There are various ways of reverse and uncontrolled current eliminating or reducing their influence. The constructive method is based on creating an electron-optical system of photoelectronic device, which would be a photoelectron energy analyzer. The second method – technological. However, it requires the manufacture of the photocathode and the dynode system in different vacuum chamber with subsequent connection to a single device in vacuum environment without exposure to the atmosphere. The purpose of this article is to determinate the effect of photoemission from photocathode chamber and the first dynode of photomultiplier on energy distribution of the photoelectrons from photocathode. To solve this problem authors obtained calibration curves for measuring pyrometer module ПИФ 4/2 with ФЭУ-114 as a sensor at supply voltage 1350 V and different decelerating voltages. The effect of illumination on the value of modulation coefficient on temperature k(T and wavelength k(λ is shown. In temperature measurements, this effect is evident in fact that at temperatures below 1400 K linear dependence ln k – T-1 is broken. Still this linear dependence is a necessary consequence of the fact that the measured temperature is color temperature. However, this calibration curve can be used to measure low temperature if the target measurements condition and calibration conditions are identical. In wavelength calibration, curve k(λ at λ > 760 nm is two-valued, that doesn’t allow to identify monochromatic radiation by this method and bring in errors in temperature measurements. 

  5. Scanning photoemission microscopy with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, Harald W.

    1992-08-01

    Progress in photoemission spectro-microscopy at various synchrotron radiation facilities is reviewed. Microprobe devices such as MAXIMUM at the SRC in Wisconsin, the X1-SPEM at the NSLS at BNL, as well as the ellipsoidal ring mirror microscope at DESY in Hamburg, recorded first images during the last few years. The present status of these devices which achieve their lateral resolution by focusing X-rays to a small spot is the primary focus of this paper, but work representing other approaches to spectro-microscopy is also discussed.

  6. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of cyclopropane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, P. R.; Taylor, J. W.; Carlson, Thomas A.; Whitley, T. A.; Grimm, F. A.

    1985-10-01

    The angular distribution parameter, β, determined for the valence orbitals (IP < 18 eV) of cyclopropane in the 10-30 eV photon energy range using dispersed polarized synchrotron radiation. The energy dependence of β for photoelectron energies between, 2 and 10 eV above threshold was found to be similar to those found previously for other σ orbitals. The effects of Jahn-Teller splitting on β for the 3e' orbital were found to be small but definitely present. The overall shape and magnitude of the β( hv) curve are, however, sufficiently for the different Jahn-Teller components that, for purposes of orbital assignments using β( hv) curves the shape and magnitude of the curves can be considered associated only with the initial state. Resonance photoionization features at a photon ener of ≈ 18 eV were observed in the 3e' and 3a' 1 orbitals and tentatively assigned to autoionization.

  7. Vacuum scanning capillary photoemission microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aseyev, S.A.; Cherkun, A P; Mironov, B N

    2017-01-01

    of a gold reflecting layer on a compact disc which has been illuminated by an unfocused laser beam with a wavelength 400nm, from a femtosecond laser with a beam size of 4mm. A quartz capillary with a 2-µm aperture has been used in the experiments. The period of gold microstructure, shown to be 1.6µ...... distribution of the recorded photoelectrons consisted of periodic mountain-valley strips, resembling the surface profile of the sample. Submicron spatial resolution has been achieved. This approach paves the way to study pulsed photodesorption of large organic molecular ions with high spatial and element...

  8. Photoemission and photoionization time delays and rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallmann, L.; Jordan, I.; Wörner, H. J.; Castiglioni, L.; Hengsberger, M.; Osterwalder, J.; Arrell, C. A.; Chergui, M.; Liberatore, E.; Rothlisberger, U.; Keller, U.

    2017-01-01

    Ionization and, in particular, ionization through the interaction with light play an important role in fundamental processes in physics, chemistry, and biology. In recent years, we have seen tremendous advances in our ability to measure the dynamics of photo-induced ionization in various systems in the gas, liquid, or solid phase. In this review, we will define the parameters used for quantifying these dynamics. We give a brief overview of some of the most important ionization processes and how to resolve the associated time delays and rates. With regard to time delays, we ask the question: how long does it take to remove an electron from an atom, molecule, or solid? With regard to rates, we ask the question: how many electrons are emitted in a given unit of time? We present state-of-the-art results on ionization and photoemission time delays and rates. Our review starts with the simplest physical systems: the attosecond dynamics of single-photon and tunnel ionization of atoms in the gas phase. We then extend the discussion to molecular gases and ionization of liquid targets. Finally, we present the measurements of ionization delays in femto- and attosecond photoemission from the solid–vacuum interface. PMID:29308414

  9. Photoemission and photoionization time delays and rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gallmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ionization and, in particular, ionization through the interaction with light play an important role in fundamental processes in physics, chemistry, and biology. In recent years, we have seen tremendous advances in our ability to measure the dynamics of photo-induced ionization in various systems in the gas, liquid, or solid phase. In this review, we will define the parameters used for quantifying these dynamics. We give a brief overview of some of the most important ionization processes and how to resolve the associated time delays and rates. With regard to time delays, we ask the question: how long does it take to remove an electron from an atom, molecule, or solid? With regard to rates, we ask the question: how many electrons are emitted in a given unit of time? We present state-of-the-art results on ionization and photoemission time delays and rates. Our review starts with the simplest physical systems: the attosecond dynamics of single-photon and tunnel ionization of atoms in the gas phase. We then extend the discussion to molecular gases and ionization of liquid targets. Finally, we present the measurements of ionization delays in femto- and attosecond photoemission from the solid–vacuum interface.

  10. Directional uv photoemission from (100) and (110) molybdenum surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinti, R. C.; Khoury, E. Al; Chakraverty, B. K.

    1976-01-01

    A study of the (100) and (110) molybdenum surfaces by directional photoemission spectroscopy is presented. Energy distribution spectra formed by photoelectrons emitted normal to the surfaces have been measured for photon energies between 10.2 and 21.2 eV. The results are discussed in terms of cal......-transition and surface-emission processes. Two extra structures are interpreted in terms of surface states or resonances: on the (100) surface, 0.5 eV below EF; on the (110) surface, 4.5 eV below EF in the s-d hybridization gap....... of calculated band structure within the framework of the K∥-conservation assumption. A good agreement is found between the main features of the experimental spectra and the emission expected from the band structure along the corresponding symmetry line in the Brillouin zone, assuming essentially direct...

  11. Microlens Array Laser Transverse Shaping Technique for Photoemission Electron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavanau, A. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ha, G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (POSTECH) (Korea, Republic of); Qiang, G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Gai, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Power, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Piot, P. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wisniewski, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Edstrom, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ruan, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Santucci, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-09-06

    A common issue encountered in photoemission electron sources used in electron accelerators is distortion of the laser spot due to non ideal conditions at all stages of the amplification. Such a laser spot at the cathode may produce asymmetric charged beams that will result in degradation of the beam quality due to space charge at early stages of acceleration and fail to optimally utilize the cathode surface. In this note we study the possibility of using microlens arrays to dramatically improve the transverse uniformity of the drive laser pulse on UV photocathodes at both Fermilab Accelerator Science \\& Technology (FAST) facility and Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA). In particular, we discuss the experimental characterization of the homogeneity and periodic patterned formation at the photocathode. Finally, we compare the experimental results with the paraxial analysis, ray tracing and wavefront propagation software.

  12. Studies of magnetism and exchange scattering in solids using synchroton radiation and spin-polarized photoemission. Progress report, June 1, 1982-May 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothberg, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Some of the experiments necessary for proving the existence of Spin Polarized EXAFS (SPEXAFS) and for establishing it as a useful techncique for studying magnetism in solids have been carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) and the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Transmission EXAFS, which does not depend on electron spin, has been measured in several manganese compounds. The 3s photopeaks of Mn 2 + in MnF 2 have been shown to display EXAFS-like oscillations. The pin dependence of these oscillations will next be studied. Observations of the 3p photopeaks of iron metal on a palladium substrate have shown anomalous intensity variations with varying photon energy. This phenomenon will also be studied further. The existence of Cooper minima in the iron 3s and 3p photoabsorption cross sections has been sought, and this investigation will continue

  13. Efficient photoemission from robust ferroelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscolo, I.; Castellano, M.; Catani, L.; Ferrario, M.; Tazzioli, F.; Giannessi, L.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental results on photoemission by ferroelectric ceramic disks, with a possible interpretation, are present. Two types of lead zirconate titanate lanthanum doped, PLZT, ceramics have been used for tests. 25 ps light pulses of 532 and 355 nm were used for excitation. The intensity ranged within the interval 0.1-3 GW/cm 2. The upper limit of the intensity was established by the damage threshold tested by the onset of ion emission. At low value of the intensity the yield was comparable at the two wavelengths. At the highest intensity of green light the emitted charge was 1 nC per 10 mm 2, but it was limited by the space charge effect. In fact, the applied field was only 20 kV/cm, allowed both by the mechanical design of the apparatus and the poor vacuum, 10 - 4 mbar. No surface processing was required. The measurement of the electron pulse length under way

  14. Timing analysis of two-electron photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheifets, A S; Ivanov, I A; Bray, Igor

    2011-01-01

    We predict a significant delay of two-electron photoemission from the helium atom after absorption of an attosecond XUV pulse. We establish this delay by solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation and by subsequently tracing the field-free evolution of the two-electron wave packet. This delay can also be related to the energy derivative of the phase of the complex double-photoionization (DPI) amplitude which we evaluate by using the convergent close-coupling method. Our observations indicate that future attosecond time delay measurements on DPI of He can provide information on the absolute quantum phase and elucidate various mechanisms of this strongly correlated ionization process. (fast track communication)

  15. Atomic nature of the Schottky barrier height formation of the Ag/GaAs(001)-2 × 4 interface: An in-situ synchrotron radiation photoemission study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chiu-Ping; Chen, Wan-Sin; Lin, Keng-Yung; Wei, Guo-Jhen; Cheng, Yi-Ting; Lin, Yen-Hsun; Wan, Hsien-Wen; Pi, Tun-Wen; Tung, Raymond T.; Kwo, Jueinai; Hong, Minghwei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The interaction of Ag on a p-type α2 GaAs(001)-2 × 4 surface has been studied. • The dipole formation mechanism of the Ag/GaAs(001)-2 × 4 interface is proposed. • Determination of the SBH prior to metal formation is found. • Inadequacy of the metal-induced gap-state model for explaining the SBH is evident. - Abstract: The Interface of Ag with p-type α2 GaAs(001)-2 × 4 has been studied to further understand the formation mechanism of the Schottky barrier height (SBH). In the initial phase of Ag deposition, high-resolution core-level data show that Ag adatoms effectively passivate the surface As-As dimers without breaking them apart. The Ag(+)-As(−) dipoles are thus generated with a maximal potential energy of 0.26 eV; a SBH of 0.38 eV was measured. Greater Ag coverage causes elemental segregation of As/Ga atoms, reversing the direction of the net dipole. The band bending effect near the interface shows a downward shift of 0.08 eV, and the final SBH is similar to the value as measured at the initial Ag deposition. Both parameters are secured at 0.25 Å of Ag thickness prior to the observation of metallic behavior of Ag. Inadequacy of the metal-induced gap-state model for explaining SBH is evident.

  16. Atomic nature of the Schottky barrier height formation of the Ag/GaAs(001)-2 × 4 interface: An in-situ synchrotron radiation photoemission study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chiu-Ping, E-mail: cpcheng@mail.ncyu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, 60004, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Wan-Sin [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, 60004, Taiwan, ROC (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu, 30076, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Keng-Yung [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wei, Guo-Jhen; Cheng, Yi-Ting [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, 60004, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Yen-Hsun; Wan, Hsien-Wen [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Pi, Tun-Wen, E-mail: pi@nsrrc.org.tw [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu, 30076, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tung, Raymond T. [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College, CUNY, NY 11210 (United States); Kwo, Jueinai, E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hong, Minghwei, E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • The interaction of Ag on a p-type α2 GaAs(001)-2 × 4 surface has been studied. • The dipole formation mechanism of the Ag/GaAs(001)-2 × 4 interface is proposed. • Determination of the SBH prior to metal formation is found. • Inadequacy of the metal-induced gap-state model for explaining the SBH is evident. - Abstract: The Interface of Ag with p-type α2 GaAs(001)-2 × 4 has been studied to further understand the formation mechanism of the Schottky barrier height (SBH). In the initial phase of Ag deposition, high-resolution core-level data show that Ag adatoms effectively passivate the surface As-As dimers without breaking them apart. The Ag(+)-As(−) dipoles are thus generated with a maximal potential energy of 0.26 eV; a SBH of 0.38 eV was measured. Greater Ag coverage causes elemental segregation of As/Ga atoms, reversing the direction of the net dipole. The band bending effect near the interface shows a downward shift of 0.08 eV, and the final SBH is similar to the value as measured at the initial Ag deposition. Both parameters are secured at 0.25 Å of Ag thickness prior to the observation of metallic behavior of Ag. Inadequacy of the metal-induced gap-state model for explaining SBH is evident.

  17. Electronic Structure of C60/Zinc Phthalocyanine/V2O5 Interfaces Studied Using Photoemission Spectroscopy for Organic Photovoltaic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jin Lim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The interfacial electronic structures of a bilayer of fullerene (C60 and zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc grown on vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 thin films deposited using radio frequency sputtering under various conditions were studied using X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO level of the ZnPc layer and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO level of the C60 layer was determined and compared with that grown on an indium tin oxide (ITO substrate. The energy difference of a heterojunction on all V2O5 was found to be 1.3~1.4 eV, while that on ITO was 1.1 eV. This difference could be due to the higher binding energy of the HOMO of ZnPc on V2O5 than that on ITO regardless of work functions of the substrates. We also determined the complete energy level diagrams of C60/ZnPc on V2O5 and ITO.

