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Sample records for angle results suggest

  1. Mobbing Experiences of Instructors: Causes, Results, and Solution Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celep, Cevat; Konakli, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate possible mobbing problems in universities, their causes and results, and to attract attention to precautions that can be taken. Phenomenology as one of the qualitative research methods was used in the study. Sample group of the study was selected through the criteria sampling method and eight instructors…

  2. Definition of resulting angle of the deviation after the passage of neutrons through the crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper is dedicated to the consideration of passage of neutrons in the crystal. The expression for intensity distribution is obtained by the method of the multiple scattering theories. The received results are applied to calculation angle of the deviation of neutrons by nucleus of the crystal. Here is shown that at the large angle of deviation, the intensity of distribution decreases with reduction of angle much more slowly than till Gaussian law. The received expression for the angle of the dviation allows defining of the impulse of the neutron

  3. 'Cape capture': Geologic data and modeling results suggest the holocene loss of a Carolina Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E.R.; Ashton, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    For more than a century, the origin and evolution of the set of cuspate forelands known as the Carolina Capes-Hatteras, Lookout, Fear, and Romain-off the eastern coast of the United States have been discussed and debated. The consensus conceptual model is not only that these capes existed through much or all of the Holocene transgression, but also that their number has not changed. Here we describe bathymetric, lithologic, seismic, and chronologic data that suggest another cape may have existed between Capes Hatteras and Lookout during the early to middle Holocene. This cape likely formed at the distal end of the Neuse-Tar-Pamlico fiuvial system during the early Holocene transgression, when this portion of the shelf was fiooded ca. 9 cal (calibrated) kyr B.P., and was probably abandoned by ca. 4 cal kyr B.P., when the shoreline attained its present general configuration. Previously proposed mechanisms for cape formation suggest that the large-scale, rhythmic pattern of the Carolina Capes arose from a hydrodynamic template or the preexisting geologic framework. Numerical modeling, however, suggests that the number and spacing of capes can be dynamic, and that a coast can self-organize in response to a high-angle-wave instability in shoreline shape. In shoreline evolution model simulations, smaller cuspate forelands are subsumed by larger neighbors over millennial time scales through a process of 'cape capture.' The suggested former cape in Raleigh Bay represents the first interpreted geological evidence of dynamic abandonment suggested by the self-organization hypothesis. Cape capture may be a widespread process in coastal environments with large-scale rhythmic shoreline features; its preservation in the sedimentary record will vary according to geologic setting, physical processes, and sea-level history. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  4. Is working memory working against suggestion susceptibility? Results from extended version of DRM paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciaszek Patrycja

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates relationship between working memory efficiency, defined as the result of its’ processing & storage capacity (Oberauer et al., 2003 and the tendency to (1 create assosiative memory distortions (false memories, FM; (2 yield under the influence of external, suggesting factors. Both issues were examined using extended version of Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure (1959, 1995, modified in order to meet the study demands. Suggestion was contained in an ostentatious feedback information the participants (N=88 received during the DRM procedure. Working memory (WM was measured by standardized tasks (n-back, Jaeggi et al., 2010; automatic-ospan, Unsworth et al., 2005. Study included 3 conditions, differing in the quality of suggestion (positive, negative or neutral. Participants were assigned into 3 groups, depending on results they achieved completing the WM tasks. Obtained results alongside the previously set hypothesis, revealed that (1 WM impacts individuals’ tendency to create false memories in DRM and (2 that the individuals showing higher rates in WM tasks are less willing to yield to suggestion compared to those with lesser ones. It also showed that the greater amount to shift (Gudjonsson, 2003, emerges under the negative suggestion condition (collating positive. Notwithstanding that the interaction effect did not achieve saliency, both analyzed factors (WM and suggesting content are considered as meaningful to explain memory suggestion susceptibility in presented study. Although, obtained results emphasize the crucial role of WM efficiency, that is believed to decide the magnitude of feedback that is influential in every subject. Therefore, issue demands further exploration.

  5. Nucleon resonance electroproduction at high momentum transers: Results from SLAC and suggestions for CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keppel, C. [Virginia Union Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Nucleon resonance electroproduction results from SLAC Experiment E14OX are presented. A CEBAF facility with doubled energy would enable similar high momentum transfer measurements to be made with greater accuracy. Of particular interest are the Delta P{sub 33}(1232) resonance form factor and R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T}, the ratio of the longitudinal and transverse components of the cross section. A suggestion is made to study these quantities in conjunction with Bloom-Gilman duality.

  6. Results of trench perpendicular wide angle seismic transects across the Manila subduction zone offshore southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, D. H.; McIntosh, K. D.; Van Avendonk, H. J.

    2011-12-01

    Multi-channel seismic reflection and wide-angle seismic data collected in 2009 aboard the R/V Marcus Langseth as part of the TAIGER program delineate the crustal structure of the Manila subduction zone in the northern South China Sea. As part of that project, we recorded marine seismic data using a deployment of ocean-bottom-seismometers (OBS) from the U.S. instrument pool and National Taiwan Ocean University. The region between northern Luzon and southern Taiwan evolves from oceanic subduction to incipient arc-continent collision. This presentation focuses on results of 2 offshore transects across the Manila subduction zone offshore southern Taiwan. Our goal here is to document the transition from pure oceanic subuction in the south to incipient arc-continent collision in the north, an understanding of which is integral for future geodynamic modeling of the advanced arc-continent collision in the north. The northern transect, line T2 is located at 21.4° N and used 30 OBSs. Line T1 was located at 20.5° N and used 27 OBSs across the Manila subduction zone. Data quality is extremely variable due to the local geology and quality of seafloor coupling at each instrument. Preliminary travel-time tomography of transect T2 shows a 10-15 km thick Eurasian crust with crustal velocities of 5-7.5 km/sec entering the Manila trench suggesting thinned continental crust, serpentinized upper mantle, or both in this region. The model shows the accretionary prism to be cored by high velocity material (6-7 km/sec) that may be the result of accretion of crustal material from the subducting Eurasian slab. We also observe asymmetric crustal thickening beneath the Gagua Ridge that is potentially a result of failed subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate westward along the Gagua Ridge. The wide-angle data is complimented by MCS reflection data to constrain sediment thickness, top of the crystalline basement, and moho. Preliminary work is in progress with transect T1 which will be

  7. Commissioning Results Of Angle-Resolved Photoemission System At The Siam Photon Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the first results obtained by the angle-resolved photoemission system at the Siam Photon Laboratory. Nickel single crystal with (111) surface was selected as the sample. Sample preparation methods as well as measurement procedures are described. The total energy resolution at photon energy of 35 eV was 370 MeV. Surface energy band structure of the nickel was obtained from angle-resolved photoemission spectra along two lines of symmetry: τto Τto Κand τto ΣtoΜ. The experimental energy band structure is qualitatively agreed with a theoretical calculation

  8. Investigations of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation - results, conclusions and suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Bilski, P; Horwacik, T; Marczewska, B; Ochab, E; Olko, P

    2002-01-01

    In frame of a research project undertaken in collaboration with Polish airlines LOT, analysis of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation has been performed. The applied methods included measurements of radiation doses with thermoluminescent detectors (MTS-N, MCP-N) and track detectors (CR-39) and also calculations of route doses with the CARI computer code. The obtained results indicate that aircrews of nearly all airplanes, with exception of these flying only on ATR aircraft, exceed regularly or may exceed in some conditions, effective doses of 1 mSv. In case of Boeing-767 aircrews such exceeding occurs always, independently of solar activity. Investigations revealed, that during these periods of the solar cycle, when intensity of cosmic radiation is high, exceeding of 6 mSv level is also possible. These results indicate, that according to Polish and European regulations it is necessary for airlines to provide regular estimations of radiation exposure of aircrews. Basing on the obtained results a system for pe...

  9. Bias from industry trial funding? A framework, a suggested approach, and a negative result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Jodie; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J; Moore, R Andrew

    2006-04-01

    Bias from funding sources of trials would threaten their validity. Meta-analyses of high quality acute pain and migraine trials were used to explore the hypothesis that industry funding of clinical trials produced more favourable results than non-profit sponsorship. Analyses were planned to evaluate whether industry-sponsored trials had different results from trials funded by academic or other non-profit sources, but of 176 trials, only two were supported by non-profit sources, while 31 provided no statement of support. An alternative method is proposed within industry-sponsored trials, looking at conflicting industry interests for the same drug, used either as test or comparator treatment. Fifty-three trials used an analgesic as test and 90 as comparator, allowing comparisons to be made for aspirin 600/650 mg, ibuprofen 400 mg, paracetamol (acetaminophen) 1000 mg, rofecoxib 50 mg and sumatriptan 50 and 100 mg. Only for sumatriptan 50 and 100 mg, with the outcome of headache response at 2 h, was there any significant difference between the drug used as a test or as a comparator. The direction was for higher (worse) NNTs with sumatriptan as comparator. Investigating potential industry bias through the funding source of trials is unlikely to be adequate because of a dearth of trials funded by non-profit organisations. We propose a method based on potential conflict of interest within industry-sponsored trials. Using this method, established clinical trial results in acute pain and migraine appear to be unbiased. PMID:16495012

  10. Investigations of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation - results, conclusions and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In frame of a research project undertaken in collaboration with Polish airlines LOT, analysis of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation has been performed. The applied methods included measurements of radiation doses with thermoluminescent detectors (MTS-N, MCP-N) and track detectors (CR-39) and also calculations of route doses with the CARI computer code. The obtained results indicate that aircrews of nearly all airplanes, with exception of these flying only on ATR aircraft, exceed regularly or may exceed in some conditions, effective doses of 1 mSv. In case of Boeing-767 aircrews such exceeding occurs always, independently of solar activity. Investigations revealed, that during these periods of the solar cycle, when intensity of cosmic radiation is high, exceeding of 6 mSv level is also possible. These results indicate, that according to Polish and European regulations it is necessary for airlines to provide regular estimations of radiation exposure of aircrews. Basing on the obtained results a system for performing such estimations has been proposed. (author)

  11. Tubulin dipole moment, dielectric constant and quantum behavior: computer simulations, experimental results and suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Mershin, A; Schüssler, H A; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Mershin, Andreas; Kolomenski, Alexandre A.; Schuessler, Hans A.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.

    2004-01-01

    We used computer simulation to calculate the electric dipole moments of the alpha and beta tubulin monomers and dimer and found those to be |palpha|=552D, |pbeta|=1193D and |palpha-beta|=1740D respectively. Independent surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and refractometry measurements of the high-frequency dielectric constant and polarizability strongly corroborated our previous SPR-derived results giving delta-n/delta-c ~1.800x10^-3 ml/mg. The refractive index of tubulin was measured to be n_tub ~2.90 and the high frequency tubulin dielectric constant kappa_tub ~8.41 while the high-frequency polarizability was found to be alpha_tub ~ 2.1x10^-33 C m^2/V. Methods for the experimental determination of the low-frequency p are explored as well as ways to test the often conjectured quantum coherence and entanglement properties of tubulin. Biobits, bioqubits and other applications to bioelectronics are discussed.

  12. Lateral and axial resolutions of an angle-deviation microscope for different numerical apertures: experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming-Hung; Lai, Chin-Fa; Tan, Chen-Tai; Lin, Yi-Zhi

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a study of the lateral and axial resolutions of a transmission laser-scanning angle-deviation microscope (TADM) with different numerical aperture (NA) values. The TADM is based on geometric optics and surface plasmon resonance principles. The surface height is proportional to the phase difference between two marginal rays of the test beam, which is passed through the test medium. We used common-path heterodyne interferometry to measure the phase difference in real time, and used a personal computer to calculate and plot the surface profile. The experimental results showed that the best lateral and axial resolutions for NA = 0.41 were 0.5 μm and 3 nm, respectively, and the lateral resolution breaks through the diffraction limits.

  13. Method for evaluating bow tie filter angle-dependent attenuation in CT: Theory and simulation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Dosimetry in computed tomography (CT) is increasingly based on Monte Carlo studies that define the dose in the patient (in mGy) as a function of air kerma (free in air) at isocenter (mGy). The accuracy of Monte Carlo studies depends in part on the accuracy of the characterization of the bow tie filter for a given CT scanner model. A simple method for characterizing the bow tie filter attenuation profile in CT scanners would therefore be very useful. The theory behind such a method is proposed. Methods: A measurement protocol is discussed mathematically and demonstrated using computer simulation. The proposed method requires the placement of a radiation monitor at the periphery of the CT field, and the time domain signal (kerma rate versus time) is measured with good temporal resolution (∼200 Hz or better) and with all other objects (e.g., patient couch) retracted from the field of view. Knowledge of the source to isocenter distance (or alternately, the isocenter to probe distance) is required. The stationary detector records the kerma rate versus time signal as the gantry rotates through several revolutions. From this temporal data, signal processing techniques are used to extract in-phase peaks, as well as out-of-phase kerma rate levels. From these data, the distance from isocenter to the probe can be determined (or, alternatively, the source to isocenter distance), and the angle-dependent bow tie filter attenuation can be computed. By measuring the angle-dependent bow tie filter attenuation at several kVp settings, the bow tie composition versus fan angle can be computed using basis decomposition techniques. Results: The simulations illustrated that with 2% added noise in the kerma rate versus time signal, the attenuation properties of a hypothetical two component (aluminum and polymethyl methacrylate) bow tie filter could be determined (r2>0.99). Although the computed basis material thicknesses were not exactly equal to the actual thicknesses, their

  14. Ray Tracing Results for Elevation Angle Spread of Departure and its Impact on System Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondal, Bishwarup; Thomas, Timothy; Nguyen, Huan Cong;

    2014-01-01

    Elevation spread of departure angles (ESD) is the key parameter characterizing a 3D fast-fading channel model. 3D channel mod-eling is currently being studied in 3GPP to enable the develop-ment of MIMO techniques exploiting both azimuth and elevation dimensions of the channel. In this paper we us...

  15. Brief Report: Simulations Suggest Heterogeneous Category Learning and Generalization in Children with Autism Is a Result of Idiosyncratic Perceptual Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Eduardo, III; Church, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) sometimes have difficulties learning categories. Past computational work suggests that such deficits may result from atypical representations in cortical maps. Here we use neural networks to show that idiosyncratic transformations of inputs can result in the formation of feature maps that impair…

  16. The Caribbean-South American plate boundary at 65°W: Results from wide-angle seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezada, M. J.; Magnani, M. B.; Zelt, C. A.; Schmitz, M.; Levander, A.

    2010-08-01

    We present the results of the analysis of new wide-angle seismic data across the Caribbean-South American plate boundary in eastern Venezuela at about 65°W. The ˜500 km long profile crosses the boundary in one of the few regions dominated by extensional structures, as most of the southeastern Caribbean margin is characterized by the presence of fold and thrust belts. A combination of first-arrival traveltime inversion and simultaneous inversion of PmP and Pn arrivals was used to develop a P wave velocity model of the crust and the uppermost mantle. At the main strike-slip fault system, we image the Cariaco Trough, a major pull-apart basin along the plate boundary. The crust under the Southern Caribbean Deformed Belt exhibits a thickness of ˜15 km, suggesting that the Caribbean Large Igneous Province extends to this part of the Caribbean plate. The velocity structures of basement highs and offshore sedimentary basins imaged by the profile are comparable to those of features found in other parts of the margin, suggesting similarities in their tectonic history. We do not image an abrupt change in Moho depth or velocity structure across the main strike-slip system, as has been observed elsewhere along the margin. It is possible that a terrane of Caribbean island arc origin was accreted to South America at this site and was subsequently bisected by the strike-slip fault system. The crust under the continental portion of the profile is thinner than observed elsewhere along the margin, possibly as a result of thinning during Jurassic rifting.

  17. Brief Report: Simulations Suggest Heterogeneous Category Learning and Generalization in Children with Autism is a Result of Idiosyncratic Perceptual Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Eduardo; Church, Barbara A

    2016-08-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) sometimes have difficulties learning categories. Past computational work suggests that such deficits may result from atypical representations in cortical maps. Here we use neural networks to show that idiosyncratic transformations of inputs can result in the formation of feature maps that impair category learning for some inputs, but not for other closely related inputs. These simulations suggest that large inter- and intra-individual variations in learning capacities shown by children with ASD across similar categorization tasks may similarly result from idiosyncratic perceptual encoding that is resistant to experience-dependent changes. If so, then both feedback- and exposure-based category learning should lead to heterogeneous, stimulus-dependent deficits in children with ASD. PMID:27193184

  18. Recent results in the study of heavy-ion elastic scattering at large angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent calculations carried on to try to understand the behaviour of the data near the barrier are described. We try to determine optical potential by fitting the complete elastic angular distribution for 16O+28Si measured at E(cm) = 21.1 MeV. The excitation function at theta(cm) = 1800 presents very broad structures. The energy dependence of the nuclear phase shifts, the S-matrix amplitudes at a few energies and the Argand diagram for four values of l predominant in the energy domain discussed here are presented to try to explain the origin of the large cross section at backward angles and the structures in the theta(cm) = 1800 excitation function

  19. Cleaning results of new and fouled nanofiltration membrane characterized by contact angle, updated DSPM, flux and salts rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In membrane process industries, membrane cleaning is one of the most important concerns from both economical and scientific points of view. Though cleaning is important to recover membrane performance, an inappropriate selection of cleaning agents may result into unsatisfactory cleaning or irreparable membrane. In this study the cleaning performance has been studied with measurements of membrane contact angle, Updated Donnan steric partitioning pore model (UDSPM) and salt rejection as well as flux measurement. Thin film nanofiltration (NF) membranes such as DK, HL and DL provided by GE Osmonics are used in this study. Tests were carried out with virgin DK, HL and DL as well as fouled DK membranes. Several cleaning agents were investigated; some of them were analytical grade such as HCl, NaOH and others such as SDS, mix agents were commercial grade agents that are already in use in commercial plants. Contact angle, DSPM and salt rejection as well as flux of virgin and fouled membranes before and after chemical cleaning were measured and compared. The contact angle measurements with and without chemical cleaning of different virgin and fouled membranes revealed very interesting results which may be used to characterise the membrane surface cleanliness. The contact angle results revealed that the cleaning agents are found to modify membrane surface properties (hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity) of the treated and untreated virgin and fouled membranes. The details of these results were also investigated and are reported in the paper. However, UDSPM method did not give any valuable information about pore size of the untreated and treated NF membranes. The salt rejection level of monovalent and divalent ions before and after cleaning by high and low pH cleaning agents is also investigated and is reported in the paper

  20. Are reviewers suggested by authors as good as those chosen by editors? Results of a rater-blinded, retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkin Emma C

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BioMed Central (BMC requires authors to suggest four reviewers when making a submission. Editors searching for reviewers use these suggestions as a source. The review process of the medical journals in the BMC series is open – authors and reviewers know each other's identity – although reviewers can make confidential comments to the editor. Reviews are published alongside accepted articles so readers may see the reviewers' names and recommendations. Our objective was to compare the performance of author-nominated reviewers (ANR with that of editor-chosen reviewers (ECR in terms of review quality and recommendations about submissions in an online-only medical journal. Methods Pairs of reviews from 100 consecutive submissions to medical journals in the BMC series (with one author-nominated and one editor-chosen reviewer and a final decision were assessed by two raters, blinded to reviewer type, using a validated review quality instrument (RQI which rates 7 items on 5-point Likert scales. The raters discussed their ratings after the first 20 pairs (keeping reviewer type masked and resolved major discrepancies in scoring and interpretation to improve inter-rater reliability. Reviewers' recommendations were also compared. Results Reviewer source had no impact on review quality (mean RQI score (± SD 2.24 ± 0.55 for ANR, 2.34 ± 0.54 for ECR or tone (mean scores on additional question 2.72 ANR vs 2.82 ECR (maximum score = 5 in both cases. However author-nominated reviewers were significantly more likely to recommend acceptance (47 vs 35 and less likely to recommend rejection (10 vs 23 than editor-chosen reviewers after initial review (p Conclusion Author-nominated reviewers produced reviews of similar quality to editor-chosen reviewers but were more likely to recommend acceptance during the initial stages of peer review.

  1. Results of the experimental campaign on contaminated metal components parameters and suggestions for safely NPP component dismantling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesari, F.G. [Nuclear Engineering Laboratory, DIENCA, University of Bologna, Via dei Colli 16, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Rogante, M. [Rogante Engineering Office, Contrada San Michele 61, 62012 Civitanova Marche (Italy)], E-mail: main@roganteengineering.it; Giostri, A. [Sogin S.p.A., 29012 Caorso, Piacenza (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    This paper concerns the dismantling activities of Caorso NPP (BWR, Boiling Water Reactor, 870 MWe, built in the 70s and fully operating in the period 1981-1986). The said plant was shut down on 1987, following Italy's poll that abrogated nuclear power use based on U235 fission. The considered activities involved an experimental campaign using plasma torch and oxyacetylene arc metal cutting processes, and regarding no radioactive materials-pipes and plates exposed to the reactor coolant steam. The performed analyses of by use contaminated components below the free release level (1 x 10{sup 4} Bq/m{sup 2}), not yet considering radioactivity, allowed an accurate estimation of the chemical and physical characteristics of the produced aerosol. The adopted operative conditions concerning the cut procedures are firstly described. The emissions composition and technical parameters such as cutting time and cutting rate vs. pipe diameter or plate thickness are reported. The results highlight the kind of trouble that can emerge in the cutting processes, in particular focusing on a comparison of the effects of the two cutting processes and the chemical composition of dusts collected by filtering the gaseous emission. The achievable chances connected to the adopted filtration methods are then revealed, and the obtained parameters related with the production of volatile and solid residuals for cut are reported. Some suggestions follow, finally, for a safely NPP components disassembling.

  2. Results of the experimental campaign on contaminated metal components parameters and suggestions for safely NPP component dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper concerns the dismantling activities of Caorso NPP (BWR, Boiling Water Reactor, 870 MWe, built in the 70s and fully operating in the period 1981-1986). The said plant was shut down on 1987, following Italy's poll that abrogated nuclear power use based on U235 fission. The considered activities involved an experimental campaign using plasma torch and oxyacetylene arc metal cutting processes, and regarding no radioactive materials-pipes and plates exposed to the reactor coolant steam. The performed analyses of by use contaminated components below the free release level (1 x 104 Bq/m2), not yet considering radioactivity, allowed an accurate estimation of the chemical and physical characteristics of the produced aerosol. The adopted operative conditions concerning the cut procedures are firstly described. The emissions composition and technical parameters such as cutting time and cutting rate vs. pipe diameter or plate thickness are reported. The results highlight the kind of trouble that can emerge in the cutting processes, in particular focusing on a comparison of the effects of the two cutting processes and the chemical composition of dusts collected by filtering the gaseous emission. The achievable chances connected to the adopted filtration methods are then revealed, and the obtained parameters related with the production of volatile and solid residuals for cut are reported. Some suggestions follow, finally, for a safely NPP components disassembling

  3. Are reviewers suggested by authors as good as those chosen by editors? Results of a rater-blinded, retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Parkin Emma C; Wager Elizabeth; Tamber Pritpal S

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background BioMed Central (BMC) requires authors to suggest four reviewers when making a submission. Editors searching for reviewers use these suggestions as a source. The review process of the medical journals in the BMC series is open – authors and reviewers know each other's identity – although reviewers can make confidential comments to the editor. Reviews are published alongside accepted articles so readers may see the reviewers' names and recommendations. Our objective was to c...

  4. Results from the Wide Angle Search for Planets Prototype (WASP0) I: Analysis of the Pegasus Field

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, S R; Horne, K; James, D; Lister, T A; Pollacco, D L; Street, R A; Tsapras, Y; Kane, Stephen R.; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Horne, Keith; James, David; Lister, Tim A.; Pollacco, Don L.; Street, Rachel A.; Tsapras, Yiannis

    2004-01-01

    WASP0 is a prototype for what is intended to become a collection of wide-angle survey instruments whose primary aim is to detect extra-solar planets transiting across the face of their parent star. The WASP0 instrument is a wide-field (9-degree) 6.3cm aperture F/2.8 Apogee 10 CCD camera (2Kx2K chip, 16-arcsec pixels) mounted piggy-back on a commercial telescope. We present results from analysis of a field in Pegasus using the WASP0 camera, including observations of the known transiting planet around HD 209458. We also present details on solving problems which restrict the ability to achieve photon limited precision with a wide-field commercial CCD. The results presented herein demonstrate that millimag photometry can be obtained with this instrument and that it is sensitive enough to detect transit due to extra-solar planets.

  5. Latest Performance Results from the FONT5 Intra-train Beam Position and Angle Feedback System at ATF2

    CERN Document Server

    Christian, G B; Bett, D R; Blaskovic Kraljevic, N; Burrows, P N; Davis, M R; Gerbershagen, A; Perry, C; Constance, B; Resta-Lopez, J

    2012-01-01

    A prototype Interaction Point beam-based feedback system for future electron-positron colliders, such as the International Linear Collider, has been designed and tested on the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The FONT5 intra-train feedback system aims to stabilize the beam orbit by correcting both the position and angle jitter in the vertical plane on bunch-tobunch time scales, providing micron-level stability at the entrance to the ATF2 final-focus system. The system comprises three stripline beam position monitors (BPMs) and two stripline kickers, custom low-latency analogue front-end BPM processors, a custom FPGA-based digital processing board with fast ADCs, and custom kickerdrive amplifiers. The latest results from beam tests at ATF2 will be presented, including the system latency and correction performance.

  6. [Surgical results of dissection of the superficial temporal artery in patients with preglaucoma and initial open-angle glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilkin, G A; Iartseva, N S; Mironova, E M; Oreshkina, R M; Mikhaĭlova, G D

    1989-01-01

    Results of superficial temporal artery dissection performed in 42 patients (44 eyes) with preglaucoma and initial open-angle glaucoma have shown no impairement of visual field, visual acuity, optic disc in the period from 0.5 to 1.5 years after it. The increased linear rate of bloodflow after the operation remained stable in 17 eyes of patients with preglaucoma and in 14 eyes of patients with glaucoma. Intraocular pressure became normalized in 20 and 19 eyes as well as intraocular fluid outflow in 14 and 13 eyes, respectively. In both groups there was a tendency to normalization of retinal functions and hydrodynamics of the eye. Thus, the operation produces improvement of regional bloodflow, tonographic and electrophysiologic indices. Its usage is considered to be reasonable, but, when determining indications to it, an individual approach is necessary. PMID:2755669

  7. Pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions with traditional Chinese medicine: progress, causes of conflicting results and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bing-Liang; Ma, Yue-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history of medical use in China and is still used worldwide. Unexpected herb-drug interactions (HDIs) may lead to adverse drug reactions or loss of therapeutic efficacy of the victim drug. Here, based on searches of Medline, EBSCO, Science Direct and Web of Science using various keywords, we summarize the TCM-derived pharmacokinetic HDIs that were reported from 1990 to 2015 and discuss the underlying mechanisms. In general, many pre-clinical and clinical pharmacokinetic HDIs have been reported. Our searches show that TCMs cause pharmacokinetic interactions with therapeutic drugs mainly by inhibiting or inducing drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. However, most of the interactions result from a small number of prescription medications and the actual potential for harm is low. Moreover, such HDIs can be avoided by discontinuing the TCMs. Despite the extensive number of reports on TCM-derived HDIs, the findings are frequently conflicting and can be confusing. The causes of the conflicts vary, but we classified them into three basic categories as follows: (1) complicated nature and poor quality control of TCMs, (2) different responses of various test systems to TCM exposure and (3) diverse study designs. Accordingly, we propose rational study designs for future HDI research. We also propose that a specific authoritative guide be established that provides recommendations for HDI studies. This review provides insights into the progress and challenges in TCM-derived pharmacokinetic HDI research. PMID:26915920

  8. Preparing for severe contrast media reactions in children - results of a national survey, a literature review and a suggested protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To identify current practices within paediatric radiology in the UK with regard to the use of prophylactic medication, prior to administering intravenous (IV) radiocontrast medium (RCM). In addition, the pre-injection risk management strategies of the departments questioned was to be evaluated, and using consensus opinion, a protocol for managing patients identified as being at high risk for an adverse reaction to RCM was to be outlined. Materials and methods: An online survey of paediatric radiology consultants representing all geographic regions of the UK was carried out. The questions asked included an assessment of the risk factors for adverse reactions to RCM, and how such reactions are anticipated and managed. The questionnaire asked about the perceived indications for, and the use of prophylactic medication prior to RCM administration. Results: A response rate of 51% was achieved. The majority of respondents felt that a history of previous RCM reaction was an indication to administer prophylactic drugs prior to a further dose of RCM. No other risk factor was believed to require prophylactic medication. Conclusion: Using information obtained from the survey, a literature search was performed to assess the evidence available in support of each practice. A protocol was devised to identify children at risk of an adverse reaction to RCM, and guide the use of prophylactic medication in this group of patients. The survey highlighted considerable variability in the risk-assessment and management practices within paediatric radiology in the UK. The derived protocol may guide radiologists' management of children at risk for an RCM reaction.

  9. [Results, dilemmas, and suggestions concerning the demographic transition theory: causes of the decline of fertility in the nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez Medrano, J

    1985-11-01

    This article discusses results of recent research on the fertility transition and some weak points in current knowledge whose further study could help orient research on Spain's fertility transition. The only completely valid conclusion to date on the demographic transition is that fertility and mortality are high in traditional societies and low in industrialized societies. It is clear that the demographic transition and modernization are inseparable, but the causal mechanisms producing the demographic changes remain unclear. The theory of demographic transition initially accorded great weight to the dual processes of urbanization and industrialization as causes of fertility decline, but the very early onset of the transition in France and the occurrence of fertility decline among peasants in Hungary constitute exceptions to the rule. The discovery by the Princeton group of researchers that there was no strong association between urbanization-industrialization and fertility decline in the European provinces they studied cast further doubt on the explanatory power of socioeconomic explanations. Recourse to cultural factors has been made in recent years, but few variables have been operationalized except language, religion, and political attitudes, and the weight of such variables has been found to have varied. Ideologic factors related to the crumbling of barriers to social mobility, the primacy of the individual, the importance attributed to education, and similar factors have been adduced to explain the transition. The diffusion of basic contraceptive knowledge or of the idea that family size is amenable to control has recently been advanced as a factor explaining fertility declines, but little empirical evidence is offered in support except that referring to the influence of family planning programs in developing countries, and the relevance of such data to earlier fertility transitions remains questionable. Demographic variables such as delayed age at marriage

  10. Determining of the femoral neck torsion angle using CT-scaning, monoplanar, biplanar direct radiographic methods and comparison of the results

    OpenAIRE

    Uzel, M; Erginer, R.; Goksan, M. Alp; Senocak, M.; Alver, M.

    2004-01-01

    Several different methods such as fluoroscopi, CT scaning, monoplaner or biplaner direct radiography can be used determination of femoral neck torsion angle. In our study femoral neck torsion angle has been determined in one adult skelatal module and 22 hips of 10 adults. CT-scaning, monoplaner (Dunn) and biplaner (Magiligan, Ryder-Crane) direct radiographic methods have been used in the study and the results have been compared by using statistical analysis method. It has been observet that...

  11. Results of a modified non-penetrating deep sclerectomy in the treatment of open angle glaucoma with or without cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kitsos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available George Kitsos1, Miltiades Aspiotis1, Yannis Alamanos2, Konstantinos Psilas11Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece; 2Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Medical School, University of Patras, Patras, GreecePurpose: To present the technique of a modified deep sclerectomy, which we will call “reversed” deep sclerectomy (RDS and the results and our observations of its use in patients with open angle glaucoma (OAG and with or without cataract extraction (phacoemulsification.Materials and methods: This prospective study included 132 eyes which underwent RDS: 37 eyes (group A with uncontrolled OAG and 95 eyes (group B with OAG and visually significant cataract. Mean pressure preoperatively for group A was 24.48 ± 4.92 mmHg and for group B was 22.99 ± 3.00. The mean number of antiglaucoma drugs received was 2.97 ± 0.69 and 2.56 ± 0.73 for groups A and B respectively. The RDS was performed where the deep scleral stroma is prepared in 2 parts, folded and inserted under the lateral sides of the sclerectomy, and the Schlemm’s canal is opened prior to deep scleral stroma preparation. Cataract was extracted by phacoemulsification through the same scleral opening. The follow-up for group A was 22.23 ± 10.18 months and for group B, 25.36 ± 10.12 months. Results: Postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP ≤ 21 mmHg was achieved for group A in 40.5% without antiglaucoma drugs and 94.6% with antiglaucoma drugs, and for group B in 66.3% and in 94.7% respectively. Mean IOP reduction was 7.02 ± 6.35 mmHg (28.67%, P < 0.05 for group A and 5.26 ± 3.72 mmHg (25.06%, P ≤ 0.05 for group B, while mean drug reduction was 1.97 ± 1.09 (P < 0.01 and 2.14 ± 0.95 (P ≤ 0.01 respectively. 5-Fluorouracil was used in 8 eyes of group A and in 5 eyes of group B.Conclusion: In the follow-up time during which the two groups were under study, the RDS was effective with a few complications, similar to the classic deep

  12. Increase in the maximum lift of an airplane wing due to a sudden increase in its effective angle of attack resulting from a gust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Max

    1932-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests are described, in which the angle of attack of a wing model was suddenly increased (producing the effect of a vertical gust) and the resulting forces were measured. It was found that the maximum lift coefficient increases in proportion to the rate of increase in the angle of attack. This fact is important for the determination of the gust stresses of airplanes with low wing loading. The results of the calculation of the corrective factor are given for a high-performance glider and a light sport plane of conventional type.

  13. Clinical evaluation of the ability of a proprietary scoliosis traction chair to de-rotate the spine: 6-month results of Cobb angle and rotational measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton J. Stitzel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate and 6-month effects of a scoliosis traction chair on scoliosis rotation and Cobb angle. The scoliosis traction chair has been used clinically for 10 years and has been part of previous studies, but has not been the focus of any previous study. Our goal was to test the scoliosis traction chair’s ability to de-rotate the spine to create scoliosis correction. Fifteen patient files were retrospectively selected for study. Patients were radiographically studied in a proprietary traction chair to evaluate impact on Cobb angle and apical vertebral rotation. Six-month follow-up results were recorded. Six-month results showed an average overall Cobb angle increase of about 7°. Patients with in-chair apical de-rotation showed 9° of Cobb angle improvement, while those with increased in-chair apical rotation showed an average 16° progression. Scoliotic curves whose apical rotation worsened on stress radiography showed deterioration of the curve at 6 months. Those with improved apical rotation showed Cobb angle corrections at 6 months. Since progression of scoliotic curvatures was observed in our cohort of patients after 6 months of home and clinical use, it is imperative that further studies attempt to qualify which patients and scoliosis curve patterns are best suited for the scoliosis traction chair.

  14. Risk factors for open-angle glaucoma in Nigeria: results from the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Kyari, F; Abdull, MM; Wormald, R; Evans, Jr., Daw-Nay N. R.; Nolan, W; Murthy, GV; Gilbert, CE; Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Study Group; , COLLABORATORS; Imam, A.; Abiose, A; Ezelum, C; Entekume, G; Faal, H; Rabiu, M.

    2016-01-01

    The glaucoma-specific blindness prevalence in Nigeria (0.7 %, 95 % CI 0.6-0.9 %) among those aged ≥40 years is one of the highest ever reported. This study determined the risk factors for open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in adults examined in the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey. A nationally representative sample of 13,591 people aged ≥40 years in 305 clusters in Nigeria were examined (response rate 90.4 %) between January 2005 to June 2007. Everyone had logMAR visual a...

  15. Risk factors for open-angle glaucoma in Nigeria: results from the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kyari, Fatima; Mohammed M Abdull; Wormald, Richard; Evans, Jennifer R.; Nolan, Winifred; Murthy, Gudlavelleti V. S.; Clare E Gilbert; ,; Imam, Abdullahi; Abiose, Adenike; Ezelum, Christian; Entekume, Gabriel; Faal, Hannah; Rabiu, Mansur M.; Bankole, Olufunmilayo O.

    2016-01-01

    Background The glaucoma-specific blindness prevalence in Nigeria (0.7 %, 95 % CI 0.6–0.9 %) among those aged ≥40 years is one of the highest ever reported. This study determined the risk factors for open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in adults examined in the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey. Methods A nationally representative sample of 13,591 people aged ≥40 years in 305 clusters in Nigeria were examined (response rate 90.4 %) between January 2005 to June 2007. Everyone had lo...

  16. Preliminary Results on the Mechanics of the Active Mai'iu Low Angle Normal Fault (Dayman Dome), Woodlark Rift, SE Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, T. A.; Boulton, C. J.; Mizera, M.; Webber, S. M.; Oesterle, J.; Ellis, S. M.; Norton, K. P.; Wallace, L. M.; Biemiller, J.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid slip on the Mai'iu low-angle normal fault (LANF) has exhumed a smooth, corrugated fault surface contiguous for >24 km up-dip, rising from near sea level to ~2900 m. The fault emerges from the ground dipping ~21° N and flattens over the crest of the dome to dip south. Geomorphic analysis reveals a progressive back-tilting of the surface during exhumation accompanied by cross-cutting antithetic-sense high-angle faults—features that we attribute to "rolling-hinge" deformation of a once more steeply-dipping fault. Near the scarp base, the footwall exposes mafic mylonites that deformed at ~400-450°C. The younger Mai'iu fault cross-cuts this ductile mylonite zone, with most brittle slip being localized into a ~20 cm-thick, gouge-filled core. Near the range front, active faults bite across both the hangingwall and footwall of the Mai'iu fault and record overprinting across a dying, shallow (oriented, steeper faults. Such depth-dependent locking up of the fault suggests it weakens primarily by friction reduction rather than cohesion loss. Outcrop-scale fractures in the exhumed footwall reflect formation in an Andersonian stress regime. Previous campaign GPS data suggest the fault slips at up to ~1 cm/yr. To improve resolution and test for aseismic creep, we installed 12 GPS sites across the fault trace in 2015. Quantitative XRD indicates the gouges were derived primarily from mafic footwall, containing up to 65% corrensite and saponite. Hydrothermal friction experiments on two gouges from a relict LANF strand were done at varying normal stresses (30-120 MPa), temperatures (50-200oC), and sliding velocities (0.3-100 μm/s). Results reveal very weak frictional strength (μ=0.13-0.15 and 0.20-0.28) and velocity-strengthening behavior conducive to fault creep. At the highest temperatures (T≥150oC) and lowest sliding velocities (<3 μm/s), a transition to velocity-weakening behavior indicates the potential for unstable slip.

  17. Reply to: Clinical evaluation of the ability of a proprietary scoliosis traction chair to de-rotate the spine: 6-month results of Cobb angle and rotational measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Morningstar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reply to: Clinical evaluation of the ability of a proprietary scoliosis traction chair to de-rotate the spine: 6-month results of Cobb angle and rotational measurements by A. Joshua Woggon, Dennis WoggonDOI: 10.4081/cp.2014.725

  18. Reply to: Clinical evaluation of the ability of a proprietary scoliosis traction chair to de-rotate the spine: 6-month results of Cobb angle and rotational measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Morningstar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reply to: Clinical evaluation of the ability of a proprietary scoliosis traction chair to de-rotate the spine: 6-month results of Cobb angle and rotational measurements by Sabrina Donzelli, Fabio Zaina, Alessandra Negrini, Michele Romano, Stefano NegriniDOI: 10.4081/cp.2014.726

  19. Reply to: Clinical evaluation of the ability of a proprietary scoliosis traction chair to de-rotate the spine: 6-month results of Cobb angle and rotational measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Joshua Woggon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reply to: Clinical evaluation of the ability of a proprietary scoliosis traction chair to de-rotate the spine: 6-month results of Cobb angle and rotational measurements by Clayton J. Stitzel, Brian Dovorany, Mark W. Morningstar, Aatif SiddiquiDOI: 10.4081/cp.2014.642

  20. Preliminary results of an investigation of the structure of pressure vessel steels by small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small angle neutron scattering has been used to investigate several irradiation-hardened pressure vessel steels. The neutron scattering produced by scattering centres of approx. 2 nm diameter was enhanced but that from microscopically resolvable objects >= 10 nm diameter was unchanged after fast neutron irradiation to 1017 to 1019 n/cm2 at 180 to 290 deg C. Enhanced scattering was proportional to the copper impurity content in Magnox pressure vessel steels; in PWR steels the enhancement was related primarily to copper content but was also affected by nickel and other elements. These observations support ideas attributing irradiation-strengthening to precipitation of copper particles or to increasing numbers of copper-vacancy complexes. However positive identification of the scattering centres using magnetic methods has not been successful so far. (author)

  1. Ultrafast laser irradiation of spherical nanoparticles: molecular-dynamics results on fragmentation and small-angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using molecular dynamics simulation we study the response of a spherical nanoparticle (NP) to a sudden homogeneous energization, such as effected by ultrashort pulse laser irradiation. We consider a Lennard-Jones model system and two different values of the energization. For the smaller one, the sphere expands while a multitude of voids are created inside; the sphere develops finally into an external shell filled with gas and small clusters. For the higher energization, the sphere expands uniformly and no shell structure is formed. An analysis of the pressure generated confirms that in the latter case the pressure is compressive throughout the sphere expansion, while it is temporarily tensile for the lower energization leading to void formation. The final state of both systems shows the fragmentation of the sphere into a multitude of clusters. With increasing fragmentation the cluster distribution becomes shifted to smaller sizes. Simulated small-angle scattering functions of the exploding NP are presented. The distribution of minima allows for an easy determination of the particle size during expansion. (authors)

  2. P-wave velocity structure of the southern Ryukyu margin east of Taiwan: Results from the ACTS wide-angle seismic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Berthet, T.; Lallemand, S.; Schnurle, P.; Lee, C.-S.; Liu, C.-S.; McIntosh, K.; Theunissen, T.

    2012-11-01

    An active seismic experiment has been conducted across the southern Ryukyu margin east of Taiwan over the whole trench-arc-backarc system in May 2009. Twenty-four ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) were deployed from the Ryukyu trench to the southern Okinawa trough over the Ryukyu arc and forearc. Wide angle seismic data were recorded by the OBS array while coincident reflection seismic data were acquired using a 6 km long streamer and a 6600 cubic inch seismic airgun array. Results from tomographic inversion of 21091 travel time picks along this line allowed us to image crustal structures of the Ryukyu margin down to a depth of 25 km. The transect has been designed to provide a better seismic velocity structure of the subduction zone in a highly deformed area that has produced an M8 earthquake in 1920. The line crosses a seismic cluster of earthquakes which source mechanisms are still poorly understood. The subducting oceanic crust of the Huatung Basin is about 5-6 km thick. The underlying mantle exhibits low seismic velocities around 7.8 km/s suggesting some hydrothermal alterations or alteration of the upper mantle through faults generated by the flexure of the subducting plate as it enters the subduction. Low velocities, up to 4.5 km/s, associated with the accretionary wedge are well imaged from the trench back to the Nanao forearc. A major result concerns the abrupt termination of the buttress at the rear of the accretionary wedge. Despite the low resolution of the tomographic inversion near the subduction interface, several lines of evidence supporting the presence of a low velocity zone beneath the toe of the forearc buttress could be established. The Moho beneath the Ryukyu non-volcanic arc is located at a depth around 25 km depth.

  3. 40 CFR Figure C-1 to Subpart C of... - Suggested Format for Reporting Test Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2 C Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-1 Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Suggested Format for Reporting Test... Difference Table C-1 spec. Pass or fail Low 1 ____ ppm 2 to ____ ppm 3 4 5 6 Medium 1 ____ ppm 2 to ____...

  4. Scoliosis angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most commonly used methods of assessing the scoliotic deviation measure angles that are not clearly defined in relation to the anatomy of the patient. In order to give an anatomic basis for such measurements it is proposed to define the scoliotic deviation as the deviation the vertebral column makes with the sagittal plane. Both the Cobb and the Ferguson angles may be based on this definition. The present methods of measurement are then attempts to measure these angles. If the plane of these angles is parallel to the film, the measurement will be correct. Errors in the measurements may be incurred by the projection. A hypothetical projection, called a 'rectified orthogonal projection', is presented, which correctly represents all scoliotic angles in accordance with these principles. It can be constructed in practice with the aid of a computer and by performing measurements on two projections of the vertebral column; a scoliotic curve can be represented independent of the kyphosis and lordosis. (Auth.)

  5. Seismic Refraction & Wide-angle Reflection Experiment on the Northern Margin of North China Craton -Data Acquisition and Preliminary Processing Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Gao, R.; Keller, G. R.; Hou, H.; Li, Q.; Cox, C. M.; Chang, J. C.; Zhang, J.; Guan, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The evolution history of Central Asian Orogen Belt (CAOB) is still the main tectonic problems in northeastern Asia. The Siberia Craton (NC), North China Craton (NCC) and several blocks collided, and the resulting tectonic collage formed as the Paleo-Asian Ocean disappeared. Concerning the northern margin of North China Craton, many different geological questions remain unanswered, such as: the intracontinental orogenic process in the Yanshan orogen and the nature and location of the suture between the southern NC and the northern NCC. In Dec 2009, a 400 km long seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection profile was completed jointly by Institute of Geology, CAGS and University of Oklahoma. The survey line extended from the west end of the Yanshan orogen, across a granitoid belt to the Solonker suture zone. The recording of seismic waves from 8 explosions (500~1500 kg each) was conducted in four deployments of 300 Reftek125 (Texan) seismic recorders, with an average spacing of 1 km. For the calculations, we used the Rayinvr, Vmed and Zplot programs for ray tracing, model modification and phase picking. The initial result show that: 1)the depth of low velocity sediment cover ranges from 0.6 to 2.7 km (velocity: 2.8~5.6 km/s); 2)the depth of basement is 5.6~10 km (the depth of basement under the granitoid belt deepens to 10 km and velocity increases to 6.2 km/s); 3)the upper crust extends to a depth of 15.5~21 km and has the P-wave velocities between 5.6 and 6.4 km/s; 4)the thickness of the lower crust ranges from 22~28 km(velocity: 6.4~6.9 km/s); and 5)the depth of Moho varies from 39.5 km under the granitoid belt to 49 km under the Yanshan orogen. Based on these results, we can preliminarily deduce that: 1) the concave depression of the Moho observed represents the root of the Yanshan orogen, and it may prove that the orogen is dominated by thick-skinned tectonics; 2) the shape of velocity variations under the granitoid belt is suggestive of a magma conduit. It

  6. Comparative analysis of the results of various physical therapy techniques in the treatment of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma with chronic cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarev М.S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Aim of the study: to evaluate the effectiveness of the techniques of dynamic simultaneous transcranial magnetic therapy and resonance, and electrical stimulation, transcranial magnetic therapy and dynamic laser stimulation, magnetic simpatokorrektsii in the treatment of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma with chronic cerebral ischemia. Techniques. We observed 184 patients diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma who received different physical therapy techniques. Results. Patients treated with transcranial magnetic therapy and electrical stimulation or laser stimulation, in addition to improving visual function and improve the bioelectrical activity of the visual cortex, more pronounced than in other groups also observed the activation of the intraocular blood fow. Application of magnetic simpatokorrektsii allows for improvement of basic functional, electrophysiological and hemodynamic performance by reducing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and reduce the vasopressor effect. Conclusion. Transcranial magnetic therapy in combination with electrical stimulation or laser stimulation is effective in the treatment of patients with POAG. In patients with primary open-angle glaucoma with chronic cerebral ischemia technique of magnetic sim-patokorrektsii compared with traditional methods of vasoactive therapy is more effective, which is manifested not only increase the visual functions, but also a decrease in cognitive impairment.

  7. Results from the Wide Angle Search for Planets Prototype (WASP0) II: Stellar Variability in the Pegasus Field

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, S R; Cameron, A C; Horne, K; James, D; Pollacco, D L; Street, R A; Tsapras, Y

    2005-01-01

    Recent wide-field photometric surveys which target a specific field for long durations are ideal for studying both long and short period stellar variability. Here we report on 75 variable stars detected during observations of a field in Pegasus using the WASP0 instrument, 73 of which are new discoveries. The variables detected include 16 delta Scuti stars, 34 eclipsing binaries, 3 BY Draconis stars, and 4 RR Lyraes. We estimate that the fraction of stars in the field brighter than V ~ 13.5 exhibiting variable behaviour with an amplitude greater than 0.6% rms is ~ 0.4%. These results are compared with other wide-field stellar variability surveys and implications for detecting transits due to extra-solar planets are discussed.

  8. Experimental data suggesting that inflammation mediated rat liver mitochondrial dysfunction results from secondary hypoxia rather than from direct effects of inflammatory mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AndreyVKozlov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory response (SIR comprises direct effects of inflammatory mediators (IM and indirect effects, such as secondary circulatory failure which results in tissue hypoxia (HOX. These two key components, SIR and HOX, cause multiple organ failure (MOF. Since HOX and IM occur and interact simultaneously in vivo, it is difficult to clarify their individual pathological impact. To eliminate this interaction, precision cut liver slices (PCLS were used in this study aiming to dissect the effects of HOX and IM on mitochondrial function, integrity of cellular membrane and the expression of genes associated with inflammation. HOX was induced by incubating PCLS or rat liver mitochondria at pO2<1% followed by reoxygenation (HOX/ROX model. Inflammatory injury was stimulated by incubating PCLS with IM (IM model. We found upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression only in the IM model, while heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 expression was upregulated only in the HOX/ROX model. Elevated expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6 was found in both models reflecting converging pathways regulating the expression of this gene. Both models caused damage to hepatocytes resulting in the release of alanine aminotransferase (ALT. The leakage of aspartate aminotransferase (AST was observed only during the hypoxic phase in the HOX/ROX model. The reoxygenation phase of HOX, but not IM, drastically impaired mitochondrial electron supply via complex I and II. Additional experiments performed with isolated mitochondria showed that free iron, released during HOX, is likely a key prerequisite of mitochondrial dysfunction induced during the reoxygenation phase. Our data suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction, previously observed in in vivo SIR-models is the result of secondary circulatory failure inducing HOX rather than the result of a direct interaction of IM with liver cells.

  9. Multi-Angle Switched HIFU: A New Ultrasound Device for Controlled Non-Invasive Induction of Small Spherical Ablation Zones—Simulation and Ex-Vivo Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Petr; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat; Benson, Donny G.; Webber, Jessica S.; Moros, Eduardo G.; Shafirstein, Gal; Griffin, Robert J.

