WorldWideScience

Sample records for angle results suggest

  1. Mobbing Experiences of Instructors: Causes, Results, and Solution Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celep, Cevat; Konakli, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate possible mobbing problems in universities, their causes and results, and to attract attention to precautions that can be taken. Phenomenology as one of the qualitative research methods was used in the study. Sample group of the study was selected through the criteria sampling method and eight instructors…

  2. Is working memory working against suggestion susceptibility? Results from extended version of DRM paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciaszek Patrycja

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates relationship between working memory efficiency, defined as the result of its’ processing & storage capacity (Oberauer et al., 2003 and the tendency to (1 create assosiative memory distortions (false memories, FM; (2 yield under the influence of external, suggesting factors. Both issues were examined using extended version of Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure (1959, 1995, modified in order to meet the study demands. Suggestion was contained in an ostentatious feedback information the participants (N=88 received during the DRM procedure. Working memory (WM was measured by standardized tasks (n-back, Jaeggi et al., 2010; automatic-ospan, Unsworth et al., 2005. Study included 3 conditions, differing in the quality of suggestion (positive, negative or neutral. Participants were assigned into 3 groups, depending on results they achieved completing the WM tasks. Obtained results alongside the previously set hypothesis, revealed that (1 WM impacts individuals’ tendency to create false memories in DRM and (2 that the individuals showing higher rates in WM tasks are less willing to yield to suggestion compared to those with lesser ones. It also showed that the greater amount to shift (Gudjonsson, 2003, emerges under the negative suggestion condition (collating positive. Notwithstanding that the interaction effect did not achieve saliency, both analyzed factors (WM and suggesting content are considered as meaningful to explain memory suggestion susceptibility in presented study. Although, obtained results emphasize the crucial role of WM efficiency, that is believed to decide the magnitude of feedback that is influential in every subject. Therefore, issue demands further exploration.

  3. Results From Core-Collapse Simulations with Multi-Dimensional, Multi-Angle Neutrino Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Timothy D; Ott, Christian D

    2010-01-01

    We present new results from the only 2D multi-group, multi-angle calculations of core-collapse supernova evolution. The first set of results from these calculations was published in Ott et al. (2008). We have followed a nonrotating and a rapidly rotating 20 solar mass model for ~400 ms after bounce. We show that the radiation fields vary much less with angle than the matter quantities in the region of net neutrino heating. This obtains because most neutrinos are emitted from inner radiative regions and because the specific intensity is an integral over sources from many angles at depth. The latter effect can only be captured by multi-angle transport. We then compute the phase relationship between dipolar oscillations in the shock radius and in matter and radiation quantities throughout the postshock region. We demonstrate a connection between variations in neutrino flux and the hydrodynamical shock oscillations, and use a variant of the Rayleigh test to estimate the detectability of these neutrino fluctuation...

  4. Nucleon resonance electroproduction at high momentum transers: Results from SLAC and suggestions for CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keppel, C. [Virginia Union Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Nucleon resonance electroproduction results from SLAC Experiment E14OX are presented. A CEBAF facility with doubled energy would enable similar high momentum transfer measurements to be made with greater accuracy. Of particular interest are the Delta P{sub 33}(1232) resonance form factor and R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T}, the ratio of the longitudinal and transverse components of the cross section. A suggestion is made to study these quantities in conjunction with Bloom-Gilman duality.

  5. Measurement of the CKM angle $\\gamma$ from a combination of LHCb results

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, V.V.; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, P H; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    A combination of measurements sensitive to the CKM angle $\\gamma$ from LHCb is performed. The inputs are from analyses of time-integrated $B^{+}\\rightarrow DK^+$, $B_{d}^{0} \\rightarrow D K^{*0}$, $B_{d} \\rightarrow D K^+ \\pi^-$ and $B^{+} \\rightarrow D K^+\\pi^+\\pi^-$ tree-level decays. In addition, results from a time-dependent analysis of $B_{s}^{0} \\rightarrow D_{s}^{\\mp}K^{\\pm}$ decays are included. The combination yields $\\gamma = (72.2^{+6.8}_{-7.3})^\\circ$, where the uncertainty includes systematic effects. The 95.5% confidence level interval is determined to be $\\gamma \\in [55.9,85.2]^\\circ$. A second combination is investigated, also including measurements from $B^{+} \\rightarrow D \\pi^+$ and $B^{+} \\rightarrow D \\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^+$ decays, which yields compatible results.

  6. Investigations of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation - results, conclusions and suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Bilski, P; Horwacik, T; Marczewska, B; Ochab, E; Olko, P

    2002-01-01

    In frame of a research project undertaken in collaboration with Polish airlines LOT, analysis of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation has been performed. The applied methods included measurements of radiation doses with thermoluminescent detectors (MTS-N, MCP-N) and track detectors (CR-39) and also calculations of route doses with the CARI computer code. The obtained results indicate that aircrews of nearly all airplanes, with exception of these flying only on ATR aircraft, exceed regularly or may exceed in some conditions, effective doses of 1 mSv. In case of Boeing-767 aircrews such exceeding occurs always, independently of solar activity. Investigations revealed, that during these periods of the solar cycle, when intensity of cosmic radiation is high, exceeding of 6 mSv level is also possible. These results indicate, that according to Polish and European regulations it is necessary for airlines to provide regular estimations of radiation exposure of aircrews. Basing on the obtained results a system for pe...

  7. Great apes can defer exchange: a replication with different results suggesting future oriented behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias eOsvath

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic of cognitive foresight in non-human animals has received considerable attention in the last decade. The main questions concern whether the animals can prepare for upcoming situations which are, to various degrees, contextually or sensorially detached from the situation in which the preparations are made. Studies on great apes have focused on tool-related tasks, e.g. the ability to select a tool which is functional only in the future. Dufour and Sterck (2008, however, investigated whether chimpanzees were also able to prepare for a future exchange with a human: an object exchanged for a food item. The study included extensive training on the exchangeable item, which is traditionally not compatible with methods for studying planning abilities, as associative learning cannot be precluded. Nevertheless, despite this training, the chimpanzees could not solve the deferred exchange task. Given that great apes can plan for tool use, these results are puzzling. In addition, claims that great ape foresight is highly limited has been based on this study (Suddendorf and Corballis, 2010. Here we partly replicated Dufour and Sterck’s study to discern whether temporally deferred and spatially displaced exchange tasks are beyond the capabilities of great apes. In addition to chimpanzees we tested orangutans. One condition followed the one used by Dufour and Sterck, in which the exchange items, functional only in the future, are placed at a location that freely allows for selections by the subjects. In order to test the possibility that the choice set-up could explain the negative results in Dufour and Sterck’s study, our second condition followed a method used in the planning study by Osvath and Osvath (2008, where the subjects make a forced one-item-choice from a tray. We found that it is within the capabilities of chimpanzees and orangutans to perform deferred exchange in both conditions.

  8. Tubulin dipole moment, dielectric constant and quantum behavior: computer simulations, experimental results and suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Mershin, A; Schüssler, H A; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Mershin, Andreas; Kolomenski, Alexandre A.; Schuessler, Hans A.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.

    2004-01-01

    We used computer simulation to calculate the electric dipole moments of the alpha and beta tubulin monomers and dimer and found those to be |palpha|=552D, |pbeta|=1193D and |palpha-beta|=1740D respectively. Independent surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and refractometry measurements of the high-frequency dielectric constant and polarizability strongly corroborated our previous SPR-derived results giving delta-n/delta-c ~1.800x10^-3 ml/mg. The refractive index of tubulin was measured to be n_tub ~2.90 and the high frequency tubulin dielectric constant kappa_tub ~8.41 while the high-frequency polarizability was found to be alpha_tub ~ 2.1x10^-33 C m^2/V. Methods for the experimental determination of the low-frequency p are explored as well as ways to test the often conjectured quantum coherence and entanglement properties of tubulin. Biobits, bioqubits and other applications to bioelectronics are discussed.

  9. Testing for variation in taxonomic extinction probabilities: a suggested methodology and some results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, M.J.; Nichols, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Several important questions in evolutionary biology and paleobiology involve sources of variation in extinction rates. In all cases of which we are aware, extinction rates have been estimated from data in which the probability that an observation (e.g., a fossil taxon) will occur is related both to extinction rates and to what we term encounter probabilities. Any statistical method for analyzing fossil data should at a minimum permit separate inferences on these two components. We develop a method for estimating taxonomic extinction rates from stratigraphic range data and for testing hypotheses about variability in these rates. We use this method to estimate extinction rates and to test the hypothesis of constant extinction rates for several sets of stratigraphic range data. The results of our tests support the hypothesis that extinction rates varied over the geologic time periods examined. We also present a test that can be used to identify periods of high or low extinction probabilities and provide an example using Phanerozoic invertebrate data. Extinction rates should be analyzed using stochastic models, in which it is recognized that stratigraphic samples are random varlates and that sampling is imperfect

  10. Ray Tracing Results for Elevation Angle Spread of Departure and its Impact on System Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondal, Bishwarup; Thomas, Timothy; Nguyen, Huan Cong

    2014-01-01

    Elevation spread of departure angles (ESD) is the key parameter characterizing a 3D fast-fading channel model. 3D channel mod-eling is currently being studied in 3GPP to enable the develop-ment of MIMO techniques exploiting both azimuth and elevation dimensions of the channel. In this paper we us...

  11. Three-dimensional limited-angle microtomography of blood cells: experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Gennady G.; Vishnyakov, Gennady N.; Zakarian, Constantin S.; Likhachov, Alexey V.; Pickalov, Valery V.; Kozinets, Gennady I.; Novoderzhkina, Julia K.; Streletskaya, Elena A.

    1998-06-01

    Tomographic measurements of the 3D refractive index spatial distribution within optically transparent phase samples with computerized interferometric microscopes are proposed. Phase shifting interferometric microtomography applications for the 3D image reconstruction of the blood cells are represented. The immersion 100x, N.A. equals 1.25 objective was used to increase the spatial resolution and observation angle range to 90 degree. ART, combined ART and iterative Gerchberg-Papoulis 3D algorithm were used for the tomogram reconstruction. To determine the accuracy and spatial resolution of the blood cells image reconstruction by means of the interferometric microtomographic method the numerical simulations were implemented.

  12. Driven isotropic Heisenberg spin chain with arbitrary boundary twisting angle: exact results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, V; Karevski, D; Schütz, G M

    2013-12-01

    We consider an open isotropic Heisenberg quantum spin chain, coupled at the ends to boundary reservoirs polarized in different directions, which sets up a twisting gradient across the chain. Using a matrix product ansatz, we calculate the exact magnetization profiles and magnetization currents in the nonequilibrium steady state of a chain with N sites. The magnetization profiles are harmonic functions with a frequency proportional to the twisting angle θ. The currents of the magnetization components lying in the twisting plane and in the orthogonal direction behave qualitatively differently: In-plane steady-state currents scale as 1/N^{2} for fixed and sufficiently large boundary coupling, and vanish as the coupling increases, while the transversal current increases with the coupling and saturates to 2θ/N.

  13. Mediterranean Diet and Phase Angle in a Sample of Adult Population: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrea, Luigi; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Macchia, Paolo Emidio; Di Somma, Carolina; Falco, Andrea; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Colao, Annamaria; Savastano, Silvia

    2017-02-17

    The Mediterranean diet is a healthy dietary pattern known to actively modulate the cell membrane properties. Phase angle (PhA) is a direct measure by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) used as marker of cell membrane integrity. Both food behaviour and PhA are influenced by age, sex and body weight. The aim of this study was to cross-sectionally evaluate the association between the adherence to Mediterranean diet and PhA in 1013 healthy adult patients stratified according to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) questionnaire. PhA was calculated by BIA phase-sensitive system (50 kHz BIA 101 RJL, Akern Bioresearch, Florence, Italy Akern). In both sexes, at ROC analysis a PREDIMED score ≥ 6 predicted a PhA beyond the median value. At the multivariate analysis, among PREDIMED score, age, and BMI, the PREDIMED score was the major determinant of PhA, explaining 44.5% and 47.3% of PhA variability, in males and females respectively (p Mediterranean diet and PhA, independently of sex, age, and body weight. This association uncovered a new potential benefit of the Mediterranean diet on health outcomes, as in both sexes higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated to larger PhAs, as expression of cell membrane integrity.

  14. Deuterium Labeling Together with Contrast Variation Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Suggests How Skp Captures and Releases Unfolded Outer Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccai, Nathan R; Sandlin, Clifford W; Hoopes, James T; Curtis, Joseph E; Fleming, Patrick J; Fleming, Karen G; Krueger, Susan

    2016-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, the chaperone protein Skp forms specific and stable complexes with membrane proteins while they are transported across the periplasm to the outer membrane. The jellyfish-like architecture of Skp is similar to the eukaryotic and archaeal prefoldins and the mitochondrial Tim chaperones, that is the α-helical "tentacles" extend from a β-strand "body" to create an internal cavity. Contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on Skp alone in solution and bound in two different complexes to unfolded outer membrane proteins (uOMPs), OmpA and OmpW, demonstrate that the helical tentacles of Skp bind their substrate in a clamp-like mechanism in a conformation similar to that previously observed in the apo crystal structure of Skp. Deuteration of the uOMP component combined with contrast variation analysis allowed the shapes of Skp and uOMP as well as the location of uOMP with respect to Skp to be determined in both complexes. This represents unique information that could not be obtained without deuterium labeling of the uOMPs. The data yield the first direct structural evidence that the α-helical Skp tentacles move closer together on binding its substrate and that the structure of Skp is different when binding different uOMPs. This work presents, by example, a tutorial on performing SANS experiments using both deuterium labeling and contrast variation, including SANS theory, sample preparation, data collection, sample quality validation, data analysis, and structure modeling.

  15. Mediterranean Diet and Phase Angle in a Sample of Adult Population: Results of a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Barrea

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet is a healthy dietary pattern known to actively modulate the cell membrane properties. Phase angle (PhA is a direct measure by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA used as marker of cell membrane integrity. Both food behaviour and PhA are influenced by age, sex and body weight. The aim of this study was to cross-sectionally evaluate the association between the adherence to Mediterranean diet and PhA in 1013 healthy adult patients stratified according to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED questionnaire. PhA was calculated by BIA phase-sensitive system (50 kHz BIA 101 RJL, Akern Bioresearch, Florence, Italy Akern. In both sexes, at ROC analysis a PREDIMED score ≥ 6 predicted a PhA beyond the median value. At the multivariate analysis, among PREDIMED score, age, and BMI, the PREDIMED score was the major determinant of PhA, explaining 44.5% and 47.3% of PhA variability, in males and females respectively (p < 0.001. A novel association was reported between the adherence to the Mediterranean diet and PhA, independently of sex, age, and body weight. This association uncovered a new potential benefit of the Mediterranean diet on health outcomes, as in both sexes higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated to larger PhAs, as expression of cell membrane integrity.

  16. Mediterranean Diet and Phase Angle in a Sample of Adult Population: Results of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrea, Luigi; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Macchia, Paolo Emidio; Di Somma, Carolina; Falco, Andrea; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Colao, Annamaria; Savastano, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is a healthy dietary pattern known to actively modulate the cell membrane properties. Phase angle (PhA) is a direct measure by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) used as marker of cell membrane integrity. Both food behaviour and PhA are influenced by age, sex and body weight. The aim of this study was to cross-sectionally evaluate the association between the adherence to Mediterranean diet and PhA in 1013 healthy adult patients stratified according to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) questionnaire. PhA was calculated by BIA phase-sensitive system (50 kHz BIA 101 RJL, Akern Bioresearch, Florence, Italy Akern). In both sexes, at ROC analysis a PREDIMED score ≥ 6 predicted a PhA beyond the median value. At the multivariate analysis, among PREDIMED score, age, and BMI, the PREDIMED score was the major determinant of PhA, explaining 44.5% and 47.3% of PhA variability, in males and females respectively (p < 0.001). A novel association was reported between the adherence to the Mediterranean diet and PhA, independently of sex, age, and body weight. This association uncovered a new potential benefit of the Mediterranean diet on health outcomes, as in both sexes higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated to larger PhAs, as expression of cell membrane integrity. PMID:28218645

  17. Cleaning results of new and fouled nanofiltration membrane characterized by contact angle, updated DSPM, flux and salts rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Amoudi, Ahmed [Centre for complex fluids processing, Multidisciplinary Nanotechnology Centre, School of Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom) and Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC), Saline Water Desalination Research Institute Staff (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: 310981@swan.ac.uk; Williams, Paul [Centre for complex fluids processing, Multidisciplinary Nanotechnology Centre, School of Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Al-Hobaib, A.S. [Institute of Atomic Energy Research, King Abdulaziz City for Science And Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Lovitt, Robert W. [Centre for complex fluids processing, Multidisciplinary Nanotechnology Centre, School of Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-30

    In membrane process industries, membrane cleaning is one of the most important concerns from both economical and scientific points of view. Though cleaning is important to recover membrane performance, an inappropriate selection of cleaning agents may result into unsatisfactory cleaning or irreparable membrane. In this study the cleaning performance has been studied with measurements of membrane contact angle, Updated Donnan steric partitioning pore model (UDSPM) and salt rejection as well as flux measurement. Thin film nanofiltration (NF) membranes such as DK, HL and DL provided by GE Osmonics are used in this study. Tests were carried out with virgin DK, HL and DL as well as fouled DK membranes. Several cleaning agents were investigated; some of them were analytical grade such as HCl, NaOH and others such as SDS, mix agents were commercial grade agents that are already in use in commercial plants. Contact angle, DSPM and salt rejection as well as flux of virgin and fouled membranes before and after chemical cleaning were measured and compared. The contact angle measurements with and without chemical cleaning of different virgin and fouled membranes revealed very interesting results which may be used to characterise the membrane surface cleanliness. The contact angle results revealed that the cleaning agents are found to modify membrane surface properties (hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity) of the treated and untreated virgin and fouled membranes. The details of these results were also investigated and are reported in the paper. However, UDSPM method did not give any valuable information about pore size of the untreated and treated NF membranes. The salt rejection level of monovalent and divalent ions before and after cleaning by high and low pH cleaning agents is also investigated and is reported in the paper.

  18. Effects of Contrasting Nazca Slab Subduction Angles on Mantle Flow: Results From Three-Dimensional Numerical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, S. C.; Georgen, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    In the southern Andes, the downgoing Nazca plate has adjacent zones with slab dip angles of 10° and 30°. To better understand the nature of mantle flow and plate deformation across the transition region between the juxtaposed angles, we calculate a steady-state, three-dimensional finite element numerical model. The overall three-dimensional model domain contains a rigid overlying plate, two subducting slabs (with dips of 10° and 30°), and a mantle wedge with a geometry that changes in the trench-parallel direction. The model space is generated by using two-dimensional solutions as boundary conditions for the trench-perpendicular "endcaps" of the numerical domain. Models solve the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy, neglecting heat production and thermal buoyancy and assuming isoviscous mantle flow. The sensitivity of the model to overriding plate thickness, coupling between the downgoing and overriding plates in the wedge corner region, and convergence velocity is also investigated. Temperature solutions from the three-dimensional models are used in calculations to delineate the brittle and ductile zones of the model domain. Models predict a significant amount of trench-parallel flow, as a result of the juxtaposition of the two slab angles. Also, the uppermost portion of the model space shows a continuous brittle section for trench-perpendicular distances of up to ~240 km, implying that the formation of a slab tear is relatively unlikely for the conditions and parameters simulated in this investigation. Future work will focus on different treatments of mantle viscosity and examining the sensitivity of the three-dimensional model to the selection of slab dip angle.

  19. Are reviewers suggested by authors as good as those chosen by editors? Results of a rater-blinded, retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkin Emma C

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BioMed Central (BMC requires authors to suggest four reviewers when making a submission. Editors searching for reviewers use these suggestions as a source. The review process of the medical journals in the BMC series is open – authors and reviewers know each other's identity – although reviewers can make confidential comments to the editor. Reviews are published alongside accepted articles so readers may see the reviewers' names and recommendations. Our objective was to compare the performance of author-nominated reviewers (ANR with that of editor-chosen reviewers (ECR in terms of review quality and recommendations about submissions in an online-only medical journal. Methods Pairs of reviews from 100 consecutive submissions to medical journals in the BMC series (with one author-nominated and one editor-chosen reviewer and a final decision were assessed by two raters, blinded to reviewer type, using a validated review quality instrument (RQI which rates 7 items on 5-point Likert scales. The raters discussed their ratings after the first 20 pairs (keeping reviewer type masked and resolved major discrepancies in scoring and interpretation to improve inter-rater reliability. Reviewers' recommendations were also compared. Results Reviewer source had no impact on review quality (mean RQI score (± SD 2.24 ± 0.55 for ANR, 2.34 ± 0.54 for ECR or tone (mean scores on additional question 2.72 ANR vs 2.82 ECR (maximum score = 5 in both cases. However author-nominated reviewers were significantly more likely to recommend acceptance (47 vs 35 and less likely to recommend rejection (10 vs 23 than editor-chosen reviewers after initial review (p Conclusion Author-nominated reviewers produced reviews of similar quality to editor-chosen reviewers but were more likely to recommend acceptance during the initial stages of peer review.

  20. Structural rearrangements of chromosome 15 satellites resulting in Prader-Willi syndrome suggest a complex mechanism for uniparental disomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth-Fijel, S.; Gunter, K.; Olson, S. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We report two cases of PWS in which there was abnormal meiosis I segregation of chromosome 15 following a rare translocation event between the heteromorphic satellite regions of chromosomes 14 and 15 and an apparent meiotic recombination in the unstable region of 15q11.2. PWS and normal appearing chromosomes in case one prompted a chromosome 15 origin analysis. PCR analysis indicated maternal isodisomy for the long arm of chromosome. However, only one chromosome 15 had short arm heteromorphisms consistent with either paternal or maternal inheritance. VNTR DNA analysis and heteromorphism data suggest that a maternal de novo translocation between chromosome 14 and 15 occurred prior to meiosis I. This was followed by recombination between D15Z1 and D15S11 and subsequent meiosis I nondisjunction. Proband and maternal karyotype display a distamycin A-DAPI positive region on the chromosome 14 homolog involved in the translocation. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of ONCOR probes D15S11, SNRPN, D15S11 and GABRB 3 were normal, consistent with the molecular data. Case two received a Robertsonian translocation t(14;15)(p13;p13) of maternal origin. Chromosome analysis revealed a meiosis I error producing UPD. FISH analysis of the proband and parents showed normal hybridization of ONCOR probes D15Z1, D15S11, SNRPN, D15S10 and GABRB3. In both cases the PWS probands received a structurally altered chromosome 15 that had rearranged with chromosome 14 prior to meiosis. If proper meiotic segregation is dependent on the resolution of chiasmata and/or the binding to chromosome-specific spindle fibers, then it may be possible that rearrangements of pericentric or unstable regions of the genome disrupt normal disjunction and lead to uniparental disomy.

  1. Preparing for severe contrast media reactions in children - results of a national survey, a literature review and a suggested protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, R., E-mail: rwklindsay@hotmail.co [Imaging Centre, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Paterson, A. [Radiology Department, The Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Edgar, D. [Immunology Department, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Aim: To identify current practices within paediatric radiology in the UK with regard to the use of prophylactic medication, prior to administering intravenous (IV) radiocontrast medium (RCM). In addition, the pre-injection risk management strategies of the departments questioned was to be evaluated, and using consensus opinion, a protocol for managing patients identified as being at high risk for an adverse reaction to RCM was to be outlined. Materials and methods: An online survey of paediatric radiology consultants representing all geographic regions of the UK was carried out. The questions asked included an assessment of the risk factors for adverse reactions to RCM, and how such reactions are anticipated and managed. The questionnaire asked about the perceived indications for, and the use of prophylactic medication prior to RCM administration. Results: A response rate of 51% was achieved. The majority of respondents felt that a history of previous RCM reaction was an indication to administer prophylactic drugs prior to a further dose of RCM. No other risk factor was believed to require prophylactic medication. Conclusion: Using information obtained from the survey, a literature search was performed to assess the evidence available in support of each practice. A protocol was devised to identify children at risk of an adverse reaction to RCM, and guide the use of prophylactic medication in this group of patients. The survey highlighted considerable variability in the risk-assessment and management practices within paediatric radiology in the UK. The derived protocol may guide radiologists' management of children at risk for an RCM reaction.