  18. A photoemission study of the effectiveness of nickel, manganese, and cobalt based corrosion barriers for silicon photo-anodes during water oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Robert; Bogan, Justin; McCoy, Anthony; Byrne, Conor; Hughes, Greg [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2016-05-21

    Silicon is an attractive material for solar water splitting applications due to its abundance and its capacity to absorb a large fraction of incident solar radiation. However, it has not received as much attention as other materials due to its tendency to oxidize very quickly in aqueous environments, particularly when it is employed as the anode where it drives the oxygen evolution reaction. In recent years, several works have appeared in the literature examining the suitability of thin transition metal oxide films grown on top of the silicon to act as a corrosion barrier. The film should be transparent to solar radiation, allow hole transport from the silicon surface to the electrolyte, and stop the diffusion of oxygen from the electrolyte back to the silicon. In this work, we compare Mn-oxide, Co-oxide, and Ni-oxide thin films grown using physical vapor deposition in order to evaluate which material offers the best combination of photocurrent and corrosion protection. In addition to the electrochemical data, we also present a detailed before-and-after study of the surface chemistry of the films using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This approach allows for a comprehensive analysis of the mechanisms by which the corrosion barriers protect the underlying silicon, and how they degrade during the water oxidation reaction.

  19. Molecular photoemission studies using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truesdale, C.M.

    1983-04-01

    The angular distributions of photoelectrons and Auger electrons were measured by electron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations to interpret the electronic behavior of photoionization for molecular systems

  20. Photoemission of Single Dust Grains for Heliospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James F., Jr.; Venturini, Catherine C.; Abbas, Mian M.; Comfort, Richard H.

    2000-01-01

    Initial results of an experiment to measure the photoemission of single dust grains as a function of far ultraviolet wavelengths are presented. Coulombic forces dominate the interaction of the dust grains in the heliosphere. Knowledge of the charge state of dust grains, whether in a dusty plasma (Debye length grains is primarily determined by primary electron and ion collisions, secondary electron emission and photoemission due to ultraviolet sunlight. We have established a unique experimental technique to measure the photoemission of individual micron-sized dust grains in vacuum. This technique resolves difficulties associated with statistical measurements of dust grain ensembles and non-static dust beams. The photoemission yield of Aluminum Oxide 3-micron grains For wavelengths from 120-300 nm with a spectral resolution of 1 nm FWHM is reported. Results are compared to interplanetary conditions.

  1. Absence of photoemission from the Fermi level in potassium intercalated picene and coronene films: structure, polaron, or correlation physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahns, Benjamin; Roth, Friedrich; Knupfer, Martin

    2012-04-07

    The electronic structure of potassium intercalated picene and coronene films has been studied using photoemission spectroscopy. Picene has additionally been intercalated using sodium. Upon alkali metal addition core level as well as valence band photoemission data signal a filling of previously unoccupied states of the two molecular materials due to charge transfer from potassium. In contrast to the observation of superconductivity in K(x)picene and K(x)coronene (x ~ 3), none of the films studied shows emission from the Fermi level, i.e., we find no indication for a metallic ground state. Several reasons for this observation are discussed.

  2. Photoemission spectroscopy of the charge-ordering transition in Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chainani, A.; Kumigashira, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tomioka, Y.; Kuwahara, H.; Tokura, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the electronic structure of the magnetite Pr 0.5 Sr 0.5 MnO 3 across the charge ordering transition is studied using temperature-dependent photoemission spectroscopy. Ultra-violet photoemission spectroscopy have been performed as a function of temperature (25-300K) to investigate the changes in the single-particle density of states across the metal-nonmetal and the para-ferro transitions

  3. Electrospray deposition of fullerenes in ultra-high vacuum: in situ scanning tunneling microscopy and photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satterley, Christopher J; Perdigao, LuIs M A; Saywell, Alex; Magnano, Graziano; Rienzo, Anna; Mayor, Louise C; Dhanak, Vinod R; Beton, Peter H; O'Shea, James N

    2007-01-01

    Electrospray deposition of fullerenes on gold has been successfully observed by in situ room temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and photoemission spectroscopy. Step-edge decoration and hexagonal close-packed islands with a periodicity of 1 nm are observed at low and multilayer coverages respectively, in agreement with thermal evaporation studies. Photoemission spectroscopy shows that fullerenes are being deposited in high purity and are coupling to the gold surface as for thermal evaporation. These results open a new route for the deposition of thermally labile molecules under ultra-high vacuum conditions for a range of high resolution surface science techniques

  4. Electron attachment rate constant measurement by photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Desheng; Niu, Wenqi; Liu, Sheng; Shen, Chengyin; Huang, Chaoqun; Wang, Hongmei; Jiang, Haihe; Chu, Yannan

    2012-01-01

    Photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS), with a source of photoelectrons induced by vacuum ultraviolet radiation on a metal surface, has been developed to study electron attachment reaction at atmospheric pressure using nitrogen as the buffer gas. Based on the negative ion mobility spectra, the rate constants for electron attachment to tetrachloromethane and chloroform were measured at ambient temperature as a function of the average electron energy in the range from 0.29 to 0.96 eV. The experimental results are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature. - Highlights: ► Photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS) was developed to study electron attachment reaction. ► The rate constants of electron attachment to CCl 4 and CHCl 3 were determined. ► The present experimental results are in good agreement with the previously reported data.

  5. Electronic structure of the gold/Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 and gold/EuBa2Cu3O7-δ interfaces as studied by photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessau, D.S.; Shen, Z.; Wells, B.O.; Spicer, W.E.; List, R.S.; Arko, A.J.; Bartlett, R.J.; Fisk, Z.; Cheong, S.; Mitzi, D.B.; Kapitulnik, A.; Schirber, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    High-resolution photoemission has been used to probe the electronic structure of the gold/Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 and gold/EuBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ interface formed by a low-temperature (20 K) gold evaporation on cleaved high quality single crystals. We find that the metallicity of the EuBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ substrate in the near surface region (∼5 A) is essentially destroyed by the gold deposition, while the near surface region of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 remains metallic. This has potentially wide ranging consequences for the applicability of the different types of superconductors in real devices

  6. DC photoemission electron guns as ERL sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, Charles K.

    2006-01-01

    Very-high-voltage DC electron guns, delivering moderate duration bunches from photoemission cathodes, and followed by conventional drift bunching and acceleration, offer a practical solution for an ERL injector. In a variant of this scheme, a DC gun is placed in close proximity to a superconducting RF accelerator cavity, with few or no active elements between the gun and cavity. The principal technical challenge with such electron guns arises from field emission from the cathode electrode and its support structure. Field emission may result in voltage breakdown across the cathode-anode gap, or a punch-through failure of the insulator holding off the cathode potential, as well as lesser though still serious problems. Various means to mitigate these problems are described. The operational lifetime of high quantum efficiency photocathodes in these guns is determined by the vacuum conditions, through phenomena such as chemical poisoning and ion back-bombardment. Minimization of the field strength on electrode structures pushes high-voltage DC guns toward large dimensions and, correspondingly, large outgassing loads, but it is also true that these guns offer many opportunities for achieving excellent vacuum conditions. Good solutions to vacuum problems that had previously limited cathode lifetime have been demonstrated in recent years. Designs for DC guns presently in use and planned for the near future will be described. The parameters necessary for a 100 mA average current, very-high-voltage DC gun with a photocathode operational lifetime greater than 100 h appear to be within reach, but have yet to be demonstrated. A 1 A average current source with good cathode operational lifetime will require developments beyond the present state-of-the-art

  7. Spectroscopic imaging, diffraction, and holography with x-ray photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    X-ray probes are capable of determining the spatial structure of an atom in a specific chemical state, over length scales from about a micron all the way down to atomic resolution. Examples of these probes include photoemission microscopy, energy-dependent photoemission diffraction, photoelectron holography, and X-ray absorption microspectroscopy. Although the method of image formation, chemical-state sensitivity, and length scales can be very different, these X-ray techniques share a common goal of combining a capability for structure determination with chemical-state specificity. This workshop will address recent advances in holographic, diffraction, and direct imaging techniques using X-ray photoemission on both theoretical and experimental fronts. A particular emphasis will be on novel structure determinations with atomic resolution using photoelectrons

  8. Spectroscopic imaging, diffraction, and holography with x-ray photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    X-ray probes are capable of determining the spatial structure of an atom in a specific chemical state, over length scales from about a micron all the way down to atomic resolution. Examples of these probes include photoemission microscopy, energy-dependent photoemission diffraction, photoelectron holography, and X-ray absorption microspectroscopy. Although the method of image formation, chemical-state sensitivity, and length scales can be very different, these X-ray techniques share a common goal of combining a capability for structure determination with chemical-state specificity. This workshop will address recent advances in holographic, diffraction, and direct imaging techniques using X-ray photoemission on both theoretical and experimental fronts. A particular emphasis will be on novel structure determinations with atomic resolution using photoelectrons.

  9. Einstein's photoemission emission from heavily-doped quantized structures

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad

    2015-01-01

    This monograph solely investigates the Einstein's Photoemission(EP) from Heavily Doped(HD) Quantized Structures on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws. The materials considered are quantized structures of HD non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V, Bismuth Telluride together with various types of HD superlattices and their Quantized counterparts respectively. The EP in HD opto-electronic materials and their nanostructures is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields  that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestions for the experimental determinations of different important physical quantities in HD 2D and 3D materials  and the importance of measurement of band gap in HD optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nano devices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring   physical properties in the presence of intense light waves w...

  10. Time-resolved photoemission micro-spectrometer using higher-order harmonics of Ti:sapphire laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, J.; Kamada, M.; Kondo, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A new photoemission spectrometer is under construction for the photoemission microscopy and the time-resolved pump- probe experiment. The higher order harmonics of the Ti:sapphire laser is used as the light source of the VUV region in this system. Because the fundamental laser is focused tightly into the rare gas jet to generate the higher order harmonics, the spot size of the laser, in other words, the spot size of the VUV light source is smaller than a few tens of micrometer. This smallness of the spot size has advantage for the microscopy. In order to compensate the low flux of the laser harmonics, a multilayer-coated schwaltzshild optics was designed. The multilayers play also as the monochromatic filter. The spatial resolution of this schwaltzshild system is found to be less than 1 micrometer by the ray-tracing calculations. A main chamber of the system is equipped with a time-of-flight energy analyzer to improve the efficiency of the electron detection. The main chamber and the gas chamber are separated by a differential pumping chamber and a thin Al foil. The system is designed for the study of the clean surface. It will be capable to perform the sub-micron photoemission microscopy and the femto-second pump-probe photoemission study for the various photo-excited dynamics on clean surfaces

  11. Direct surface magnetometry with photoemission magnetic x-ray dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J.G.; Goodman, K.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Schumann, F.O. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Element specific surface magnetometry remains a central goal of synchrotron radiation based studies of nanomagnetic structures. One appealing possibility is the combination of x-ray absorption dichroism measurements and the theoretical framework provided by the {open_quotes}sum rules.{close_quotes} Unfortunately, sum rule analysis are hampered by several limitations including delocalization of the final state, multi-electronic phenomena and the presence of surface dipoles. An alternative experiment, Magnetic X-Ray Dichroism in Photoelectron Spectroscopy, holds out promise based upon its elemental specificity, surface sensitivity and high resolution. Computational simulations by Tamura et al. demonstrated the relationship between exchange and spin orbit splittings and experimental data of linear and circular dichroisms. Now the authors have developed an analytical framework which allows for the direct extraction of core level exchange splittings from circular and linear dichroic photoemission data. By extending a model initially proposed by Venus, it is possible to show a linear relation between normalized dichroism peaks in the experimental data and the underlying exchange splitting. Since it is reasonable to expect that exchange splittings and magnetic moments track together, this measurement thus becomes a powerful new tool for direct surface magnetometry, without recourse to time consuming and difficult spectral simulations. The theoretical derivation will be supported by high resolution linear and circular dichroism data collected at the Spectromicroscopy Facility of the Advanced Light Source.

  12. Exploring the magnetic and organic microstructures with photoemission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, D.H.; Chan, Yuet-Loy; Hsu, Yao-Jane

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PEEM with polarized photon enables additional image contrasts and physical insights. ► XMCD-based images reveal the shape-dependent domains in Ni80Fe20 microstructures. ► XLD-based images confirm the success of molecular orientation controls. ► The two interfaces in Co–Pn–Co structures are magnetically and chemically different. -- Abstract: We present photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) studies on geometrically constrained ferromagnetic, organic, and organics–ferromagnet hybrid structures. Powered by an elliptically polarized undulator, the PEEM at Taiwan Light Source (TLS) is capable of recording polarization enhanced X-ray images and has been employed to examine the domain configurations in a lithographically patterned permalloy film as well as the orientations of pentacene molecules adsorbed on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) modified gold surfaces. In addition, magnetic images acquired on cobalt/pentacene and pentacene/cobalt bilayers reveal that in hybrid structures the order of thin film deposition can lead to distinct domain configurations. Spectroscopic evidence further suggests that there is significant orbital hybridization at the interface where metallic cobalt was deposited directly on organic pentacene.

  13. Exploring the magnetic and organic microstructures with photoemission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, D.H., E-mail: dhw@nsrrc.org.tw [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, 30076 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chan, Yuet-Loy; Hsu, Yao-Jane [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, 30076 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PEEM with polarized photon enables additional image contrasts and physical insights. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XMCD-based images reveal the shape-dependent domains in Ni80Fe20 microstructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XLD-based images confirm the success of molecular orientation controls. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two interfaces in Co-Pn-Co structures are magnetically and chemically different. -- Abstract: We present photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) studies on geometrically constrained ferromagnetic, organic, and organics-ferromagnet hybrid structures. Powered by an elliptically polarized undulator, the PEEM at Taiwan Light Source (TLS) is capable of recording polarization enhanced X-ray images and has been employed to examine the domain configurations in a lithographically patterned permalloy film as well as the orientations of pentacene molecules adsorbed on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) modified gold surfaces. In addition, magnetic images acquired on cobalt/pentacene and pentacene/cobalt bilayers reveal that in hybrid structures the order of thin film deposition can lead to distinct domain configurations. Spectroscopic evidence further suggests that there is significant orbital hybridization at the interface where metallic cobalt was deposited directly on organic pentacene.