    2009-04-01

    Current HIFU devices produce elongated elliptical lesions (cigar shaped) in a single energy deposition. This prohibits the effective use of HIFU in small animal research as well as in clinical treatment where small volumes of tissue surrounded by critical structures need to be destroyed. We developed an ultrasound ablation device that non-invasively creates spheroidal lesions of an arbitrary diameter of up to 1 cm in a depth of up to 5 cm. The device consists of two focused ultrasound transducers aimed to the ablation target volume from two directions at a 90 degree angle. The operation of the transducers is switched back and forth so that only one transducer is energized at a time. A transient analysis of this ablation approach was performed using coupled simulations of acoustical pressure distributions, resulting temperature distributions, and thermal dose deposited to soft tissue. A prototype of the device was developed and tested in-vitro in a phantom and later in ex-vivo experiments in pig liver. The experimental results agreed with the numerical simulations and confirmed the ability of the multi-angle switched HIFU (MASH) device to create small spheroidal lesions in soft tissue within 2 minutes without significantly affecting the surrounding tissues.

  10. Loss of surface CXCR3 expression in the RA synovial CD3 cells as a result of ligand binding suggests the mechanism for increased Th1 cell infiltration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kryštůfková, O.; Niederlová, J.; Růžičková, S.; Šinkora, Jiří; Řeháková, Zuzana; Horváth, Ondřej; Vencovský, J.

    Leiden : European Worcshop for Rheumatology Research, 2002. s. 4. [European Workshop for Rheumatology Research /22./. 28.02.2002-03.03.2002, Leiden] R&D Projects: GA MZd NI6459 Keywords : ligand * binding * suggests Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  11. [Results of a double-blind medium-term study comparing effects of timolol maleate and epinephrine in 120 patients with chronic open-angle glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demailly, P; Lehner, M A; Etienne, R; Trepsat, C; Haut, J; Raynaud, G; Massin, M; Tatry, C

    1978-12-01

    A double-blind medium term study of the activity of timolol in chronic open-angle glaucoma was conducted in four French ophthalmological centers, using the same protocol. A total of 119 patients were treated: --60 with timolol; --59 with épinéphrine, for comparison. Results showed a significantly superior efficacy for timolol over épinéphrine, after in weeks of treatment. Good tonometric control was obtained in 81.6% of the patients treated with timolol, against 52.5% of those receiving épinéphrine. In 68% of the glaucomatons patients treated with timolol, good tonometric control was obtained with the lowest dose preparation containing 0.1%. No side-effects were noted during the study, either locally or generally (particularly blood pressure changes). PMID:155097

  12. Preliminary results following the use of a fixed combination of timolol–brimonidine in patients with ocular hypertension and primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Papaconstantinou

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dimitris Papaconstantinou1, Ilias Georgalas2, Nikolaos Kourtis1, Christos Pitsas1, Efthimios Karmiris1, Chrysanthi Koutsandrea1, Ioannis Ladas1, Gerasimos Georgopoulos11Department of Ophthalmology, “G Gennimatas” Hospital of Athens, University of Athens, Athens, Greece; 2Department of Ophthalmology, “G Gennimatas” Hospital of Athens, NHS, Athens, Greece Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy in intraocular pressure (IOP control and the tolerance of a topically administered fixed combination of timolol–brimonidine in 50 patients with ocular hypertension and primary open-angle glaucoma.Methods: After determining a baseline IOP, the fixed combination timolol–brimonidine was used twice daily for two months, while IOP, ophthalmic signs, and/or symptoms were monitored.Results: The mean IOP value was decreased from 23.09 mm Hg (±1.98 SD to 17.46 mm Hg (±1.47 SD during the 1st month (paired Student’s t test = 9.88 και p < 0.001, and to 17.51 mm Hg (±1.43 SD in the 2nd month. Between the 1st and 2nd month, no statistical difference was observed (paired Student’s t test = 0.02 και p < 0.1. In 8% of the patients during the 1st month and 10% of patients in the 2nd month, some ophthalmic signs were observed, while only mild ophthalmic symptoms were reported in 6% and 8% of the patients, respectively.Conclusions: In conclusion, the fixed combination of timolol–brimonidine has a satisfactory IOP-lowering effect without any serious side effects due to the topical use. Keywords: fixed combination 0.2% brimonidine–0.5% timolol, ocular hypertension, primary open-angle glaucoma

  13. On extracting quark mixing angles in B meson decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After emphasizing the fundamental importance of determining the mixing angles of bottom quarks we list and discuss the considerable systematic uncertainties one faces when extracting these mixing angles from B decays. Evaluating various methods suggested we conclude that a study of the lepton energy spectrum in B decays provides a reasonable way of obtaining the ratio of mixing angles; yet in view of its inherent hazards its results should be backed up by other studies based, e.g., on kaon multiplicities

  14. Loss of Niemann-Pick C1 or C2 protein results in similar biochemical changes suggesting that these proteins function in a common lysosomal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayali S Dixit

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids in the endolysosomal system. NPC disease results from a defect in either of two distinct cholesterol-binding proteins: a transmembrane protein, NPC1, and a small soluble protein, NPC2. NPC1 and NPC2 are thought to function closely in the export of lysosomal cholesterol with both proteins binding cholesterol in vitro but they may have unrelated lysosomal roles. To investigate this possibility, we compared biochemical consequences of the loss of either protein. Analyses of lysosome-enriched subcellular fractions from brain and liver revealed similar decreases in buoyant densities of lysosomes from NPC1 or NPC2 deficient mice compared to controls. The subcellular distribution of both proteins was similar and paralleled a lysosomal marker. In liver, absence of either NPC1 or NPC2 resulted in similar alterations in the carbohydrate processing of the lysosomal protease, tripeptidyl peptidase I. These results highlight biochemical alterations in the lysosomal system of the NPC-mutant mice that appear secondary to lipid storage. In addition, the similarity in biochemical phenotypes resulting from either NPC1 or NPC2 deficiency supports models in which the function of these two proteins within lysosomes are linked closely.

  15. Music and Academic Success Go Together at Whitworth; University's Survey Results Also Suggest High School Music May Boost Chances of College Admittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a research by Whitworth University music professor Richard Strauch which assesses the freshman class for Whitworth's 2007-08 academic year. Strauch found that Whitworth students who stuck with their high school music program had higher GPAs and standardized test scores upon entering the university than…

  16. A randomized control trial to evaluate the effect of adjuvant selective laser trabeculoplasty versus medication alone in primary open-angle glaucoma: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JWY

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jacky WY Lee,1,2 Catherine WS Chan,2 Mandy OM Wong,3 Jonathan CH Chan,3 Qing Li,2 Jimmy SM Lai2 1The Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, 2The Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Hong Kong, 3The Department of Ophthalmology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of adjuvant selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT versus medication alone on intraocular pressure (IOP control, medication use, and quality of life in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.Methods: This prospective, randomized control study recruited 41 consecutive primary open-angle glaucoma subjects with medically-controlled IOP ≤21 mmHg. The SLT group (n=22 received a single 360-degree SLT treatment. The medication-only group (n=19 continued with their usual treatment regimen. In both groups, medication was titrated to maintain a target IOP defined as a 25% reduction from baseline IOP without medication, or <18 mmHg, whichever was lower. Outcomes, which were measured at baseline and at 6 months, included the Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 (GQL-15 and Comparison of Ophthalmic Medications for Tolerability (COMTOL survey scores, IOP, and the number of antiglaucoma medicines. Results: The baseline IOP was 15.8±2.7 mmHg and 14.5±2.5 mmHg in the SLT and medication-only groups, respectively (P=0.04. Both groups had a comparable number of baseline medication (P=0.2, GQL-15 (P=0.3 and COMTOL scores (P=0.7. At 6 months, the SLT group had a lower IOP (P=0.03 and required fewer medications compared with both baseline (P<0.0001 and with the medication-only group (P=0.02. There was no statistically significant difference in the 6-month GQL-15 or COMTOL score as compared to baseline (P≥0.4 or between the two treatment groups (P≥0.2.Conclusion: A single session of adjuvant SLT provided further reductions in IOP and medication without substantial changes in quality of life or medication tolerability at 6

  17. Two EE-azido-bridged nickel(II) layered compounds: vigorous twisted torsion angle Ni-N3-Ni results in ferromagnetic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru-Yin; Wang, Bing-Wu; Wang, Xin-Yi; Wang, Xiu-Teng; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Gao, Song

    2009-08-01

    Two coordination polymers, Ni(endi)(N(3))(2) (endi = 1,2-bis(tetrazol-1-yl)ethane) (1) and Ni(4-acpy)(2)(N(3))(2) (4-acpy = 4-acetylpyridine) (2), are obtained by employing a couple of cobalt complex as references. Both compounds have similar 2D (4,4) EE azide-nickel layer structures, but different interlayer separations. Their EE azide bridges are vigorously twisted, with the torsion angle tau value 88.3 degrees and 107.6 degrees for 1 and 89.2 degrees for 2. Different from most EE azide compounds, ferromagnetism is distinctly present, ordering below T(c) = 25 K for 1 and T(c) = 23 K for 2. Fitting of magnetic susceptibility data using the spin Hamiltonian H = -2J SigmaS(1)S(2) gives the ferromagnetic intralayer coupling J = 14.70(6) cm(-1) for 1 and 14.32(0) cm(-1) for 2, respectively. The magnetostructural correlations of 1 have been calculated using the density function theory based method. The computational results are consistent with the trend of the experimental data. One possible mechanism was proposed to explain the emergence of ferromagnetism based on the theoretical studies, and the ferromagnet construction approach was also proposed accordingly. PMID:19569711

  18. Study of the advancing and receding contact angles: liquid sorption as a cause of contact angle hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, C N C; Wu, R; Li, D; Hair, M L; Neumann, A W

    2002-02-25

    Two types of experiments were used to study the behavior of both advancing and receding contact angles, namely the dynamic one-cycle contact angle (DOCA) and the dynamic cycling contact angle (DCCA) experiments. For the preliminary study, DOCA measurements of different liquids on different solids were performed using an automated axisymmetric drop shape analysis-profile (ADSA-P). From these experimental results, four patterns of receding contact angle were observed: (1) time-dependent receding contact angle; (2) constant receding contact angle; (3) 'stick/slip'; (4) no receding contact angle. For the purpose of illustration, results from four different solid surfaces are shown. These solids are: FC-732-coated surface; poly(methyl methacrylate/n-butyl methacrylate) [P(MMA/nBMA)]; poly(lactic acid) (DL-PLA); and poly(lactic/glycolic acid) 50/50 (DL-PLGA 50/50). Since most of the surfaces in our studies exhibit time dependence in the receding contact angle, a more extended study was conducted using only FC-732-coated surfaces to better understand the possible causes of decreasing receding contact angle and contact angle hysteresis. Contact angle measurements of 21 liquids from two homologous series (i.e. n-alkanes and 1-alcohols) and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OCMTS) on FC-732-coated surfaces were performed. It is apparent that the contact angle hysteresis decreases with the chain length of the liquid. It was found that the receding contact angle equals the advancing angle when the alkane molecules are infinitely large. These results strongly suggest that the chain length and size of the liquid molecule could contribute to contact angle hysteresis phenomena. Furthermore, DCCA measurements of six liquids from the two homologous series on FC-732-coated surfaces were performed. With these experimental results, one can construe that the time dependence of contact angle hysteresis on relatively smooth and homogeneous surfaces is mainly caused by liquid retention

  19. Lateral intermetatarsal angle: a useful measurement of metatarsus primus elevatus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, A; Mahoney, B; Tinley, P

    2001-05-01

    The lateral intermetatarsal angle, a measurement of the sagittal plane angular divergence between the dorsal cortices of the first and second metatarsals of lateral weightbearing foot radiographs, was compared in 30 normal and 30 hallux limitus feet. The results suggest that the angle may be measured reliably and that although the measured angles are relatively small, a significant difference exists between the normal and hallux limitus subjects studied. Accordingly, the lateral intermetatarsal angle may prove to be a useful radiographic measurement to assist the podiatric physician in the clinical assessment of hallux limitus. PMID:11359890

  20. Angle performance on optima MDxt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angle control on medium current implanters is important due to the high angle-sensitivity of typical medium current implants, such as halo implants. On the Optima MDxt, beam-to-wafer angles are controlled in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In the horizontal direction, the beam angle is measured through six narrow slits, and any angle adjustment is made by electrostatically steering the beam, while cross-wafer beam parallelism is adjusted by changing the focus of the electrostatic parallelizing lens (P-lens). In the vertical direction, the beam angle is measured through a high aspect ratio mask, and any angle adjustment is made by slightly tilting the wafer platen prior to implant. A variety of tests were run to measure the accuracy and repeatability of Optima MDxt’s angle control. SIMS profiles of a high energy, channeling sensitive condition show both the cross-wafer angle uniformity, along with the small-angle resolution of the system. Angle repeatability was quantified by running a channeling sensitive implant as a regular monitor over a seven month period and measuring the sheet resistance-to-angle sensitivity. Even though crystal cut error was not controlled for in this case, when attributing all Rs variation to angle changes, the overall angle repeatability was measured as 0.16° (1σ). A separate angle repeatability test involved running a series of V-curves tests over a four month period using low crystal cut wafers selected from the same boule. The results of this test showed the angle repeatability to be <0.1° (1σ).

  1. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  2. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently `loss averse', e.g. consumers' disappointment from higher than suggested retail prices is sufficiently high, the producer can force the retailer to take the suggested price in equilibrium and thus capt...

  3. Seismic Images of the Crust across D-E Seismic Profile (TS04-Tsujal Project): Results of Reflection and Wide-Angle Seismic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, D.; Lopez Ortiz, J. Y.; Bartolome, R.; Barba, D. C., Sr.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Danobeitia, J.; Zamora-Camacho, A.; Escudero, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    As a part of TSUJAL Project (Crustal characterization of the Rivera Plate-Jalisco Block boundary and its implications for seismic and tsunami hazard assessment), a geophysical study has been carried out during February and March 2014 in western continental margin of Jalisco where seismic reflection, wide-angle seismic, bathymetry and potential fields (gravity and magnetism) data have been obtained. Eight land seismic stations vertical component and 4.5 Hz model TEXAN 125A (REFTEK), were deployed along an offshore-onshore seismic profile of 140 km length in SW-NE orientation. These stations registered, in continuous model, the airgun shots provided by RRS James Cook used for Multichannel Seismic Reflection data acquisition every 50 m of distance interval and total capacity of 5800 ci along seismic profile D-E (TS04). In the onshore region, these stations were deployed every 20 km from Pérula to Nacastillo (Jalisco, Mexico). The study region corresponds to onshore-offshore line limited by (18o 54'N, 105o 59'W) (19o 26'N, 105o7'W) coordinates. In this work, seismic images of the crust along a deep seismic profile of 140 km length are presented. These images provide new cortical information about the southern part of Rivera Plate, continental accretionary wedge and first kilometers of Jalisco Block continental zone.

  4. Why are angles misperceived?

    OpenAIRE

    Nundy, Surajit; Lotto, Beau; Coppola, David; Shimpi, Amita; Purves, Dale

    2000-01-01

    Although it has long been apparent that observers tend to overestimate the magnitude of acute angles and underestimate obtuse ones, there is no consensus about why such distortions are seen. Geometrical modeling combined with psychophysical testing of human subjects indicates that these misperceptions are the result of an empirical strategy that resolves the inherent ambiguity of angular stimuli by generating percepts of the past significance of the stimulus rather than the geometry of its re...

  5. Perception of perspective angles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    We perceive perspective angles, that is, angles that have an orientation in depth, differently from what they are in physical space. Extreme examples are angles between rails of a railway line or between lane dividers of a long and straight road. In this study, subjects judged perspective angles bet

  6. [Therapy and suggestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrucand, D; Paille, F

    1986-12-01

    Therapy and suggestion are closely related. That is clear for the ancient time: primitive medicine gives a good place to the Word. In plant, animal or mineral remedies, the suggestion is clearly preponderant. Towards the end of the 19th century, the "Ecole de Nancy" sets up a real theory of the suggestion, and Bernheim, its leader, bases hypnosis, then psychotherapy on this concept. Thereafter Coué will bring up the "conscious autosuggestion". Today, despite the progress of scientific medicine, the part of suggestion is still very important in medical therapy (with or without drugs), or in chirurgical therapy; this part is also very important in psychotherapies, whatever has been said in this field. This has to be known and used consciously in the doctor-patient relation, which is always essential in the therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:3555209

  7. The Motivating Suggestion System

    OpenAIRE

    Hultgren, Per

    2008-01-01

    This case study investigates the suggestion system of a manufacturing plant with the purpose of getting insight about how a suggestion system should be designed to support the continuous improvement discipline Kaizen in the best way possible. The cooperating company has recently introduced Kaizen to the organization as part of a transaction toward lean production. The study was conducted using semi-structured interviews along with observations. The problem was approached from a motivational p...

  8. Small-angle neutron-scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief introduction to small-angle scattering (SAS) is given. Initial results obtained using the AERE small-angle diffractometer are presented for four materials of interest: doped uranium dioxide, nitrided steel, graphite and alumina. (U.K.)

  9. Attitudes to Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PETER; JOHNSON

    2007-01-01

    As an Australian expat teaching English in China for over four years, I often encourage my students to not only learn the English language but also try to understand Western culture. This includes the fact that Westerners frequently initiate proactive suggestions on any aspects of soci-

  10. Suggestions for Teaching Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Na-na

    2013-01-01

    Teacher development and teaching practice(TP) have caught the eyes of researchers at home and abroad for many years. Many western scholars hold that reflective teaching is an efficient way to promote teacher development, but traditional TP is prevailing in China. Based on the merits and demerits of traditional TP and reflective TP, the author hopes to provide some suggestions for the people involved to promote the development of teacher education.

  11. Improved Beam Angle Arrangement in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Treatment Planning for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Wenhua; Lim, Gino J. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Li, Yupeng [Applied Research, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Zhu, X. Ronald; Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: xizhang@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Purpose: This study investigates potential gains of an improved beam angle arrangement compared to a conventional fixed gantry setup in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) treatment for localized prostate cancer patients based on a proof of principle study. Materials and Methods: Three patients with localized prostate cancer retrospectively selected from our institution were studied. For each patient, IMPT plans were designed using two, three and four beam angles, respectively, obtained from a beam angle optimization algorithm. Those plans were then compared with ones using two lateral parallel-opposed beams according to the conventional planning protocol for localized prostate cancer adopted at our institution. Results: IMPT plans with two optimized angles achieved significant improvements in rectum sparing and moderate improvements in bladder sparing against those with two lateral angles. Plans with three optimized angles further improved rectum sparing significantly over those two-angle plans, whereas four-angle plans found no advantage over three-angle plans. A possible three-beam class solution for localized prostate patients was suggested and demonstrated with preserved dosimetric benefits because individually optimized three-angle solutions were found sharing a very similar pattern. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the potential of using an improved beam angle arrangement to better exploit the theoretical dosimetric benefits of proton therapy and provided insights of selecting quality beam angles for localized prostate cancer treatment.

  12. Improved Beam Angle Arrangement in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Treatment Planning for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Cao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study investigates potential gains of an improved beam angle arrangement compared to a conventional fixed gantry setup in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT treatment for localized prostate cancer patients based on a proof of principle study. Materials and Methods: Three patients with localized prostate cancer retrospectively selected from our institution were studied. For each patient, IMPT plans were designed using two, three and four beam angles, respectively, obtained from a beam angle optimization algorithm. Those plans were then compared with ones using two lateral parallel-opposed beams according to the conventional planning protocol for localized prostate cancer adopted at our institution. Results: IMPT plans with two optimized angles achieved significant improvements in rectum sparing and moderate improvements in bladder sparing against those with two lateral angles. Plans with three optimized angles further improved rectum sparing significantly over those two-angle plans, whereas four-angle plans found no advantage over three-angle plans. A possible three-beam class solution for localized prostate patients was suggested and demonstrated with preserved dosimetric benefits because individually optimized three-angle solutions were found sharing a very similar pattern. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the potential of using an improved beam angle arrangement to better exploit the theoretical dosimetric benefits of proton therapy and provided insights of selecting quality beam angles for localized prostate cancer treatment.

  13. Improved Beam Angle Arrangement in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Treatment Planning for Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study investigates potential gains of an improved beam angle arrangement compared to a conventional fixed gantry setup in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) treatment for localized prostate cancer patients based on a proof of principle study. Materials and Methods: Three patients with localized prostate cancer retrospectively selected from our institution were studied. For each patient, IMPT plans were designed using two, three and four beam angles, respectively, obtained from a beam angle optimization algorithm. Those plans were then compared with ones using two lateral parallel-opposed beams according to the conventional planning protocol for localized prostate cancer adopted at our institution. Results: IMPT plans with two optimized angles achieved significant improvements in rectum sparing and moderate improvements in bladder sparing against those with two lateral angles. Plans with three optimized angles further improved rectum sparing significantly over those two-angle plans, whereas four-angle plans found no advantage over three-angle plans. A possible three-beam class solution for localized prostate patients was suggested and demonstrated with preserved dosimetric benefits because individually optimized three-angle solutions were found sharing a very similar pattern. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the potential of using an improved beam angle arrangement to better exploit the theoretical dosimetric benefits of proton therapy and provided insights of selecting quality beam angles for localized prostate cancer treatment

  14. An exact result concerning the $1/f$ noise contribution to the large-angle error in CMB temperature and polarization maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bucher, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We present an exact expression for the $1/f$ contribution to the noise of the CMB temperature and polarization maps for a survey in which the scan pattern is isotropic. The result for polarization applies likewise to surveys with and without a rotating half-wave plate. A representative range of survey parameters is explored and implications for the design and optimization of future surveys are discussed. These results are most directly applicable to space-based surveys, which afford considerable freedom in the choice of the scan pattern on the celestial sphere. We discuss the applicability of the methods developed here to analyzing past experiments and present some conclusions pertinent to the design of future experiments. The techniques developed here do not require that the excess low frequency noise have exactly the $1/f$ shape and readily generalize to other functional forms for the detector noise power spectrum. In the case of weakly anisotropic scanning patterns the techniques in this paper can be used ...

  15. Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL): Theory of Operation and Results from Cross-Platform Validation at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, I. N.; Davis, A. B.; Love, S. P.

    2004-05-01

    WAIL was designed to determine physical and geometrical characteristics of optically thick clouds using the off-beam component of the lidar return that can be accurately modeled within the 3D photon diffusion approximation. The theory shows that the WAIL signal depends not only on the cloud optical characteristics (phase function, extinction and scattering coefficients) but also on the outer thickness of the cloud layer. This makes it possible to estimate the mean optical and geometrical thicknesses of the cloud. The comparison with Monte Carlo simulation demonstrates the high accuracy of the diffusion approximation for moderately to very dense clouds. During operation WAIL is able to collect a complete data set from a cloud every few minutes, with averaging over horizontal scale of a kilometer or so. In order to validate WAIL's ability to deliver cloud properties, the LANL instrument was deployed as a part of the THickness from Off-beam Returns (THOR) validation IOP. The goal was to probe clouds above the SGP CART site at night in March 2002 from below (WAIL and ARM instruments) and from NASA's P3 aircraft (carrying THOR, the GSFC counterpart of WAIL) flying above the clouds. The permanent cloud instruments we used to compare with the results obtained from WAIL were ARM's laser ceilometer, micro-pulse lidar (MPL), millimeter-wavelength cloud radar (MMCR), and micro-wave radiometer (MWR). The comparison shows that, in spite of an unusually low cloud ceiling, an unfavorable observation condition for WAIL's present configuration, cloud properties obtained from the new instrument are in good agreement with their counterparts obtained by other instruments. So WAIL can duplicate, at least for single-layer clouds, the cloud products of the MWR and MMCR together. But WAIL does this with green laser light, which is far more representative than microwaves of photon transport processes at work in the climate system.

  16. Explicit angle structures for veering triangulations

    CERN Document Server

    Futer, David

    2010-01-01

    Agol recently introduced the notion of a veering triangulation, and showed that such triangulations naturally arise as layered triangulations of fibered hyperbolic 3-manifolds. We prove, by a constructive argument, that every veering triangulation admits positive angle structures, recovering a result of Hodgson, Rubinstein, Segerman, and Tillmann. Our construction leads to explicit lower bounds on the smallest angle in this positive angle structure, and to information about angled holonomy of the boundary tori.

  17. Evaluation of blotchy pigments in the anterior chamber angle as a sign of angle closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha L Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blotchy pigments in the anterior chamber (AC angle are considered diagnostic of primary angle closure (PAC. But there are no reports either on the prevalence of blotchy pigments in AC angles or the validity of this sign. Aims: To determine the prevalence of blotchy pigments in AC angles and to evaluate their relationship with glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON in eyes with occludable angles. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional, comparative study. Materials and Methods: Gonioscopy was performed in 1001 eyes of 526 subjects (245 eyes of 148 consecutive, occludable angle subjects and 756 eyes of 378 non-consecutive, open angle subjects, above 35 years of age. Quadrant-wise location of blotchy pigments was documented. Statistical Analysis: Odds of blotchy pigments in occludable angles against that in open angles were evaluated. Relationship of GON with blotchy pigments in occludable angle eyes was evaluated using a multivariate model. Results: Prevalence of blotchy pigments in occludable angles was 28.6% (95% CI, 22.9-34.3 and in open angles was 4.7% (95% CI, 3.2-6.3. Blotchy pigments were more frequently seen in inferior (16% and superior quadrants (15% of occludable angles, and inferior quadrant of open angles (4%. Odds of superior quadrant blotchy pigments in occludable angles were 33 times that in open angles. GON was seen in 107 occludable angle eyes. Blotchy pigments were not significantly associated with GON (odds ratio = 0.5; P = 0.1. Conclusions: Blotchy pigments were seen in 28.6% of occludable angle eyes and 4.7% of open angles eyes. Presence of blotchy pigments in the superior quadrant is more common in occludable angles. Presence of GON in occludable angle eyes was not associated with blotchy pigments.

  18. The Contact Angle in Inviscid Fluid Mechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N Shankar; R Kidambi

    2005-05-01

    We show that in general, the specification of a contact angle condition at the contact line in inviscid fluid motions is incompatible with the classical field equations and boundary conditions generally applicable to them. The limited conditions under which such a specification is permissible are derived;however, these include cases where the static meniscus is not flat. In view of this situation, the status of the many `solutions’ in the literature which prescribe a contact angle in potential flows comes into question. We suggest that these solutions which attempt to incorporate a phenomenological, but incompatible, condition are in some, imprecise sense `weak-type solutions’;they satisfy or are likely to satisfy, at least in the limit, the governing equations and boundary conditions everywhere except in the neighbourhood of the contact line. We discuss the implications of the result for the analysis of inviscid flows with free surfaces.

  19. Suggestion of True Popular Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huidrom Romesh Chandra Singh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Making of suggestion of items using user’s feedback creates some problems in the actual ranking of the items. It populates some items while it suppresses some others. In short, it affects the original popularity of the items. Our goal in this paper is to make a suggestion of the items and rank them according to true/original popularity. We use some ranking and suggesting algorithms in order to achieve our goal. Our result provides a very effective performance which givesa true popularity of the items.

  20. A lattice determination of gA and left angle x right angle from overlap fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results for the nucleon's axial charge gA and the first moment left angle x right angle of the unpolarized parton distribution function from a simulation of quenched overlap fermions. (orig.)

  1. Pitch angle of galactic spiral arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the key parameters that characterizes spiral arms in disk galaxies is a pitch angle that measures the inclination of a spiral arm to the direction of galactic rotation. The pitch angle differs from galaxy to galaxy, which suggests that the rotation law of galactic disks determines it. In order to investigate the relation between the pitch angle of spiral arms and the shear rate of galactic differential rotation, we perform local N-body simulations of pure stellar disks. We find that the pitch angle increases with the epicycle frequency and decreases with the shear rate and obtain the fitting formula. This dependence is explained by the swing amplification mechanism.

  2. Results based on 124 cases of breast cancer and 97 controls from Taiwan suggest that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP309) in the MDM2 gene promoter is associated with earlier onset and increased risk of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that the single nucleotide polymorphism 309 (SNP309, T -> G) in the promoter region of the MDM2 gene is important for tumor development; however, with regards to breast cancer, inconsistent associations have been reported worldwide. It is speculated that these conflicting results may have arisen due to different patient subgroups and ethnicities studied. For the first time, this study explores the effect of the MDM2 SNP309 genotype on Taiwanese breast cancer patients. Genomic DNA was obtained from the whole blood of 124 breast cancer patients and 97 cancer-free healthy women living in Taiwan. MDM2 SNP309 genotyping was carried out by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay. The multivariate logistic regression and the Kaplan-Meier method were used for analyzing the risk association and significance of age at diagnosis among different MDM2 SNP309 genotypes, respectively. Compared to the TT genotype, an increased risk association with breast cancer was apparent for the GG genotype (OR = 3.05, 95% CI = 1.04 to 8.95), and for the TG genotype (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 0.90 to 5.00) after adjusting for age, cardiovascular disease/diabetes, oral contraceptive usage, and body mass index, which exhibits significant difference between cases and controls. Furthermore, the average ages at diagnosis for breast cancer patients were 53.6, 52 and 47 years for those harboring TT, TG and GG genotypes, respectively. A significant difference in median age of onset for breast cancer between GG and TT+TG genotypes was obtained by the log-rank test (p = 0.0067). Findings based on the current sample size suggest that the MDM2 SNP309 GG genotype may be associated with both the risk of breast cancer and an earlier age of onset in Taiwanese women

  3. Reading Angles in Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

  4. Distribution of angles in hyperbolic lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Morten Skarsholm; Truelsen, Jimi Lee

    2010-01-01

    We prove an effective equidistribution result about angles in a hyperbolic lattice. We use this to generalize a result from the study by Boca.......We prove an effective equidistribution result about angles in a hyperbolic lattice. We use this to generalize a result from the study by Boca....

  5. Distribution of Angles in Hyperbolic Lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Risager, Morten; L. Truelsen, Jimi

    2008-01-01

    We prove an effective equidistribution result about angles in a hyperbolic lattice. We use this to generalize a result due to F. P. Boca.......We prove an effective equidistribution result about angles in a hyperbolic lattice. We use this to generalize a result due to F. P. Boca....

  6. Optimal reconstruction angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of optimal projection angles has recently become of interest in the field of reconstruction from projections. Here, studies are concentrated on the n x n pixel space, where literative algorithms such as ART and direct matrix techniques due to Katz are considered. The best angles are determined in a Gauss--Markov statistical sense as well as with respect to a function-theoretical error bound. The possibility of making photon intensity a function of angle is also examined. Finally, the best angles to use in an ART-like algorithm are studied. A certain set of unequally spaced angles was found to be preferred in several contexts. 15 figures, 6 tables

  7. Conformational changes in Sindbis virions resulting from exposure to low pH and interactions with cells suggest that cell penetration may occur at the cell surface in the absence of membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alphaviruses have the ability to induce cell-cell fusion after exposure to acid pH. This observation has served as an article of proof that these membrane-containing viruses infect cells by fusion of the virus membrane with a host cell membrane upon exposure to acid pH after incorporation into a cell endosome. We have investigated the requirements for the induction of virus-mediated, low pH-induced cell-cell fusion and cell-virus fusion. We have correlated the pH requirements for this process to structural changes they produce in the virus by electron cryo-microscopy. We found that exposure to acid pH was required to establish conditions for membrane fusion but that membrane fusion did not occur until return to neutral pH. Electron cryo-microscopy revealed dramatic changes in the structure of the virion as it was moved to acid pH and then returned to neutral pH. None of these treatments resulted in the disassembly of the virus protein icosahedral shell that is a requisite for the process of virus membrane-cell membrane fusion. The appearance of a prominent protruding structure upon exposure to acid pH and its disappearance upon return to neutral pH suggested that the production of a 'pore'-like structure at the fivefold axis may facilitate cell penetration as has been proposed for polio (J. Virol. 74 (2000) 1342) and human rhino virus (Mol. Cell 10 (2002) 317). This transient structural change also provided an explanation for how membrane fusion occurs after return to neutral pH. Examination of virus-cell complexes at neutral pH supported the contention that infection occurs at the cell surface at neutral pH by the production of a virus structure that breaches the plasma membrane bilayer. These data suggest an alternative route of infection for Sindbis virus that occurs by a process that does not involve membrane fusion and does not require disassembly of the virus protein shell

  8. Jet opening angles and gamma-ray brightness of AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Pushkarev, A B; Lister, M L; Savolainen, T

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the differences in apparent opening angles between the parsec-scale jets of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) during its first three months of operations and those of non-LAT-detected AGN. We used 15.4 GHz VLBA observations of sources from the 2 cm VLBA MOJAVE program, a subset of which comprise the statistically complete flux density limited MOJAVE sample. We determined the apparent opening angles by analyzing transverse jet profiles from the data in the image plane and by applying a model fitting technique to the data in the (u,v) plane. Both methods provided comparable opening angle estimates. The apparent opening angles of gamma-ray bright blazars are preferentially larger than those of gamma-ray weak sources. At the same time, we have found the two groups to have similar intrinsic opening angle distributions. This suggests that the jets in gamma-ray bright AGN are oriented at preferentially smaller angles to the line of sight resulting ...

  9. Photoelectric angle converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podzharenko, Volodymyr A.; Kulakov, Pavlo I.

    2001-06-01

    The photo-electric angle transmitter of rotation is offered, at which the output voltage is linear function of entering magnitude. In a transmitter the linear phototransducer is used on the basis of pair photo diode -- operating amplifier, which output voltage is linear function of the area of an illuminated photosensitive stratum, and modulator of a light stream of the special shape, which ensures a linear dependence of this area from an angle of rotation. The transmitter has good frequent properties and can be used for dynamic measurements of an angular velocity and angle of rotation, in systems of exact drives and systems of autocontrol.

  10. A porosity gradient in 67P/C-G nucleus suggested from CONSERT and SESAME-PP results: an interpretation based on new laboratory permittivity measurements of porous icy analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouet, Y.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Sabouroux, P.; Neves, L.; Encrenaz, P.; Poch, O.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Kofman, W.; Le Gall, A.; Ciarletti, V.; Hérique, A.; Lethuillier, A.

    2016-09-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft made a rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) in August 2014, soon after the Philae module landed on the small lobe of the nucleus on 12 November 2014. The CONSERT instrument, onboard Rosetta and Philae, sounded the upper part of the interior of 67P with radiowaves at 90 MHz and determined an average of the real part of the permittivity (hereafter ɛ') equal to about 1.27. The SESAME-PP instrument, onboard Philae, sounded the near-surface of the small lobe in the 400-800 Hz range and determined a lower limit of ɛ' equal to 2.45. We use a semi-empirical formula obtained from measurements of ɛ' performed in the laboratory at 243 K on water ice and ice-basaltic dust mixtures, with a controlled porosity in the 31-91% range and a dust-to-ice volumetric ratio in the 0.1-2.8 range, to interpret the results of the two instruments, taking into account the temperature and frequency dependencies. A graphical method is proposed to derive ranges of porosity and dust-mass fraction from a value of ɛ' derived from observations. The non-dispersive behaviour of ɛ' below 175 K, allows us to compare the values of ɛ' obtained by CONSERT and SESAME-PP. We show that the porosity of the small lobe of 67P increases with depth. Based on new measurements of analogues of complex extraterrestrial organic matter, the so-called tholins, we also suggest that, for the dust component in the cometary material, the presence of silicates has more effect on ɛ' than organic materials.

  11. Phase angle measurement techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madge, R.; Fischer, D.

    1996-01-01

    Real-time measure of the power transfer across a transmission line was discussed. Phase angle measurement techniques, algorithms and applications relevant to power utilities were assessed. Phase-based applications compute the voltage angle difference between two stations, thereby allowing for power transfer calculations and power system control applications. A list of phase angle measurement applications was provided. It includes frequency measurement, state estimation, adaptive relaying, power system control, system restoration, real power flow monitoring and stability assessment, reactive power requirements monitoring, HVDC modulation, subsynchronous resonance, sequence of event recording, and loss reduction and fault location. The optimum timing requirement was determined for each application. Among the timing systems available today, the Global Positioning System (GPS), supported by powerful computers and other custom hardware, is the only tool that can provide the accuracy and coverage needed by today`s power system applications. Commercially available equipment for phase angle measurements was also reviewed. 30 refs., 32 tabs., 5 figs.

  12. The relationship between bioelectrical impedance phase angle and subjective global assessment in advanced colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grutsch James F

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioelectrical Impedance (BIA derived phase angle is increasingly being used as an objective indicator of nutritional status in advanced cancer. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA is a subjective method of nutritional status. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between BIA derived phase angle and SGA in advanced colorectal cancer. Methods We evaluated a case series of 73 stages III and IV colorectal cancer patients. Patients were classified as either well-nourished or malnourished using the SGA. BIA was conducted on all patients and phase angle was calculated. The correlation between phase angle and SGA was studied using Spearman correlation coefficient. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were estimated using the non-parametric method to determine the optimal cut-off levels of phase angle. Results Well-nourished patients had a statistically significantly higher (p = 0.005 median phase angle score (6.12 as compared to those who were malnourished (5.18. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient between phase angle and SGA was found to be 0.33 (p = 0.004, suggesting better nutritional status with higher phase angle scores. A phase angle cut-off of 5.2 was 51.7% sensitive and 79.5% specific whereas a cut-off of 6.0 was 82.8% sensitive and 54.5% specific in detecting malnutrition. Interestingly, a phase angle cut-off of 5.9 demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy in males who had failed primary treatment for advanced colorectal cancer. Conclusion Our study suggests that bioimpedance phase angle is a potential nutritional indicator in advanced colorectal cancer. Further research is needed to elucidate the optimal cut-off levels of phase angle that can be incorporated into the oncology clinic for better nutritional evaluation and management.

  13. Social Tags: Meaning and Suggestions

    OpenAIRE

    Suchanek, Fabian; Vojnovic, Milan; Gunawardena, Dinan

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to quantify two common assumptions about social tagging: (1) that tags are ``meaningful" and (2) that the tagging process is influenced by tag suggestions. For (1), we analyze the semantic properties of tags and the relationship between the tags and the content of the tagged page. Our analysis is based on a corpus of search keywords, contents, titles, and tags applied to several thousand popular Web pages. Among other results, we find that the more popu...

  14. Lateral angle and cranial base sexual dimorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duquesnel Mana, Mathilde; Adalian, Pascal; Lynnerup, Niels

    2016-01-01

    , to examine sexual dimorphism in the relationship between the lateral angle and cranial base shape. The lateral angle method was tested using a forensic sample of 102 CT scans of the head with known sex. We measured the angle using two methods: measurements directly on the CT slide, the method usually...... major overlap between the female and male shapes. In the light of the observed results, we confirm the lack of accuracy reported when using the lateral angle method to determine sex and we hypothesise that it may be explained by a lack of sexual dimorphism of the cranial base in terms of shape....

  15. The qualitative criterion of transient angle stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyu, R.; Xue, Y.; Xue, F.;

    2015-01-01

    In almost all the literatures, the qualitative assessment of transient angle stability extracts the angle information of generators based on the swing curve. As the angle (or angle difference) of concern and the threshold value rely strongly on the engineering experience, the validity and robust of...... these criterions are weak. Based on the stability mechanism from the extended equal area criterion (EEAC) theory and combining with abundant simulations of real system, this paper analyzes the criterions in most literatures and finds that the results could be too conservative or too optimistic. It is...

  16. Constant-variable flip angles for hyperpolarized media MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, He; Zhong, Jianping; Ruan, Weiwei; Chen, Xian; Sun, Xianping; Ye, Chaohui; Liu, Maili; Zhou, Xin

    2016-02-01

    The longitudinal magnetization of hyperpolarized media, such as hyperpolarized 129Xe, 3He, etc., is nonrenewable. When the MRI data acquisition begins at the k-domain center, a constant flip angle (CFA) results in an image of high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) but sacrifices the accuracy of spatial information. On the other hand, a variable flip angle (VFA) strategy results in high accuracy but suffers from a low SNR. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme to optimize both the SNR and accuracy, called constant-variable flip angles (CVFA). The proposed scheme suggests that hyperpolarized magnetic resonance signals are firstly acquired through a train of n∗ CFA excitation pulses, followed by a train of N-n∗ VFA excitation pulses. We simulate and optimize the flip angle used in the CFA section, the number of CFA excitation pulses, the number of VFA excitation pulses, and the initial and final variable flip angles adopted in the VFA section. Phantom and in vivo experiments demonstrate the good performance of the CVFA designs and their ability to maintain both high SNR and spatial resolution.

  17. Multi-angle compound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Søren Kragh; Wilhjelm, Jens Erik; Sillesen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared to...... conventional B-mode imaging MACI offers better defined tissue boundaries and lower variance of the speckle pattern, resulting in an image with reduced random variations. Design and implementation of a compound imaging system is described, images of rubber tubes and porcine aorta are shown and effects on...... visualization are discussed. The speckle reduction is analyzed numerically and the results are found to be in excellent agreement with existing theory. An investigation of detectability of low-contrast lesions shows significant improvements compared to conventional imaging. Finally, possibilities for improving...

  18. The quadriceps angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Frederiksen, Jane V.; Jensen, Bente Rona;

    2012-01-01

    : Pelvic limbs from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). METHODS: Q angles were measured on hip dysplasia (HD) and whole limb (WL) view radiographs of each limb between the acetabular rim, mid-point (Q1: patellar center, Q2: femoral trochlea), and tibial tuberosity. Errors of 0.5-2.0 mm at measurement landmarks...

  19. Yaw Angle Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Large Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Fixture (LAMSTF) is a 5 degree-of -freedom repulsive force magnetic suspension system designed to study the control of objects over large magnetic gaps. A digital control algorithm uses 6 sets of laser-sheet sensors and 5 control coils to position a cylinder 3' above the plane of electromagnetics

  20. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability. The...

  1. Investigation of surface porosity measurements and compaction pressure as means to ensure consistent contact angle determinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Borkenfelt, Simon; Allesø, Morten; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Beato, Stefania; Holm, Per

    compound is determined by its contact angle to a liquid, which in the present study was measured using the sessile drop method applied to a disc compact of the compound. Precise determination of the contact angle is important should it be used to either rank compounds or selected excipients to e......, however for six out of seven compounds similar results were obtained by applying a standard pressure (866MPa) to the discs in their preparation. The data presented in the present work therefore suggest that a constant high pressure should be sufficient for most compounds when determining the contact angle...

  2. Large Piwinski angle

    CERN Document Server

    Abelleira, J L; Bhat, C; Cornelis, K; De Maria, R; Fartoukh, S; Giachino, R; Holzer, E B; Lamont, M; Mastoridis, T; Macpherson, A; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Roncarolo, F; Roy, G; Salvachua, B; Valuch, D; Zimmermann, F; Ohmi, K

    2012-01-01

    Two high brightness bunches per beam were collided at injection energy with varying spectrometer strength in IP8 so that the corresponding Piwinski angle changed from about 1.2–1.3 to 0.2. One of the two bunches colliding in IP8 also collided in IPs 1 and 5, increasing its tune spread. A Piwinski angle of 1.2 is the biggest value ever achieved in a hadron collider. The goal of this experiemnt had been to investigate the influence of this parameter on the luminosity lifetime, beam lifetime and emittance growth rate. Due to technical problems and unavailability of luminosity signals from CMS this goal was only partially accomplished.

  3. Angle states in quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, A. C.; Iguain, J. L.

    1998-12-01

    Angle states and angle operators are defined for a system with arbitrary angular momentum. They provide a reasonable formalization of the concept of angle provided that we accept that the angular orientation is quantized. The angle operator is the generator of boosts in angular momentum and is, almost everywhere, linearly related to the logarithm of the shift operator. Angle states for fermions and bosons behave differently under parity transformation.

  4. Ergonomic Evaluation of the Angle of Abduction in Laptops Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Ali Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laptops in 21st century are an integral part of every professional in vivid fields. Off late there has been emergence of several ergonomic injuries such as repetitive strain injuries (RSIs due to extensive usage of laptops, which can be closely linked with applied force and postures. This study investigated the effect of various angles of keyboard on the applied force and motor action plus response time while performing five distinct tasks. On the basis of literature two different laptops were selected for performing different tasks. For each case the three levels of platform angle were considered as 0°, 5°, and 10°. Male subjects were selected to perform five distinct tasks for each platform angle for both laptops. The force applied (in milli-volts and the motor action plus response time (milli-seconds were recorded using an oscilloscope. The data collected were analyzed through ANOVA using MINITAB software. The abduction angle with the least mean response time and applied force were considered as the best from ergonomics viewpoint. The ANOVA results showed that the angle of abduction for both laptops (small and large do have significant effect on applied force but not on motor action plus response time. The analysis of results indicate that 10° angle of abduction in case of small laptops should be applied to minimize musculoskeletal disorder and repetitive strain injuries. Research relevance: This work suggests that those responsible for the function and operation of laptops would have to redesign the system to reduce injuries, as far as musculoskeletal disorder, repetitive strain injuries and other related problems are concerned. The present work can be quite useful for the system designers of tomorrow.

  5. Compression failure of angle-ply laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Peel, Larry D

    1991-01-01

    The present work deals with modes and mechanisms of failure in compression of angleply laminates. Experimental results were obtained from 42 angle-ply IM7/8551-7a specimens with a lay-up of [ (±9) / (=F9)] 6s where 9, the off-axis angle, ranged from 0° to 90°. The results showed four failure modes, these modes being a function of off-axis angle. Failure modes include fiber compression, inplane transverse tension, inplane shear, and inplane transverse compression. Excessive inte...

  6. Fixed-combination brinzolamide 1%/brimonidine 0.2% vs monotherapy with brinzolamide or brimonidine in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension: results of a pooled analysis of two phase 3 studies

    OpenAIRE

    Realini, T; Nguyen, Q H; Katz, G.; DuBiner, H

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To describe pooled efficacy and safety data from two phase 3 studies comparing brinzolamide 1%/brimonidine 0.2% fixed combination (BBFC) with its component medications, brinzolamide and brimonidine, in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods Data were pooled from two nearly identical clinical trials comparing BBFC with its component medications, each given three times daily. The 3-month efficacy outcome was mean intraocular pressure (IOP) at 0800, 1000, 1500,...

  7. Cerebellopontine angle Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracranial Hodgkin's disease is a rare site of involvement, and even more rare is its presentation as a cerebellopontine angle mass. It can be difficult to diagnose especially when recurrent tumors occur because both CT and lumbar puncture have been shown to have a relatively low yield. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI is more sensitive. It is concluded that while the imaging findings can be non-specific, the rapid response to therapy (steroids) may provide a clue to diagnosis. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  8. Critical angle laser refractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple laser refractometer based on the detection of the critical angle for liquids is presented. The calibrated refractometer presents up to 0.000 11 of uncertainty when the refractive index is in the range between 1.300 00 and 1.340 00. The experimental setup is easy to construct and the material needed is available at most optics laboratories. The calibration method is simple and can be used in other devices. The refractive index measurements in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride were carried out to test the device and a linear dependence between the refractive index and the salt concentration was found

  9. Superwide-angle acoustic propagations above the critical angles of the Snell law in liquid—solid superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, superwide-angle acoustic propagations above the critical angles of the Snell law in liquid—solid superlattice are investigated. Incident waves above the critical angles of the Snell law usually inevitably induce total reflection. However, incident waves with big oblique angles through the liquid—solid superlattice will produce a superwide angle transmission in a certain frequency range so that total reflection does not occur. Together with the simulation by finite element analysis, theoretical analysis by using transfer matrix method suggests the Bragg scattering of the Lamb waves as the physical mechanism of acoustic wave super-propagation far beyond the critical angle. Incident angle, filling fraction, and material thickness have significant influences on propagation. Superwide-angle propagation phenomenon may have potential applications in nondestructive evaluation of layered structures and controlling of energy flux. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  10. Perceptions of tilt angles of an agricultural tractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görücü, Serap; Cavallo, Eugenio; Murphy, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    A tractor stability simulator has been developed to help study tractor operators' perceptions of angles when the simulator is tilted to the side. The simulator is a trailer-mounted tractor cab equipped with hydraulic lift that can tilt the tractor cabin up to 30 degrees. This paper summarizes data from 82 participants who sat in the simulator while it was tilted. Demographic variables, estimates of tilt angles, and measured tilt angles were collected. The effects of age, gender, tractor driving experience, and frequency of operation on the estimated and measured tilt angles were analyzed. The results showed that about 50% of the participants reported estimations of side tilt angles within ±5 degrees of the actual angles, and nearly the same percentage overestimated the actual side tilt angles. Only a small percentage underestimated the angles. Older, more experienced, and male participants set higher limits on the actual angle at which they felt uncomfortable and would not drive. PMID:24417527

  11. Resultados da correção cirúrgica de esotropias de grande ângulo, em portadores de baixa de acuidade visual unilateral Results of surgical treatment of large angle esotropia in patients with low visual acuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Meireles-Teixeira

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados cirúrgicos de esotropias de grande ângulo (no mínimo 60 dioptrias prismáticas - dp, associadas à baixa de acuidade visual (BAV unilateral, cuja cirurgia foi planejada com o intuito de não se operar o olho de melhor visão. Casuística e Métodos: Foram selecionados 17 casos de esotropias não-acomodativas, associadas à BAV (AV 15 dp ou rotações de ± 4. Resultados: 13 (76,4% tinham AV de conta-dedos no olho não-fixador, 2 (11,7% atingiam 0,1 e outros 2 (11,7% 0,4. Em 3 havia alta miopia (equivalente esférico > ou = -6,00 dioptrias esféricas em ambos os olhos. Entre os 17 pacientes, 12 (70,5% obtiveram bom resultado cirúrgico, 3 (17,6% foram regulares e 2 (11,7% ruins. Conclusão: A cirurgia de estrabismo sob anestesia tópica mostrou ser eficaz e segura nestes casos especiais de BAV em um dos olhos, sendo que na maioria das vezes consegue-se não operar o olho de melhor visão; o que a nosso ver, só se tornou possível pelo uso da anestesia tópica.Purpose: To evaluate the surgical outcome of large angle esotropia (minimum of 60 prism diopters -- pd associated with unilateral low visual acuity (LVA in which the surgical strategy was applied in order to operate only the non-fixating eye. Patients and Methods: We selected 17 patients with non-accommodative esotropia, LVA (VA<= 0,4 in the non-fixating eye with the better visual correction and no previous treatment. Patients were classified as good result if they had a postoperative deviation of maximally 10 pd with binocular rotations of up to --2 of medial rectus and +2 of lateral rectus. Exotropia/esotropia between 10 and 15 pd or binocular rotations of ±3 were considered as a regular outcome. Deviations greater than 15 pd or binocular rotations of ±4 were included regarded as poor results. Results: Thirteen (76.4% patients had counts fingers VA in the non-fixating eye, 2 (11.7% achieved 0.1 and another two had 0.4. Three of them were also highly

  12. Spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of spondylolysis and the relationship between spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in 143 athletes and 30 non-athletes is reported. Athletes had a larger sacro-horizontal angle than non-athletes. The sacro-horizontal angle was larger in athletes with spondylolysis as compared with those without. An increased incidence of spondylolysis with an increased angle was demonstrated. It is suggested that an increased sacro-horizontal angle may predispose to spondylolysis, especially in combination with the high mechanical loads sustained in certain sports. (orig.)