  2. Early-stage rifting of the northern Tyrrhenian Sea Basin: Results from a combined wide-angle and multichannel seismic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, S.; Grevemeyer, I.; Ranero, C. R.; Berndt, C.; Klaeschen, D.; Sallares, V.; Zitellini, N.; Franco, R.

    2013-08-01

    Extension of the continental lithosphere leads to the formation of rift basins and ultimately may create passive continental margins. The mechanisms that operate during the early stage of crustal extension are still intensely debated. We present the results from coincident multichannel seismic and wide-angle seismic profiles that transect across the northern Tyrrhenian Sea Basin. The profiles cross the Corsica Basin (France) to the Latium Margin (Italy) where the early-rift stage of the basin is well preserved. We found two domains, each with a distinct tectonic style, heat flow and crustal thickness. One domain is the Corsica Basin in the west that formed before the main rift phase of the northern Tyrrhenian Sea opening (˜8-4 Ma). The second domain is rifted continental crust characterized by tilted blocks and half-graben structures in the central region and at the Latium Margin. These two domains are separated by a deep (˜10 km) sedimentary complex of the eastern portion of the Corsica Basin. Travel-time tomography of wide-angle seismic data reveals the crustal architecture and a subhorizontal 15-17 ± 1 km deep Moho discontinuity under the basin. To estimate the amount of horizontal extension we have identified the pre-, syn-, and post-tectonic sedimentary units and calculated the relative displacement of faults. We found that major faults initiated at angles of 45°-50° and that the rifted domain is horizontally stretched by a factor of β ˜ 1.3 (˜8-10 mm/a). The crust has been thinned from ˜24 to ˜17 km indicating a similar amount of extension (˜30%). The transect represents one of the best imaged early rifts and implies that the formation of crustal-scale detachments, or long-lived low-angle normal faults, is not a general feature that controls the rift initiation of continental crust. Other young rift basins, like the Gulf of Corinth, the Suez Rift or Lake Baikal, display features resembling the northern Tyrrhenian Basin, suggesting that half

  3. The new small-angle neutron scattering instrument SANS-1 at MLZ-characterization and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbauer, S.; Heinemann, A.; Wilhelm, A.; Karge, L.; Ostermann, A.; Defendi, I.; Schreyer, A.; Petry, W.; Gilles, R.

    2016-10-01

    A thorough characterization of the key features of the new small-angle neutron scattering instrument SANS-1 at MLZ, a joint project of Technische Universität München and Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, is presented. Measurements of the neutron beam profile, divergency and flux are given for various positions along the instrument including the sample position, and agree well with Monte Carlo simulations of SANS-1 using the program McStas. Secondly, the polarization option of SANS-1 is characterized for a broad wavelength band. A key feature of SANS-1 is the large accessible Q-range facilitated by the sideways movement of the detector. Particular attention is hence paid to the effects that arise due to large scattering angles on the detector where a standard cos3 solid angle correction is no longer applicable. Finally the performance of the instrument is characterized by a set of standard samples.

  4. Static properties of polystyrene in semidilute solutions: A comparison of Monte Carlo simulation and small-angle neutron scattering results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J.S.; Schurtenberger, P.

    1999-01-01

    determined for the simulations as well as experimentally for polystyrene in d-toluene by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), and excellent agreement is found. Interpolations of the MC scattering functions fit the SANS data in the full measured range of scattering vectors, demonstrating agreement almost...

  5. Results of a modified non-penetrating deep sclerectomy in the treatment of open angle glaucoma with or without cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kitsos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available George Kitsos1, Miltiades Aspiotis1, Yannis Alamanos2, Konstantinos Psilas11Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece; 2Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Medical School, University of Patras, Patras, GreecePurpose: To present the technique of a modified deep sclerectomy, which we will call “reversed” deep sclerectomy (RDS and the results and our observations of its use in patients with open angle glaucoma (OAG and with or without cataract extraction (phacoemulsification.Materials and methods: This prospective study included 132 eyes which underwent RDS: 37 eyes (group A with uncontrolled OAG and 95 eyes (group B with OAG and visually significant cataract. Mean pressure preoperatively for group A was 24.48 ± 4.92 mmHg and for group B was 22.99 ± 3.00. The mean number of antiglaucoma drugs received was 2.97 ± 0.69 and 2.56 ± 0.73 for groups A and B respectively. The RDS was performed where the deep scleral stroma is prepared in 2 parts, folded and inserted under the lateral sides of the sclerectomy, and the Schlemm’s canal is opened prior to deep scleral stroma preparation. Cataract was extracted by phacoemulsification through the same scleral opening. The follow-up for group A was 22.23 ± 10.18 months and for group B, 25.36 ± 10.12 months. Results: Postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP ≤ 21 mmHg was achieved for group A in 40.5% without antiglaucoma drugs and 94.6% with antiglaucoma drugs, and for group B in 66.3% and in 94.7% respectively. Mean IOP reduction was 7.02 ± 6.35 mmHg (28.67%, P < 0.05 for group A and 5.26 ± 3.72 mmHg (25.06%, P ≤ 0.05 for group B, while mean drug reduction was 1.97 ± 1.09 (P < 0.01 and 2.14 ± 0.95 (P ≤ 0.01 respectively. 5-Fluorouracil was used in 8 eyes of group A and in 5 eyes of group B.Conclusion: In the follow-up time during which the two groups were under study, the RDS was effective with a few complications, similar to the classic deep

  6. Clinical evaluation of the ability of a proprietary scoliosis traction chair to de-rotate the spine: 6-month results of Cobb angle and rotational measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton J. Stitzel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate and 6-month effects of a scoliosis traction chair on scoliosis rotation and Cobb angle. The scoliosis traction chair has been used clinically for 10 years and has been part of previous studies, but has not been the focus of any previous study. Our goal was to test the scoliosis traction chair’s ability to de-rotate the spine to create scoliosis correction. Fifteen patient files were retrospectively selected for study. Patients were radiographically studied in a proprietary traction chair to evaluate impact on Cobb angle and apical vertebral rotation. Six-month follow-up results were recorded. Six-month results showed an average overall Cobb angle increase of about 7°. Patients with in-chair apical de-rotation showed 9° of Cobb angle improvement, while those with increased in-chair apical rotation showed an average 16° progression. Scoliotic curves whose apical rotation worsened on stress radiography showed deterioration of the curve at 6 months. Those with improved apical rotation showed Cobb angle corrections at 6 months. Since progression of scoliotic curvatures was observed in our cohort of patients after 6 months of home and clinical use, it is imperative that further studies attempt to qualify which patients and scoliosis curve patterns are best suited for the scoliosis traction chair.

  7. Subduction processes off chile (SPOC) - results from The amphibious wide-angle seismic experiment across The chilean subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueth, S.; Spoc Resaerch Group

    2003-04-01

    One component of the onshore-offshore, active-passive seismic experiment SPOC (Krawczyk et al., Stiller et al., this vol.) was a 2-D wide-angle seismic experiment covering the Chilean subduction zone from the Nazca Plate to the Magmatic Arc in the main cordillera. Three W-E-profiles of 52 stations each and up to 240 km long were deployed between 36° and 39° S. These profiles recorded chemical shots at their ends and, in order to extend the onshore profiles, the airgun pulses from RV SONNE cruising simultaneously on offshore profiles. On the southernmost of the three profiles OBHs/OBSs were deployed offshore, thus providing continuous wide-angle seismic data from the Nazca Plate to the South-American continent. Data examples, correlations, and velocity models along the three transects will be presented. The Moho of the subducted oceanic crust can be constrained by PmP-reflections down to 45 km depth under the coastal cordillera. The P-wave velocity field of the crust of the upper plate is characterized by gradually increasing P-wave velocities from East to West. Low seismic velocities (Vp ~6.5 km/s below 10 km depth) are observed at the eastern margin of the investigated area.

  8. Preliminary Results on the Mechanics of the Active Mai'iu Low Angle Normal Fault (Dayman Dome), Woodlark Rift, SE Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, T. A.; Boulton, C. J.; Mizera, M.; Webber, S. M.; Oesterle, J.; Ellis, S. M.; Norton, K. P.; Wallace, L. M.; Biemiller, J.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid slip on the Mai'iu low-angle normal fault (LANF) has exhumed a smooth, corrugated fault surface contiguous for >24 km up-dip, rising from near sea level to ~2900 m. The fault emerges from the ground dipping ~21° N and flattens over the crest of the dome to dip south. Geomorphic analysis reveals a progressive back-tilting of the surface during exhumation accompanied by cross-cutting antithetic-sense high-angle faults—features that we attribute to "rolling-hinge" deformation of a once more steeply-dipping fault. Near the scarp base, the footwall exposes mafic mylonites that deformed at ~400-450°C. The younger Mai'iu fault cross-cuts this ductile mylonite zone, with most brittle slip being localized into a ~20 cm-thick, gouge-filled core. Near the range front, active faults bite across both the hangingwall and footwall of the Mai'iu fault and record overprinting across a dying, shallow (<~1 km deep) part of the fault by more optimally oriented, steeper faults. Such depth-dependent locking up of the fault suggests it weakens primarily by friction reduction rather than cohesion loss. Outcrop-scale fractures in the exhumed footwall reflect formation in an Andersonian stress regime. Previous campaign GPS data suggest the fault slips at up to ~1 cm/yr. To improve resolution and test for aseismic creep, we installed 12 GPS sites across the fault trace in 2015. Quantitative XRD indicates the gouges were derived primarily from mafic footwall, containing up to 65% corrensite and saponite. Hydrothermal friction experiments on two gouges from a relict LANF strand were done at varying normal stresses (30-120 MPa), temperatures (50-200oC), and sliding velocities (0.3-100 μm/s). Results reveal very weak frictional strength (μ=0.13-0.15 and 0.20-0.28) and velocity-strengthening behavior conducive to fault creep. At the highest temperatures (T≥150oC) and lowest sliding velocities (<3 μm/s), a transition to velocity-weakening behavior indicates the potential for

  9. Recent results in the study of heavy-ion elastic scattering at large angles. [180/sup 0/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrette, J.; Kahana, S.

    1983-01-01

    The observation, a few years ago, of unexpected large cross sections at backward angles in the elastic scattering of mass-asymmetric heavy ion systems gave us hope that we could learn something new and more precise on the properties of the average ion-ion potential. The subsequent observation of broad regular structures in the elastic and inelastic excitation functions near theta/sub cm/ = 180/sup 0/ were also very promising. Numerous models were proposed to explain some or all the observed features. These models can be divided mainly in two groups. Some try to modify directly the average optical potential whereas others associate the observed cross sections to a modification of specific partial waves outside the scope of the optical potential. This separation in two groups is not always clear since as demonstrated adding a Regge pole to a strongly absorbing potential is under some conditions perfectly equivalent to changing the shape of this potential. Similarly the resonances added to an S matrix can be understood as the manifestation of the potential resonances of a completely different optical potential. We describe recent calculations which have been carried on to try to understand the behavior of the data near the barrier.

  10. Rifting in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea: Results from a combined wide-angle and multichannel seismic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, S.; Grevemeyer, I.; Ranero, C. R.; Berndt, C.; Klaeschen, D.; Sallares, V.; Zitellini, N.; de Franco, R.

    2012-12-01

    Extension in the continental lithosphere leads to the formation of rift basins or finally to passive continental margins where plates fully broke apart. The extensional processes at basins and passive margins are still not fully understood. One of the reasons is that the observed amount of crustal thinning is often much higher than the horizontal extension in the brittle upper crust that can be accounted by faulting. Regarding this objective we present an analysis of two W-E striking depth-migrated multichannel- and wide-angle seismic sections from the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea. The new data were acquired onboard the Spanish R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa and Italian R/V Uraniain spring 2010, within the framework of the MEDOC project. The lines cross the basin from the Corsica and Sardinia margins towards the conjugated Latium/Campania margins (Italy). Along the transects we found two distinct domains distinguishable in tectonic style, heat-flow and crustal thickness: 1) The deep sedimentary Corsica and Sardinia basins in the West which formation started in the Oligocene (~30 Ma) and reveal a fan-shaped sedimentary infill with the Messinian erosional unconformity on top (~5-7 Ma) and 2) rifted crystalline continental crust expressed by horst and graben structures towards the East. These two domains are separated by a deep reaching (~10 km) and westward dipping fault/thrust complex. To quantify the amount of horizontal extension we identified pre-, syn-, and post-tectonic sedimentary units in the northern line A-B (Figure 1), calculated the relative extension factor by large faults as well as balancing the length of the pre-tectonic basement. The Messinian reflector can be well identified throughout the complete section and is therefore an excellent time-marker within the syn-tectonic sequence. The syn-tectonic sequence is limited by a reflector of Pliocene age. The above lying Pleistocene to Quaternary sediments are undisturbed and identified as the post-tectonic sequence

  11. Rifting in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea: Results from a combined wide-angle and multichannel seismic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Stefan; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Ranero, Cesar R.; Berndt, Christian; Klaeschen, Dirk; Sallares, Valenti; Zitellini, Nevio; de Franco, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    Extension in the continental lithosphere leads to the formation of rift basins or finally to passive continental margins where plates fully broke apart. The extensional processes at basins and passive margins are still not fully understood. One of the reasons is that the observed amount of crustal thinning is often much higher than the horizontal extension in the brittle upper crust that can be accounted by faulting. Moreover, conjugated margins are often observed to be asymmetric in tectonic style. Regarding these objective we present an analysis of two W-E striking multichannel- and wide-angle seismic sections from the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea. The new data were acquired onboard the Spanish R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa and Italian R/V Urania in spring 2010, within the framework of the MEDOC project. The lines cross the basin from the Corsica and Sardinia Margins towards the conjugated Latium and Campania Margins (Italy). The transects are divided in four zones distinguishable in tectonic style, velocity distribution, heat-flow and crustal thickness: 1) The deep sedimentary Corsica and Sardinia basins in the West which formed during Oligocene (~30 Ma) and reveal a fan-shaped sedimentary infill that is sealed by a Messinian erosional unconformity on top (~5-7 Ma). 2) Large rotated blocks bounding the deepest sub-basins along the entire transects and contain Messinian syn-tectonic sediments. 3) A zone of highly fractured continental crust broadens to the south and is indicated by a high number of faults and coincident with a velocity reduction. Furthermore, magmatic activity during Pliocene age in the southern line is evident in the southern line. 4) Flat summits at the Latium Margin indicate that this zone was above seal-level during rifting whereas the southern region was sub-sealevel. Faults cutting the seafloor indicate recent tectonic activity. To quantify the amount of horizontal extension we identified pre-, syn-, and post-tectonic sedimentary units in the northern

  12. Evaluation of the efficacy of laser peripheral iridoplasty in reversing the darkroom provocative test result in Chinese patients with primary angle closure status post laser iridotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping; Huang; Ling-Ling; Wu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of krypton laser peripheral iridoplasty(LPIP) for Chinese patients with primary angle closure(PAC) or primary angle-closure glaucoma(PACG) status post laser iridotomy in reversing the positive results of the dark room provocative test(DRPT).METHODS: This study was prospective, noncomparative,interventional case series. Thirty-three patients(thirty-eight eyes) with PAC or PACG status post patent laser iridotomy and maintained normal intraocular pressure(IOP) but with positive DRPT results were enrolled. All the subjects were treated with krypton LPIP. DRPT was repeated after krypton LPIP. Results of DRPT were recorded. The visual acuity, IOP and gonioscopy were analyzed before and after krypton LPIP. A minimum time limit for follow-up was 6mo.RESULTS: Thirty-three patients(thirty-eight eyes)were followed for 17.7 ±8.37mo(range 7-41mo) after LPIP. Positive results of DRPT decreased from 38 eyes to9 eyes(23.7%) after LPIP. Peripheral anterior synechiae of angle in 34 of 38 eyes(89.5%) remained unchanged at dynamic gonioscopy throughout the follow-up period after LPIP.CONCLUSION: LPIP decreased positive rates of the DRPT significantly. The mechanism may be that LPIP minimized contact between the peripheral iris and trabecular meshwork, which is a key factor for developing peripheral anterior synechiae.

  13. 40 CFR Figure C-1 to Subpart C of... - Suggested Format for Reporting Test Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2 C Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-1 Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Suggested Format for Reporting Test... Difference Table C-1 spec. Pass or fail Low 1 ____ ppm 2 to ____ ppm 3 4 5 6 Medium 1 ____ ppm 2 to ____...

  14. OSTEOSYNTHESIS OF PROXIMAL HUMERAL END FRACTURES WITH FIXED-ANGLE PLATE AND LOCKING SCREWS: TECHNIQUE AND RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marcio; Amaral, Marcus Vinicius; Monteiro, Martim; Brandão, Bruno Lobo; Motta Filho, Geraldo Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Describe the results of proximal humeral fractures surgically treated with the Philos locking plate system. Method: Between March 2003 and October 2004 we prospectively reviewed 24 of 26 patients with proximal humerus fractures treated with a Philos plate. The mean follow-up time was 12 months and the mean age of patients was 57 years. Six patients had four-part proximal humerus fractures, 11 patients had three-part proximal humerus fractures, and nine patients had two-part proximal humerus fractures. Clinical evaluation was performed using the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) criteria. Results: The mean UCLA score was 30 points (17-34). All fractures showed union. Three patients showed fracture union at varus position. The mean UCLA score for these patients was 27 points. Conclusion: Osteosynthesis with Philos plate provides a stable fixation method with good functional outcome. PMID:26998460

  15. A simple method to obtain consistent and clinically meaningful pelvic angles from euler angles during gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Tishya A L; Mitiguy, Paul C

    2007-08-01

    Clinical gait analysis usually describes joint kinematics using Euler angles, which depend on the sequence of rotation. Studies have shown that pelvic obliquity angles from the traditional tilt-obliquity-rotation (TOR) Euler angle sequence can deviate considerably from clinical expectations and have suggested that a rotation-obliquity-tilt (ROT) Euler angle sequence be used instead. We propose a simple alternate approach in which clinical joint angles are defined and exactly calculated in terms of Euler angles from any rotation sequence. Equations were derived to calculate clinical pelvic elevation, progression, and lean angles from TOR and ROT Euler angles. For the ROT Euler angles, obliquity was exactly the same as the clinical elevation angle, rotation was similar to the clinical progression angle, and tilt was similar to the clinical lean angle. Greater differences were observed for TOR. These results support previous findings that ROT is preferable to TOR for calculating pelvic Euler angles for clinical interpretation. However, we suggest that exact clinical angles can and should be obtained through a few extra calculations as demonstrated in this technical note.

  16. Theoretical modeling suggests that synergy may result from combined use of two biocontrol agents for controlling foliar pathogens under spatial heterogeneous conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X-M; Jeger, M J

    2013-08-01

    There has been a trend for combined use of several biocontrol agents (BCAs) with an expectation of synergistic interactions among BCAs. However, previous modeling studies suggested that, under homogeneous and temporal-fluctuating conditions, combined use of two BCAs, in most cases, only results in efficacies similar to the more efficacious one used alone; a result consistent with published experimental data. The present modeling study investigated whether combined use of two mycoparasitic BCAs, two competitive BCAs, or a mycoparasitic and a competitive BCA leads to synergistic interactions under spatially heterogeneous conditions. In the model, there were two patches with varying relative sizes and two BCAs differentially adapted to the two patches. Within the range of model parameter values considered, combined use of two BCAs is more effective than the more efficacious BCA used alone in 72% of the simulated cases. There was also a considerable proportion (≈21%) of model simulations in which combined use of two BCAs led to synergy (i.e., efficacy was greater than expected under the assumption of Bliss independence, especially when each of the two BCAs can only survive in one [different] patch). Combined use of a mycoparasitic BCA with a competitive one is more likely to result in synergy than the other two BCA combinations. When biocontrol activities of individual BCAs are low or moderate, biocontrol efficacy arising from combined use of two BCAs does not depend greatly on biocontrol mechanisms. However, for high BCA activities, combined use with at least one competitive BCA resulted in better control than combined use of two mycoparasitic BCAs. The present modeling study emphasized the need for understanding the degree of spatial patchiness and quantitative relationships between biocontrol activities and external conditions in order to apply commercial BCAs effectively.

  17. Experimental data suggesting that inflammation mediated rat liver mitochondrial dysfunction results from secondary hypoxia rather than from direct effects of inflammatory mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelheid eWeidinger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory response (SIR comprises direct effects of inflammatory mediators (IM and indirect effects, such as secondary circulatory failure which results in tissue hypoxia (HOX. These two key components, SIR and HOX, cause multiple organ failure (MOF. Since HOX and IM occur and interact simultaneously in vivo, it is difficult to clarify their individual pathological impact. To eliminate this interaction, precision cut liver slices (PCLS were used in this study aiming to dissect the effects of HOX and IM on mitochondrial function, integrity of cellular membrane and the expression of genes associated with inflammation. HOX was induced by incubating PCLS or rat liver mitochondria at pO2<1% followed by reoxygenation (HOX/ROX model. Inflammatory injury was stimulated by incubating PCLS with IM (IM model. We found upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression only in the IM model, while heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 expression was upregulated only in the HOX/ROX model. Elevated expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6 was found in both models reflecting converging pathways regulating the expression of this gene. Both models caused damage to hepatocytes resulting in the release of alanine aminotransferase (ALT. The leakage of aspartate aminotransferase (AST was observed only during the hypoxic phase in the HOX/ROX model. The reoxygenation phase of HOX, but not IM, drastically impaired mitochondrial electron supply via complex I and II. Additional experiments performed with isolated mitochondria showed that free iron, released during HOX, is likely a key prerequisite of mitochondrial dysfunction induced during the reoxygenation phase. Our data suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction, previously observed in in vivo SIR-models is the result of secondary circulatory failure inducing HOX rather than the result of a direct interaction of IM with liver cells.

  18. Coupling survey data with drift model results suggests that local spawning is important for Calanus finmarchicus production in the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvile, Kristina Øie; Fiksen, Øyvind; Prokopchuk, Irina; Opdal, Anders Frugård

    2017-01-01

    The copepod Calanus finmarchicus is an important part of the diet for several large fish stocks feeding in the Atlantic waters of the Barents Sea. Determining the origin of the new generation copepodites present on the Barents Sea shelf in spring can shed light on the importance of local versus imported production of C. finmarchicus biomass in this region. In this study, we couple large-scale spatiotemporal survey data (> 30 years in both Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea areas) with drift trajectories from a hydrodynamic model to back-calculate and map the spatial distribution of C. finmarchicus from copepod to egg, allowing us to identify potential adult spawning areas. Assuming the adult stage emerges from overwintering in the Norwegian Sea, our results suggest that copepodites sampled at the Barents Sea entrance are a mix of locally spawned individuals and long-distance-travellers advected northwards along the Norwegian shelf edge. However, copepodites sampled farther east in the Barents Sea (33°30‧E) are most likely spawned on the Barents Sea shelf, potentially from females that have overwintered locally. Our results support that C. finmarchicus dynamics in the Barents Sea are not, at least in the short-term, solely driven by advection from the Norwegian Sea, but that local production may be more important than commonly believed.

  19. Systematic Structural Change in Selected Rare Earth Oxide Pyrochlores as Determined by Wide-Angle CBED and a Comparison with the Results of Atomistic Computer Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabira, Yasunori; Withers, Ray L.; Minervini, Licia; Grimes, Robin W.

    2000-08-01

    An unknown oxygen atom fractional co-ordinate characteristic of the pyrochlore structure type has been determined for selected rare earth zirconate and titanate pyrochlores via a systematic row wide-angle CBED technique and shown to vary systematically with rare earth ion size. In the case of the titanate pyrochlore Gd2Ti2O7, the obtained results contrast with previously published X-ray results. Atomistic computer simulation is used to predict the value of the same parameter for a wide range of oxide pyrochlores. Comparison of calculated values with experimentally determined values shows that the general trends are correctly predicted although there appears to be systematic underestimation of both the observed values (by approximately 0.007) as well as their rate of change with rare earth ion size. Cation anti-site disorder is proposed as the origin of these discrepancies.