  14. Principle and application of low energy inverse photoemission spectroscopy: A new method for measuring unoccupied states of organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hyoshida@chiba-u.jp

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Principle of low energy inverse photoemission spectroscopy is described. • Instruments including electron sources and photon detectors are shown. • Recent results about organic devices and fundamental studies are reviewed. • Electron affinities of typical organic semiconductors are compiled. - Abstract: Information about the unoccupied states is crucial to both fundamental and applied physics of organic semiconductors. However, there were no available experimental methods that meet the requirement of such research. In this review, we describe a new experimental method to examine the unoccupied states, called low-energy inverse photoemission spectroscopy (LEIPS). An electron having the kinetic energy lower than the damage threshold of organic molecules is introduced to a sample film, and an emitted photon in the near-ultraviolet range is detected with high resolution and sensitivity. Unlike the previous inverse photoemission spectroscopy, the sample damage is negligible and the overall resolution is a factor of two improved to 0.25 eV. Using LEIPS, electron affinity of organic semiconductor can be determined with the same precision as photoemission spectroscopy for ionization energy. The instruments including an electron source and photon detectors as well as application to organic semiconductors are presented.

  15. Principle and application of low energy inverse photoemission spectroscopy: A new method for measuring unoccupied states of organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Principle of low energy inverse photoemission spectroscopy is described. • Instruments including electron sources and photon detectors are shown. • Recent results about organic devices and fundamental studies are reviewed. • Electron affinities of typical organic semiconductors are compiled. - Abstract: Information about the unoccupied states is crucial to both fundamental and applied physics of organic semiconductors. However, there were no available experimental methods that meet the requirement of such research. In this review, we describe a new experimental method to examine the unoccupied states, called low-energy inverse photoemission spectroscopy (LEIPS). An electron having the kinetic energy lower than the damage threshold of organic molecules is introduced to a sample film, and an emitted photon in the near-ultraviolet range is detected with high resolution and sensitivity. Unlike the previous inverse photoemission spectroscopy, the sample damage is negligible and the overall resolution is a factor of two improved to 0.25 eV. Using LEIPS, electron affinity of organic semiconductor can be determined with the same precision as photoemission spectroscopy for ionization energy. The instruments including an electron source and photon detectors as well as application to organic semiconductors are presented.

  16. Practical Photoemission Characterization Of Molecular Films And Related Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanco, J.

    2013-01-01

    Even though the term ‘organic electronics’ evokes rather organic devices, a significant part of its scope deals with physical properties of ‘active elements’ such as organic films and interfaces. Examination of the film growth and the evolution of the interface formation are particularly needful for the understanding a mechanism controlling their final properties. Performing such experiments in an ultra-high vacuum allows both to ‘stretch’ the time scale for pseudo real-time observations and to control properties of the probed systems on the atomic level. Photoemission technique probes directly electronic and chemical structure and it has thereby established among major tools employed in the field.This review primarily focuses to electronic properties of oligomeric molecular films and their interfaces examined by photoemission. Yet, it does not aspire after a complete overview on the topic; it rather aims to otherwise standard issues encountered at the photoemission characterization and analysis of the organic materials, though requiring to consider particularities of molecular films in terms of the growth, electronic properties, and their characterization and analysis. In particular, the fundamental electronic parameters of molecular films such as the work function, the ionization energy, and the interfacial energy level alignment, and their interplay, will be pursued with considering often neglected influence of the molecular orientation. Further, the implication on the band bending in molecular films based on photoemission characterization, and a model on the driving mechanism for the interfacial energy level alignment will be addressed. (author)

  17. SiO mass spectrometry and Si-2p photoemission spectroscopy for the study of oxidation reaction dynamics of Si(001) surface by supersonic O sub 2 molecular beams under 1000K

    CERN Document Server

    Teraoka, Y; Moritani, K

    2003-01-01

    The Si sup 1 sup 8 O desorption yield was measured in the Si(001) surface temperature region from 900K to 1300K at the sup 1 sup 8 O sub 2 incident energies of 0.7eV, 2.2eV and 3.3eV. The Si sup 1 sup 8 O desorption yield in a surface temperature region higher than 1000K increased with increasing incident energy, indicating the incident-energy-induced oxidation and the variation of angular distribution of Si sup 1 sup 8 O desorption. Inversely, the Si sup 1 sup 8 O desorption yield decreased with increasing incident energy in the region from 900K to 1000K, indicating the coexistence of the passive and the active oxidation. In order to clarify the reaction mechanisms of the later phenomenon, real-time in-situ Si-2p photoemission spectroscopy has been performed. The obtained Si-2p spectra showed the variation of the oxide-nuclei quality from the sub-oxide-rich structure to the SiO sub 2 -rich structure. The formation of the SiO sub 2 structure suppresses the SiO desorption due to the enhanced O sub 2 sticking a...

  18. Vacancy formation in MoO3: hybrid density functional theory and photoemission experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Salawu, Omotayo Akande

    2016-09-29

    Molybdenum oxide (MoO3) is an important material that is being considered for numerous technological applications, including catalysis and electrochromism. In the present study, we apply hybrid density functional theory to investigate O and Mo vacancies in the orthorhombic phase. We determine the vacancy formation energies of different defect sites as functions of the electron chemical potential, addressing different charge states. In addition, we investigate the consequences of defects for the material properties. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy is employed to study the valence band of stoichiometric and O defective MoO3. We show that O vacancies result in occupied in-gap states.

  19. Vacancy formation in MoO3: hybrid density functional theory and photoemission experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Salawu, Omotayo Akande; Chroneos, Alexander; Vasilopoulou, Maria; Kennou, Stella; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Molybdenum oxide (MoO3) is an important material that is being considered for numerous technological applications, including catalysis and electrochromism. In the present study, we apply hybrid density functional theory to investigate O and Mo vacancies in the orthorhombic phase. We determine the vacancy formation energies of different defect sites as functions of the electron chemical potential, addressing different charge states. In addition, we investigate the consequences of defects for the material properties. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy is employed to study the valence band of stoichiometric and O defective MoO3. We show that O vacancies result in occupied in-gap states.

  20. Dynamical cluster approximation plus semiclassical approximation study for a Mott insulator and d-wave pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SungKun; Lee, Hunpyo

    2017-06-01

    Via a dynamical cluster approximation with N c = 4 in combination with a semiclassical approximation (DCA+SCA), we study the doped two-dimensional Hubbard model. We obtain a plaquette antiferromagnetic (AF) Mott insulator, a plaquette AF ordered metal, a pseudogap (or d-wave superconductor) and a paramagnetic metal by tuning the doping concentration. These features are similar to the behaviors observed in copper-oxide superconductors and are in qualitative agreement with the results calculated by the cluster dynamical mean field theory with the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo (CDMFT+CTQMC) approach. The results of our DCA+SCA differ from those of the CDMFT+CTQMC approach in that the d-wave superconducting order parameters are shown even in the high doped region, unlike the results of the CDMFT+CTQMC approach. We think that the strong plaquette AF orderings in the dynamical cluster approximation (DCA) with N c = 4 suppress superconducting states with increasing doping up to strongly doped region, because frozen dynamical fluctuations in a semiclassical approximation (SCA) approach are unable to destroy those orderings. Our calculation with short-range spatial fluctuations is initial research, because the SCA can manage long-range spatial fluctuations in feasible computational times beyond the CDMFT+CTQMC tool. We believe that our future DCA+SCA calculations should supply information on the fully momentum-resolved physical properties, which could be compared with the results measured by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments.

  1. A novel probe of intrinsic electronic structure: hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Y.; Tamasaku, K.; Nishino, Y.; Miwa, D.; Yabashi, M.; Ikenaga, E.; Horiba, K.; Arita, M.; Shimada, K.; Namatame, H.; Nohira, H.; Hattori, T.; Soedergren, S.; Wannberg, B.; Taniguchi, M.; Shin, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    2005-01-01

    We have realized hard X-ray (HX) photoemission spectroscopy (PES) with high throughput and high-energy resolution for core level and valence band studies using high-energy and high-brilliance synchrotron radiation at SPring-8. This is a brand new method because large escape depth of high-energy photoelectrons enables us to probe intrinsic bulk states free from surface condition. By use of a newly developed electron energy analyzer and well-focused X-rays, high-energy resolution of 75 meV (E/ΔE 79,000) was realized for 5.95 keV photoelectrons

  2. Induced photoemission from driven nonadiabatic dynamics in an avoided crossing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arasaki, Yasuki; Mizuno, Yuta; Takatsuka, Kazuo, E-mail: kaztak@mns2.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Basic Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, 153-8902 Tokyo (Japan); Scheit, Simona [Department of Basic Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, 153-8902 Tokyo (Japan); Theoretische Chemie, Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuneheimer Feld 229, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-12-21

    When vibrational dynamics on an ionic state (large dipole moment) is coupled to that on a neutral state (small dipole moment) such as at an avoided crossing in the alkali halide system, the population transfer between the states cause oscillation of the molecular dipole, leading to dipole emission. Such dynamics may be driven by an external field. We study how the coupled wavepacket dynamics is affected by the parameters (intensity, frequency) of the driving field with the aim of making use of the photoemission as an alternative detection scheme of femtosecond and subfemtosecond vibrational and electronic dynamics or as a characteristic optical source.

  3. Bogoliubov Angle, Particle-Hole Mixture and Angular Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy in Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, A.

    2010-05-04

    Superconducting excitations - Bogoliubov quasiparticles - are the quantum mechanical mixture of negatively charged electron (-e) and positively charged hole (+e). We propose a new observable for Angular Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES) studies that is the manifestation of the particle-hole entanglement of the superconducting quasiparticles. We call this observable a Bogoliubov angle. This angle measures the relative weight of particle and hole amplitude in the superconducting (Bogoliubov) quasiparticle. We show how this quantity can be measured by comparing the ratio of spectral intensities at positive and negative energies.

  4. Thermal and Field Enhanced Photoemission Comparison of Theory to Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn-Jensen, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Photocathodes are a critical component of high-gain FEL’s and the analysis of their emission is complex. Relating their performance under laboratory conditions to conditions of an rf photoinjector is difficult. Useful models must account for cathode surface conditions and material properties, as well as drive laser parameters. We have developed a time-dependent model accounting for the effects of laser heating and thermal propagation on photoemission. It accounts for surface conditions (coating, field enhancement, reflectivity), laser parameters (duration, intensity, wavelength), and material characteristics (reflectivity, laser penetration depth, scattering rates) to predict current distribution and quantum efficiency. The applicatIon will focus on photoemission from metals and, in particular, dispenser photocathodes: the later introduces complications such as coverage non-uniformity and field enhancement. The performance of experimentally characterized photocathodes will be extrapolated to 0.1 - 1 nC bunch...

  5. Core-level photoemission revealing the Mott transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeong-Do; Noh, Han-Jin; Kim, K.H.; Oh, S.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Ru 3d core-level X-ray photoemission spectra of various ruthenates are examined. They show in general two-peak structures, which can be assigned as the screened and unscreened peaks. The screened peak is absent in a Mott insulator, but develops into a main peak as the correlation strength becomes weak. This spectral behavior is well explained by the dynamical mean-field theory calculation for the single-band Hubbard model with the on-site core-hole potential using the exact diagonalization method. The new mechanism of the core-level photoemission satellite can be utilized to reveal the Mott transition phenomenon in various strongly correlated electron systems

  6. Quantification of plasmon excitations in core-level photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yubero, F.; Tougaard, S.

    2005-01-01

    Calculation of photoelectron spectra (PES) based on our previous dielectric response model [A. C. Simonsen et al. Phys. Rev. B 56, 1612 (1997)] for electronic excitations in PES are compared with recently reported experimental data. It is found that the dielectric description of electron energy losses in photoemission reproduces quantitatively the angular dependence of the surface and bulk electron losses observed experimentally for the Al2s photoemission spectra of Al(111), excited with MgKα radiation. The model also allows to calculate the separate intrinsic and extrinsic effects in photoemission. Thus, the extrinsic losses account for more than 95% of the total surface excitations. Regarding the bulk excitations, both extrinsic and intrinsic contributions vary significantly with emission angle. The intrinsic contribution represents ∼35% of the intensity at the bulk plasmon position at normal emission while only 18% at 80 deg. glancing emission. The calculations presented here can easily be used to interpret PES spectra of other materials in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic effects, if their dielectric properties are known

  7. Photoemission Experiments for Charge Characteristics of Individual Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Spann, James F., Jr.; Craven, Paul D.; West, E.; Pratico, Jared; Scheianu, D.; Tankosic, D.; Venturini, C. C.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Photoemission experiments with UV radiation have been performed to investigate the microphysics and charge characteristics of individual isolated dust grains of various compositions and sizes by using the electrodynamic balance facility at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Dust particles of 1 - 100 micrometer diameter are levitated in a vacuum chamber at pressures approx. 10(exp -5) torr and exposed to a collimated beam of UV radiation in the 120-300 nanometers spectral range from a deuterium lamp source with a MgF2 window. A monochromator is used to select the UV radiation wavelength with a spectral resolution of 8 nanometers. The electrodynamic facility permits measurements of the charge and diameters of particles of known composition, and monitoring of photoemission rates with the incident UV radiation. Experiments have been conducted on Al2O3 and silicate particles, and in particular on JSC-1 Mars regolith simulants, to determine the photoelectron yields and surface equilibrium potentials of dust particles when exposed to UV radiation in the 120-250 micrometers spectral range. A brief discussion of the experimental procedure, the results of photoemission experiments, and comparisons with theoretical models will be presented.

  8. Valency and type conversion in CuInSe2 with H2 plasma exposure: A photoemission investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.J.; Frigo, S.P.; Rosenberg, R.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of H 2 plasma exposure on CuInSe 2 was studied by synchrotron radiation soft-x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The low-power H 2 plasma was generated with a commercial electron cyclotron resonance plasma source using pure H 2 with the plasma exposure being performed at 200 degree C. In situ photoemission measurements were acquired after each plasma exposure in order to observe changes in the valence-band electronic structure as well as changes in the In 4d and Se 3d core lines. The results were correlated in order to relate changes in surface chemistry to the electronic structure. These measurements indicate that the H 2 plasma exposure type converts the CuInSe 2 surface to an n-type surface as well as converting the In +3 valency state to an In +1 valency state

  9. Structural origin of Si-2p core-level shifts from Si(100)-c[4x2] surface: A spectral x-ray photoelectron diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X.; Tonner, B.P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Denlinger, J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)][Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The authors have performed angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) from a Si(100)-c(4x2) surface to study the structural origin of Si-2p core-level shifts. In the experiment, the highly resolved surface Si-2p core-level spectra were measured as a fine grid of hemisphere and photon energies, using the SpectroMicroscopy Facility {open_quotes}ultraESCA{close_quotes} instrument. By carefully decomposing the spectra into several surface peaks, the authors are able to obtain surface-atom resolved XPD patterns. Using a multiple scattering analysis, they derived a detailed atomic model for the Si(100)-c(4x2) surface. In this model, the asymmetric dimers were found tilted by 11.5 plus/minus 2.0 degrees with bond length of 2.32 plus/minus 0.05{angstrom}. By matching model XPD patterns to experiment, the authors can identify which atoms in the reconstructed surface are responsible for specific photoemission lines in the 2p spectrum.