  13. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with 13C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system

  14. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y K [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with {sup 13}C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system.

  15. Longitudinal Changes of Angle Configuration in Primary Angle-Closure Suspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuzhen; Chang, Dolly S.; Zhu, Haogang; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Aung, Tin; Huang, Shengsong; Chen, Qianyun; Munoz, Beatriz; Grossi, Carlota M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine longitudinal changes in angle configuration in the eyes of primary angle-closure suspects (PACS) treated by laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) and in untreated fellow eyes. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Participants Primary angle-closure suspects aged 50 to 70 years were enrolled in a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Methods Each participant was treated by LPI in 1 randomly selected eye, with the fellow eye serving as a control. Angle width was assessed in a masked fashion using gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) before and at 2 weeks, 6 months, and 18 months after LPI. Main Outcome Measures Angle width in degrees was calculated from Shaffer grades assessed under static gonioscopy. Angle configuration was also evaluated using angle opening distance (AOD250, AOD500, AOD750), trabecular-iris space area (TISA500, TISA750), and angle recess area (ARA) measured in AS-OCT images. Results No significant difference was found in baseline measures of angle configuration between treated and untreated eyes. At 2 weeks after LPI, the drainage angle on gonioscopy widened from a mean of 13.5° at baseline to a mean of 25.7° in treated eyes, which was also confirmed by significant increases in all AS-OCT angle width measures (P<0.001 for all variables). Between 2 weeks and 18 months after LPI, a significant decrease in angle width was observed over time in treated eyes (P<0.001 for all variables), although the change over the first 5.5 months was not statistically significant for angle width measured under gonioscopy (P = 0.18), AOD250 (P = 0.167) and ARA (P = 0.83). In untreated eyes, angle width consistently decreased across all follow-up visits after LPI, with a more rapid longitudinal decrease compared with treated eyes (P values for all variables ≤0.003). The annual rate of change in angle width was equivalent to 1.2°/year (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8–1.6) in treated eyes and 1.6°/year (95% CI, 1

  16. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, Roel W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional sugg

  17. Ducted turbine theory with right angled ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the use of an inviscid approach to model a ducted turbine – also known as a diffuser augmented turbine – and a comparison of results with a particular one-dimensional theory. The aim of the investigation was to gain a better understanding of the relationship between a real duct and the ideal diffuser, which is a concept that is developed in the theory. A range of right angled ducts, which have a rim for a 90° exit angle, were modelled. As a result, the performance of right angled ducts has been characterised in inviscid flow. It was concluded that right angled ducts cannot match the performance of their associated ideal diffuser and that the optimum rotor loading for these turbines varies with the duct dimensions

  18. Oscillations of relative inclination angles in compact extrasolar planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Juliette C.; Adams, Fred C.

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler mission has detected dozens of compact planetary systems with more than four transiting planets. This sample provides a collection of close-packed planetary systems with relatively little spread in the inclination angles of the inferred orbits. A large fraction of the observational sample contains limited multiplicity, begging the question whether there is a true diversity of multitransiting systems, or if some systems merely possess high mutual inclinations, allowing them to appear as single-transiting systems in a transit-based survey. This paper begins an exploration of the effectiveness of dynamical mechanisms in exciting orbital inclination within exoplanetary systems of this class. For these tightly packed systems, we determine that the orbital inclination angles are not spread out appreciably through self-excitation. In contrast, the two Kepler multiplanet systems with additional non-transiting planets are susceptible to oscillations of their inclination angles, which means their currently observed configurations could be due to planet-planet interactions alone. We also provide constraints and predictions for the expected transit duration variations for each planet. In these multiplanet compact Kepler systems, oscillations of their inclination angles are remarkably hard to excite; as a result, they tend to remain continually mutually transiting (CMT-stable). We study this issue further by augmenting the planet masses and determining the enhancement factor required for oscillations to move the systems out of transit. The oscillations of inclination found here inform the recently suggested dichotomy in the sample of Solar systems observed by Kepler.

  19. Heterodyne Interferometer Angle Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Inseob; Weilert, Mark A.; Wang, Xu; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    A compact, high-resolution angle measurement instrument has been developed that is based on a heterodyne interferometer. The common-path heterodyne interferometer metrology is used to measure displacements of a reflective target surface. In the interferometer setup, an optical mask is used to sample the measurement laser beam reflecting back from a target surface. Angular rotations, around two orthogonal axes in a plane perpendicular to the measurement- beam propagation direction, are determined simultaneously from the relative displacement measurement of the target surface. The device is used in a tracking telescope system where pitch and yaw measurements of a flat mirror were simultaneously performed with a sensitivity of 0.1 nrad, per second, and a measuring range of 0.15 mrad at a working distance of an order of a meter. The nonlinearity of the device is also measured less than one percent over the measurement range.

  20. Ocular Biometry in Angle Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Razeghinejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare ocular biometric parameters in primary angle closure suspects (PACS, primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG and acute primary angle closure (APAC. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 113 patients including 33 cases of PACS, 45 patients with PACG and 35 subjects with APAC. Central corneal thickness (CCT, axial length (AL, anterior chamber depth (ACD and lens thickness (LT were measured with an ultrasonic biometer. Lens-axial length factor (LAF, relative lens position, corrected ACD (CACD and corrected lens position were calculated. The parameters were measured bilaterally but only data from the right eyes were compared. In the APAC group, biometric parameters were also compared between affected and unaffected fellow eyes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed in biometric parameters between PACS and PACG eyes, or between affected and fellow eyes in the APAC group (P>0.05 for all comparisons. However, eyes with APAC had thicker cornea (P=0.001, thicker lens (P<0.0001, shallower ACD (P=0.009, shallower CACD (P=0.003 and larger LAF (P<0.0001. Based on ROC curve analysis, lower ACD, and larger LT, LAF and CCT values were associated with APAC. In the APAC group, LAF (P<0.0001 and CCT (P=0.001 were significant risk factors. Conclusion: This study revealed no significant difference in biometric characteristics in eyes with PACS and PACG. However, larger LAF and CCT were predictive of APAC.

  1. Temperature Influence on Divergence Angles of Quartz Crystal Wollaston Prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a structural angle and main refractive indices as two key factors to understand the temperature influence on the divergence angles of the Wollaston prism. The temperature influence on the divergence angles of quartz crystal Wollaston prism is studied theoretically The results show that divergence angles decrease with increasing temperature, while the divergence angle of e-light decrease more quickly than that of o-light. The testing system is established to verify the above results, and the experimental results are in agreement well with the theoretical analysis. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  2. Optical fibre angle sensor used in MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a need for displacement and angle measurements in many movable MEMS structures. The use of fibre optical sensors helps to measure micrometre displacements and small rotation angles. Advantages of this type of transducers are their simple design, high precision of processing, low costs and ability of a non-contact measurement. The study shows an analysis of a fibre-optic intensity sensor used for MEMS movable structure rotation angle measurement. An intensity of the light in the photodetector is basically dependent on a distance between a reflecting surface and a head surface of the fibre transmitting arm, and the deflection angle. Experimental tests were made for PMMA 980/1000 plastic fibres, ΘNA=33°. The study shows both analytical and practical results. It proves that calculated and experimental characteristics for the analysed transducers are similar.

  3. EMERGENCE ANGLE OF FLOW OVER AN AERATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aerator is an important device for release works of hydraulic structures with high-speed flow in order to protect them from cavitation damage. This kind of protecting effect is related closely to cavity length below the aerator, while the cavity length is dominated by the emergence angle over the aerator. Therefore it is crucial to determine this angle accurately. In the present paper the affecting intensities of flow depth and the fluctuating velocity on this angle were analyzed through two introduced parameters. Furthermore, the improved expressions of emergence angle estimation, for both ramp-type and step-type aerators, were presented by means of 68 sets of experimental data from 6 projects based on error theory. The results showed that the present method has higher accuracy than the previously reported methods.

  4. 10 Suggestions for Enhancing Lecturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzmann, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Criticism of the lecture method remains a staple of discussion and writing in academia--and most of the time it's deserved! Those interested in improving this aspect of their teaching might wish to consider some or all of the following suggestions for enhancing lectures. These include: (1) Lectures must start with a "grabber"; (2) Lectures must be…

  5. Viewing angle analysis of integral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Xia; Wu, Chun-Hong; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Lan

    2007-12-01

    Integral imaging (II) is a technique capable of displaying 3D images with continuous parallax in full natural color. It is becoming the most perspective technique in developing next generation three-dimensional TV (3DTV) and visualization field due to its outstanding advantages. However, most of conventional integral images are restricted by its narrow viewing angle. One reason is that the range in which a reconstructed integral image can be displayed with consistent parallax is limited. The other is that the aperture of system is finite. By far many methods , an integral imaging method to enhance the viewing angle of integral images has been proposed. Nevertheless, except Ren's MVW (Maximum Viewing Width) most of these methods involve complex hardware and modifications of optical system, which usually bring other disadvantages and make operation more difficult. At the same time the cost of these systems should be higher. In order to simplify optical systems, this paper systematically analyzes the viewing angle of traditional integral images instead of modified ones. Simultaneously for the sake of cost the research was based on computer generated integral images (CGII). With the analysis result we can know clearly how the viewing angle can be enhanced and how the image overlap or image flipping can be avoided. The result also promotes the development of optical instruments. Based on theoretical analysis, preliminary calculation was done to demonstrate how the other viewing properties which are closely related with the viewing angle, such as viewing distance, viewing zone, lens pitch, and etc. affect the viewing angle.

  6. The Convergence Angle of Full-coverage Crown Preparations Made by Dental Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Baghai Naini

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A clinically feasible convergence angle in full-coverage crown preparations, meeting the requirements for proper retention and resistance forms, has always been a matter of interest for laboratory and clinical researches. This study aims to evaluate the angle in teeth prepared by both under- and post-graduate students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Faculty of dentistry, Department of Prosthodontics.Materials and Methods: Samples consisted of 196 prepared teeth for full-coverage crown restoration by third year postgraduate and fifth year undergraduate students in the Department of Prosthodontics. Two images were obtained from each die by a scanner and both bucco-lingual and mesio-distal convergence angles were measured, by two different assessors, via Auto CAD 14 software. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance.Results: There were statistically significant differences between the teeth prepared by un-der- and post-graduate students in mesio-distal convergence angles of all maxillary teeth, except for canines. Significant differences were found between bucco-lingual convergence angles of the maxillary canines and molars.Conclusion: The recently recommended convergence angles are more clinically feasible compared to the classic 4 to 10 degrees that was previously suggested for all teeth. It also seems that clinical experience does not necessarily lead to a decrease in convergence an-gles during preparation.

  7. IMPACTS OF DIFFERENT JOINT ANGLES AND ADHESIVES ON DIAGONAL TENSION PERFORMANCES OF BOX-TYPE FURNITURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Atar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the effects of different joint angles and adhesives on diagonal tension performances of the box-type furniture made from solid wood and medium density fiberboard (MDF. After drilling joints of 75º, 78º, 81º, 84º, and 87º degrees on Oriental beech, European oak, Scotch pine, and MDF samples, a diagonal tensile test was applied on corners glued with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc and polyurethane (D-VTKA = Desmodur-Vinyl Trieketonol Acetate according to ASTM D 1037 standard. With reference to the obtained results, the highest tensile strength was obtained in European oak with PVAc glue and joint angle of 84º, while the lowest value was obtained in MDF with D-VTKA glue and joint angle of 75º. Considering the interaction of wood, adhesive, and joint angle, the highest tensile strength was obtained in European oak with joint angle of 81º and D-VTKA glue (1.089 N.mm-2, whereas the lowest tensile strength was determined in MDF with joint angle of 75º and PVAc glue (0.163 N.mm-2. Therefore, PVAc as glue and 81º as joint angle could be suggested to obtain some advantageous on the dovetail joint process for box-type furniture made from both solid wood and MDF.

  8. Lateral angle: a method for sexing using the petrous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norén, Anna; Lynnerup, Niels; Czarnetzki, Alfred;

    2005-01-01

    very fragmented skeletal remains or cremated bones, where the petrous bone may still be readily recognizable. The method was tested using a forensic sample of 113 petrous bones with known sex. Intra- and interobserver testing was also performed. We found a statistically significant difference in angle......We report on the results of applying the so-called lateral angle method for sex determination on skeletal remains. The lateral angle denotes the angle of the internal auditory canal in relation to the medial surface of the petrous part of the temporal bone. The method involves making a small cast...... size between males and females (mean angle size of males, 39.3 degrees ; mean angle size of females, 48.2 degrees ; P < 0.001). There was no bilateral difference in angle size. In blind trials, 83.2% of petrous bones were assigned to the correct sex. We also tested the lateral angle method against an...

  9. Potential flow past axisymmetric bodies at angle of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, J. M.; Shu, J.-Y.

    1984-01-01

    The Karamcheti (1966) suggestion concerning the use of higher order singularity techniques has been developed for the calculation of incompressible flow past an axisymmetric body at angle of attack. Attention is given to the results of a convergence study using this axial singularity method, where solution accuracy has been investigated for ellipsoids of slenderness ratio in the 1-10 range for both axial and inclined flow. Effects of singularity type, element number and size distribution, and singularity line inset distance, are noted, and a paneling scheme is developed which yields accurate results for the class of axisymmetric bodies having continuous body slopes with discontinuous curvature jumps.

  10. A fringe shadow method for measuring flapping angle and torsional angle of a dragonfly wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lijiang; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Kawachi, Keiji

    1996-05-01

    A fringe shadow (FS) method was developed for measuring the flapping angle and torsional angle of a dragonfly wing during beating motion. This new method involves two sets of fringe patterns projected onto the wing from orthogonal directions. The torsional angle is determined using the length of the shadow of the wing chord that is cast by the two sets of fringe patterns. The flapping angle is determined using the shadowgraph of the wing projected by a laser. The advantages of the FS method are its capability (i) to measure the flapping angle and torsional angle of a dragonfly wing simultaneously using only one high-speed camera and (ii) to recognize the spanwise position of a section from the number of fringes, without having to use diffuse marks that are common in current methods. The resolution of the FS method can be changed easily by adjusting the fringe spacing. The measurement results for the torsional angle and flapping angle of a dragonfly wing prove the effectiveness of the FS method in studying the flight performance of dragonflies.

  11. Impacts of tropical cyclone inflow angle on ocean surface waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; HONG Xin

    2011-01-01

    The inflow angle of tropical cyclones (TC) is generally neglected in numerical studies of ocean surface waves induced by TC. In this study, the impacts of TC inflow angle on ocean surface waves were investigated using a high-resolution wave model. Six numerical experiments were conducted to examine, in detail, the effects of inflow angle on mean wave parameters and the spectrum of wave directions. A comparison of the waves simulated in these experiments shows that inflow angle significantly modifies TC-induced ocean surface waves. As the inflow angle increases, the asymmetric axis of the significant wave height (SWH) field shifts 30° clockwise, and the maximum SWH moves from the front-right to the rear-right quadrant. Inflow angle also affects other mean wave parameters, especially in the rear-left quadrant, such as the mean wave direction, the mean wavelength, and the peak direction. Inflow angle is a key factor in wave models for the reproduction of double-peak or multi-peak patterns in the spectrum of wave directions. Sensitivity experiments also show that the simulation with a 40° inflow angle is the closest to that of the NOAA statistical SLOSH inflow angle. This suggests that 40° can be used as the inflow angle in future TC-induced ocean surface wave simulations when SLOSH or observed inflow angles are not available.

  12. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  13. Small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from about 1 nm up to a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nano-metric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area... ) through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons) make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some information that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer), form factor analysis (I(q→0), Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system), structure factor analysis (2. Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates), and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast). It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of spectrometer

  14. Limits of the seismogenic zone in the epicentral region of the 26 December 2004 great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake: Results from seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection surveys and thermal modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Ladage, S; Dessa, J -X; Graindorge, David; Franke, D; André, C; Permana, Haryadi; Yudistira, T; Chauhan, Ajay; 10.1029/2009JB006569

    2010-01-01

    The 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake (Mw = 9.1) initiated around 30 km depth and ruptured 1300 km of the Indo-Australian Sunda plate boundary. During the Sumatra OBS (ocean bottom seismometer) survey, a wide angle seismic profile was acquired across the epicentral region. A seismic velocity model was obtained from combined travel time tomography and forward modeling. Together with reflection seismic data from the SeaCause II cruise, the deep structure of the source region of the great earthquake is revealed. Four to five kilometers of sediments overlie the oceanic crust at the trench, and the subducting slab can be imaged down to a depth of 35 km. We find a crystalline backstop 120 km from the trench axis, below the fore arc basin. A high velocity zone at the lower landward limit of the raycovered domain, at 22 km depth, marks a shallow continental Moho, 170 km from the trench. The deep structure obtained from the seismic data was used to construct a thermal model of the fore arc in order to predict the li...

  15. Angle Kappa and its importance in refractive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Moshirfar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Angle kappa is the difference between the pupillary and visual axis. This measurement is of paramount consideration in refractive surgery, as proper centration is required for optimal results. Angle kappa may contribute to MFIOL decentration and its resultant photic phenomena. Adjusting placement of MFIOLs for angle kappa is not supported by the literature but is likely to help reduce glare and haloes. Centering LASIK in angle kappa patients over the corneal light reflex is safe, efficacious, and recommended. Centering in-between the corneal reflex and the entrance pupil is also safe and efficacious. The literature regarding PRK in patients with an angle kappa is sparse but centering on the corneal reflex is assumed to be similar to centering LASIK on the corneal reflex. Thus, centration of MFIOLs, LASIK, and PRK should be focused on the corneal reflex for patients with a large angle kappa. More research is needed to guide surgeons′ approach to angle kappa.

  16. Nutcracker and SMA syndromes: What is the normal SMA angle in children?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The nutcracker and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndromes are rare conditions where the left renal vein or duodenum may be compressed by an unusually acute angle between the SMA and aorta, although the normal angle in children is unknown. We measured the SMA angle to define the normal range in children. Methods: We retrospectively measured SMA angles, left renal vein (LRV) distance, and duodenal distance (DD) in 205 consecutive pediatric abdominal CT. Total and visceral intra-abdominal fat at the level of the umbilicus were also assessed. Results: Mean SMA angle was 45.6 ± 19.6° (range 10.6–112.9°), mean LRV distance was 8.6 ± 3.9 mm (range 2.0–28.6 mm) and mean DD was 11.3 ± 4.8 mm (range 3.6–35.3 mm). There was a significant but weak correlation between %visceral fat volume (%VF) and SMA angle (R = 0.30; p < 0.001), LRV distance (R = 0.37, p < 0.001) and DD (R = 0.32; p < 0.001). Conclusion: There is a wide range of SMA angle, LRV and DD in normal children, which correlated weakly with visceral fat volume. Using a definition of SMA angle <25° would diagnose 9.3% of asymptomatic children with nutcracker syndrome, and using a DD definition of <8 mm would diagnose 20% with SMA compression. Our findings suggest exercising caution when attributing these rare syndromes to an absolute SMA angle.

  17. Hypnotizability, not suggestion, influences false memory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasse, Michelle N; Elkins, Gary R; Weaver, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotizability influences the development of false memories. In Experiment 1, participants heard a positive or negative suggestion regarding hypnosis and then listened to 8 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm lists in a hypnotic state. Neither hypnosis nor prehypnotic suggestion affected memory. Highly hypnotizable participants were more accurate in recall and recognition. In Experiment 2, suggestions were delivered in the form of feedback. Participants heard a positive or negative suggestion about their performance prior to either the encoding or retrieval of 8 DRM lists. Neither accurate nor false memories were affected by the suggestion. Highly hypnotizable individuals recognized fewer critical lures if they received a negative suggestion about their performance. These results highlight the unusual role of hypnotizability in the creation of false memories. PMID:25365130

  18. Small angle neutron scattering in invar alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some results of low angle neutron scattering on 70-30 and 65-35 FeNi alloys are presented showing the existence of chemical small clusters associated with a magnetization inhomogeneity. A noticeable result is the appearance of a pseudo-periodical magnetization static fluctuation in a 65-35 FeNi alloy after irradiation with 2 MeV electrons

  19. Moderate positive spin Hall angle in uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simranjeet; Anguera, Marta; del Barco, Enrique; Springell, Ross; Miller, Casey W.

    2015-12-01

    We report measurements of spin pumping and the inverse spin Hall effect in Ni80Fe20/uranium bilayers designed to study the efficiency of spin-charge interconversion in a super-heavy element. We employ broad-band ferromagnetic resonance on extended films to inject a spin current from the Ni80Fe20 (permalloy) into the uranium layer, which is then converted into an electric field by the inverse spin Hall effect. Surprisingly, our results suggest a spin mixing conductance of order 2 × 1019 m-2 and a positive spin Hall angle of 0.004, which are both merely comparable with those of several transition metals. These results thus support the idea that the electronic configuration may be at least as important as the atomic number in governing spin pumping across interfaces and subsequent spin Hall effects. In fact, given that both the magnitude and the sign are unexpected based on trends in d-electron systems, materials with unfilled f-electron orbitals may hold additional exploration avenues for spin physics.

  20. Moderate positive spin Hall angle in uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Simranjeet; Anguera, Marta; Barco, Enrique del, E-mail: delbarco@ucf.edu, E-mail: cwmsch@rit.edu [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Springell, Ross [H. H. Will Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS2 8BS (United Kingdom); Miller, Casey W., E-mail: delbarco@ucf.edu, E-mail: cwmsch@rit.edu [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-12-07

    We report measurements of spin pumping and the inverse spin Hall effect in Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}/uranium bilayers designed to study the efficiency of spin-charge interconversion in a super-heavy element. We employ broad-band ferromagnetic resonance on extended films to inject a spin current from the Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} (permalloy) into the uranium layer, which is then converted into an electric field by the inverse spin Hall effect. Surprisingly, our results suggest a spin mixing conductance of order 2 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −2} and a positive spin Hall angle of 0.004, which are both merely comparable with those of several transition metals. These results thus support the idea that the electronic configuration may be at least as important as the atomic number in governing spin pumping across interfaces and subsequent spin Hall effects. In fact, given that both the magnitude and the sign are unexpected based on trends in d-electron systems, materials with unfilled f-electron orbitals may hold additional exploration avenues for spin physics.

  1. Moderate positive spin Hall angle in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report measurements of spin pumping and the inverse spin Hall effect in Ni80Fe20/uranium bilayers designed to study the efficiency of spin-charge interconversion in a super-heavy element. We employ broad-band ferromagnetic resonance on extended films to inject a spin current from the Ni80Fe20 (permalloy) into the uranium layer, which is then converted into an electric field by the inverse spin Hall effect. Surprisingly, our results suggest a spin mixing conductance of order 2 × 1019 m−2 and a positive spin Hall angle of 0.004, which are both merely comparable with those of several transition metals. These results thus support the idea that the electronic configuration may be at least as important as the atomic number in governing spin pumping across interfaces and subsequent spin Hall effects. In fact, given that both the magnitude and the sign are unexpected based on trends in d-electron systems, materials with unfilled f-electron orbitals may hold additional exploration avenues for spin physics

  2. Angle-dependent loop shifts in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhongquan; Zhan, Xiaozhi; Chen, Xi

    2016-08-01

    Experimentally hysteresis loop shifts have been widely observed in antiferromagnetic (AF) nanoparticles. Here numerical investigations show that this effect is dependent on the angle between the easy axis of the AF spins and the applied magnetic field in uncompensated nanoparticles. In contrast, the loop shifts disappear in compensated nanoparticles. The results suggest that the uncompensated spins and field directions are essential ingredients to generate loop shifts in AF nanoparticle systems. The present study hints at a possible way to optimize the magnetic performance of AF nanostructures.

  3. Sunspot group tilt angle measurements from historical observations

    CERN Document Server

    Pavai, V Senthamizh; Diercke, A; Denker, C; Vaquero, J M

    2016-01-01

    Sunspot positions from various historical sets of solar drawings are analysed with respect to the tilt angles of bipolar sunspot groups. Data by Scheiner, Hevelius, Staudacher, Zucconi, Schwabe, and Spoerer deliver a series of average tilt angles spanning a period of 270 years, additional to previously found values for 20th-century data obtained by other authors. We find that the average tilt angles before the Maunder minimum were not significantly different from the modern values. However, the average tilt angles of a period 50 years after the Maunder minimum, namely for cycles 0 and 1, were much lower and near zero. The normal tilt angles before the Maunder minimum suggest that it was not abnormally low tilt angles which drove the solar cycle into a grand minimum.

  4. Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Stephen K.; Pratt, II, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    An optical calibration apparatus is provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting an accurate reproducing of spinning "magic angles" in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the "magic angle" of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted. Thereafter, the spinning "magic angle" of a test material having similar nuclear properties to the standard is attained by returning the sample holder back to the originally noted coordinate position.

  5. Bioelectric impedance phase angle in breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Worldwide breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life threatening cancer and the leading cause of death in women. Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA affords an emerging opportunity to assess prognosis because of its ability to non invasively assess cell and plasma membrane structure and function by means of phase angle. Aims: To compare the phase angle between patients of breast cancer and their matched control with the help of BIA. Settings and Design: After taking clearance from ethical committee, a total of 34 female cases of histologically proven infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma were included from the surgery IPD, department of surgery. Equal numbers of the matched controls were recruited from the friends and relatives of cases. Materials and Methods: Bio Electrical Impedance Analyzer (BIA BODY STAT QUAD SCAN 4000 was used to measure resistance (R and reactance (Xc by recording a voltage drop in applied current. Phase angle is the ratio of reactance to resistance and is a measure of cell vitality. Statistical analysis used: Unpaired "t" test was applied. Results: In control group, the phase angle showed a mean of 5.479 whereas in test group, it showed a mean value of 4.726. The P value showed a significant difference (P < 0.0001. The smaller the phase angle values were higher was the tumor, nodes, metastases (TNM staging. The phase angles differed significantly from the healthy age matched control values. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that phase angle is a strong predictor of severity of breast cancer and differed significantly between the two groups.

  6. Combined effects of the in-plane orientation angle and the loading angle on the dynamic enhancement of honeycombs under mixed shear-compression loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounsi, R.; Markiewicz, E.; Haugou, G.; Chaari, F.; Zouari, B.

    2016-05-01

    The combined effect of the loading angle (ψ) and the in-plane orientation angle (β) on the dynamic enhancement of aluminium alloy honeycombs is investigated. Experimental results are analysed on the crushing surfaces (initial peak and average crushing forces). A significant effect of the loading angle is reported. The dynamic enhancement rate depends on the loading angle until a critical loading angle (ψcritical). Beyond, a negative dynamic enhancement rate is observed. Concerning the in-plane orientation angle β effect, it depends on the loading angle ψ under quasi-static conditions. Under dynamic conditions, a significant effect is reported independently of the loading angle ψ. Therefore, the dynamic enhancement rate depends on the combined effects of ψ and β angles. A global analysis of the buckling mechanisms allowed us to explain the combined effect of ψ and β angles on the initial peak force. The collapse mechanisms analysis explain the negative dynamic enhancement rate for large loading angles.

  7. Geometric structures on moment-angle manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A moment-angle complex ZK is a cell complex with a torus action constructed from a finite simplicial complex K. When this construction is applied to a triangulated sphere K or, in particular, to the boundary of a simplicial polytope, the result is a manifold. Moment-angle manifolds and complexes are central objects in toric topology, and currently are gaining much interest in homotopy theory and complex and symplectic geometry. The geometric aspects of the theory of moment-angle complexes are the main theme of this survey. Constructions of non-Kähler complex-analytic structures on moment-angle manifolds corresponding to polytopes and complete simplicial fans are reviewed, and invariants of these structures such as the Hodge numbers and Dolbeault cohomology rings are described. Symplectic and Lagrangian aspects of the theory are also of considerable interest. Moment-angle manifolds appear as level sets for quadratic Hamiltonians of torus actions, and can be used to construct new families of Hamiltonian-minimal Lagrangian submanifolds in a complex space, complex projective space, or toric varieties. Bibliography: 59 titles

  8. Small Angle Light Scattering by Biological Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the small angle laser radiation scattering by the particles of different shape and size is analyzed. Experimental results and theoretical calculations show that after ejection from bacteriophage DNA forms the scattering medium consisted of quasi-spherical elements with radius of R⁓10λ0. (author)

  9. Status of the CDF small angle spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1987 Tevatron collider period the CDF small angle spectrometer system was partially installed and elastic scattering events were recorded in a special high-β run. The design and physics goals of this system are described and results from an analysis of the elastic scattering data are discussed

  10. Improved Beam Angle Control with SPV Metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of real-time monitoring of implant angle for state-of-the-art ion implant doping in integrated circuit manufacturing has been developed using Surface Photo Voltage measurements on conventional monitor wafers. Measurement results are analyzed and compared to other techniques.

  11. Mie scattering near the critical angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex angular momentum theory is applied to the problem of high-frequency critical light scattering by a spherical cavity near the critical angle. The main contributions to the scattering arise from a critical domain close to critical incidence. The results are in good agreement with the exact Mie solution. (author)

  12. Angles in hyperbolic lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Södergren, Carl Anders; Risager, Morten S.

    2015-01-01

    density function in both the small and large variable limits. This extends earlier results by Boca, Pasol, Popa and Zaharescu and Kelmer and Kontorovich in dimension 2 to general dimension n . Our proofs use the decay of matrix coefficients together with a number of careful estimates, and lead to...

  13. Photocatalytic properties of TiO2 thin films obtained by glancing angle deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films with different nanostructures such as nano-particles and separated vertical columns were grown by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) in an electron beam evaporation system. The photocatalytic properties of grown TiO2 films with different deposition angles and different annealing temperatures were evaluated by following decomposition of methyl orange under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. The results suggest that increased surface area due to the GLAD process could improve the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 films.

  14. Numerical aperture characteristics of angle-ended plastic optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cheng; Farrell, Gerard

    2003-03-01

    With the increasing information rates demanded in consumer, automotive and aeronautical applications, a low cost and high performance physical transmission medium is required. Compared with Silica Optical Fiber, Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) offers an economic solution for a range of high-capacity, short-haul applications in industrial and military environments. Recently, a new type of POF, the perfluorinated graded-index plastic optical fiber (PF GI-POF), has been introduced that has low losses and high bandwidth at the communication wavelengths 850 nm and 1300nm. POF is normally terminated perpendicular to the fiber axis. We propose an angle-ended POF, which is terminated at non-perpendicular angles to the fiber axis. The aim of the research is to investigate the numerical aperture (NA) characteristics of angle-ended POF along the major axis of the elliptical endface. A theoretical model indicates that the NA of the angle-ended POF will increase nonlinearly with tilt-angle and the acceptance cone will be deflected with the angle of the deflection increasing nonlinearly with tilt-angle. We present results for the measured NA and the measured deflection angle using the far-field radiation method. Results are presented for 13 angle-ended SI-POF tilt-angles. We also present results for theoretical value of NA and deflection angle as a function of tilt-angle. The agreement between the measured and theoretical value is good up to tilt-angles of about 15 degrees, beyond which deviation occurs.

  15. Collagen fiber angle in the submucosa of small intestine and its application in gastroenterology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Jun Zeng; Ai-Ke Qiao; Ji-Dong Yu; Jing-Bo Zhao; Dong-Hua Liao; Xiao-Hu Xu; Gregersen Hans

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To propose a simple and effective method suitable for analyzing the angle and distribution of 2-dimensional collagen fiber in larger sample of small intestine and to investigate the relationship between the angles of collagen fiber and the pressure it undergoes.METHODS: A kind of 2-dimensional visible quantitative analyzing technique was described. Digital image-processing method was utilized to determine the angle of collagen fiber in parenchyma according to the changes of area analyzed and further to investigate quantitatively the distribution of collagen fiber. A series of intestinal slice′s images preprocessed by polarized light were obtained with electron microscope,and they were processed to unify each pixel. The approximate angles between collagen fibers were obtained via analyzing the images and their corresponding polarized light. The relationship between the angles of collagen fiber and the pressure it undergoes were statistically summarized.RESULTS: The angle of collagen fiber in intestinal tissue was obtained with the quantitative analyzing method of calculating the ratio of different pixels. For the same slice,with polarized light angle′s variation, the corresponding ratio of different pixels was also changed; for slices under different pressures, the biggest ratio of collagen fiber area was changed either.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the application of stress on the intestinal tissue will change the angle and content of collagen fiber. The method of calculating ratios of different pixel values to estimate collagen fiber angle was practical and reliable. The quantitative analysis used in the present study allows a larger area of soft tissue to be analyzed with relatively low cost and simple equipment.

  16. Calculations of the Wigner angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new methods to determine Wigner's angle in special relativity are presented. The first one consists in calculating the angle between the compositions u-bar x ν-bar and ν-bar x u-bar of the two non-collinear velocities u-bar and ν-bar. In another method we introduce a generalization in the complex plane of Einstein's addition law of parallel velocities. (author)

  17. Positron Emission Mammography with Multiple Angle Acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in breast tumors with dedicated detectors typically has been accomplished with two planar detectors in a fixed position with the breast under compression. The potential use of PEM imaging at two detector positions to guide stereotactic breast biopsy has motivated us to use PEM coincidence data acquired at two or more detector positions together in a single image reconstruction. Multiple angle PEM acquisition and iterative image reconstruction were investigated using point source and compressed breast phantom acquisitions with 5, 9, 12 and 15 mm diameter spheres and a simulated tumor:background activity concentration ratio of 6:1. Image reconstruction was performed with an iterative MLEM algorithm that used coincidence events between any two detector pixels on opposed detector heads at each detector position. This present study compared two acquisition protocols: 2 angle acquisition with detector angular positions of -15 and +15 degrees and 11 angle acquisition with detector positions spaced at 3 degree increments over the range -15 to +15 degrees. Three- dimensional image resolution was assessed for the point source acquisitions, and contrast and signal-to-noise metrics were evaluated for the compressed breast phantom with different simulated tumor sizes. Radial and tangential resolutions were similar for the two protocols, while normal resolution was better for the 2 angle acquisition. Analysis is complicated by the asymmetric point spread functions. Signal- to-noise vs. contrast tradeoffs were better for 11 angle acquisition for the smallest visible 9 mm sphere, while tradeoff results were mixed for the larger and more easily visible 12 mm and 15 mm diameter spheres. Additional study is needed to better understand the performance of limited angle tomography for PEM. PEM tomography experiments with complete angular sampling are planned

  18. Association between Bolton discrepancy and Angle malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Hermont CANÇADO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess and compare the overall and anterior ratios of tooth size discrepancies in all Angle malocclusion groups. The following null hypothesis (H0 was tested: no difference between tooth size discrepancies (overall and anterior would be observed among Angle malocclusion groups. The sample comprised of 711 pre-orthodontic treatment study casts of Brazilian patients with a mean age of 17.42 years selected from private practices in Brazil. The casts were divided into 3 groups according to the type of malocclusion: Class I (n = 321, Class II (n = 324, and Class III patients (n = 66. The measurement of the greatest mesiodistal width of the teeth was performed using a centesimal precision digital caliper directly on the study casts, from the distal surface of the left first molar to the distal surface of the right first molar. The overall and anterior ratios between the maxillary and mandibular teeth were evaluated using Bolton’s method. The following statistical tests were applied: chi-square, independent t-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results showed that all Angle malocclusions groups exhibited a ratio compatible with those recommended by Bolton. With respect to the overall and anterior ratios among the malocclusion groups, no statistically significant differences were found. The null hypothesis was accepted because the results showed no differences in the overall and anterior ratios of tooth size discrepancies among different Angle malocclusion groups.

  19. Testing CMB polarization data using position angles

    CERN Document Server

    Preece, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We consider a novel null test for contamination which can be applied to CMB polarization data that involves analysis of the statistics of the polarization position angles. Specifically, we will concentrate on using histograms of the measured position angles to illustrate the idea. Such a test has been used to identify systematics in the NVSS point source catalogue with an amplitude well below the noise level. We explore the statistical properties of polarization angles in CMB maps. If the polarization angle is not correlated between pixels, then the errors follow a simple $\\sqrt{N_{pix}}$ law. However this is typically not the case for CMB maps since these have correlations which result in an increase in the variance since the effective number of independent pixels is reduced. Then we illustrate how certain classes of systematic errors can result in very obvious patterns in these histograms, and thus that these errors could possibly be identified using this method. We discuss how this idea might be applied in...

  20. Contact pressure distribution and support angle optimization of kiln tyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to the shearing force character and the deformation coordination condition of shell at the station of supports, the mathematical models to calculate contact angle and contact pressure distribution between tyre and shell were set up, the formulae of bending moment and bending stress of tyre were obtained. Taking the maximum of tyre fatigue life as the optimal objective, the optimization model of tyre support angle was built. The computational results show that when tyre support angle is 30°, tyre life is far less than that when tyre support angle is optimal, which is 35.6°, and it is unsuitable to stipulate tyre support angle to be 30° in traditional design. The larger the load, the less the nominal stress amplitude increment of tyre, the more favorable the tyre fatigue life when tyre support angle is optimal.

  1. Elevation angle dependence of the SMA antenna focus position

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, S; Sakamoto, K; Hunter, T R; Patel, N A; Sridharan, T K; Wilson, R W; Matsushita, Satoki; Saito, Masao; Sakamoto, Kazushi; Hunter, Todd R.; Patel, Nimesh A.; Sridharan, Tirupati K.; Wilson, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    We report the measurement results and compensation of the antenna elevation angle dependences of the Sub-millimeter Array (SMA) antenna characteristics. Without optimizing the subreflector (focus) positions as a function of the antenna elevation angle, antenna beam patterns show lopsided sidelobes, and antenna efficiencies show degradations. The sidelobe level increases and the antenna efficiencies decrease about 1% and a few %, respectively, for every 10 degrees change in the elevation angle at the measured frequency of 237 GHz. We therefore obtained the optimized subreflector positions for X (azimuth), Y (elevation), and Z (radio optics) focus axes at various elevation angles for all the eight SMA antennas. The X axis position does not depend on the elevation angle. The Y and Z axes positions depend on the elevation angles, and are well fitted with a simple function for each axis with including a gravity term (cosine and sine of elevation, respectively). In the optimized subreflector positions, the antenna ...

  2. Polarization of asteroid (387) Aquitania: the newest member of a class of large inversion angle asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Masiero, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    We present new imaging polarimetric observations of two Main Belt asteroids, (234) Barbara and (387) Aquitania, taken in the first half of 2008 using the Dual-Beam Imaging Polarimeter on the University of Hawaii 2.2 meter telescope, located on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Barbara had been previously shown to exhibit a very unusual polarization-phase curve by Cellino, et al. (2006). Our observations confirm this result and add Aquitania to the growing class of large inversion angle objects. Interestingly, these asteroids show spinel features in their IR spectra suggesting a mineralogical origin to the phase angle-dependent polarimetric features. As spinel is associated with calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions and carbonaceous chondrites, these large inversion angle asteroids may represent some of the oldest surfaces in the solar system. Circular as well as linear polarization measurements were obtained but circular polarization was not detected.

  3. A particle swarm optimization algorithm for beam angle selection in intensity-modulated radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic beam angle selection is an important but challenging problem for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning. Though many efforts have been made, it is still not very satisfactory in clinical IMRT practice because of overextensive computation of the inverse problem. In this paper, a new technique named BASPSO (Beam Angle Selection with a Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm) is presented to improve the efficiency of the beam angle optimization problem. Originally developed as a tool for simulating social behaviour, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is a relatively new population-based evolutionary optimization technique first introduced by Kennedy and Eberhart in 1995. In the proposed BASPSO, the beam angles are optimized using PSO by treating each beam configuration as a particle (individual), and the beam intensity maps for each beam configuration are optimized using the conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm. These two optimization processes are implemented iteratively. The performance of each individual is evaluated by a fitness value calculated with a physical objective function. A population of these individuals is evolved by cooperation and competition among the individuals themselves through generations. The optimization results of a simulated case with known optimal beam angles and two clinical cases (a prostate case and a head-and-neck case) show that PSO is valid and efficient and can speed up the beam angle optimization process. Furthermore, the performance comparisons based on the preliminary results indicate that, as a whole, the PSO-based algorithm seems to outperform, or at least compete with, the GA-based algorithm in computation time and robustness. In conclusion, the reported work suggested that the introduced PSO algorithm could act as a new promising solution to the beam angle optimization problem and potentially other optimization problems in IMRT, though further studies need to be investigated

  4. Frequency scaling for angle gathers

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A H

    2014-01-01

    Angle gathers provide an extra dimension to analyze the velocity after migration. Space-shift and time shift-imaging conditions are two methods used to obtain angle gathers, but both are reasonably expensive. By scaling the time-lag axis of the time-shifted images, the computational cost of the time shift imaging condition can be considerably reduced. In imaging and more so Full waveform inversion, frequencydomain Helmholtz solvers are used more often to solve for the wavefields than conventional time domain extrapolators. In such cases, we do not need to extend the image, instead we scale the frequency axis of the frequency domain image to obtain the angle gathers more efficiently. Application on synthetic data demonstrate such features.

  5. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D

    2016-01-01

    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p < 0.001). Social compliance and source monitoring errors contribute to patterns of suggestibility, because older children shift their answers more often (r = 0.394 p < 0.001). Younger children change their answers more times (r = -0.395 p < 0.001). PMID:27404406

  6. Systematic variations in divergence angle

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Practical methods for quantitative analysis of radial and angular coordinates of leafy organs of vascular plants are presented and applied to published phyllotactic patterns of various real systems from young leaves on a shoot tip to florets on a flower head. The constancy of divergence angle is borne out with accuracy of less than a degree. It is shown that apparent fluctuations in divergence angle are in large part systematic variations caused by the invalid assumption of a fixed center and/or by secondary deformations, while random fluctuations are of minor importance.

  7. Rewarding Useful Suggestions in an Organizational Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajko Vidic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Do organizational unit leaders reward useful suggestions? How does the rewarding of useful employee suggestions encourage creativity and effectiveness? Purpose: On the basis of group conversations through focus groups, to determine whether rewarding effects the creativity and performance of employees. Method: Quantitative method using focus groups. Results: The results of the research study showed that the organizational unit appropriately rewards useful suggestions and that this has an impact on employee creativity and efficiency. In addition, the massive inventive activity is a system that effectively influences the success of business. Organization: Massive inventive activity has become a system in which increasingly more employees from different organizational units are becoming a part of. An important role is by managers, who are responsible for creating a positive atmosphere and encourage employees into innovative thinking, performance, and rewarding of useful suggestions. Society: The research shows that this is part of the organizational culture and that it is necessary to transfer to new employees. Originality: This is the first such research in our organizational unit. Limitations/Future Research: The research study was conducted in only one organizational unit of the company.

  8. The effective take-off angle in PHI Quantera systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Marel, C.

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that for quantitative analysis of XPS results theeffective take-off angle of the electrons is an important parameter.In the report is shown that the effective take-off angle i n PHI Quantera systems deviates significanlty from the set value. This is NOT a consequence of inadequa

  9. Can a surgeon drill accurately at a specified angle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioschi, Valentina; Cook, Jodie; Arthurs, Gareth I

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether a surgeon can drill accurately a specified angle and whether surgeon experience, task repetition, drill bit size and perceived difficulty influence drilling angle accuracy. Methods The sample population consisted of final-year students (n=25), non-specialist veterinarians (n=22) and board-certified orthopaedic surgeons (n=8). Each participant drilled a hole twice in a horizontal oak plank at 30°, 45°, 60°, 80°, 85° and 90° angles with either a 2.5  or a 3.5 mm drill bit. Participants then rated the perceived difficulty to drill each angle. The true angle of each hole was measured using a digital goniometer. Results Greater drilling accuracy was achieved at angles closer to 90°. An error of ≤±4° was achieved by 84.5 per cent of participants drilling a 90° angle compared with approximately 20 per cent of participants drilling a 30–45° angle. There was no effect of surgeon experience, task repetition or drill bit size on the mean error for intended versus achieved angle. Increased perception of difficulty was associated with the more acute angles and decreased accuracy, but not experience level. Clinical significance This study shows that surgeon ability to drill accurately (within ±4° error) is limited, particularly at angles ≤60°. In situations where drill angle is critical, use of computer-assisted navigation or custom-made drill guides may be preferable. PMID:27547423

  10. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice. PMID:2640034

  11. Reducing suggestibility in child witness interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Memon, Amina; Holley, Angela; Wark, Linsey; Bull, Ray; Koehnken, Guenter

    1996-01-01

    This study set out to test the prediction that a Cognitive Interview may increase resistance to subsequent misleading suggestions in child witness interviews. The misleading information was presented in the form of questions both prior to, and after, a cognitive or structured interview to 8 and 9 year old witnesses to a video-taped event. Use of the cognitive interview resulted in more correct responses to post-interview questions than did the structured interview eventhough there was not qui...

  12. Discovering the Inscribed Angle Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Matt B.

    2012-01-01

    Learning to play tennis is difficult. It takes practice, but it also helps to have a coach--someone who gives tips and pointers but allows the freedom to play the game on one's own. Learning to act like a mathematician is a similar process. Students report that the process of proving the inscribed angle theorem is challenging and, at times,…

  13. Contactless angle detection using permalloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Kees J.; Rijk, Rolf

    1988-01-01

    An overview is given of measurements on angle detectors. The detectors consist of a pair of planar-Hall elements opposite to a rotatable magnet. The measurements are performed on a number of planar-Hall elements of different shape and size, and show good agreement with a previously described theoret

  14. Foreign Body Embedded in Anterior Chamber Angle

    OpenAIRE

    Shmuel Graffi; Beatrice Tiosano; Ran Ben Cnaan; Jonathan Bahir; Modi Naftali

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. We present a case of a metallic foreign body embedded in the anterior chamber angle. After standing in close proximity to a construction worker breaking a tile, a 26-year-old woman using soft contact lens for the correction of mild myopia presented to emergency department for evaluation of a foreign body sensation of her right eye. Methods and Results. Diagnosis was confirmed by gonioscopic examination and a noncontrast CT scan of head and orbits. The foreign body was removed by...

  15. Angles between subspaces computed in Clifford Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Hitzer, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    We first review the definition of the angle between subspaces and how it is computed using matrix algebra. Then we introduce the Grassmann and Clifford algebra description of subspaces. The geometric product of two subspaces yields the full relative angular information in an explicit manner. We explain and interpret the result of the geometric product of subspaces gaining thus full practical access to the relative orientation information.

  16. What is the angle of a nonlinear Kelvin ship wave pattern?

    CERN Document Server

    Pethiyagoda, Ravindra; Moroney, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    While the half-angle which encloses a Kelvin ship wave pattern is commonly accepted to be 19.47 degrees, recent observations and calculations for sufficiently fast-moving ships suggest that the apparent wake angle decreases with ship speed. One explanation for this decrease in angle relies on the assumption that a ship cannot generate wavelengths much greater than its hull length. An alternative interpretation is that the wave pattern that is observed in practice is defined by the location of the highest peaks; for wakes created by sufficiently fast-moving objects, these highest peaks no longer lie on the outermost divergent waves, resulting in a smaller apparent angle. In this paper, we focus on the problem of free surface flow past a submerged point source. In the linear case, we measure the apparent wake angle formed by the highest peaks, and observe the following three regimes: a small Froude number pattern, in which the divergent waves are not visible; standard wave patterns for which the maximum peaks o...

  17. Improved signal-to-noise ratio for non-perpendicular detection angles in x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölin, Martin; Danielsson, Mats

    2014-11-01

    The standard imaging setup in x-ray fluorescence computed tomography detects the fluorescence emission at a right angle with respect to the axis of the excitation beam. In this paper we have studied how the detection angle affects the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), which is a major factor influencing the low-contrast sensitivity of the imaging system. This is done for an imaging setup using a collimated detector and a pencil beam of excitation x-rays. An ideal detection process is simulated for a generalized imaging case with gold/platinum tracers and experimental measurements are performed using a diagnostic x-ray tube. For monochromatic excitation, the results indicate that order-of-magnitude improvements of the S/N can be achieved by optimizing the detection angle. The maximal S/N, when exciting with an energy just above the K-edge, is achieved for large detection angles, i.e. with the detector close to the source. The improvements also transfer to polychromatic excitation sources and the experimental results show up to four-fold improvements of the S/N when changing the detection angle from 90° to 150°. Also, the changes of the S/N behavior when switching the fluorescent tracer is briefly demonstrated. These results suggest that the choice of detection angle should be taken seriously in the design of future XFCT imaging systems.