  20. Suggestion on resisting force angle specified in the gravity dam design code for wedge stability analysis%重力坝双滑面抗滑稳定分析中抗力角的取值建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙冠华; 郑宏; 童伟

    2011-01-01

    In the design code of gravity dams, the method of equal safety factor for evaluating the stability of a gravity dam against deep slide in its foundation, considers only the equilibrium of forces, while ignoring the kinematical admissibility. Based on Sarma's assumption for satisfying the kinematical admissibility, we suggest that the interface between two blocks should be treated as a fracture plane and calculated with the same safety factor as those for the upstream and downstream sliding surfaces. Little modification of the existing algorithm is needed, but the factor of safety and the magnitude and direction of resisting force can be obtained. The importance of this new consideration in the design of gravity dams is emphasized in this paper.%重力坝设计规范中分析坝基抗滑稳定的等K法只考虑了力的平衡,而没有考虑由双斜面构成的滑体是否为运动许可.本文基于边坡稳定性分析中Sarma法的基本假设,建议将极限状态下两块体交界面设为破裂面并与上下游滑面具有相同的强度储备,从而形成运动许可机构;在原来算法上做较小的改动,即可同时得到抗力的大小、方向以及安全系数,为重力坝设计中对抗力角取值提供了依据.

  1. Contact angle hysteresis on fluoropolymer surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavana, H; Jehnichen, D; Grundke, K; Hair, M L; Neumann, A W

    2007-10-31

    Contact angle hysteresis of liquids with different molecular and geometrical properties on high quality films of four fluoropolymers was studied. A number of different causes are identified for hysteresis. With n-alkanes as probe liquids, contact angle hysteresis is found to be strongly related to the configuration of polymer chains. The largest hysteresis is obtained with amorphous polymers whereas the smallest hysteresis occurs for polymers with ordered molecular chains. This is explained in terms of sorption of liquid by the solid and penetration of liquid into the polymer film. Correlation of contact angle hysteresis with the size of n-alkane molecules supports this conclusion. On the films of two amorphous fluoropolymers with different molecular configurations, contact angle hysteresis of one and the same liquid with "bulky" molecules is shown to be quite different. On the surfaces of Teflon AF 1600, with stiff molecular chains, the receding angles of the probe liquids are independent of contact time between solid and liquid and similar hysteresis is obtained for all the liquids. Retention of liquid molecules on the solid surface is proposed as the most likely cause of hysteresis in these systems. On the other hand, with EGC-1700 films that consist of flexible chains, the receding angles are strongly time-dependent and the hysteresis is large. Contact angle hysteresis increases even further when liquids with strong dipolar intermolecular forces are used. In this case, major reorganization of EGC-1700 chains due to contact with the test liquids is suggested as the cause. The effect of rate of motion of the three-phase line on the advancing and receding contact angles, and therefore contact angle hysteresis, is investigated. For low viscous liquids, contact angles are independent of the drop front velocity up to approximately 10 mm/min. This agrees with the results of an earlier study that showed that the rate-dependence of the contact angles is an issue only

  2. A randomized control trial to evaluate the effect of adjuvant selective laser trabeculoplasty versus medication alone in primary open-angle glaucoma: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JWY

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jacky WY Lee,1,2 Catherine WS Chan,2 Mandy OM Wong,3 Jonathan CH Chan,3 Qing Li,2 Jimmy SM Lai2 1The Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, 2The Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Hong Kong, 3The Department of Ophthalmology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of adjuvant selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT versus medication alone on intraocular pressure (IOP control, medication use, and quality of life in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.Methods: This prospective, randomized control study recruited 41 consecutive primary open-angle glaucoma subjects with medically-controlled IOP ≤21 mmHg. The SLT group (n=22 received a single 360-degree SLT treatment. The medication-only group (n=19 continued with their usual treatment regimen. In both groups, medication was titrated to maintain a target IOP defined as a 25% reduction from baseline IOP without medication, or <18 mmHg, whichever was lower. Outcomes, which were measured at baseline and at 6 months, included the Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 (GQL-15 and Comparison of Ophthalmic Medications for Tolerability (COMTOL survey scores, IOP, and the number of antiglaucoma medicines. Results: The baseline IOP was 15.8±2.7 mmHg and 14.5±2.5 mmHg in the SLT and medication-only groups, respectively (P=0.04. Both groups had a comparable number of baseline medication (P=0.2, GQL-15 (P=0.3 and COMTOL scores (P=0.7. At 6 months, the SLT group had a lower IOP (P=0.03 and required fewer medications compared with both baseline (P<0.0001 and with the medication-only group (P=0.02. There was no statistically significant difference in the 6-month GQL-15 or COMTOL score as compared to baseline (P≥0.4 or between the two treatment groups (P≥0.2.Conclusion: A single session of adjuvant SLT provided further reductions in IOP and medication without substantial changes in quality of life or medication tolerability at 6

  3. Study of the advancing and receding contact angles: liquid sorption as a cause of contact angle hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, C N C; Wu, R; Li, D; Hair, M L; Neumann, A W

    2002-02-25

    Two types of experiments were used to study the behavior of both advancing and receding contact angles, namely the dynamic one-cycle contact angle (DOCA) and the dynamic cycling contact angle (DCCA) experiments. For the preliminary study, DOCA measurements of different liquids on different solids were performed using an automated axisymmetric drop shape analysis-profile (ADSA-P). From these experimental results, four patterns of receding contact angle were observed: (1) time-dependent receding contact angle; (2) constant receding contact angle; (3) 'stick/slip'; (4) no receding contact angle. For the purpose of illustration, results from four different solid surfaces are shown. These solids are: FC-732-coated surface; poly(methyl methacrylate/n-butyl methacrylate) [P(MMA/nBMA)]; poly(lactic acid) (DL-PLA); and poly(lactic/glycolic acid) 50/50 (DL-PLGA 50/50). Since most of the surfaces in our studies exhibit time dependence in the receding contact angle, a more extended study was conducted using only FC-732-coated surfaces to better understand the possible causes of decreasing receding contact angle and contact angle hysteresis. Contact angle measurements of 21 liquids from two homologous series (i.e. n-alkanes and 1-alcohols) and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OCMTS) on FC-732-coated surfaces were performed. It is apparent that the contact angle hysteresis decreases with the chain length of the liquid. It was found that the receding contact angle equals the advancing angle when the alkane molecules are infinitely large. These results strongly suggest that the chain length and size of the liquid molecule could contribute to contact angle hysteresis phenomena. Furthermore, DCCA measurements of six liquids from the two homologous series on FC-732-coated surfaces were performed. With these experimental results, one can construe that the time dependence of contact angle hysteresis on relatively smooth and homogeneous surfaces is mainly caused by liquid retention

  4. Influence of Solid Target Reflectivity and Incident Angle on Depolarization Ratio and Reflected Energy from Polarized Lights: Experimental Results of the May 2008 Field Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    incident angle on depolarization ratio and reected energy from polarized lights is also provided. DRDC Valcartier TR 2008-394 i Résumé Des capteurs ...41.5 -22 10 Laiton Brass 10 -37.5 11 Aluminium Aluminum 26 -37.5 12 Acier "sand-blasté" Sandblasted steel 41.5 -37.5 13 Acier naturel Natural steel 10

  5. Seismic structure of the main geological provinces off the SW Iberian margin: first results from the NEAREST-SEIS wide-angle seismic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallarès, Valentí; Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Gailler, Audrey; Bartolomé, Rafael; Gutscher, Marc-André; Graindorge, David; Lia Grácia, Eulà; Díaz, Jordi

    2010-05-01

    The region offshore the SW Iberian margin hosts the present-day NW-SE plate convergence between the European and African Plates at a rate of 4.5 mm/yr, fact that causes continuous seismic activity of moderate magnitude. In autumn 2008 a Spanish-French team carried out a refraction and wide-angle reflection seismic survey in the area (NEAREST-SEIS cruise), in the framework of the EU, FP6-funded NEAREST project. During the survey two long seismic profiles were acquired using a pool of 36 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS), with the objectives of providing information about the geometry of the crust-mantle boundary and the physical properties of the crust, revealing the deep geometry of the main fault interfaces, and identifying the nature of the basement and the limits of the different geological provinces in the region. A total of 30 OBS were deployed along profile P1, which is 356 km long and trends NW-SE from the Tagus abyssal plain (TAP), crossing the Gorringe bank (GB), the Horseshoe abyssal plain (HAP) and the Coral Patch Ridge (CPR), up to the thrust-and-fold belt of the Seine abyssal plain (SAP). The acquired data were modeled by joint refraction and reflection travel time inversion, following a layer-stripping strategy. The inverted model show four well-differentiated domains in terms of its seismic structure: In the TAP a 3-4 km-thick, low velocity sedimentary layer covers the basement, which shows a remarkably high velocity (>7 km/s), similar to that of the basement outcropping in the Gorringe bank. In the HAP the sedimentary cover is thicker, showing an upper unit with low velocity corresponding to the Horseshoe gravitational unit, on top of a higher velocity lower unit, which may represent the highly consolidated Mesozoic sedimentary sequence. The thickness of the two units together exceeds 5 km. The basement shows the same velocity distribution as in TAP and GB, suggesting a common nature and origin. According to its seismic structure, and considering that

  6. Seismic structure and crustal nature of the geological provinces off the SW Iberian margin: results of the NEAREST-SEIS wide-angle seismic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallares, V.; Martinez, S.; Gailler, A.; Gutscher, M.; Bartolome, R.; Gracia, E.; Diaz, J.

    2010-12-01

    The region offshore the SW Iberian margin hosts the present-day NW-SE plate convergence between the European and African Plates causing continuous seismic activity of moderate magnitude. In autumn 2008 a Spanish-French team carried out a wide-angle seismic survey in the area (NEAREST-SEIS cruise), in the framework of the EU-funded NEAREST project. During the survey two long profiles were acquired using a pool of 36 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS), to provide information about the crustal structure and nature of the different geological provinces, and to reveal the deep geometry of the main fault interfaces. A total of 30 OBS were deployed along profile P1, which is 356 km long and trends NW-SE from the Tagus abyssal plain (TAP), crossing the Gorringe bank (GB), the Horseshoe abyssal plain (HAP) and the Coral Patch Ridge (CPR), up to the thrust-and-fold belt of the Seine abyssal plain (SAP). The inverted model along this profile show four different domains. In the TAP a 3-4 km-thick, low velocity sedimentary layer covers the basement, which shows a velocity >7 km/s just 2-3 km below its top, similarly to that of the basement outcropping in the Gorringe bank. In the HAP the sedimentary cover is thicker, showing an upper unit with low velocity corresponding to the Horseshoe gravitational unit, on top of a higher velocity lower unit, which may represent the highly consolidated Mesozoic sedimentary sequence, with a total thickness of 5 km. The basement shows the same velocity distribution as in TAP and GB, suggesting a common nature and origin. According to its seismic structure, we interpret this basement as highly serpentinized, exhumed mantle. In contrast, the CPR and SAP show evidences for the presence of a well-developed, 6-7 km-thick oceanic crust, underlying the sedimentary sequence. Profile P2 is 256 km long, and trends S-N from the easternmost SAP beyond the NW Moroccan margin, crossing the Gulf of Cadiz imbricated wedge and the Portimao bank ending at the

  7. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  8. Generalization of the Euler Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Shuster, Malcolm D.; Markley, F. Landis

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the Euler angles can be generalized to axes other than members of an orthonormal triad. As first shown by Davenport, the three generalized Euler axes, hereafter: Davenport axes, must still satisfy the constraint that the first two and the last two axes be mutually perpendicular if these axes are to define a universal set of attitude parameters. Expressions are given which relate the generalized Euler angles, hereafter: Davenport angles, to the 3-1-3 Euler angles of an associated direction-cosine matrix. The computation of the Davenport angles from the attitude matrix and their kinematic equation are presented. The present work offers a more direct development of the Davenport angles than Davenport's original publication and offers additional results.

  9. A new angle on the Euler angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Shuster, Malcolm D.

    1995-01-01

    We present a generalization of the Euler angles to axes beyond the twelve conventional sets. The generalized Euler axes must satisfy the constraint that the first and the third are orthogonal to the second; but the angle between the first and third is arbitrary, rather than being restricted to the values 0 and pi/2, as in the conventional sets. This is the broadest generalization of the Euler angles that provides a representation of an arbitrary rotation matrix. The kinematics of the generalized Euler angles and their relation to the attitude matrix are presented. As a side benefit, the equations for the generalized Euler angles are universal in that they incorporate the equations for the twelve conventional sets of Euler angles in a natural way.

  10. Glaucoma, Open-Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Home > Statistics and Data > Glaucoma, Open-angle Glaucoma, Open-angle Open-angle Glaucoma Defined In open-angle glaucoma, the fluid passes ... 2010 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Glaucoma by Age and Race/Ethnicity The prevalence of ...

  11. Landweber Iterative Methods for Angle-limited Image Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang-rong Qu; Ming Jiang

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a general itcrative scheme for angle-limited image reconstruction based on Landwe-ber's method. We derive a representation formula for this scheme and consequently establish its convergence conditions. Our results suggest certain relaxation strategies for an accelerated convergcnce for angle-limited im-age reconstruction in L2-norm comparing with alternative projection methods. The convolution-backprojection algorithm is given for this iterative process.

  12. Theories of Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W

    1928-02-01

    The word "suggestion" has been used in educational, scientific and medical literature in slightly different senses. In psychological medicine the use of suggestion has developed out of the earlier use of hypnotic influence.Charcot defined hypnosis as an artificial hysteria, Bernheim as an artificially increased suggestibility. The two definitions need to be combined to give an adequate account of hypnosis. Moreover, due allowance should be made for the factors of dissociation and of rapport in hypnotic phenomena.The relationships between dissociation, suggestibility, and hypnotizability.Theories of suggestion propounded by Pierre Janet, Freud, McDougall, Pawlow and others. Ernest Jones's theory of the nature of auto-suggestion. Janet explains suggestion in terms of ideo-motor action in which the suggested idea, because of the inactivity of competing ideas, produces its maximum effect. Freud explains rapport in terms of the sex instinct "inhibited in its aim" (transference) and brings in his distinction of "ego" and "ego-ideal" (or "super-ego") to supplement the theory. Jones explains auto-suggestion in terms of narcissism. McDougall explains hypnotic suggestion in terms of the instinct of self-abasement. But different instincts may supply the driving power to produce suggestion-effects in different circumstances. Such instincts as those of self-preservation (fear) and gregariousness may play their part. Auto-suggestion as a therapeutic factor is badly named. It supplements, but does not supplant the will, and makes complete volition possible.

  13. An exact result concerning the $1/f$ noise contribution to the large-angle error in CMB temperature and polarization maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bucher, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We present an exact expression for the $1/f$ contribution to the noise of the CMB temperature and polarization maps for a survey in which the scan pattern is isotropic. The result for polarization applies likewise to surveys with and without a rotating half-wave plate. A representative range of survey parameters is explored and implications for the design and optimization of future surveys are discussed. These results are most directly applicable to space-based surveys, which afford considerable freedom in the choice of the scan pattern on the celestial sphere. We discuss the applicability of the methods developed here to analyzing past experiments and present some conclusions pertinent to the design of future experiments. The techniques developed here do not require that the excess low frequency noise have exactly the $1/f$ shape and readily generalize to other functional forms for the detector noise power spectrum. In the case of weakly anisotropic scanning patterns the techniques in this paper can be used ...

  14. Transcription and the Pitch Angle of DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, Kasper W

    2013-01-01

    The question of the value of the pitch angle of DNA is visited from the perspective of a geometrical analysis of transcription. It is suggested that for transcription to be possible, the pitch angle of B-DNA must be smaller than the angle of zero-twist. At the zero-twist angle the double helix is maximally rotated and its strain-twist coupling vanishes. A numerical estimate of the pitch angle for B-DNA based on differential geometry is compared with numbers obtained from existing empirical data. The crystallographic studies shows that the pitch angle is approximately 38 deg., less than the corresponding zero-twist angle of 41.8 deg., which is consistent with the suggested principle for transcription.

  15. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently `los

  16. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  17. Hysteresis during contact angles measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, M Elena; Fuentes, Javier; Cerro, Ramon L; Savage, Michael D

    2010-03-15

    A theory, based on the presence of an adsorbed film in the vicinity of the triple contact line, provides a molecular interpretation of intrinsic hysteresis during the measurement of static contact angles. Static contact angles are measured by placing a sessile drop on top of a flat solid surface. If the solid surface has not been previously in contact with a vapor phase saturated with the molecules of the liquid phase, the solid surface is free of adsorbed liquid molecules. In the absence of an adsorbed film, molecular forces configure an advancing contact angle larger than the static contact angle. After some time, due to an evaporation/adsorption process, the interface of the drop coexists with an adsorbed film of liquid molecules as part of the equilibrium configuration, denoted as the static contact angle. This equilibrium configuration is metastable because the droplet has a larger vapor pressure than the surrounding flat film. As the drop evaporates, the vapor/liquid interface contracts and the apparent contact line moves towards the center of the drop. During this process, the film left behind is thicker than the adsorbed film and molecular attraction results in a receding contact angle, smaller than the equilibrium contact angle.

  18. Attitudes to Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PETER; JOHNSON

    2007-01-01

    As an Australian expat teaching English in China for over four years, I often encourage my students to not only learn the English language but also try to understand Western culture. This includes the fact that Westerners frequently initiate proactive suggestions on any aspects of soci-

  19. Suggestions for Teaching Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Na-na

    2013-01-01

    Teacher development and teaching practice(TP) have caught the eyes of researchers at home and abroad for many years. Many western scholars hold that reflective teaching is an efficient way to promote teacher development, but traditional TP is prevailing in China. Based on the merits and demerits of traditional TP and reflective TP, the author hopes to provide some suggestions for the people involved to promote the development of teacher education.

  20. The Contact Angle in Inviscid Fluid Mechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N Shankar; R Kidambi

    2005-05-01

    We show that in general, the specification of a contact angle condition at the contact line in inviscid fluid motions is incompatible with the classical field equations and boundary conditions generally applicable to them. The limited conditions under which such a specification is permissible are derived;however, these include cases where the static meniscus is not flat. In view of this situation, the status of the many `solutions’ in the literature which prescribe a contact angle in potential flows comes into question. We suggest that these solutions which attempt to incorporate a phenomenological, but incompatible, condition are in some, imprecise sense `weak-type solutions’;they satisfy or are likely to satisfy, at least in the limit, the governing equations and boundary conditions everywhere except in the neighbourhood of the contact line. We discuss the implications of the result for the analysis of inviscid flows with free surfaces.

  1. Contact angle and local wetting at contact line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ri; Shan, Yanguang

    2012-11-06

    This theoretical study was motivated by recent experiments and theoretical work that had suggested the dependence of the static contact angle on the local wetting at the triple-phase contact line. We revisit this topic because the static contact angle as a local wetting parameter is still not widely understood and clearly known. To further clarify the relationship of the static contact angle with wetting, two approaches are applied to derive a general equation for the static contact angle of a droplet on a composite surface composed of heterogeneous components. A global approach based on the free surface energy of a thermodynamic system containing the droplet and solid surface shows the static contact angle as a function of local surface chemistry and local wetting state at the contact line. A local approach, in which only local forces acting on the contact line are considered, results in the same equation. The fact that the local approach agrees with the global approach further demonstrates the static contact angle as a local wetting parameter. Additionally, the study also suggests that the wetting described by the Wenzel and Cassie equations is also the local wetting of the contact line rather than the global wetting of the droplet.

  2. Individualized optimal release angles in discus throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Steve; Liu, Hui; Hubbard, Mont; Yu, Bing

    2010-02-10

    The purpose of this study was to determine individualized optimal release angles for elite discus throwers. Three-dimensional coordinate data were obtained for at least 10 competitive trials for each subject. Regression relationships between release speed and release angle, and between aerodynamic distance and release angle were determined for each subject. These relationships were linear with subject-specific characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between release speed and release angle may be due to subjects' technical and physical characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between aerodynamic distance and release angle may be due to interactions between the release angle, the angle of attack, and the aerodynamic distance. Optimal release angles were estimated for each subject using the regression relationships and equations of projectile motion. The estimated optimal release angle was different for different subjects, and ranged from 35 degrees to 44 degrees . The results of this study demonstrate that the optimal release angle for discus throwing is thrower-specific. The release angles used by elite discus throwers in competition are not necessarily optimal for all discus throwers, or even themselves. The results of this study provide significant information for understanding the biomechanics of discus throwing techniques.

  3. Learning semantic query suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Meij; M. Bron; L. Hollink; B. Huurnink; M. de Rijke

    2009-01-01

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide faci

  4. Reading Angles in Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

  5. Diminution of contact angle hysteresis under the influence of an oscillating force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Ofer

    2014-06-17

    We suggest a simple quantitative model for the diminution of contact angle hysteresis under the influence of an oscillatory force invoked by thermal fluctuations, substrate vibrations, acoustic waves, or oscillating electric fields. Employing force balance rather than the usual description of contact angle hysteresis in terms of Gibbs energy, we highlight that a wetting system, such as a sessile drop or a bubble adhered to a solid substrate, appears at long times to be partially or fully independent of contact angle hysteresis and thus independent of static friction forces, as a result of contact line pinning. We verify this theory by studying several well-known experimental observations such as the approach of an arbitrary contact angle toward the Young contact angle and the apparent decrease (or increase) in an advancing (or a receding) contact angle under the influence of an external oscillating force.

  6. Scaling of misorientation angle distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, D.A.; Chrzan, D.C.; Liu, Q.

    1998-01-01

    The measurement of misorientation angle distributions following different amounts of deformation in cold-rolled aluminum and nickel and compressed stainless steel is reported. The sealing of the dislocation cell boundary misorientation angle distributions is studied. Surprisingly, the distributions...... for the small to large strain regimes for aluminum, 304L stainless steel, nickel, and copper (taken from the literature )appear to be identical. Hence the distributions may be "universal." These results have significant implications for the development of dislocation based deformation models. [S0031...

  7. Photoelectric angle converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podzharenko, Volodymyr A.; Kulakov, Pavlo I.

    2001-06-01

    The photo-electric angle transmitter of rotation is offered, at which the output voltage is linear function of entering magnitude. In a transmitter the linear phototransducer is used on the basis of pair photo diode -- operating amplifier, which output voltage is linear function of the area of an illuminated photosensitive stratum, and modulator of a light stream of the special shape, which ensures a linear dependence of this area from an angle of rotation. The transmitter has good frequent properties and can be used for dynamic measurements of an angular velocity and angle of rotation, in systems of exact drives and systems of autocontrol.

  8. A porosity gradient in 67P/C-G nucleus suggested from CONSERT and SESAME-PP results: an interpretation based on new laboratory permittivity measurements of porous icy analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouet, Y.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Sabouroux, P.; Neves, L.; Encrenaz, P.; Poch, O.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Kofman, W.; Le Gall, A.; Ciarletti, V.; Hérique, A.; Lethuillier, A.

    2016-09-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft made a rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) in August 2014, soon after the Philae module landed on the small lobe of the nucleus on 12 November 2014. The CONSERT instrument, onboard Rosetta and Philae, sounded the upper part of the interior of 67P with radiowaves at 90 MHz and determined an average of the real part of the permittivity (hereafter ɛ') equal to about 1.27. The SESAME-PP instrument, onboard Philae, sounded the near-surface of the small lobe in the 400-800 Hz range and determined a lower limit of ɛ' equal to 2.45. We use a semi-empirical formula obtained from measurements of ɛ' performed in the laboratory at 243 K on water ice and ice-basaltic dust mixtures, with a controlled porosity in the 31-91% range and a dust-to-ice volumetric ratio in the 0.1-2.8 range, to interpret the results of the two instruments, taking into account the temperature and frequency dependencies. A graphical method is proposed to derive ranges of porosity and dust-mass fraction from a value of ɛ' derived from observations. The non-dispersive behaviour of ɛ' below 175 K, allows us to compare the values of ɛ' obtained by CONSERT and SESAME-PP. We show that the porosity of the small lobe of 67P increases with depth. Based on new measurements of analogues of complex extraterrestrial organic matter, the so-called tholins, we also suggest that, for the dust component in the cometary material, the presence of silicates has more effect on ɛ' than organic materials.