  10. The impact of inverse photoemission spectroscopy measurements on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhi; Schlaf, Rudy; Sun, Siqi; Li, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES) enables the characterization of the density of states of unoccupied energy states above the Fermi level. However, due to the relatively high electron currents required to achieve useful signal to noise ratios, sample damage is a concern. Regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rr-P3HT) was used to systematically study the influence of electron radiation during IPES measurements on a prototypical conductive polymer. A series of IPES measurements exposing the samples to a range of electron fluxes was performed. An analysis of the electronic structure and the morphology showed that significant changes occurred in the investigated samples depending on the electron flux. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the root cause of the spectral changes is most likely related to crystallization of the film in an edge-on orientation. This was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy where both the C-C and C=C stretch modes shifted to lower frequencies after 5 IPES scans indicating a more ordered molecular structure. The observation of these stretch modes even after exposure to higher electron flux indicates that the main chemical structure of the P3HT molecules remains mostly intact during the IPES measurements. The absence of significant changes in C 1s and S 2p photoemission core level lines also confirmed this conclusion

  11. Visualizing electron dynamics in organic materials: Charge transport through molecules and angular resolved photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Stephan

    Being able to visualize the dynamics of electrons in organic materials is a fascinating perspective. Simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory allow to realize this hope, as they visualize the flow of charge through molecular structures in real-space and real-time. We here present results on two fundamental processes: Photoemission from organic semiconductor molecules and charge transport through molecular structures. In the first part we demonstrate that angular resolved photoemission intensities - from both theory and experiment - can often be interpreted as a visualization of molecular orbitals. However, counter-intuitive quantum-mechanical electron dynamics such as emission perpendicular to the direction of the electrical field can substantially alter the picture, adding surprising features to the molecular orbital interpretation. In a second study we calculate the flow of charge through conjugated molecules. The calculations show in real time how breaks in the conjugation can lead to a local buildup of charge and the formation of local electrical dipoles. These can interact with neighboring molecular chains. As a consequence, collections of ''molecular electrical wires'' can show distinctly different characteristics than ''classical electrical wires''. German Science Foundation GRK 1640.

  12. Final state selection in the 4p photoemission of Rb by combining laser spectroscopy with soft-x-ray photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.; Tchaplyguine, M.; Rander, T.; Bergersen, H.; Lindblad, A.; Oehrwall, G.; Svensson, S.; Heinaesmaeki, S.; Sankari, R.; Osmekhin, S.; Aksela, S.; Aksela, H.

    2005-01-01

    Fine structure resolved 4p photoemission studies have been performed on free rubidium atoms in the ground state and after excitation into the [Kr]5p 2 P 1/2 and 2 P 3/2 states. The 4p 5 5p final states have been excited in the 4p 6 5s→4p 5 5p conjugate shakeup process from ground state atoms as well as by direct photoemission from laser excited atoms. The relative intensities differ considerably in these three excitation schemes. The differences in the laser excited spectra could be described well using calculations based on the pure jK-coupling scheme. Thereby it was possible to specify the character of the various final states. Furthermore it has been possible to resolve two of the final states whose energy separation is smaller than the experimental resolution by selectively exciting them in a two step scheme, where the laser selects the spin-orbit coupling in the intermediate state and determines the final state coupling after x-ray photoemission

  13. Electronic properties of Nd2−xCexCuO4+δ: A hard X-ray photoemission investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarino, A.; Panaccione, G.; Offi, F.; Monaco, G.; Fondacaro, A.; Torelli, P.; Fittipaldi, R.; Vecchione, A.; Pace, S.; Nigro, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We grow and characterize Nd 2−x Ce x CuO 4+δ samples as thin film and single crystal. • We study the Cu 2p levels of our samples by hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. • We investigate bulk features of the Nd 2−x Ce x CuO 4+δ samples. • Signature of the bulk response is correlated with the crystallinity of the samples. - Abstract: Cu 2p core levels spectra measured by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of selected as-grown Nd 2−x Ce x CuO 4+δ samples are presented and discussed. The presence of a satellite peak in the 2p core level of Nd 2−x Ce x CuO 4+δ single crystal by hard X-ray photoemission is confirmed in all non-superconducting samples, films and single crystals investigated in this work. The comparison of the spectral features of the different samples suggests that the presence and the intensity of this satellite peak is not related to the electric transport properties, but to the texture characteristics.

  14. Development of high-energy resolution inverse photoemission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, D.; Fujii, Y.; Mizokawa, T.

    2005-01-01

    We developed a new inverse photoemission (IPES) machine based on a new idea to improve the energy resolution: off-plane Eagle mounting of the optical system in combination with dispersion matching between incoming electron and outgoing photon. In order to achieve dispersion matching, we have employed a parallel plate electron source and have investigated whether the electron beam is obtained as expected. In this paper, we present the principle and design of the new IPES method and report the current status of the high-energy resolution IPES machine

  15. SUM-RULES FOR MAGNETIC DICHROISM IN RARE-EARTH 4F-PHOTOEMISSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    THOLE, BT; VANDERLAAN, G

    1993-01-01

    We present new sum rules for magnetic dichroism in spin polarized photoemission from partly filled shells which give the expectation values of the orbital and spin magnetic moments and their correlations in the ground state. We apply this to the 4f photoemission of rare earths, where the

  16. Iron 1s X-ray photoemission of Fe2O3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, P. S.; Borgatti, F.; Offi, F.; Panaccione, G.; de Groot, F. M. F.

    We present the Is X-ray photoemission spectrum of alpha-Fe2O3 in comparison with its 2p photoemission spectrum. We show that in case of transition metal oxides, because the 1s core hole is not affected by core hole spin-orbit coupling and almost not affected by core-valence multiplet effects, the Fe

  17. Photoemission spectroscopy of surfaces and adsorbates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, T.C.; Kaindl, G.; Himpsel, F.J.; Eastman, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Core level photoelectron spectroscopy is providing new information concerning the electronic properties of adsorbates and surfaces. Several examples will be discussed, including studies of adsorbed rare gas submonolayers and multilayers as well as clean metal surfaces. For rare gas multilayers adsorbed on metal surfaces, the photoelectrons and Auger electrons exhibit well-resolved increases in kinetic energy with decreasing distance between the excited atom and the substrate, allowing a direct labeling of the layers. These energy shifts are mainly due to the substrate screening effects, and can be described well by an image-charge model. For a Kr/Xe bilayer system prepared by first coating a Pd substrate with a monolayer of Kr and then overcoating with a layer of Xe, a thermally activated layer inversion process is observed when the temperature is raised, with Xe coming in direct contact with the substrate. For rare gas submonolayers adsorbed on the Al(111) surface, coverage-dependent core level shift and work function measurements provide information about the adatom spatial distributions, polarizabilities, and dipole moments for the ground and excited states. We have also studied the 2p core level shifts for a clean Al(001) surface relative to the bulk. The shifts have a large contribution from the initial-state effects

  18. Magnetic x-ray linear dichroism in resonant and non-resonant Gd 4f photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, S.; Gammon, W.J.; Pappas, D.P. [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The enhancement of the magnetic linear dichroism in resonant 4f photoemission (MLDRPE) is studied from a 50 monolayer film of Gd/Y(0001). The ALS at beamline 7.0.1 provided the source of linearly polarized x-rays used in this study. The polarized light was incident at an angle of 30 degrees relative to the film plane, and the sample magnetization was perpendicular to the photon polarization. The linear dichroism of the 4f core levels is measured as the photon energy is tuned through the 4d-4f resonance. The authors find that the MLDRPE asymmetry is strongest at the resonance. Near the threshold the asymmetry has several features which are out of phase with the fine structure of the total yield.

  19. Magnetic x-ray linear dichroism in resonant and non-resonant Gd 4f photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.; Gammon, W.J.; Pappas, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    The enhancement of the magnetic linear dichroism in resonant 4f photoemission (MLDRPE) is studied from a 50 monolayer film of Gd/Y(0001). The ALS at beamline 7.0.1 provided the source of linearly polarized x-rays used in this study. The polarized light was incident at an angle of 30 degrees relative to the film plane, and the sample magnetization was perpendicular to the photon polarization. The linear dichroism of the 4f core levels is measured as the photon energy is tuned through the 4d-4f resonance. The authors find that the MLDRPE asymmetry is strongest at the resonance. Near the threshold the asymmetry has several features which are out of phase with the fine structure of the total yield

  20. Simultaneous measurements of photoemission and morphology of various Al alloys during mechanical deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, M.; Li, W.; Dickinson, J. T.

    2006-11-01

    We report simultaneous measurements of strain and photoelectron emission from high purity Al (1350), Al-Mg (5052), Al-Mn (3003), Al-Cu (2024), and Al-Mg-Si (6061) alloys under uniaxial tension due to pulsed excimer laser radiation (248nm). The emission of low-energy photoelectrons is sensitive to deformation-induced changes in surface morphology, including the formation of slip lines and slip bands. Alloy composition and surface treatment significantly influence the photoemission during deformation. Surface oxide enhances the signal-to-noise level during photoemission measurement. In the early stage of deformation (strain ⩽0.04), photoemission intensity increases gradually in a nonlinear fashion. While subsequent photoemission increases almost linearly with strain until failure in samples with thin oxide layer (˜31Å), there are two linear segments of photoemission for the samples with oxide of 45Å. The onset of strain localization corresponds to the intersection point of two linear segments, usually at a strain of 0.08-0.20. A constitutive model incorporating microstructure evolution and work hardening during tensile deformation is proposed to qualitatively interpret the growth of the photoemission as a function of strain. Photoemissions from various alloys are interpreted in the light of surface treatment, work function, composition, and microstructural development during deformation.

  1. Magnetic dichroism in photoemission: a new element-specific magnetometer with atomic-layer resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starke, K.; Arenholz, E.; Kaindl, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Magnetic coupling in layered metallic structures has become a key issue in thin-film magnetism since the observation of oscillatory exchange coupling across non-ferromagnetic spacer layers. Although this phenomenon was discovered in rare earths (RE) superlattices, mostly transition-metal systems have been studied and are now applied in data-storage industry. An understanding of the coupling mechanisms has been reached after a fabrication of high-quality interfaces became possible. It allowed, in particular, the experimental finding of induced ferromagnetic order in 'nonmagnetic' atomic layers near an interface, using element-specific probes such as magnetic circular dichroism in x-ray absorption. - In layered RE systems, by contrast, the well known intermiscibility has prevented a preparation of atomically sharp interfaces, and all RE superlattices studied so far showed interdiffusion zones of several atomic layers. In the present overview, we report the first fabrication of atomically flat heteromagnetic RE interfaces, their structural characterization and their magnetic analysis using magnetic dichroism in photoemission (MDPE). This new tool gives access to the magnetization of individual atomic layers near interfaces in favourite cases. Merits of MDPE as a magnetometer are demonstrated at the example of Eu/Gd(0001), where chemical shifts of core-level photoemission lines allow to spectroscopically separate up to four different atomic layers. The high surface sensitivity of MDPE, together with the well known dependence of the core-level binding energies on the coordination number of the photo emitting atom, opens the door to future site-specific studies of magnetism in sub-monolayer systems such as 'nanowires'

  2. X-ray photoemission electron microscopy, a tool for the investigation of complex magnetic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholl, Andreas; Ohldag, Hendrik; Nolting, Frithjof; Stohr, Joachim; Padmore, Howard A.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray Photoemission Electron Microscopy unites the chemical specificity and magnetic sensitivity of soft x-ray absorption techniques with the high spatial resolution of electron microscopy. The discussed instrument possesses a spatial resolution of better than 50 nm and is located at a bending magnet beamline at the Advanced Light Source, providing linearly and circularly polarized radiation between 250 and 1300 eV. We will present examples which demonstrate the power of this technique applied to problems in the field of thin film magnetism. The chemical and elemental specificity is of particular importance for the study of magnetic exchange coupling because it allows separating the signal of the different layers and interfaces in complex multi-layered structures

  3. Schottky barrier measurements on individual GaAs nanowires by X-ray photoemission microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Mario, Lorenzo [IMM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Turchini, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.turchini@cnr.it [ISM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Zamborlini, Giovanni; Feyer, Vitaly [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Tian, Lin [IMM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Schneider, Claus M. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Fakultät für Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Rubini, Silvia [IOM-CNR, TASC Laboratory, Basovizza 34149, Trieste (Italy); Martelli, Faustino, E-mail: faustino.martelli@cnr.it [IMM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The Schottky barrier at the interface between Cu and GaAs nanowires was measured. • Individual nanowires were investigated by X-ray Photoemission Microscopy. • The Schottky barrier at different positions along the nanowire was evaluated. - Abstract: We present measurements of the Schottky barrier height on individual GaAs nanowires by means of x-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (XPEEM). Values of 0.73 and 0.51 eV, averaged over the entire wires, were measured on Cu-covered n-doped and p-doped GaAs nanowires, respectively, in agreement with results obtained on bulk material. Our measurements show that XPEEM can become a feasible and reliable investigation tool of interface formation at the nanoscale and pave the way towards the study of size-dependent effects on semiconductor-based structures.