  18. Mathematical representation of bolted-joint stiffness: A new suggested model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joint member stiffness in a bolted connection directly influences the safety of a design in regard to both static and fatigue loading, as well as in the prevention of separation in the connection. This work provides a new simple model for computing the member stiffness in bolted connections for both fully and partially developed stress envelope fields. The new model is built using a stress distribution polynomial of third order. Finite element analysis (FEA) is performed for some joints geometries, and the results are used to estimate the best analytical envelope angle in the proposed analytical model that gives suitable convergence between the compared results. An experimental effort is exerted to validate the accuracy of a suggested model. When analytical results are compared with FEA results and experimental data, the maximum absolute percentage errors are found to be 2.69 and 14.69, respectively. Also, a good agreement is obtained when the analytical results are compared with other researchers' results

  19. MR study of the intrinsic acromial angle in 74 symptomatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. The study was undertaken to define some measurements on sagittal MR images that could provide quantitative data on the subacromial spece in patients affected by nonspecific impingement syndrome and to correlate these measurements with the Bigliani classification of acromial morphology. Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed 74 shoulders in 74 patients (47 males, 27 females, age range 35-62 years) who presented with mechanical disability and pain. The patients underwent MRl using TI-weighted sagittal oblique and coronaI SE sequences (TR 500 ms,TE 12 ms) and T2-weighted FSE sequences (TR 3500, TE 25 ms) with dedicated coil. Two parameters were evaluated: the intrinsic acromial angle and the acromio-humeral distance. The measurements were made on the sagittal images at the acromion-clavicular junction and correlated to the Bigliani classification of acromial morphology. The images were evaluated by two radiologists blinded to the patients' identity, history and arthroscopic results. Results. The acromial angle was measured in 72 shoulders. The values were found to correlate with tue Bigliani classification. In our series, the intrinsic acromial angle (resulting from the intersection between the longitudinal acromial axis and the tangent to the acromial undersurface) ranged from 0o to 17o. In shoulders with rotator cuff tears the acromial angle varied between 8o and 17o. There were no tears for acromial angles below 8o, whereas in patients with full-thickness tears the angles ranged from a minimum of 12o to a maximum of 15o. Acromio-humeral distance ranged from 2 mm to 10 mm; in patients with cuff tears it could not be assessed as it was close to zero in nearly all cases, whereas in cases of impingement without cuff tear it ranged from 5 mm to 10 mm. Impingement without cuff tear was detected in 31 cases, with angles ranging from 10o to 17o. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the two quantitative parameters (intrinsic

  20. Weak mixing angle measurements at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Di Simone, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Talk will cover weak mixing angle measurements at hadron colliders ATLAS and CMS in particular. ATLAS has measured the forward-backward asymmetry for the neutral current Drell Yan process in a wide mass range around the Z resonance region using dielectron and dimuon final states with $\\sqrt{s}$ =7 TeV data. For the dielectron channel, the measurement includes electrons detected in the forward calorimeter which extends the covered phase space. The result is then used to extract a measurement of the effective weak mixing angle. Uncertainties from the limited knowledge on the parton distribution functions in the proton constitute a significant part of the uncertainty and a dedicated study is performed to obtain a PDF set describing W and Z data measured previously by ATLAS. Similar studies from CMS will be reported.

  1. Modeling small angle scattering data using FISH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) are important techniques for the characterisation of samples on the nanometer scale. From the scattered intensity pattern information about the sample such as particle size distribution, concentration and particle interaction can be determined. Since the experimental data is in reciprocal space and information is needed about real space, modeling of the scattering data to obtain parameters is extremely important and several paradigms are available. The use of computer programs to analyze the data is imperative for a robust description of the sample to be obtained. This presentation gives an overview of the SAS process and describes the data-modeling program FISH, written by R. Heenan 1983-2000. The results of using FISH to obtain the particle size distribution of bubbles in the aluminum hydrogen system and other systems of interest are described. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  2. Dancing droplets: Contact angle, drag, and confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benusiglio, Adrien; Cira, Nate; Prakash, Manu

    2015-11-01

    When deposited on a clean glass slide, a mixture of water and propylene glycol forms a droplet of given contact angle, when both pure liquids spread. (Cira, Benusiglio, Prakash: Nature, 2015). The droplet is stabilized by a gradient of surface tension due to evaporation that induces a Marangoni flow from the border to the apex of the droplets. The apparent contact angle of the droplets depends on both their composition and the external humidity as captured by simple models. These droplets present remarkable properties such as lack of a large pinning force. We discuss the drag on these droplets as a function of various parameters. We show theoretical and experimental results of how various confinement geometries change the vapor gradient and the dynamics of droplet attraction.

  3. Off-Angle Iris Correction Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph T [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In many real world iris recognition systems obtaining consistent frontal images is problematic do to inexperienced or uncooperative users, untrained operators, or distracting environments. As a result many collected images are unusable by modern iris matchers. In this chapter we present four methods for correcting off-angle iris images to appear frontal which makes them compatible with existing iris matchers. The methods include an affine correction, a retraced model of the human eye, measured displacements, and a genetic algorithm optimized correction. The affine correction represents a simple way to create an iris image that appears frontal but it does not account for refractive distortions of the cornea. The other method account for refraction. The retraced model simulates the optical properties of the cornea. The other two methods are data driven. The first uses optical flow to measure the displacements of the iris texture when compared to frontal images of the same subject. The second uses a genetic algorithm to learn a mapping that optimizes the Hamming Distance scores between off-angle and frontal images. In this paper we hypothesize that the biological model presented in our earlier work does not adequately account for all variations in eye anatomy and therefore the two data-driven approaches should yield better performance. Results are presented using the commercial VeriEye matcher that show that the genetic algorithm method clearly improves over prior work and makes iris recognition possible up to 50 degrees off-angle.

  4. EFFECT OF SWEEP ANGLE ON THE VORTICAL FLOW OVER DELTA WINGS AT AN ANGLE OF ATTACK OF 10°

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMES BRETT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CFD simulations have been used to analyse the vortical flows over sharp edged delta wings with differing sweep angles under subsonic conditions at an angle of attack of 10°. RANS simulations were validated against experimental data for a 65° sweep wing, with a flat cross-section, and the steadiness of the flow field was assessed by comparing the results against unsteady URANS and DES simulations. To assess the effect of sweep angle on the flow field, a range of sweep angles from 65° to 43° were simulated. For moderate sweep wings the primary vortex was observed to detach from the leading edge, undergoing vortex breakdown, and a weaker, replacement, "shadow" vortex was formed. The shadow vortex was observed for sweep angles of 50° and less, and resulted in reduced lift production near the wing tips loss of the stronger primary vortex.

  5. Disorders of the cerebellopontine angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disorders of the cerebellopontine angle may present by symptoms like vertigo, hearing problems, affection of the trigeminal or facial nerve. Ipsilateral ataxia and contralateral hemiparesis develop in case of a rather large tumor in this region and display an involvement of the cerebellum and/or brainstem. However, some of these typical symptoms are not recognized by the patient. Thus, in case of a suspicion of a disorder of the cerebellopontine angle the relevant functions have to be tested clinically. In addition, electrophysiology can confirm dysfunction of these cranial nerves. Mainstay of the therapy should be the treatment of the underlying cause. Nevertheless, not seldom it is necessary to treat symptoms like vertigo or facial pain. (orig.)

  6. Wide-angle electron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, functioning, and main calibration, characteristics of a wide-angle detector, capable of recording electrons with energies >= 8 keV and insensitive to u.v. solar radiation are described. A description of the sensor (electron trap) and its electronics in the analog (DEGAFOC) and counting (DEGAFOI) modes is given. Examples of telemetry recordings, illustrating the operation of the detector are included. (Auth.)

  7. The effect of knee joint angle on torque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Voudrie, Stefani J; Ebersole, Kyle T

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the author's investigation was to examine the effect of knee joint angle on torque control of the quadriceps muscle group. In all, 12 healthy adults produced maximal voluntary contractions and submaximal torque (15, 30, and 45% MVC [maximal voluntary contraction]) at leg flexion angles of 15 degrees , 30 degrees , 60 degrees , and 90 degrees below the horizontal plane. As expected, MVC values changed with respect to joint angle with maximum torque output being greatest at 60 degrees and least at 15 degrees . During the submaximal tasks, participants appropriately scaled their torque output to the required targets. Absolute variability (i.e., standard deviation) of torque output was greatest at 60 degrees and 90 degrees knee flexion. However, relative variability as indexed by coefficient of variation (CV) decreased as joint angle increased, with the greatest CV occurring at 15 degrees . These results are congruent with the hypothesis that joint angle influences the control of torque. PMID:19906637

  8. Stable divergence angles of a magnetic dipole spiral array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, X.D.; Bursill, L.A.

    1996-03-01

    An analytical model is introduced for Douady and Couder`s [1992] experiment, where phyllotactic patterns appear as a dynamical result of the interaction between magnetic dipoles. The difference equation for the divergence angle (i.e. the angle between successive radial vectors) is obtained by solving the equations of motion with a second nearest neighbour (SNN) approximation. A one dimensional map analysis as well as a comprehensive analytical proof shows that the divergence angle always converges to a single attractor regardless of the initial conditions. This attractor is approximately the Fibonacci angle ({approx} 138 deg) within variations due to a growth factor {mu} of the pattern. The system is proved to be stable with the SNN approximation. Further analysis with a third nearest neighbour approximation (TNN) shows extra linearly stable attractors may appear around the Lucas angle at {approx} 99.5 deg. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  9. [The sulcus angle of the femoral trochlea: ultrasonographic evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, F; De Serio, A; Macarini, L; Colaianni, P; Solarino, M; Fracella, M R

    1995-03-01

    The sulcus angle of femoral trochlea is particularly important to evaluate the femoro-patellar joint. Our study was aimed at studying the normal trochlea, and especially the sulcus angle, with US. The right knees of 11 normal subjects were examined with US and Computed Tomography (CT) on the same section planes. The US measurements of the sulcus angle were correlated with CT results, which were considered the gold standard. The US and CT data were compared and a direct correlation was found (r = 0.832). The intraobserver difference in US measurements was r = 0.943. The mean sulcus angle value was 132 degrees, in agreement with literature data. We conclude that the US measurements of the sulcus angle are reproducible and as sensitive as CT. PMID:7754110

  10. EVALUATION OF NECK SHAFT ANGLE OF FEMUR ON DRY BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the neck shaft angle of femur helps to understand clinical relevance in bio mechanics of the hip joint. It helps for the better treatment of different pathological conditions of hip and femur and also to design prosthesis. Femoral neck shaft angle is important to convey the information regarding the race to which they belong. Hence the present study was under taken to determine the neck shaft angle of femur in humans. OBJECTIVE: 1. To correct the different types of deformity and to have a normal good walking Mechanism. 2. To know the recent methodology and attempt to evaluate the range of normal Angles of femora and their sex differences. METHODS: ANTHROPOMETRIC: 100 Adult dry bones were studied and analyzed . The neck shaft angle of femur was measured by tracing outlines of contours of all femora. RESULTS: The neck shaft angle of the femur have revealed that there is no much difference in between males and females. There was slightly higher 0.2° in females. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: There was no significant gender difference in neck shaft angle. The Knowledge of knowing the neck shaft angle helps to understand the Biomechanics of the hip joint and also for better treatment of pathological condition of hip and femur.

  11. A Novel Monopulse Angle Estimation Method for Wideband LFM Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xiong Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional monopulse angle estimations are mainly based on phase comparison and amplitude comparison methods, which are commonly adopted in narrowband radars. In modern radar systems, wideband radars are becoming more and more important, while the angle estimation for wideband signals is little studied in previous works. As noise in wideband radars has larger bandwidth than narrowband radars, the challenge lies in the accumulation of energy from the high resolution range profile (HRRP of monopulse. In wideband radars, linear frequency modulated (LFM signals are frequently utilized. In this paper, we investigate the monopulse angle estimation problem for wideband LFM signals. To accumulate the energy of the received echo signals from different scatterers of a target, we propose utilizing a cross-correlation operation, which can achieve a good performance in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR conditions. In the proposed algorithm, the problem of angle estimation is converted to estimating the frequency of the cross-correlation function (CCF. Experimental results demonstrate the similar performance of the proposed algorithm compared with the traditional amplitude comparison method. It means that the proposed method for angle estimation can be adopted. When adopting the proposed method, future radars may only need wideband signals for both tracking and imaging, which can greatly increase the data rate and strengthen the capability of anti-jamming. More importantly, the estimated angle will not become ambiguous under an arbitrary angle, which can significantly extend the estimated angle range in wideband radars.

  12. A Novel Monopulse Angle Estimation Method for Wideband LFM Radars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Xiong; Liu, Qi-Fan; Hong, Ru-Jia; Pan, Ping-Ping; Deng, Zhen-Miao

    2016-01-01

    Traditional monopulse angle estimations are mainly based on phase comparison and amplitude comparison methods, which are commonly adopted in narrowband radars. In modern radar systems, wideband radars are becoming more and more important, while the angle estimation for wideband signals is little studied in previous works. As noise in wideband radars has larger bandwidth than narrowband radars, the challenge lies in the accumulation of energy from the high resolution range profile (HRRP) of monopulse. In wideband radars, linear frequency modulated (LFM) signals are frequently utilized. In this paper, we investigate the monopulse angle estimation problem for wideband LFM signals. To accumulate the energy of the received echo signals from different scatterers of a target, we propose utilizing a cross-correlation operation, which can achieve a good performance in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions. In the proposed algorithm, the problem of angle estimation is converted to estimating the frequency of the cross-correlation function (CCF). Experimental results demonstrate the similar performance of the proposed algorithm compared with the traditional amplitude comparison method. It means that the proposed method for angle estimation can be adopted. When adopting the proposed method, future radars may only need wideband signals for both tracking and imaging, which can greatly increase the data rate and strengthen the capability of anti-jamming. More importantly, the estimated angle will not become ambiguous under an arbitrary angle, which can significantly extend the estimated angle range in wideband radars. PMID:27271629

  13. Controls on stream network branching angles, tested using landscape evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoratos, Nikolaos; Seybold, Hansjörg; Kirchner, James W.

    2016-04-01

    Stream networks are striking landscape features. The topology of stream networks has been extensively studied, but their geometry has received limited attention. Analyses of nearly 1 million stream junctions across the contiguous United States [1] have revealed that stream branching angles vary systematically with climate and topographic gradients at continental scale. Stream networks in areas with wet climates and gentle slopes tend to have wider branching angles than in areas with dry climates or steep slopes, but the mechanistic linkages underlying these empirical correlations remain unclear. Under different climatic and topographic conditions different runoff generation mechanisms and, consequently, transport processes are dominant. Models [2] and experiments [3] have shown that the relative strength of channel incision versus diffusive hillslope transport controls the spacing between valleys, an important geometric property of stream networks. We used landscape evolution models (LEMs) to test whether similar factors control network branching angles as well. We simulated stream networks using a wide range of hillslope diffusion and channel incision parameters. The resulting branching angles vary systematically with the parameters, but by much less than the regional variability in real-world stream networks. Our results suggest that the competition between hillslope and channeling processes influences branching angles, but that other mechanisms may also be needed to account for the variability in branching angles observed in the field. References: [1] H. Seybold, D. H. Rothman, and J. W. Kirchner, 2015, Climate's watermark in the geometry of river networks, Submitted manuscript. [2] J. T. Perron, W. E. Dietrich, and J. W. Kirchner, 2008, Controls on the spacing of first-order valleys, Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, F04016. [3] K. E. Sweeney, J. J. Roering, and C. Ellis, 2015, Experimental evidence for hillslope control of landscape scale, Science, 349

  14. An Algorithm to Determine the Optimum Tilt Angle of a Solar Panel from Global Horizontal Solar Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Calabrò

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an algorithm to calculate the optimum tilt angle of solar panels by means of global horizontal solar radiation data, provided from Earth-based meteorological stations. This mathematical modeling is based on the maximization of the theoretical expression of the global solar irradiation impinging on an inclined surface, with respect to the slope and orientation of the panel and to the solar hour angle. A set of transcendent equations resulted, whose solutions give the optimum tilt and orientation of a solar panel. A simulation was carried out using global horizontal solar radiation data from the European Solar Radiation Atlas and some empirical models of diffuse solar radiation. The optimum tilt angle resulted was related to latitude by a linear regression with significant correlation coefficients. The standard error of the mean values resulted increased significantly with latitude, suggesting that unreliable values can be provided at high latitudes.

  15. Euler angles as torsional flat spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Mandujano, Hector A.

    In this work we use general tensor calculus to compare the geodesic equation of motion and Newton's first law for force-free classical systems that are described by an arbitrary number of generalized coordinates in spaces with and without torsion. We choose as objects of study the flat torsional Euler angle metric spaces for rigid rotators. We tested the equivalence of the two motion equations using computational software that allowed algebraic manipulation. The main result is that the equivalence only holds for torsion-free spaces, and for isotropic force-free rotators. We present analytical calculations for the isotropic case and computational results for the general case.

  16. Operational multi-angle hyperspectral remote sensing for feature detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostater, Charles R.; Brooks, Donald K.

    2013-10-01

    Remote sensing results of land and water surfaces from airborne and satellite platforms are dependent upon the illumination geometry and the sensor viewing geometry. Correction of pushbroom hyperspectral imagery can be achieved using bidirectional reflectance factors (BRF's) image features based upon their multi-angle hyperspectral signatures. Ground validation of features and targets utilize non-imaging sensors such as hemispherical goniometers. In this paper, a new linear translation based hyperspectral imaging goniometer system is described. Imagery and hyperspectral signatures obtained from a rotation stage platform and the new linear non-hemispherical goniometer system shows applications and a multi-angle correction approach for multi-angle hyperspectral pushbroom imagery corrections. Results are presented in a manner in order to describe how ground, vessel and airborne based multi-angle hyperspectral signatures can be applied to operational hyperspectral image acquisition by the calculation of hyperspectral anisotropic signature imagery. The results demonstrate the analysis framework from the systems to water and coastal vegetation for exploitation of surface and subsurface feature or target detection based using the multi-angle radiative transfer based BRF's. The hyperspectral pushbroom multi-angle analysis methodology forms a basis for future multi-sensor based multi-angle change detection algorithms.

  17. Optical and electrical properties of SnO2:Sb thin films deposited by oblique angle deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antimony doped tin oxide (SnO2:Sb) (ATO) thin films were prepared by oblique angle electron beam evaporation technique. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer and four-point probe resistor were employed to characterize the structure, morphology, optical and electrical properties. The results show that oblique angle deposition ATO thin films with tilted columns structure are anisotropic. The in-plane birefringence of optical anisotropy is up to 0.035 at α = 70 deg., which means that it is suitable as wave plate and polarizer. The electrical anisotropy of sheet resistance shows that the sheet resistance parallel to the deposition plane is larger than that perpendicular to the deposition plane and it can be changed from 900 Ω/□ to 3500 Ω/□ for deposition angle from 40 deg. to 85 deg., which means that the sheet resistance can be effectively tuned by changing the deposition angle. Additionally, the sandwich structure of SiO2 buffer layer plus normal ATO films and oblique angle deposition ATO films can reduce the resistance, which can balance the optical and electrical anisotropy. It is suggested that oblique angle deposition ATO thin films can be used as transparent conductive thin films in solar cell, anti-foggy windows and multifunctional carrier in liquid crystal display.

  18. Small angle scattering and polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs

  19. Opening Angles of Collapsar Jets

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuta, Akira; Ioka, Kunihito

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the jet propagation and breakout from the stellar progenitor for gamma-ray burst (GRB) collapsars by performing two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations and analytical modeling. We find that the jet opening angle is given by $\\theta_j \\sim 1/5 \\Gamma_{0}$, and infer the initial Lorentz factor of the jet at the central engine, $\\Gamma_0$, is a few for existing observations of $\\theta_j$. The jet keeps the Lorentz factor low inside the star by converging cylindricall...

  20. Small angle scattering and polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, J.P. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB) - Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1996-12-31

    The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs.

  1. Dynamic angle selection in X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabravolski, Andrei, E-mail: andrei.dabravolski@uantwerpen.be [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Batenburg, Kees Joost, E-mail: joost.batenburg@uantwerpen.be [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica (CWI), Science Park 123, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sijbers, Jan, E-mail: jan.sijbers@uantwerpen.be [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • We propose the dynamic angle selection algorithm for CT scanning. • The approach is based on the concept of information gain over a set of solutions. • Projection angles are selected based on the already available projection data. • The approach can lead to more accurate results from fewer projections. - Abstract: In X-ray tomography, a number of radiographs (projections) are recorded from which a tomogram is then reconstructed. Conventionally, these projections are acquired equiangularly, resulting in an unbiased sampling of the Radon space. However, especially in case when only a limited number of projections can be acquired, the selection of the angles has a large impact on the quality of the reconstructed image. In this paper, a dynamic algorithm is proposed, in which new projection angles are selected by maximizing the information gain about the object, given the set of possible new angles. Experiments show that this approach can select projection angles for which the accuracy of the reconstructed image is significantly higher compared to the standard angle selections schemes.

  2. Wake angle for surface gravity waves on a finite depth fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Pethiyagoda, Ravindra; McCue, Scott W.; Moroney, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Linear water wave theory suggests that wave patterns caused by a steadily moving disturbance are contained within a wedge whose half-angle depends on the depth-based Froude number $F_H$. For the problem of flow past an axisymmetric pressure distribution in a finite-depth channel, we report on the apparent angle of the wake, which is the angle of maximum peaks. For moderately deep channels, the dependence of the apparent wake angle on the Froude number is very different to the wedge angle, and...

  3. Measurement of critical contact angle in a microgravity space experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

    1999-06-01

    Mathematical theory predicts that small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. This phenomenon was investigated in the Interface Configuration Experiment on board the NASA USML-2 Space Shuttle flight. The experiment's double proboscis containers were designed to strike a balance between conflicting requirements of sizable volume of liquid shift (for ease of observation) and abruptness of the shift (for accurate determination of critical contact angle). The experimental results support the classical concept of macroscopic contact angle and demonstrate the role of hysteresis in impeding orientation toward equilibrium.

  4. Measurement of critical contact angle in a microgravity space experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concus, P. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.; Finn, R. [Department of Mathematics, Stanford University, CA (United States); Weislogel, M. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Mathematical theory predicts that small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. This phenomenon was investigated in the interface configuration experiment on board the NASA USML-2 Space Shuttle flight. The experiment's ''double proboscis'' containers were designed to strike a balance between conflicting requirements of sizable volume of liquid shift (for ease of observation) and abruptness of the shift (for accurate determination of critical contact angle). The experimental results support the classical concept of macroscopic contact angle and demonstrate the role of hysteresis in impeding orientation toward equilibrium. (orig.)

  5. Drop Size Dependence of the Contact Angle of Nanodroplets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hong-Kai; FANG Hai-Ping

    2005-01-01

    @@ The contact angle of nanosized non-polarized argon sessile droplets on a solid substrate is studied by using molecular dynamics simulations.It is found that the drop size dependence of the contact angle is sensitive to the interaction between the liquid molecules and solid molecules.The contact angle decreases with the decreasing drop size for larger interaction between the liquid molecules and the solid substrate, and vice versa.This observation is consistent with most of the previous theoretical and experimental results.

  6. Sending Hidden Data via Google Suggest

    CERN Document Server

    Bialczak, Piotr; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Google Suggest is a service incorporated within Google Web Search which was created to help user find the right search phrase by proposing the autocompleting popular phrases while typing. The paper presents a new network steganography method called StegSuggest which utilizes suggestions generated by Google Suggest as a hidden data carrier. The detailed description of the method's idea is backed up with the analysis of the network traffic generated by the Google Suggest to prove its feasibility. The traffic analysis was also performed to discover the occurrence of two TCP options: Window Scale and Timestamp which StegSuggest uses to operate. Estimation of method steganographic bandwidth proves that it is possible to insert 100 bits of steganogram into every suggestions list sent by Google Suggest service.

  7. Optimum projection angle for attaining maximum distance in a soccer punt kick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linthorne, Nicholas P; Patel, Dipesh S

    2011-01-01

    To produce the greatest horizontal distance in a punt kick the ball must be projected at an appropriate angle. Here, we investigated the optimum projection angle that maximises the distance attained in a punt kick by a soccer goalkeeper. Two male players performed many maximum-effort kicks using projection angles of between 10° and 90°. The kicks were recorded by a video camera at 100 Hz and a 2 D biomechanical analysis was conducted to obtain measures of the projection velocity, projection angle, projection height, ball spin rate, and foot velocity at impact. The player's optimum projection angle was calculated by substituting mathematical equations for the relationships between the projection variables into the equations for the aerodynamic flight of a soccer ball. The calculated optimum projection angles were in agreement with the player's preferred projection angles (40° and 44°). In projectile sports even a small dependence of projection velocity on projection angle is sufficient to produce a substantial shift in the optimum projection angle away from 45°. In the punt kicks studied here, the optimum projection angle was close to 45° because the projection velocity of the ball remained almost constant across all projection angles. This result is in contrast to throwing and jumping for maximum distance, where the projection velocity the athlete is able to achieve decreases substantially with increasing projection angle and so the optimum projection angle is well below 45°. Key pointsThe optimum projection angle that maximizes the distance of a punt kick by a soccer goalkeeper is about 45°.The optimum projection angle is close to 45° because the projection velocity of the ball is almost the same at all projection angles.This result is in contrast to throwing and jumping for maximum distance, where the optimum projection angle is well below 45° because the projection velocity the athlete is able to achieve decreases substantially with increasing

  8. The Complex Angle in Normed Spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a generalized angle in complex normed vector spaces. Its definition corresponds to the definition of the well known Euclidean angle in real inner product spaces. Not surprisingly it yields complex values as 'angles'. This 'angle' has some simple properties, which are known from the usual angle in real inner product spaces. But to do ordinary Euclidean geometry real angles are necessary. We show that even in a complex normed space there are many pure real valued 'angles'. The situation improves yet in inner product spaces. There we can use the known theory of orthogonal systems to find many pairs of vectors with real angles, and to do geometry which is based on the Greeks 2000 years ago

  9. An Angle Criterion for Riesz Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindner, Alexander M; Bittner, B.

    We present a characterization of Riesz bases in terms ofthe angles between certain finite dimensional subspaces. Correlationsbetween the bounds of the Riesz basis and the size of the angles arederived....

  10. The qualitative criterion of transient angle stability

    OpenAIRE

    Lyu, R; Xue, Y.; Xue, F; Wu, Qiuwei; Yang, Guangya; Zhou, H; Ju, P.

    2015-01-01

    In almost all the literatures, the qualitative assessment of transient angle stability extracts the angle information of generators based on the swing curve. As the angle (or angle difference) of concern and the threshold value rely strongly on the engineering experience, the validity and robust of these criterions are weak. Based on the stability mechanism from the extended equal area criterion (EEAC) theory and combining with abundant simulations of real system, this paper analyzes the crit...

  11. Geometric relation for neutrino mixing angles and theta(13)

    CERN Document Server

    Lipmanov, E M

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the recent T2K discovery of a relatively large theta(13) angle in the neutrino mixing matrix we propose here a simple geometric relation between the three usually thought "independent" neutrino mixing angles - solar {\\theta}12, atmospheric {\\theta}23 and reactor {\\theta}13 ones: cos2(2{\\theta}sol) + cos2(2{\\theta}atm) + cos2(2{\\theta}13) = 1. Using the estimations for the two largest neutrino mixing angles from experimental data analyses in the literature, {\\theta}sol{\\cong} ~ 34.4o, {\\theta}atm{\\cong} ~ 42.8o, the reactor neutrino mixing angle is uniquely predicted {\\theta}13 = 10.8o. In case a little changed data, {\\theta}sol{\\cong} = 34o and {\\theta}atm{\\cong} = 43o the result will be {\\theta}13 =11.2o. And so, the {\\theta}13-value is not very sensitive to the accurate magnitudes of the two largest mixing angles. That prediction for the 'small' neutrino mixing angle is compatible with the latest T2K experimental data with best fit values for the reactor angle ({\\theta}13)bf{\\cong}= 9.7o(11o) fo...

  12. RESEARCH OF BASIFACIAL CONTOURING SCULPTURE BY MANDIBULAR ANGLE OSTECTOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jian-lin; DAI Chuan-chang; ZHU Guo-xian; ZHANG Ying; JIN Yu-qing; WANG Wei; QI Chuan-liang

    2006-01-01

    Objective Mandibular angle ostectomy is usually applied to the facial contouring sculpture.We evaluated the various techniques in order to enhance the precision and avoid unnecessary damage. Methods Before operation the area and quantity resected bone were designed according to facial measurement, mandible pantomography and orthophoria and lateral localized radiograph of skull. The Incises of mandibular angle ostectomy included intraoral, retroauricular or intraoral associated with retroauricular. Howerer, the sagittal resection of mandible outer table was necessary in all intraoral incise. Results Single mandibular angle ostectomy was not satisfactory for the patients having mandible hypertrophy with over-width basifacial contouring. Mandibular angle ostectomy combined with the sagittal resection of outer table of mandibular angle were required. Good symmetry and ap pearance were gained in 206 cases. One case had facial paralysis. Two patients occured mandibular fracture during the operation. Three cases complicated angled deformity at mandible body. Conclusion Reduction mandibuloplasty should be selected depends on varied types of mandibular angle hypertrophy before operation.

  13. A study of images of Projective Angles of pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jue [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhaoqi, Zhang [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)], E-mail: zhaoqi5000@vip.sohu.com; Yu Wei; Miao Cuilian; Yan Zixu; Zhao Yike [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15

    Aims: In images of magnetic resonance and computed tomography (CT) there are visible angles between pulmonary veins and the coronary, transversal or sagittal section of body. In this study these angles are measured and defined as Projective Angles of pulmonary veins. Several possible influential factors and characters of distribution are studied and analyzed for a better understanding of this imaging anatomic character of pulmonary veins. And it could be the anatomic base of adjusting correctly the angle of the central X-ray of the angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing the catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Method: Images of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) and contrast enhanced computer tomography (CECT) of the left atrium and pulmonary veins of 137 health objects and patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are processed with the technique of post-processing, and Projective Angles to the coronary and transversal sections are measured and analyzed statistically. Result: Project Angles of pulmonary veins are one of real and steady imaging anatomic characteristics of pulmonary veins. The statistical distribution of variables is relatively concentrated, with a fairly good representation of average value. It is possible to improve the angle of the central X-ray according to the average value in the selective angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing the catheter ablation of AF.

  14. The ratio Rdp of the quasielastic nd → p(nn) to the elastic np → pn charge-exchange-process yields at the proton emitting angle θp,lab = 0 deg. over 0.55-2.0 GeV neutron beam energy region. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New experimental results on ratio Rdp of the quasielastic charge-exchange yield at the outgoing proton angle θp,lab = 0 deg. for the nd → p(nn) reaction to the elastic np → pn charge-exchange yield, are presented. The measurements were carried out at the Nuclotron of the Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energies of the JINR (Dubna) at the neutron-beam kinetic energies of 0.55, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.8, and 2.0 GeV. The intense neutron beam with small momentum spread was produced by breakup of deuterons which were accelerated and extracted to the experimental hall. In both reactions mentioned above the outgoing protons with the momenta pp approximately equal to the neutron-beam momentum pn,beam were detected in the directions close to the direction of incident neutrons, i.e., in the vicinity of the scattering angle θp,lab = 0 deg. Measured in the same data-taking runs, the angular distributions of the charge-exchange-reaction products were corrected for the well-known instrumental effects and averaged in the vicinity of the incident-neutron-beam direction. These corrected angular distributions for every of nd → p(nn) and np → pn charge-exchange processes were proportional to the differential cross sections of the corresponding reactions. The data were accumulated by Delta-Sigma setup magnetic spectrometer with two sets of multiwire proportional chambers located upstream and downstream of the momentum analyzing magnet. Inelastic processes were considerably reduced by the additional detectors surrounding the hydrogen and deuterium targets. The time-of-flight system was applied to identify the detected particles. The accumulated data treatment and analysis, as well as possible sources of the systematic errors are discussed.

  15. BOND-ANGLE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS IN METALLIC GLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Hafner, J.

    1985-01-01

    Bond-angle distribution functions have been calculated for realistic models of metallic glasses. They suggest a defected icosahedral short-range bond-orientational order and a close analogy of the short-range topological order in the amorphous and in the crystalline states.

  16. The Power of Pictures : Vertical Picture Angles in Power Pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessner, Steffen R.; Ryan, Michelle K.; Schubert, Thomas W.; van Quaquebeke, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that variations in vertical picture angle cause the subject to appear more powerful when depicted from below and less powerful when depicted from above. However, do the media actually use such associations to represent individual differences in power? We argue that the d

  17. 30 CFR 56.19037 - Fleet angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 56.19037 Section 56.19037 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Sheaves § 56.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979, shall not...

  18. 30 CFR 57.19037 - Fleet angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 57.19037 Section 57.19037 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Sheaves § 57.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979, shall not...

  19. Does Angling Technique Selectively Target Fishes Based on Their Behavioural Type?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D M Wilson

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been growing recognition that fish harvesting practices can have important impacts on the phenotypic distributions and diversity of natural populations through a phenomenon known as fisheries-induced evolution. Here we experimentally show that two common recreational angling techniques (active crank baits versus passive soft plastics differentially target wild largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris based on variation in their behavioural tendencies. Fish were first angled in the wild using both techniques and then brought back to the laboratory and tested for individual-level differences in common estimates of personality (refuge emergence, flight-initiation-distance, latency-to-recapture and with a net, and general activity in an in-lake experimental arena. We found that different angling techniques appear to selectively target these species based on their boldness (as characterized by refuge emergence, a standard measure of boldness in fishes but not other assays of personality. We also observed that body size was independently a significant predictor of personality in both species, though this varied between traits and species. Our results suggest a context-dependency for vulnerability to capture relative to behaviour in these fish species. Ascertaining the selective pressures angling practices exert on natural populations is an important area of fisheries research with significant implications for ecology, evolution, and resource management.

  20. A spin- and angle-resolving photoelectron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of hemispherical electron energy analyzer that permits angle and spin resolved photoelectron spectroscopy has been developed. The analyzer permits standard angle resolved spectra to be recorded with a two-dimensional detector in parallel with spin detection using a mini-Mott polarimeter. General design considerations as well as technical solutions are discussed and test results from the Au(111) surface state are presented.

  1. Reduction of blade passage tone by angle modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiagbedzi, Y. A.

    1982-05-01

    Blade staggering has been used in both centrifugal and axial flow fans to reduce discrete tones. Impeller hub resilience, causing fan torsional oscillations, appears to be equivalent to blade staggering in that both lead to angle modulation of the blade passage sound. By using Jacobi-Anger expansions, the sound reductions resulting from the angle modulation effects of these two equivalent techniques are predicted. Excellent agreement is found with published data.

  2. Nonadiabatic Geometric Angle in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Cherbal, Omar; Maamache, Mustapha; Drir, Mahrez

    2005-01-01

    By using the Grassmannian invariant-angle coherents states approach, the classical analogue of the Aharonov-Anandan nonadiabatic geometrical phase is found for a spin one-half in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). In the adiabatic limit, the semi-classical relation between the adiabatic Berry’s phase and Hannay’s angle gives exactly the experimental result observed by Suter et al[12].

  3. Neoclassical Pitch-Angle Scattering of Runaway Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong

    2015-01-01

    It is discovered that the tokamak field geometry generates a pitch-angle scattering effect for runaway electrons. This neoclassical pitch-angle scattering is much stronger than the collisional scattering and invalidates the gyro-center model for runaway electrons. As a result, the energy limit of runaway electrons is found to be larger than the prediction of the gyro-center model and to depend heavily on the background magnetic field.

  4. SU-E-I-56: Scan Angle Reduction for a Limited-Angle Intrafraction Verification (LIVE) System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a novel adaptive reconstruction strategy to further reduce the scanning angle required by the limited-angle intrafraction verification (LIVE) system for intrafraction verification. Methods: LIVE acquires limited angle MV projections from the exit fluence of the arc treatment beam or during gantry rotation between static beams. Orthogonal limited-angle kV projections are also acquired simultaneously to provide additional information. LIVE considers the on-board 4D-CBCT images as a deformation of the prior 4D-CT images, and solves the deformation field based on deformation models and data fidelity constraint. LIVE reaches a checkpoint after a limited-angle scan, and reconstructs 4D-CBCT for intrafraction verification at the checkpoint. In adaptive reconstruction strategy, a larger scanning angle of 30° is used for the first checkpoint, and smaller scanning angles of 15° are used for subsequent checkpoints. The onboard images reconstructed at the previous adjacent checkpoint are used as the prior images for reconstruction at the current checkpoint. As the algorithm only needs to reconstruct the small deformation occurred between adjacent checkpoints, projections from a smaller scan angle provide enough information for the reconstruction. XCAT was used to simulate tumor motion baseline drift of 2mm along sup-inf direction at every subsequent checkpoint, which are 15° apart. Adaptive reconstruction strategy was used to reconstruct the images at each checkpoint using orthogonal 15° kV and MV projections. Results: Results showed that LIVE reconstructed the tumor volumes accurately using orthogonal 15° kV-MV projections. Volume percentage differences (VPDs) were within 5% and center of mass shifts (COMS) were within 1mm for reconstruction at all checkpoints. Conclusion: It's feasible to use an adaptive reconstruction strategy to further reduce the scan angle needed by LIVE to allow faster and more frequent intrafraction verification to minimize the

  5. Embedability between right-angled Artin groups

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sang-hyun

    2011-01-01

    In this article we study the right-angled Artin subgroups of a given right-angled Artin group. Starting with a graph $\\gam$, we produce a new graph through a purely combinatorial procedure, and call it the extension graph $\\gam^e$ of $\\gam$. We produce a second graph $\\gam^e_k$, the clique graph of $\\gam^e$, by adding extra vertices for each complete subgraph of $\\gam^e$. We prove that each finite induced subgraph $\\Lambda$ of $\\gam^e$ gives rise to an inclusion $A(\\Lambda)\\to A(\\gam)$. Conversely, we show that if there is an inclusion $A(\\Lambda)\\to A(\\gam)$ then $\\Lambda$ is an induced subgraph of $\\gam^e_k$. These results have a number of corollaries. Let $P_4$ denote the path on four vertices and let $C_n$ denote a cycle of length $n$. We prove that $A(P_4)$ embeds in $A(\\gam)$ if and only if $P_4$ is an induced subgraph of $\\gam$. We prove that if $F$ is any finite forest then $A(F)$ embeds in $A(P_4)$. We recover the first author's result on co--contraction of graphs and prove that if $\\gam$ has no tria...

  6. The power of pictures: Vertical picture angles in power pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Giessner, Steffen; Ryan, Michelle; Schubert, Thomas; van Quaquebeke, Niels

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Conventional wisdom suggests that variations in vertical picture angle cause the subject to appear more powerful when depicted from below and less powerful when depicted from above. However, do the media actually use such associations to represent individual differences in power? We argue that the diverse perspectives of evolutionary, social learning, and embodiment theories all suggest that the association between verticality and power is relatively automatic and should...

  7. The Q-angle and sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Quadriceps muscle contraction tends to straighten the Q angle. We expected that sports comprising a high amount of quadriceps training could be associated with low Q angles. The aim of the present study was to estimate the Q angle in athletes and to investigate its potential associations with par......Quadriceps muscle contraction tends to straighten the Q angle. We expected that sports comprising a high amount of quadriceps training could be associated with low Q angles. The aim of the present study was to estimate the Q angle in athletes and to investigate its potential associations...... with participation in sport. Three hundred and thirty-nine athletes had their Q angle measured. The mean of right-side Q angles was higher than left side, and the mean Q angle was higher in women than in men. The Q angle was positively associated with years of jogging, and negatively with years of soccer, swimming...... and sports participation at all. It is concluded that the use of Q angle measurements is questionable....

  8. A time-compressed simulated geomagnetic storm influences the nest-exiting flight angles of the stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, D. M. S.; Corrêa, A. A. C.; Vaillant, O. S.; de Melo, V. Bandeira; Gouvêa, G. S.; Ferreira, C. G.; Ferreira, T. A.; Wajnberg, E.

    2014-03-01

    Insects have been used as models for understanding animal orientation. It is well accepted that social insects such as honeybees and ants use different natural cues in their orientation mechanism. A magnetic sensitivity was suggested for the stingless bee Schwarziana quadripunctata, based on the observation of a surprising effect of a geomagnetic storm on the nest-exiting flight angles. Stimulated by this result, in this paper, the effects of a time-compressed simulated geomagnetic storm (TC-SGS) on the nest-exiting flight angles of another stingless bee, Tetragonisca angustula, are presented. Under an applied SGS, either on the horizontal or vertical component of the geomagnetic field, both nest-exiting flight angles, dip and azimuth, are statistically different from those under geomagnetic conditions. The angular dependence of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra of whole stingless bees shows the presence of organized magnetic nanoparticles in their bodies, which indicates this material as a possible magnetic detector.

  9. Polarization Position Angle Swings caused by Relativistic Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Polarization position angle swings of ~ 180° observed in extragalacticradio sources are a regular behavior of variability in polarization. They shouldbe due to some kind of physically regular process. We consider relativistic shocksproducing polarization angle swing events. Two magnetic field configurations (force-free field and homogeneous helical field) are considered to demonstrate the results.It is shown that the properties of polarization angle swings and the relationshipbetween the swings and variations in total and polarized flux density are criticallydependent on the configuration of magnetic field and the dynamical behavior of theshock. In particular, we find that in some cases polarization angle swings can occurwhen the total and polarized flux densities only vary by a very small amount. Theseresults may be useful for understanding the polarization variability with both longand short timescales observed in extragalactic radio sources.

  10. Calculation of Triggering Angle of Thyristor Rectifiers with Evolutionary Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahri VATANSEVER

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rectifier circuits have important role in electrical energy systems. Especially in thyristor rectifiers which have capability of generating multiple voltage level, determining/calculating the optimal trigger angle and applying trigger signal at this angles are among the main process. In this study, desired level of average output voltage according to trigger angles is obtained both classically (mathematically solving of equations and using evolutionary algorithms which are genetic algorithms and differential evolutions. In this way, a software can be used in educational purposes which can calculate optimal trigger angles using both mathematically and heuristically, show results and many properties/parameters of circuit graphically and numerically is developed. Analysis/simulations performed with the designed software indicates that evolutionary algorithms can be used in this field effectively and efficiently.

  11. Shrinkage and trajectory of the flat jet with inclination angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shufeng Ye; Yusheng Xie; Hongzhi Guo; Ye Huang; Shantong Jin

    2003-01-01

    The performance of the flat jet with an inclination angle was investigated by a water model. A mathematical model for theshrinkage and the trajectory of the flat jet with an inclination angle was derived theoretically and verified by experimental data of thewater model. The experimental results indicate that the inclination angle (α) has no influence on the shrinkage of the flat jet, theshrinkage of the flat jet along the width direction decreases with the increasing of the initial velocity at the exit (u0) and the initialthickness of the flat jet (t0). Enough bigger initial exit velocity (u0) and initial thickness can suppress the shrinkage of the flat jetalong the width direction and keep the flat jet stabilized. In addition, the trajectory of the flat jet with an inclination angle is parabolicand must be taking into consideration when to determine the striking distance.

  12. Wake angle for surface gravity waves on a finite depth fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Pethiyagoda, Ravindra; Moroney, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Linear water wave theory suggests that wave patterns caused by a steadily moving disturbance are contained within a wedge whose half-angle depends on the depth-based Froude number $F_H$. For the problem of flow past an axisymmetric pressure distribution in a finite-depth channel, we report on the apparent angle of the wake, which is the angle of maximum peaks. For moderately deep channels, the dependence of the apparent wake angle on the Froude number is very different to the wedge angle, and varies smoothly as $F_H$ passes through the critical value $F_H=1$. For shallow water, the two angles tend to follow each other more closely, which leads to very large apparent wake angles for certain regimes.

  13. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  14. Query term suggestion in academic search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, S.; Sappelli, M.; Kraaij, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate query term suggestion in the context of academic professional search. Our overall goal is to support scientists in their information seeking tasks. We set up an interactive search system in which terms are extracted from clicked documents and suggested to the user before e

  15. OPTIMUM PROJECTION ANGLE FOR ATTAINING MAXIMUM DISTANCE IN A SOCCER PUNT KICK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P. Linthorne

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To produce the greatest horizontal distance in a punt kick the ball must be projected at an appropriate angle. Here, we investigated the optimum projection angle that maximises the distance attained in a punt kick by a soccer goalkeeper. Two male players performed many maximum-effort kicks using projection angles of between 10° and 90°. The kicks were recorded by a video camera at 100 Hz and a 2 D biomechanical analysis was conducted to obtain measures of the projection velocity, projection angle, projection height, ball spin rate, and foot velocity at impact. The player's optimum projection angle was calculated by substituting mathematical equations for the relationships between the projection variables into the equations for the aerodynamic flight of a soccer ball. The calculated optimum projection angles were in agreement with the player's preferred projection angles (40° and 44°. In projectile sports even a small dependence of projection velocity on projection angle is sufficient to produce a substantial shift in the optimum projection angle away from 45°. In the punt kicks studied here, the optimum projection angle was close to 45° because the projection velocity of the ball remained almost constant across all projection angles. This result is in contrast to throwing and jumping for maximum distance, where the projection velocity the athlete is able to achieve decreases substantially with increasing projection angle and so the optimum projection angle is well below 45°.

  16. Contact angles of liquid metals on quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetting with μm-sized Pb droplets on thin polycrystalline films of decagonal Al13Co4 is reported. The films were prepared under high vacuum conditions in order to have Pb droplets lying on a clean surface. The method used is sequential deposition and annealing of specific stackings of Al and Co layers of nanometric thicknesses. A 300 nm thick Pb slab was then deposited on top of the films and dewetting experiments were followed in situ in a scanning Auger microprobe. The contact angle between the Pb droplet and the surface of the film is measured to be 49 deg. ± 7 deg. Further investigation performed by cross section transmission electron microscopy allows us to better characterize the interface. Taking into account the rugosity of the film, it is concluded that there is partial wetting of the film, which corresponds to a smaller contact angle. The comparison with other results obtained either with pure metals or with a cubic AlCo compound leads to the conclusion that the wetting behaviour of Pb on the surface of a decagonal compound is close to that of a metal with a high melting point and not significantly different from that of a crystalline compound with a small unit cell

  17. The range of options for handling plane angle and solid angle within a system of units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quincey, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The radian and steradian are unusual units within the SI, originally belonging to their own category of ‘supplementary units’, with this status being changed to dimensionless ‘derived units’ in 1995. Recent papers have suggested that angles could be handled in two different ways within the SI, both differing from the present system. The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for putting such suggestions into context, outlining the range of options that is available, together with the advantages and disadvantages of these options. Although less rigorously logical than some alternatives, the present SI approach is generally supported, but with some changes to the SI brochure to make the position clearer, in particular with regard to the designation of the radian and steradian as derived units.

  18. The change of GRB polarization angles in the magnetic-dominated jet model

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The polarimetric measurement on the prompt phase of GRB 100826A shows that the polarization angle changes $\\sim 90^{\\circ}$ between two adjacent time intervals. This phenomenon can be naturally interpreted in the framework of the magnetic-dominated-jet (MDJ) model. The MDJ model suggests that the bulk Lorentz factor of outflow increases as $\\Gamma\\propto r^{1/3}$ until reaching a saturated value $\\Gamma_{\\rm sat}$. Electrons move in the magnetic field and produce synchrotron photons. A beam of synchrotron photons travel alone the jet direction and then collide with the cold electrons at the front of the jet. After the Compton scattering process, these photons are detected by the observer locating slightly off-axis. If photons are emitted before the bulk Lorentz factor saturates, the change of polarization angle is a natural result of the acceleration of outflow.

  19. Slug Test in a Large Dip Angle Fracture Zone: Model and Field Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu and Chia-Shyun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-porosity model is developed to deal with a fracture zone slug test in a large dip angle by assuming the fracture zone causes a downward regional flow. For the oscillatory response, a larger dip angle causes larger amplitude while introduces little impact on period. The effective water length, an important parameter necessary for analyzing the oscillatory response, is proven to be independent of the dip angle and can be evaluated using the available horizontal formation methods. The dip angle effect is more pronounced for a larger storage coefficient. An empirical relationship is developed to evaluate the limiting dip angle, below which the dip angle effect is negligible. Field data analysis of a slug test in a _ dip angle fracture zone indicates that neglecting the dip angle can result in a 27% transmissivity over estimation and a 53% storage coefficient under estimation.

  20. On the parametrization of the energetic-particle pitch-angle diffusion coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vainio Rami

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context: Solar energetic particle (SEP events are one of the key ingredients of the near-Earth radiation environment. Pitch-angle scattering by fluctuations imposed on the large-scale magnetic field is assumed to be the basic physical process behind diffusive propagation of SEPs in the heliosphere. Various pitch-angle diffusion models have been suggested to parametrize the wave-particle interactions, based on the original results of the classical quasi-linear theory of particle scattering and improved new approaches. Aims: We investigate under which circumstances the different functional forms of the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient can lead to equivalent results. In particular, we use two forms that are commonly used in two types of numerical methods to solve the particle transport equation, i.e., finite difference methods and Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: We estimate the corresponding values of the parameters of the two scattering models by performing a least-square fitting of the functional form of one of the scattering-frequency models to the other. We also perform Monte Carlo simulations of near-relativistic solar electrons to investigate the similarity of the models in terms of observables at 1 AU. Results: Our study shows that the two forms of pitch-angle scattering frequency lead to nearly equivalent results for electron transport from the Sun to 1 AU. We give the equivalent scattering parameters of the two models as curves that can be easily used when comparing the results of the two models. Conclusions: By providing the equivalent parametrizations of two commonly used scattering models, we provide key information on how to relate the results from the two parametrizations to each other and to the theory of particle transport.

  1. Experimental investigation of synthetic aperture flow angle estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Niels; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2005-01-01

    Currently synthetic aperture flow methods can find the correct velocity magnitude, when the flow direction is known. To make a fully automatic system, the direction should also be estimated. Such an approach has been suggested by Jensen (2004) based on a search of the highest cross-correlation as a...... function of velocity and angle. This paper presents an experimental investigation of this velocity angle estimation method based on a set of synthetic aperture flow data measured using our RASMUS experimental ultrasound system. The measurements are performed for flow angles of 60, 75, and 90 deg. with...... respect to the axial direction, and for constant velocities with a peak of 0.1 m/s and 0.2 m/s. The implemented synthetic aperture imaging method uses virtual point sources in front of the transducer, and recursive imaging is used to increase the data rate. A 128 element linear array transducer is used...

  2. Scalar meson masses and mixing angle in a U(3) x U(3) Linear Sigma Model

    CERN Document Server

    Napsuciale, M

    1998-01-01

    Meson properties are considered within a U(3)x U(3)$ Linear Sigma Model(LSM). The importance of the U(1)_A-breaking term and the Zweig's rule violating term in the generation of meson masses and mixing angles is stressed. A fit of the LSM parameters to the pseudoscalar meson spectrum gives scalar meson masses which are sensitive to the SU(3) symmetry breaking of the vacuum. In spite of this, we find out that is likely to identify the scalar meson bar q q nonet with the sigma(~ 500), f_0(980), kappa(~900) and a_0(983) resonances. We agree with Tornqvist conclusion suggesting lambda^\\prime is small. However, the model suggest identifying the I=1/ 2 scalar meson with the kappa(~900) meson instead of K^*(1430). Scalar meson mixing angle (in the {|ns>, |s>} basis) is predicted to be phi_S~ 12 ^\\circ. Therefore the f_0(980) is mostly strange while the sigma(~ 500) is mostly non-strange. This value for the scalar mixing angle is consistent with the experimental results for the f_0-> pi pi decay. The pseudoscalar mix...