  9. An interpretation of the CONSERT and SESAME-PP results based on new permittivity measurements of porous water ice and ice-basaltic/organic dust mixtures suggests an increase of porosity with depth in 67P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouet, Yann; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Sabouroux, Pierre; Neves, Luisa; Encrenaz, Pierre; Poch, Olivier; Pommerol, Antoine; Thomas, Nicolas; Kofman, Wlodek; Le Gall, Alice; Ciarletti, Valérie; Hérique, Alain; Lethuillier, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    The CONSERT bistatic radar on Rosetta and Philae sounded the interior of the small lobe of 67P/C-G at 90 MHz and determined the average of the real part of the complex permittivity (hereafter ɛ') to be equal to 1.27±0.05 [1,2]. The permittivity probe (PP) of the SESAME package sounded the near-surface in the 400–800 Hz range and derived a lower limit of ɛ' equal to 2.45±0.20 [3,4]. At the time of the measurements, the temperature was found to be below 150 K at Philae's location and expected to be close or below 100 K inside the nucleus [4-6].The complex permittivity depends of the frequency, the composition, the porosity and the temperature of the material [7,8,9]. These parameters have to be taken into account to interpret the permittivity values. The non-dispersive behavior of ɛ' below 150 K [9], allows us to compare the CONSERT and SESAME-PP results and to interpret their difference in terms of porosity and/or composition. For this purpose we use a semi-empirical formula obtained from reproducible permittivity measurements performed in the laboratory at 243 K on water ice particles and ice-basaltic dust mixtures [10], with a controlled porosity in the 26–91% range and dust-to-ice volumetric ratios in the 0.1–2.8 range. The influence of the presence of organic materials on ɛ' is also discussed based on new measurements of analogues of complex extraterrestrial organic matter [11]. Our results suggest an increase of the porosity of the small lobe of 67P with depth [11], in agreement Lethuillier et al. [4]'s conclusion using a different method.[1]Kofman et al., 1998. Adv. Space Res., 21, 1589.[2]Ciarletti et al., 2015. A&A, 583, A40.[3]Seidensticker et al., 2007. Space Sci. Rev., 128, 301.[4]Lethuillier et al., 2016. A&A, 591, A32.[5]Spohn et al., 2015. Science, 349, aab0464.[6]Festou et al. (Eds.), Comets II. Univ. of Arizona Press.[7]Campbell and Ulrichs, 1969. J. Geophys. Res., 74, 5867.[8]Brouet et al., 2015. A&A, 583, A39.[9]Mattei et al., 2014

  10. Angle-Ply Weaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    Bias-direction or angle-ply weaving is proposed new process for weaving fibers along bias in conventional planar fabric or in complicated three-dimensional multilayer fabric preform of fiber-reinforced composite structure. Based upon movement of racks of needles and corresponding angle yarns across fabric as fabric being formed. Fibers woven along bias increases shear stiffness and shear strength of preform, increasing value of preform as structural member.

  11. Dynamic contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Kavehpour, H. Pirouz; Rothstein, Jonathan P.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the dynamic advancing and receding contact angles of a series of aqueous solutions were measured on a number of hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces using a modified Wilhelmy plate technique. Superhydrophobic surfaces are hydrophobic surfaces with micron or nanometer sized surface roughness. These surfaces have very large static advancing contact angles and little static contact angle hysteresis. In this study, the dynamic advancing and dynamic receding contact angles on superhydrophobic surfaces were measured as a function of plate velocity and capillary number. The dynamic contact angles measured on a smooth hydrophobic Teflon surface were found to obey the scaling with capillary number predicted by the Cox-Voinov-Tanner law, θD3 ∝ Ca. The response of the dynamic contact angle on the superhydrophobic surfaces, however, did not follow the same scaling law. The advancing contact angle was found to remain constant at θA = 160∘, independent of capillary number. The dynamic receding contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces were found to decrease with increasing capillary number; however, the presence of slip on the superhydrophobic surface was found to result in a shift in the onset of dynamic contact angle variation to larger capillary numbers. In addition, a much weaker dependence of the dynamic contact angle on capillary number was observed for some of the superhydrophobic surfaces tested.

  12. Effect of Mean Angle of Attack Modulation on Dynamic Stall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Kyle; Corke, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Wind tunnel experiments at M = 0 . 2 were conducted on a cambered airfoil instrumented with surface pressure transducers that was oscillated with two independent frequencies. The primary input, f1, corresponds to a range of reduced frequencies, while the slower, secondary input, f2, drives the modulation of the mean angle of attack, thus varying the stall-penetration angle, αpen. Various combinations transitioned different regimes of dynamic stall from "light" to "deep". Results suggest that when αpen is falling between consecutive cycles, the aerodynamic loads do not fully recover to the values seen when αpen is rising, even though the airfoil recedes to αpen load coefficients, aerodynamic damping, and their phase relationships to pitch angle. APS Fellow.

  13. 桥小脑角区小型占位致继发性三叉神经痛的手术疗效分析%Surgical outcome after resection of small cerebellopontine angle lesions resulted in secondary trigeminal neuralgia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶传元; 魏攀; 庄进学; 陈登奎; 程宏炜; 宋朝理; 李海龙; 薛峰; 张炜; 郑小强

    2011-01-01

    目的 评估桥小脑角区(CPA)小型占位致继发性三叉神经痛的手术疗效.方法 回顾分析我科自2005年1月~2010年12月期间该类患者的临床资料,包括年龄、症状及体征、影像学表现、手术方式、疗效及并发症.结果 6年期间手术治疗三叉神经痛372例,其中CPA区小型病变(最大直径<3cm)致继发性三叉神经痛23例,约占6.2%;病种包括胆脂瘤12例、神经鞘瘤6例、脑膜瘤3例、蛛网膜囊肿2例;所有患者行乙状窦后入路显微镜下切除病变,3例另行三叉神经感觉根部分切断术;术后疼痛消失20例,面部麻木3例;术后并发症包括无菌性脑膜炎、脑脊液漏、颅内感染、短暂耳鸣及面瘫,均恢复,无死亡.随访1~5年,无疼痛复发.结论 CPA区小型占位所致继发性三叉神经痛患者由于病变小、易于全切,加之镜下暴露充分,手术疗效满意;术中若发现病变与三叉神经无确切关系,则需行微血管减压或三叉神经部分感觉根切断术.%Objective To evaluate the surgical outcome after resection of small cerebel-lopontine angle lesions resulted in secondary trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Methods Clinical data including age, symptom and sign, image manifestation, surgical modality, surgical outcome and complications in patients diagnosed secondary TN resulted from small cerebellopontine angle lesions are analyzed retrospectively between 2005. 1 and 2010. 12. Results Of 6 years duration, 372 cases of TN underwent operations. There were 23 cases of such kind (the largest diameter less than 3cm) accounting for 6. 2% among them which involved 12 cholesteatomas, 6 schwanno-mas, 3 meningiomas and 2 arachnoid cysts. All lesions were resected under microscope through retrosigmoid approach and additional partial sensory rhizotomy was performed in 3 cases. After operation, 20 cases got complete pain relief and the rest had facial numbness. Postoperative complications included aseptic

  14. Limited Angle Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Kyung; Cho, Min Kook; Kim, Seong Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In computed tomography (CT), many situations are restricted to obtain enough number of projections or views to avoid artifacts such as streaking and geometrical distortion in the reconstructed images. Speed of motion of an object to be imaged can limit the number of views. Cardiovascular imaging is a representative example. Size of an object can also limit the complete traverse motion or geometrical complexity can obscure to be imaged at certain range of angles. These situations are frequently met in industrial nondestructive testing and evaluation. Dental CT also suffers from similar situation because cervical spine causes less x-ray penetration from some directions such that the available information is not sufficient for standard reconstruction algorithms. The limited angle tomography is now greatly paid attention as a new genre in medical and industrial imaging, popularly known as digital tomosynthesis. In this study, we introduce a modified filtered backprojection method in limited angle tomography and demonstrate its application for the dental imaging.

  15. Effectiveness of variable-gain Kalman filter based on angle error calculated from acceleration signals in lower limb angle measurement with inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruyama, Yuta; Watanabe, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The wearable sensor system developed by our group, which measured lower limb angles using Kalman-filtering-based method, was suggested to be useful in evaluation of gait function for rehabilitation support. However, it was expected to reduce variations of measurement errors. In this paper, a variable-Kalman-gain method based on angle error that was calculated from acceleration signals was proposed to improve measurement accuracy. The proposed method was tested comparing to fixed-gain Kalman filter and a variable-Kalman-gain method that was based on acceleration magnitude used in previous studies. First, in angle measurement in treadmill walking, the proposed method measured lower limb angles with the highest measurement accuracy and improved significantly foot inclination angle measurement, while it improved slightly shank and thigh inclination angles. The variable-gain method based on acceleration magnitude was not effective for our Kalman filter system. Then, in angle measurement of a rigid body model, it was shown that the proposed method had measurement accuracy similar to or higher than results seen in other studies that used markers of camera-based motion measurement system fixing on a rigid plate together with a sensor or on the sensor directly. The proposed method was found to be effective in angle measurement with inertial sensors.

  16. Dynamical angled brane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kei-ichi; Uzawa, Kunihito

    2016-12-01

    We discuss the dynamical D p -brane solutions describing any number of D p branes whose relative orientations are given by certain SU(2) rotations. These are the generalization of the static angled D p -brane solutions. We study the collision of the dynamical D3 brane with angles in type-II string theory, and show that the particular orientation of the smeared D3-brane configuration can provide an example of colliding branes if they have the same charges. Otherwise a singularity appears before D3 branes collide.

  17. Multi-angle compound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Søren Kragh; Wilhjelm, Jens Erik; Sillesen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    to conventional B-mode imaging MACI offers better defined tissue boundaries and lower variance of the speckle pattern, resulting in an image with reduced random variations. Design and implementation of a compound imaging system is described, images of rubber tubes and porcine aorta are shown and effects......This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared...... on visualization are discussed. The speckle reduction is analyzed numerically and the results are found to be in excellent agreement with existing theory. An investigation of detectability of low-contrast lesions shows significant improvements compared to conventional imaging. Finally, possibilities for improving...

  18. Optimisation of Fan Blade Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaroop M P

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This report represents the optimization of fan blade angle in accordance with the various room temperatures that can be in the tropical area like India. We took this work mainly because cooling is an important factor now a days in every area where construction and rooms are there and ceiling fans are the most common device that is commonly used. So it is of utmost importance to tweak the performance of this ceiling fan so that it can function in its most optimal condition. We have modeled the fan in a modeling software (SOLIDWORKS and imported that into an analyzing software (ANSYS and a result is generated on the various blade angles (0, 4, 8 and 12.5 degrees in accordance to room conditions. A trend line curve with the obtained data is expected as the result which can be crucial for designing of future fans

  19. Reliability of the ATD Angle in Dermatoglyphic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunson, Emily K; Hohnan, Darryl J; Giovas, Christina M

    2015-09-01

    The "ATD" angle is a dermatoglyphic trait formed by drawing lines between the triradii below the first and last digits and the most proximal triradius on the hypothenar region of the palm. This trait has been widely used in dermatoglyphic studies, but several researchers have questioned its utility, specifically whether or not it can be measured reliably. The purpose of this research was to examine the measurement reliability of this trait. Finger and palm prints were taken using the carbon paper and tape method from the right and left hands of 100 individuals. Each "ATD" angle was read twice, at different times, by Reader A, using a goniometer and a magnifying glass, and three times by a Reader B, using Adobe Photoshop. Inter-class correlation coefficients were estimated for the intra- and inter-reader measurements of the "ATD" angles. Reader A was able to quantify ATD angles on 149 out of 200 prints (74.5%), and Reader B on 179 out of 200 prints (89.5%). Both readers agreed on whether an angle existed on a print 89.8% of the time for the right hand and 78.0% for the left. Intra-reader correlations were 0.97 or greater for both readers. Inter-reader correlations for "ATD" angles measured by both readers ranged from 0.92 to 0.96. These results suggest that the "ATD" angle can be measured reliably, and further imply that measurement using a software program may provide an advantage over other methods.

  20. The quadriceps angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Frederiksen, Jane V.; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2012-01-01

    : Pelvic limbs from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). METHODS: Q angles were measured on hip dysplasia (HD) and whole limb (WL) view radiographs of each limb between the acetabular rim, mid-point (Q1: patellar center, Q2: femoral trochlea), and tibial tuberosity. Errors of 0.5-2.0 mm at measurement landmarks...

  1. Assessing manual lifting tasks based on segment angle interpolations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chien-Chi; Xu, Xu; Faber, Gert S; Kingma, Idsart; Dennerlein, Jack

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the number of interpolation points on the prediction accuracy of segment angle trajectory during lifting. Ten participants performed various lifting tasks while a motion tracking system recorded their movements. Two-point through ten-point equal time-spaced segment angles extracted from major segment trajectory data captured by the motion tracking system were used to re-generate the whole body lifting motion by using polynomial and cubic spline interpolation methods. The root mean square error (RMSE) between the reference (motion tracking system) and the estimated (interpolation method) segment angle trajectories were calculated to quantify the prediction accuracy. The results showed that the cubic spline interpolation will yield a smaller RMSE value than one based on the polynomial interpolation. While increasing the number of interpolation points can reduce the RMSE of the estimated segment angle trajectories, there was a diminishing advantage in continuing to add interpolation points. A sensitivity analysis suggests that if the estimation of the segment angles at each interpolation point deviates considerably from the real value, and cannot be controlled at a low level (interpolation points will not improve the estimation accuracy.

  2. Interhemispheric Comparison of Dipole Tilt Angle Effects on Latitude of Mid-Altitude Cusp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jian-Guang; SHI Jian-Kui; ZHANG Tie-Long; LIU Zhen-Xing

    2008-01-01

    A statistical study of interhemispheric comparison of dipole tilt angle effect on the latitude of the mid-altitude cusp is preformed by a data set of the Cluster cusp crossings over a 5-year period.The result shows that the dipole tilt angle has a clear control of the cusp latitudinal location.When the dipole tilts sunwards,the cusp is shifted poleward.The northern cusp moves 1° ILAT for every 15.4° increase in the dipole tilt angle,while the southern cusp moves 1° ILAT for every 20.8° increase in the dipole tilt angle. This suggests that an interhemispheric difference appears in the dependence of cusp latitudinal location on the dipole tilt angle.

  3. Globographic visualisation of three dimensional joint angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard

    2011-07-07

    Three different methods for describing three dimensional joint angles are commonly used in biomechanics. The joint coordinate system and Cardan/Euler angles are conceptually quite different but are known to represent the same underlying mathematics. More recently the globographic method has been suggested as an alternative and this has proved particularly attractive for the shoulder joint. All three methods can be implemented in a number of ways leading to a choice of angle definitions. Very recently Rab has demonstrated that the globographic method is equivalent to one implementation of the joint coordinate system. This paper presents a rigorous analysis of the three different methods and proves their mathematical equivalence. The well known sequence dependence of Cardan/Euler is presented as equivalent to configuration dependence of the joint coordinate system and orientation dependence of globographic angles. The precise definition of different angle sets can be easily visualised using the globographic method using analogues of longitude, latitude and surface bearings with which most users will already be familiar. The method implicitly requires one axis of the moving segment to be identified as its principal axis and this can be extremely useful in helping define the most appropriate angle set to describe the orientation of any particular joint. Using this technique different angle sets are considered to be most appropriate for different joints and examples of this for the hip, knee, ankle, pelvis and axial skeleton are outlined.

  4. The Change in Knee Angle during the Gait by Applying Elastic Tape to the Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to verify how the application of elastic tape to the anterior surface of the thigh changes the knee angle pattern during gait. [Subjects] The subjects were 10 people who showed an abnormal knee angle change pattern during usual walking. They did not show the so-called double knee action. [Methods] Subjects were asked to walk as usual, and then to walk with elastic tape attached to the anterior surface of the thigh. The knee angle was measured during gait with an electronic goniometer. We graphed the temporal changes of the knee angle and compared them with the normal gait pattern. [Results] The knee angle gait pattern of six of the 10 subjects improved after application of the tape and became like a normal gait pattern. The changes in the knee angle resulted from a stimulus via the skin, rather than voluntary muscular adjustment, suggesting that the changes may have originated due to differences in reflexive tensile strength. [Conclusion] In normal speed gait, it is suggested that the knee angle was altered such that it exhibited a normal pattern by applying elastic tape to the anterior surface of the thigh. We suspect that application of the elastic tape may change the muscle tonus. PMID:25140100

  5. Reliable measurement of the receding contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Juuso T; Huhtamäki, Tommi; Ikkala, Olli; Ras, Robin H A

    2013-03-26

    Surface wettability is usually evaluated by the contact angle between the perimeter of a water drop and the surface. However, this single measurement is not enough for proper characterization, and the so-called advancing and receding contact angles also need to be measured. Measuring the receding contact angle can be challenging, especially for extremely hydrophobic surfaces. We demonstrate a reliable procedure by using the common needle-in-the-sessile-drop method. Generally, the contact line movement needs to be followed, and true receding movement has to be distinguished from "pseudo-movement" occurring before the receding angle is reached. Depending on the contact angle hysteresis, the initial size of the drop may need to be surprisingly large to achieve a reliable result. Although our motivation for this work was the characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces, we also show that this method works universally ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic surfaces.

  6. Nanodrop contact angles from molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravipati, Srikanth; Aymard, Benjamin; Yatsyshin, Petr; Galindo, Amparo; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2016-11-01

    The contact angle between three phases being in thermodynamic equilibrium is highly sensitive to the nature of the intermolecular forces as well as to various fluctuation effects. Determining the Young contact angle of a sessile drop sitting on a substrate from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is a highly non-trivial task. Most commonly employed methods for finding droplet contact angles from MD simulation data either require large numbers of particles or are system-dependent. We propose a systematic geometry based methodology for extracting the contact angle from simulated sessile droplets by analysing an appropriately coarse-grained density field. To demonstrate the method, we consider Lennard-Jones (LJ) and SPC/E water nanodroplets of different sizes sitting on planar LJ walls. Our results are in good agreement with Young contact angle values computed employing test-area perturbation method.

  7. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences....

  8. Contact angle hysteresis explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lichao; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2006-07-04

    A view of contact angle hysteresis from the perspectives of the three-phase contact line and of the kinetics of contact line motion is given. Arguments are made that advancing and receding are discrete events that have different activation energies. That hysteresis can be quantified as an activation energy by the changes in interfacial area is argued. That this is an appropriate way of viewing hysteresis is demonstrated with examples.

  9. Resultados da correção cirúrgica de esotropias de grande ângulo, em portadores de baixa de acuidade visual unilateral Results of surgical treatment of large angle esotropia in patients with low visual acuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Meireles-Teixeira

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados cirúrgicos de esotropias de grande ângulo (no mínimo 60 dioptrias prismáticas - dp, associadas à baixa de acuidade visual (BAV unilateral, cuja cirurgia foi planejada com o intuito de não se operar o olho de melhor visão. Casuística e Métodos: Foram selecionados 17 casos de esotropias não-acomodativas, associadas à BAV (AV 15 dp ou rotações de ± 4. Resultados: 13 (76,4% tinham AV de conta-dedos no olho não-fixador, 2 (11,7% atingiam 0,1 e outros 2 (11,7% 0,4. Em 3 havia alta miopia (equivalente esférico > ou = -6,00 dioptrias esféricas em ambos os olhos. Entre os 17 pacientes, 12 (70,5% obtiveram bom resultado cirúrgico, 3 (17,6% foram regulares e 2 (11,7% ruins. Conclusão: A cirurgia de estrabismo sob anestesia tópica mostrou ser eficaz e segura nestes casos especiais de BAV em um dos olhos, sendo que na maioria das vezes consegue-se não operar o olho de melhor visão; o que a nosso ver, só se tornou possível pelo uso da anestesia tópica.Purpose: To evaluate the surgical outcome of large angle esotropia (minimum of 60 prism diopters -- pd associated with unilateral low visual acuity (LVA in which the surgical strategy was applied in order to operate only the non-fixating eye. Patients and Methods: We selected 17 patients with non-accommodative esotropia, LVA (VA<= 0,4 in the non-fixating eye with the better visual correction and no previous treatment. Patients were classified as good result if they had a postoperative deviation of maximally 10 pd with binocular rotations of up to --2 of medial rectus and +2 of lateral rectus. Exotropia/esotropia between 10 and 15 pd or binocular rotations of ±3 were considered as a regular outcome. Deviations greater than 15 pd or binocular rotations of ±4 were included regarded as poor results. Results: Thirteen (76.4% patients had counts fingers VA in the non-fixating eye, 2 (11.7% achieved 0.1 and another two had 0.4. Three of them were also highly

  10. Interpreting Behavioral Genetic Results: Suggestions for Counselors and Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatz, Margaret

    1990-01-01

    Contends treatment strategies often are premised on modifying either environmental factors or clients' interpretations of the interpersonal environment, but a more complete analysis would take into account the role played by genetic transmission in an individual's personality. Recommends when developing interventions both counselors and clients…

  11. Haptic discrimination of two-dimensional angles: influence of exploratory strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Myriam; Bourgeon, Stéphanie; Chapman, C Elaine

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to define the relative contribution of self-generated cutaneous and proprioceptive feedback to haptic shape discrimination by systematically constraining the exploratory strategy. Subjects (n = 23) explored pairs of two-dimensional (2-D) angles (standard angle, 90 degrees; comparison angles, 91 degrees -103 degrees) placed at arm's length from the subject, and identified the larger angle of each pair. The exploratory strategies included a reference condition, dynamic scan of the index finger over the entire object [combined cutaneous and proprioceptive (shoulder) feedback], and modified conditions, static touch of the intersection of the two bars that formed the angle using the index finger (cutaneous feedback) and dynamic scans of the object using a hand-held tool (proprioceptive feedback, shoulder). Discrimination thresholds (75% correct) were very similar for dynamic and static touch with the index finger. Thresholds varied as a function of the static contact duration (static touch likely reflects movement-related gating of self-generated tactile inputs. Together, the results suggested that cutaneous feedback alone may be sufficient to explain 2-D angle discrimination, because the added proprioceptive feedback did not improve performance. Also, threshold did not vary with the number of dynamic scans (one or two), suggesting that the critical information was gathered on the first pass over the angle. In contrast, when the angles were explored with the tool, the threshold increased relative to the corresponding reference condition from the same session (tool, 9.6 degrees +/- 0.9 degrees; dynamic scan with the finger, 6.2 degrees +/- 1.0 degrees). Thus, performance was poorer with proprioceptive feedback alone, suggesting that cutaneous feedback was relatively more important for 2-D haptic angle discrimination in the present experiment.

  12. Research on recognition of ramp angle based on transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao GU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the recognition of ramp angle, the relationship between the signal of vehicle transducer and real ramp angle is studied. The force change of vehicle on the ramp, and the relationship between the body tilt angle and front and rear suspension scale is discussed. According to the suspension and tire deformation, error angle of the ramp angle is deduced. A mathematical model is established with Matlab/Simulink and used for simulation to generate error curve of ramp angle. The results show that the error angle increases with the increasing of the ramp angle, and the limit value can reach 6.5%, while the identification method can effectively eliminate this error, and enhance the accuracy of ramp angle recognition.

  13. Superwide-angle acoustic propagations above the critical angles of the Snell law in liquid—solid superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Xiao-Wei

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, superwide-angle acoustic propagations above the critical angles of the Snell law in liquid—solid superlattice are investigated. Incident waves above the critical angles of the Snell law usually inevitably induce total reflection. However, incident waves with big oblique angles through the liquid—solid superlattice will produce a superwide angle transmission in a certain frequency range so that total reflection does not occur. Together with the simulation by finite element analysis, theoretical analysis by using transfer matrix method suggests the Bragg scattering of the Lamb waves as the physical mechanism of acoustic wave super-propagation far beyond the critical angle. Incident angle, filling fraction, and material thickness have significant influences on propagation. Superwide-angle propagation phenomenon may have potential applications in nondestructive evaluation of layered structures and controlling of energy flux.