  4. An aberration corrected photoemission electron microscope at the advanced light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, J.; MacDowell, A.A.; Duarte, R.; Doran, A.; Forest, E.; Kelez, N.; Marcus, M.; Munson, D.; Padmore, H.; Petermann, K.; Raoux, S.; Robin, D.; Scholl, A.; Schlueter, R.; Schmid, P.; Stohr, J.; Wan, W.; Wei, D.H.; Wu, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Design of a new aberration corrected Photoemission electron microscope PEEM3 at the Advanced Light Source is outlined. PEEM3 will be installed on an elliptically polarized undulator beamline and will be used for the study of complex materials at high spatial and spectral resolution. The critical components of PEEM3 are the electron mirror aberration corrector and aberration-free magnetic beam separator. The models to calculate the optical properties of the electron mirror are discussed. The goal of the PEEM3 project is to achieve the highest possible transmission of the system at resolutions comparable to our present PEEM2 system (50 nm) and to enable significantly higher resolution, albeit at the sacrifice of intensity. We have left open the possibility to add an energy filter at a later date, if it becomes necessary driven by scientific need to improve the resolution further

  5. Theory of pump–probe ultrafast photoemission and X-ray absorption spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujikawa, Takashi, E-mail: tfujikawa@faculty.chiba-u.jp; Niki, Kaori

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Pump–probe ultrafast XAFS and XPS spectra are theoretically studied. • Keldysh Green's function theory is applied. • Important many-body effects are explicitly included. - Abstract: Keldysh Green's function approach is extensively used in order to derive practical formulas to analyze pump–probe ultrafast photoemission and X-ray absorption spectra. Here the pump pulse is strong enough whereas the probe X-ray pulse can be treated by use of a perturbation theory. We expand full Green's function in terms of renormalized Green's function without the interaction between electrons and probe pulse. The present theoretical formulas allow us to handle the intrinsic and extrinsic losses, and furthermore resonant effects in X-ray Absorption Fine Structures (XAFS). To understand the radiation field screening in XPS spectra, we have to use more sophisticated theoretical approach. In the ultrafast XPS and XAFS analyses the intrinsic and extrinsic loss effects can interfere as well. In the XAFS studies careful analyses are necessary to handle extrinsic losses in terms of damped photoelectron propagation. The nonequilibrium dynamics after the pump pulse irradiation is well described by use of the time-dependent Dyson orbitals. Well above the edge threshold, ultrafast photoelectron diffraction and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) provide us with transient structural change after the laser pump excitations. In addition to these slow processes, the rapid oscillation in time plays an important role related to pump electronic excitations. Near threshold detailed information could be obtained for the combined electronic and structural dynamics. In particular high-energy photoemission and EXAFS are not so influenced by the details of excited states by pump pulse. Random-Phase Approximation (RPA)-boson approach is introduced to derive some practical formulas for time-dependent intrinsic amplitudes.

  6. Electric field stimulation setup for photoemission electron microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, M; Vaz, C A F; Raabe, J; Nolting, F

    2015-08-01

    Manipulating magnetisation by the application of an electric field in magnetoelectric multiferroics represents a timely issue due to the potential applications in low power electronics and the novel physics involved. Thanks to its element sensitivity and high spatial resolution, X-ray photoemission electron microscopy is a uniquely suited technique for the investigation of magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic materials. In this work, we present a setup that allows for the application of in situ electric and magnetic fields while the sample is analysed in the microscope. As an example of the performances of the setup, we present measurements on Ni/Pb(Mg(0.66)Nb(0.33))O3-PbTiO3 and La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO3/PMN-PT artificial multiferroic nanostructures.

  7. Photoemission characteristics of thin GaAs-based heterojunction photocathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Cheng; Zhang, Yijun, E-mail: zhangyijun423@126.com; Qian, Yunsheng [Institute of Electronic Engineering and Optoelectronic Technology, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Shi, Feng [Science and Technology on Low-Light-Level Night Vision Laboratory, Xi' an 710065 (China); Zou, Jijun [Engineering Research Center of Nuclear Technology Application (East China Institute of Technology), Ministry of Education, Nanchang 330013 (China); Zeng, Yugang [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2015-01-14

    To better understand the different photoemission mechanism of thin heterojunction photocathodes, the quantum efficiency models of reflection-mode and transmission-mode GaAs-based heterojunction photocathodes are revised based on one-dimensional continuity equations, wherein photoelectrons generated from both the emission layer and buffer layer are taken into account. By comparison of simulated results between the revised and conventional models, it is found that the electron contribution from the buffer layer to shortwave quantum efficiency is closely related to some factors, such as the thicknesses of emission layer and buffer layer and the interface recombination velocity. Besides, the experimental quantum efficiency data of reflection-mode and transmission-mode AlGaAs/GaAs photocathodes are well fitted to the revised models, which confirm the applicability of the revised quantum efficiency models.

  8. Energy band dispersion in photoemission spectra of argon clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstel, Marko; Mucke, Melanie; Arion, Tiberiu; Lischke, Toralf; Barth, Silko; Ulrich, Volker; Ohrwall, Gunnar; Bjoerneholm, Olle; Hergenhahn, Uwe; Bradshaw, Alex M.

    2011-01-01

    Using photoemission we have investigated free argon clusters from a supersonic nozzle expansion in the photon energy range from threshold up to 28 eV. Measurements were performed both at high resolution with a hemispherical electrostatic energy analyser and at lower resolution with a magnetic bottle device. The latter experiments were performed for various mean cluster sizes. In addition to the ∼1.5 eV broad 3p-derived valence band seen in previous work, there is a sharper feature at ∼15 eV binding energy. Surprisingly for non-oriented clusters, this peak shifts smoothly in binding energy over the narrow photon energy range 15.5-17.7 eV, indicating energy band dispersion. The onset of this bulk band-like behaviour could be determined from the cluster size dependence.

  9. Angle-resolved polarimetry of antenna-mediated fluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohtashami, A.; Osorio, C.I.; Koenderink, A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Optical phase-array antennas can be used to control not only the angular distribution but also the polarization of fluorescence from quantum emitters. The emission pattern of the resulting system is determined by the properties of the antenna, the properties of the emitters, and the strength of the

  10. Angle Resolved Performance Measurements on PV Glass and Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juutilainen, Line Tollund; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2016-01-01

    The angular response of PV-modules has significant impact on the energy production. This is especially pronounced in BIPV where installation angles often are far from optimal. Nevertheless, a gain in energy yield may be obtained by choosing a proper glass as superstrate. In this work we present...... the concept of PV balconies as cost efficient and easy way of integrating PV into buildings. The experimental work consists of the fabrication of single cell mini modules with different glass covering, and characterizing their angular response in a custom made setup, where only the direct sunlight is used...... as a light source. As a special case we estimate the annual yield for each glass in the case of PV balconies for a specific geographical location and orientation of the module....

  11. Electronic structure investigation of atomic layer deposition ruthenium(oxide) thin films using photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Michael, E-mail: mvschaefer@mail.usf.edu, E-mail: schlaf@mail.usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Schlaf, Rudy, E-mail: mvschaefer@mail.usf.edu, E-mail: schlaf@mail.usf.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    Analyzing and manipulating the electronic band line-up of interfaces in novel micro- and nanoelectronic devices is important to achieve further advancement in this field. Such band alignment modifications can be achieved by introducing thin conformal interfacial dipole layers. Atomic layer deposition (ALD), enabling angstrom-precise control over thin film thickness, is an ideal technique for this challenge. Ruthenium (Ru{sup 0}) and its oxide (RuO{sub 2}) have gained interest in the past decade as interfacial dipole layers because of their favorable properties like metal-equivalent work functions, conductivity, etc. In this study, initial results of the electronic structure investigation of ALD Ru{sup 0} and RuO{sub 2} films via photoemission spectroscopy are presented. These experiments give insight into the band alignment, growth behavior, surface structure termination, and dipole formation. The experiments were performed in an integrated vacuum system attached to a home-built, stop-flow type ALD reactor without exposing the samples to the ambient in between deposition and analysis. Bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium(II) was used as precursor and oxygen as reactant. The analysis chamber was outfitted with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (LIXPS, XPS). The determined growth modes are consistent with a strong growth inhibition situation with a maximum average growth rate of 0.21 Å/cycle for RuO{sub 2} and 0.04 Å/cycle for Ru.{sup 0} An interface dipole of up to −0.93 eV was observed, supporting the assumption of a strongly physisorbed interface. A separate experiment where the surface of a RuO film was sputtered suggests that the surface is terminated by an intermediate, stable, non-stoichiometric RuO{sub 2}/OH compound whose surface is saturated with hydroxyl groups.

  12. Electronic structure investigation of atomic layer deposition ruthenium(oxide) thin films using photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Michael; Schlaf, Rudy

    2015-08-01

    Analyzing and manipulating the electronic band line-up of interfaces in novel micro- and nanoelectronic devices is important to achieve further advancement in this field. Such band alignment modifications can be achieved by introducing thin conformal interfacial dipole layers. Atomic layer deposition (ALD), enabling angstrom-precise control over thin film thickness, is an ideal technique for this challenge. Ruthenium (Ru0) and its oxide (RuO2) have gained interest in the past decade as interfacial dipole layers because of their favorable properties like metal-equivalent work functions, conductivity, etc. In this study, initial results of the electronic structure investigation of ALD Ru0 and RuO2 films via photoemission spectroscopy are presented. These experiments give insight into the band alignment, growth behavior, surface structure termination, and dipole formation. The experiments were performed in an integrated vacuum system attached to a home-built, stop-flow type ALD reactor without exposing the samples to the ambient in between deposition and analysis. Bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium(II) was used as precursor and oxygen as reactant. The analysis chamber was outfitted with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (LIXPS, XPS). The determined growth modes are consistent with a strong growth inhibition situation with a maximum average growth rate of 0.21 Å/cycle for RuO2 and 0.04 Å/cycle for Ru.0 An interface dipole of up to -0.93 eV was observed, supporting the assumption of a strongly physisorbed interface. A separate experiment where the surface of a RuO film was sputtered suggests that the surface is terminated by an intermediate, stable, non-stoichiometric RuO2/OH compound whose surface is saturated with hydroxyl groups.

  13. Electronic structure investigation of atomic layer deposition ruthenium(oxide) thin films using photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Michael; Schlaf, Rudy

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing and manipulating the electronic band line-up of interfaces in novel micro- and nanoelectronic devices is important to achieve further advancement in this field. Such band alignment modifications can be achieved by introducing thin conformal interfacial dipole layers. Atomic layer deposition (ALD), enabling angstrom-precise control over thin film thickness, is an ideal technique for this challenge. Ruthenium (Ru 0 ) and its oxide (RuO 2 ) have gained interest in the past decade as interfacial dipole layers because of their favorable properties like metal-equivalent work functions, conductivity, etc. In this study, initial results of the electronic structure investigation of ALD Ru 0 and RuO 2 films via photoemission spectroscopy are presented. These experiments give insight into the band alignment, growth behavior, surface structure termination, and dipole formation. The experiments were performed in an integrated vacuum system attached to a home-built, stop-flow type ALD reactor without exposing the samples to the ambient in between deposition and analysis. Bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium(II) was used as precursor and oxygen as reactant. The analysis chamber was outfitted with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (LIXPS, XPS). The determined growth modes are consistent with a strong growth inhibition situation with a maximum average growth rate of 0.21 Å/cycle for RuO 2 and 0.04 Å/cycle for Ru. 0 An interface dipole of up to −0.93 eV was observed, supporting the assumption of a strongly physisorbed interface. A separate experiment where the surface of a RuO film was sputtered suggests that the surface is terminated by an intermediate, stable, non-stoichiometric RuO 2 /OH compound whose surface is saturated with hydroxyl groups

  14. Evidence of chemical-potential shift with hole doping in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Z.; Dessau, D.S.; Wells, B.O.; Olson, C.G.; Mitzi, D.B.; Lombado, L.; List, R.S.; Arko, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    We have performed photoemission studies on high-quality Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ samples with various δ. Our results show a clear chemical-potential shift (0.15--0.2 eV) as a function of doping. This result and the existing angle-resolved-photoemission data give a rather standard doping behavior of this compound in its highly doped regime

  15. Theory of photoemission and inverse-photoemission spectra of highly correlated electron systems: A weak-coupling 1/N expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riseborough, P.S.

    1989-01-01

    An N-fold-degenerate Hubbard model is examined in the weak-coupling regime. The one-electron Green's function is calculated from a systematic expansion of the irreducible self-energy in powers of 1/N. To lowest order in the expansion, one obtains a trivial mean-field theory. In the next leading order in 1/N, one finds that the dynamics are dominated by bosonlike collective excitations. The resulting expansion has the characteristics of the standard weak-coupling field theory, except the inclusion of the 1/N factors extends the regime of applicability to include Stoner-like enhancement factors which can be N times larger. The joint valence-band photoemission and inverse-photoemission spectrum is given by the trace of the imaginary part of the one-electron Green's function. The electronic spectrum has been calculated by truncating the series expansion for the self-energy in the lowest nontrivial order of 1/N. For small values of the Coulomb interaction between the electrons, the spectrum reduces to the form obtained by calculating the self-energy to second order in the Coulomb interaction. The spectra shows a narrowing of the band in the vicinity of the Fermi level and long high-energy band tails. When the boson spectrum softens, indicating the vicinity of a phase transition, the electronic spectrum shows the appearance of satellites. The results are compared with experimental observations of anomalies in the electronic spectra of uranium-based systems. The relation between the electronic spectrum and the thermodynamic mass enhancements is also discussed

  16. New Developments in Theory of X-ray Photoemission from Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    In this review article we discuss some new developments in photoemission theories. We first discuss basic theoretical framework on the basis of quantum electrodynamics (QED), which allows us to treat radiation field screening from first principle theory. Based on this theoretical framework, recent theoretical developments in x-ray photoemission theories are reviewed, which have rarely been discussed in the previous review articles. Topics selected in this review article are multi-atom resonant photoemission (MARPE), anomalous behavior of the L 23 -edge intensity ratio of 3d transition metals, high-energy photoemission in particular non-dipole effects and recoil exciting phonon around the x-ray absorbing atom, and relativistic and magnetic effects.