  3. Increased Carrying Angle is a Risk Factor for Nontraumatic Ulnar Neuropathy at the Elbow

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chein-Wei; Wang, Yi-Chian; Chu, Chang-Hung

    2008-01-01

    The literature suggests a possible relationship between carrying angle and nontrauma-related ulnar neuropathy. To confirm that relationship, we asked whether carrying angle is a risk factor in patients with nontrauma-related ulnar neuropathy. We measured the carrying angles of the elbow in 36 patients with a clinically and electrophysiologically confirmed diagnosis of nontraumatic ulnar neuropathy at the elbow and in 50 healthy control subjects. Correlation analysis was performed between carr...

  4. Suggestions for Preview in Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Na

    2015-01-01

    Among the factors which affect the efficiency of learning English,preview stands out as an increasingly significant one in English studying.Some constructive suggestions about the preview are given to apply in the preview of English.

  5. Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159032.html Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests Researchers say ... 25, 2016 WEDNESDAY, May 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking may pose a significant risk to kidney health ...

  6. Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159032.html Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests Researchers say ... 25, 2016 WEDNESDAY, May 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking may pose a significant risk to kidney health ...

  7. Suggestions for Customer Strategy Updates : Finnish Customs

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisto, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    The case organization Finnish Customs wanted to be provided with new suggestions for their customer strategy updates. The first objective of this study was to study how the needs of the partnership and key customers are met in the customer strategy and provide suggestions for improvements. Another objective was to research the legislation influencing the customer strategy development. The customer strategy was created in 2004 and it was combined with other strategies in 2013. The customer...

  8. Citalopram associated with acute angle-closure glaucoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sabit

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute angle-closure glaucoma is a rare complication in patients receiving anti-depressant treatment. In the following case, we report the development of acute angle closure glaucoma in a patient who overdosed on Citalopram, an antidepressant, and discuss the possible etiological mechanisms for the condition. Case presentation We report a 54 year old, Caucasian lady, with depression and alcohol dependence syndrome, who developed acute angle-closure glaucoma after an overdose of Citalopram, along with alcohol. She was treated with medications and had bilateral Yag laser iridotomies to correct the glaucoma and has made complete recovery. In this case, the underlying cause for glaucoma appears to be related to the ingestion of Citalopram. Conclusion The patho-physiological basis for acute angle closure glaucoma in relation to antidepressant medications remains unclear. The authors suggest Citalopram may have a direct action on the Iris or Ciliary body muscle through serotonergic or anti-cholinergic mechanisms or both. This case highlights the importance of the awareness of the underlying risks, which may predispose an individual to develop acute angle-closure glaucoma, and reminds the clinicians the significance of history taking and examination of the eye before and after starting anti-depressants. This area needs to be further researched.

  9. Comparison of different passive knee extension torque-angle assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have used isokinetic dynamometry to assess joint torques and angles during passive extension of the knee, often without reporting upon methodological errors and reliability outcomes. In addition, the reliability of the techniques used to measure passive knee extension torque-angle and the extent to which reliability may be affected by the position of the subjects is also unclear. Therefore, we conducted an analysis of the intra- and inter-session reliability of two methods of assessing passive knee extension: (A) a 2D kinematic analysis coupled to a custom-made device that enabled the direct measurement of resistance to stretch and (B) an isokinetic dynamometer used in two testing positions (with the non-tested thigh either flexed at 45° or in the neutral position). The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) of torque, the slope of the torque-angle curve, and the parameters of the mathematical model that were fit to the torque-angle data for the above conditions were measured in sixteen healthy male subjects (age: 21.4 ± 2.1 yr; BMI: 22.6 ± 3.3 kg m−2; tibial length: 37.4 ± 3.4 cm). The results found were: (1) methods A and B led to distinctly different torque-angle responses; (2) passive torque-angle relationship and stretch tolerance were influenced by the position of the non-tested thigh; and (3) ICCs obtained for torque were higher than for the slope and for the mathematical parameters that were fit to the torque-angle curve. In conclusion, the measurement method that is used and the positioning of subjects can influence the passive knee extension torque-angle outcome. (paper)

  10. Angle-Resolved Plasmonic Properties of Single Gold Nanorod Dimers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wu; Xuxing Lu; Qiannan Zhu; Junwei Zhao; Qishun Shen; Li Zhan; Weihai Ni

    2014-01-01

    Through wet-chemical assembly methods, gold nanorods were placed close to each other and formed a dimer with a gap distance*1 nm, and hence degenerated plasmonic dipole modes of individual nanorods coupled together to produce hybridized bonding and antibonding resonance modes. Previous studies using a condenser for illumination result in averaged signals over all excitation angles. By exciting an individual dimer obliquely at different angles, we demonstrate that these two new resonance modes are highly tunable and sensitive to the angle between the excitation polarization and the dimer orientation, which follows cos2u dependence. Moreover, for dimer structures with various structure angles, the resonance wavelengths as well as the refractive index sensitivities were found independent of the structure angle. Cal-culated angle-resolved plasmonic properties are in good agreement with the measurements. The assembled nanostructures investigated here are important for fundamental researches as well as potential applications when they are used as building blocks in plasmon-based optical and optoelectronic devices.

  11. Limbus Impact on Off-angle Iris Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph W [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of iris recognition depends on the quality of data capture and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Off-angle iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics that tries to address several issues including corneal refraction, complex 3D iris texture, and blur. In this paper, we present an additional significant challenge that degrades the performance of the off-angle iris recognition systems, called the limbus effect . The limbus is the region at the border of the cornea where the cornea joins the sclera. The limbus is a semitransparent tissue that occludes a side portion of the iris plane. The amount of occluded iris texture on the side nearest the camera increases as the image acquisition angle increases. Without considering the role of the limbus effect, it is difficult to design an accurate off-angle iris recognition system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that investigates the limbus effect in detail from a biometrics perspective. Based on results from real images and simulated experiments with real iris texture, the limbus effect increases the hamming distance score between frontal and off-angle iris images ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 depending upon the limbus height.

  12. Magnetic angle for gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December 2002 astronomers at the University of California in Berkeley got a lucky break. A bright gamma-ray burst appeared in the sky within 18 degrees of the Sun, which was close enough to be picked up by the RHESSI solar satellite. Analysing data from the satellite, Wayne Coburn and Steven Boggs made the stunning discovery that the gamma rays from the burst - named GRB021206 - were linearly polarized. And not just by any amount, but by 80% - the maximum polarization theoretically possible. The discovery represents a major breakthrough in gamma-ray astronomy (Nature 423 415).Gamma-ray bursts are the most energetic events in the universe, typically corresponding to the conversion of 1% of the mass of the Sun into energy. Every day an average of about one of these brief flashes of gamma rays - which come from any direction in the sky and last a few tens of seconds - are detected. Observations of the optical afterglow of the bursts reveal that they originate in galaxies that are several billions of light-years away. But what causes the bursts, and how the gamma rays are actually produced, have, until recently, remained a mystery. It has been suggested that gamma-ray bursts result from supernovae - the explosions of massive stars that have used up all their fuel - and that the bursts might be the 'birth cries' of black holes. Some of this evidence is circumstantial. It is known, for example, that the host galaxies of the bursts are regions where massive stars are copiously forming. However, observations of the afterglow of GRB980425 in 1998 revealed a spectral signature that would be expected for a supernova. This provided the first compelling, but inconclusive, direct evidence for the link between gamma-ray bursts and supernovae. In March this year, however, this link was dramatically confirmed. The HETE-2 satellite detected a spectacular gamma-ray burst that was among the closest and brightest ever observed. GRB030329 was just two billion light-years away, which

  13. Results of the two-dimensional particle identification analysis applied for the RICH in the DELPHI experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Polok, G

    1999-01-01

    The Cherenkov radiation is fully described by two variables Theta and phi , polar and azimuthal angles, respectively. In all published methods the azimuthal angle phi is completely neglected. We want to suggest that one can profit using the phi angle as additional aid in the particle identification procedure. For the first time, two- dimensional analysis results, taking into account not only both angles but also their errors, are presented. The two-dimensional method based on the Lagrange technique couples together the constraint equation and the minimization function and leads to the correct probability estimation. The principles and advantages of the proposed method are presented. (10 refs).

  14. Caustic graphene plasmons with Kelvin angle

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Xihang; Gao, Fei; Xu, Hongyi; Yang, Zhaoju; Zhang, Baile

    2015-01-01

    A century-long argument made by Lord Kelvin that all swimming objects have an effective Mach number of 3, corresponding to the Kelvin angle of 19.5 degree for ship waves, has been recently challenged with the conclusion that the Kelvin angle should gradually transit to the Mach angle as the ship velocity increases. Here we show that a similar phenomenon can happen for graphene plasmons. By analyzing the caustic wave pattern of graphene plasmons stimulated by a swift charged particle moving uniformly above graphene, we show that at low velocities of the charged particle, the caustics of graphene plasmons form the Kelvin angle. At large velocities of the particle, the caustics disappear and the effective semi-angle of the wave pattern approaches the Mach angle. Our study introduces caustic wave theory to the field of graphene plasmonics, and reveals a novel physical picture of graphene plasmon excitation during electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurement.

  15. Non-pupillary block angle-closure mechanisms: a comprehensive analysis of their prevalence and treatment outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela L. M. Junqueira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the prevalence and treatment outcomes of angle-closure mechanisms other than pupillary block in a population of Brazilian patients. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted to evaluate patients who had undergone laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI due to occludable angles at a single institution between July 2009 and April 2012. An occludable angle was defined as an eye in which the posterior trabecular meshwork was not visible for ≥180° on dark-room gonioscopy. Key exclusion criteria were any form of secondary glaucoma and the presence of >90° of peripheral anterior synechiae. Collected data were age, race, gender, angle-closure mechanism (based on indentation goniocopy and ultrasound biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure (IOP, number of antiglaucoma medications and subsequent management during follow-up. If both eyes were eligible, the right eye was arbitrarily selected for analysis. Results: A total of 196 eyes of 196 consecutive patients (mean age 58.3 ± 11.6 years who underwent LPI were included. In most of the patients [86% (169 patients; 133 women and 36 men], LPI sucessfully opened the angle. Mean IOP was reduced from 18.3 ± 6.4 mmHg to 15.4 ± 4.5 mmHg after LPI (p<0.01. Among the 27 patients with persistent occludable angles, the most common underlying mechanisms were plateau iris (56% and lens-induced component (34%. Most of these patients (85% were treated with argon laser peripheral iridoplasty (ALPI; approximately 90% showed non-occludable angles following the laser procedure (mean IOP reduction of 18.9%, with no significant differences between patients with plateau iris and lens-induced components (p=0.34; mean follow-up of 11.4 ± 3.6 months. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that, in this population of Brazilian patients, several eyes with angle closure were not completely treated with LPI. In the present large case series involving middle-age patients, plateau iris was the leading cause of

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF TILT ANGLE FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumar; N.S.Thakur,; Rahul Makade,; Maneesh Kumar Shivhar

    2011-01-01

    The performance of a solar radiation conversion system is affected by its tilt angle with the horizontal plane, thus photovoltaic array need to be tilted at the correct angle to maximize the performance of the System, This paper deals with the determination of optimum tilt angle for solar PV array in order to maximize incident solar irradiance. The model starts by calculating the monthly averaged daily solar irradiation components (direct, diffuse, ground- eflected) absorbed by the solar PV a...

  17. Behavior of Tilted Angle Shear Connectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koosha Khorramian

    Full Text Available According to recent researches, angle shear connectors are appropriate to transfer longitudinal shear forces across the steel-concrete interface. Angle steel profile has been used in different positions as L-shaped or C-shaped shear connectors. The application of angle shear connectors in tilted positions is of interest in this study. This study investigates the behaviour of tilted-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic loading using experimental push out tests. Eight push-out specimens are tested to investigate the effects of different angle parameters on the ultimate load capacity of connectors. Two different tilted angles of 112.5 and 135 degrees between the angle leg and steel beam are considered. In addition, angle sizes and lengths are varied. Two different failure modes were observed consisting of concrete crushing-splitting and connector fracture. By increasing the size of connector, the maximum load increased for most cases. In general, the 135 degrees tilted angle shear connectors have a higher strength and stiffness than the 112.5 degrees type.

  18. Best Angle to Orient Two Intersecting Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awwal, A S; Ferguson, S W; Shull, P B

    2006-07-25

    Fiducials in the form of intersecting straight lines are used to align the target in the final target chamber of the National Ignition Facility of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. One of the techniques used to locate these lines is the Hough transform. When two lines intersect at a 90 degree angle, it is tempting to orient the lines to horizontal and vertical directions. There are other possible angles at which the lines may be oriented. One question that arises while designing the fiducials is whether there is a preferred angle or range of angles that leads to higher accuracy. This work attempts to answer this question through detailed computer simulation.

  19. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false memory for suggested events. Results showed that conceptual elaboration of suggested events more often resulted in high confidence false memories (Ex...

  20. High Resolution Quantitative Angle-Scanning Widefield Surface Plasmon Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Han-Min; Pechprasarn, Suejit; Zhang, Jing; Pitter, Mark C.; Somekh, Michael G.

    2016-02-01

    We describe the construction of a prismless widefield surface plasmon microscope; this has been applied to imaging of the interactions of protein and antibodies in aqueous media. The illumination angle of spatially incoherent diffuse laser illumination was controlled with an amplitude spatial light modulator placed in a conjugate back focal plane to allow dynamic control of the illumination angle. Quantitative surface plasmon microscopy images with high spatial resolution were acquired by post-processing a series of images obtained as a function of illumination angle. Experimental results are presented showing spatially and temporally resolved binding of a protein to a ligand. We also show theoretical results calculated by vector diffraction theory that accurately predict the response of the microscope on a spatially varying sample thus allowing proper quantification and interpretation of the experimental results.

  1. Wide-angle energy-momentum spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dodson, Christopher M; Li, Dongfang; Zia, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Light emission is defined by its distribution in energy, momentum, and polarization. Here, we demonstrate a method that resolves these distributions by means of wide-angle energy-momentum spectroscopy. Specifically, we image the back focal plane of a microscope objective through a Wollaston prism to obtain polarized Fourier-space momentum distributions, and disperse these two-dimensional radiation patterns through an imaging spectrograph without an entrance slit. The resulting measurements represent a convolution of individual radiation patterns at adjacent wavelengths, which can be readily deconvolved using any well-defined basis for light emission. As an illustrative example, we use this technique with the multipole basis to quantify the intrinsic emission rates for electric and magnetic dipole transitions in europium-doped yttrium oxide (Eu$^{3+}$:Y$_{2}$O$_{3}$) and chromium-doped magnesium oxide (Cr$^{3+}$:MgO). Once extracted, these rates allow us to reconstruct the full, polarized, two-dimensional radi...

  2. Foreign Body Embedded in Anterior Chamber Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Graffi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We present a case of a metallic foreign body embedded in the anterior chamber angle. After standing in close proximity to a construction worker breaking a tile, a 26-year-old woman using soft contact lens for the correction of mild myopia presented to emergency department for evaluation of a foreign body sensation of her right eye. Methods and Results. Diagnosis was confirmed by gonioscopic examination and a noncontrast CT scan of head and orbits. The foreign body was removed by an external approach without utilizing a magnet. The patient's final outcome was favorable. Discussion. The above is a rare clinical situation, which is impossible to detect on slit-lamp examination without a gonioscopic view. Proper imaging and a specific management are mandatory in order to achieve favorable outcome.

  3. Narrow-angle astrometry with PRIMA

    CERN Document Server

    Sahlmann, J; Mérand, A; Zimmerman, N; Abuter, R; Chazelas, B; Delplancke, F; Henning, T; Kaminski, A; Köhler, R; Launhardt, R; Mohler, M; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Quirrenbach, A; Reffert, S; Schmid, C; Schuhler, N; Schulze-Hartung, T

    2012-01-01

    The Extrasolar Planet Search with PRIMA project (ESPRI) aims at characterising and detecting extrasolar planets by measuring the host star's reflex motion using the narrow-angle astrometry capability of the PRIMA facility at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer. A first functional demonstration of the astrometric mode was achieved in early 2011. This marked the start of the astrometric commissioning phase with the purpose of characterising the instrument's performance, which ultimately has to be sufficient for exoplanet detection. We show results obtained from the observation of bright visual binary stars, which serve as test objects to determine the instrument's astrometric precision, its accuracy, and the plate scale. Finally, we report on the current status of the ESPRI project, in view of starting its scientific programme.

  4. Analyzing angle crashes at unsignalized intersections using machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Haleem, Kirolos

    2011-01-01

    A recently developed machine learning technique, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), is introduced in this study to predict vehicles' angle crashes. MARS has a promising prediction power, and does not suffer from interpretation complexity. Negative Binomial (NB) and MARS models were fitted and compared using extensive data collected on unsignalized intersections in Florida. Two models were estimated for angle crash frequency at 3- and 4-legged unsignalized intersections. Treating crash frequency as a continuous response variable for fitting a MARS model was also examined by considering the natural logarithm of the crash frequency. Finally, combining MARS with another machine learning technique (random forest) was explored and discussed. The fitted NB angle crash models showed several significant factors that contribute to angle crash occurrence at unsignalized intersections such as, traffic volume on the major road, the upstream distance to the nearest signalized intersection, the distance between successive unsignalized intersections, median type on the major approach, percentage of trucks on the major approach, size of the intersection and the geographic location within the state. Based on the mean square prediction error (MSPE) assessment criterion, MARS outperformed the corresponding NB models. Also, using MARS for predicting continuous response variables yielded more favorable results than predicting discrete response variables. The generated MARS models showed the most promising results after screening the covariates using random forest. Based on the results of this study, MARS is recommended as an efficient technique for predicting crashes at unsignalized intersections (angle crashes in this study). PMID:21094345

  5. Interrogative Suggestibility in an Adolescent Forensic Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-five juvenile offenders in residential care completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and their scores were matched for IQ and memory with those of 60 adult offenders. The juveniles gave in significantly more to interrogative pressure through negative feedback but were no more yielding to leading questions than adults. (JPS)

  6. Teaching Software Engineering: Problems and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching Software Engineering is a challenging task. This paper presents some problems encountered during teaching the course of software engineering to computer science and computer engineering students for few offerings. We present problems encountered and which are related to its title and contents and present suggested solutions.

  7. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  8. Suggested Universals in the Ontogenesis of Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobin, Dan I.

    This paper represents a preliminary attempt to determine universals of grammatical development in children. On the basis of language acquisition data, a limited number of findings are presented in the form of suggested developmental universals. These universals are grouped according to the psychological variables which may determine them, in the…

  9. Suggestions on Training MTI Translators and Interpreters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩

    2013-01-01

    This article gives a brief review of the current state of training MTI translators and interpreters.After analyzing the problems that exist in course of the training,the author,as a student of MTI,puts forth some suggestions to improve the MTI training in colleges and universities to train practical translators and interpreters from the point of view of learning.

  10. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  11. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  12. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  13. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  14. Teaching Software Engineering: Problems and Suggestions

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Shata

    2011-01-01

    Teaching Software Engineering is a challenging task. This paper presents some problems encountered during teaching the course of software engineering to computer science and computer engineering students for few offerings. We present problems encountered and which are related to its title and contents and present suggested solutions.

  15. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  16. Comparison of the Forward Head Angle and the Lumbar Flexion and Rotation Angles of Computer Workers Using Routine and Individually Fixed Computer Workstations

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the forward head angle and the lumbar flexion and rotation angles of computer workers using routine and fixed computer workstations. [Subjects] Ten male workers voluntarily consented to participate in the study. [Methods] A 3-D motion analysis system was used to measure the angles of the forward head and lumbar flexion. All subjects performed computer work for 30 minutes using both types of workstation. [Results] When working at the fixed workstation, the forward...

  17. A case of right cerebellopontine-angle lesion: psychotic symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min Soo; Lee, Byung Dae; Park, Je Min; Lee, Young Min; Moon, Eun Soo

    2012-09-01

    Here, we report psychotic symptoms together with a right cerebellopontine-angle lesion. A37-year-old female patient presented with a trigeminal Schwannoma occupying the right cerebellopontine angle. Her psychotic symptoms included auditory hallucinations and delusions of persecution. T1- and T2-weighted images on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hyperintense and hypointense areas in the right cerebellopontine angle, respectively. The clinical and neuroimaging reviews in this case suggest that sudden onset of psychotic symptoms at a mature age may be associated with a right cerebellopontine-angle lesion and that MRI should be used to evaluate possible organic bases in patients that present with psychosis. PMID:22993532

  18. Edge effects in angle-ply composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, P. W.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a zeroth-order solution for edge effects in angle-ply composite laminates obtained using perturbation techniques and a limiting free body approach. The general solution for edge effects in laminates of arbitrary angle ply is applied to the special case of a (+ or - 45)s graphite/epoxy laminate. Interlaminar stress distributions are obtained as a function of the laminate thickness-to-width ratio and compared to finite difference results. The solution predicts stable, continuous stress distributions, determines finite maximum tensile interlaminar normal stress and provides mathematical evidence for singular interlaminar shear stresses in (+ or - 45) graphite/epoxy laminates.

  19. Femoral Neck Shaft Angle in Men with Fragility Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Tuck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Femoral neck shaft angle (NSA has been reported to be an independent predictor of hip fracture risk in men. We aimed to assess the role of NSA in UK men. Methods. The NSA was measured manually from the DXA scan printout in men with hip (62, 31 femoral neck and 31 trochanteric, symptomatic vertebral (91, and distal forearm (67 fractures and 389 age-matched control subjects. Age, height, weight, and BMD (g/cm2: lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur measurements were performed. Results. There was no significant difference in mean NSA between men with femoral neck and trochanteric hip fractures, so all further analyses of hip fractures utilised the combined data. There was no difference in NSA between those with hip fractures and those without (either using the combined data or analysing trochanteric and femoral neck shaft fractures separately, nor between fracture subjects as a whole and controls. Mean NSA was smaller in those with vertebral fractures (129.2° versus 131°: P=0.001, but larger in those with distal forearm fractures (129.8° versus 128.5°: P=0.01. Conclusions. The conflicting results suggest that femoral NSA is not an important determinant of hip fracture risk in UK men.

  20. Doppler angle correction in the measurement of intrarenal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mennitt K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Jing Gao¹, Keith Hentel¹, Qiang Zhu², Teng Ma², George Shih¹, Kevin Mennitt¹, Robert Min¹¹Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College, NY, USA; ²Division of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, ChinaBackground: The aim of this study was to assess differences in intrarenal artery Doppler parameters measured without and with Doppler angle correction.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed color duplex sonography in 30 normally functioning kidneys (20 native kidneys in 10 subjects and 10 transplanted kidneys in 10 subjects performed between January 26, 2010 and July 26, 2010. There were 10 age-matched men and10 age-matched women (mean 39.8 ± 12.2, range 21–60 years in this study. Depending on whether the Doppler angle was corrected in the spectral Doppler measurement, Doppler parameters including peak systolic velocity (PSV, end-diastolic velocity (EDV, and resistive index (RI measured at the interlobar artery of the kidney were divided into two groups, ie, initial Doppler parameters measured without Doppler angle correction (Group 1 and remeasured Doppler parameters with Doppler angle correction (Group 2. Values for PSV, EDV, and RI measured without Doppler angle correction were compared with those measured with Doppler angle correction, and were analyzed statistically with a paired-samples t-test.Results: There were statistical differences in PSV and EDV at the interlobar artery in the upper, mid, and lower poles of the kidney between Group 1 and Group 2 (all P < 0.001. PSV and EDV in Group 1 were significantly lower than in Group 2. RI in Group 1 was the same as that in Group 2 in the upper, mid, and lower poles of the kidneys.Conclusion: Doppler angle correction plays an important role in the accurate measurement of intrarenal blood flow velocity. The true flow velocity converted from the maximum Doppler velocity shift

  1. Analysis of microstructural changes in irradiated pressure vessel steels using small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) has been used to investigate the influence of Cu, Ni and P on radiation hardening and embrittlement in neutron irradiated ferritic steels. Micro-structural features 23 n m-2 (E>1MeV) and temperatures 1800C-2900C. The analysis suggests two hardening components, one independent of Cu content and one dependent on Cu content >approx. 0.1 wt %. The results are discussed in terms of the precipitation of copper or copper-rich particles containing Fe, Ni or vacancies. (UK)

  2. Dynamical deformed Airy beams with arbitrary angles between two wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Hu, Yi; Ye, Zhuoyi; Song, Daohong; Lou, Cibo; Zhang, Xinzheng; Xu, Jingjun; Morandotti, Roberto; Chen, Zhigang

    2014-07-01

    We study both numerically and experimentally the acceleration and propagation dynamics of 2D Airy beams with arbitrary initial angles between their "two wings." Our results show that the acceleration of these generalized 2D Airy beams strongly depends on the initial angles and cannot be simply described by the vector superposition principle (except for the normal case of a 90° angle). However, as a result of the "Hyperbolic umbilic" catastrophe (a two-layer caustic), the main lobes of these 2D Airy beams still propagate along parabolic trajectories even though they become highly deformed. Under such conditions, the peak intensity (leading energy flow) of the 2D Airy beams cannot be confined along the main lobe, in contrast to the normal 90° case. Instead, it is found that there are two parabolic trajectories describing the beam propagation: one for the main lobe, and the other for the peak intensity. Both trajectories can be readily controlled by varying the initial wing angle. Due to their self-healing property, these beams tend to evolve into the well-known 1D or 2D Airy patterns after a certain propagation distance. The theoretical analysis corroborates our experimental observations, and explains clearly why the acceleration of deformed Airy beams increases with the opening of the initial wing angle. PMID:25121433

  3. Determination of refractive index of various materials on Brewster angle

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhonov, Eugene A

    2015-01-01

    Studied experimentally the origin of the non-zero reflection of p-polarized radiation (TM) of Brewster's angle. The results have shown the residual reflected light in the vicinity of Brewster angle occurs due to inaccessibility 100% polarization degree the incident linearly-polarized radiation and installation of the zero azimuthal angle. These factors create the s-component of the radiation reflected from the examined surface indeed. A smooth change of reflected light polarization in the vicinity of Brewster angle in the sequence p-s-p appears due to the changing power proportion of reflected p-, and s-components but not is the result of the atomically thin transitional layer at the border of the material/environment according to Drude model. Metrological aspects of refractive index measurement by Brewster angle are investigated: due to the above-mentioned factors, as well as due to the contribution of the reflected scattered light caused by on residual roughness of the optical surface. Advantages of Brewste...

  4. Simple nonlinear models suggest variable star universality

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, John F; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G; Ditto, William L

    2015-01-01

    Dramatically improved data from observatories like the CoRoT and Kepler spacecraft have recently facilitated nonlinear time series analysis and phenomenological modeling of variable stars, including the search for strange (aka fractal) or chaotic dynamics. We recently argued [Lindner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 054101] that the Kepler data includes "golden" stars, whose luminosities vary quasiperiodically with two frequencies nearly in the golden ratio, and whose secondary frequencies exhibit power-law scaling with exponent near -1.5, suggesting strange nonchaotic dynamics and singular spectra. Here we use a series of phenomenological models to make plausible the connection between golden stars and fractal spectra. We thereby suggest that at least some features of variable star dynamics reflect universal nonlinear phenomena common to even simple systems.

  5. Small solid angle device setup and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To quantize the weight of Uranium-plate accurately, the small solid angle device was redesigned. To fit the requirement of homogeneity check, the sliding base was introduced in the design. This paper presents the detailed application of small solid angle device setup and quantization of Uranium-plate and homogeneity check. (authors)

  6. Constructing euclidean simplex with prescribed dihedral angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given 1/2n (n + 1) dihedral angles, what is the condition under which there exists an n-dimensional simplex with the prescribed dihedral angles? A complete solution for this problem is given with application demonstrated. (author). 3 refs

  7. Penetrator strength effect in long-rod critical ricochet angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3D numerical simulations were performed in order to further investigate the role of penetrator strength in the interaction of long-rods and oblique targets. Three distinctive regimes resulting from oblique impact depending on the obliquity, namely simple ricochet, critical ricochet and target perforation, were investigated in detail. Critical ricochet angles were calculated with a full 3D explicit finite element method for various impact velocities and strength of target plates and projectiles. Numerical predictions were compared with existing two-dimensional analytical models and test results. It was predicted that critical ricochet angle increases with decreasing impact velocity and that higher ricochet angles were expected if higher strength target materials are employed. But there are differences between analytical models and 3D numerical simulation results or test results. The causes for these discrepancies are established by numerical simulations which explore the validity of the penetrator strength parameter in the analytical model as a physical entity. As a matter of fact, in this paper we first investigate the role of penetrator dynamic strength using two-dimensional simulation which resulted in different penetrator strengths out of different impact velocities. Next, by applying these amounts for penetrator strength in Rosenberg analytical model the critical ricochet angle is calculated. Finally, a comparison between the present analytical method with the 3D simulation and test results shows that the new analytical approach leads to modified results with respect to Rosenberg ones

  8. Flow tilt angles near forest edges - Part 1: Sonic anemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Mann, Jakob; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg

    2010-01-01

    -sets. These features of the investigated sonic anemometers make them unsuitable for measuring vertical velocities over highly turbulent forested terrain. By comparing the sonic anemometer results to that of a conically scanning Doppler lidar (Dellwik et al., 2010b), sonic anemometer accuracy for measuring...... mean flow tilt angles was estimated to between 2° and 3°. Use of planar fit algorithms, where the mean vertical velocity is calculated as the difference between the neutral and non-neutral flow, does not solve this problem of low accuracy and is not recommended. Because of the large uncertainties...... caused by flow distortion and vertical alignment, it was only possible to a limited extent to relate sonic anemometer flow tilt angles to upwind forest edges, but the results by the lidar indicated that an internal boundary layer affect flow tilt angles at 21m above the forest. This is in accordance with...

  9. Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy: a suggestive electroclinical pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Nabbout, R; Soufflet, C; Plouin, P; Dulac, O

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To determine if there is an electroencephalographic pattern suggestive of pyridoxine dependent epilepsy that could be used to improve the chances of early diagnosis.
METHODS—A retrospective study was made of all the clinical records and electroencephalograms of neonates identified with pyridoxine dependent seizures between 1983 and 1994, at this hospital. Neonates whose seizures began after more than 28 days of life were excluded; in all, five patients from four fami...

  10. Farming Management in Pakistan: Suggested Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Herani, Gobind; Wasim, Mohammad Pervez; Rajar, Allah Wasayo; Shaikh, Riaz Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper an attempt has been made to identify types of farming in deserted district Tharparkar, Pakistan and suggest the techniques for improvement. Study reveals that in Tharparkar farming is of three types: rain-fed agriculture (crops), livestock and use of rangeland (no-crops). Situation of rain-fed agriculture is very bad because of fluctuation in amount of rainfall year to year. Livestock is sustainable source of income generation and use of rangeland is also beneficial. F...

  11. Application for Suggesting Restaurants Using Clustering Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Alexandra IANCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an application whose purpose is to make suggestions of restaurants to users. The application uses as input the descriptions of restaurants, reviews, user reviews available on the specialized Internet sites and blogs. In the application there are used processing techniques of natural language implemented using parsers, clustering algorithms and techniques for data collection from the Internet through web crawlers.

  12. REPERTORY SUGGESTIONS CONCERNING VIRTUOSITY IN KEMANCHA

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Filiz

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to stress the importance of the virtuosity in Turkish Music and to propose repertory suggestions concerning virtuosity in four-stringed kemancha. Research universe consists of faculties providing kemancha education in Turkey, TRT Radio, Ministry of Culture and Tourism state choirs and people working in private organizations. Sampling of this study consist of 11(eleven) people of various professions such as experts, researches, artists and scholars who participated in this...

  13. Determination of velocity vector angles using the directional cross-correlation method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    A method for determining both velocity magnitude and angle in any direction is suggested. The method uses focusing along the velocity direction and cross-correlation for finding the correct velocity magnitude. The angle is found from beamforming directional signals in a number of directions and...... then select the angle with the highest normalized correlation between directional signals. The approach is investigated using Field II simulations and data from the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS and with a parabolic flow having a peak velocity of 0.3 m/s. A 7 MHz linear array transducer is...... ( correlation-time ) between signals to correlate, and a proper choice varies with flow angle and flow velocity. One performance example is given with a fixed value of k tprf for all flow angles. The angle estimation on measured data for flow at 60 ◦ to 90 ◦ , yields a probability of valid estimates between 68...

  14. Estimation of velocity vector angles using the directional cross-correlation method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    A method for determining both velocity magnitude and angle in any direction is suggested. The method uses focusing along the velocity direction and cross-correlation for finding the correct velocity magnitude. The angle is found from beamforming directional signals in a number of directions and...... then select the angle with the highest normalized correlation between directional signals. The approach is investigated using Field II simulations and data from the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS and a circulating flow rig with a parabolic flow having a peak velocity of 0.3 m/s. A 7 MHz linear...... estimated with a high precision. The angle estimation performance is highly dependent on the choice of the time ktprf Tprf (correlation-time) between signals to correlate. One performance example is given with a fixed value of ktprf for all flow angles. The angle estimation on measured data for flow at 60...

  15. Correlation of non-traumatic neck pain with cervical angle and shoulder retractor power in adult clerical population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Avadhut Godbole

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A forward head posture (or chin poking is perhaps the most common abnormality associated with NP and is commonly defined as the protrusion of the head in the sagittal plane so that the head is placed anterior to the trunk. Forward head posture can occur because of an anterior translation of the head, lower cervical flexion, or both, and it is claimed to be associated with an increase in upper-cervical extension. It is suggested that forward head posture leads to an increase in the compressive forces on the cervical apophyseal joints and posterior part of the vertebra and to changes in connective tissue length and strength (because of stretching of the anterior structures of the neck and shortening of the posterior muscles resulting in pain. The objective of the study was to correlate neck pain with cervical angle and shoulder retractor power in non-traumatic neck pain patients. Methods: 50 clerical workers having non traumatic neck pain were included. Neck pain was measured on VAS, cervical angle was measured using photometric method and shoulder retractor power was measured. Results: VAS showed moderate positive correlation with cervical angles (0.63 and 0.72 and moderate negative correlation with shoulder retractor power (-0.59 and -0.71. A moderate positive correlation of craniocervical angle to VAS seen (0.66 whereas there was negative correlation with shoulder retractors I and II (-0.59 and -0.61 A positive correlation was seen between VAS and craniocervical angle but is moderately negative with shoulder retractors I (Rhomboids and II (Middle trapezius (0.78, 0.04, -0.69 and -0.64. Conclusion: A moderate increase in cranio vertebral and craniocervical angle showed plausible weakness in lower Trapezius and rhomboids among clerks` having Non-traumatic neck pain. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 859-862

  16. Supracondylar Osteotomy in Valgus Knee: Angle Blade Plate Versus Locking Compression Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Seyyed Morteza; Minaei, Reza; Safdari, Farshad; Keipourfard, Ali; Forghani, Rozhin; Mirzapourshafiei, Alemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are few studies comparing the biomechanical properties of angled blade plate and locking compression plates in supracondylar osteotomy. In the current randomized study, we prospectively compared the clinical and radiological outcomes of supracondylar osteotomy using these two plates. Methods: Forty patients with valgus knee malalignment were randomly assigned to two equal numbered groups: angled blade plate and locking compression plates. All of the patients underwent medial closing wedge supracondylar osteotomy and were followed for one year. Before and after the operation the valgus angle and mechanical lateral distal femoral angle were compared between groups. Also, the rate of complications were compared. Results: After the operation, the mean valgus angle and mechanical lateral distal femoral angle improved significantly in the two groups (P<0.001). Although, the preoperative amount of the valgus angle and mechanical lateral distal femoral angle were the same, at the last visit the valgus angle (5.4±2.1 versus 3.1±1.8; P=0.032) and mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (87.6±2 versus 89.7±3.2; P=0.041) were significantly lower and higher in the angled blade plate group, respectively. Nonunion occurred in four patients (20%) in the locking compression plates group (P=0.35). Conclusion: Based on having a larger valgus angle and mechanical lateral distal femoral angle correction in the angled blade plate group and considerable rate of nonunion in the locking compression plate group, the authors recommend using the angled blade plate for fixation of medial closing wedge supracondylar osteotomy for patients with valgus malalignment. However, more long-term studies are required. PMID:26894215

  17. Small angle neutron scattering and small angle X-ray scattering studies of platinum-loaded carbon foams

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P U Sastry; V K Aswal; A G Wagh

    2008-11-01

    The morphology of carbon nanofoam samples comprising platinum nanoparticles dispersed in the matrix was characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results show that the structure of pores of carbon matrix exhibits a mass (pore) fractal nature and the average radius of the platinum particles is about 2.5 nm. The fractal dimension as well as the size distribution parameters of platinum particles varies markedly with the platinum content and annealing temperature. Transmission electron micrographs of the samples corroborate the SANS and SAXS results.

  18. Apparent Contact Angle and Contact Angle Hysteresis on Liquid Infused Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Semprebon, Ciro; McHale, Glen; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis of a droplet placed on a liquid infused surface. We show that the apparent contact angle is not uniquely defined by material parameters, but also has a strong dependence on the relative size between the droplet and its surrounding wetting ridge formed by the infusing liquid. We derive a closed form expression for the contact angle in the limit of vanishing wetting ridge, and compute the correction for small b...

  19. Burner tilting angle effect on velocity profile in 700 MW Utility Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munisamy, K. M.; Yusoff, M. Z.; Thangaraju, S. K.; Hassan, H.; Ahmad, A.

    2015-09-01

    700 MW of utility boiler is investigated with manipulation of inlet burner angle. Manipulation of burner titling angle is an operational methodology in controlling rear pass temperature in utility boilers. The rear pass temperature unbalance between right and left side is a problem caused by fouling and slagging of the ash from the coal fired boilers. This paper presents the CFD investigation on the 0° and -30° of the burner angle of the utility boiler. The results focusing on the velocity profile. The design condition of 0° burner firing angle is compared with the off-design burner angle -30° which would be the burner angle to reduce the rear pass temperature un-balance by boiler operators. It can be concluded that the -30° burner angle reduce the turbulence is fire ball mixing inside the furnace. It also shift the fire ball position in the furnace to reduce the rear pass temperature.

  20. Suggestions about Taxi Service in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2006-01-01

    @@ No matter what kinds1 of work we are engaged in, we usually play the role of the customers2 in life. Maybe we offer service to our clients, but at the same time, we get service from other people. So, to the society3, it is very important of the level of the service occupations4. In this essay, I want to talk about the service of the taxi in Beijing5. Because there are some problems in this service occupation, I will give three suggestions to these problems6.

  1. Didactic Experiments Suggest Enhanced Learning Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses a didactic experiment carried out at an MA programme at The Copenhagen Business School. The experiment aimed at encouraging students to take charge of their learning processes via a course programme design that would motivate students to take an active part in choosing and...... presenting material in the language studied, just as they were encouraged to systematically use evaluation processes to enhance learning outcomes. Eventually, increased grade point averages suggested that the experiment was successful. The article also mentions subsequent revisions to the original format and...

  2. Guidelines and Suggestions for Balloon Gondola Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility is responsible for ensuring that science payloads meet the appropriate design requirements. The ultimate goal is to ensure that payloads stay within the allowable launch limits as well as survive the termination event. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some general guidelines for Gondola Design. These include rules and reasons on why CSBF has a certain preference and location for certain components within the gondola as well as other suggestions. Additionally, some recommendations are given on how to avoid common pitfalls.

  3. Nonadiabatic Hannay's Angle of Spin One Half in Grassmannian Version and Invariant Angle Coherent States

    OpenAIRE

    Cherbal, Omar; Maamache, Mustapha; Drir, Mahrez

    2003-01-01

    We propose to determinate the nonadiabatic Hannay’s angle of spin one half in a varying external magnetic field, by using an averaged version of the variational principal. We also show how the evolution and this nonadiabatic Hannay’s angle is associated with the evolution of Grassmannian invariant-angle coherent states.

  4. Placebo-suggestion modulates conflict resolution in the Stroop Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama, Pedro A; Slama, Hichem; Caspar, Emilie A; Gevers, Wim; Cleeremans, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Here, we ask whether placebo-suggestion (without any form of hypnotic induction) can modulate the resolution of cognitive conflict. Naïve participants performed a Stroop Task while wearing an EEG cap described as a "brain wave" machine. In Experiment 1, participants were made to believe that the EEG cap would either enhance or decrease their color perception and performance on the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants were explicitly asked to imagine that their color perception and performance would be enhanced or decreased (non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion). We observed effects of placebo-suggestion on Stroop interference on accuracy: interference was decreased with positive suggestion and increased with negative suggestion compared to baseline. Intra-individual variability was also increased under negative suggestion compared to baseline. Compliance with the instruction to imagine a modulation of performance, on the other hand, did not influence accuracy and only had a negative impact on response latencies and on intra-individual variability, especially in the congruent condition of the Stroop Task. Taken together, these results demonstrate that expectations induced by a placebo-suggestion can modulate our ability to resolve cognitive conflict, either facilitating or impairing response accuracy depending on the suggestion's contents. Our results also demonstrate a dissociation between placebo-suggestion and non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion. PMID:24130735

  5. Placebo-suggestion modulates conflict resolution in the Stroop Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama

    Full Text Available Here, we ask whether placebo-suggestion (without any form of hypnotic induction can modulate the resolution of cognitive conflict. Naïve participants performed a Stroop Task while wearing an EEG cap described as a "brain wave" machine. In Experiment 1, participants were made to believe that the EEG cap would either enhance or decrease their color perception and performance on the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants were explicitly asked to imagine that their color perception and performance would be enhanced or decreased (non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion. We observed effects of placebo-suggestion on Stroop interference on accuracy: interference was decreased with positive suggestion and increased with negative suggestion compared to baseline. Intra-individual variability was also increased under negative suggestion compared to baseline. Compliance with the instruction to imagine a modulation of performance, on the other hand, did not influence accuracy and only had a negative impact on response latencies and on intra-individual variability, especially in the congruent condition of the Stroop Task. Taken together, these results demonstrate that expectations induced by a placebo-suggestion can modulate our ability to resolve cognitive conflict, either facilitating or impairing response accuracy depending on the suggestion's contents. Our results also demonstrate a dissociation between placebo-suggestion and non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion.

  6. Analysis of factors affecting angle ANB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussels, W; Nanda, R S

    1984-05-01

    Cephalometric analyses based on angular and linear measurements have obvious fallacies, which have been discussed in detail by Moyers and Bookstein. However, the clinical application of such an analysis by the orthodontic profession in treatment planning is widely accepted. Variations of angle ANB are commonly used to determine relative jaw relationships in most of the cephalometric evaluations. Several authors, including points A and B influences angle ANB, as does rotational growth of the upper and lower jaws. In addition, the authors point out that growth in a vertical direction (distance N to B) and an increase of the dental height (distance A to B) may contribute to changes in angle ANB. For a Class I relation (Wits = 0 mm), a mathematical formula has been developed which enables the authors to study the geometric influence of angle ANB caused by the following four effects: (1) rotation of the jaws and/or occlusal plane relative to the anterior cranial base; (2) anteroposterior position of N relative to point B, (3) vertical growth (distance N to B); (4) increase in dental height (distance A to B). It was observed that, contrary to the common belief that an ANB angle of 2 +/- 3.0 degrees is considered normal for a skeletal Class I relation, the calculated values of angle ANB will vary widely with changes in these four controlling factors under the same skeletal Class I conditions (Wits = 0 mm). Therefore, in a case under consideration, angle ANB must be corrected for these geometric effects in order to get a proper perspective of the skeletal discrepancy. This is facilitated by comparing the measured ANB angle with the corresponding ANB angle calculated by a formula for a Class I relationship. The corresponding calculated angle ANB can be taken from the tables which are based upon the formula using the same values for SNB, omega (angle between occlusal plane and anterior cranial base), b (which is distance N to B) and a (dental height measured as perpendicular

  7. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Wang, Zhiqian; Shen, Chengwu; Wen, Zhuoman; Liu, Shaojin; Cai, Sheng; Li, Jianrong

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendicular to the rotating shaft. The reversal measurement method is applied to decrease the effect of inclinometer drifts caused by temperature, to eliminate inclinometer and rotating shaft mechanical error and inclinometer systematic error to attain high measurement accuracy. The uncertainty estimation shows that the accuracy of rotating shaft tilt angle measurement depends mainly on the inclinometer uncertainty and its uncertainty is almost the same as the inclinometer uncertainty in the simulation. The experimental results indicate that measurement time is 4 seconds; the range of rotating shaft tilt angle is 0.002° and its standard deviation is 0.0006° using NS-5/P2 inclinometer, whose precision and resolution are ±0.01° and 0.0005°, respectively.

  8. Epidemiological characterization of primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Rosario Díaz Alfonso

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary open-angle glaucoma is a problem for public health all over the world. It is a silent and slowly progressive disease leading to blindness. In most patients this can be prevented if the risk factors leading to the disease are detected in time. Objective: To describe some epidemiological factors of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: Clinical, epidemiological, prospective and longitudinal study in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma who attended the glaucoma consultation of the Provincial General University Hospital "Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima" of Cienfuegos, from January to February 2009. The following variables were analyzed: age, sex, family and personal medical history, toxic habits and time of diagnosis of the disease. Results: There was prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (87, 5% mostly in females (53, 6% and patients over 61 years old as well as in white skinned patients (52 and 62% respectively. Hypertension was the leading entity referred to as pathological personal and family antecedent (62 and 42% respectively. Glaucoma and myopia predominated as previous eye history. The most frequent toxic habits were the consumption of more than 2 cups of coffee a day (53% and smoking (32%. The largest amount of patients had more than 5 years evolution of the disease. Conclusions: Primary open-angle glaucoma occurred mainly in female patients and those with a history

  9. Scattering-angle based filtering of the waveform inversion gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-11-22

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach to maneuver the complex non-linearity associated with the problem of velocity update. In anisotropic media, the non-linearity becomes far more complex with the potential trade-off between the multiparameter description of the model. A gradient filter helps us in accessing the parts of the gradient that are suitable to combat the potential non-linearity and parameter trade-off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which the low scattering angle of the gradient update is initially muted out in the FWI implementation, in what we may refer to as a scattering angle continuation process. The result is a low wavelength update dominated by the transmission part of the update gradient. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce vertically near-zero wavenumber updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Relaxing the filtering at a later stage in the FWI implementation allows for smaller scattering angles to contribute higher-resolution information to the model. The benefits of the extended domain based filtering of the gradient is not only it\\'s ability in providing low wavenumber gradients guided by the scattering angle, but also in its potential to provide gradients free of unphysical energy that may correspond to unrealistic scattering angles.

  10. THE BEHAVIOR OF THE PITCH ANGLE OF SPIRAL ARMS DEPENDING ON OPTICAL WAVELENGTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on integral field spectroscopy data from the CALIFA survey, we investigate the possible dependence of spiral arm pitch angle with optical wavelength. For three of the five studied objects, the pitch angle gradually increases at longer wavelengths. This is not the case for two objects where the pitch angle remains constant. This result is confirmed by the analysis of SDSS data. We discuss the possible physical mechanisms to explain this phenomenon, as well as the implications of the results

  11. Penetration and impact resistance of PDC cutters inclined at different attack angles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to develop a rotary-percussive bit with diamond-enhanced cutters assisted by high pressure water jets,it is necessary to study the damage mechanism and the penetration properties of PDC cutters subject to different impactload level and rock types. Therefore the impact experiments of the single PDC cutters with different attack angles in fourrocks: black basalt, Missouri red granite, Halston limestone, and a very soft (Roubidoux) sandstone were carried out,and the effects of rake angles of PDC cutters on both the penetration and impact resistance of PDC cutters have been discussed in detail. Test results show that a PDC insert can withstand a very strong impact in compression but is easily damaged by impact shearing, the PDC cutters are more easily damaged by shearing if the attack angles are relatively small, the45 PDC cutters have the least penetration resistance among the cutters tested. Thus it is suggested that the attack anglesof PDC cutters should be larger than 30 for bits which must withstand impact from a hammer

  12. CKM angle $\\gamma$ from LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Smith, Jackson

    2015-01-01

    Results of the latest $\\gamma$ combination from LHCb are presented, along with the six LHCb measurements used as inputs. In addition, the anticipated precision attainable for measuring $\\gamma$ after the LHCb Upgrade is outlined

  13. Demonstration of angle-dependent Casimir force between corrugations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banishev, A A; Wagner, J; Emig, T; Zandi, R; Mohideen, U

    2013-06-21

    The normal Casimir force between a sinusoidally corrugated gold coated plate and a sphere was measured at various angles between the corrugations using an atomic force microscope. A strong dependence on the orientation angle of the corrugation is found. The measured forces were found to deviate from the proximity force approximation and are in agreement with the theory based on the gradient expansion including correlation effects of geometry and material properties. We analyze the role of temperature. The obtained results open new opportunities for control of the Casimir effect in micromechanical systems. PMID:23829717

  14. Angle of Arrival Detection with Fifth Order Phase Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Khmou, Youssef

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a fifth order propagator operators are proposed for estimating the Angles Of Arrival (AOA) of narrowband electromagnetic waves impinging on antenna array when its number of sensors is larger than the number of radiating sources. The array response matrix is partitioned into five linearly dependent phases to construct the noise projector using five different propagators from non diagonal blocks of the spectral matrice of the received data; hence, five different estimators are proposed to estimate the angles of the sources. The simulation results proved the performance of the proposed estimators in the presence of white noise comparatively to high resolution eigen based spectra.

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SIZE OF PONTOCEREBELLAR ANGLE TUMOR AND AUDIOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the size ofpontocerebellar angle tumor and audiology.Methods: Retrospective analysis of accoustically evoked brainstem response (ABR) waveforms and pure tone threshold in 27 subjects with tumor of pontocerebellar angle.Results: ABR wave forms and pure tone threshold were significantly affected statistically by the size of tumors,especially those tumor larger than 3 cm in diameter.Conclusion: The primary symptom of the patient was unilateral hearing loss.Early discovery of the lesion is important and ABR is a sensitive tool for early diagnose of the tumor.

  16. Structure and Inclination Angle of the Spiral Galaxy M31

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun

    2001-01-01

    The mathematical form, the symmetry of the spiral structure, and the projection of the galactic disc on the image of the spiral galaxy M31 have been directly studied. It is found that M31 has two symmetric arms, i.e. the pitch angles of the two arms are nearly equal; these are 7.7° and 8.0°, respectively. Using the method proposed in this letter, the inclination angle of the galactic disc ofM31 is also obtained, which is 77.5° and is in good agreement with previously published results.