  14. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y K [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with {sup 13}C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system.

  15. Contact angle hysteresis, adhesion, and marine biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Donald L; Brady, Robert F; Lam, Karen; Schmidt, Dale C; Chaudhury, Manoj K

    2004-03-30

    Adhesive and marine biofouling release properties of coatings containing surface-oriented perfluoroalkyl groups were investigated. These coatings were prepared by cross-linking a copolymer of 1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluorodecyl acrylate and acrylic acid with a copolymer of poly(2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline) and methyl methacrylate at different molar ratios. The relationships between contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, adhesion, and marine biofouling were studied. Adhesion was determined by peel tests using pressure-sensitive adhesives. The chemical nature of the surfaces was studied by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Resistance to marine biofouling of an optimized coating was studied by immersion in seawater and compared to previous, less optimized coatings. The adhesive release properties of the coatings did not correlate well with the surface energies of the coatings estimated from the static and advancing contact angles nor with the amount of fluorine present on the surface. The adhesive properties of the surfaces, however, show a correlation with water receding contact angles and contact angle hysteresis (or wetting hysteresis) resulting from surface penetration and surface reconstruction. Coatings having the best release properties had both the highest cross-link density and the lowest contact angle hysteresis. An optimized coating exhibited unprecedented resistance to marine biofouling. Water contact angle hysteresis appears to correlate with marine biofouling resistance.

  16. Lateral angle and cranial base sexual dimorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duquesnel Mana, Mathilde; Adalian, Pascal; Lynnerup, Niels

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY: Previous studies have yielded very different results in sex estimation based on measurements of the lateral angle (LA) of the temporal bone. The purpose of this study was to, first, investigate if the bad results obtained by the LA method could be due to the methodology and then, second......, to examine sexual dimorphism in the relationship between the lateral angle and cranial base shape. The lateral angle method was tested using a forensic sample of 102 CT scans of the head with known sex. We measured the angle using two methods: measurements directly on the CT slide, the method usually applied......, and by use of a new method, using a "virtual cast". The cranial base was quantified by placing 12 landmarks in the posterior fossa. Procrustes analysis, principal component analysis, discriminant analysis and cross-validation test were performed. The "cast method" was found to be less accurate than...

  17. A literature review on optimum and preferred joint angles in automotive sitting posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Amereller, Maximilian; Franz, Matthias; Kaiser, Ralf; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2014-03-01

    In this study, a survey of the scientific literature in the field of optimum and preferred human joint angles in automotive sitting posture was conducted by referring to thirty different sources published between 1940 and today. The strategy was to use only sources with numerical angle data in combination with keywords. The aim of the research was to detect commonly used joint angles in interior car design. The main analysis was on data measurement, usability and comparability of the different studies. In addition, the focus was on the reasons for the differently described results. It was found that there is still a lack of information in methodology and description of background. Due to these reasons published data is not always usable to design a modern ergonomic car environment. As a main result of our literature analysis we suggest undertaking further research in the field of biomechanics and ergonomics to work out scientific based and objectively determined "optimum" joint angles in automotive sitting position.

  18. Angle-deviation optical profilometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Tai Tan; Yuan-Sheng Chan; Zhen-Chin Lin; Ming-Hung Chiu

    2011-01-01

    @@ We propose a new optical profilometer for three-dimensional (3D) surface profile measurement in real time.The deviation angle is based on geometrical optics and is proportional to the apex angle of a test plate.Measuring the reflectivity of a parallelogram prism allows detection of the deviation angle when the beam is incident at the nearby critical angle. The reflectivity is inversely proportional to the deviation angle and proportional to the apex angle and surface height. We use a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera at the image plane to capture the reflectivity profile and obtain the 3D surface profile directly.%We propose a new optical profilometer for three-dimensional (3D) surface profile measurement in real time.The deviation angle is based on geometrical optics and is proportional to the apex angle of a test plate.Measuring the refiectivity of a parallelogram prism allows detection of the deviation angle when the beam is incident at the nearby critical angle. The refiectivity is inversely proportional to the deviation angle and proportional to the apex angle and surface height. We use a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera at the image plane to capture the refiectivity profile and obtain the 3D surface profile directly.

  19. The effect of handle angle on MAWL, wrist posture, RPE, and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M J; Chung, H C; Chen, H C

    2000-01-01

    In manual material handling tasks, the handle serves as the interface between the human operator and the box (the materials). Handle angle design can affect both wrist posture and lifting ability. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of handle angle on maximal acceptable weight of lifting (MAWL), perceived whole-body exertion, whole-body workload, wrist posture, and perceived wrist exertion. The results indicate that handle angle had a significant effect on wrist posture and wrist rating of perceived exertion (RPE). A box with a 0 degrees handle angle induced the greatest ulnar deviation and the highest wrist RPE. A 75 degrees handle angle induced the greatest radial deviation and a relatively high wrist RPE. A 30 degrees handle angle resulted in the greatest MAWL and the lowest level of wrist RPE. Overall, these findings suggest that 30 degrees and 45 degrees handle angles can provide favorable coupling conditions for the cutout-type handhold container handle. Actual or practical applications include the ergonomic design of container handles for manual material handling tasks industry.

  20. Heterodyne Interferometer Angle Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Inseob; Weilert, Mark A.; Wang, Xu; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    A compact, high-resolution angle measurement instrument has been developed that is based on a heterodyne interferometer. The common-path heterodyne interferometer metrology is used to measure displacements of a reflective target surface. In the interferometer setup, an optical mask is used to sample the measurement laser beam reflecting back from a target surface. Angular rotations, around two orthogonal axes in a plane perpendicular to the measurement- beam propagation direction, are determined simultaneously from the relative displacement measurement of the target surface. The device is used in a tracking telescope system where pitch and yaw measurements of a flat mirror were simultaneously performed with a sensitivity of 0.1 nrad, per second, and a measuring range of 0.15 mrad at a working distance of an order of a meter. The nonlinearity of the device is also measured less than one percent over the measurement range.

  1. Drop rebound after impact: the role of the receding contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, C; Villa, F; Bernagozzi, I; Amirfazli, A; Marengo, M

    2013-12-31

    Data from the literature suggest that the rebound of a drop from a surface can be achieved when the wettability is low, i.e., when contact angles, measured at the triple line (solid-liquid-air), are high. However, no clear criterion exists to predict when a drop will rebound from a surface and which is the key wetting parameter to govern drop rebound (e.g., the "equilibrium" contact angle, θeq, the advancing and the receding contact angles, θA and θR, respectively, the contact angle hysteresis, Δθ, or any combination of these parameters). To clarify the conditions for drop rebound, we conducted experimental tests on different dry solid surfaces with variable wettability, from hydrophobic to superhydrophobic surfaces, with advancing contact angles 108° contact angles 89° contact angle is the key wetting parameter that influences drop rebound, along with surface hydrophobicity: for the investigated impact conditions (drop diameter 2.4 contact angles higher than 100°. Also, the drop rebound time decreased by increasing the receding contact angle. It was also shown that in general care must be taken when using statically defined wetting parameters (such as advancing and receding contact angles) to predict the dynamic behavior of a liquid on a solid surface because the dynamics of the phenomenon may affect surface wetting close to the impact point (e.g., as a result of the transition from the Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel state in the case of the so-called superhydrophobic surfaces) and thus affect the drop rebound.

  2. Maximum Atmospheric Entry Angle for Specified Retrofire Impulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Srivastava

    1969-07-01

    Full Text Available Maximum atmospheric entry angles for vehicles initially moving in elliptic orbits are investigated and it is shown that tangential retrofire impulse at the apogee results in the maximum entry angle. Equivalence of maximizing the entry angle and minimizing the retrofire impulse is also established.

  3. Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2014-04-01

    It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation.

  4. EMERGENCE ANGLE OF FLOW OVER AN AERATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aerator is an important device for release works of hydraulic structures with high-speed flow in order to protect them from cavitation damage. This kind of protecting effect is related closely to cavity length below the aerator, while the cavity length is dominated by the emergence angle over the aerator. Therefore it is crucial to determine this angle accurately. In the present paper the affecting intensities of flow depth and the fluctuating velocity on this angle were analyzed through two introduced parameters. Furthermore, the improved expressions of emergence angle estimation, for both ramp-type and step-type aerators, were presented by means of 68 sets of experimental data from 6 projects based on error theory. The results showed that the present method has higher accuracy than the previously reported methods.

  5. The effect of angle of incidence to low damage sputtering of organic polymers using a C 60 ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyayama, Takuya; Sanada, Noriaki; Iida, Shin-ichi; Hammond, John S.; Suzuki, Mineharu

    2008-12-01

    The effect of angle of incidence of C 60 ion beam for low damage polymer depth profiling on TOF-SIMS and XPS has been investigated. In this study, TOF-SIMS and XPS depth profiles were taken at several angles of incidence of C 60 ion beam and the results were compared with each other. By using a higher angle of incidence, in XPS analysis, the changes of atomic concentration for polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) were suppressed. In TOF-SIMS analysis, the degradations of fragment ion intensity for PET and polystyrene (PS) were also suppressed at a higher angle of incidence. Although the information depth of TOF-SIMS is different from that of XPS, both results suggested that a higher angle of incidence is a better condition for low damage polymer depth profiling.

  6. Variation of microfibril angle and its correlation to wood properties in poplars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANGSheng-zuo; YANGWen-zhong; FUXiang-xiang

    2004-01-01

    The microfibril angle of seven poplar clones was determined by using X-ray diffraction technique. Microfibril angle,wood basic density, fiber length, fiber width and cellulose content were assessed for every growth ring at breast height for all sample trees. Significant variation in microfibril angle was observed among growth rings. Mean microfibril angle (MFA) at breast height varied from 7.8°to 28° between growth rings with cambial age and showed a consistent pith-to-bark trend of decline angles. Analysis of variance also indicated that there were significant differences in wood basic density, fiber length, fiber width and cellulose content between the growth rings, which had an increasing tendency from pith to bark. Correlations between MFA and examined wood properties were predominantly large and significant negative (α=0.01), and the coefficients were -0.660 for cellulose content, -0.586 for fiber length, -0.516 for fiber width and -0.450 for wood basic density, respectively. Regression analysis with linear and curve estimation indicated that a quadratic function showed the largest R2 and the least standard error for describing the relationships between microfibril angle and measured wood properties, and the correlation coefficients were over -0.45 (n=125). The results from this study suggested that microfibril angle would be a good characteristic for improvement in the future breeding program of poplars.

  7. The Convergence Angle of Full-coverage Crown Preparations Made by Dental Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Baghai Naini

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A clinically feasible convergence angle in full-coverage crown preparations, meeting the requirements for proper retention and resistance forms, has always been a matter of interest for laboratory and clinical researches. This study aims to evaluate the angle in teeth prepared by both under- and post-graduate students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Faculty of dentistry, Department of Prosthodontics.Materials and Methods: Samples consisted of 196 prepared teeth for full-coverage crown restoration by third year postgraduate and fifth year undergraduate students in the Department of Prosthodontics. Two images were obtained from each die by a scanner and both bucco-lingual and mesio-distal convergence angles were measured, by two different assessors, via Auto CAD 14 software. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance.Results: There were statistically significant differences between the teeth prepared by un-der- and post-graduate students in mesio-distal convergence angles of all maxillary teeth, except for canines. Significant differences were found between bucco-lingual convergence angles of the maxillary canines and molars.Conclusion: The recently recommended convergence angles are more clinically feasible compared to the classic 4 to 10 degrees that was previously suggested for all teeth. It also seems that clinical experience does not necessarily lead to a decrease in convergence an-gles during preparation.

  8. Contact angle hysteresis of cylindrical drops on chemically heterogeneous striped surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamatsu, Masao

    2006-05-15

    Contact angle hysteresis of a macroscopic droplet on a heterogeneous but flat substrate is studied using the interface displacement model. First, the apparent contact angle of a droplet on a heterogeneous surface under the condition of constant volume is considered. By assuming a cylindrical liquid-vapor surface (meniscus) and minimizing the total free energy, we derive an equation for the apparent contact angle, which is similar but different from the well-known Cassie's law. Next, using this modified Cassie's law as a guide to predict the behavior of a droplet on a heterogeneous striped surface, we examine several scenarios of contact angle hysteresis using a periodically striped surface model. By changing the volume of the droplet, we predict a sudden jump of the droplet edge, and a continuous change of the apparent contact angle at the edge of two stripes. Our results suggest that as drop volume is increased (advancing contact lines), the predominant drop configuration observed is the one whose contact angle is large; whereas, decreasing drop volume from a large value (receding contact lines) yields drop configuration that predominantly exhibit the smaller contact angle.

  9. IMPACTS OF DIFFERENT JOINT ANGLES AND ADHESIVES ON DIAGONAL TENSION PERFORMANCES OF BOX-TYPE FURNITURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Atar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the effects of different joint angles and adhesives on diagonal tension performances of the box-type furniture made from solid wood and medium density fiberboard (MDF. After drilling joints of 75º, 78º, 81º, 84º, and 87º degrees on Oriental beech, European oak, Scotch pine, and MDF samples, a diagonal tensile test was applied on corners glued with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc and polyurethane (D-VTKA = Desmodur-Vinyl Trieketonol Acetate according to ASTM D 1037 standard. With reference to the obtained results, the highest tensile strength was obtained in European oak with PVAc glue and joint angle of 84º, while the lowest value was obtained in MDF with D-VTKA glue and joint angle of 75º. Considering the interaction of wood, adhesive, and joint angle, the highest tensile strength was obtained in European oak with joint angle of 81º and D-VTKA glue (1.089 N.mm-2, whereas the lowest tensile strength was determined in MDF with joint angle of 75º and PVAc glue (0.163 N.mm-2. Therefore, PVAc as glue and 81º as joint angle could be suggested to obtain some advantageous on the dovetail joint process for box-type furniture made from both solid wood and MDF.

  10. An investigation of the dose distribution effect related with collimator angle for VMAT method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, B.; Bilge, H.; Ozturk, S. Tokdemir

    2016-03-01

    Aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of dose distribution in eleven prostate cancer patients with single VMAT and double VMAT when varying collimator angle. We generated optimum single and double VMAT treatment plans when collimator angle was 0°. We recalculated single VMAT plans at different collimator angles(0°,15°,30°,45°,60°,75°,90°) for double VMAT plans(0°-0°,15°-345°,30°-330°,45°-315°,60°-300°,75°-285°,90°-270°) without changing any optimization parameters. HI, DVH and %95 dose coverage of PTV calculated and analyzed. We determined better dose distribution with some collimator angles. Plans were verified using the 2 dimensional ion chamber array Matrixx® and 3 dimensional Compass® software program. A higher %95 dose coverage of PTV was found for single VMAT in the 15° collimator angle, for double VMAT in the 60°-300° and 75°-285° collimator angles. Because of lower rectum doses, we suggested 75°-285°. When we compared single and double VMAT's dose distribution, we had better % 95 dose coverage of PTV and lower HI with double VMAT. Our result was significant statistically. These finds are informative for choosing 75°-285° collimator angles in double VMAT plans for prostate cancer.

  11. Investigation of drop dynamic contact angle on copper surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlova Evgenija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results of the studying the effect of surface roughness, microstructure and flow rate on the dynamic contact angle at spreading of distilled non deaerate water drop on a solid horizontal substrates. Copper substrates with different roughness have been investigated. For each substrate static contact angles depending on volume flow rate have been obtained using shadow system. Increasing the volume flow rate resulted in an increase of the static contact angle. It was found that with increasing surface roughness dynamic contact angle arises. Also difference in formation of the equilibrium contact angle at low and high rates of drop growth has been detected.

  12. Investigation of drop dynamic contact angle on copper surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Evgenija; Feoktistov, Dmitriy; Kuznetsov, Geniy

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results of the studying the effect of surface roughness, microstructure and flow rate on the dynamic contact angle at spreading of distilled non deaerate water drop on a solid horizontal substrates. Copper substrates with different roughness have been investigated. For each substrate static contact angles depending on volume flow rate have been obtained using shadow system. Increasing the volume flow rate resulted in an increase of the static contact angle. It was found that with increasing surface roughness dynamic contact angle arises. Also difference in formation of the equilibrium contact angle at low and high rates of drop growth has been detected.

  13. Limits of the seismogenic zone in the epicentral region of the 26 December 2004 great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake: Results from seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection surveys and thermal modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Ladage, S; Dessa, J -X; Graindorge, David; Franke, D; André, C; Permana, Haryadi; Yudistira, T; Chauhan, Ajay; 10.1029/2009JB006569

    2010-01-01

    The 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake (Mw = 9.1) initiated around 30 km depth and ruptured 1300 km of the Indo-Australian Sunda plate boundary. During the Sumatra OBS (ocean bottom seismometer) survey, a wide angle seismic profile was acquired across the epicentral region. A seismic velocity model was obtained from combined travel time tomography and forward modeling. Together with reflection seismic data from the SeaCause II cruise, the deep structure of the source region of the great earthquake is revealed. Four to five kilometers of sediments overlie the oceanic crust at the trench, and the subducting slab can be imaged down to a depth of 35 km. We find a crystalline backstop 120 km from the trench axis, below the fore arc basin. A high velocity zone at the lower landward limit of the raycovered domain, at 22 km depth, marks a shallow continental Moho, 170 km from the trench. The deep structure obtained from the seismic data was used to construct a thermal model of the fore arc in order to predict the li...

  14. Computer simulation of dislocation core structure of metastable left angle 111 right angle dislocations in NiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Z.Y. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)); Vailhe, C. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)); Farkas, D. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States))

    1993-10-01

    The atomistic structure of dislocation cores of left angle 111 right angle dislocations in NiAl was simulated using embedded atom method potentials and molecular statics computer simulation. In agreement with previous simulation work and experimental observations, the complete left angle 111 right angle dislocation is stable with respect to the two superpartials of 1/2 left angle 111 right angle separated by an antiphase boundary. The structure of the latter configuration, though metastable, is of interest in the search for ways of improving ductility in this material. The structure of the complete dislocation and that of the metastable superpartials was studied using atomistic computer simulation. An improved visualization method was used for the representation of the resulting structures. The structure of the partials is different from that typical of 1/2 left angle 111 right angle dislocations in b.c.c. materials and that reported previously for the B2 structure using model pair potentials. (orig.)

  15. Impacts of tropical cyclone inflow angle on ocean surface waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; HONG Xin

    2011-01-01

    The inflow angle of tropical cyclones (TC) is generally neglected in numerical studies of ocean surface waves induced by TC. In this study, the impacts of TC inflow angle on ocean surface waves were investigated using a high-resolution wave model. Six numerical experiments were conducted to examine, in detail, the effects of inflow angle on mean wave parameters and the spectrum of wave directions. A comparison of the waves simulated in these experiments shows that inflow angle significantly modifies TC-induced ocean surface waves. As the inflow angle increases, the asymmetric axis of the significant wave height (SWH) field shifts 30° clockwise, and the maximum SWH moves from the front-right to the rear-right quadrant. Inflow angle also affects other mean wave parameters, especially in the rear-left quadrant, such as the mean wave direction, the mean wavelength, and the peak direction. Inflow angle is a key factor in wave models for the reproduction of double-peak or multi-peak patterns in the spectrum of wave directions. Sensitivity experiments also show that the simulation with a 40° inflow angle is the closest to that of the NOAA statistical SLOSH inflow angle. This suggests that 40° can be used as the inflow angle in future TC-induced ocean surface wave simulations when SLOSH or observed inflow angles are not available.

  16. Pressure dependence of the contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiyu; Farouk, T; Ward, C A

    2007-06-07

    When a liquid and its vapor contact a smooth, homogeneous surface, Gibbsian thermodynamics indicates that the contact angle depends on the pressure at the three-phase line of an isothermal system. When a recently proposed adsorption isotherm for a solid-vapor interface is combined with the equilibrium conditions and the system is assumed to be in a cylinder where the liquid-vapor interface can be approximated as spherical, the contact-angle-pressure relation can be made explicit. It indicates that a range of contact angles can be observed on a smooth homogeneous surface by changing the pressure at the three-phase line, but it also indicates that the adsorption at the solid-liquid interface is negative, and leads to the prediction that the contact angle increases with pressure. The predicted dependence of the contact angle on pressure is investigated experimentally in a system that has an independent mechanism for determining when thermodynamic equilibrium is reached. The predictions are in agreement with the measurements. The results provide a possible explanation for contact angle hysteresis.

  17. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, Roel W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional sugg

  18. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  19. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  20. [Suggestion and hypnosis in hysteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, P

    1995-12-15

    Suggestive influences allow to resolve ambiguities. Normally they are only accepted if they correspond with the knowledge and believes of the subject. Under hypnosis or under the impact of serious psychic perturbations one may take up reality constructions which are not in conformity with these criteria. The restriction of consciousness and the ignoring of certain functions permitting this are the common basis of hypnosis and hysteria. But suggestions do not cause the later; they may only shape the symptomatology. Hypnosis can create a terrain facilitating the resolution of the problems underlying hysteria but it does not represent the treatment of hysteria.

  1. The Effect of Foot Progression Angle on Knee Joint Compression Force during Walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldvinsson, Henrik Koblauch; Heilskov-Hansen, Thomas; Alkjær, Tine

    2013-01-01

    compression force increased during EFR and the lateral knee joint compartment compression force increased during IFR. The increases in joint loads may be a result of increased knee flexion angles. Further these data suggest that the frontal plane knee joint moment is not a valid surrogate measure for knee...

  2. Nutcracker and SMA syndromes: What is the normal SMA angle in children?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, O.J., E-mail: oja20@owenarthurs.co.uk [Department of Radiology, Box 219, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Mehta, U. [Department of Radiology, Box 219, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Set, P.A.K., E-mail: p.set@addenbrookes.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Box 219, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: The nutcracker and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndromes are rare conditions where the left renal vein or duodenum may be compressed by an unusually acute angle between the SMA and aorta, although the normal angle in children is unknown. We measured the SMA angle to define the normal range in children. Methods: We retrospectively measured SMA angles, left renal vein (LRV) distance, and duodenal distance (DD) in 205 consecutive pediatric abdominal CT. Total and visceral intra-abdominal fat at the level of the umbilicus were also assessed. Results: Mean SMA angle was 45.6 {+-} 19.6 Degree-Sign (range 10.6-112.9 Degree-Sign ), mean LRV distance was 8.6 {+-} 3.9 mm (range 2.0-28.6 mm) and mean DD was 11.3 {+-} 4.8 mm (range 3.6-35.3 mm). There was a significant but weak correlation between %visceral fat volume (%VF) and SMA angle (R = 0.30; p < 0.001), LRV distance (R = 0.37, p < 0.001) and DD (R = 0.32; p < 0.001). Conclusion: There is a wide range of SMA angle, LRV and DD in normal children, which correlated weakly with visceral fat volume. Using a definition of SMA angle <25 Degree-Sign would diagnose 9.3% of asymptomatic children with nutcracker syndrome, and using a DD definition of <8 mm would diagnose 20% with SMA compression. Our findings suggest exercising caution when attributing these rare syndromes to an absolute SMA angle.

  3. Mandibular advancement surgery in high-angle and low-angle class II patients: different long-term skeletal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, K A; Espeland, L; Krogstad, O; Lyberg, T

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this cephalometric study was to compare skeletal stability and the time course of postoperative changes in high-angle and low-angle Class II patients after mandibular advancement surgery. The subjects were 61 consecutive mandibular retrognathism patients whose treatment included bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and rigid fixation. The patients were divided according to the preoperative mandibular plane angle; the 20 patients with the lowest mandibular plane angle (20.8 degrees +/- 4.9 degrees ) constituted the low-angle group, while the 20 cases with the highest mandibular plane angle (43.0 degrees +/- 4.0 degrees ) represented the high-angle group. Lateral cephalograms were taken on 6 occasions: immediately before surgery, immediately after surgery, 2 and 6 months after surgery, and 1 and 3 years after surgery. Results demonstrated that the high-angle and low-angle groups had different patterns of surgical and postoperative changes. High-angle patients were associated with both a higher frequency and a greater magnitude of horizontal relapse. While 95% of the total relapse took place during the first 2 months after surgery in the low-angle group, high-angle patients demonstrated a more continuous relapse pattern, with a significant proportion (38%) occurring late in the follow-up period. Possible reasons for the different postsurgical response are discussed.