  17. 'Reprint of' New Developments in Theory of X-ray Photoemission from Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    In this review article we discuss some new developments in photoemission theories. We first discuss basic theoretical framework on the basis of quantum electrodynamics (QED), which allows us to treat radiation field screening from first principle theory. Based on this theoretical framework, recent theoretical developments in x-ray photoemission theories are reviewed, which have rarely been discussed in the previous review articles. Topics selected in this review article are multi-atom resonant photoemission (MARPE), anomalous behavior of the L 23 -edge intensity ratio of 3d transition metals, high-energy photoemission in particular non-dipole effects and recoil exciting phonon around the x-ray absorbing atom, and relativistic and magnetic effects.

  18. Experiments recently carried out on the photoemission station at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurash Ibrahim; Wu Ziyu; Qian Haijie; Zhang Jing; Abbas, M.I.; Chen Zhigang; Su Run; Liu Fengqin

    2003-01-01

    With a sustained and steady operation of the photoemission station at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, users from different research fields have carried out their investigation on the electronic structure of metal surface-interface, metal doped fullerene as well as colossal magneto-resistance materials utilizing different experimental modes provided by the photoemission station. In this paper authors would present some representative experimental results obtained on the station

  19. Many-body effects in X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and electronic properties of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohiki, S.

    1999-01-01

    Photoemission from a solid is evidently a many-body process since the motion of each electron cannot be independent of the motions of other electrons. In this article we review the reported many-body effects in X-ray photoemission such as extra-atomic relaxation energy, charge transfer satellite and energy loss structure which are informative in relation to the characteristics of solids. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Understanding metal–insulator transition in sodium tungsten bronze

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-20

    May 20, 2015 ... We have carried out angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and spectromicroscopy studies to understand the metal–insulator transition (MIT) observed in sodium tungsten bronzes, NaWO3. The experimentally determined band structure is compared with the theoretical calculation based ...

  1. Strongly anisotropic spin-orbit splitting in a two-dimensional electron gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michiardi, Matteo; Bianchi, Marco; Dendzik, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Near-surface two-dimensional electron gases on the topological insulator Bi$_2$Te$_2$Se are induced by electron doping and studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. A pronounced spin-orbit splitting is observed for these states. The $k$-dependent splitting is strongly anisotropic to a...

  2. Surface and interface electronic structure: Sixth year activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevan, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    Several productive runs were made on beamline U4A at NSLS. An upgrade of angle-resolved photoemission spectrometer was largely completed on the beamline. Progress was made on studies of surface states and reconstruction on Mo(001) and W(001), and of surface states and resonances on Pt(111)

  3. Transition to intermediate valence state and x-ray photoemission in Sm/sub 1-x/Gd/sub x/S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campagna, M.; Chui, S.T.; Wertheim, G.K.; Tosatti, E.

    1976-01-01

    We report a systematic x-ray photoemission study of the alloys Sm 1 /sub -//subx/Gd/subx/S for 0 2+ → Sm 3+ photoemission line shape using a model which has some similarities with the Jaccarino-Walker model for magnetic alloys. It assumes the existence of only two different kinds of Sm 2+ ions in Sm 1 /sub -//subx/Gd/subx/S for x approximately-less-than 16%. We discuss possible reasons for the fact that Gd does not show the usual clustering effects known to occur in many substitutional rare-earth alloys. Lattice-constant measurements for various substituents further illustrate the importance of electronic effects in the phase transition

  4. Growth and photoemission spectroscopic studies of ultrathin noble ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-24

    May 24, 2015 ... Growth of Cu, Ag and Au thin films on graphite(0 0 0 1)surface and possible ... als on HOPG, MoTe2, WTe2, WSe2 [5,14,15] and on single-crystalline ..... but with opposite sign, and as a result Ag grows epitaxially even at RT, ...

  5. Photoemission studies of amorphous silicon induced by P + ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petö, G.; Kanski, J.

    1995-12-01

    An amorphous Si layer was formed on a Si (1 0 0) surface by P + implantation at 80 keV. This layer was investigated by means of photoelectron spectroscopy. The resulting spectra are different from earlier spectra on amorphous Si prepared by e-gun evaporation or cathode sputtering. The differences consist of a decreased intensity in the spectral region corresponding to p-states, and appearace of new states at higher binding energy. Qualitativity similar results have been reported for Sb implanted amorphous Ge and the modification seems to be due to the changed short range order.

  6. X-Ray Photoemission Study of the Oxidation of Hafnium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chourasia, R.; Hickman, J.L.; Miller, R.L.; Nixon, G.A.; Seabolt, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    About 20 angstrom of hafnium were deposited on silicon substrates using the electron beam evaporation technique. Two types of samples were investigated. In one type, the substrate was kept at the ambient temperature. After the deposition, the substrate temperature was increased to 100, 200, and 300 degree C. In the other type, the substrate temperature was held fixed at some value during the deposition. For this type, the substrate temperatures used were 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 550, and 600 degree C. The samples were characterized in situ by the technique of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No trace of elemental hafnium is observed in the deposited overlayer. Also, there is no evidence of any chemical reactivity between the overlayer and the silicon substrate over the temperature range used. The hafnium overlayer shows a mixture of the dioxide and the suboxide. The ratio of the suboxide to dioxide is observed to be more in the first type of samples. The spectral data indicate that hafnium has a strong affinity for oxygen. The overlayer gets completely oxidized to form HfO 2 at substrate temperature around 300 degree C for the first type of samples and at substrate temperature greater than 550 degree C for the second type

  7. X-Ray Photoemission Study of the Oxidation of Hafnium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Chourasia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available About 20 Å of hafnium were deposited on silicon substrates using the electron beam evaporation technique. Two types of samples were investigated. In one type, the substrate was kept at the ambient temperature. After the deposition, the substrate temperature was increased to 100, 200, and 300∘C. In the other type, the substrate temperature was held fixed at some value during the deposition. For this type, the substrate temperatures used were 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 550, and 600∘C. The samples were characterized in situ by the technique of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No trace of elemental hafnium is observed in the deposited overlayer. Also, there is no evidence of any chemical reactivity between the overlayer and the silicon substrate over the temperature range used. The hafnium overlayer shows a mixture of the dioxide and the suboxide. The ratio of the suboxide to dioxide is observed to be more in the first type of samples. The spectral data indicate that hafnium has a strong affinity for oxygen. The overlayer gets completely oxidized to form HfO2 at substrate temperature around 300∘C for the first type of samples and at substrate temperature greater than 550∘C for the second type.

  8. Final state effects in photoemission studies of Fermi surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, Richard L; Browne, Dana A; Mankey, Gary J

    2007-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is one of the most important methods for extracting information about the Fermi surface (FS) of materials. An electron photoexcited from the FS is emitted from the crystal conserving the parallel momentum, k parallel , while the perpendicular momentum k perpendicular is reduced due to the surface potential barrier. A simple interpretation of the process assumes the final state is free-electron-like allowing one to 'map' the detected photoelectron back to its initial k momentum. There are multiple final state effects that can complicate the interpretation of photoelectron data and these effects are reviewed here. These can involve both energy and k broadening, which can give rise to shadow or ghost FS contours, scattering and final state diffraction effects that modify intensities, and matrix element effects which reflect the symmetries of the states involved and can be highly dependent on photon polarization. These matrix elements result in contours of photoelectron intensity that follow the dispersion in k-space of the initial state, the FS, and the final state. Locations where intensities go to zero due to matrix element and symmetry effects can result in gaps where FS contours 'disappear'. Recognition that these effects can play a significant role in determining the measured angular distributions is crucial in developing an informed model of where the FS contours actually lie in relation to measured intensity contours

  9. Photoemission and photo-field-emission from photocathodes with arrays of silicon tips under continuous and pulsed lasers action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, M.

    1995-11-01

    The electron machines's development and improvement go through the discovery of new electron sources of high brightness. After reminding the interests in studying silicon cathodes with array of tips as electron sources, I describe, in the three steps model, the main phenomenological features related to photoemission and photoemission and photo-field-emission from a semi-conductor. the experimental set-ups used for the measurements reported in chapter four, five and six are described in chapter three. In chapter three. In chapter four several aspects of photo-field-emission in continuous and nanosecond regimes, studied on the Clermont-Ferrand's test bench are tackled. We have measured quantum efficacies of 0.4 percent in the red (1.96 eV). Temporal responses in the nanoseconds range (10 ns) were observed with the Nd: YLF laser. With the laser impinging at an oblique angle we obtained ratios of photocurrent to dark current of the order of twenty. The issue of the high energy extracted photocurrent saturation is addressed and I give a preliminary explanation. In collaboration with the L.A.L. (Laboratoire de l'Accelerateur Lineaire) some tests with shortened pulsed laser beam (Nd: YAG laser 35 ps) were performed. Satisfactory response times have been obtained within the limitation of the scope (400 ps). (authors). 101 refs. 93 figs., 27 tabs., 3 photos., 1 append

  10. Metal/silicon Interfaces and Their Oxidation Behavior - Photoemission Spectroscopy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jyh-Jye

    Synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy was used to study Ni/Si and Au/Si interface properties on the atomic scale at room temperature, after high temperature annealing and after oxygen exposures. Room temperature studies of metal/Si interfaces provide background for an understanding of the interface structure after elevated temperature annealing. Oxidation studies of Si surfaces covered with metal overlayers yield insight about the effect of metal atoms in the Si oxidation mechanisms and are useful in the identification of subtle differences in bonding relations between atoms at the metal/Si interfaces. Core level and valence band spectra with variable surface sensitivities were used to study the interactions between metal, Si, and oxygen for metal coverages and oxide thickness in the monolayer region. Interface morphology at the initial stage of metal/Si interface formation and after oxidation was modeled on the basis of the evolutions of metal and Si signals at different probing depths in the photoemission experiment. Both Ni/Si and Au/Si interfaces formed at room temperature have a diffusive region at the interface. This is composed of a layer of metal-Si alloy, formed by Si outdiffusion into the metal overlayer, above a layer of interstitial metal atoms in the Si substrate. Different atomic structures of these two regions at Ni/Si interface can account for the two different growth orientations of epitaxial Ni disilicides on the Si(111) surface after thermal annealing. Annealing the Au/Si interface at high temperature depletes all the Au atoms except for one monolayer of Au on the Si(111) surface. These phenomena are attributed to differences in the metal-Si chemical bonding relations associated with specific atomic structures. After oxygen exposures, both the Ni disilicide surface and Au covered Si surfaces (with different coverages and surface orderings) show silicon in higher oxidation states, in comparison to oxidized silicon on a clean surface

  11. Reversible switching in self-assembled monolayers of azobenzene thiolates on Au (111) probed by threshold photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, Nils, E-mail: heinemann@physik.uni-kiel.de [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Leibnizstr. 19, 24098 Kiel (Germany); Grunau, Jan; Leissner, Till; Andreyev, Oleksiy; Kuhn, Sonja; Jung, Ulrich [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Leibnizstr. 19, 24098 Kiel (Germany); Zargarani, Dordaneh; Herges, Rainer [Otto-Diels-Institut fuer Organische Chemie, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Otto-Hahn-Platz 4, 24098 Kiel (Germany); Magnussen, Olaf; Bauer, Michael [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Leibnizstr. 19, 24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2012-06-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoelectron spectroscopy of liquid phase prepared SAMs of azobenzene derivative. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photo-induced reversible switching in densely packed SAM is monitored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum density of switched molecules in SAM is derived from photoemission data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Switching reaction only enabled at defects sites within the molecular layer. - Abstract: The reversible photo- and thermally activated isomerization of the molecular switch 3-(4-(4-Hexyl-phenylazo)-phenoxy)-propane-1-thiol (ABT, short for AzoBenzeneThiol) deposited by self-assembly from solution on Au (111) was studied using laser-based photoelectron spectroscopy. Differences in the molecular dipole moment characteristic for the trans and the cis isomer of ABT were monitored via changes in the sample work function, accessible by detection of the threshold energy for photoemission. A quantitative analysis of our data shows that the fraction of molecules within the densely packed monolayer that undergoes a switching process is of the order of 1%. This result indicates the relevance of substrate and film defects required to overcome the steric or electronic hindrance of the isomerization reaction in a densely packed monolayer.

  12. Surface type conversion of CuInSe2 with H2S plasma exposure: A photoemission investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.J.; Frigo, S.P.; Rosenberg, R.

    1995-01-01

    Surface type conversion of CuInSe 2 by H 2 S plasma exposure was studied by synchrotron radiation soft x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The low power H 2 S plasma was generated with a commercial electron cyclotron resonance plasma source using pure H 2 S with the plasma exposure being performed at 400 degree C. In situ photoemission measurements were acquired after each plasma exposure in order to observe changes in the valence band electronic structure as well as changes in the In 4d and Se 3d core lines. The results were correlated in order to relate changes in surface chemistry to the electronic structure. These measurements indicate that the H 2 S plasma exposure type converts the n-type CuInSe 2 surface to a p-type surface at this elevated temperature and that the magnitude of the band bending is 0.5 eV, resulting in a homojunction interface. copyright 1995 American Vacuum Society

  13. Gas-phase photoemission with soft x-rays: Cross sections and angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.A.; Kobrin, P.H.; Truesdale, C.M.; Lindle, D.W.; Ferrett, T.A.; Heimann, P.A.; Becker, U.; Kerkhoff, H.G.; Southworth, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    A summary is presented of typical gas-phase photoemission studies based on synchrotron radiation in the 50-5000 eV range, using beam lines at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Three topics are addressed: atomic inner-shell photoelectron cross sections and asymmetries, correlation peaks in rare gases, and core-level shape resonances in molecules. Photoelectron cross-section σ(n iota) and asymmetry-parameter β(n iota) studies in mercury vapor at photon energies up to 270 eV (up to 600 eV for β/sub 4f/) extend coverage of these parameters to n≤5 and iota≤3. Comparison with Dirac-Slater and relativistic random-phase approximation calculations reveals systematic discrepancies. For example, distinct Cooper minima in σ(n iota) are observed but not predicted, while predicted β(n iota) values are typically too high. Correlation satellites have been studied for the K shells of helium (hν = 68-90 eV), neon (hν = 870-960 eV) and argon (hν = 3200-3320 eV). In helium the n=2 satellite peak was shown to have mainly 2p character at threshold, and its asymmetry was measured through the autoionizing resonance region. Tentative evidence was obtained that the neon satellites are less intense near threshold than in the high-energy limit, and that their intensities stay constant or decrease with increasing energy near threshold. A new satellite was observed in argon at 24.6 eV which appears to increase in intensity with energy. Molecular core-level shape resonances were observed for the first time by photoemission, yielding σ(hν) and β(hν) for core levels from 180 eV binding energy (S 2p in SF/sub 6/ and OCS) through C 1s in CO, CO/sub 2/ and CF/sub 4/, N 1s in N/sub 2/ and NO, and O 1s in CO and CO/sub 2/ to 2490 eV (S 1s in SF/sub 6/). Several conclusions can be drawn about the photoelectron and Auger cross sections and asymmetry parameters

  14. Photoemission and photo-field-emission from photocathodes with arrays of silicon tips under continuous and pulsed lasers action; Photoemission et photoemission de champ a partir de photocathodes a reseaux de pointes de silicium sous l`action de lasers continus et pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguna, M.