  17. Fractal dimension and unscreened angles measured for radial viscous fingering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praud, Olivier; Swinney, Harry L

    2005-07-01

    We have examined fractal patterns formed by the injection of air into oil in a thin (0.127 mm) layer contained between two cylindrical glass plates of 288 mm diameter (a Hele-Shaw cell), for pressure differences in the range 0.25 DLA) clusters. We have also measured the probability distribution of unscreened angles. At late times, the distribution approaches a universal (i.e., forcing and size-independent) asymptotic form that has mean 145 degrees Celsius and standard deviation 36 degrees Celsius. These results indicate that the distribution function for the unscreened angle is an invariant property of the growth process. PMID:16089960

  18. A Study of Radiation Incidence Angle in Anteroposterior Cervical Vertebra Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    cervical vertebra, OID, axis angle, and FID, all of them were shown to have correlations with the incidence angle (p<.01). Conclusively, it was shown that the incidence angle was measured differently from average length of cervical vertebra, OID, FID, and axis slope, as well as from age and sex. Therefore, it can be suggested that the anteroposterior radiation test for cervical vertebra should be conducted by different incidence angles based on age and sex. The data of this study may be used as reference in determining the incidence angle of cervical vertebra tests for the future.

  19. A Study of Radiation Incidence Angle in Anteroposterior Cervical Vertebra Examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeung, Seung Woon; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang; Joo, Yeong Cheol; Park, Mi Ja [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Beon Hee [Dept. of Radiological Science, Seonam University, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    of cervical vertebra, OID, axis angle, and FID, all of them were shown to have correlations with the incidence angle (p<.01). Conclusively, it was shown that the incidence angle was measured differently from average length of cervical vertebra, OID, FID, and axis slope, as well as from age and sex. Therefore, it can be suggested that the anteroposterior radiation test for cervical vertebra should be conducted by different incidence angles based on age and sex. The data of this study may be used as reference in determining the incidence angle of cervical vertebra tests for the future.

  20. Corner detection using arc length-based angle estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizheng; Yang, Dan; Huang, Sheng; Zhang, Xiaohong; Qu, Ying; Tu, Liyun; Ren, Zemin

    2015-11-01

    We present a corner-detection method named arc length-based angle estimator (AAE). Different from most of the existing approaches, AAE focuses on employing angle detection for finding corners, because angle is an important measure for discrete curvature. AAE provides a new robust solution to the estimation of the K-cosine. In AAE, the K-cosine estimation issue in the x, y space is considered as the problem of the slope estimations in the s, x and s, y spaces, where s is the arc length. Then, weighted least square fitting is employed to address such a slope estimation issue. Experimental results demonstrate that AAE can achieve promising performance in comparison with some recent state-of-the-art approaches under two commonly used evaluation metrics, namely average repeatability and localization error criteria.

  1. Neutrino Mixing Angles in Sequential Dominance to NLO and NNLO

    CERN Document Server

    Antusch, S; King, S F

    2010-01-01

    Neutrinos with hierarchical masses and two large mixing angles may naturally originate from sequential dominance (SD). Within this framework we present analytic expressions for the neutrino mixing angles including the next-to-leading order (NLO) and next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) corrections arising from the second lightest and lightest neutrino masses. The analytic results for neutrino mixing angles in SD presented here, including the NLO and NNLO corrections, are applicable to a wide class of models and may provide useful insights when confronting the models with data from high precision neutrino experiments. We also point out that for special cases of SD corresponding to form dominance (FD) the NLO and NNLO corrections both vanish. For example we study tri-bimaximal (TB) mixing via constrained sequential dominance (CSD) which involves only a NNLO correction and tri-bimaximal-reactor (TBR) mixing via partially constrained sequential dominance (PCSD) which involves a NLO correction suppressed by the sm...

  2. Analysis of a Low-Angle Annular Expander Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyll Schomberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical analysis of a low-angle annular expander nozzle is presented to observe the variance in shock structure within the flow field. A RANS-based axisymmetric numerical model was used to evaluate flow characteristics and the model validated using experimental pressure readings and schlieren images. Results were compared with an equivalent converging-diverging nozzle to determine the capability of the wake region in varying the effective area of a low-angle design. Comparison of schlieren images confirmed that shock closure occurred in the expander nozzle, prohibiting the wake region from affecting the area ratio. The findings show that a low angle of deflection is inherently unable to influence the effective area of an annular supersonic nozzle design.

  3. Orientation angle and the adhesion of single gecko setae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ginel C; Soto, Daniel R; Peattie, Anne M; Full, Robert J; Kenny, T W

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the effects of orientation angle on the adhesion of single gecko setae using dual-axis microelectromechanical systems force sensors to simultaneously detect normal and shear force components. Adhesion was highly sensitive to the pitch angle between the substrate and the seta's stalk. Maximum lateral adhesive force was observed with the stalk parallel to the substrate, and adhesion decreased smoothly with increasing pitch. The roll orientation angle only needed to be roughly correct with the spatular tuft of the seta oriented grossly towards the substrate for high adhesion. Also, detailed measurements were made to control for the effect of normal preload forces. Higher normal preload forces caused modest enhancement of the observed lateral adhesive force, provided that adequate contact was made between the seta and the substrate. These results should be useful in the design and manufacture of gecko-inspired synthetic adhesives with anisotropic properties, an area of substantial recent research efforts. PMID:21288955

  4. The Effect of the Phase Angle between the Forewing and Hindwing on the Aerodynamic Performance of a Dragonfly-Type Ornithopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Takahashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dragonflies achieve agile maneuverability by flapping four wings independently. Different phase angles between the flapping forewing and hindwing have been observed during various flight modes. The aerodynamic performance depends on phase angle control, as exemplified by an artificial flying ornithopter. Here, we present a dragonfly-like ornithopter whose phase angle was designed to vary according to the phase lag between the slider-cranks of the forewing and hindwing. Two microelectromechanical systems (MEMS differential pressure sensors were attached to the center of both forewing and hindwing to evaluate the aerodynamic performance during flapping motions when the phase angle was changed. By varying the phase angle in both the tethered condition and free-flight, the performance of the forewing remained approximately constant, whereas that of the hindwing exhibited obvious variations; the maximum average value was two-fold higher than the minimum. The experimental results suggest that simple phase angle changes enable a flying ornithopter to control flight force balance without complex changes in the wing kinematics.

  5. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  6. Extant mammal body masses suggest punctuated equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Tiina M; Bokma, Folmer

    2008-10-01

    Is gradual microevolutionary change within species simultaneously the source of macroevolutionary differentiation between species? Since its first publication, Darwin's original idea that phenotypic differences between species develop gradually over time, as the accumulation of small selection-induced changes in successive generations has been challenged by palaeontologists claiming that, instead, new species quickly acquire their phenotypes to remain virtually unchanged until going extinct again. This controversy, widely known as the 'punctuated equilibrium' debate, remained unresolved, largely owing to the difficulty of distinguishing biological species from fossil remains. We analysed body masses of 2143 existing mammal species on a phylogeny comprising 4510 (i.e. nearly all) extant species to estimate rates of gradual (anagenetic) and speciational (cladogenetic) evolution. Our Bayesian estimates from mammals as well as separate sub-clades such as primates and carnivores suggest that gradual evolution is responsible for only a small part of body size variation between mammal species. PMID:18595835

  7. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul [Cha Women' s Hospital of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Doo [Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-05-15

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies.

  8. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

  9. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Effect of Angle Variation on Water Permeability through Hourglass-Shaped Nanopores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Tang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Water transport through aquaporin water channels occurs extensively in cell membranes. Hourglass-shaped (biconical pores resemble the geometry of these aquaporin channels and therefore attract much research attention. We assumed that hourglass-shaped nanopores are capable of high water permeation like biological aquaporins. In order to prove the assumption, we investigated nanoscale water transport through a model hourglass-shaped pore using molecular dynamics simulations while varying the angle of the conical entrance and the total nanopore length. The results show that a minimal departure from optimized cone angle (e.g., 9° for 30 Å case significantly increases the osmotic permeability and that there is a non-linear relationship between permeability and the cone angle. The analysis of hydrodynamic resistance proves that the conical entrance helps to reduce the hydrodynamic entrance hindrance. Our numerical and analytical results thus confirm our initial assumption and suggest that fast water transport can be achieved by adjusting the cone angle and length of an hourglass-shaped nanopore.

  10. Qualitative criterion for atom sputtering angle distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model is introduced to explain the shape of atom polar emission angle distributions for monocomponent targets sputtered by normally incident keV - energy ions. Analytical expressions are obtained from the model which make it possible to identify three known kinds of the angle distributions - subcosinus, isotropic and supracosinus, for given ion energies and target-ion pairs. Furthermore the fourth, hybrid false-isotropic distribution is found, which is superposition of supracosinus and subcosinus distributions. The theoretical predictions of the angle distributions shape agree with the numerical modeling for sputtering of carbon and platinum by 0.1-10 keV Ar+ ions

  11. The Driven Pendulum at Any Drive Angle

    CERN Document Server

    VanDalen, G J

    2002-01-01

    The driven inverted pendulum undergoes stable oscillations if the drive amplitude and frequency are large enough. This classroom demonstration is best used in junior or graduate level Classical Mechanics courses. This paper reintroduces the equation of motion of the driven pendulum, generalizing to arbitrary driving angle. The pendulum will oscillate about a stable angle, other than straight down, if the drive amplitude and frequency are large enough for a given drive angle. We will explore what is meant by ``large enough.'' Emphasis is given to parameters associated with a simply made demonstration apparatus.

  12. 29 CFR 778.333 - Suggestion system awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (b) The prize represents a bona fide award for a suggestion which is the result of additional effort... that he will not merit promotion or advancement (or retention of his existing job) unless he...

  13. Analysis and design of wide-angle foveated optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatu, George

    2009-12-01

    The development of compact imaging systems capable of transmitting high-resolution images in real-time while covering a wide field-of-view (FOV) is critical in a variety of military and civilian applications: surveillance, threat detection, target acquisition, tracking, remote operation of unmanned vehicles, etc. Recently, optical foveated imaging using liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulators (SLM) has received considerable attention as a potential approach to reducing size and complexity in fast wide-angle lenses. The fundamental concept behind optical foveated imaging is reducing the number of elements in a fast wide-angle lens by placing a phase SLM at the pupil stop to dynamically compensate aberrations left uncorrected by the optical design. In the recent years, considerable research and development has been conducted in the field of optical foveated imaging based on the LC SLM technology, and several foveated optical systems (FOS) prototypes have been built. However, most research has been focused so far on the experimental demonstration of the basic concept using off-the-shelf components, without much concern for the practicality or the optical performance of the systems. Published results quantify only the aberration correction capabilities of the FOS, often claiming diffraction-limited performance at the region of interest (ROI). However, these results have continually overlooked diffraction effects on the zero-order efficiency and the image quality. The research work presented in this dissertation covers the methods and results of a detailed theoretical research study on the diffraction analysis, image quality, design, and optimization of fast wide-angle FOSs based on the current transmissive LC SLM technology. The amplitude and phase diffraction effects caused by the pixelated aperture of the SLM are explained and quantified, revealing fundamental limitations imposed by the current transmissive LC SLM technology. As a part of this study, five

  14. Magnetic Scope Angles for Axions

    CERN Multimedia

    Seife, Charles

    2005-01-01

    After 2 years of staring at the sun, an unconventional "telescope" made from a leftover magnet has returned its first results. Although it hasn't yet found the quarry it was designed to spot - a particle that might or might not exist physicists say the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is beginning to glimpse uncharted territory

  15. Rubber hand illusion affects joint angle perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin V Butz

    Full Text Available The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI is a well-established experimental paradigm. It has been shown that the RHI can affect hand location estimates, arm and hand motion towards goals, the subjective visual appearance of the own hand, and the feeling of body ownership. Several studies also indicate that the peri-hand space is partially remapped around the rubber hand. Nonetheless, the question remains if and to what extent the RHI can affect the perception of other body parts. In this study we ask if the RHI can alter the perception of the elbow joint. Participants had to adjust an angular representation on a screen according to their proprioceptive perception of their own elbow joint angle. The results show that the RHI does indeed alter the elbow joint estimation, increasing the agreement with the position and orientation of the artificial hand. Thus, the results show that the brain does not only adjust the perception of the hand in body-relative space, but it also modifies the perception of other body parts. In conclusion, we propose that the brain continuously strives to maintain a consistent internal body image and that this image can be influenced by the available sensory information sources, which are mediated and mapped onto each other by means of a postural, kinematic body model.

  16. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose &gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets. PMID:27225987

  17. Leishmania major: Parasite Interactions Suggesting Sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Maria Auxiliadora de

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In five experiments, Leishmania (Leishmania major (MRHO/SU/59/P-strain grew poorly when seeded in FYTS medium supplemented with 15% fetal calf serum, but presented several peculiar pairs of promastigotes diametrically opposed and attached at their posterior ends (5.8-13.5%. As seen in Giemsa-stained smears, a ring-like line and/or an enlargement, generally occurred at the parasite junction. A close proximity of nuclei, which sometimes were difficult to distinguish from each other, was also observed at this junction. Several of these pairs appeared to be composed of fused cells in which the nuclei could be apparently fused, as shown by fluorescence microscopy to detect ß-tubulin and DNA, and by scanning electron microscopy. Under other culture conditions these pairs were absent or occurred at very low rates (0.2-2.2%. Such pairs differ markedly from longitudinally dividing cells and resemble those described in two other Leishmania species, as well as in Herpetomonas megaseliae and Phytomonas davidi, suggesting steps of a putative sexual process

  18. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose & gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  19. Suggested use of vaccines in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothydev Kesavadev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has emerged as a disease of major public health importance in India affecting the rich and the poor alike. Conventionally, comprehensive diabetes management is aimed at preventing micro and macro vascular complications. However, morbidity and mortality due to infections are also significant. In developing countries like India, the concept of adult immunization is far from reality. Recently the H1N1 pandemic has triggered the necessity for considering immunization in all age groups for the prevention of vaccine-preventable fatal infectious diseases. Considering the economics of immunization in a developing country, providing free vaccines to all adults may not be a practical solution, although the free universal immunization program for children is in existence for several decades. There is no consensus on the use of vaccines in diabetes subjects in India. However, there are some clinics offering routine pneumococcal, influenza and other vaccinations. Patients with diabetes have a deranged immune system making them more prone for infections. Hospitalization and death due to pneumococcal disease and influenza are higher in diabetes patients. They, like other healthy individuals, have a normal humoral response to vaccination with clinically significant benefits. The American Diabetes Association, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, United Kingdom Guidelines and a number of other scientific organizations have well defined guidelines for vaccination in diabetes. In this article we make some suggestions for clinicians in India, regarding use of vaccines in subjects with diabetes.

  20. Explicit results for the anomalous three point function and non-renormalization theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-loop corrections for the left angle VV A right angle correlator of the singlet axial and vector currents in QCD are calculated in the chiral limit for arbitrary momenta. Explicit calculations confirm the non-renormalization theorems derived recently by Vainshtein [Phys. Lett. B 569 (2003) 187] and Knecht et al. (HEP 0403 (2004) 035). We find that as in the one-loop case also at two loops the left angle VV A right angle correlator has only three independent form-factors instead of four. From the explicit results we observe that the two-loop correction to the bare correlator is equal to the one-loop result times the constant factor C2(R)αs/π in the MS scheme. This holds for the full correlator, for the anomalous longitudinal as well as for the non-anomalous transversal amplitudes. The finite overall αs dependent constant has to be normalized away by renormalizing the axial current according to Witten's algebraic/geometrical constraint on the anomalous Ward identity (left angle VV∂A right angle correlator). Our observations, together with known facts, suggest that in perturbation theory the bare left angle VV A right angle correlator is proportional to the one-loop term to all orders and that the non-renormalization theorem of the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly carries over to the full correlator. (orig.)

  1. The solid angle through the vertical rectangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröer, H.

    We want to determine the solid angle through the vertical rectangle. We use the cosine law for sides and the spherical law of sines. The relation to luminous flux (radiant flux or radiant power) is shown.

  2. The solid angle through the isosceles triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröer, H.

    We want to determine the solid angle through the isosceles triangle. We use the cosine law for sides and the spherical law of sines. The relation to luminous flux(radiant flux or radiant power) is shown.

  3. The solid angle through the inclined rectangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröer, H.

    We want to determine the solid angle through the inclined rectangle. We use the cosine law for sides and the spherical law of sines. The relation to luminous flux(radiant flux or radiant power) is shown.

  4. Low angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical and experimental problems appearing in diffraction experiments at very low angles by several kinds of materials are discussed. The importance of synchrotron radiation in such problems is shown. (L.C.)

  5. SUGGESTED OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR AQUIFER PUMPING TESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been an increased interest in ground water resources throughout the United States. This interest has resulted from a combination of an increase in fund water development for public and domestic use; an increase in mining, agricultural, and industrial activities which mi...

  6. Can pelvis angle be monitored from seat support forces in healthy subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffen, Paul van; Veltink, Peter H; Koopman, Bart F J M

    2009-03-01

    Individuals who cannot functionally reposition themselves often need dynamic seating interventions that change body posture from automatic chair adjustments. Pelvis alignment directly affects sitting posture, and systems that adjust and monitor pelvis angle simultaneously might be applicable to control body posture in sitting. The present study explores whether it is feasible to monitor pelvis angle from seat support forces. Pelvis angle estimation was based on equivalent "two-force member" loading for which pelvis orientation equals the orientation of the equivalent contact force. Theoretical evaluation was done to derive important conditions for practical application. An instrumented wheelchair was developed for experimental validation in healthy subjects. Seat support forces were measured, and mechanical analysis was done to derive the equivalent contact force from which we estimated the pelvis angle. Model analysis showed a significant influence of pelvis mass, hip force, and lumbar torque on the relation between the actual pelvis angle and the predicted pelvis angle. Proper force compensation and minimal lumbar torque seemed important for accurate pelvis angle estimations. Experimental evaluation showed no body postures that involved a clear relation between the pelvis angle and the orientation of the equivalent contact force. Findings suggest that pelvis angle could not be estimated in healthy individuals under the described experimental seating conditions. Validation experiments with impaired individuals must be performed under different seating conditions to provide a better understanding whether the principle is of interest for clinical application. PMID:19154073

  7. Angles between subspaces and their tangents

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Peizhen; Knyazev, Andrew V.

    2012-01-01

    Principal angles between subspaces (PABS) (also called canonical angles) serve as a classical tool in mathematics, statistics, and applications, e.g., data mining. Traditionally, PABS are introduced via their cosines. The cosines and sines of PABS are commonly defined using the singular value decomposition. We utilize the same idea for the tangents, i.e., explicitly construct matrices, such that their singular values are equal to the tangents of PABS, using several approaches: orthonormal and...

  8. Flipped Angles and Phases: A Systematic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, J.; Lopez, J; Nanopoulos, D.; Olive, K.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss systematically the fermion mass and mixing matrices in a generic \\linebreak field-theoretical flipped $SU(5)$ model, with particular applications to neutrino and baryon number-changing physics. We demonstrate that the different quark flavour branching ratios in proton decay are related to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa angles, whereas the lepton flavour branching ratios are undetermined. The light neutrino mixing angles observable via oscillation effects are related to the heavy con...

  9. Automatic learning-based beam angle selection for thoracic IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amit, Guy; Marshall, Andrea [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Purdie, Thomas G., E-mail: tom.purdie@rmp.uhn.ca; Jaffray, David A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2 (Canada); Techna Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Levinshtein, Alex [Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Hope, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Patricia [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2 (Canada); Pekar, Vladimir [Philips Healthcare, Markham, Ontario L6C 2S3 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The treatment of thoracic cancer using external beam radiation requires an optimal selection of the radiation beam directions to ensure effective coverage of the target volume and to avoid unnecessary treatment of normal healthy tissues. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning is a lengthy process, which requires the planner to iterate between choosing beam angles, specifying dose–volume objectives and executing IMRT optimization. In thorax treatment planning, where there are no class solutions for beam placement, beam angle selection is performed manually, based on the planner’s clinical experience. The purpose of this work is to propose and study a computationally efficient framework that utilizes machine learning to automatically select treatment beam angles. Such a framework may be helpful for reducing the overall planning workload. Methods: The authors introduce an automated beam selection method, based on learning the relationships between beam angles and anatomical features. Using a large set of clinically approved IMRT plans, a random forest regression algorithm is trained to map a multitude of anatomical features into an individual beam score. An optimization scheme is then built to select and adjust the beam angles, considering the learned interbeam dependencies. The validity and quality of the automatically selected beams evaluated using the manually selected beams from the corresponding clinical plans as the ground truth. Results: The analysis included 149 clinically approved thoracic IMRT plans. For a randomly selected test subset of 27 plans, IMRT plans were generated using automatically selected beams and compared to the clinical plans. The comparison of the predicted and the clinical beam angles demonstrated a good average correspondence between the two (angular distance 16.8° ± 10°, correlation 0.75 ± 0.2). The dose distributions of the semiautomatic and clinical plans were equivalent in terms of primary target volume

  10. Automatic learning-based beam angle selection for thoracic IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The treatment of thoracic cancer using external beam radiation requires an optimal selection of the radiation beam directions to ensure effective coverage of the target volume and to avoid unnecessary treatment of normal healthy tissues. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning is a lengthy process, which requires the planner to iterate between choosing beam angles, specifying dose–volume objectives and executing IMRT optimization. In thorax treatment planning, where there are no class solutions for beam placement, beam angle selection is performed manually, based on the planner’s clinical experience. The purpose of this work is to propose and study a computationally efficient framework that utilizes machine learning to automatically select treatment beam angles. Such a framework may be helpful for reducing the overall planning workload. Methods: The authors introduce an automated beam selection method, based on learning the relationships between beam angles and anatomical features. Using a large set of clinically approved IMRT plans, a random forest regression algorithm is trained to map a multitude of anatomical features into an individual beam score. An optimization scheme is then built to select and adjust the beam angles, considering the learned interbeam dependencies. The validity and quality of the automatically selected beams evaluated using the manually selected beams from the corresponding clinical plans as the ground truth. Results: The analysis included 149 clinically approved thoracic IMRT plans. For a randomly selected test subset of 27 plans, IMRT plans were generated using automatically selected beams and compared to the clinical plans. The comparison of the predicted and the clinical beam angles demonstrated a good average correspondence between the two (angular distance 16.8° ± 10°, correlation 0.75 ± 0.2). The dose distributions of the semiautomatic and clinical plans were equivalent in terms of primary target volume

  11. LHCb Measurement of the CKM angle $\\gamma$ at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Ali, S

    2014-01-01

    In this poster we present the latest result by the LHCb collaboration in determining the CKM angle $\\gamma$ ($(67.1 \\pm 12)^{\\circ}$). The result is determined by combining several $B \\to Dh$ analyses. Latest results from the decay time dependent $B_{s} \\to D_{s}K$ analysis is also reported, along with a few other decay channels interesting for determination of $\\gamma$ in the future.

  12. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10127910

  13. Primary angle-closure glaucoma: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Carrie; Tawfik, Mohammed A; Waisbourd, Michael; Katz, Leslie J

    2016-05-01

    Primary angle-closure glaucoma is potentially a devastating disease, responsible for half of glaucoma-related blindness worldwide. Angle closure is characterized by appositional approximation or contact between the iris and trabecular meshwork. It tends to develop in eyes with shallow anterior chambers, anteriorly positioned or pushed lenses, and angle crowding. Risk of primary angle-closure glaucoma is high among women, the elderly and the hyperopic, and it is most prevalent in Asia. Investigation into genetic mechanisms of glaucoma inheritance is underway. Diagnosis relies on gonioscopy and may be aided by anterior segment optical coherence tomography and ultrasound biomicroscopy. Treatment is designed to control intraocular pressure while monitoring changes to the angle and optic nerve head. Treatment typically begins with medical management through pressure-reducing topical medications. Peripheral iridotomy is often performed to alleviate pupillary block, while laser iridoplasty has been found effective for mechanisms of closure other than pupillary block, such as plateau iris syndrome. Phacoemulsification, with or without goniosynechialysis, both in eyes with existing cataracts and in those with clear lenses, is thus far a viable treatment alternative. Long-term research currently underway will examine its efficacy in cases of angle closure in early stages of the disease. Endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation is another treatment option, which can be combined with cataract surgery. Trabeculectomy remains effective therapy for more advanced cases. PMID:26119516

  14. [Determination of contact angle of pharmaceutical excipients and regulating effect of surfactants on their wettability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Dong-dong; Li, He-ran; Yang, Bai-xue; Song, Li-na; Liu, Tiao-tiao; Cong, Yu-tang; Li, San-ming

    2015-10-01

    To study the effects of surfactants on wettability of excipients, the contact angles of six types of surfactants on the surface of two common excipients and mixture of three surfactants with excipients were measured using hypsometry method. The results demonstrated that contact angle of water on the surface of excipients was associated with hydrophilcity of excipients. Contact angle was lowered with increase in hydrophilic groups of excipient molecules. The sequence of contact angle from small to large was starch sodium benzoate sodium carboxymethylcellulose sodium alginate < chitosan < hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose angle of excipients, and their abilities to lower contact angle varied. The results of the present study offer a guideline in the formulation design of tablets. PMID:26837184

  15. Contact Angles and Surface Tension of Germanium-Silicon Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croell, A.; Kaiser, N.; Cobb, S.; Szofran, F. R.; Volz, M.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Precise knowledge of material parameters is more and more important for improving crystal growth processes. Two important parameters are the contact (wetting) angle and the surface tension, determining meniscus shapes and surface-tension driven flows in a variety of methods (Czochralski, EFG, floating-zone, detached Bridgman growth). The sessile drop technique allows the measurement of both parameters simultaneously and has been used to measure the contact angles and the surface tension of Ge(1-x)Si(x) (0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1.3) alloys on various substrate materials. Fused quartz, Sapphire, glassy carbon, graphite, SiC, carbon-based aerogel, pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN), AIN, Si3N4, and polycrystalline CVD diamond were used as substrate materials. In addition, the effect of different cleaning procedures and surface treatments on the wetting behavior were investigated. Measurements were performed both under dynamic vacuum and gas atmospheres (argon or forming gas), with temperatures up to 1100 C. In some experiments, the sample was processed for longer times, up to a week, to investigate any changes of the contact angle and/or surface tension due to slow reactions with the substrate. For pure Ge, stable contact angles were found for carbon-based substrates and for pBN, for Ge(1-x)Si(x) only for pBN. The highest wetting angles were found for pBN substrates with angles around 170deg. For the surface tension of Ge, the most reliable values resulted in gamma(T) = (591- 0.077 (T-T(sub m)) 10(exp -3)N/m. The temperature dependence of the surface tension showed similar values for Ge(1-x)Si(x), around -0.08 x 10(exp -3)N/m K, and a compositional dependence of 2.2 x 10(exp -3)N/m at%Si.

  16. Suggesting a new European language policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter H

    2004-01-01

    Conflict is the most intriguing aspect of contact linguistics. Throughout history ever since the Tower of Babel was left unfinished, contacts between speakers of different languages have unavoidably resulted in conflicts between speakers of those languages. Without any doubt, the European Union (EU)--above all after the decision to enlarge the community--has accepted the multidisciplinary symbolic function of language and culture as a basis for European political unification. Accordingly, European Union policy makers have had to analyze conflicts caused by monolingualism and multilingualism, all aspects of contact linguistics. Can these conflicts be solved, minimized or neutralized by strategies of language planning, language policies and language politics? Initial results of European language policy strategies permit at least a cautious measure of optimism and open broad perspectives for the future of a New Multilingualism which will be discussed in our contribution. PMID:15156723

  17. Suggestions for writing high quality scientific papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marc Fisher

    2011-01-01

    @@ Writing a good scientific paper that will be accepted by a high quality journal requires careful planning and preparation.The process actually begins with the design and performance of the study to be reported upon in the paper.The main sections of the paper which include the introduction,methods,results and discussion are actually components of the planning and execution of the study to be reported.

  18. Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, David J. (Principal Investigator)

    MISR views the sunlit Earth simultaneously at nine widely spaced angles and provides ongoing global coverage with high spatial detail. Its imagery is carefully calibrated to provide accurate measures of the brightness, contrast, and color of reflected sunlight. MISR provides new types of information for scientists studying Earth's climate, such as the regional and global distribution of different types of atmospheric particles and aerosols. The change in reflection at different view angles provides the means to distinguish aerosol types, cloud forms, and land surface cover. Combined with stereoscopic techniques, this enables construction of 3-D cloud models and estimation of the total amount of sunlight reflected by Earth's diverse environments. MISR was built for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. It is part of NASA's first Earth Observing System (EOS) spacecraft, the Terra spacecraft, which was launched into polar orbit from Vandenberg Air Force Base on December 18, 1999. MISR has been continuously providing data since February 24, 2000. [Mission Objectives] The MISR instrument acquires systematic multi-angle measurements for global monitoring of top-of-atmosphere and surface albedos and for measuring the shortwave radiative properties of aerosols, clouds, and surface scenes in order to characterize their impact on the Earth's climate. The Earth's climate is constantly changing -- as a consequence of both natural processes and human activities. Scientists care a great deal about even small changes in Earth's climate, since they can affect our comfort and well-being, and possibly our survival. A few years of below-average rainfall, an unusually cold winter, or a change in emissions from a coal-burning power plant, can influence the quality of life of people, plants, and animals in the region involved. The goal of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is to increase our understanding of the climate changes that are occurring on our

  19. Does magmatism influence low-angle normal faulting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Thompson, George A.

    1993-01-01

    Synextensional magmatism has long been recognized as a ubiquitous characteristic of highly extended terranes in the western Cordillera of the United States. Intrusive magmatism can have severe effects on the local stress field of the rocks intruded. Because a lower angle fault undergoes increased normal stress from the weight of the upper plate, it becomes more difficult for such a fault to slide. However, if the principal stress orientations are rotated away from vertical and horizontal, then a low-angle fault plane becomes more favored. We suggest that igneous midcrustal inflation occurring at rates faster than regional extension causes increased horizontal stresses in the crust that alter and rotate the principal stresses. Isostatic forces and continued magmatism can work together to create the antiformal or domed detachment surface commonly observed in the metamorphic core complexes of the western Cordillera. Thermal softening caused by magmatism may allow a more mobile mid-crustal isostatic response to normal faulting.

  20. Evaluation of the Dunlap/Rippstein method for determination of femoral neck angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of the Dunlap method, as modified by Rippstein, for measuring the femoral neck angles was evaluated using adult bodies. The results were correlated to measurements on the dissected femurs. The Dunlap/Rippenstein method correlated well with the determinations made in the specimens. The accuracy of the method was within +-7 degrees for the anteversion angle and within -5 to +9 degrees for the head-neck-shaft angle. (orig.)

  1. LDEF yaw and pitch angle estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Gebauer, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Quantification of the LDEF yaw and pitch misorientations is crucial to the knowledge of atomic oxygen exposure of samples placed on LDEF. Video camera documentation of the LDEF spacecraft prior to grapple attachment, atomic oxygen shadows on experiment trays and longerons, and a pinhole atomic oxygen camera placed on LDEF provided sources of documentation of the yaw and pitch misorientation. Based on uncertainty-weighted averaging of data, the LDEF yaw offset was found to be 8.1 plus or minus 0.6 degrees, allowing higher atomic oxygen exposure of row 12 than initially anticipated. The LDEF pitch angle offset was found to be 0.8 plus or minus 0.4 degrees, such that the space end was tipped forward toward the direction of travel. The resulting consequences of the yaw and pitch misorientation of LDEF on the atomic oxygen fluence is a factor of 2.16 increase for samples located on row 12, and a factor of 1.18 increase for samples located on the space end compared to that which would be expected for perfect orientation.

  2. Impact Angle Control of Interplanetary Shock Geoeffectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, D M

    2015-01-01

    We use OpenGGCM global MHD simulations to study the nightside magnetospheric, magnetotail, and ionospheric responses to interplanetary (IP) fa st forward shocks. Three cases are presented in this study: two inclined oblique shocks, here after IOS-1 and IOS-2, where the latter has a Mach number twice stronger than the former. Both shocks have impact angles of 30$^o$ in relation to the Sun-Earth line. Lastly, we choose a frontal perpendicular shock, FPS, whose shock normal is along the Sun-Earth line, with the same Mach number as IOS-1. We find that, in the IOS-1 case, due to the north-south asymmetry, the magnetotail is deflected southward, leading to a mild compression. The geomagnetic activity observed in the nightside ionosphere is then weak. On the other hand, in the head-on case, the FPS compresses the magnetotail from both sides symmetrically. This compression triggers a substorm allowing a larger amount of stored energy in the magnetotail to be released to the nightside ionosphere, resulting in stronger...

  3. Hepatitis B in Bangladesh: Further Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shafiul Jamal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Iread with great interest Rashid and Rafiq's article published in the spring issue of this journal(1. The authors not only highlighted the shortcomings of the current hepatitis B vaccination strategy in Bangladesh but also prescribed awonderful policy, which is felt to be both costeffective and befitting with the country's existing programme on immunization. To complement thisI would like to add few more points: ||l|| Most neonates mount an immune response, which is believed to be adequate to reduce their risk of perinatal Hepatitis B Virus (HBV acquisition after vaccination(2. Though the pre-term babies (<37 weeks show a slower response than the term (||“||37 weeks babies, immunogenicity, which is inversely proportional to the gestational age, can be improved by increasing the vaccine dosage (2,3. l| Timing first dose of hepatitis B vaccine with BCG probably has a positive interaction: administration of BCG at the time of HBV vaccine priming at birth markedly increases the cytokines as well as ntibody responses to HBV vaccine(4. This astonishing finding might suggest that BCG has a synergistic effect on hepatitis B vaccination. Bangladesh is reported to have a very high (94% coverage of BCG vaccine(5; the uptake of HBV vaccine can be equally improved by timing it with BCG.l| The present infant vaccination policy will leave adolescents unguarded and hence nationwide prevention of the disease will be delayed. A recent survey unveils that available infrastructure in Bangladesh has sufficient spare capacity to sustain storage of an increased quantity of vaccines(5. To make good use of this unused legroom adolescent vaccination should be started along with infant vaccination. Countries such as Spain and Portugal have both neonatal and adolescent vaccination programmes in place, since 1993 and 2000 respectively, and these countries will be able to end the adolescent programme once the first immunised newborn cohort has reached the target age of the

  4. Effect of Air Outlet Angle on Air Distribution Performance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isbeyeh W. Maid

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available       In this paper a numerical study of velocity and temperature distribution in air conditioned space have been made. The computational model consists of the non-isothermal 3-D turbulent with (k-ε model. The numerical study is made to conduct air distribution in a room air-conditioned space with real interior dimensions (6×4×3m and to analyze the effect of changing angle of grille vanes on the flow pattern, velocity, and temperature distribution in the room under a set of different condition, and under a supply air temperature of 16˚C to examine the final result on air distribution performance index (ADPI.The results show a significant effect within the change of supply air angle, the maximum air distribution performance index (ADPI is 52% when air change per hour (ACH is equal to 10 at 16˚C inlet temperature with angle ( 15˚ down, and the minimum value of (ADPI is 20% when ACH is equal to 15 at 16˚C inlet temperature and angle ( degree. 

  5. Reflectivity Model of Low Grazing Angle Radar Sea Clutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Sheng; CHEN Jie; CAI Tao; TU Xu-yan

    2005-01-01

    The commonly used reflectivity models of radar sea clutter are summarized. Among these models, the adjusted Barton model and the adjusted Morchin model are compared. From the analysis result, the γ-p reflectivity model is presented for low grazing angle radar sea clutter by the adjustment of the original Barton reflectivity model. The model takes into account radar frequency, grazing angle, sea condition, and polarization property. The influences of these factors on the proposed model are analyzed. The model absorbs the merits from commonly used reflectivity models for sea clutter. It introduces several researchers' opinions, and extends them. And it accounts for the reflectivity at arbitrary radar frequency from VHF to X-band, arbitrary low grazing angle, arbitrary sea condition and different polarization property. One of the main results is the proposed γ-p reflectivity model can reflect the influence of polarization on sea clutter reflectivity to some extent. The proposed γ-p reflectivity model of low-angle radar-sea clutter is validated by comparing the simulated and statistically experimental data.

  6. Custom optimisation of wedge angles in prostate radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for computing optimised wedge angles will be presented along with a performance evaluation over 12 patients with early prostate cancer. The method (an optimisation algorithm) was applied to standard 3 field treatment plans for each patient. The optimisation algorithm was based on simulated anealing using an efficient dose based cost function. The algorithm has been run in three PLAN MODES: (1) where the wedge angles were fixed by the human planner and only the beam-weights were optimised; (2) where both the wedge angles and beam-weights were optimised; and (3) where both the wedge angles and beam-weights were optimised and a non-uniform dose was prescribed to the PTV. In the latter PLAN MODE, a uniform 100% dose was prescribed to all of the PTV except for that region that overlaps with the rectum where a lower (e.g. 90%) dose was prescribed. The resulting optimised plans have been compared with those of the human planner who found beam-weights by conventional forward planning. Plans were compared on the basis of dose statistics, normal-tissue-complication-probability (NTCP) and tumour-control-probability (TCP). The results show that all 3 PLAN MODES produced plans with slightly higher TCP for the same rectal NTCP, than the human planner. The best results were observed for PLAN MODE 3, where a non-uniform PTV dose was prescribed. An average increase in TCP of 0.73% (± 0.20 95% confidence interval) is predicted. Probably the most significant benefit of the algorithm in the prostate setting is the time saved (about a factor of 10) in computing optimised beam-weights and wedge angles for this simple plan

  7. Estimation of Carrying Angle Based on CT Images in Preoperative Surgical Planning for Cubitus Deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim,Eugene

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, the carrying angle of the elbow is measured using simple two-dimensional radiography or goniometry, which has questionable reliability. This study proposes a novel method for estimating carrying angles using computed tomography that can enhance the reliability of the angle measurement. Data of CT scans from 25 elbow joints were processed to build segmented three-dimensional models. The cross-sectional centerlines of the ulna and the humerus were traced from the 3D models, and the angle between 2 vectors formed from the centerlines of the humerus and the ulna was defined as the "three-dimensional carrying angle." These angles were compared with those measured by simple radiograph. Two cases of angular deformity were underwent surgery based on this preoperative surgical planning, and the postoperative 3D carrying angles were evaluated using the proposed method. The mean value of the calculated three-dimensional carrying angle was 20.7 degrees +/-3.61, while it was 16.3 degrees +/-3.21 based on simple radiography without statistical difference. Based on the 3D carrying angle estimations, 2 surgical cases of cubitus deformities were planned by comparison with the normal contra-lateral elbow. Postoperative angle estimations confirmed that the corrected angles were nearly identical to the planned angles for both cases. The results of this study showed that the carrying angle can be accurately estimated using three-dimensional CT and that the proposed method is useful in evaluating deformities of the elbow with high reliability.

  8. A suggestion for royal jelly specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanelis, Dimitrios; Tananaki, Chrysoula; Liolios, Vasilis; Dimou, Maria; Goras, Georgios; Rodopoulou, Maria Anna; Karazafiris, Emmanuel; Thrasyvoulou, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    This article proposes guidelines for quality standards of royal jelly. The proposals are based on two sets of data; the first from our study of the factors that may affect the royal jelly's chemical composition (protein and sugar supplementation of beehives) and the second on the analysis of a great number of samples from across Greece to establish natural variability of this product. We compared our findings with the adopted national limits, the proposals of the working group of the International Honey Commission (IHC), and the draft proposal of the International Organization of Standardization (ISO). The studied parameters included moisture, total proteins, sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, total sugars), and 10-hydroxy- 2-decenoic acid (10-HDA). Our results indicate that the limits for royal jelly in some countries should be amended and the proposals of the IHC and the ISO reviewed in view of recent data on variability. We believe that our proposals could be considered for setting global standards for royal jelly, as they incorporate national legislations, proposals of scientific groups, experimental data, and updated information. PMID:26751859

  9. Effect of MLC leaf position, collimator rotation angle, and gantry rotation angle errors on intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf position, collimator rotation angle, and accelerator gantry rotation angle errors on intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To compare dosimetric differences between the simulating plans and the clinical plans with evaluation parameters, 6 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected for simulation of systematic and random MLC leaf position errors, collimator rotation angle errors, and accelerator gantry rotation angle errors. There was a high sensitivity to dose distribution for systematic MLC leaf position errors in response to field size. When the systematic MLC position errors were 0.5, 1, and 2 mm, respectively, the maximum values of the mean dose deviation, observed in parotid glands, were 4.63%, 8.69%, and 18.32%, respectively. The dosimetric effect was comparatively small for systematic MLC shift errors. For random MLC errors up to 2 mm and collimator and gantry rotation angle errors up to 0.5°, the dosimetric effect was negligible. We suggest that quality control be regularly conducted for MLC leaves, so as to ensure that systematic MLC leaf position errors are within 0.5 mm. Because the dosimetric effect of 0.5° collimator and gantry rotation angle errors is negligible, it can be concluded that setting a proper threshold for allowed errors of collimator and gantry rotation angle may increase treatment efficacy and reduce treatment time

  10. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  11. Enhancing business intelligence by means of suggestive reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika; Raj, Ram Gopal; Tahir, Muhammad; Cambria, Erik; Syed, Karim Bux Shah

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons. PMID:25054188

  12. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Qazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers’ choices and designers’ understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1 classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2 categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3 perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  13. Investigating Of Proper Photovoltaic Panel Tilt Angle to Be Used As Shading Device inKuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Bunyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic panels can act as power generator as well as external shading devices with proper tilt angle. In this paper we will study the performance of a Silicon Photovoltaic system with different tilt angle arrangement in Kuwait (latitude 30˚ N. In the study the PV system is installed facing south to collectmaximum solar radiation at noon. The angle is varied from 00 to 900 , during full year at the Solstice (the time at which the day and night come into balance and Equinox (the end of the day’s increase or decrease in day night hours periods, to achieve optimum tilt angle, higher in magnitude than 30 0 with competitive output power. The results show that the performance and the output power of the PV system with 50˚ tilt angle, is equivalent to the corresponding values at tilt angle equal to Kuwait latitude (30˚ during the whole year.

  14. Finite element analysis of hip resurfacing arthroplasty with different implant angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the biomechanical influences of femoral prosthesis implantation angle in 3-dimensional finite element (3D FE) models of Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty (HRSA). Methods: Five different implant angles of HRSA 3D FE models were constructed based on the human anatomical data from multislice spiral CT. The femoral prosthesis implantation angle was 120°, 125°, 130°, 135°, 140°, and 145° respectively. Pressure was added on each model to simulate status in normal walking. The patterns of the stress distribution on each model were analyzed. Results: The stress concentration presented at head-neck junction part of the resurfaced femur. The maximum Von Mises stress value was decreased while increasing the femoral implant angles. However, the change was not obviously when the angle range from 135° to 145°. Conclusion: The optimal angle of femoral prosthesis implantation in HRSA is from 135° to 145°. (authors)

  15. Polar transfer alignment of shipborne SINS with a large misalignment angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing polar transfer alignment (TA) algorithms are designed based on linear Kalman filters (KF) to estimate misalignment angles. In the case of a large misalignment angle, these algorithms cannot be applied in order to achieve accurate TA. In this paper, a TA algorithm based on an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is proposed to solve the problem of the large misalignment angle in the polar region. Based on a large misalignment angle, nonlinear navigation error equations, which are the UKF dynamic models, are derived under grid frames. This paper chooses the velocity plus attitude matching method as the TA matching method and errors of velocity and attitude as observations. The misalignment angle can be estimated by the designed UKF. The simulation results have demonstrated that the polar TA algorithm can be effective in improving the TA accuracy, especially when large misalignment angles occur. (paper)

  16. Design of an Angle Detector for Laser Beams Based on Grating Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel angle detector for laser beams is designed in this paper. It takes advantage of grating coupling to couple the incident light into a slab waveguide; and, the incident light’s angle can be determined by reading the outputs of light detectors within the waveguide. This device offers fast-responding on-chip detection of laser beam’s angle. Compared to techniques based on quadrant photodiodes or lateral effect photodiodes, the device in this paper has far greater detectable range (up to a few degrees, to be specific. Performance of the laser angle detector in this paper is demonstrated by finite-difference-time-domain simulations. Numerical results show that, the detectable angle range can be adjusted by several design parameters and can reach [−4°, 4°]. The laser beam angle detector in this paper is expected to find various applications such as ultra-fast optical interconnects.

  17. Basic evaluation of sampling step angle and spatial resolution in continuous rotating acquisition with SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the data sampling in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), the continuous rotating acquisition method has high clinical utility. There have been various reports about the optimum sampling step angle for continuous rotating acquisition. Objective evaluation was performed visually and by measuring spatial resolution with a column phantom to find the optimum sampling step angle for continuous rotating acquisition. In locations far from the rotation center, a large sampling step angle produced artificial images with tangential elongation. The spatial resolution was 11.58±0.19 mm full width half maximum (FWHM) as measured at a sampling step angle of 3 degrees and at 10 cm away from the rotation center. Increasing the sampling step angle to more than 3 degrees resulted in an increase of FWHM in the tangential direction. The optimum sampling step angle for continuous rotating acquisition in SPECT needs to be below that calculated from the sampling theorem. (author)

  18. Polar transfer alignment of shipborne SINS with a large misalignment angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianhua; Wang, Tongda; Guan, Dongxue; Li, Meiling

    2016-03-01

    Existing polar transfer alignment (TA) algorithms are designed based on linear Kalman filters (KF) to estimate misalignment angles. In the case of a large misalignment angle, these algorithms cannot be applied in order to achieve accurate TA. In this paper, a TA algorithm based on an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is proposed to solve the problem of the large misalignment angle in the polar region. Based on a large misalignment angle, nonlinear navigation error equations, which are the UKF dynamic models, are derived under grid frames. This paper chooses the velocity plus attitude matching method as the TA matching method and errors of velocity and attitude as observations. The misalignment angle can be estimated by the designed UKF. The simulation results have demonstrated that the polar TA algorithm can be effective in improving the TA accuracy, especially when large misalignment angles occur.

  19. Blind Source Separation in Farsi Language by Using Hermitian Angle in Convolutive Enviroment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Soltani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a T-F masking method for convolutive blind source separation based on hermitian angle concept. The hermitian angle is calculated between T-F domain mixture vector and reference vector. Two different reference vectors are assumed for calculating two different hermitian angles, and then these angles are clustered with k-means or FCM method to estimate unmixing masks. The well-known permutation problem is solved based on k-means clustering of estimated masks which are partitioned to small groups. The experimental results show an improvement in performance when using two different reference vectors compared to only one.

  20. Angle measurement error and compensation for decentration rotation of circular gratings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xi-jun; WANG Zhen-huan; ZENG Qing-shuang

    2010-01-01

    As the geometric center of circular grating does not coincide with the rotation center,the angle measurement error of circular grating is analyzed.Based on the moire fringe equations in decentration condition,the mathematical model of angle measurement error is derived.It is concluded that the deeentration between the centre of circular grating and the center of revolving shaft leads to the first-harmonic error of angle measurement.The correctness of the result is proved by experimental data.The method of error compensation is presented,and the angle measurement accuracy of the circular grating is effectively improved by the error compensation.

  1. Small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering study on the bilayer structure of synthetic and bovine heart cardiolipins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a membrane phospholipid containing four fatty acid chains. CL plays an important role in energy transformation in mitochondria. The disorder of CL biosynthesis is involved in a genetic disease, Barth syndrome. Alteration of fatty acid composition of CLs has been found in Barth syndrome patients, i.e., the decrease of unsaturated fatty acid chains. In this study, we investigated how the degree of saturation alters the structure of CL bilayers by using X-ray scattering. Bovine heart CL and two synthetic CLs were compared. Fatty acid compositions of these three CLs have different saturation. Small-angle X-ray scattering data showed that the decrease of the number of double bonds in the unsaturated fatty acid chains causes to thicken the CL bilayers. In addition, wide-angle X-ray scattering data suggested that the decrease reduces the degree of disorder of the hydrophobic region in a liquid crystalline phase. These results may be related to the dysfunction of mitochondria in Barth syndrome.

  2. Small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering study on the bilayer structure of synthetic and bovine heart cardiolipins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi [Biophysics Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8510 (Japan); Hayakawa, Tomohiro [Life Science Laboratory, Advanced Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510 (Japan); Ito, Kazuki; Takata, Masaki [Structural Materials Science Laboratory, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kobayashi, Toshihide, E-mail: htakahas@chem-bio.gunma-u.ac.j [Lipid Biology Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2010-10-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a membrane phospholipid containing four fatty acid chains. CL plays an important role in energy transformation in mitochondria. The disorder of CL biosynthesis is involved in a genetic disease, Barth syndrome. Alteration of fatty acid composition of CLs has been found in Barth syndrome patients, i.e., the decrease of unsaturated fatty acid chains. In this study, we investigated how the degree of saturation alters the structure of CL bilayers by using X-ray scattering. Bovine heart CL and two synthetic CLs were compared. Fatty acid compositions of these three CLs have different saturation. Small-angle X-ray scattering data showed that the decrease of the number of double bonds in the unsaturated fatty acid chains causes to thicken the CL bilayers. In addition, wide-angle X-ray scattering data suggested that the decrease reduces the degree of disorder of the hydrophobic region in a liquid crystalline phase. These results may be related to the dysfunction of mitochondria in Barth syndrome.

  3. IMU-Based Joint Angle Measurement for Gait Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Seel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is concerned with joint angle calculation based on inertial measurement data in the context of human motion analysis. Unlike most robotic devices, the human body lacks even surfaces and right angles. Therefore, we focus on methods that avoid assuming certain orientations in which the sensors are mounted with respect to the body segments. After a review of available methods that may cope with this challenge, we present a set of new methods for: (1 joint axis and position identification; and (2 flexion/extension joint angle measurement. In particular, we propose methods that use only gyroscopes and accelerometers and, therefore, do not rely on a homogeneous magnetic field. We provide results from gait trials of a transfemoral amputee in which we compare the inertial measurement unit (IMU-based methods to an optical 3D motion capture system. Unlike most authors, we place the optical markers on anatomical landmarks instead of attaching them to the IMUs. Root mean square errors of the knee flexion/extension angles are found to be less than 1° on the prosthesis and about 3° on the human leg. For the plantar/dorsiflexion of the ankle, both deviations are about 1°.