  4. A robust polynomial fitting approach for contact angle measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atefi, Ehsan; Mann, J Adin; Tavana, Hossein

    2013-05-14

    Polynomial fitting to drop profile offers an alternative to well-established drop shape techniques for contact angle measurements from sessile drops without a need for liquid physical properties. Here, we evaluate the accuracy of contact angles resulting from fitting polynomials of various orders to drop profiles in a Cartesian coordinate system, over a wide range of contact angles. We develop a differentiator mask to automatically find a range of required number of pixels from a drop profile over which a stable contact angle is obtained. The polynomial order that results in the longest stable regime and returns the lowest standard error and the highest correlation coefficient is selected to determine drop contact angles. We find that, unlike previous reports, a single polynomial order cannot be used to accurately estimate a wide range of contact angles and that a larger order polynomial is needed for drops with larger contact angles. Our method returns contact angles with an accuracy of contact angles in a wide range with a fourth-order polynomial. We show that this approach returns dynamic contact angles with less than 0.7° error as compared to ADSA-P, for the solid-liquid systems tested. This new approach is a powerful alternative to drop shape techniques for estimating contact angles of drops regardless of drop symmetry and without a need for liquid properties.

  5. A thin-film magnetoresistive angle detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Kees J.M.; Wieberdink, Johan W.; Fluitman, Jan H.J; Popma, Theo J.A.; Groot, Peter; Leeuwis, Henk

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of the results of our research on a contactless angle detector based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect (AMR effect) in a permalloy thin film. The results of high-temperature annealing treatment of the pemalloy film are discussed. Such a treatment suppresses the effects

  6. Contact angle hysteresis: study by dynamic cycling contact angle measurements and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry on polyimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, A; Eichhorn, K-J; Staudinger, U; Sahre, K; Rogalli, M; Stamm, M; Neumann, A W; Grundke, K

    2004-08-03

    The phenomenon of contact angle hysteresis was studied on smooth films of polyimide, a polymer type used in the microelectronic industry, by dynamic cycling contact angle measurements based on axisymmetric drop shape analysis-profile in combination with variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE). It was found that both advancing and receding contact angles became smaller with increasing the number of cycles and are, therefore, not a property of the dry solid alone. The changes of the wetting behavior during these dynamic cycling contact angle measurements are attributed mainly to swelling and/or liquid retention. To reveal the water-induced changes of the polymer film, the polyimide surface was studied before and after the contact with a water droplet by VASE. Both the experimental ellipsometric spectrum for Delta and that for Psi as well as the corresponding simulations show characteristic shifts due to the contact with water. The so-called effective medium approximation was applied to recover information about the thickness and effective optical constants of the polymer layer from the ellipsometrically measured values of Delta and Psi. On the basis of these results, the swelling and retention behavior of the polyimide films in contact with water droplets were discussed.

  7. Michelson interferometer for precision angle measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, M; Hussain, G

    1999-01-01

    An angle-measuring technique based on an optical interferometer is reported. The technique exploits a Michelson interferometric configuration in which a right-angle prism and a glass strip are introduced into a probe beam. Simultaneous rotation of both components along an axis results in an optical path difference between the reference and the probe beams. In a second arrangement two right-angle prisms and glass strips are introduced into two beams of a Michelson interferometer. The prisms and the strips are rotated simultaneously to introduce an optical path difference between the two beams. In our arrangement, optimization of various parameters makes the net optical path difference between the two beams approximately linear for a rotation as great as +/-20 degrees . Results are simulated that show an improvement of 2-3 orders of magnitude in error and nonlinearity compared with a previously reported technique.

  8. Association of known common genetic variants with primary open angle, primary angle closure, and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma in Pakistani cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micheal, S.; Ayub, H.; Khan, M.I.; Bakker, B.; Schoenmaker-Koller, F.E.; Ali, M.; Akhtar, F.; Khan, W.A.; Qamar, R.; Hollander, A.I. den

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite the different etiology of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG), and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEXG), several studies have suggested that these forms of glaucoma have overlapping genetic risk factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to eval

  9. Bioelectric impedance phase angle in breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Worldwide breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life threatening cancer and the leading cause of death in women. Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA affords an emerging opportunity to assess prognosis because of its ability to non invasively assess cell and plasma membrane structure and function by means of phase angle. Aims: To compare the phase angle between patients of breast cancer and their matched control with the help of BIA. Settings and Design: After taking clearance from ethical committee, a total of 34 female cases of histologically proven infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma were included from the surgery IPD, department of surgery. Equal numbers of the matched controls were recruited from the friends and relatives of cases. Materials and Methods: Bio Electrical Impedance Analyzer (BIA BODY STAT QUAD SCAN 4000 was used to measure resistance (R and reactance (Xc by recording a voltage drop in applied current. Phase angle is the ratio of reactance to resistance and is a measure of cell vitality. Statistical analysis used: Unpaired "t" test was applied. Results: In control group, the phase angle showed a mean of 5.479 whereas in test group, it showed a mean value of 4.726. The P value showed a significant difference (P < 0.0001. The smaller the phase angle values were higher was the tumor, nodes, metastases (TNM staging. The phase angles differed significantly from the healthy age matched control values. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that phase angle is a strong predictor of severity of breast cancer and differed significantly between the two groups.

  10. Moderate positive spin Hall angle in uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Simranjeet; Anguera, Marta; Barco, Enrique del, E-mail: delbarco@ucf.edu, E-mail: cwmsch@rit.edu [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Springell, Ross [H. H. Will Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS2 8BS (United Kingdom); Miller, Casey W., E-mail: delbarco@ucf.edu, E-mail: cwmsch@rit.edu [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-12-07

    We report measurements of spin pumping and the inverse spin Hall effect in Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}/uranium bilayers designed to study the efficiency of spin-charge interconversion in a super-heavy element. We employ broad-band ferromagnetic resonance on extended films to inject a spin current from the Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} (permalloy) into the uranium layer, which is then converted into an electric field by the inverse spin Hall effect. Surprisingly, our results suggest a spin mixing conductance of order 2 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −2} and a positive spin Hall angle of 0.004, which are both merely comparable with those of several transition metals. These results thus support the idea that the electronic configuration may be at least as important as the atomic number in governing spin pumping across interfaces and subsequent spin Hall effects. In fact, given that both the magnitude and the sign are unexpected based on trends in d-electron systems, materials with unfilled f-electron orbitals may hold additional exploration avenues for spin physics.

  11. Suggestions on photons and fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Alvargonzalez, R

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we suggest a configuration of photons consistent with a spin $\\hbar$, and a configuration of the fermions coherent with a spin $\\hbar/2$. These suggested configurations open the way to further analyses which lead to the following conclusions: - There cannot exist elementary particles of spin $\\hbar/2$ with a mass inferior to $1m_e$ or with a radius greater than $1l_e$. - The electrostatic force derives from the centrifugal forces inherent to the spin and are propagated by photons. - The derivation of the electrostatic force explains the existence of positive and negative charges and Coulomb's law. - The enormous differences between the centrifugal forces and the centripetal forces at the surface of the protons give rise to quantic fluctuations of space which generate the energy flows necessary for equilibrium. These energy flows can explain gravitation and the strong force. - The mass of the proton, $m_p$, and the mass of the neutron, $m_n$, must each have a concrete value required for the cohes...

  12. Investigation of drop dynamic contact angle on copper surface

    OpenAIRE

    Orlova Evgenija; Feoktistov Dmitriy; Kuznetsov Geniy

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results of the studying the effect of surface roughness, microstructure and flow rate on the dynamic contact angle at spreading of distilled non deaerate water drop on a solid horizontal substrates. Copper substrates with different roughness have been investigated. For each substrate static contact angles depending on volume flow rate have been obtained using shadow system. Increasing the volume flow rate resulted in an increase of the static contact angle. It...

  13. Bicycle helmet ventilation and comfort angle dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühwiler, Paul A; Ducas, Charline; Huber, Roman; Bishop, Phillip A

    2004-09-01

    Five modern bicycle helmets were studied to elucidate some of the variations in ventilation performance, using both a heated manikin headform and human subjects (n = 7). Wind speed and head angle were varied to test their influence on the measured steady-state heat exchange (cooling power) in the skull section of the headform. The cooling power transmitted by the helmets varied from about 60% to over 90% of that of the nude headform, illustrating the range of present manufacturer designs. Angling the head forward by 30 degrees was found to provide better cooling power to the skull (up to 25%) for three of the helmets and almost equal cooling power in the remaining two cases. Comparisons of skull ventilation at these angles with human subjects strongly supported the headform results.

  14. Head flexion angle while using a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sojeong; Kang, Hwayeong; Shin, Gwanseob

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive or prolonged head flexion posture while using a smartphone is known as one of risk factors for pain symptoms in the neck. To quantitatively assess the amount and range of head flexion of smartphone users, head forward flexion angle was measured from 18 participants when they were conducing three common smartphone tasks (text messaging, web browsing, video watching) while sitting and standing in a laboratory setting. It was found that participants maintained head flexion of 33-45° (50th percentile angle) from vertical when using the smartphone. The head flexion angle was significantly larger (p neck pain of heavy smartphone users. Practitioner Summary: In this laboratory study, the severity of head flexion of smartphone users was quantitatively evaluated when conducting text messaging, web browsing and video watching while sitting and standing. Study results indicate that text messaging while sitting caused the largest head flexion than that of other task conditions.

  15. In vivo human gastrocnemius architecture with changing joint angle at rest and during graded isometric contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, M V; Binzoni, T; Hiltbrand, E; Fasel, J; Terrier, F; Cerretelli, P

    1996-10-01

    1. Human gastrocnemius medialis architecture was analysed in vivo, by ultrasonography, as a function of joint angle at rest and during voluntary isometric contractions up to the maximum force (MCV). maximum force (MVC). 2. At rest, as ankle joint angle increased from 90 to 150 deg, pennation increased from 15.8 to 27.7 deg, fibre length decreased from 57.0 to 34.0 mm and the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) increased from 42.1 to 63.5 cm2. 3. From rest to MVC, at a fixed ankle joint angle of 110 deg, pennation angle increased from 15.5 to 33.6 deg and fibre length decreased from 50.8 to 32.9 mm, with no significant change in the distance between the aponeuroses. As a result of these changes the PCSA increased by 34.8%. 4. Measurements of pennation angle, fibre length and distance between the aponeuroses of the gastrocnemius medialis were also performed by ultrasound on a cadaver leg and found to be in good agreement with direct anatomical measurements. 5. It is concluded that human gastrocnemius medialis architecture is significantly affected both by changes of joint angle at rest and by isometric contraction intensity. The remarkable shortening observed during isometric contraction suggests that, at rest, the gastrocnemius muscle and tendon are considerably slack. The extrapolation of muscle architectural data obtained from cadavers to in vivo conditions should be made only for matching muscle lengths.

  16. Methodology for high accuracy contact angle measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantarian, A; David, R; Neumann, A W

    2009-12-15

    A new version of axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) called ADSA-NA (ADSA-no apex) was developed for measuring interfacial properties for drop configurations without an apex. ADSA-NA facilitates contact angle measurements on drops with a capillary protruding into the drop. Thus a much simpler experimental setup, not involving formation of a complete drop from below through a hole in the test surface, may be used. The contact angles of long-chained alkanes on a commercial fluoropolymer, Teflon AF 1600, were measured using the new method. A new numerical scheme was incorporated into the image processing to improve the location of the contact points of the liquid meniscus with the solid substrate to subpixel resolution. The images acquired in the experiments were also analyzed by a different drop shape technique called theoretical image fitting analysis-axisymmetric interfaces (TIFA-AI). The results were compared with literature values obtained by means of the standard ADSA for sessile drops with the apex. Comparison of the results from ADSA-NA with those from TIFA-AI and ADSA reveals that, with different numerical strategies and experimental setups, contact angles can be measured with an accuracy of less than 0.2 degrees. Contact angles and surface tensions measured from drops with no apex, i.e., by means of ADSA-NA and TIFA-AI, were considerably less scattered than those from complete drops with apex. ADSA-NA was also used to explore sources of improvement in contact angle resolution. It was found that using an accurate value of surface tension as an input enhances the accuracy of contact angle measurements.

  17. Numerical aperture characteristics of angle-ended plastic optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cheng; Farrell, Gerard

    2003-03-01

    With the increasing information rates demanded in consumer, automotive and aeronautical applications, a low cost and high performance physical transmission medium is required. Compared with Silica Optical Fiber, Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) offers an economic solution for a range of high-capacity, short-haul applications in industrial and military environments. Recently, a new type of POF, the perfluorinated graded-index plastic optical fiber (PF GI-POF), has been introduced that has low losses and high bandwidth at the communication wavelengths 850 nm and 1300nm. POF is normally terminated perpendicular to the fiber axis. We propose an angle-ended POF, which is terminated at non-perpendicular angles to the fiber axis. The aim of the research is to investigate the numerical aperture (NA) characteristics of angle-ended POF along the major axis of the elliptical endface. A theoretical model indicates that the NA of the angle-ended POF will increase nonlinearly with tilt-angle and the acceptance cone will be deflected with the angle of the deflection increasing nonlinearly with tilt-angle. We present results for the measured NA and the measured deflection angle using the far-field radiation method. Results are presented for 13 angle-ended SI-POF tilt-angles. We also present results for theoretical value of NA and deflection angle as a function of tilt-angle. The agreement between the measured and theoretical value is good up to tilt-angles of about 15 degrees, beyond which deviation occurs.

  18. Contact Angle Effects in Boiling Heat Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Urquiola, Erwin; Fujita, Yasunobu

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports boiling experiments with pure water and surfactant solutions of SDS on horizontal heating surface. The static contact angle, rather than the surface tension value, was found to be the leading factor for the results and probably its prev

  19. User Modeling for Contextual Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    per day without charge. Each Yelp search query can return up to 20 results. The results are in JSON ( JavaScript Object Notation) format and contain...RAMA performance on metric P@5. 4.4.1 Comparison with Average Track Median Table 8 compares the two RAMA runs with the Track Median on all three...whereas RUN1 on MRR shows the least improvement (24%). Figure 6. RAMA performance compared with Track Median by User. 4.4.2 Comparison with Track

  20. Community study suggests segmentation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnard, A

    1989-01-01

    Results of a sample survey commissioned by a voluntary health organization in a major metropolitan area describes why individuals give their time and money to charitable organizations and what approaches are likely to result in such donations. Within demographic subgroups, the variables of age and income proved to be important factors with respect to why people gave and what appeals they prefer. The variables of gender and education were found to be of somewhat less importance. Findings were compared with a national Gallup study conducted in 1987. In an era of increasingly specialized marketing for all organizations, the findings offer voluntary and fund-raising organizations a basis for determining appropriate appeals for demographic segments in a community.

  1. Collagen fiber angle in the submucosa of small intestine and its application in gastroenterology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Jun Zeng; Ai-Ke Qiao; Ji-Dong Yu; Jing-Bo Zhao; Dong-Hua Liao; Xiao-Hu Xu; Gregersen Hans

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To propose a simple and effective method suitable for analyzing the angle and distribution of 2-dimensional collagen fiber in larger sample of small intestine and to investigate the relationship between the angles of collagen fiber and the pressure it undergoes.METHODS: A kind of 2-dimensional visible quantitative analyzing technique was described. Digital image-processing method was utilized to determine the angle of collagen fiber in parenchyma according to the changes of area analyzed and further to investigate quantitatively the distribution of collagen fiber. A series of intestinal slice′s images preprocessed by polarized light were obtained with electron microscope,and they were processed to unify each pixel. The approximate angles between collagen fibers were obtained via analyzing the images and their corresponding polarized light. The relationship between the angles of collagen fiber and the pressure it undergoes were statistically summarized.RESULTS: The angle of collagen fiber in intestinal tissue was obtained with the quantitative analyzing method of calculating the ratio of different pixels. For the same slice,with polarized light angle′s variation, the corresponding ratio of different pixels was also changed; for slices under different pressures, the biggest ratio of collagen fiber area was changed either.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the application of stress on the intestinal tissue will change the angle and content of collagen fiber. The method of calculating ratios of different pixel values to estimate collagen fiber angle was practical and reliable. The quantitative analysis used in the present study allows a larger area of soft tissue to be analyzed with relatively low cost and simple equipment.

  2. Two Comments on Bond Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, P.

    1997-09-01

    Tetrahedral Bond Angle from Elementary Trigonometry The alternative approach of using the scalar (or dot) product of vectors enables the determination of the bond angle in a tetrahedral molecule in a simple way. There is, of course, an even more straightforward derivation suitable for students who are unfamiliar with vectors, or products thereof, but who do know some elementary trigonometry. The starting point is the figure showing triangle OAB. The point O is the center of a cube, and A and B are at opposite corners of a face of that cube in which fits a regular tetrahedron. The required bond angle alpha = AÔB; and using Pythagoras' theorem, AB = 2(square root 2) is the diagonal of a face of the cube. Hence from right-angled triangle OEB, tan(alpha/2) = (square root 2) and therefore alpha = 2tan-1(square root 2) is approx. 109° 28' (see Fig. 1).

  3. Camber Angle Inspection for Vehicle Wheel Alignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jieh-Shian; Hsu, Hong-Yi; Chuang, Chih-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces an alternative approach to the camber angle measurement for vehicle wheel alignment. Instead of current commercial approaches that apply computation vision techniques, this study aims at realizing a micro-control-unit (MCU)-based camber inspection system with a 3-axis accelerometer. We analyze the precision of the inspection system for the axis misalignments of the accelerometer. The results show that the axes of the accelerometer can be aligned to the axes of the camber inspection system imperfectly. The calibrations that can amend these axis misalignments between the camber inspection system and the accelerometer are also originally proposed since misalignments will usually happen in fabrications of the inspection systems. During camber angle measurements, the x-axis or z-axis of the camber inspection system and the wheel need not be perfectly aligned in the proposed approach. We accomplished two typical authentic camber angle measurements. The results show that the proposed approach is applicable with a precision of ±0.015∘ and therefore facilitates the camber measurement process without downgrading the precision by employing an appropriate 3-axis accelerometer. In addition, the measured results of camber angles can be transmitted via the medium such as RS232, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi. PMID:28165365

  4. Camber Angle Inspection for Vehicle Wheel Alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieh-Shian Young

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an alternative approach to the camber angle measurement for vehicle wheel alignment. Instead of current commercial approaches that apply computation vision techniques, this study aims at realizing a micro-control-unit (MCU-based camber inspection system with a 3-axis accelerometer. We analyze the precision of the inspection system for the axis misalignments of the accelerometer. The results show that the axes of the accelerometer can be aligned to the axes of the camber inspection system imperfectly. The calibrations that can amend these axis misalignments between the camber inspection system and the accelerometer are also originally proposed since misalignments will usually happen in fabrications of the inspection systems. During camber angle measurements, the x-axis or z-axis of the camber inspection system and the wheel need not be perfectly aligned in the proposed approach. We accomplished two typical authentic camber angle measurements. The results show that the proposed approach is applicable with a precision of ± 0.015 ∘ and therefore facilitates the camber measurement process without downgrading the precision by employing an appropriate 3-axis accelerometer. In addition, the measured results of camber angles can be transmitted via the medium such as RS232, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi.

  5. Oriented angles in affine space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Waliszewski

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a smooth oriented angle in an arbitrary affine space is introduced. This concept is based on a kinematics concept of a run. Also, a concept of an oriented angle in such a space is considered. Next, it is shown that the adequacy of these concepts holds if and only if the affine space, in question, is of dimension 2 or 1.

  6. Investigation of surface porosity measurements and compaction pressure as means to ensure consistent contact angle determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, René; Borkenfelt, Simon; Allesø, Morten; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Beato, Stefania; Holm, Per

    2016-02-10

    Compounds wettability is critical for a number of central processes including disintegration, dispersion, solubilisation and dissolution. It is therefore an important optimisation parameter both in drug discovery but also as guidance for formulation selection and optimisation. Wettability for a compound is determined by its contact angle to a liquid, which in the present study was measured using the sessile drop method applied to a disc compact of the compound. Precise determination of the contact angle is important should it be used to either rank compounds or selected excipients to e.g. increase the wetting from a solid dosage form. Since surface roughness of the compact has been suggested to influence the measurement this study investigated if the surface quality, in terms of surface porosity, had an influence on the measured contact angle. A correlation to surface porosity was observed, however for six out of seven compounds similar results were obtained by applying a standard pressure (866 MPa) to the discs in their preparation. The data presented in the present work therefore suggest that a constant high pressure should be sufficient for most compounds when determining the contact angle. Only for special cases where compounds have poor compressibility would there be a need for a surface-quality-control step before the contact angle determination.

  7. Positron Emission Mammography with Multiple Angle Acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Raymond R. Raylman

    2002-11-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FbG) uptake in breast tumors with dedicated detectors typically has been accomplished with two planar detectors in a fixed position with the breast under compression. The potential use of PEM imaging at two detector positions to guide stereotactic breast biopsy has motivated us to use PEM coincidence data acquired at two or more detector positions together in a single image reconstruction. Multiple angle PEM acquisition and iterative image reconstruction were investigated using point source and compressed breast phantom acquisitions with 5, 9, 12 and 15 mm diameter spheres and a simulated tumor:background activity concentration ratio of 6:1. Image reconstruction was performed with an iterative MLEM algorithm that used coincidence events between any two detector pixels on opposed detector heads at each detector position. This present study compared two acquisition protocols: 2 angle acquisition with detector angular positions of -15 and +15 degrees and 11 angle acquisition with detector positions spaced at 3 degree increments over the range -15 to +15 degrees. Three-dimensional image resolution was assessed for the point source acquisitions, and contrast and signal-to-noise metrics were evaluated for the compressed breast phantom with different simulated tumor sizes. Radial and tangential resolutions were similar for the two protocols, while normal resolution was better for the 2 angle acquisition. Analysis is complicated by the asymmetric point spread functions. Signal- to-noise vs. contrast tradeoffs were better for 11 angle acquisition for the smallest visible 9 mm sphere, while tradeoff results were mixed for the larger and more easily visible 12 mm and 15 mm diameter spheres. Additional study is needed to better understand the performance of limited angle tomography for PEM. PEM tomography experiments with complete angular sampling are planned.

  8. Positron Emission Mammography with Multiple Angle Acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Raymond R. Raylman

    2002-11-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in breast tumors with dedicated detectors typically has been accomplished with two planar detectors in a fixed position with the breast under compression. The potential use of PEM imaging at two detector positions to guide stereotactic breast biopsy has motivated us to use PEM coincidence data acquired at two or more detector positions together in a single image reconstruction. Multiple angle PEM acquisition and iterative image reconstruction were investigated using point source and compressed breast phantom acquisitions with 5, 9, 12 and 15 mm diameter spheres and a simulated tumor:background activity concentration ratio of 6:1. Image reconstruction was performed with an iterative MLEM algorithm that used coincidence events between any two detector pixels on opposed detector heads at each detector position. This present study compared two acquisition protocols: 2 angle acquisition with detector angular positions of -15 and +15 degrees and 11 angle acquisition with detector positions spaced at 3 degree increments over the range -15 to +15 degrees. Three- dimensional image resolution was assessed for the point source acquisitions, and contrast and signal-to-noise metrics were evaluated for the compressed breast phantom with different simulated tumor sizes. Radial and tangential resolutions were similar for the two protocols, while normal resolution was better for the 2 angle acquisition. Analysis is complicated by the asymmetric point spread functions. Signal- to-noise vs. contrast tradeoffs were better for 11 angle acquisition for the smallest visible 9 mm sphere, while tradeoff results were mixed for the larger and more easily visible 12 mm and 15 mm diameter spheres. Additional study is needed to better understand the performance of limited angle tomography for PEM. PEM tomography experiments with complete angular sampling are planned.