    1995-11-01

    The electron machines`s development and improvement go through the discovery of new electron sources of high brightness. After reminding the interests in studying silicon cathodes with array of tips as electron sources, I describe, in the three steps model, the main phenomenological features related to photoemission and photoemission and photo-field-emission from a semi-conductor. the experimental set-ups used for the measurements reported in chapter four, five and six are described in chapter three. In chapter three. In chapter four several aspects of photo-field-emission in continuous and nanosecond regimes, studied on the Clermont-Ferrand`s test bench are tackled. We have measured quantum efficacies of 0.4 percent in the red (1.96 eV). Temporal responses in the nanoseconds range (10 ns) were observed with the Nd: YLF laser. With the laser impinging at an oblique angle we obtained ratios of photocurrent to dark current of the order of twenty. The issue of the high energy extracted photocurrent saturation is addressed and I give a preliminary explanation. In collaboration with the L.A.L. (Laboratoire de l`Accelerateur Lineaire) some tests with shortened pulsed laser beam (Nd: YAG laser 35 ps) were performed. Satisfactory response times have been obtained within the limitation of the scope (400 ps). (authors). 101 refs. 93 figs., 27 tabs., 3 photos., 1 append.

  15. Iron 1s X-ray photoemission of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miedema, P.S., E-mail: p.s.miedema@gmail.com [Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (Netherlands); Borgatti, F. [CNR-ISMN, Instituto per Io Studio di Materiali Nanostrutturati, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Offi, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università di Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Panaccione, G. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, CNR-IOM, Laboratorio TASC, Area Science Park, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Groot, F.M.F. de [Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Three peaks of 1s XPS of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} means use of three configurations. • 1s XPS vs 2p XPS: advantage of 1s XPS for charge transfer parameter analysis. • Charge transfer multiplet analysis with same parameters for 1s and 2p XPS. - Abstract: We present the 1s X-ray photoemission spectrum of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in comparison with its 2p photoemission spectrum. We show that in case of transition metal oxides, because the 1s core hole is not affected by core hole spin-orbit coupling and almost not affected by core-valence multiplet effects, the Fe 1s spectrum and the complementary charge transfer multiplet calculations allow for an accurate determination of the charge transfer parameters. The consistency of the obtained parameters for the 1s photoemission was confirmed with 2p photoemission calculations and compared to 2p experimental photoemission spectra.

  16. Simple theoretical analysis of the photoemission from quantum confined effective mass superlattices of optoelectronic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis De

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The photoemission from quantum wires and dots of effective mass superlattices of optoelectronic materials was investigated on the basis of newly formulated electron energy spectra, in the presence of external light waves, which controls the transport properties of ultra-small electronic devices under intense radiation. The effect of magnetic quantization on the photoemission from the aforementioned superlattices, together with quantum well superlattices under magnetic quantization, has also been investigated in this regard. It appears, taking HgTe/Hg1−xCdxTe and InxGa1−xAs/InP effective mass superlattices, that the photoemission from these quantized structures is enhanced with increasing photon energy in quantized steps and shows oscillatory dependences with the increasing carrier concentration. In addition, the photoemission decreases with increasing light intensity and wavelength as well as with increasing thickness exhibiting oscillatory spikes. The strong dependence of the photoemission on the light intensity reflects the direct signature of light waves on the carrier energy spectra. The content of this paper finds six different applications in the fields of low dimensional systems in general.

  17. Electronic properties of Nd{sub 2−x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4+δ}: A hard X-ray photoemission investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarino, A., E-mail: guarino@sa.infn.it [CNR-SPIN-Salerno, Fisciano, SA (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica “E. R. Caianiello” Università di Salerno, Fisciano, SA (Italy); Panaccione, G. [CNR-IOM Laboratorio TASC, AREA Science Park, 34012 Basovizza, TS (Italy); Offi, F. [CNISM and Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Monaco, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento, Trento (Italy); Fondacaro, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Torelli, P. [CNR-IOM Laboratorio TASC, AREA Science Park, 34012 Basovizza, TS (Italy); Fittipaldi, R.; Vecchione, A. [CNR-SPIN-Salerno, Fisciano, SA (Italy); Pace, S.; Nigro, A. [CNR-SPIN-Salerno, Fisciano, SA (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica “E. R. Caianiello” Università di Salerno, Fisciano, SA (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • We grow and characterize Nd{sub 2−x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4+δ} samples as thin film and single crystal. • We study the Cu 2p levels of our samples by hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. • We investigate bulk features of the Nd{sub 2−x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4+δ} samples. • Signature of the bulk response is correlated with the crystallinity of the samples. - Abstract: Cu 2p core levels spectra measured by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of selected as-grown Nd{sub 2−x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4+δ} samples are presented and discussed. The presence of a satellite peak in the 2p core level of Nd{sub 2−x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4+δ} single crystal by hard X-ray photoemission is confirmed in all non-superconducting samples, films and single crystals investigated in this work. The comparison of the spectral features of the different samples suggests that the presence and the intensity of this satellite peak is not related to the electric transport properties, but to the texture characteristics.

  18. In situ photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation for O2 translational kinetic energy induced oxidation processes of partially-oxidized Si(001) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

    2001-01-01

    The influence of translational kinetic energy of incident O 2 molecules for the passive oxidation process of partially-oxidized Si(001) surfaces has been studied by photoemission spectroscopy. The translational kinetic energy of O 2 molecules was controlled up to 3 eV by a supersonic seed beam technique using a high temperature nozzle. Two translational kinetic energy thresholds (1.0 eV and 2.6 eV) were found out in accordance with the first-principles calculation for the oxidation of clean surfaces. Si-2p photoemission spectra measured in representative translational kinetic energies revealed that the translational kinetic energy dependent oxidation of dimers and the second layer (subsurface) backbonds were caused by the direct dissociative chemisorption of O 2 molecules. Moreover, the difference in chemical bonds for oxygen atoms was found out to be as low and high binding energy components in O-1s photoemission spectra. Especially, the low binding energy component increased with increasing the translational kinetic energy that indicates the translational kinetic energy induced oxidation in backbonds. (author)

  19. Polarity effects in the x-ray photoemission of ZnO and other wurtzite semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M. W.; Zemlyanov, D. Y.; Waterhouse, G. I. N.; Metson, J. B.; Veal, T. D.; McConville, C. F.; Durbin, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Significant polarity-related effects were observed in the near-surface atomic composition and valence band electronic structure of ZnO single crystals, investigated by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy using both Al K α (1486.6 eV) and synchrotron radiation (150 to 1486 eV). In particular, photoemission from the lowest binding energy valence band states was found to be significantly more intense on the Zn-polar face compared to the O-polar face. This is a consistent effect that can be used as a simple, nondestructive indicator of crystallographic polarity in ZnO and other wurtzite semiconductors.

  20. The acetone bandpass detector for inverse photoemission: operation in proportional and Geiger–Müller modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Christian; Niehues, Iris; Schmidt, Anke B.; Donath, Markus

    2018-06-01

    Inverse photoemission is the most versatile experimental tool to study the unoccupied electronic structure at surfaces of solids. Typically, the experiments are performed in the isochromat mode with bandpass photon detectors. For gas-filled counters, the bandpass behavior is realized by the combination of the photoionization threshold of the counting gas as the high-pass filter and the ultraviolet transmission cutoff of an alkaline earth fluoride entrance window as the low-pass filter. The transmission characteristics of the entrance window determine the optical bandpass. The performance of the counter depends on the composition of the detection gas and the fill-gas pressure, the readout electronics and the counter geometry. For the well-known combination of acetone and CaF2, the detector can be operated in proportional and Geiger–Müller modes. In this work, we review aspects concerning the working principles, the counter construction and the read-out electronics. We identify optimum working parameters and provide a step-by-step recipe how to build, install and operate the device.

  1. Fingerprints of spin-orbital polarons and of their disorder in the photoemission spectra of doped Mott insulators with orbital degeneracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avella, Adolfo; Oleś, Andrzej M.; Horsch, Peter

    2018-04-01

    We explore the effects of disordered charged defects on the electronic excitations observed in the photoemission spectra of doped transition metal oxides in the Mott insulating regime by the example of the R1 -xCaxVO3 perovskites, where R = La, ⋯, Lu. A fundamental characteristic of these vanadium d2 compounds with partly filled t2 g valence orbitals is the persistence of spin and orbital order up to high doping, in contrast to the loss of magnetic order in high-Tc cuprates at low defect concentration. We study the disordered electronic structure of such doped Mott-Hubbard insulators within the unrestricted Hartree-Fock approximation and, as a result, manage to explain the spectral features that occur in photoemission and inverse photoemission. In particular, (i) the atomic multiplet excitations in the inverse photoemission spectra and the various defect-related states and satellites are qualitatively well reproduced, (ii) a robust Mott gap survives up to large doping, and (iii) we show that the defect states inside the Mott gap develop a soft gap at the Fermi energy. The soft defect-states gap, which separates the highest occupied from the lowest unoccupied states, can be characterized by a shape and a scale parameter extracted from a Weibull statistical sampling of the density of states near the chemical potential. These parameters provide a criterion and a comprehensive schematization for the insulator-metal transition in disordered systems. Our results provide clear indications that doped holes are bound to charged defects and form small spin-orbital polarons whose internal kinetic energy is responsible for the opening of the soft defect-states gap. We show that this kinetic gap survives disorder fluctuations of defects and is amplified by the long-range electron-electron interactions, whereas we observe a Coulomb singularity in the atomic limit. The small size of spin-orbital polarons is inferred by an analysis of the inverse participation ratio and by

  2. Enhanced photoemission from laser-excited plasmonic nano-objects in periodic arrays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedorov, N.; Geoffroy, G.; Duchateau, G.; Štolcová, L.; Proška, J.; Novotný, F.; Domonkos, Mária; Jouin, H.; Martin, P.; Raynaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 31 (2016), s. 1-15, č. článku 315301. ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : photoemission * laser excitation * surface plasmon * plasmonics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.649, year: 2016

  3. Hot Electron Photoemission from Plasmonic Nanoparticles: Role of Transient Absorption in Surface Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander V.; Protsenko, Igor E.; Ikhsanov, Renat S.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze and compare surface- and vol ume-based internal photoelectric effects from spherical nanoparticles, obtaining analytical expression s for the photoemission rate in both cases. Similar to results for a flat metal surface, one can show that the surface mechanism preva ils, since it is un...

  4. Effect of wave-function localization on the time delay in photoemission from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C.-H.; Thumm, U.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate streaking time delays in the photoemission from a solid model surface as a function of the degree of localization of the initial-state wave functions. We consider a one-dimensional slab with lattice constant a latt of attractive Gaussian-shaped core potentials of width σ. The parameter σ/a latt thus controls the overlap between adjacent core potentials and localization of the electronic eigenfunctions on the lattice points. Small values of σ/a latt latt > or approx 0.4. By numerically solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, we calculate photoemission spectra from which we deduce a characteristic bimodal shape of the band-averaged photoemission time delay: as the slab eigenfunctions become increasingly delocalized, the time delay quickly decreases near σ/a latt =0.3 from relatively large values below σ/a latt ∼0.2 to much smaller delays above σ/a latt ∼0.4. This change in wave-function localization facilitates the interpretation of a recently measured apparent relative time delay between the photoemission from core and conduction-band levels of a tungsten surface.

  5. Attosecond-controlled photoemission from metal nanowire tips in the few-electron regime

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, B.

    2017-02-07

    Metal nanotip photoemitters have proven to be versatile in fundamental nanoplasmonics research and applications, including, e.g., the generation of ultrafast electron pulses, the adiabatic focusing of plasmons, and as light-triggered electron sources for microscopy. Here, we report the generation of high energy photoelectrons (up to 160 eV) in photoemission from single-crystalline nanowire tips in few-cycle, 750-nm laser fields at peak intensities of (2-7.3) × 1012 W/cm2. Recording the carrier-envelope phase (CEP)-dependent photoemission from the nanowire tips allows us to identify rescattering contributions and also permits us to determine the high-energy cutoff of the electron spectra as a function of laser intensity. So far these types of experiments from metal nanotips have been limited to an emission regime with less than one electron per pulse. We detect up to 13 e/shot and given the limited detection efficiency, we expect up to a few ten times more electrons being emitted from the nanowire. Within the investigated intensity range, we find linear scaling of cutoff energies. The nonlinear scaling of electron count rates is consistent with tunneling photoemission occurring in the absence of significant charge interaction. The high electron energy gain is attributed to field-induced rescattering in the enhanced nanolocalized fields at the wires apex, where a strong CEP-modulation is indicative of the attosecond control of photoemission.