  4. Method on camouflaged target recognition using the angle of ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuansun, Xiao-bo; Wu, Wen-Yuan; Huang, Yan-hua; Li, Zhao-zhao

    2015-10-01

    Using polarimetric information of the camouflaged target surface to identify camouflage has been a hot research area in camouflage detecting. The main method is to use the difference in the degree of polarization(DOP) between background and target to add the contrast ratio of them. The measurement of the DOP has some requirements on the intensity of reflected radiation. In case of low reflected radiation intensity, the difference in the DOP for different materials is not so distinguishable. In addition, the linear degree of polarization is largely under the effects of detection angle and surface roughness, so it is hard to differentiate the degree of polarization when the targets with similar surface roughness are detected at the same detection angle. By analyzing the elements affecting the reflected electromagnetic radiation amplitudes and phase on the camouflaged target surface, this article makes a research on the polarization character of reflected radiation A method on camouflaged target recognition directly or indirectly by taking the angle of ellipsometry (AOE) imaging under the linear polarized light. The function model of the angle of incidence, complex refractive index and AOE was modeled, then the model was simulated by MATLAB and the results showed it can describe the distribution properties of AOE. A new thought for the approach of identifying camouflaged target recognition by detecting polarimetric information was proposed, and it has a deep theoretical and practical significance in camouflaged target recognition.

  5. Angle-dependent bandgap engineering in gated graphene superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cervantes, H.; Gaggero-Sager, L. M.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.; Naumis, G. G.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.

    2016-03-01

    Graphene Superlattices (GSs) have attracted a lot of attention due to its peculiar properties as well as its possible technological implications. Among these characteristics we can mention: the extra Dirac points in the dispersion relation and the highly anisotropic propagation of the charge carriers. However, despite the intense research that is carried out in GSs, so far there is no report about the angular dependence of the Transmission Gap (TG) in GSs. Here, we report the dependence of TG as a function of the angle of the incident Dirac electrons in a rather simple Electrostatic GS (EGS). Our results show that the angular dependence of the TG is intricate, since for moderated angles the dependence is parabolic, while for large angles an exponential dependence is registered. We also find that the TG can be modulated from meV to eV, by changing the structural parameters of the GS. These characteristics open the possibility for an angle-dependent bandgap engineering in graphene.

  6. Improving gated cardiac scanning using limited-angle reconstruction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected phases of the cardiac cycle can be imaged by the method of gated cardiac scanning using whole body scanners. However, since there is no synchronization between the random heart beats and the CT machine, the output will have gaps in the angular coverage of each scan. The missing projections in these gaps result in artifacts in the reconstructed images. In this paper, the technique of limited-angle reconstruction is employed to fill in the missing projections to remove the artifacts. The object is transformed back and forth between the object space and the projection space, being corrected in each step by the constraints of the finite spatial extent and of the upper and lower bounds of the object in the object space, and the known projections in the projection space. It is found that by using the proposed algorithm the rms errors of the limited-angle images are reduced to a level comparable to those of the complete-angle images. The same iteration algorithm can also be used to reduce the fan beam scanning angle from 360 degree to 180 degree without sacrificing much image quality

  7. Combined surgical management of mandibular angle prominence and microgenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin play a very important role in facial aesthetics. Different deformities of volume and of position may occur at this level and it is the microgenia one of the more frequent. Treatment options include the use of silicone, alloplasty materials and autologous bone graft. Authors report the use of the bone removed from mandibular angle to increase the chin. This is the case of a white female patient aged 18 seen by the Orthognathics Multidisciplinary Staff of 'V. I. Lenin' Hospital due to its uncommon face width. The corresponding physical examination as well as the complementary ones diagnosed a bilateral prominence of mandibular angle associated with a microgenia. Surgery carried out was of remodeling type of both mandibular angles and genioplasty of height increase and a discrete advancement using the bone removed from the gonion. There were satisfactory aesthetic results without evidence of bone reabsorption. We conclude that use of autologous graft of mandibular angle is an effective treatment alternative for correction of microgenia. (author)

  8. An Indian perspective on primary angle closure and glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihota Ramanjit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To provide a synopsis of primary angle closure disease in India, and Indian studies on the same. Results: Primary angle closure glaucoma forms almost half of all adult primary glaucomas seen in a hospital setting in India. Anatomically, corneal diameters and anterior chamber depths were least in acute and chronic PACG eyes as compared to subacute eyes and controls. Besides relative pupillary block, a Valsalva maneuver during activities of daily living may be responsible for intermittent angle closure and raised IOP in predisposed eyes. Iridotomy alone, controlled the intraocular pressure in 66.7% of subacute eyes and 12.9% of the acute. Medical therapy was additionally required for 35.5% of the acute eyes, 12.1% of the subacute and 30.0% of the chronic cases. There was a greater mean and peak IOP reduction, achieved with 0.005% latanoprost once daily, 8.2 ± 2.0 mm Hg, compared with 0.5% timolol twice daily, 6.1 ± 1.7 mm Hg2. A progression of PACS to PAC was seen in 22%, PAC to PAC OHT in 38.7% and PAC OHT to PACG in 30.7% over 5 years. Conclusions: Primary angle closure disease is common in India, and can be managed well with iridotomy, followed by an appropriate control of IOP.

  9. Opening angles and residual strains in normal rat trachea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳兆荣; 王忆勤; 滕忠照; 徐刚; 汤伟昌

    2002-01-01

    The no-load state and zero-stress state of the normal rat trachea were analyzed. It was found that there exist compressive residual strains in the inner wall region of the rat trachea and tensile residual strains in the outer wall region. The fact that the opening angle of the rat trachea cut at the cartilaginous region is significantly larger than that cut at the muscular portion shows that residual strains exist mainly in the muscular region in the rat trachea. It was also indicated that the opening angles and residual strains expressed by cutting at the muscular portion are basically identical along longitudinal location and those expressed by cutting in the cartilaginous region tend to increase in the longitudinal direction in the normal rat, and that there exists quantitatively positive correlation between the opening angles and residual strains in rat trachea. The results will help to further understand the opening angles and residual strains in the trachea and study tracheal remodeling in response to mechanical environment.

  10. Dosimetric dependence on the collimator angle in prostate volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Isa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the dose-volume variations of planning target volume (PTV and organs-at-risk (OARs in prostate volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT when varying collimator angle. The collimator angle has the largest impact and is worth considering, so, its awareness is essential for a planner to produce an optimal prostate VMAT plan in a reasonable time frame. Methods: Single-arc VMAT plans at different collimator angles (0o, 15o, 30o, 45o, 60o, 75o and 90o were created systematically using a Harold heterogeneous pelvis phantom. The conformity index (CI, homogeneity index (HI, gradient index (GI, machine monitor units (MUs, dose-volume histogram and mean and maximum dose of the PTV were calculated and analyzed. On the other hand, the dose-volume histogram and mean and maximum doses of the OARs such as the bladder, rectum and femoral heads for different collimator angles were determined from the plans.Results: There was no significant difference, based on the planned dose-volume evaluation criteria, found in the VMAT optimizations for all studied collimator angles. A higher CI (0.53 and lower HI (0.064 were found in the 45o collimator angle. In addition, the 15o collimator angle provided a lower value of HI similar to the 45o collimator angle. Collimator angles of 75o and 90o were found to be good for rectum sparing, and collimator angles of 75o and 30o were found to be good for sparing of right and left femur, respectively. The PTV dose coverage for each plan was comparatively independent of the collimator angle. Conclusion: Our study indicates that the dosimetric results provide support and guidance to allow the clinical radiation physicists to make careful decisions in implementing suitable collimator angles to improve the PTV coverage and OARs sparing in prostate VMAT.

  11. High brightness angled cavity quantum cascade lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantum cascade laser (QCL) with an output power of 203 W is demonstrated in pulsed mode at 283 K with an angled cavity. The device has a ridge width of 300 μm, a cavity length of 5.8 mm, and a tilt angle of 12°. The back facet is high reflection coated, and the front facet is anti-reflection coated. The emitting wavelength is around 4.8 μm. In distinct contrast to a straight cavity broad area QCL, the lateral far field is single lobed with a divergence angle of only 3°. An ultrahigh brightness value of 156 MW cm−2 sr−1 is obtained, which marks the brightest QCL to date

  12. High brightness angled cavity quantum cascade lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydari, D.; Bai, Y.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Slivken, S.; Razeghi, M., E-mail: razeghi@eecs.northwestern.edu [Center for Quantum Devices, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2015-03-02

    A quantum cascade laser (QCL) with an output power of 203 W is demonstrated in pulsed mode at 283 K with an angled cavity. The device has a ridge width of 300 μm, a cavity length of 5.8 mm, and a tilt angle of 12°. The back facet is high reflection coated, and the front facet is anti-reflection coated. The emitting wavelength is around 4.8 μm. In distinct contrast to a straight cavity broad area QCL, the lateral far field is single lobed with a divergence angle of only 3°. An ultrahigh brightness value of 156 MW cm{sup −2 }sr{sup −1} is obtained, which marks the brightest QCL to date.

  13. A heterodyne interferometer for angle metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a compact, high-resolution, angle measurement instrument based on a heterodyne interferometer. Common-path heterodyne interferometer metrology is used to measure displacements of a reflective target surface. In the interferometer set up, an optical mask is used to sample the laser beam reflecting back from four areas on a target surface. From the relative displacement measurements of the target surface areas, we can simultaneously determine angular rotations around two orthogonal axes in a plane perpendicular to the measurement beam propagation direction. The device is used in a testbed for a tracking telescope system where pitch and yaw angle measurements of a flat mirror are performed. Angle noise measurement of the device shows 0.1 nrad/√(Hz) at 1 Hz, at a working distance of 1 m. The operation range and nonlinearity of the device when used with a flat mirror is approximately ±0.15 mrad, and 3 μrad rms, respectively.

  14. Notes on large angle crossing graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Dujmovic, Vida; Morin, Pat; Wolle, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    A graph G is an a-angle crossing (aAC) graph if every pair of crossing edges in G intersect at an angle of at least a. The concept of right angle crossing (RAC) graphs (a=Pi/2) was recently introduced by Didimo et. al. It was shown that any RAC graph with n vertices has at most 4n-10 edges and that there are infinitely many values of n for which there exists a RAC graph with n vertices and 4n-10 edges. In this paper, we give upper and lower bounds for the number of edges in aAC graphs for all 0 < a < Pi/2.

  15. Precision measurements of the CKM angle gamma

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The level of CP-violation permitted within the Standard Model cannot account for the matter dominated universe in which we live. Within the Standard Model the CKM matrix, which describes the quark couplings, is expected to be unitary. By making precise measurements of the CKM matrix parameters new physics models can be constrained, or with sufficient precision the effects of physics beyond the standard model might become apparent. The CKM angle gamma is the least well known angle of the unitarity triangle. It is the only angle easily accessible at tree-level, and furthermore has almost no theoretical uncertainties. Therefore it provides an invaluable Standard Model benchmark against which other new physics sensitive tests of the CP-violation can be made. I will discuss recent measurements of gamma using the the Run 1 LHCb dataset, which improve our knowledge of this key parameter.

  16. The wave vane - A device to measure the breaker angle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; Anand, N.M.

    , ,~ ~ O BEACH c /~ ' ! , THEODOLITE Fig. 4. Definition sketch. 178 P. CHANDRAMOHAN ET AL. angle AOC can be calculated, which would be the wave breaker angle with respect to the coastline. It is assumed that the angle made by the crestline...

  17. The optimal die semi-angle concept in wire drawing, examined using automatic optimization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupling of evolutionary algorithms (EA) with meta-models (MM) is used to investigate the concept of the optimal die semi-angle in wire drawing. Traditional process design by minimization of the wire drawing force highlights an optimal die angle which increases with friction factor and reduction ratio. When wire drawing optimization is applied on the Latham and Cockcroft damage criterion, an optimal die semi-angle no longer appears: in this mono-objective optimization, the lowest industrially achievable die angle is recommended. Thanks to EA-MM coupling, multi-objective optimizations have been performed and the Pareto optimal front has been precisely plotted so as to find the best compromise. Simultaneous optimization of damage and wire drawing force suggests a refined vision of the optimal die semi-angle concept. Choosing a lower angle than the traditional optimum allows damage to be decreased without a significant increase of the drawing force. However, it is shown that a die semi-angle slightly above the optimum should be selected, for fear of friction drift; this explains the rather high traditional value of the angle. (authors)

  18. On Dihedral Angles of a Simplex

    OpenAIRE

    Maehara, H.

    2013-01-01

    For an $n$-simplex, let $\\alpha,\\,\\beta$ denote the maximum, and the minimum dihedral angles of the simplex, respectively. It is proved that the inequality $\\alpha\\le \\arccos(1/n)\\le \\beta$ always holds, and either side equality implies that the $n$-simplex is a regular simplex. Similar inequalities are also given for a star-simplex, which is defined as a simplex that has a vertex (apex) such that the angles between distinct edges incident to the apex are all equal. Further, an explicit formu...

  19. Ship wakes: Kelvin or Mach angle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaud, Marc; Moisy, Frédéric

    2013-05-24

    From the analysis of a set of airborne images of ship wakes, we show that the wake angles decrease as U(-1) at large velocities, in a way similar to the Mach cone for supersonic airplanes. This previously unnoticed Mach-like regime is in contradiction with the celebrated Kelvin prediction of a constant angle of 19.47° independent of the ship's speed. We propose here a model, confirmed by numerical simulations, in which the finite size of the disturbance explains this transition between the Kelvin and Mach regimes at a Froude number Fr=U/√[gL]~/=0.5, where L is the hull ship length. PMID:23745883

  20. Angle-Resolved Spectroscopy of Parametric Fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Feng-kuo

    2013-01-01

    The parametric fluorescence from a nonlinear crystal forms a conical radiation pattern. We measure the angular and spectral distributions of parametric fluorescence in a beta-barium borate crystal pumped by a 405-nm diode laser employing angle-resolved imaging spectroscopy. The experimental angle-resolved spectra and the generation efficiency of parametric down conversion are compared with a plane-wave theoretical analysis. The parametric fluorescence is used as a broadband light source for the calibration of the instrument spectral response function in the wavelength range from 450 to 1000 nm.

  1. Ship wakes: Kelvin or Mach angle?

    CERN Document Server

    Rabaud, Marc

    2013-01-01

    From the analysis of a set of airborne images of ship wakes, we show that the wake angles decrease as $U^{-1}$ at large velocities, in a way similar to the Mach cone for supersonic airplanes. This previously unnoticed Mach-like regime is in contradiction with the celebrated Kelvin prediction of a constant angle of $19.47\\degree$ independent of the ship's speed. We propose here a model, confirmed by numerical simulations, in which the finite size of the disturbance explains this transition between the Kelvin and Mach regimes at a Froude number $Fr = U/\\sqrt{gL} \\simeq 0.5$, where $L$ is the hull ship length.

  2. Clinical tibiofemoral angle in south Indian children

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, S. E.; V. Madhuri

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The development of tibiofemoral angle in children has shown ethnic variations. However this data is unavailable for our population. Methods We measured the tibiofemoral angle (TFA) and intercondylar and intermalleolar distances in 360 children aged between two and 18 years, dividing them into six interrupted age group intervals: two to three years; five to six years; eight to nine years; 11 to 12 years; 14 to 15 years; and 17 to 18 years. Each age group comprised 30 boys and 30 gir...

  3. A study of operators' computing efficiency with special focus on the readability under different viewing angles of a desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillck, Z.; Asjad, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to determine the reading performance of operators' under different viewing angles of a desktop computer. The effects of text/background color, viewing distance and character size on the speed of reading were investigated. The text and/or the background color combination were varied, with constant luminance contrast. Performance was recorded in terms of words per minutes. Standard workplace design recommendations to position center of visual display terminal 15° and 40°, below horizontal eye level, were taken up for a visually intensive readability task. An orthogonal array, signal-to-noise ratio and the analysis of variance were carried out to investigate the above mentioned operating parameters to determine optimum readability performance. The results suggested that performance was better at 15° viewing angle as compared to 40°.

  4. Critical angle for the inclined pipe to distinguish horizontal and vertical character

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety analysis codes of nuclear power plant have equipped the flow regime map to provide the proper constitutive relations corresponding to the flow regime. Traditionally, the flow regimes for the vertical flow and horizontal flow have been investigated intensively and we have very reliable map and criteria to be useful for the computer code. However, for the inclined pipe, we have lack of experimental works and transition criteria to be used. Actually, in the pressurized heavy water nuclear reactor like CANDU, certain part of pipe line has inclination angle. At this moment the safety code such as RELAP-CANDU has no flow regime map for the inclined pipe, Engineering judgment intuitively suggested to take the reference angle and horizontal flow regime map for the inclined pipe with the lower angle than the reference and vertical flow regime map for the larger angle than the reference angle. Also, as the reference angle it has been suggested that 45 degree may compromise the difference of two dominant flow regime. However, it has no physical bases. Also, it casted fundamental questions on the drift flux model and the effect of gravity on the instability of two-phase flow. Therefore, the present study is designed to find the reference angle to distinguish the horizontal flow regime map and vertical flow regime map. The study was made based on the experimental way with the special intelligent identifier to remove any chance of human subjective perception

  5. A mechanism for the dependence of sunspot group tilt angles on cycle strength

    CERN Document Server

    Işık, Emre

    2015-01-01

    The average tilt angle of sunspot groups emerging throughout the solar cycle determines the net magnetic flux crossing the equator, which is correlated with the strength of the subsequent cycle. I suggest that a deep-seated, non-local process can account for the observed cycle-dependent changes in the average tilt angle. Motivated by helioseismic observations indicating cycle-scale variations in the sound speed near the base of the convection zone, I determined the effect of a thermally perturbed overshoot region on the stability of flux tubes and on the tilt angles of emerging flux loops. I found that 5-20 K of cooling is sufficient for emerging flux loops to reproduce the reported amplitude of cycle-averaged tilt angle variations, suggesting that it is a plausible effect responsible for the nonlinearity of the solar activity cycle.

  6. Bronchopulmonary Carcinoids causing Cushing Syndrome: Results from a Multicentric Study Suggesting a More Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lococo, Filippo; Margaritora, Stefano; Cardillo, Giuseppe; Filosso, Perluigi; Novellis, Pierluigi; Rapicetta, Cristian; Carleo, Francesco; Bora, Giulia; Cesario, Alfredo; Stefani, Alessandro; Rossi, Giulio; Paci, Massimiliano

    2016-03-01

    Objective Cushing syndrome (CS) caused by bronchopulmonary carcinoids (BCs) is a very rare entity. The aim of this study was to revisit the features of a multicenter clinical series to identify significant prognostic factors. Methods From January 2002 to December 2013, the clinical and pathological data of 23 patients (treated in five different institutions) were retrospectively reviewed. Survival analysis was performed to explore the relative weight of potential prognostic factors. Results Median age and male/female ratio were 48 years and 14/9, respectively. Most (> 80%) of the patients presented with CS-related symptoms at diagnosis. Tumor location was peripheral in 13 patients (57%) and central in 10 (43%). All patients but two (treated with chemotherapy) underwent surgical resection with curative intent. Definitive cyto/histology was indicative of typical carcinoid (TC) in 16 cases (70%) and atypical carcinoid (AC) in 7 cases (30%). A complete remission of CS was obtained in 16 cases (70%). Lymph nodal involvement was detected in 11 cases (48%), with N2 disease occurring in 7 (∼ 30% of all cases). Four patients (22%) experienced a relapse of the disease after radical surgery. Overall 5-year survival (long-term survival, LTS) was 60%, better in TCs when compared with AC (LTS: 66 v s. 48%, p = 0.28). Log-rank analysis identified ECOG performance status, cTNM and cN staging, pTNM and pN staging, persistence of CS and relapses (local p = 0.006; distant p = 0.001) as significant prognostic factors in this cohort of patients. Conclusion BCs causing CS are characterized by a high rate of lymph-nodal involvement, a suboptimal prognosis (5-year survival = 60%, 66% in TCs) and a remarkable risk of relapse even after radical resection. Advanced stage, lymph-nodal involvement and the persisting of the CS after treatment correlate with a poor prognosis. PMID:26220696

  7. The Pollyanna Principle in Business Writing: Initial Results, Suggestions for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Herbert W.

    A study was conducted to determine whether there was a linguistic correlation between a financially good year and a bad year as expressed in the annual reports of company presidents to their shareholders. Specifically the study tested the "Pollyanna Principle," which states (1) that regardless of whether the year was financially good or bad, the…

  8. Scientific education and European citizenship. Suggestions and results from the European project SEDEC (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ceriani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Two concepts seemingly distant from each other, scientific education and European citizenship, have been the basis for "SEDEC - Science Education for the Development of European Citizenship", a European project funded by the European Commission in the framework of the Socrates/Comenius programme, aiming at producing training material addressed to European teachers. Started in autumn 2005, the project will end in 2008 with an in-service training course for European teachers and educators.

  9. Rapid emission angle selection for rotating-shield brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yunlong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Flynn, Ryan T.; Kim, Yusung; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Sun, Wenqing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Yang Wenjun [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, 1402 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Wu Xiaodong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: The authors present a rapid emission angle selection (REAS) method that enables the efficient selection of the azimuthal shield angle for rotating shield brachytherapy (RSBT). The REAS method produces a Pareto curve from which a potential RSBT user can select a treatment plan that balances the tradeoff between delivery time and tumor dose conformity. Methods: Two cervical cancer patients were considered as test cases for the REAS method. The RSBT source considered was a Xoft Axxent{sup TM} electronic brachytherapy source, partially shielded with 0.5 mm of tungsten, which traveled inside a tandem intrauterine applicator. Three anchor RSBT plans were generated for each case using dose-volume optimization, with azimuthal shield emission angles of 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 270 Degree-Sign . The REAS method converts the anchor plans to treatment plans for all possible emission angles by combining neighboring beamlets to form beamlets for larger emission angles. Treatment plans based on exhaustive dose-volume optimization (ERVO) and exhaustive surface optimization (ERSO) were also generated for both cases. Uniform dwell-time scaling was applied to all plans such that that high-risk clinical target volume D{sub 90} was maximized without violating the D{sub 2cc} tolerances of the rectum, bladder, and sigmoid colon. Results: By choosing three azimuthal emission angles out of 32 potential angles, the REAS method performs about 10 times faster than the ERVO method. By setting D{sub 90} to 85-100 Gy{sub 10}, the delivery times used by REAS generated plans are 21.0% and 19.5% less than exhaustive surface optimized plans used by the two clinical cases. By setting the delivery time budget to 5-25 and 10-30 min/fx, respectively, for two the cases, the D{sub 90} contributions for REAS are improved by 5.8% and 5.1% compared to the ERSO plans. The ranges used in this comparison were selected in order to keep both D{sub 90} and the delivery time within acceptable

  10. Small-Angle Scattering and Diffusion Application to Relativistic Shock Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Protheroe, R J; Donea, A C

    2002-01-01

    We investigate ways of accurately simulating the propagation of energetic charged particles over small times where the standard Monte Carlo approximation to diffusive transport breaks down. We find that a small-angle scattering procedure with appropriately chosen step-lengths and scattering angles gives accurate results, and we apply this to the simulation of propagation upstream in relativistic shock acceleration.

  11. Star tracker axis-to-sunlit earth horizon angle constraint evaluations for rendezvous operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    The results are presented of a study initiated to evaluate the star tracker axis-to-sunlit earth horizon angle constraint with respect to limitations imposed on the passive target rendezvous capability. The data presented include considerations for dispersions and sensor pointing capabilities and generalizations with respect to the uncertainties associated with the angle constraint available in practice.

  12. Solar proton pitch angle distribution for the January 24, 1969 event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitch angle distributions during the highly anisotropic phase of the event are fitted by a polynomial in cosmic pitch angle, μ, and the results are compared with the predictions of a Fokker-Planck equation in μ space for quasi-steady injection. Implications for the theory of the diffusion coefficient D(μ) are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Optical trapping of nanoparticles by full solid-angle focusing

    CERN Document Server

    Salakhutdinov, Vsevolod; Carbone, Luigi; Giacobino, Elisabeth; Bramati, Alberto; Leuchs, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    We propose and implement a dipole-trap for nanoparticles that is based on focusing from the full solid angle with a deep parabolic mirror. The key aspect is the generation of a linear-dipole mode. For such a mode, our calculations predict a trapping potential that is deeper and tighter than the potential obtainable with microscope objectives. We demonstrate the trapping of dot-in-rod nanoparticles. From the detected fluorescence photons we obtain intensity correlation functions of second order with $g^{(2)}(0)< 0.5$, suggesting the trapping of a single quantum emitter.

  14. Malignant melanoma of the cerebello-pontine angle region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Menezes Braga

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of malignant melanoma in the cerebello-pontine angle region is presented in a 72 years old female patient, who had neurological examination and CT scan suggestive of acoustic neuroma. The surgical finding and the histological examination provided the diagnosis. As a primary focus was not found on clinical examination and although autopsy was not carried out, there is a possibility of the diagnosis being a primary malignant melanoma in CNS. This specific location for this kind of tumor was found to be rare when literature is looked up.

  15. Effect of changing the saddle angle on the incidence of low back pain in recreational bicyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Salai, M; Brosh, T.; Blankstein, A.; Oran, A.; Chechik, A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: According to the literature, 30-70% of cyclists suffer from cervical, dorsal, or lumbar back pain. This study was conducted to evaluate one of the possible causes of low back pain and to suggest a solution by appropriate adjustments to the bicycle. METHODS: Serial fluoroscopic studies were performed while cyclists sat on different types of bicycle (sports, mountain, and city). Pelvic/spine angles were measured at different seat angles, and the related force vectors analysed. ...

  16. INFLUENCE OF CONVENTIONAL POST TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT REHABILITATION PROTOCOL ON ANGLES OF FLAT FOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smisha Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and introduction:Purpose isto find the influence of conventional post total knee replacementrehabilitation protocol on angles of flat foot such as degree of navicular drop and relaxed calcaneal stancephase angles following unilateral Total Knee Replacement.Method:Pre to post test single group experimental study design. 60 subjects undergoing unilateral total kneereplacement recruited and were treated with 4 weeks of conventional post total knee replacement rehabilitationprotocol following surgery. Before surgery and after 4 weeks of post surgery outcomes measurements such asthere navicular drop test angles and relaxed calcaneal stance phase angles were measured.Results:Analysis using Paired ‘t’ test and Wilcoxon signed rank test found that in operated limb there is astatistically significant (p<0.05 change in means of Navicular Drop Test angle and Relaxed Calcaneal StancePhase angle during Weight bearing and Non-weight bearing after 4 weeks of post TKR.Conclusion:It was concluded that there is significant influence of 4 weeks of conventional post TKR Rehabilitationprotocol on improving angles of flat foot that there was retaining of foot arch towards normal angleby increasein navicular angles and decrease in relaxed calcaneal stance phase angle in subjects with unilateralTKR.

  17. Comparison of optimum tilt angles of solar collectors determined at yearly, seasonal and monthly levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Optimum yearly, biannual, seasonal, monthly, and daily tilt angles were found. • Energy collected per square meter is compared for ten different scenarios. • Four seasonal scenarios and two biannual scenarios were considered. • It is sufficient to adjust tilt angles only twice per year. - Abstract: The amount of energy that is transformed in solar collector depends on its tilt angle with respect to horizontal plane and orientation of the collector. In this article the optimum tilt angle of solar collectors for Belgrade, which is located at the latitude of 44°47′N is determined. The optimum tilt angle was found by searching for the values for which the solar radiation on the collector surface is maximum for a particular day or a specific period. In that manner the yearly, biannual, seasonal, monthly, fortnightly, and daily optimum tilt angles are determined. Annually collected energy per square meter of tilted surface is compared for ten different scenarios. In addition, these optimum tilt angles are used to calculate the amount of energy on the surface of PV panels that could be installed at the roof of the building. The results show that for observed case study placing the panels at yearly, seasonal and monthly optimum tilt angles, would yield increasing yearly amount of collected energy by factor of 5.98%, 13.55%, and 15.42% respectively compared to energy that could be collected by putting the panels at current roofs’ surface angles

  18. Geophysical and geological imprints of southern Neotethyan subduction between Cyprus and the Isparta Angle, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyoncuoğlu, Ü. Yalçın; Elitok, Ömer; Dolmaz, M. Nuri; Anadolu, N. Ceyla

    The present-day eastern Mediterranean region is characterized by two main arc systems: the western Hellenic arc and the eastern Cyprian arc, the latter having no significant trench unlike the former. Therefore, plate interactions in the western-northwestern side of the island of Cyprus is a matter of debate concentrating mainly on subduction or wrench systems. In order to understand the plate interactions within the area between the Isparta Angle and western segment of the Cyprus arc, the epicenter distribution of earthquakes, b-values and gravity anomalies for 5 depth intervals (0-35 km, 35-55 km, 55-75 km, 75-95 km, >95 km) have been analyzed on NE-SW trending regional profiles, and compared with geological structures. Although there are no earthquakes with depths greater than 50 km (i.e. crustal scale earthquakes) in the northern part of the Isparta Angle, all earthquake epicenters lie on a linear zone from southwest of Cyprus to the northwest, nearly parallel to the NW-SE trending Florence Rise. The b-value distribution shows a very good consistency with the epicentral and tectonic maps of Antalya Bay. The b-value maps, deeper than 55 km, show that low b-values depicting a NW-SE trending linear pattern correspond to seismic zones. Furthermore, this pattern shifts to the northeast and resembles the epicenters of the deep-focus earthquakes on the northeast dipping plane supporting the existence of a subduction zone. The gravity profiles show low gravity anomalies along the Florence Rise, high gravity anomalies at a certain distance interval to the NE direction which presumably resulted from subducting oceanic lithosphere, and again low gravity anomalies corresponding to the end of subducting slab and continental eastern limb of the Isparta Angle. On the other hand, the observed gravity anomalies are found to be consistent with the earthquake distribution patterns in the area. As a conclusion, for the area between the apex of the Isparta Angle and the western

  19. ASSESSMENT OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NECK SHAFT ANGLE AND NECK LENGTH WITH INTEREPICONDYLAR DISTANCE IN FEMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femur is the longest and strongest bone of the body. It transmits body weight from hip bone to tibia in standing position. Femoral neck is a constricted part connecting head with shaft at an angle of about 125°-known as angle of inclination or neck shaft angle (NSA; this facilitates the movement of hip joint enabling the limb to swing clear of pelvis. Abnormal femoral neck angle (FNA may be associated with various clinical problems ranging from harmless in toeing gait in childhood to disabling osteoarthritis in adults. The current study attempted to find out if a co-relation exists between those parameters and other clinically measurable variables like inter-epicondylar distance or distance between greater trochanter to lateral epicondyle. This may help to predict the risk of fracture neck femur without any risk of radiation exposure and proper prophylactic measures can be undertaken (Vit-D, calcium to decrease risk of fracture. Results: Measurements were taken in dry femora mostly in East Indian population. Variables that were measured in 158 dry femora (85 femora from left side and 73 from the right side are: - a Neck shaft angle of femur, b Neck length of femur, c Neck circumference of femur, d Inter-epicondylar distance of femur, e Distance between lateral epicondyle and greater trochanter of femur. No significant difference was found between the right and left sided femoral groups regarding any of the study variables. From the analysis it was revealed that no positive or negative correlation exists between the study variables. Therefore, it is not possible to predict the value of one or more of them from the magnitude of the other variable(s. Conclusions: Our study attempted to find out if it was possible to predict the risk of fracture neck femur by simple clinical procedure without exposing the subjects to radiation hazards associated with a radiological imaging. A screening test and subsequent prophylactic measures could

  20. Simultaneous Multi-angle Measurements of Plasma Turbulence at HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naomi; Golkowski, Mark; Sheerin, James; University of Colorado Denver Team

    2013-10-01

    We report the results from a recent series of experiments employing the HAARP HF transmitter to generate and study strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma. Diagnostics included the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) located at HAARP, the Super DARN-Kodiak HF radar, and HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE). Short pulse, low duty cycle experiments demonstrate control and suppression of artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI). This allows the isolation of ponderomotive plasma turbulence effects. For the first time, plasma line spectra measured simultaneously in different spots of the interaction region displayed marked but contemporaneous differences dependent on the aspect angle of the HF pump beam and the pointing angle of the MUIR diagnostic radar. Outshifted Plasma Line (OPL) spectra, rarely observed in past experiments, occurred with sufficient regularity for experimentation. Experimental results are compared to previous high latitude experiments and predictions from recent modeling efforts.

  1. Improved Image Retrieval with Color and Angle Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi A. Alnabriss

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, new ideas are proposed to enhance content-based image retrieval applications by representing colored images in terms of its colors and angles as a histogram describing the number of pixels with particular color located in specific angle, then similarity is measured between the two represented histograms. The color quantization technique is a crucial stage in the CBIR system process, we made comparisons between the uniform and the non-uniform color quantization techniques, and then according to our results we used the non-uniform technique which showed higher efficiency. In our tests we used the Corel-1000 images database in addition to a Matlab code, we compared our results with other approaches like Fuzzy Club, IRM, Geometric Histogram, Signature Based CBIR and Modified ERBIR, and our proposed technique showed high retrieving precision ratios compared to the other techniques.

  2. The Spectral Sharpness Angle of Gamma-ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hoi-Fung; Greiner, Jochen; Sari, Re'em; Bhat, P Narayana; von Kienlin, Andreas; Paciesas, William S; Preece, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    We explain the results of Yu et al. (2015b) of the novel sharpness angle measurement to a large number of spectra obtained from the Fermi gamma-ray burst monitor. The sharpness angle is compared to the values obtained from various representative emission models: blackbody, single-electron synchrotron, synchrotron emission from a Maxwellian or power-law electron distribution. It is found that more than 91% of the high temporally and spectrally resolved spectra are inconsistent with any kind of optically thin synchrotron emission model alone. It is also found that the limiting case, a single temperature Maxwellian synchrotron function, can only contribute up to 58+23 -18% of the peak flux. These results show that even the sharpest but non-realistic case, the single-electron synchrotron function, cannot explain a large fraction of the observed spectra. Since any combination of physically possible synchrotron spectra added together will always further broaden the spectrum, emission mechanisms other than optically...

  3. Ischemia detection from morphological QRS angle changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Daniel; Martínez, Juan Pablo; Laguna, Pablo; Pueyo, Esther

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, an ischemia detector is presented based on the analysis of QRS-derived angles. The detector has been developed by modeling ischemic effects on the QRS angles as a gradual change with a certain transition time and assuming a Laplacian additive modeling error contaminating the angle series. Both standard and non-standard leads were used for analysis. Non-standard leads were obtained by applying the PCA technique over specific lead subsets to represent different potential locations of the ischemic zone. The performance of the proposed detector was tested over a population of 79 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in one of the major coronary arteries (LAD (n  =  25), RCA (n  =  16) and LCX (n  =  38)). The best detection performance, obtained for standard ECG leads, was achieved in the LAD group with values of sensitivity and specificity of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], followed by the RCA group with [Formula: see text], Sp  =  94.4 and the LCX group with [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], notably outperforming detection based on the ST series in all cases, with the same detector structure. The timing of the detected ischemic events ranged from 30 s up to 150 s (mean  =  66.8 s) following the start of occlusion. We conclude that changes in the QRS angles can be used to detect acute myocardial ischemia. PMID:27243441

  4. Veering triangulations admit strict angle structures

    CERN Document Server

    Hodgson, Craig D; Segerman, Henry; Tillmann, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Agol recently introduced the concept of a veering taut triangulation, which is a taut triangulation with some extra combinatorial structure. We define the weaker notion of a "veering triangulation" and use it to show that all veering triangulations admit strict angle structures. We also answer a question of Agol, giving an example of a veering taut triangulation that is not layered.

  5. Experimental technique of small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main parts of Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) spectrometer, and their function and different parameters are introduced from experimental aspect. Detailed information is also introduced for SANS spectrometer 'Membrana-2'. Based on practical experiments, the fundamental requirements and working condition for SANS experiments, including sample preparation, detector calibration, standard sample selection and data preliminary process are described. (authors)

  6. SANS-1: Small angle neutron scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, André; Mühlbauer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The new small angle scattering instrument SANS-1, jointly operated by the Technische Universität München and GEMS, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, has completed commissioning and is in regular user service (Gilles et al., 2006). SANS-1 is located at the end of neutron guide NL4a in the Neutron Guide Hall West.

  7. Large-angle Bhabha scattering at LEP 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenakker, Wim; Passarino, Giampiero

    1998-04-01

    A critical assessment is given of the theoretical uncertainty in the predicted cross-sections for large-angle Bhabha scattering at LEP 1, with or without t-channel subtraction. To this end a detailed comparison is presented of the results obtained with the programs ALIBABA and TOPAZ0. Differences in the implementation of the radiative corrections and the effect of missing higher-order terms are critically discussed. © 1998

  8. Large-Angle Bhabha Scattering at LEP 1

    OpenAIRE

    Wim BeenakkerLeiden Univ.; Giampiero Passarino(Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Università di Torino, Italy)

    1997-01-01

    A critical assessment is given of the theoretical uncertainty in the predicted cross-sections for large-angle Bhabha scattering at LEP 1, with or without t-channel subtraction. To this end a detailed comparison is presented of the results obtained with the programs ALIBABA and TOPAZ0. Differences in the implementation of the radiative corrections and the effect of missing higher-order terms are critically discussed.

  9. Large-Angle Bhabha Scattering at LEP 1

    CERN Document Server

    Beenakker, W; Beenakker, Wim; Passarino, Giampiero

    1998-01-01

    A critical assessment is given of the theoretical uncertainty in the predicted cross-sections for large-angle Bhabha scattering at LEP 1, with or without t-channel subtraction. To this end a detailed comparison is presented of the results obtained with the programs ALIBABA and TOPAZ0. Differences in the implementation of the radiative corrections and the effect of missing higher-order terms are critically discussed.

  10. Small-angle neutron scattering from micellar solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Aswal; P S Goyal

    2004-07-01

    Micellar solutions are the suspension of the colloidal aggregates of the surfactant molecules in aqueous solutions. The structure (shape and size) and the interaction of these aggregates, referred to as micelles, depend on the molecular architecture of the surfactant molecule, presence of additives and the solution conditions such as temperature, concentration etc. This paper gives the usefulness of small-angle neutron scattering to the study of micellar solutions with some of our recent results.

  11. Small angle neutron scattering from DNA molecules during gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed small angle neutron scattering experiments on agarose-DNA gels undergoing electrophoresis. Two kinds of DNA (5 and 50 kilobase pairs) were used with applied fields up to 5 V/cm. The SANS patterns obtained do not show evidence of any anisotropic scattering. This result is discussed in the context of current theories of DNA fragments migrating through a polysaccharide network. (orig.)

  12. A novel, variable angle guide grid for neuronal activity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Talbot

    2012-01-01

    Results: A pilot study involving microinjection of the Magnetic resonance (MR contrast agent gadolinium into the discrete regions of interest (ROIs in the temporal cortex of an awake, behaving monkey demonstrated the effectiveness of this new design of the guide grid. Using multiple different angles of approach, we were readily able to access 10 injection sites, which were up to 5 mm outside the traditional, orthogonal reach of the chamber.

  13. The small angle neutron spectrometer at the HANARO reactor, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, B.-S.; Han, Y.-S.; Lee, C.-H.; Lee, J.-S.; Hong, K.-P.; Park, K.-N.; Kim, H.-J.

    A new small angle neutron spectrometer (SANS) has been installed on the CN beam tube at the 30 MW HANARO Research Reactor in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The SANS is to be used for the study of microstructural inhomogeneities in materials in the 1 nm to 100 nm size range. In this paper, the design characteristics of the spectrometer are presented in detail, and several SANS results for standard samples are presented which illustrate its performance.

  14. Small-angle X-ray scattering of solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of synchrotron radiation in small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques in biological structural studies is described. The main features of the monochromatic radiation systems and the white radiation systems are considered. The detectors, data acquisition and experimental procedures are briefly described. Experimental results are presented for 1) measurements on dilute solutions and weak scatterers, 2) measurement of conformational transitions, 3) contrast variation experiments, 4) time-resolved measurements and 5) complex contrast variation. (U.K.)

  15. Brownian Motion on a Sphere: Distribution of Solid Angles

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna, M. M. G.; Samuel, Joseph; Sinha, Supurna

    2000-01-01

    We study the diffusion of Brownian particles on the surface of a sphere and compute the distribution of solid angles enclosed by the diffusing particles. This function describes the distribution of geometric phases in two state quantum systems (or polarised light) undergoing random evolution. Our results are also relevant to recent experiments which observe the Brownian motion of molecules on curved surfaces like micelles and biological membranes. Our theoretical analysis agrees well with the...

  16. Suggestion in Education: The Historical Path of Suggestopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Mary L.

    Although techniques of autosuggestion in personal development have a long history in some Eastern cultures, suggestibility as a character trait first came into focus in the West with the "animal magnetism" of Franz Mesmer. The uncovering of the nature and phenomena of hypnosis resulted in a steady and enduring interest in this state of heightened…

  17. Angle-resolved effective potentials for disk-shaped molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an approach for calculating coarse-grained angle-resolved effective pair potentials for uniaxial molecules. For integrating out the intramolecular degrees of freedom we apply umbrella sampling and steered dynamics techniques in atomistically-resolved molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. Throughout this study we focus on disk-like molecules such as coronene. To develop the methods we focus on integrating out the van der Waals and intramolecular interactions, while electrostatic charge contributions are neglected. The resulting coarse-grained pair potential reveals a strong temperature and angle dependence. In the next step we fit the numerical data with various Gay-Berne-like potentials to be used in more efficient simulations on larger scales. The quality of the resulting coarse-grained results is evaluated by comparing their pair and many-body structure as well as some thermodynamic quantities self-consistently to the outcome of atomistic MD simulations of many-particle systems. We find that angle-resolved potentials are essential not only to accurately describe crystal structures but also for fluid systems where simple isotropic potentials start to fail already for low to moderate packing fractions. Further, in describing these states it is crucial to take into account the pronounced temperature dependence arising in selected pair configurations due to bending fluctuations

  18. Angle-resolved effective potentials for disk-shaped molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.heinemann@tu-berlin.de; Klapp, Sabine H. L., E-mail: klapp@physik.tu-berlin.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Palczynski, Karol, E-mail: karol.palczynski@helmholtz-berlin.de; Dzubiella, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.dzubiella@helmholtz-berlin.de [Institut für Physik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB), Institute of Soft Matter and Functional Materials, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-12-07

    We present an approach for calculating coarse-grained angle-resolved effective pair potentials for uniaxial molecules. For integrating out the intramolecular degrees of freedom we apply umbrella sampling and steered dynamics techniques in atomistically-resolved molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. Throughout this study we focus on disk-like molecules such as coronene. To develop the methods we focus on integrating out the van der Waals and intramolecular interactions, while electrostatic charge contributions are neglected. The resulting coarse-grained pair potential reveals a strong temperature and angle dependence. In the next step we fit the numerical data with various Gay-Berne-like potentials to be used in more efficient simulations on larger scales. The quality of the resulting coarse-grained results is evaluated by comparing their pair and many-body structure as well as some thermodynamic quantities self-consistently to the outcome of atomistic MD simulations of many-particle systems. We find that angle-resolved potentials are essential not only to accurately describe crystal structures but also for fluid systems where simple isotropic potentials start to fail already for low to moderate packing fractions. Further, in describing these states it is crucial to take into account the pronounced temperature dependence arising in selected pair configurations due to bending fluctuations.

  19. Raman spectroscopy measurement of bilayer graphene's twist angle to boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When graphene is placed on hexagonal boron nitride with a twist angle, new properties develop due to the resulting moiré superlattice. Here, we report a method using Raman spectroscopy to make rapid, non-destructive measurements of the twist angle between bilayer graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. The lattice orientation is determined by using flakes with both bilayer and monolayer regions, and using the known Raman signature for the monolayer to measure the twist angle of the entire flake. The widths of the second order Raman peaks are found to vary linearly in the superlattice period and are used to determine the twist angle. The results are confirmed by using transport measurements to infer the superlattice period by the charge density required to reach the secondary resistance peaks. Small twist angles are also found to produce a significant modification of the first order Raman G band peak

  20. On-line determination of the grain angle using ellipse analysis of the laser light scattering pattern image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under fixed cutting conditions, the surface finish roughness is correlated to the grain angle. However, the means of determining the grain angle automatically and accurately is still a challenge for on-line control of the router. It is therefore necessary to develop a new technology to determine the grain angle accurately and automatically. In this research, a laser light scattering pattern was used to accurately determine the grain angle. The light scattering pattern image was a quasi-ellipse caused by the grain direction and tracheid effect. A new modified Hough transform ellipse analysis technology was adopted to determine the ellipse parameters that could be used to determine the grain angle. The results indicated that the measured grain angle using the method proposed here was accurate and effective. The measured gain angle coincided with the real grain angle. There was an insignificant difference between the measured grain angle of Japanese beech (Fagus crenata blume) and that of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D.Don) under two machining conditions that gave planed or sawn finishes. However, the accuracy of the measured grain angle of sugi was better than that of Japanese beech for the planed finish, the accuracy of the measured grain angle of Japanese beech was better than that of sugi for the sawn finish, and the accuracy of the measured grain angle for planed samples was better than that for sawn samples of both sugi and Japanese beech

  1. Characteristic lengths at moving contact lines for a perfectly wetting fluid the influence of speed on the dynamic contact angle

    CERN Document Server

    Eggers, J; Eggers, Jens; Stone, Howard A.

    2002-01-01

    It is common to relate the dynamic contact angle $\\theta_d$ to the relative speed between the substrate and the contact line; theory suggests $\\theta_d^3 \\propto U$. In fact, available physical models show that the dynamic angle involves speed logarithmically and in a model dependent manner. Experimental data consistent with this interpretation is cited.

  2. Simultaneous Multi-angle Observations of Strong Langmuir Turbulence at HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naomi; Golkowski, Mark; Sheerin, James P.; Watkins, Brenton J.

    2015-10-01

    We report results from a recent series of experiments employing the HF transmitter of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) to generate and study strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma. The Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) located at the HAARP facility is used as the primary diagnostic. Short pulse, low duty cycle experiments are used to avoid generation of artificial field-aligned irregularities and isolate ponderomotive plasma turbulence effects. The HF pump frequency is close to the 3rd gyro-harmonic frequency and the HF pointing angle and MUIR look angle are between the HF Spitze angle and Magnetic Zenith angle. Plasma line spectra measured simultaneously in different spots of the interaction region display differences dependent on the aspect angle of the HF pump beam in the boresight direction and the pointing angle of the MUIR diagnostic radar. Outshifted Plasma Lines, cascade, collapse, coexistence, spectra are observed in agreement with existing theory and simulation results of Strong Langmuir Turbulence in ionospheric interaction experiments. It is found that SLT at HAARP is most readily observed at a HF pointing angle of 11° and UHF observation angle of 15°, which is consistent with the magnetic zenith effect as documented in previous works and optimal orientation of the refracted HF electric field vector.

  3. Impact of overweight and obesity on the musculoskeletal system using lumbosacral angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyemaechi, Ndubuisi OC; Anyanwu, Godson E; Obikili, Emmanuel N; Onwuasoigwe, Okechukwu; Nwankwo, Okechukwu E

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity have been identified as independent risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. However, the association between obesity and low back pain remains controversial. Little is known about the effects of overweight and obesity on the angles of the lumbosacral spine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of body mass index (BMI) and waist–hip ratio (WHR) on lumbosacral angles. Methods The effects of BMI and WHR on the lumbar lordosis angle (LLA), lumbosacral angle (LSA), sacral inclination angle (°°), and lumbosacral disc angle (LSDA) of 174 overweight and obese subjects (test group) and 126 underweight and normal-weight subjects (control group) were analyzed. Results The test group had a significantly higher mean LSA, LLA, sacral inclination angle (SIA), and LSDA (P=0.001). A significant correlation was noted between BMI and LSA (P=0.001), LLA (P=0.001), SIA (P=0.001), and LSDA (P=0.03). There was also a positive relationship between WHR and LSA (P=0.012), LLA (P=0.009), SIA (P=0.02), and LSDA (P=0.01). Conclusion There was an increase in lumbosacral angles in individuals with raised BMI and WHR. This may result in biomechanical changes in the lumbosacral spine, which increase the incidence of low back pain. PMID:27022251

  4. XFEL OSCILLATOR SIMULATION INCLUDING ANGLE-DEPENDENT CRYSTAL REFLECTIVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oscillator package within the GINGER FEL simulation code has now been extended to include angle-dependent reflectivity properties of Bragg crystals. Previously, the package was modified to include frequencydependent reflectivity in order to model x-ray FEL oscillators from start-up from shot noise through to saturation. We present a summary of the algorithms used for modeling the crystal reflectivity and radiation propagation outside the undulator, discussing various numerical issues relevant to the domain of high Fresnel number and efficient Hankel transforms. We give some sample XFEL-O simulation results obtained with the angle-dependent reflectivity model, with particular attention directed to the longitudinal and transverse coherence of the radiation output.

  5. Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation Based on Hybrid Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle sideslip angle is essential for active safety control systems. This paper presents a new hybrid Kalman filter to estimate vehicle sideslip angle based on the 3-DoF nonlinear vehicle dynamic model combined with Magic Formula tire model. The hybrid Kalman filter is realized by combining square-root cubature Kalman filter (SCKF, which has quick convergence and numerical stability, with square-root cubature based receding horizon Kalman FIR filter (SCRHKF, which has robustness against model uncertainty and temporary noise. Moreover, SCKF and SCRHKF work in parallel, and the estimation outputs of two filters are merged by interacting multiple model (IMM approach. Experimental results show the accuracy and robustness of the hybrid Kalman filter.

  6. Flow tilt angles near forest edges - Part 2: Lidar anemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Mann, Jakob; Bingöl, Ferhat

    2010-01-01

    fetch-limited beech forest site taken at 48–175 m a.g.l. (above ground level), (2) a reference site in flat agricultural terrain and (3) a second reference site in complex terrain are presented. The method to derive flow tilt angles and mean vertical velocities from lidar has several advantages compared...... same alignment error at a multitude of heights. Disadvantages with estimating vertical velocities from a lidar compared to mast-based measurements are potentially slightly increased levels of statistical errors due to limited sampling time, because the sampling is disjunct, and a requirement for...... results of the vertical conical scans were promising, and yielded positive flow angles for a sector where the forest is fetch-limited. However, more data and analysis are needed for a complete evaluation of the lidar technique....

  7. Angle resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy on graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebold, U.; Preisinger, A.; Schattschneider, P.; Varga, P.

    We report on angle resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in reflection mode with low primary energy on a graphite single crystal. Measurements with primary electron energy of 175 eV have been performed in off-Bragg-reflex geometry in two different directions within the (0001) surface plane of the graphite single crystal. In addition, EELS measurements in specular reflection mode with different primary energies and angles of incidence were done in order to distinguish between surface and bulk plasmon losses. The energy losses and the transferred momenta of the losses have been analyzed. The results are compared with the loss functions for bulk and surface excitations calculated from the dielectric function ɛ(ω, q) obtained from TEELS-data (EELS in transmission mode) [Springer Tracts Mod. Phys. 54 (1970) 77].