  9. Bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma after dexfenfluramine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, P; Charpentier, D; Berros, P; Touameur, S

    1995-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with narrow angles who had an attack of bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma precipitated by dexfenfluramine, a serotoninergic drug developed for appetite suppression. Although the exact mechanism remains uncertain, the pupillary block observed in our case may be the result of the serotoninergic or indirect parasympatholytic properties of the drug on the iris sphincter muscle. Serotonergic psychoactive drugs should be prescribed cautiously in patients with known narrow angles and should be monitored by an ophthalmologist.

  10. Testing CMB polarization data using position angles

    CERN Document Server

    Preece, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We consider a novel null test for contamination which can be applied to CMB polarization data that involves analysis of the statistics of the polarization position angles. Specifically, we will concentrate on using histograms of the measured position angles to illustrate the idea. Such a test has been used to identify systematics in the NVSS point source catalogue with an amplitude well below the noise level. We explore the statistical properties of polarization angles in CMB maps. If the polarization angle is not correlated between pixels, then the errors follow a simple $\\sqrt{N_{pix}}$ law. However this is typically not the case for CMB maps since these have correlations which result in an increase in the variance since the effective number of independent pixels is reduced. Then we illustrate how certain classes of systematic errors can result in very obvious patterns in these histograms, and thus that these errors could possibly be identified using this method. We discuss how this idea might be applied in...

  11. Statistical analysis of Contact Angle Hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardan, Nachiketa; Panchagnula, Mahesh

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of a new statistical approach to determining Contact Angle Hysteresis (CAH) by studying the nature of the triple line. A statistical distribution of local contact angles on a random three-dimensional drop is used as the basis for this approach. Drops with randomly shaped triple lines but of fixed volumes were deposited on a substrate and their triple line shapes were extracted by imaging. Using a solution developed by Prabhala et al. (Langmuir, 2010), the complete three dimensional shape of the sessile drop was generated. A distribution of the local contact angles for several such drops but of the same liquid-substrate pairs is generated. This distribution is a result of several microscopic advancing and receding processes along the triple line. This distribution is used to yield an approximation of the CAH associated with the substrate. This is then compared with measurements of CAH by means of a liquid infusion-withdrawal experiment. Static measurements are shown to be sufficient to measure quasistatic contact angle hysteresis of a substrate. The approach also points towards the relationship between microscopic triple line contortions and CAH.

  12. The Semiotic and Conceptual Genesis of Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguay, Denis; Venant, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we try to understand how students at the end of primary school conceive of angle: Is an angle a magnitude for them or a geometric figure, and how do they manage to coordinate the two aspects in their understanding of the concepts of angle and of angle measurement? With the aim of better grasping the way "angle" is…

  13. Characterization of the Intrinsic Water Wettability of Graphite Using Contact Angle Measurements: Effect of Defects on Static and Dynamic Contact Angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozbial, Andrew; Trouba, Charlie; Liu, Haitao; Li, Lei

    2017-01-31

    Elucidating the intrinsic water wettability of the graphitic surface has increasingly attracted research interests, triggered by the recent finding that the well-established hydrophobicity of graphitic surfaces actually results from airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Currently, static water contact angle (WCA) is often used to characterize the intrinsic water wettability of graphitic surfaces. In the current paper, we show that because of the existence of defects, static WCA does not necessarily characterize the intrinsic water wettability. Freshly exfoliated graphite of varying qualities, characterized using atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, was studied using static, advancing, and receding WCA measurements. The results showed that graphite of different qualities (i.e., defect density) always has a similar advancing WCA, but it could have very different static and receding WCAs. This finding indicates that defects play an important role in contact angle measurements, and the static contact angle does not always represent the intrinsic water wettability of pristine graphite. On the basis of the experimental results, a qualitative model is proposed to explain the effect of defects on static, advancing, and receding contact angles. The model suggests that the advancing WCA reflects the intrinsic water wettability of pristine (defect-free) graphite. Our results showed that the advancing WCA for pristine graphite is 68.6°, which indicates that graphitic carbon is intrinsically mildly hydrophilic.

  14. As-placed contact angles for sessile drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmor, Rafael; Yadav, Preeti S

    2008-01-01

    As-placed contact angle is the contact angle a drop adapts as a result of its placement on a surface. As expected, the as-placed contact angle, thetaAP, of a sessile drop on a horizontal surface decreases with the drop size due to the increase in hydrostatic pressure. We present a theoretical prediction for thetaAP which shows that it is a unique function of the advancing contact angle, thetaA, drop size, and material properties (surface tensions and densities). We test our prediction with published and new data. The theory agrees with the experiments. From the relation of the as-placed contact angle to drop size the thermodynamic equilibrium contact angle is also calculated.

  15. Variable angle transmittance of silver grid transparent electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Dong, Xian-Zi; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng; Duan, Xuan-Ming

    2016-10-01

    We focus on investigating the optical transmittance of silver grid transparent electrodes (SGTEs) in variable angle view theoretically and experimentally, rather than the optical transmittance under the normal incidence. The variable angle transmittance (VAT) values of SGTEs are measured on a home-made experimental setup. The experimental results about difference of the transmittance difference under different angles are small and negligible, although the measured angle is changed. Theoretically, the physical mechanism on nearly constant transmittance for different angle view can be well explained according to the theory of geometrical optics. This study provides an approach for investigating the VAT values of SGTEs in a controllable fashion and the influence of viewing angle of the touch screen.

  16. Study of the course of the incidence angle during growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, P; Gomez, D; Senegas, J

    1997-01-01

    Standing posture is made possible by hip extension and lumbar lordosis. Lumbar lordosis is correlated with pelvic parameters, such as the declivity angle of the upper surface of the sacrum and the incidence angle, which determine the sagittal morphotype. Incidence angle, which is different for each individual, is known to be very important for up-right posture, but its course during life has not yet been established. Incidence angle was measured on radiographs of 30 fetuses, 30 children and 30 adults, and results were analysed using the correlation coefficient r and Student's t test. A statistically significant correlation between age and incidence angle was observed. Incidence angle considerably increases during the first months, continues to increase during early years, and stabilizes around the age of 10 years. Incidence is a mark of bipedism, and its role in sagittal balance is essential.

  17. Creation of a multi-reference-angle comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bručas, Domantas; Giniotis, Vytautas

    2009-03-01

    Many geodetic and industrial instruments utilize precise angle determination. Metrological calibration and testing of such devices is very complicated, due to the large number of angular position values generated, and often cannot be accomplished using classical means of angle determination. Therefore a special comparator (test rig) capable of calibration geodetic and other angle-measuring instruments and implementing multiple references for angle determination has been created. Several modernized optical devices were used on the test rig, together with the implementation of a special calibration method. In this paper the construction of the rig, modernization of the optical devices, calibration, and some results of measurements are presented.

  18. Contact angle distribution of particles at fluid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeyink, Craig; Barman, Sourav; Christopher, Gordon F

    2015-01-27

    Recent measurements have implied a distribution of interfacially adsorbed particles' contact angles; however, it has been impossible to measure statistically significant numbers for these contact angles noninvasively in situ. Using a new microscopy method that allows nanometer-scale resolution of particle's 3D positions on an interface, we have measured the contact angles for thousands of latex particles at an oil/water interface. Furthermore, these measurements are dynamic, allowing the observation of the particle contact angle with high temporal resolution, resulting in hundreds of thousands of individual contact angle measurements. The contact angle has been found to fit a normal distribution with a standard deviation of 19.3°, which is much larger than previously recorded. Furthermore, the technique used allows the effect of measurement error, constrained interfacial diffusion, and particle property variation on the contact angle distribution to be individually evaluated. Because of the ability to measure the contact angle noninvasively, the results provide previously unobtainable, unique data on the dynamics and distribution of the adsorbed particles' contact angle.

  19. Polarization of asteroid (387) Aquitania: the newest member of a class of large inversion angle asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Masiero, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    We present new imaging polarimetric observations of two Main Belt asteroids, (234) Barbara and (387) Aquitania, taken in the first half of 2008 using the Dual-Beam Imaging Polarimeter on the University of Hawaii 2.2 meter telescope, located on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Barbara had been previously shown to exhibit a very unusual polarization-phase curve by Cellino, et al. (2006). Our observations confirm this result and add Aquitania to the growing class of large inversion angle objects. Interestingly, these asteroids show spinel features in their IR spectra suggesting a mineralogical origin to the phase angle-dependent polarimetric features. As spinel is associated with calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions and carbonaceous chondrites, these large inversion angle asteroids may represent some of the oldest surfaces in the solar system. Circular as well as linear polarization measurements were obtained but circular polarization was not detected.

  20. Frequency scaling for angle gathers

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A H

    2014-01-01

    Angle gathers provide an extra dimension to analyze the velocity after migration. Space-shift and time shift-imaging conditions are two methods used to obtain angle gathers, but both are reasonably expensive. By scaling the time-lag axis of the time-shifted images, the computational cost of the time shift imaging condition can be considerably reduced. In imaging and more so Full waveform inversion, frequencydomain Helmholtz solvers are used more often to solve for the wavefields than conventional time domain extrapolators. In such cases, we do not need to extend the image, instead we scale the frequency axis of the frequency domain image to obtain the angle gathers more efficiently. Application on synthetic data demonstrate such features.

  1. Contact angles of liquid drops on super hydrophobic surfaces: understanding the role of flattening of drops by gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrand, C W; Moon, Sung In

    2010-11-16

    Measurement of contact angles on super hydrophobic surfaces by conventional methods can produce ambiguous results. Experimental difficulties in constructing tangent lines, gravitational distortion or erroneous assumptions regarding the extent of spreading can lead to underestimation of contact angles. Three models were used to estimate drop shape and perceived contact angles on completely nonwetting super hydrophobic surfaces. One of the models employed the classic numerical solutions from Bashforth and Adams. Additionally, two approximate models were derived as part of this work. All three showed significant distortion of microliter-sized drops and similar trends in perceived contact angles. Liquid drops of several microliters are traditionally used in sessile contact angle measurements. Drops of this size are expected to and indeed undergo significant flattening on super hydrophobic surfaces, even if the wetting interactions are minimal. The distortion is more pronounced if the liquid has a lesser surface tension or greater density. For surfaces that are completely nonwetting, underestimation of contact angles can be tens of degrees. Our modeling efforts suggest that accurate contact angle measurements on super hydrophobic surfaces would require very small sessile drops, on the order of hundreds of picoliters.

  2. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence for the existence of the two factors has been scarce. In the present study, more sophisticated and reliable tools for measuring suggestibility were applied than in the previous research, in the hope that better measurement would reveal the factor structure of suggestibility. Two tests of direct suggestibility were used: the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, measuring hypnotic susceptibility, and the Barber Suggestibility Scale, measuring non-hypnotic direct imaginative suggestibility. Three tests served to measure indirect suggestibility: the Sensory Suggestibility Scale, measuring indirect suggestibility relating to perception; the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, measuring the tendency to yield to suggestive questions and changing answers after negative feedback; and the Emotional Dialogs Tests, measuring the tendency to perceive nonexistent aggression. Participants and procedure In sum, 115 participants were tested, 69 women, 49 men, mean age 22.20 years, SD = 2.20. Participants were tested in two sessions, lasting for a total of four hours. Results Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the existence of two uncorrelated factors of suggestibility: direct and indirect. Conclusions Suggestibility may indeed involve two factors, direct and indirect, and failure to discover them in previous research may be due to methodological problems.

  3. Systematic variations in divergence angle

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Practical methods for quantitative analysis of radial and angular coordinates of leafy organs of vascular plants are presented and applied to published phyllotactic patterns of various real systems from young leaves on a shoot tip to florets on a flower head. The constancy of divergence angle is borne out with accuracy of less than a degree. It is shown that apparent fluctuations in divergence angle are in large part systematic variations caused by the invalid assumption of a fixed center and/or by secondary deformations, while random fluctuations are of minor importance.

  4. The effective take-off angle in PHI Quantera systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Marel, C.

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that for quantitative analysis of XPS results theeffective take-off angle of the electrons is an important parameter.In the report is shown that the effective take-off angle i n PHI Quantera systems deviates significanlty from the set value. This is NOT a consequence of inadequa

  5. Contact-angle hysteresis on super-hydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, G; Shirtcliffe, N J; Newton, M I

    2004-11-09

    The relationship between perturbations to contact angles on a rough or textured surface and the super-hydrophobic enhancement of the equilibrium contact angle is discussed theoretically. Two models are considered. In the first (Wenzel) case, the super-hydrophobic surface has a very high contact angle and the droplet completely contacts the surface upon which it rests. In the second (Cassie-Baxter) case, the super-hydrophobic surface has a very high contact angle, but the droplet bridges across surface protrusions. The theoretical treatment emphasizes the concept of contact-angle amplification or attenuation and distinguishes between the increases in contact angles due to roughening or texturing surfaces and perturbations to the resulting contact angles. The theory is applied to predicting contact-angle hysteresis on rough surfaces from the hysteresis observable on smooth surfaces and is therefore relevant to predicting roll-off angles for droplets on tilted surfaces. The theory quantitatively predicts a "sticky" surface for Wenzel-type surfaces and a "slippy" surface for Cassie-Baxter-type surfaces.

  6. Primary cerebello-pontine angle malignant melanoma : a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai K

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of primary malignant melanoma in the cerebello-pontine angle, in a 17 year old girl is presented. The patient presented with one month history of headache, diplopia, facial asymmetry and ataxia. The computerised tomography (CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a large cerebello-pontine angle mass with features suggestive of a melanoma. The typical black coloured, solid and vascular melanoma was excised completely. Cerebello-pontine angle melanoma are extremely rare tumours with dismal long term outcome in majority of these cases.

  7. Simulation of Canopy Leaf Inclination Angle in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-cui; LU Chuan-gen; HU Ning; YAO Ke-min; ZHANG Qi-jun; DAI Qi-gen

    2013-01-01

    A leaf inclination angle distribution model, which is applicable to simulate leaf inclination angle distribution in six heights of layered canopy at different growth stages, was established by component factors affecting plant type in rice. The accuracy of the simulation results was validated by measured values from a field experiment. The coefficient of determination (R2) and the root mean square error (RMSE) between the simulated and measured values were 0.9472 and 3.93%, respectively. The simulation results showed that the distribution of leaf inclination angles differed among the three plant types. The leaf inclination angles were larger in the compact variety Liangyoupeijiu with erect leaves than in the loose variety Shanyou 63 with droopy leaves and the intermediate variety Liangyou Y06. The leaf inclination angles were distributed in the lower range in Shanyou 63, which matched up with field measurements. The distribution of leaf inclination angles in the same variety changed throughout the seven growth stages. The leaf inclination angles enlarged gradually from transplanting to booting. During the post-booting period, the leaf inclination angle increased in Shanyou 63 and Liangyou Y06, but changed little in Liangyoupeijiu. At every growth stage of each variety, canopy leaf inclination angle distribution on the six heights of canopy layers was variable. As canopy height increased, the layered leaf area index (LAI) decreased in all the three plant types. However, while the leaf inclination angles showed little change in Liangyoupeijiu, they became larger in Shanyou 63 but smaller in Liangyou Y06. The simulation results used in the constructed model were very similar to the actual measurement values. The model provides a method for estimating canopy leaf inclination angle distribution in rice production.

  8. Contactless angle detection using permalloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Kees J.; Rijk, Rolf

    1988-01-01

    An overview is given of measurements on angle detectors. The detectors consist of a pair of planar-Hall elements opposite to a rotatable magnet. The measurements are performed on a number of planar-Hall elements of different shape and size, and show good agreement with a previously described theoret

  9. On accurate determination of contact angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.

    1992-01-01

    Methods are proposed that exploit a microgravity environment to obtain highly accurate measurement of contact angle. These methods, which are based on our earlier mathematical results, do not require detailed measurement of a liquid free-surface, as they incorporate discontinuous or nearly-discontinuous behavior of the liquid bulk in certain container geometries. Physical testing is planned in the forthcoming IML-2 space flight and in related preparatory ground-based experiments.

  10. An Angle Criterion for Riesz Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindner, Alexander M; Bittner, B.

    1999-01-01

    We present a characterization of Riesz bases in terms ofthe angles between certain finite dimensional subspaces. Correlationsbetween the bounds of the Riesz basis and the size of the angles arederived.......We present a characterization of Riesz bases in terms ofthe angles between certain finite dimensional subspaces. Correlationsbetween the bounds of the Riesz basis and the size of the angles arederived....

  11. Role of Optical Coherence Tomography in Assessing Anterior Chamber Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochupurakal, Reema Thomas; Jha, Kirti Nath; Rajalakshmi, A.R.; Nagarajan, Swathi; Ezhumalai, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gonioscopy is the gold standard in assessing anterior chamber angles. However, interobserver variations are common and there is a need for reliable objective method of assessment. Aim To compare the anterior chamber angle by gonioscopy and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) in individuals with shallow anterior chamber. Materials and Methods This comparative observational study was conducted in a rural tertiary multi-speciality teaching hospital. A total of 101 eyes of 54 patients with shallow anterior chamber on slit lamp evaluation were included. Anterior chamber angle was graded by gonioscopy using the shaffer grading system. Angles were also assessed by SD-OCT with Trabecular Iris Angle (TIA) and Angle Opening Distance (AOD). Chi-square test, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value to find correlation between OCT parameters and gonioscopy grading. Results Females represented 72.7%. The mean age was 53.93 ±8.24 years and mean anterior chamber depth was 2.47 ± 0.152 mm. Shaffer grade ≤ 2 were identified in 95(94%) superior, 42(41.5%) inferior, 65(64.3%) nasal and 57(56.4%) temporal quadrants. Cut-off values of TIA ≤ 22° and AOD ≤ 290 μm were taken as narrow angles on SD-OCT. TIA of ≤ 22° were found in 88(92.6%) nasal and 87(87%) temporal angles. AOD of ≤ 290 μm was found in 73(76.8%) nasal and 83(83%) temporal quadrants. Sensitivity in detecting narrow angles was 90.7% and 82.2% for TIA and AOD, while specificity was 11.7% and 23.4%, respectively. Conclusion Individuals were found to have narrow angles more with SD-OCT. Sensitivity was high and specificity was low in detecting narrow angles compared to gonioscopy, making it an unreliable tool for screening. PMID:27190851

  12. EFFECT OF SWEEP ANGLE ON THE VORTICAL FLOW OVER DELTA WINGS AT AN ANGLE OF ATTACK OF 10°

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMES BRETT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CFD simulations have been used to analyse the vortical flows over sharp edged delta wings with differing sweep angles under subsonic conditions at an angle of attack of 10°. RANS simulations were validated against experimental data for a 65° sweep wing, with a flat cross-section, and the steadiness of the flow field was assessed by comparing the results against unsteady URANS and DES simulations. To assess the effect of sweep angle on the flow field, a range of sweep angles from 65° to 43° were simulated. For moderate sweep wings the primary vortex was observed to detach from the leading edge, undergoing vortex breakdown, and a weaker, replacement, "shadow" vortex was formed. The shadow vortex was observed for sweep angles of 50° and less, and resulted in reduced lift production near the wing tips loss of the stronger primary vortex.

  13. Off-Angle Iris Correction Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph T [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In many real world iris recognition systems obtaining consistent frontal images is problematic do to inexperienced or uncooperative users, untrained operators, or distracting environments. As a result many collected images are unusable by modern iris matchers. In this chapter we present four methods for correcting off-angle iris images to appear frontal which makes them compatible with existing iris matchers. The methods include an affine correction, a retraced model of the human eye, measured displacements, and a genetic algorithm optimized correction. The affine correction represents a simple way to create an iris image that appears frontal but it does not account for refractive distortions of the cornea. The other method account for refraction. The retraced model simulates the optical properties of the cornea. The other two methods are data driven. The first uses optical flow to measure the displacements of the iris texture when compared to frontal images of the same subject. The second uses a genetic algorithm to learn a mapping that optimizes the Hamming Distance scores between off-angle and frontal images. In this paper we hypothesize that the biological model presented in our earlier work does not adequately account for all variations in eye anatomy and therefore the two data-driven approaches should yield better performance. Results are presented using the commercial VeriEye matcher that show that the genetic algorithm method clearly improves over prior work and makes iris recognition possible up to 50 degrees off-angle.

  14. The Q-angle and sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Quadriceps muscle contraction tends to straighten the Q angle. We expected that sports comprising a high amount of quadriceps training could be associated with low Q angles. The aim of the present study was to estimate the Q angle in athletes and to investigate its potential associations with par......Quadriceps muscle contraction tends to straighten the Q angle. We expected that sports comprising a high amount of quadriceps training could be associated with low Q angles. The aim of the present study was to estimate the Q angle in athletes and to investigate its potential associations...... with participation in sport. Three hundred and thirty-nine athletes had their Q angle measured. The mean of right-side Q angles was higher than left side, and the mean Q angle was higher in women than in men. The Q angle was positively associated with years of jogging, and negatively with years of soccer, swimming...

  15. Analysis for Sit-to-Stand Performance According to the Angle of Knee Flexion in Individuals with Hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi Young; Lee, Hae Yong

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] Sit-to-stand (STS) is one of the important functional tasks people perform throughout the day. This study investigated whether varying angles of knee flexion affect STS patterns in individuals with hemiparesis by using a foot plantar pressure measurement system. [Methods] Fifteen stroke patients with hemiparesis participated for this study. They performed sit-to-stand with three angles of knee flexion (70°, 90°, and 110°). We measured the trajectory of the center of pressure, peak plantar pressure, and symmetry index using a Mat-scan system (Tekscan, South Boston, MA, USA). [Results] As a result, we found that there were significant differences among the three angle conditions (trajectory of center of pressure, peak plantar pressure on the affected side, and symmetry index). However, there was no significant difference in peak pressure according to the knee flexion on the unaffected side. [Conclusion] In the current study, we found that stroke patients with hemiparesis had a compensated STS pattern according to knee flexion angles. This indicates that the peak value of plantar pressure increased and that the trajectory of the center of pressure widened as the angle of knee flexion increased. We also suggest that hemiparesis patients should be more concerned about proper knee angle for symmetrical STS pattern.

  16. The effect of knee joint angle on torque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Voudrie, Stefani J; Ebersole, Kyle T

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the author's investigation was to examine the effect of knee joint angle on torque control of the quadriceps muscle group. In all, 12 healthy adults produced maximal voluntary contractions and submaximal torque (15, 30, and 45% MVC [maximal voluntary contraction]) at leg flexion angles of 15 degrees , 30 degrees , 60 degrees , and 90 degrees below the horizontal plane. As expected, MVC values changed with respect to joint angle with maximum torque output being greatest at 60 degrees and least at 15 degrees . During the submaximal tasks, participants appropriately scaled their torque output to the required targets. Absolute variability (i.e., standard deviation) of torque output was greatest at 60 degrees and 90 degrees knee flexion. However, relative variability as indexed by coefficient of variation (CV) decreased as joint angle increased, with the greatest CV occurring at 15 degrees . These results are congruent with the hypothesis that joint angle influences the control of torque.

  17. EVALUATION OF NECK SHAFT ANGLE OF FEMUR ON DRY BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the neck shaft angle of femur helps to understand clinical relevance in bio mechanics of the hip joint. It helps for the better treatment of different pathological conditions of hip and femur and also to design prosthesis. Femoral neck shaft angle is important to convey the information regarding the race to which they belong. Hence the present study was under taken to determine the neck shaft angle of femur in humans. OBJECTIVE: 1. To correct the different types of deformity and to have a normal good walking Mechanism. 2. To know the recent methodology and attempt to evaluate the range of normal Angles of femora and their sex differences. METHODS: ANTHROPOMETRIC: 100 Adult dry bones were studied and analyzed . The neck shaft angle of femur was measured by tracing outlines of contours of all femora. RESULTS: The neck shaft angle of the femur have revealed that there is no much difference in between males and females. There was slightly higher 0.2° in females. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: There was no significant gender difference in neck shaft angle. The Knowledge of knowing the neck shaft angle helps to understand the Biomechanics of the hip joint and also for better treatment of pathological condition of hip and femur.