  6. Attosecond-controlled photoemission from metal nanowire tips in the few-electron regime

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, B.; Schö tz, J.; Kang, M.; Okell, W. A.; Mitra, S.; Fö rg, B.; Zherebtsov, S.; Sü ß mann, F.; Burger, C.; Kü bel, M.; Liu, C.; Wirth, A.; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Yanagisawa, H.; Kim, D.; Kim, B.; Kling, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    sources for microscopy. Here, we report the generation of high energy photoelectrons (up to 160 eV) in photoemission from single-crystalline nanowire tips in few-cycle, 750-nm laser fields at peak intensities of (2-7.3) × 1012 W/cm2. Recording the carrier

  7. Electronic properties of Mn-phthalocyanine–C60 bulk heterojunctions: Combining photoemission and electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Friedrich; Herzig, Melanie; Knupfer, Martin; Lupulescu, Cosmin; Darlatt, Erik; Gottwald, Alexander; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The electronic properties of co-evaporated mixtures (blends) of manganese phthalocyanine and the fullerene C 60 (MnPc:C 60 ) have been studied as a function of the concentration of the two constituents using two supplementary electron spectroscopic methods, photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in transmission. Our PES measurements provide a detailed picture of the electronic structure measured with different excitation energies as well as different mixing ratios between MnPc and C 60 . Besides a relative energy shift, the occupied electronic states of the two materials remain essentially unchanged. The observed energy level alignment is different compared to that of the related CuPc:C 60 bulk heterojunction. Moreover, the results from our EELS investigations show that, despite the rather small interface interaction, the MnPc related electronic excitation spectrum changes significantly by admixing C 60 to MnPc thin films

  8. Resonant photoemission at the Ga 3p photothreshold in In xGa1-xN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colakerol, L.; Glans, P.-A.; Plucinski, L.; Zhang, Y.; Smith, K.E.; Zakharov, A.A.; Nyholm, R.; Cabalu, J.; Moustakas, T.D.

    2006-01-01

    Resonance effects at the Ga 3p photoabsorption threshold have been observed in photoemission spectra recorded from thin film In x Ga 1-x N alloys. The spectra display satellites of the main Ga 3d emission line, and the intensity of these satellites resonate at this threshold. The satellites are associated with a 3d 8 state, and have previously been observed for the semiconductors GaN, GaAs, and GaP. The resonance behavior has been studied for a variety of In x Ga 1-x N thin films with differing In concentration and band gap. The photon energy where the maximum resonance is observed varies with band gap within the alloy system, but does not follow the trend observed for binary Ga semiconducting compounds. We also observe that the threshold resonant energy increases slightly as the In content increases

  9. Vacuum space charge effects in sub-picosecond soft X-ray photoemission on a molecular adsorbate layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Angela, M; Anniyev, T; Beye, M; Coffee, R; Föhlisch, A; Gladh, J; Kaya, S; Katayama, T; Krupin, O; Nilsson, A; Nordlund, D; Schlotter, W F; Sellberg, J A; Sorgenfrei, F; Turner, J J; Öström, H; Ogasawara, H; Wolf, M; Wurth, W

    2015-03-01

    Vacuum space charge induced kinetic energy shifts of O 1s and Ru 3d core levels in femtosecond soft X-ray photoemission spectra (PES) have been studied at a free electron laser (FEL) for an oxygen layer on Ru(0001). We fully reproduced the measurements by simulating the in-vacuum expansion of the photoelectrons and demonstrate the space charge contribution of the high-order harmonics in the FEL beam. Employing the same analysis for 400 nm pump-X-ray probe PES, we can disentangle the delay dependent Ru 3d energy shifts into effects induced by space charge and by lattice heating from the femtosecond pump pulse.

  10. Unoccupied electronic state of delafossite-type PdCoO2 single crystal probed using inverse photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Tohru; Tsukamoto, Takeyo; Hasegawa, Masashi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Takei, Humihiko; Shin, Shik

    2004-01-01

    The unoccupied electronic state of delafossite-type PdCoO 2 has been studied using inverse-photoemission spectroscopy (IPES). The Fermi edge and the unoccupied density-of-state (DOS) at the Fermi level (E F ) are not observed in the IPES spectrum measured at the incidence electron energy (E K ) of 100 eV, which corresponds to the Cooper minimum of Pd 4d. The finite DOS at E F is observed in the IPES spectra measured at the lower E K , which the ionization cross section of Pd 4d increases. These findings indicate that the Pd 4d electron is closely related to the low electrical resistivity of PdCoO 2 . (author)

  11. Studies on electronic structure of GaN(0001) surface

    CERN Document Server

    Xie Chang Kun; Xu Fa Qiang; Deng Rui; Liu Feng; Yibulaxin, K

    2002-01-01

    An electronic structure investigation on GaN(0001) is reported. The authors employ a full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FPLAPW) approach to calculate the partial density of state, which is in agreement with previous experimental results. The effects of the Ga3d semi-core levels on the electronic structure of GaN are discussed. The valence-electronic structure of the wurtzite GaN(0001) surface is investigated using synchrotron radiation excited angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The bulk bands dispersion along GAMMA A direction in the Brillouin zones is measured using normal-emission spectra by changing photon-energy. The band structure derived from authors' experimental data is compared well with the results of authors' FPLAPW calculation. Furthermore, off-normal emission spectra are also measured along the GAMMA K and GAMMA M directions. Two surface states are identified, and their dispersions are characterized

  12. Two-photon Photoemission of Organic Semiconductor Molecules on Ag(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Aram [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Angle- and time-resolved two-photon photoemission (2PPE) was used to study systems of organic semiconductors on Ag(111). The 2PPE studies focused on electronic behavior specific to interfaces and ultrathin films. Electron time dynamics and band dispersions were characterized for ultrathin films of a prototypical n-type planar aromatic hydrocarbon, PTCDA, and representatives from a family of p-type oligothiophenes.In PTCDA, electronic behavior was correlated with film morphology and growth modes. Within a fewmonolayers of the interface, image potential states and a LUMO+1 state were detected. The degree to which the LUMO+1 state exhibited a band mass less than a free electron mass depended on the crystallinity of the layer. Similarly, image potential states were measured to have free electron-like effective masses on ordered surfaces, and the effective masses increased with disorder within the thin film. Electron lifetimes were correlated with film growth modes, such that the lifetimes of electrons excited into systems created by layer-by-layer, amorphous film growth increased by orders of magnitude by only a few monolayers from the surface. Conversely, the decay dynamics of electrons in Stranski-Krastanov systems were limited by interaction with the exposed wetting layer, which limited the barrier to decay back into the metal.Oligothiophenes including monothiophene, quaterthiophene, and sexithiophene were deposited on Ag(111), and their electronic energy levels and effective masses were studied as a function of oligothiophene length. The energy gap between HOMO and LUMO decreased with increasing chain length, but effective mass was found to depend on domains from high- or low-temperature growth conditions rather than chain length. In addition, the geometry of the molecule on the surface, e.g., tilted or planar, substantially affected the electronic structure.

  13. Photoemission intensity oscillations in the valence bands of C70 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanjun; Wang Peng; Ni Jingfu; Meng Liang; Wang Xiaobo; Sheng Chunqi; Li Hongnian; Zhang Wenhua; Xu Yang; Xu Faqiang; Zhu Junfa

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The article develops a procedure for obtaining the accurate spectral intensities in the studies of the photoionization cross-section oscillation of C 70 . → The article fulfills the observation of all oscillating periods of the cross-section oscillation of C 70 . → The article reports the oscillating data for more molecular orbitals (feature C in the article) as compared with the published works. → The article reveals that some simple theoretical models based on the spherical symmetric approximation survive for the ellipsoidally shaped C 70 . - Abstract: We have measured and analyzed the photoemission spectra (PES) of a C 70 film in the photon energy region from 13.4 eV to 98.4 eV. The photoelectron intensities of two C 2p π-derived features (denoted by A and B) oscillate regularly in the whole energy region with some fine structures below ∼30 eV. To obtain the detailed information of the oscillations, we have developed a sophisticated but practical procedure for intensity calculation. The procedure consists of two core concepts. The first is ascribing the PES features to their corresponding molecular orbitals with the help of density functional calculations. The second is a background subtraction algorithm. With this procedure, we obtained the oscillating behavior for individual features (A and B), which is by and large consistent with the predictions based on the spherical symmetric approximation although C 70 has the ellipsoidal shape. Owing to the solid state effect, the oscillating amplitudes of the A/B intensity ratios are smaller than those of gas phase C 70 , but an orbital shift reported recently was not observed on our sample. The oscillating curve of a deeper feature, which consists of both σ and π states, are also reported.

  14. Electronic structure of beta-FeSi sub 2 obtained by maximum entropy method and photoemission spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kakemoto, H; Makita, Y; Kino, Y; Tsukamoto, T; Shin, S; Wada, S; Tsurumi, T

    2003-01-01

    The electronic structure of beta-FeSi sub 2 was investigated by maximum entropy method (MEM) and photoemission spectroscopy. The electronic structure obtained by MEM using X-ray diffraction data at room temperature (RT) showed covalent bonds of Fe-Si and Si-Si electrons. The photoemission spectra of beta-FeSi sub 2 at RT were changed by incidence photon energies. For photon energies between 50 and 100 eV, resonant photoemission spectra caused by a super Coster-Kronig transition were observed. In order to reduce resonant effect about Fe(3d) for obtained photoemission spectra, difference spectrum between 53 and 57 eV was calculated, and it was compared with ab-initio band calculation and spectra function.

  15. Significant relaxation of residual negative carrier in polar Alq3 film directly detected by high-sensitivity photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Hiroumi; Lim, Hyunsoo; Sato, Tomoya; Noguchi, Yutaka; Nakayama, Yasuo; Ishii, Hisao

    2016-02-01

    Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) has been widely applied as a good electron-injecting layer (EIL) in organic light-emitting diodes. High-sensitivity photoemission measurement revealed a clear photoemission by visible light, although its ionization energy is 5.7 eV. This unusual photoemission is ascribed to Alq3 anions captured by positive polarization charges. The observed electron detachment energy of the anion was about 1 eV larger than the electron affinity reported by inverse photoemission. This difference suggests that the injected electron in the Alq3 layer is energetically relaxed, leading to the reduction in injection barrier. This nature is one of the reasons why Alq3 worked well as the EIL.

  16. Anomalous metallic state with strong charge fluctuations in BaxTi8O16 +δ revealed by hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, S.; Kajita, T.; Okawa, M.; Saitoh, T.; Ikenaga, E.; Saini, N. L.; Katsufuji, T.; Mizokawa, T.

    2018-04-01

    We have studied a charge-orbital driven metal-insulator transition (MIT) in hollandite-type BaxTi8O16 +δ by means of hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES). The Ti 2 p HAXPES indicates strong Ti3 +/Ti4 + charge fluctuation in the metallic phase above the MIT temperature. The metallic phase is characterized by a power-law spectral function near the Fermi level which would be a signature of bad metal with non-Drude polaronic behavior. The power-law spectral shape is associated with the large Seebeck coefficient of the metallic phase in BaxTi8O16 +δ .

  17. Photoemission study of absorption mechanisms in Bi2.0Sr1.8Ca0.8La0.3Cu2.1O8+δ, BaBiO3, and Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, P.A.P.; Shen, Z.; Wells, B.O.; Dessau, D.S.; Ellis, W.P.; Borg, A.; Kang, J.; Mitzi, D.B.; Lindau, I.

    1989-01-01

    Photoemission measurements in the constant-final-state (absorption) mode were performed on three different classes of high-temperature superconductors Bi 2.0 Sr 1.8 Ca 0.8 La 0.3 Cu 2.1 O 8+δ , BaBiO 3 , and Nd 1.85 Ce 0.15 CuO 4 using synchrotron radiation from 20 to 200 eV. Absorption signals from all elements but Ce are identified. The results firmly show that the Bi 6s electrons are more delocalized in BaBiO 3 than in Bi 2.0 Sr 1.8 Ca 0.8 La 0.3 Cu 2.1 O 8+δ , in agreement with the results of band-structure calculations. Differences in the absorption signals due to O and Bi excitations between BaBiO 3 and Bi 2.0 Sr 1.8 Ca 0.8 La 0.3 Cu 2.1 O 8+δ are discussed. Delayed absorption onsets attributed to giant resonances (Ba 4d→4f, La 4d→4f, and Nd 4d→4f transitions) are also reported

  18. Introduction of spectroscopic photoemission and low energy electron microscope in SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, FangZhun; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Kinoshita, Toyohiko

    2005-01-01

    An upright configuration SPELEEM (Spectroscopic PhotoEmission and Low Energy Electron Microscope) has been introduced in SPring-8 in the framework of the nanotechnology support project of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan. SPELEEM combines microscopy, spectroscopy and diffraction in one system, which allows a comprehensive characterization of the specimen. The combination of SPELEEM and polarized (circularly or linearly) soft X-rays in SPring-8 is expected to realize the highest performance. The characteristics of SPELEEM and typical results, for example nano-XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) of Fe oxide on Fe(100) surface, nano-XPS (X-ray photoemission spectroscopy) of indium (In) on Si(111) and antiferro-magnetic domain structure images of NiO(001) single crystal, are reported. (author)

  19. Resonant photoemission of La and Yb at the 3d absorption edge

    CERN Document Server

    Lagarde, P; Ogasawara, H; Kotani, A

    2003-01-01

    Resonant photoemission and resonant Auger experiments at the 3d threshold are presented for La and Yb over a binding energy domain which extends up to the 4p levels. These experimental results are well explained by calculations in the framework of full-multiplet Hartree-Fock theory with an atomic model. Strong participator and spectator Auger transitions are observed without ordinary Auger transition, indicating that the 4f wavefunction is well localized in the intermediate state even in the case of La. The 4d sub 3 sub / sub 2 and 4d sub 5 sub / sub 2 branching ratio of the 4d resonant photoemission of La at the M sub 4 and M sub 5 edges is observed experimentally and analyzed theoretically. The difference in the resonant processes behavior for La and Yb is discussed based upon the different 4f occupation number.

  20. Theoretical estimates of spherical and chromatic aberration in photoemission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, J.P.S., E-mail: fit@pdx.edu; Word, R.C.; Könenkamp, R.

    2016-01-15

    We present theoretical estimates of the mean coefficients of spherical and chromatic aberration for low energy photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM). Using simple analytic models, we find that the aberration coefficients depend primarily on the difference between the photon energy and the photoemission threshold, as expected. However, the shape of the photoelectron spectral distribution impacts the coefficients by up to 30%. These estimates should allow more precise correction of aberration in PEEM in experimental situations where the aberration coefficients and precise electron energy distribution cannot be readily measured. - Highlights: • Spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients of the accelerating field in PEEM. • Compact, analytic expressions for coefficients depending on two emission parameters. • Effect of an aperture stop on the distribution is also considered.