  8. Contact angle and film pressure: study of a talc surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillard, J M; Zajac, J; Malandrini, H; Clauss, F

    2002-11-15

    Talc samples in both sheet and powder form are studied by adsorption calorimetry and adsorption isotherm techniques. A model is used to determine the solid surface energy, the solid surface tension and the dispersive, acidic, and basic components of these terms. These results are introduced in an approximate equation relating adsorption to contact angle data. Experimental contact angles are in correct agreement with this approach. The Neumann equation of state is used to fit the data and discussed. It appears as a numerical form of the general equation taking into account gas adsorption and film pressure. Behaviors of talc in contact with liquids do not appear very different whether the solid is in sheet or powder form. PMID:12505082

  9. A wide-angle camera module for disposable endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Dongha; Yeon, Jesun; Yi, Jason; Park, Jongwon; Park, Soo Nam; Lee, Nanhee

    2016-08-01

    A wide-angle miniaturized camera module for disposable endoscope is demonstrated in this paper. A lens module with 150° angle of view (AOV) is designed and manufactured. All plastic injection-molded lenses and a commercial CMOS image sensor are employed to reduce the manufacturing cost. The image sensor and LED illumination unit are assembled with a lens module. The camera module does not include a camera processor to further reduce its size and cost. The size of the camera module is 5.5 × 5.5 × 22.3 mm3. The diagonal field of view (FOV) of the camera module is measured to be 110°. A prototype of a disposable endoscope is implemented to perform a pre-clinical animal testing. The esophagus of an adult beagle dog is observed. These results demonstrate the feasibility of a cost-effective and high-performance camera module for disposable endoscopy.

  10. Interference-induced angle-independent acoustical transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is revealed that the Fano-like interference leads to the extraordinary acoustic transmission through a slab metamaterial of thickness much smaller than the wavelength, with each unit cell consisting of a Helmholtz resonator and a narrow subwavelength slit. More importantly, both the theoretical analysis and experimental measurement show that the angle-independent acoustical transparency can be realized by grafting a Helmholtz resonator and a quarter-wave resonator to the wall of a narrow subwavelength slit in each unit cell of a slit array. The observed phenomenon results from the interferences between the waves propagating in the slit, those re-radiated by the Helmholtz resonator, and those re-radiated by the quarter-wave resonator. The proposed design may find its applications in designing angle-independent acoustical filters and controlling the phase of the transmitted waves

  11. Interference-induced angle-independent acoustical transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Lehua; Yu, Gaokun, E-mail: gkyu@ouc.edu.cn; Wang, Ning [Department of Marine Technology, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Wang, Xinlong [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics and Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, Guibo [Shipbuilding Information Center of China, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-12-21

    It is revealed that the Fano-like interference leads to the extraordinary acoustic transmission through a slab metamaterial of thickness much smaller than the wavelength, with each unit cell consisting of a Helmholtz resonator and a narrow subwavelength slit. More importantly, both the theoretical analysis and experimental measurement show that the angle-independent acoustical transparency can be realized by grafting a Helmholtz resonator and a quarter-wave resonator to the wall of a narrow subwavelength slit in each unit cell of a slit array. The observed phenomenon results from the interferences between the waves propagating in the slit, those re-radiated by the Helmholtz resonator, and those re-radiated by the quarter-wave resonator. The proposed design may find its applications in designing angle-independent acoustical filters and controlling the phase of the transmitted waves.

  12. Refractivity estimations from an angle-of-arrival spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xiao-Feng; Huang Si-Xun

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the probability of atmospheric refractivity estimation by using field measurements at an array of radio receivers in terms of angle-of-arrival spectrum. Angle-of-arrival spectrum information is simulated by the ray optics model and refractivity is expressed in the presence of an ideal tri-linear profile. The estimation of the refractivity is organized as an optimization problem and a genetic algorithm is used to search for the optimal solution from various trial refractivity profiles. Theoretical analysis demonstrates the feasibility of this method to retrieve the refractivity parameters. Simulation results indicate that this approach has a fair anti-noise ability and its accuracy performance is mainly dependent on the antenna aperture size and its positions.

  13. Crack depth profiling using guided wave angle dependent reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomographic corrosion monitoring techniques have been developed, using two rings of sensors around the circumference of a pipe. This technique is capable of providing a detailed wall thickness map, however this might not be the only type of structural damage. Therefore this concept is expanded to detect and size cracks and small corrosion defects like root corrosion. The expanded concept uses two arrays of guided-wave transducers, collecting both reflection and transmission data. The data is processed such that the angle-dependent reflectivity is obtained without using a baseline signal of a defect-free situation. The angle-dependent reflectivity is the input of an inversion scheme that calculates a crack depth profile. From this profile, the depth and length of the crack can be determined. Preliminary experiments show encouraging results. The depth sizing accuracy is in the order of 0.5 mm

  14. Precision Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle in Moller Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Anthony, P L; Arroyo, C; Bega, K; Biesiada, J; Bosted, P E; Bower, G; Cahoon, J; Carr, R; Cates, G D; Chen, J P; Chudakov, E; Cooke, M; Decowski, P; Deur, A; Emam, W; Erickson, R; Fieguth, T; Field, C; Gao, J; Gary, M; Gustafsson, K; Hicks, R S; Holmes, R; Hughes, E W; Humensky, T B; Jones, G M; Kaufman, L J; Keller, L; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kumar, K S; La Violette, P; Lhuillier, D; Lombard-Nelsen, R M; Marshall, Z; Mastromarino, P; McKeown, R D; Michaels, R; Niedziela, J; Olson, M; Paschke, K D; Peterson, G A; Pitthan, R; Relyea, D; Rock, S E; Saxton, O; Singh, J; Souder, P A; Szalata, Z M; Turner, J; Tweedie, B; Vacheret, A; Walz, D; Weber, T; Weisend, J; Woods, M; Younus, I

    2005-01-01

    We report on a precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in fixed target electron-electron (Moller) scattering: A_PV = -131 +/- 14 (stat.) +/- 10 (syst.) parts per billion, leading to the determination of the weak mixing angle \\sin^2\\theta_W^eff = 0.2397 +/- 0.0010 (stat.) +/- 0.0008 (syst.), evaluated at Q^2 = 0.026 GeV^2. Combining this result with the measurements of \\sin^2\\theta_W^eff at the Z^0 pole, the running of the weak mixing angle is observed with over 6 sigma significance. The measurement sets constraints on new physics effects at the TeV scale.

  15. A wide-angle camera module for disposable endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Dongha; Yeon, Jesun; Yi, Jason; Park, Jongwon; Park, Soo Nam; Lee, Nanhee

    2016-06-01

    A wide-angle miniaturized camera module for disposable endoscope is demonstrated in this paper. A lens module with 150° angle of view (AOV) is designed and manufactured. All plastic injection-molded lenses and a commercial CMOS image sensor are employed to reduce the manufacturing cost. The image sensor and LED illumination unit are assembled with a lens module. The camera module does not include a camera processor to further reduce its size and cost. The size of the camera module is 5.5 × 5.5 × 22.3 mm3. The diagonal field of view (FOV) of the camera module is measured to be 110°. A prototype of a disposable endoscope is implemented to perform a pre-clinical animal testing. The esophagus of an adult beagle dog is observed. These results demonstrate the feasibility of a cost-effective and high-performance camera module for disposable endoscopy.

  16. Scattering angle base filtering of the inversion gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach based on the availability of low frequencies to maneuver the complex nonlinearity associated with the problem of velocity inversion. I develop a model gradient filter to help us access the parts of the gradient more suitable to combat this potential nonlinearity. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which low scattering angles of the gradient update are initially muted. The result are long-wavelength updates controlled by the ray component of the wavefield. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce near zero wavelength updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Allowing smaller scattering angle to contribute provides higher resolution information to the model.

  17. Suggested Interactivity: Seeking Perceived Affordances for Information Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Jeremy; Eveillard, Louis; Detienne, Françoise; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate methods for suggesting the interactivity of online visualizations embedded with text. We first assess the need for such methods by conducting three initial experiments on Amazon's Mechanical Turk. We then present a design space for Suggested Interactivity (i. e., visual cues used as perceived affordances-SI), based on a survey of 382 HTML5 and visualization websites. Finally, we assess the effectiveness of three SI cues we designed for suggesting the interactivity of bar charts embedded with text. Our results show that only one cue (SI3) was successful in inciting participants to interact with the visualizations, and we hypothesize this is because this particular cue provided feedforward. PMID:26390473

  18. High angle of attack aerodynamics subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flows

    CERN Document Server

    Rom, Josef

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamics of aircraft at high angles of attack is a subject which is being pursued diligently, because the modern agile fighter aircraft and many of the current generation of missiles must perform well at very high incidence, near and beyond stall. However, a comprehensive presentation of the methods and results applicable to the studies of the complex aerodynamics at high angle of attack has not been covered in monographs or textbooks. This book is not the usual textbook in that it goes beyond just presenting the basic theoretical and experimental know-how, since it contains reference material to practical calculation methods and technical and experimental results which can be useful to the practicing aerospace engineers and scientists. It can certainly be used as a text and reference book for graduate courses on subjects related to high angles of attack aerodynamics and for topics related to three-dimensional separation in viscous flow courses. In addition, the book is addressed to the aerodynamicist...

  19. Seismic Slip on an Oblique Detachment Fault at Low Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecke, S. U.; Steely, A. N.; Evans, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    Pseudotachylytes are one of the few accepted indicators of seismic slip along ancient faults. Low-angle normal faults have produced few large earthquakes in historic times and low-angle normal faults (detachment faults) are typically severely misoriented relative to a vertical maximum compressive stress. As a result many geoscientists question whether low-angle normal faults produce earthquakes at low angles. Relationships in southern California show that a major low-angle normal-oblique fault slipped at low angles and produced large earthquakes. The exhumed Late Cenozoic West Salton detachment fault preserves spectacular fault- related pseudotachylytes along its fault plane and injected into its hanging wall and footwall. Composite pseudotachylyte zones are up to 1.25 m thick and persists over lateral distances of at least 10's of meters. Pseudotachylyte is common in most thin sections of damaged fault rocks with more than 20% (by volume) of cataclasite. We recognized the presence of original melt using numerous criteria: abundant spherulites in thin sections, injection structures at both the thin-section and outcrop scale, black aphanitic textures, quenched vein margins, variations in microcrystallite textures and/or size with respect to the vein margin, and glassy textures in hand sample. Multiple earthquakes are inferred to produce the layered "stratigraphy" in some exposures of pseudotachylytes. We infer that the West Salton detachment fault formed and slipped at low angles because it nearly perfectly reactivates a Cretaceous ductile thrust system at the half km scale and dips between 10 and 45 degrees. The about 30 degree NNE dip of the detachment fault on the north side of Yaqui Ridge is likely steeper than its dip during detachment slip because there is local steepening on the flanks of the Yaqui Ridge antiform in a contractional stepover of a crosscutting Quaternary San Felipe dextral fault zone. These relationships indicate a low dip on the detachment

  20. On MSDT inversion with multi-angle remote sensing data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With the wavelet transform, image of multi-angle remote sensing is decomposed into multi-resolution. With data of each resolution, we try target-based multi-stages inversion, taking the inversion result of coarse resolution as the prior information of the next inversion. The result gets finer and finer until the resolution of satellite observation. In this way, the target-based multi-stages inversion can be used in remote sensing inversion of large-scaled coverage. With MISR data, we inverse structure parameters of vegetation in semiarid grassland of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The result proves that this way is efficient.

  1. Mandibular Angle Fractures: Comparison of One Miniplate vs. Two Miniplates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Hajmohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monocortical miniplate fixation is an accepted and reliable method for internal fixation of mandibular angle fractures. Although placement of a second miniplate may theoretically provide more stability; however, the clinical importance of this issue remains controversial.Objectives: The present study assessed the postoperative complications and outcomes associated with the fixation of mandibular angle fractures using 1 and 2 miniplates in patients with favorable mandibular angle fractures.Patients and Methods: A prospective study of 87 patients (73 males, 14 females with favorable mandibular angle fractures was done. In the first group, a 4-hole miniplate was placed at the superior border through an intraoral approach. In group 2, patients were treated with 2 miniplates, one placed at the superior border (similar to group 1 and the other on the lateral aspect of the angle at the inferior border through an intraoral and transcutaneous approach using a trocar. Postoperative complications including malocclusion, malunion and sensory disturbances associated with surgery, additional maxillomandibular fixation (MMF by means of an arch bar and wires for a longer period (for delayed union and infection were assessed in patients of both groups up to 12 months postoperatively. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test.Results: In the single miniplate group, 25 patients showed lip numbness associated with surgery (55.6%, 22 patients required additional use of MMF (48.9% and 3 patients developed infections (6.7%. In the double miniplate group 20 patients showed lip numbness associated with surgery (47.6%, 18 patients required additional use of MMF (42.9% and 1 patient developed infection (2.4%. None of the patients in either group showed malocclusion or malunion. No significant difference was observed between the groups regarding overall complication rate.Conclusions: In this study, use of one miniplate or two miniplates for treatment of

  2. An investigation on the effects of resection angle on apical sea!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmi H

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The goal of a successful endodontic surgery is to establish an adequate seal in apical region. Therefore during surgery, root-end resection is essential for an appropriate situation and proper access."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate root-end resection angle to establish adequate apical seal in periapical surgery,"nMaterials and Methods: Forty-five intact extracted human maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into three 15-tooth groups. The root canals were instrumented and then obturated using lateral condensation technique. AM roots were resected at 3mm from apical portion. Angles of root resection for each group were 0, 30 and 45 degrees. Then all teeth surfaces, except the cut ones, were covered with nail polish and immersed in methylen blue for 7 days. After 7 days, nail polish was removed from the surfaces and samples were split in buccolingual direction. Then, dye penetration (mm was measured using a stereozoom microscope (Loupe [X4 magnification] and eye lens. In order to analyze the data, unilateral variance analysis was used."nResults: The values of dye penetration were: 7.23±3.34 (0°, 8.46±3.01(30° and 9.74±4.11 (45°. There"nwas no significant difference between three groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: It is suggested that the angle of root-end resection put a limited effect on apical seal if retrograde cavity depth is increased.

  3. Association Between Baseline Iris Thickness and Prophylactic Laser Peripheral Iridotomy Outcomes in Primary Angle Closure Suspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roland Y.; Kasuga, Toshimitsu; Cui, Qi N.; Porco, Travis C.; Huang, Guofu; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between baseline measurements of iris thickness at three positions and change in anterior segment biometric parameters after prophylactic laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI). Design Prospective clinical cohort study. Participants Fifty-two eyes of 52 nonglaucomatous subjects with anatomically narrow angles. Methods Anterior segment optical coherence tomography images captured before and after LPI were analyzed using customized software, the Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program. Differences in preoperative and postoperative measurements for anterior segment biometric parameters were compared by paired Student’s t-tests. Multivariate linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and preoperative pupil diameter, were used to examine the association between the baseline measurements of iris thickness at three positions and the change in anterior segment biometric parameters after LPI. Main Outcome Measures Baseline iris thickness measured at 750μm (IT750) and 2000μm (IT2000) from the scleral spur and maximal iris thickness (ITM). Changes in iris curvature (ICURV) and trabecular–iris space area at 500μm (TISA500) and 750μm (TISA750) from the scleral spur after LPI. Results ICURV significantly decreased, while TISA500 and TISA750 significantly increased following LPI (all PTISA500 and TISA750 (both PTISA500 and TISA750 after LPI. This suggests that eyes with thinner irides undergoing LPI were more likely to exhibit greater magnitude of change in terms of flattening of the iris convexity (i.e., ICURV) and widening of the anterior chamber angle (i.e., TISA500 and TISA750). PMID:24534754

  4. Anti-neurotrophic effects from autoantibodies in adult diabetes having primary open angle glaucoma or dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B Zimering

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To test for anti-endothelial and anti-neurotrophic effects from autoantibodies in subsets of diabetes having open- angle glaucoma, dementia or control subjects.Methods: Protein-A eluates from plasma of 20 diabetic subjects having glaucoma or suspects and 34 age-matched controls were tested for effects on neurite outgrowth in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells or endothelial cell survival. The mechanism of the diabetic glaucoma autoantibodies' neurite inhibitory effect was investigated in coincubations with the selective Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 or the sulfated proteoglycan synthesis inhibitor sodium chlorate. Stored protein-A eluates from certain diabetic glaucoma or dementia subjects which contained long-lasting, highly stable cell inhibitory substances were characterized using mass spectrometry and amino acid sequencing.Results: Diabetic primary open angle glaucoma or suspects (n=20 or diabetic dementia (n=3 autoantibodies caused significantly greater mean inhibition of neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells (p < .0001 compared to autoantibodies in control diabetic (n=24 or nondiabetic (n=10 subjects without glaucoma (p < .01. Neurite inhibition by the diabetic glaucoma autoantibodies was completely abolished by 10 µM concentrations of Y27632 (n=4. It was substantially reduced by 30 mM concentrations of sodium chlorate (n=4. Peak, long-lasting activity survived storage x 5 years at 0-4 deg C and was associated with a restricted subtype of Ig kappa light chain. Diabetic glaucoma or dementia autoantibodies (n=5 caused contraction and process retraction in quiescent cerebral cortical astrocytes effects which were blocked by 5 µM concentrations of Y27632. Conclusion: These data suggest that autoantibodies in adult diabetes having primary open angle glaucoma (glaucoma suspects and/or dementia inhibit neurite outgrowth and promote a reactive astrocyte morphology by a mechanism which may involve activation of the RhoA/p160 ROCK signaling pathway.

  5. Gaia: focus, straylight and basic angle

    CERN Document Server

    Mora, A; Bombrun, A; Boyadian, J; Chassat, F; Corberand, P; Davidson, M; Doyle, D; Escolar, D; Gielesen, W L M; Guilpain, T; Hernandez, J; Kirschner, V; Klioner, S A; Koeck, C; Laine, B; Lindegren, L; Serpell, E; Tatry, P; Thoral, P

    2016-01-01

    The Gaia all-sky astrometric survey is challenged by several issues affecting the spacecraft stability. Amongst them, we find the focus evolution, straylight and basic angle variations Contrary to pre-launch expectations, the image quality is continuously evolving, during commissioning and the nominal mission. Payload decontaminations and wavefront sensor assisted refocuses have been carried out to recover optimum performance. An ESA-Airbus DS working group analysed the straylight and basic angle issues and worked on a detailed root cause analysis. In parallel, the Gaia scientists have also analysed the data, most notably comparing the BAM signal to global astrometric solutions, with remarkable agreement. In this contribution, a status review of these issues will be provided, with emphasis on the mitigation schemes and the lessons learned for future space missions where extreme stability is a key requirement.

  6. Choroidal physiology and primary angle closure disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiulan; Wang, Wei; Aung, Tin; Jonas, Jost B; Wang, Ningli

    2015-01-01

    Primary angle closure disease (PACD), prevalent in Asian countries, is generally associated with a shallower anterior chamber, a shorter axial length, thicker lens, hyperopia, and female sex. Other physiologic factors, however, may be important, especially with regard to triggering acute primary angle closure. Thickening of the choroid has been demonstrated in untreated and treated, acute and chronic PACD eyes. Recently, there has been growing interest in studying the role of the choroid in the pathophysiology of PACD. The emergence of new imaging technology such as the enhanced depth imaging mode of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and swept-source optical coherence tomography has contributed to understanding PACD pathologies. We summarize the functions of the choroid and choroidal changes in the pathogenesis of PACD, and discuss potential future developments. PMID:26164737

  7. Sparse regularization in limited angle tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Frikel, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the reconstruction problem of limited angle tomography. Such problems arise naturally in applications like digital breast tomosynthesis, dental tomography, electron microscopy etc. Since the acquired tomographic data is highly incomplete, the reconstruction problem is severely ill-posed and the traditional reconstruction methods, such as filtered backprojection (FBP), do not perform well in such situations. To stabilize the reconstruction procedure additional prior knowledge about the unknown object has to be integrated into the reconstruction process. In this work, we propose the use of the sparse regularization technique in combination with curvelets. We argue that this technique gives rise to an edge-preserving reconstruction. Moreover, we show that the dimension of the problem can be significantly reduced in the curvelet domain. To this end, we give a characterization of the kernel of limited angle Radon transform in terms of curvelets and derive a characterization of solutions obtained thr...

  8. The small angle diffractometer SANS at PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    With the start-up of SINQ an instrument for small angle neutron scattering will be operational which compares well with the world`s largest and most powerful facilities of this kind. Following the classical principle of the D11-instrument of ILL, it is equipped with state-of-the-art components as are nowadays available, including options for further upgrading. Great emphasis was laid upon providing a flexible, universal multi-user facility which guarantees a comfortable and reliable operation. In the present paper, the principle layout of the instrument is presented, and the individual components are described in detail. The paper concludes with model application of small angle scattering to a system of dilute CuCo alloys which undergo a phase separation under thermal treatment, forming spherical Co-precipitates dispersed in a Cu-rich matrix. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs.

  9. Radiographic measures of thoracic kyphosis in osteoporosis: Cobb and vertebral centroid angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, A.M.; Greig, A.M. [University of Melbourne, Centre for Health, Exercise and Sports Medicine, School of Physiotherapy, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria (Australia); Wrigley, T.V.; Tully, E.A.; Adams, P.E.; Bennell, K.L. [University of Melbourne, Centre for Health, Exercise and Sports Medicine, School of Physiotherapy, Victoria (Australia)

    2007-08-15

    Several measures can quantify thoracic kyphosis from radiographs, yet their suitability for people with osteoporosis remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the vertebral centroid and Cobb angles in people with osteoporosis. Lateral radiographs of the thoracic spine were captured in 31 elderly women with osteoporosis. Thoracic kyphosis was measured globally (T1-T12) and regionally (T4-T9) using Cobb and vertebral centroid angles. Multisegmental curvature was also measured by fitting polynomial functions to the thoracic curvature profile. Canonical and Pearson correlations were used to examine correspondence; agreement between measures was examined with linear regression. Moderate to high intra- and inter-rater reliability was achieved (SEM = 0.9-4.0 ). Concurrent validity of the simple measures was established against multisegmental curvature (r = 0.88-0.98). Strong association was observed between the Cobb and centroid angles globally (r = 0.84) and regionally (r = 0.83). Correspondence between measures was moderate for the Cobb method (r = 0.72), yet stronger for the centroid method (r = 0.80). The Cobb angle was 20% greater for regional measures due to the influence of endplate tilt. Regional Cobb and centroid angles are valid and reliable measures of thoracic kyphosis in people with osteoporosis. However, the Cobb angle is biased by endplate tilt, suggesting that the centroid angle is more appropriate for this population. (orig.)

  10. Radiographic measures of thoracic kyphosis in osteoporosis: Cobb and vertebral centroid angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several measures can quantify thoracic kyphosis from radiographs, yet their suitability for people with osteoporosis remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the vertebral centroid and Cobb angles in people with osteoporosis. Lateral radiographs of the thoracic spine were captured in 31 elderly women with osteoporosis. Thoracic kyphosis was measured globally (T1-T12) and regionally (T4-T9) using Cobb and vertebral centroid angles. Multisegmental curvature was also measured by fitting polynomial functions to the thoracic curvature profile. Canonical and Pearson correlations were used to examine correspondence; agreement between measures was examined with linear regression. Moderate to high intra- and inter-rater reliability was achieved (SEM = 0.9-4.0 ). Concurrent validity of the simple measures was established against multisegmental curvature (r = 0.88-0.98). Strong association was observed between the Cobb and centroid angles globally (r = 0.84) and regionally (r 0.83). Correspondence between measures was moderate for the Cobb method (r 0.72), yet stronger for the centroid method (r = 0.80). The Cobb angle was 20% greater for regional measures due to the influence of endplate tilt. Regional Cobb and centroid angles are valid and reliable measures of thoracic kyphosis in people with osteoporosis. However, the Cobb angle is biased by endplate tilt, suggesting that the centroid angle is more appropriate for this population. (orig.)

  11. Determination of Femoral Neck Angle and Torsion Angle Utilizing a Novel Three-Dimensional Modeling and Analytical Technology Based on CT Datasets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian J Hartel

    Full Text Available Exact knowledge of femoral neck inclination and torsion angles is important in recognizing, understanding and treating pathologic conditions in the hip joint. However, published results vary widely between different studies, which indicates that there are persistent difficulties in carrying out exact measurements.A three dimensional modeling and analytical technology was used for the analysis of 1070 CT datasets of skeletally mature femurs. Individual femoral neck angles and torsion angles were precisely computed, in order to establish whether gender, age, body mass index and ethnicity influence femoral neck angles and torsion angles.The median femoral neck angle was 122.2° (range 100.1-146.2°, IQR 117.9-125.6°. There are significant gender (female 123.0° vs. male 121.5°; p = 0.007 and ethnic (Asian 123.2° vs. Caucasian 121.9°; p = 0.0009 differences. The median femoral torsion angle was 14.2° (-23.6-48.7°, IQR 7.4-20.4°. There are significant gender differences (female 16.4° vs. male 12.1°; p = 0.0001. Femoral retroversion was found in 7.8% of the subjects.Precise femoral neck and torsion angles were obtained in over one thousand cases. Systematic deviations in measurement due to human error were eliminated by using automated high accuracy morphometric analysis. Small but significant gender and ethnic differences were found in femoral neck and torsion angles.

  12. Cognitive models for the concept of angle

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, José Manuel Leonardo de

    1999-01-01

    The instructional models taught in class were similar to the students' models. The teachers addressed angle as a basic-level category, discussed its submodels, clarified the boundaries, and established cognitive reference points. They gradually increased the use of complex metaphors and of several models. The study enriched the characterization of the first two levels of van Hiele theory and demonstrated the value of categorization theory in understanding how our comprehension ...

  13. Lorentz angle measurements in silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, V.; Boer, W. de E-mail: wim.de.boer@cern.ch; Bol, J.; Dierlamm, A.; Grigoriev, E.; Hauler, F.; Heising, S.; Herz, O.; Jungermann, L.; Keraenen, R.; Koppenhoefer, M.; Roederer, F.; Schneider, T

    2002-02-01

    In this paper we study the Lorentz angles of both electrons and holes in magnetic fields up to 8 T and temperatures between 77 and 300 K. This is done before and after irradiating a detector with 21 MeV protons up to a fluence of 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2}, which is equivalent to {approx}2.8x10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2} 1 MeV neutrons.

  14. Low angle resistivity anomaly in layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pinning effect of vortex lines by the layered structure (intrinsic pinning) on resistivity of high-Tc, superconductors in the mixed state is investigated by means of perturbation theory. A sharp drop in the resistivity at small angles for which vortex lines are almost aligned with the ab-planes is shown to occur even in a high-temperature region where the pinning potential is reduced by thermal fluctuations

  15. Numerical simulations of fish-friendly angled trashracks at model and real scale

    OpenAIRE

    Raynal, Sylvain; Chatellier, Ludovic; David, Laurent; Courret, Dominique; Larinier, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Several amphihaline species, such as silver eels, suffer high mortality rates during their downstream migration, due to their passage through turbines. The combination of adapted trashracks (inclined or angled screen, lower bar spacing, …) with bypasses can efficiently prevent these mortalities. A numerical study has been carried out with such angled trashracks. Numerical results with model scale racks were validated against previous experimental results on model trashracks, resulting from he...

  16. Studies in small angle scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small angle scattering of neutrons, X-rays and γ-rays are found among the spectroscopic methods developed in the recent years. Although these techniques differ from each other in many respects, e.g. radiation sources and technical equipment needed, their power to resolve physical phenomena and areas of application can be discussed in a general scheme. Selected examples are given illustrating the use of specific technical methods. Jahn-Teller driven structural phase transitions in Rare Earth zircons were studied with neutron scattering as well as small angle γ-ray diffraction. The study of neutron scattering from formations of magnetic domains in the Ising ferromagnet LiTbF4 is a second example. Both these examples represent more than experimental test cases since the theoretical interpretations of the data obtained are discussed as well. As a last example the use of small angle scattering methods for the study of molecular biological samples is discussed. In particular the experimental procedures used in connection with scattering from aqueous solutions of proteins and protein complexes are given. (Auth.)

  17. Moment-angle complexes from simplicial posets

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Zhi

    2009-01-01

    We extend the construction of moment-angle complexes to simplicial posets by associating a certain T^m-space Z_S to an arbitrary simplicial poset S on m vertices. Face rings Z[S] of simplicial posets generalise those of simplicial complexes, but have much more complicated algebraic structure. Our primary motivation is to study the face rings Z[S] by topological methods. The space Z_S has many important topological properties of the original moment-angle complex Z_K associated to a simplicial complex K. In particular, we prove that the integral cohomology algebra of Z_S is isomorphic to the Tor-algebra of the face ring Z[S]. This leads directly to a generalisation of Hochster's theorem, expressing the algebraic Betti numbers of the ring Z[S] in terms of the homology of full subposets in S. Finally, we estimate the total amount of homology of Z_S from below by proving the toral rank conjecture for the moment-angle complexes Z_S.

  18. Moderate biomanipulation for eutrophication control in reservoirs using fish captured in angling competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral S.D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angling competitions are a popular leisure activity in reservoirs of Southern Portugal. These competitions can gather more than 100 anglers aiming to catch the maximum fish weight. Groundbaiting and catch-and-release angling are two common practices for anglers in competition. In this study, the loads of nutrients from commercial groundbait powders used in angling competitions in the Maranhão reservoir and the possible balance out of those nutrients through a moderate biomanipulation of the fish biomass caught in competitions were analysed. In order to achieve this aim, chemical analyses to groundbait powders most purchased by Portuguese anglers and to fish species most captured in competitions were made. Mass balances on inputs and outputs of nutrients considering some biomanipulation scenarios were evaluated. Results demonstrated that an effective management on angling competitions implementing a moderate biomanipulation of fish in reservoirs could promote the control of fish fauna and eutrophication, balancing out nutrients from angling.

  19. Joint Angles and Mutual Coupling Estimation Algorithm for Bistatic MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of angle estimation for a bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar with unknown mutual coupling and proposed a joint algorithm for angles and mutual coupling estimation with the characteristics of uniform linear arrays and subspaces exploitation. We primarily obtain an initial estimate of DOA and DOD, then employ the local one-dimensional searching to estimate exactly DOA and DOD, and finally evaluate the parameters of mutual coupling coefficients via the estimated angles. Exploiting twice of the one-dimensional local searching, our method has much lower computational cost than the algorithm in (Liu and Liao (2012, and automatically obtains the paired two-dimensional angle estimation. Slightly better performance for angle estimation has been achieved via our scheme in contrast to (Liu and Liao (2012, while the two methods indicate very close performance of mutual coupling estimation. The simulation results verify the algorithmic effectiveness of our scheme.

  20. Measurement of small angle based on a (1 0 0) silicon wafer and heterodyne interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Lin, Jiun-You; Chen, Yu-Fong; Chang, Chia-Ou

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a new optical material application and a heterodyne interferometer are proposed for measuring small angles. In the proposed interferometer, the optical material is a (1 0 0) silicon wafer applied to compose a new architecture of small angle sensor. The small angle measurement used the phase difference which is dependent on the incident angle at the silicon wafer surface to deduce the angular variation. The proposed architecture is simple and uses the common path method to compare test and reference signals; thus, small angles can be easily and accurately measured by estimating the phase difference. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this method. The angular resolution and sensitivity levels superior to 7 × 10-5° (1.3 × 10-6 rad) and 150 (deg/deg), respectively, were attainable in a dynamic range of 0.45°.

  1. Influence on ultrasonic incident angle and defect detection sensitivity by cast stainless steel structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that ultrasonic waves are affected strongly by macro-structures in cast stainless steel, as in the primary pipe or other components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). In this work, ultrasonic refractive angles and defect detection sensitivities are investigated at different incident angles to cast stainless steel. The aims of the investigation are to clarify the transmission of ultrasonic waves in cast stainless steel and to contribute to the transducer design. The results are that ultrasonic refractive angles in cast stainless steel shift towards the 45-degree direction with respect to the direction of dendritic structures by 11.8 degrees at the maximum and that the sensitivity of transducer for inner surface breaking cracks increases with decreasing incident angle. However, in an ultrasonic inspection of actual welds at smaller incident angles, a trade-off occurs between increased defect detection sensitivity and decreased defect discrimination capability due to intense false signals produced by non-defective features. (orig.)

  2. Effects of Surface Roughness on Contact Angle of Nano fluid Droplet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeung Chan [Andong Nat' l Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    The effects of solid surface roughness on the contact angle of a nano fluid droplet were experimentally investigated. The experiments were conducted using the solid surface of a 10 mm cubic copper block and the nano fluid of water mixed with CuO nanoparticles. The experimental results showed that the contact angles of nano fluid droplets were lower than those of water droplets and that the contact angle of the nano fluid droplet increased with the solid surface roughness. Furthermore, it was found that the contact angles of water droplets on the solid surface quenched by both water and the nano fluid were lower than those of water droplets on the pure solid surface. However, significant differences were not observed between the contact angles on the solid surfaces quenched by water and the nano fluid.

  3. Agreement between visual and goniometric assessments of adductor and popliteal angles in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thejus T Jayakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Amiel-Tison method is a commonly used technique for assessing tone and neurological status of infants. There is a paucity of data on the reliability of visual assessment of angles, a component of this method. Subjects and Methods: We compared the visual and the goniometric assessment of adductor and popliteal angles in infants with hypertonia and neurologically normal controls. A total of 16 infants with hypertonia and 15 normal infants underwent blinded assessment of the adductor and popliteal angles. Statistical Analysis: The mean and standard deviation for the difference between visual and goniometric measurements were calculated for popliteal and adductor angles. Results: The mean differences between visual and goniometric measurements for the popliteal angle were 4.94 (SD3.40 and 8.73 (SD6.10 degrees for the cases and controls respectively. Similarly, the values for adductor angle measurements were 8.94 (SD8.23 and 14.47 (SD8.47 degrees respectively. Conclusion: The deviation of visual assessment from goniometric measurement was found to be less for popliteal angle measurement as compared to adductor angle measurements. It was note-worthy that the difference was less for the measurements of children with spasticity.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF APPROACH ANGLE ON PENALTY KICKING ACCURACY AND KICK KINEMATICS WITH RECREATIONAL SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Scurr

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Kicking accuracy is an important component of successful penalty kicks, which may be influenced by the approach angle. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of approach angle on kicking accuracy and three-dimensional kinematics of penalty kicks. Seven male amateur recreational soccer players aged (mean ± s 26 ± 3 years, body mass 74.0 ± 6.8 kg, stature 1.74 ± 0.06 m, who were right foot dominant, kicked penalties at a 0.6 x 0.6 m target in a full size goal from their self-selected approach angle, 30º, 45º and 60º (direction of the kick was 0º. Kicking accuracy and three-dimensional kinematics were recorded. Results revealed that there was no significant difference in kicking accuracy (p = 0.27 or ball velocity (p = 0.59 between the approach angles. Pelvic rotation was significantly greater under the 45º and the 60º approach angles than during the self-selected approach angle (p < 0.05. Thigh abduction of the kicking leg at impact using the 60º approach angle was significantly greater than during the self- selected approach (p = 0.01 and the 30º approach (p = 0.04. It was concluded that altering an individual's self-selected approach angle at recreational level did not improve kicking accuracy or ball velocity, despite altering aspects of underlying technique.

  5. Simulations of Seasonal and Latitudinal Variations in Leaf Inclination Angle Distribution: Implications for Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemmrich, Karl F.

    2013-01-01

    The leaf inclination angle distribution (LAD) is an important characteristic of vegetation canopy structure affecting light interception within the canopy. However, LADs are difficult and time consuming to measure. To examine possible global patterns of LAD and their implications in remote sensing, a model was developed to predict leaf angles within canopies. Canopies were simulated using the SAIL radiative transfer model combined with a simple photosynthesis model. This model calculated leaf inclination angles for horizontal layers of leaves within the canopy by choosing the leaf inclination angle that maximized production over a day in each layer. LADs were calculated for five latitude bands for spring and summer solar declinations. Three distinct LAD types emerged: tropical, boreal, and an intermediate temperate distribution. In tropical LAD, the upper layers have a leaf angle around 35 with the lower layers having horizontal inclination angles. While the boreal LAD has vertical leaf inclination angles throughout the canopy. The latitude bands where each LAD type occurred changed with the seasons. The different LADs affected the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) with similar relationships between fAPAR and leaf area index (LAI), but different relationships between NDVI and LAI for the different LAD types. These differences resulted in significantly different relationships between NDVI and fAPAR for each LAD type. Since leaf inclination angles affect light interception, variations in LAD also affect the estimation of leaf area based on transmittance of light or lidar returns.

  6. Gravitational bending angle of light for finite distance and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Asahi; Ono, Toshiaki; Kitamura, Takao; Asada, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a possible extension of calculations of the bending angle of light in a static, spherically symmetric and asymptotically flat spacetime to a non-asymptotically flat case. We examine a relation between the bending angle of light and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem by using the optical metric. A correspondence between the deflection angle of light and the surface integral of the Gaussian curvature may allow us to take account of the finite distance from a lens object to a light source and a receiver. Using this relation, we propose a method for calculating the bending angle of light for such cases. Finally, this method is applied to two examples of the non-asymptotically flat spacetimes to suggest finite-distance corrections: Schwarzschild-de Sitter (Kottler) solution to the Einstein equation and an exact solution in Weyl conformal gravity.

  7. A novel method for multi-angle SAR image matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dapeng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Multi-angle synthetic aperture radar (SAR image matching is very challenging, because the same object may cause different backscattering patterns, heavily depending on the radar incident angle. A technique based on the relations between the invariant positions of ground targets among the reference and sensed images is proposed to accommodate the nonmatching patterns. It involves a target extraction using wavelet coefficient fusion, as well as a geometric voting matching routine for searching the matched control points (CPs in the reference and sensed images, respectively. To accelerate the speed of the search, a robust, rapidly corresponding CPs determination strategy is exploited by utilizing the global spatial transformation model, as well as a procedure of outlier removal to ensure the desired accuracy. Meanwhile, the positions of the matched point pairs are relocated using mutual information. The final warping of the images according to the CPs is performed by using a polynomial function. The results show the possibility of matching multi-angle SAR images in general cases.

  8. Compensatory canine angulation in angle Class II and III patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Carlos Agner Busato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurence of compensation in mesiodistal axial inclinations of canines in skeletal malocclusions patients. The sample consisted of 25 Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion (group 1 and 19 Angle Class III malocclusion patients (group 2. After measurement of dental angulations through a method that associates plaster model photography and AutoCad software, comparisons between the groups were performed by T-test for independent samples. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 between groups, when maxillary canine angulations were compared. Regarding the mandibular canines, there was a statistically significant difference in dental angulation, expressed by 3.2° for group 1 and 0.15° for group 2. An upright position tendency for mandibular canines was observed in the Angle Class III sample. This configures a pattern of compensatory coronary positioning, since the angulation of these teeth makes them occupy less space in the dental arch and consequently mandibular incisors can be in a more retracted position in the sagittal plane.

  9. Impact angle control of interplanetary shock geoeffectiveness: A statistical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Denny M.; Raeder, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    We present a survey of interplanetary (IP) shocks using Wind and ACE satellite data from January 1995 to December 2013 to study how IP shock geoeffectiveness is controlled by IP shock impact angles. A shock list covering one and a half solar cycle is compiled. The yearly number of IP shocks is found to correlate well with the monthly sunspot number. We use data from SuperMAG, a large chain with more than 300 geomagnetic stations, to study geoeffectiveness triggered by IP shocks. The SuperMAG SML index, an enhanced version of the familiar AL index, is used in our statistical analysis. The jumps of the SML index triggered by IP shock impacts on the Earth's magnetosphere are investigated in terms of IP shock orientation and speed. We find that, in general, strong (high speed) and almost frontal (small impact angle) shocks are more geoeffective than inclined shocks with low speed. The strongest correlation (correlation coefficient R = 0.78) occurs for fixed IP shock speed and for varied IP shock impact angle. We attribute this result, predicted previously with simulations, to the fact that frontal shocks compress the magnetosphere symmetrically from all sides, which is a favorable condition for the release of magnetic energy stored in the magnetotail, which in turn can produce moderate to strong auroral substorms, which are then observed by ground-based magnetometers.

  10. Effective protein conformational sampling based on predicted torsion angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuedong; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2016-04-30

    Protein structure prediction is a long-standing problem in molecular biology. Due to lack of an accurate energy function, it is often difficult to know whether the sampling algorithm or the energy function is the most important factor for failure of locating near-native conformations of proteins. This article examines the size dependence of sampling effectiveness by using a perfect "energy function": the root-mean-squared distance from the target native structure. Using protein targets up to 460 residues from critical assessment of structure prediction techniques (CASP11, 2014), we show that the accuracy of near native structures sampled is relatively independent of protein sizes but strongly depends on the errors of predicted torsion angles. Even with 40% out-of-range angle prediction, 2 Å or less near-native conformation can be sampled. The result supports that the poor energy function is one of the bottlenecks of structure prediction and predicted torsion angles are useful for overcoming the bottleneck by restricting the sampling space in the absence of a perfect energy function. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26696379

  11. Pitch perfect: how fruit flies control their body pitch angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Samuel C; Beatus, Tsevi; Canale, Luca; Cohen, Itai

    2015-11-01

    Flapping insect flight is a complex and beautiful phenomenon that relies on fast, active control mechanisms to counter aerodynamic instability. To directly investigate how freely flying Drosophila melanogaster control their body pitch angle against such instability, we perturbed them using impulsive mechanical torques and filmed their corrective maneuvers with high-speed video. Combining experimental observations and numerical simulation, we found that flies correct for pitch deflections of up to 40 deg in 29±8 ms by bilaterally modulating their wings' front-most stroke angle in a manner well described by a linear proportional-integral (PI) controller. Flies initiate this corrective process only 10±2 ms after the perturbation onset, indicating that pitch stabilization involves a fast reflex response. Remarkably, flies can also correct for very large-amplitude pitch perturbations--greater than 150 deg--providing a regime in which to probe the limits of the linear-response framework. Together with previous studies regarding yaw and roll control, our results on pitch show that flies' stabilization of each of these body angles is consistent with PI control. PMID:26385332

  12. Bank Angle of a V-Type 12-Cylinder Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Norio; Nakagawa, Akihito; Kitamura, Ryuji

    As the automobile engine advances towards higher performance and higher power, the increase in displacement and the number of cylinders in the engine has led to larger engines. As a result, the need for rigidity countermeasures and reductions in size and weight have brought about the switch from in-line type engines to V-type engines. Currently, most of the V-type automobile engines produced have six or eight cylinders, and some large passenger cars produced in Europe and America have V-type engines with 10 or 12 cylinders. The bank angles of engines in these passenger are almost fixed based on the cylinder number. Therefore, the form of the V-type engine is limited according to the number of cylinders. The present study examines the bank angle of a V-12 engine by performing a detailed analysis of the relationship between the cylinder arrangement and the exciting moment. The goal of the present study is to find a bank angle that has as of yet not been applied to the V-type engine so that the layouts of the absorption and exhaust systems, as well as the attached apparatuses, can be reconfigured.

  13. Sparse Representation Based SAR Vehicle Recognition along with Aspect Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Xing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a method of representing the test sample with few training samples from an overcomplete dictionary, sparse representation classification (SRC has attracted much attention in synthetic aperture radar (SAR automatic target recognition (ATR recently. In this paper, we develop a novel SAR vehicle recognition method based on sparse representation classification along with aspect information (SRCA, in which the correlation between the vehicle’s aspect angle and the sparse representation vector is exploited. The detailed procedure presented in this paper can be summarized as follows. Initially, the sparse representation vector of a test sample is solved by sparse representation algorithm with a principle component analysis (PCA feature-based dictionary. Then, the coefficient vector is projected onto a sparser one within a certain range of the vehicle’s aspect angle. Finally, the vehicle is classified into a certain category that minimizes the reconstruction error with the novel sparse representation vector. Extensive experiments are conducted on the moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition (MSTAR dataset and the results demonstrate that the proposed method performs robustly under the variations of depression angle and target configurations, as well as incomplete observation.

  14. Laser Tracker Calibration - Testing the Angle Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physics experiments at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) usually require high accuracy positioning, e. g. 100 (micro)m over a distance of 150 m or 25 (micro)m in a 10 x 10 x 3 meter volume. Laser tracker measurement systems have become one of the most important tools for achieving these accuracies when mapping components. The accuracy of these measurements is related to the manufacturing tolerances of various individual components, the resolutions of measurement systems, the overall precision of the assembly, and how well imperfections can be modeled. As with theodolites and total stations, one can remove the effects of most assembly and calibration errors by measuring targets in both direct and reverse positions and computing the mean to obtain the result. However, this approach does not compensate for errors originating from the encoder system. In order to improve and gain a better understanding of laser tracker angle measurement tolerances we extended our laboratory's capabilities with the addition of a horizontal angle calibration test stand. This setup is based on the use of a high precision rotary table providing an angular accuracy of better than 0.2 arcsec. Presently, our setup permits only tests of the horizontal angle measurement system. A test stand for vertical angle calibration is under construction. Distance measurements (LECOCQ and FUSS, 2000) are compared to an interferometer bench for distances of up to 32 m. Together both tests provide a better understanding of the instrument and how it should be operated. The observations also provide a reasonable estimate of covariance information of the measurements according to their actual performance for network adjustments

  15. CT patellar cortex tilt angle: A radiological method to measure patellar tilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background/Objectives: the role of patellar tilt in the anterior knee pain is indisputable. Traditionally. the lateral patello-femoral angle of Laurin has been defined in both the axial view and CT images for measuring the tilt of patella. We present a new angle. which is independent of the morphology of patella and directly relates to clinical assessment of the tilt. which is appreciated from palpation of the edges of the patella. Patients and Methods: 38 patients with anterior knee pain and forty normal control subjects were examined using CT scan of patello-femoral joint in 15 degrees of knee flexion. The amount of lateral patellar tilt was quantitatively assessed using the lateral patello-femoral angle, as described by Laurin et al, and the newly defined patellar cortex tilt angle. This angle is subtended by the line drawn along the posterior femoral condyles and the one parallel to the subchondral bone of patellar cortex. The fifteen-degree tilt was taken as normal cut-off point for patellar cortex tilt angle in the control group. Results: in patients, the average tilt of patella. using the patellar cortex tilt angle was 15.26 versus 7.05 in the control group. Using Student's t test, the difference between the two means was significant (P<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of patellar cortex tilt angle were 40 and 90 percent, respectively There was a moderate agreement between our presented test and the lateral tilt angle test (kappa=0.40. P<0.001). Conclusion: our results indicate that patellar tilt can also be detected using patellar cortex tilt angle. We need more specific studies ta determine the validity of the test

  16. Dipole tilt angle effect on magnetic reconnection locations on the magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C. B.; Zhang, H.; Ge, Y. S.; Pu, Z. Y.; Liu, W. L.; Wan, W. X.; Liu, L. B.; Chen, Y. D.; Le, H. J.; Wang, Y. F.

    2015-07-01

    Plasma energy dispersion properties inside reconnection jet flows observed inside the low-latitude boundary layer are used to determine the distances of observing satellites to reconnection sites. The locations of the reconnection sites are then retrieved by tracing the modeled field lines by those distances. The controlling effects of the dipole tilt angle to the location of X lines or reconnection sites are investigated. Our results show that the Earth's dipole tilt angles strongly modify the location of X lines predicted by Cooling et al's model, which is thought to be the result of magnetopause reshaping due to finite dipole tilt angles.

  17. Experimental investigation of heat transfer and effectiveness in corrugated plate heat exchangers having different chevron angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Bayram; İpek, Osman

    2016-06-01

    In this study, heat transfer rate and effectiveness of corrugated plate heat exchangers having different chevron angles were investigated experimentally. Chevron angles of plate heat exchangers are β = 30° and β = 60°. For this purpose, experimentally heating system used plate heat exchanger was designed and constructed. Thermodynamic analysis of corrugated plate heat exchangers having different chevron angles were carried out. The heat transfer rate and effectiveness values are calculated. The experimental results are shown that heat transfer rate and effectiveness values for β = 60° is higher than that of the other. Obtained experimental results were graphically presented.

  18. Characterization of sol-clay composites by small-angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silica-clay composites were prepared by reaction a 40 Angstrom silica sol with aqueous clay suspensions. The clays which were studied included Na+-montmorillonite, fluorohectorite, and the synthetic clay Laponite. The aggregation mechanism of the sol particles and the degree of dispersion of the clay layers were monitored by small-angle neutron scattering. The data for powdered silica-montmorillonite products showed the presence of highly dispersed clay platelets and spherical sol particles. The results suggest that the interaction between these two components inhibits the sol aggregation process. Studies on the products prepared from other types of clays, however, show that this interaction is highly dependent on the morphology and charge density of the clay platelets

  19. Millimeter-wave radiometry of deciduous trees at low-depression angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikner, David; Dahlstrom, Robert

    1998-11-01

    Personnel from the Army Research Laboratory conducted experiments during the summer and early fall of 1996 to measure the low-depression angle brightness temperatures of deciduous trees at 94 GHz. Changes in the signatures of five different deciduous trees were recorded over several months and related to infrared temperature, sky temperature, and leaf water content. Distinct differences were found in the brightness temperatures of the deciduous trees measured. The results of these measurements are presented and a good parametric fit to the data is made, showing the consistency of canopy emissivity and reflectivity over the measurement period. In addition, suggestions are made as to how future measurements could benefit from wideband, bistatic canopy cross-section data.

  20. Perfect metamaterial absorbers with polarization angle independency in X-band waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabah, Cumali

    2016-04-01

    The design and characterization of perfect metamaterial absorbers (MAs) based on simple configurations including square- and triangle-shapes, which operate in X-band frequency region are numerically and experimentally investigated. The proposed MAs provide perfect absorption with the polarization angle independency. In X-band waveguide, the absorption rates are 99.69% and 99.97% at the resonance frequencies of 10.57 GHz and 10.93 GHz for the square- and triangle-shaped MAs, respectively. In addition, the same configurations are numerically tested under free space boundary conditions to compare and discuss the obtained results. The suggested MAs enable myriad potential application areas for security and stealth technologies in X-band including wireless communication.