  18. A Novel Monopulse Angle Estimation Method for Wideband LFM Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xiong Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional monopulse angle estimations are mainly based on phase comparison and amplitude comparison methods, which are commonly adopted in narrowband radars. In modern radar systems, wideband radars are becoming more and more important, while the angle estimation for wideband signals is little studied in previous works. As noise in wideband radars has larger bandwidth than narrowband radars, the challenge lies in the accumulation of energy from the high resolution range profile (HRRP of monopulse. In wideband radars, linear frequency modulated (LFM signals are frequently utilized. In this paper, we investigate the monopulse angle estimation problem for wideband LFM signals. To accumulate the energy of the received echo signals from different scatterers of a target, we propose utilizing a cross-correlation operation, which can achieve a good performance in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR conditions. In the proposed algorithm, the problem of angle estimation is converted to estimating the frequency of the cross-correlation function (CCF. Experimental results demonstrate the similar performance of the proposed algorithm compared with the traditional amplitude comparison method. It means that the proposed method for angle estimation can be adopted. When adopting the proposed method, future radars may only need wideband signals for both tracking and imaging, which can greatly increase the data rate and strengthen the capability of anti-jamming. More importantly, the estimated angle will not become ambiguous under an arbitrary angle, which can significantly extend the estimated angle range in wideband radars.

  19. LHC Report: playing with angles

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC team

    2016-01-01

    Ready (after a machine development period), steady (running), go (for a special run)!   The crossing angles are an essential feature of the machine set-up. They have to be big enough to reduce the long-range beam-beam effect. The LHC has recently enjoyed a period of steady running and managed to set a new record for “Maximum Stable Luminosity Delivered in 7 days” of 3.29 fb-1 between 29 August and 4 September. The number of bunches per beam remains pegged at 2220 because of the limitations imposed by the SPS beam dump. The bunch population is also somewhat reduced due to outgassing near one of the injection kickers at point 8. Both limitations will be addressed during the year-end technical stop, opening the way for increased performance in 2017. On 10 and 11 September, a two day machine development (MD) period took place. The MD programme included a look at the possibility of reducing the crossing angle at the high-luminosity interaction points. The crossing angles are an ess...

  20. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  1. [Determination of contact angle of pharmaceutical excipients and regulating effect of surfactants on their wettability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Dong-dong; Li, He-ran; Yang, Bai-xue; Song, Li-na; Liu, Tiao-tiao; Cong, Yu-tang; Li, San-ming

    2015-10-01

    To study the effects of surfactants on wettability of excipients, the contact angles of six types of surfactants on the surface of two common excipients and mixture of three surfactants with excipients were measured using hypsometry method. The results demonstrated that contact angle of water on the surface of excipients was associated with hydrophilcity of excipients. Contact angle was lowered with increase in hydrophilic groups of excipient molecules. The sequence of contact angle from small to large was starch contact angle of excipients, and their abilities to lower contact angle varied. The results of the present study offer a guideline in the formulation design of tablets.

  2. Controls on stream network branching angles, tested using landscape evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoratos, Nikolaos; Seybold, Hansjörg; Kirchner, James W.

    2016-04-01

    Stream networks are striking landscape features. The topology of stream networks has been extensively studied, but their geometry has received limited attention. Analyses of nearly 1 million stream junctions across the contiguous United States [1] have revealed that stream branching angles vary systematically with climate and topographic gradients at continental scale. Stream networks in areas with wet climates and gentle slopes tend to have wider branching angles than in areas with dry climates or steep slopes, but the mechanistic linkages underlying these empirical correlations remain unclear. Under different climatic and topographic conditions different runoff generation mechanisms and, consequently, transport processes are dominant. Models [2] and experiments [3] have shown that the relative strength of channel incision versus diffusive hillslope transport controls the spacing between valleys, an important geometric property of stream networks. We used landscape evolution models (LEMs) to test whether similar factors control network branching angles as well. We simulated stream networks using a wide range of hillslope diffusion and channel incision parameters. The resulting branching angles vary systematically with the parameters, but by much less than the regional variability in real-world stream networks. Our results suggest that the competition between hillslope and channeling processes influences branching angles, but that other mechanisms may also be needed to account for the variability in branching angles observed in the field. References: [1] H. Seybold, D. H. Rothman, and J. W. Kirchner, 2015, Climate's watermark in the geometry of river networks, Submitted manuscript. [2] J. T. Perron, W. E. Dietrich, and J. W. Kirchner, 2008, Controls on the spacing of first-order valleys, Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, F04016. [3] K. E. Sweeney, J. J. Roering, and C. Ellis, 2015, Experimental evidence for hillslope control of landscape scale, Science, 349

  3. Fatigue affects peak joint torque angle in hamstrings but not in quadriceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratella, Giuseppe; Bellin, Giuseppe; Beato, Marco; Schena, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Primary aim of this study was to investigate peak joint torque angle (i.e. the angle of peak torque) changes recorded during an isokinetic test before and after a fatiguing soccer match simulation. Secondarily we want to investigate functional Hecc:Qconc and conventional Hconc:Qconc ratio changes due to fatigue. Before and after a standardised soccer match simulation, twenty-two healthy male amateur soccer players performed maximal isokinetic strength tests both for hamstrings and for quadriceps muscles at 1.05 rad · s(‒1), 3.14 rad · s(‒1) and 5.24 rad · s(‒1). Peak joint torque angle, peak torque and both functional Hecc:Qconc and conventional Hconc:Qconc ratios were examined. Both dominant and non-dominant limbs were tested. Peak joint torque angle significantly increased only in knee flexors. Both eccentric and concentric contractions resulted in such increment, which occurred in both limbs. No changes were found in quadriceps peak joint torque angle. Participants experienced a significant decrease in torque both in hamstrings and in quadriceps. Functional Hecc:Qconc ratio was lower only in dominant limb at higher velocities, while Hconc:Qconc did not change. This study showed after specific fatiguing task changes in hamstrings only torque/angle relationship. Hamstrings injury risk could depend on altered torque when knee is close to extension, coupled with a greater peak torque decrement compared to quadriceps. These results suggest the use eccentric based training to prevent hamstrings shift towards shorter length.

  4. Spectral data of specular reflectance, narrow-angle transmittance and angle-resolved surface scattering of materials for solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Philipp; Cooper, Thomas; Querci, Marco; Wiik, Nicolay; Ambrosetti, Gianluca; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2016-03-01

    The spectral specular reflectance of conventional and novel reflective materials for solar concentrators is measured with an acceptance angle of 17.5 mrad over the wavelength range 300-2500 nm at incidence angles 15-60° using a spectroscopic goniometry system. The same experimental setup is used to determine the spectral narrow-angle transmittance of semi-transparent materials for solar collector covers at incidence angles 0-60°. In addition, the angle-resolved surface scattering of reflective materials is recorded by an area-scan CCD detector over the spectral range 350-1050 nm. A comprehensive summary, discussion, and interpretation of the results are included in the associated research article "Spectral reflectance, transmittance, and angular scattering of materials for solar concentrators" in Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells.

  5. An Algorithm to Determine the Optimum Tilt Angle of a Solar Panel from Global Horizontal Solar Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Calabrò

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an algorithm to calculate the optimum tilt angle of solar panels by means of global horizontal solar radiation data, provided from Earth-based meteorological stations. This mathematical modeling is based on the maximization of the theoretical expression of the global solar irradiation impinging on an inclined surface, with respect to the slope and orientation of the panel and to the solar hour angle. A set of transcendent equations resulted, whose solutions give the optimum tilt and orientation of a solar panel. A simulation was carried out using global horizontal solar radiation data from the European Solar Radiation Atlas and some empirical models of diffuse solar radiation. The optimum tilt angle resulted was related to latitude by a linear regression with significant correlation coefficients. The standard error of the mean values resulted increased significantly with latitude, suggesting that unreliable values can be provided at high latitudes.

  6. Water slippage versus contact angle: a quasiuniversal relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David M; Sendner, Christian; Horinek, Dominik; Netz, Roland R; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2008-11-28

    Using molecular dynamics simulations of an atomistic water model, we study the interfacial hydrodynamic slippage of water at various hydrophobic surfaces, both organic (silane monolayers) and inorganic (diamondlike and Lennard-Jones models). The measured slip lengths range from nanometers to tens of nanometers. Slip lengths on different surfaces are found to collapse nearly onto a single curve as a function of the static contact angle characterizing the surface wettability, thereby suggesting a quasiuniversal relationship. This dependence is rationalized on the basis of a simple scaling description of the fluid-solid friction at the microscopic level. The link between slippage and water depletion at hydrophobic surfaces is clarified. These results shed light on the controversy over experimental measurements of the slip length at smooth hydrophobic surfaces.

  7. Variations of refraction angles from observations of the Moon from space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireev, S V; Sokolovskiy, S V

    1994-12-20

    We present the results of measurements of optical refraction angles from photographs of the Moon taken from the orbital station Mir. We made estimations of rms fluctuations of refraction angles and of the characteristics of multipath propagation.

  8. Dynamic angle selection in X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabravolski, Andrei, E-mail: andrei.dabravolski@uantwerpen.be [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Batenburg, Kees Joost, E-mail: joost.batenburg@uantwerpen.be [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica (CWI), Science Park 123, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sijbers, Jan, E-mail: jan.sijbers@uantwerpen.be [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • We propose the dynamic angle selection algorithm for CT scanning. • The approach is based on the concept of information gain over a set of solutions. • Projection angles are selected based on the already available projection data. • The approach can lead to more accurate results from fewer projections. - Abstract: In X-ray tomography, a number of radiographs (projections) are recorded from which a tomogram is then reconstructed. Conventionally, these projections are acquired equiangularly, resulting in an unbiased sampling of the Radon space. However, especially in case when only a limited number of projections can be acquired, the selection of the angles has a large impact on the quality of the reconstructed image. In this paper, a dynamic algorithm is proposed, in which new projection angles are selected by maximizing the information gain about the object, given the set of possible new angles. Experiments show that this approach can select projection angles for which the accuracy of the reconstructed image is significantly higher compared to the standard angle selections schemes.

  9. Nonlocal hydrodynamic influence on the dynamic contact angle: slip models versus experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark C T; Summers, Jonathan L; Shikhmurzaev, Yulii D; Clarke, Andrew; Blake, Terence D

    2006-04-01

    Experiments reported by Blake [Phys. Fluids., 11, 1995 (1999)] suggest that the dynamic contact angle formed between the free surface of a liquid and a moving solid boundary at a fixed contact-line speed depends on the flow field and geometry near the moving contact line. We examine quantitatively whether or not it is possible to attribute this effect to the bending of the free surface due to hydrodynamic stresses acting upon it and hence interpret the results in terms of the so-called "apparent" contact angle. It is shown that this is not the case. Numerical analysis of the problem demonstrates that, at the spatial resolution reported in the experiments, the variations of the "apparent" contact angle (defined in two different ways) caused by variations in the flow field, at a fixed contact-line speed, are too small to account for the observed effect. The results clearly indicate that the actual (macroscopic) dynamic contact angle--i.e., the one used in fluid mechanics as a boundary condition for the equation determining the free surface shape--must be regarded as dependent not only on the contact-line speed but also on the flow field and geometry in the vicinity of the moving contact line.

  10. Contact angles and wettability of ionic liquids on polar and non-polar surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Matheus M; Kurnia, Kiki A; Sousa, Filipa L; Silva, Nuno J O; Lopes-da-Silva, José A; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2015-12-21

    Many applications involving ionic liquids (ILs) require the knowledge of their interfacial behaviour, such as wettability and adhesion. In this context, herein, two approaches were combined aiming at understanding the impact of the IL chemical structures on their wettability on both polar and non-polar surfaces, namely: (i) the experimental determination of the contact angles of a broad range of ILs (covering a wide number of anions of variable polarity, cations, and cation alkyl side chain lengths) on polar and non-polar solid substrates (glass, Al-plate, and poly-(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE)); and (ii) the correlation of the experimental contact angles with the cation-anion pair interaction energies generated by the Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS). The combined results reveal that the hydrogen-bond basicity of ILs, and thus the IL anion, plays a major role through their wettability on both polar and non-polar surfaces. The increase of the IL hydrogen-bond accepting ability leads to an improved wettability of more polar surfaces (lower contact angles) while the opposite trend is observed on non-polar surfaces. The cation nature and alkyl side chain lengths have however a smaller impact on the wetting ability of ILs. Linear correlations were found between the experimental contact angles and the cation-anion hydrogen-bonding and cation ring energies, estimated using COSMO-RS, suggesting that these features primarily control the wetting ability of ILs. Furthermore, two-descriptor correlations are proposed here to predict the contact angles of a wide variety of ILs on glass, Al-plate, and PTFE surfaces. A new extended list is provided for the contact angles of ILs on three surfaces, which can be used as a priori information to choose appropriate ILs before a given application.

  11. Contact angles and wettability of ionic liquids on polar and non-polar surfaces†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Filipa L.; Silva, Nuno J. O.; Lopes-da-Silva, José A.; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2016-01-01

    Many applications involving ionic liquids (ILs) require the knowledge of their interfacial behaviour, such as wettability and adhesion. In this context, herein, two approaches were combined aiming at understanding the impact of the IL chemical structures on their wettability on both polar and non-polar surfaces, namely: (i) the experimental determination of the contact angles of a broad range of ILs (covering a wide number of anions of variable polarity, cations, and cation alkyl side chain lengths) on polar and non-polar solid substrates (glass, Al-plate, and poly-(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE)); and (ii) the correlation of the experimental contact angles with the cation–anion pair interaction energies generated by the Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS). The combined results reveal that the hydrogen-bond basicity of ILs, and thus the IL anion, plays a major role through their wettability on both polar and non-polar surfaces. The increase of the IL hydrogen-bond accepting ability leads to an improved wettability of more polar surfaces (lower contact angles) while the opposite trend is observed on non-polar surfaces. The cation nature and alkyl side chain lengths have however a smaller impact on the wetting ability of ILs. Linear correlations were found between the experimental contact angles and the cation–anion hydrogen-bonding and cation ring energies, estimated using COSMO-RS, suggesting that these features primarily control the wetting ability of ILs. Furthermore, two-descriptor correlations are proposed here to predict the contact angles of a wide variety of ILs on glass, Al-plate, and PTFE surfaces. A new extended list is provided for the contact angles of ILs on three surfaces, which can be used as a priori information to choose appropriate ILs before a given application. PMID:26554705

  12. The effect of slope angle on splash detachment in steep forest plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizugaki, S.; Nanko, K.; Onda, Y.

    2007-12-01

    To study splash detachment rate and investigate the effects of rainfall and slope angle on splash detachment, the field observation of splash detachment was conducted for five months using 27 splash cups under natural rainfall events in Japanese cypress (Hinoki; Chamaecyparis obtusa) plantation in the Shimanto River watershed, southern Japan. In this plantation forest, the unit kinetic energy of throughfall (unit KE; J/m2/mm) was found to be constant independent of rainfall intensity. The total rainfall over six observation periods was 853 mm and the maximum rainfall intensity for 1 h ( RI1h) varied from 8.0 to 19.6 mm h-1. A significantly high coefficient of linear regression was found between RI1h and the average splash detachment of all splash cups over six periods, although the splash detachment from the individual cups had larger variations with RI1h. This variation in splash detachment may attribute to the spatial variability in soil surface condition such as slope angle. In the relationship between the splash detachment and slope angle, no correlation was found over the entire periods. However, different correlations were found among the observation periods due to the differences in rainfall intensity. The splash detachment from a lower slope angle (14°) exhibited a strong relation with the maximum rainfall intensity for a shorter period, such as 10 to 30 minutes. In contrast, the splash detachment from a slope angle of over 35° exhibited high correlation with the maximum rainfall intensity for 3 h, suggesting that longer time is required for ponding in steeper slopes than gentler slopes. In gentler slopes, prolonged rainfall may cause the higher ponding depth, resulting in reducing the raindrop impact and less splash detachment. Therefore, under the forest canopies, the effect of slope angle on the rainfall parameter should be incorporated into the future splash erosion model.

  13. Theta angle in holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvinen, Matti

    2016-01-01

    V-QCD is a class of effective holographic models for QCD which fully includes the backreaction of quarks to gluon dynamics. The physics of the theta-angle and the axial anomaly can be consistently included in these models. We analyze their phase diagrams over ranges of values of the quark mass, N_f/N_c, and theta, computing observables such as the topological susceptibility and the meson masses. At small quark mass, where effective chiral Lagrangians are reliable, they agree with the predictions of V-QCD.

  14. Small angle scattering and polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, J.P. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB) - Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1996-12-31

    The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs.

  15. Pair Creation at Large Inherent Angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P.; Tauchi, T.; Schroeder, D.V.; /SLAC

    2007-04-25

    In the next-generation linear colliders, the low-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs created during the collision of high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} beams would cause potential deleterious background problems to the detectors. At low collider energies, the pairs are made essentially by the incoherent process, where the pair is created by the interaction of beamstrahlung photons on the individual particles in the oncoming beam. This problem was first identified by Zolotarev, et al[1]. At energies where the beamstrahlung parameter {Upsilon} lies approximately in the range 0.6 {approx}< {Upsilon} {approx}< 100, pair creation from the beamstrahlung photons is dominated by a coherent process, first noted by Chen[2]. The seriousness of this pair creation problem lies in the transverse momenta that the pair particles carry when leaving the interaction point (IP) with large angles. One source of transverse momentum is from the kick by the field of the oncoming beam which results in an outcoming angle {theta} {proportional_to} 1/{radical}x, where x is the fractional energy of the particle relative to the initial beam particle energy[2,3]. As was shown in Ref. 131, there in fact exists an energy threshold for the coherent pairs, where x{sub th} {approx}> 1/2{Upsilon}. Thus within a tolerable exiting angle, there exists an upper limit for {Upsilon} where all coherent pairs would leave the detector through the exhaust port[4]. A somewhat different analysis has been done by Schroeder[5]. In the next generation of linear colliders, as it occurs, the coherent pairs can be exponentially suppressed[2] by properly choosing the {Upsilon}({approx}< 0.6). When this is achieved, the incoherent pairs becomes dominant. Since the central issue is the transverse momentum for particles with large angles, we notice that there is another source for it. Namely, when the pair particles are created at low energies, the intrinsic angles of these pairs when produced may already be large. This issue was

  16. Dynamic behavior of polymer surface and the time dependence of contact angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinping; CHEN Zhifang; SHEN Zhiquan

    2005-01-01

    Time-dependent contact angles were measured by depositing sessile drops of water on the polymer surfaces and monitoring the drop shape as a function of time. It was found that contact angles decreased sharply with contact time and the equilibrium contact angle was finally attained after a certain time. Values of starting (θs) and equilibrium contact angles (θe) obtained by the sessile drop method depend on polymer properties. The Wilhelmy plate technique was used to measure advancing and receding contact angles. The variations of starting (θs) and equilibrium contact angles (θe), advancing (θa) and receding contact angles (θr) have been studied on the oxidized surface of polymers containing polybutadiene block to explore the cause of time-dependence in contact angle measurement and the meaning of θs and θe. The results showed the linear relationships between starting (θs) and advancing contact angles (θa), the equilibrium (θe) and receding contact angles (θr). The similar relationship was also established between the contact angle hysteresis (θa-θr) and differences (θs-θe) in starting contact angles and equilibrium contact angles. Therefore, time-dependence in contact angle measurement was mainly attributed to the surface reconstruction when water drops were deposited on polymer surfaces. The starting contact angle was contributed by the hydrophobic component on polymer surface and the equilibrium contact angle mainly by the hydrophilic component of polymer. These results not only demonstrated the interdependency between two contact angle measurements, the sessile drop method and the Wilhelmy plate technique, but also provided the experimental evidence to explain the cause of time-dependent contact angle. This may also provide a new method to study dynamic behavior of polymer surface.

  17. Evaluation of the nasolabial angle in the Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Dua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasolabial angle has become the angle depicting the esthetics so has attained the prime importance in the treatment planning. Dr Jay P. Fitzgerland and Dr. Ram S. Nanda. In 1992 gave norms for Caucasian population. A radiographic cephalometric study was undertaken with 45 subjects of Indian origin to evaluate and compare with their result. The method of evaluation was according to the criteria given by Dr. Jay P Fitzergerald in AJODO 1992; 102:328-34. Significant decrease in nasolabial angle values was found in case of Indian population as compared to white adults.

  18. Measurement of Critical Contact Angle in a Microgravity Space Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

    1998-01-01

    Mathematical theory predicts that small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. This phenomenon was investigated in the Interface Configuration Experiment on board the USMT,2 Space Shuttle flight. The experiment's "double proboscis" containers were designed to strike a balance between conflicting requirements of sizable volume of liquid shift (for ease of observation) and abruptness of the shift (for accurate determination of critical contact angle). The experimental results support the classical concept of macroscopic contact angle and demonstrate the role of hysteresis in impeding orientation toward equilibrium.

  19. Projection angles of mandibular condyles in panoramic and transcranial radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National Univ. College of Dentistry, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To evaluate the true projection angles of film-side mandibular condyles in panoramic and transcranial radiographs. 52 panoramic and transcranial radiographs of 4 condyles from two human dry mandibles with gradual horizontal and vertical angle changes were taken. The results were compared with the standard panoramic and transcranial radiographs and the identical pairs were selected. Panoramic radiography projected 10 degree to the film-sided condyles both horizontally and vertically. Transcranial radiography projected 15 degree to the film-sided condyles vertically. The medical and lateral poles were not forming the outline of condylar images in both projections when the horizontal angles of condyles were not sufficiently big enough.

  20. Drop Size Dependence of the Contact Angle of Nanodroplets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hong-Kai; FANG Hai-Ping

    2005-01-01

    @@ The contact angle of nanosized non-polarized argon sessile droplets on a solid substrate is studied by using molecular dynamics simulations.It is found that the drop size dependence of the contact angle is sensitive to the interaction between the liquid molecules and solid molecules.The contact angle decreases with the decreasing drop size for larger interaction between the liquid molecules and the solid substrate, and vice versa.This observation is consistent with most of the previous theoretical and experimental results.

  1. Evaluation of the nasolabial angle in the Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Vinay; Gupta, Shilpa; Singh, Chanjyot

    2010-04-01

    Nasolabial angle has become the angle depicting the esthetics so has attained the prime importance in the treatment planning. Dr Jay P. Fitzgerland and Dr. Ram S. Nanda. In 1992 gave norms for Caucasian population. A radiographic cephalometric study was undertaken with 45 subjects of Indian origin to evaluate and compare with their result. The method of evaluation was according to the criteria given by Dr. Jay P Fitzergerald in AJODO 1992; 102:328-34. Significant decrease in nasolabial angle values was found in case of Indian population as compared to white adults.

  2. Effect of lamina open angles in expansion of unilateral open-door laminoplasty on the clinical results in treating cervical myelopathy%颈椎单开门椎管扩大成形术椎板开门角度对脊髓型颈椎病疗效的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙天威; 张杭; 卢守亮; 李辉南; 于斌; 张学利

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate and compare the relation between the efficacy and clinical results of expansion of open-door laminoplasty with different angles in lamina open- door.Method: 198 cases were select from July 2006 to January 2009 who underwent posterior cervical unilateral open-doorJaminoplasty and received treatment for more than 24 months follow-up of patients with cervical myelopathy.There were 115 male cases and 83 female case with the mean age of 49±5 years (range,29-72 years).There were 39 double-segment cases,including 11 C3-C5 cases and 28 C4-C6 cases;97 three-segment (C4-C7) cases and 62 four segment (C3-C7) cases.All of these cases iiad cervical spine anterior-posterior and lateral, oblique and double-bit excessive flexion and extension cervical spine X-ray,CT and MRI.Preoperative JOA scores were 4 to 9,an average of 6.3±2.9.By CT scan after 1 week in accordance with the measurement on the angle of the lamina to 30° for the open boundaries,the cases were divided into two groups,to compare operation time, blood loss,postoperative complications,C2-C7 Cobb angle,index of cervical lordosis,cervical movement and tovalues after the shift,and evaluate the neurological function at final follow-up and calculate improvement rate of nerve function.Result:Group A:a total of 76 cases had an opening angle change>30°.Group B: a total 122 cases had an opening angle change 15°-30°.In preoperative JOA scores,C2-C7 Cobb angle,index of cervical lordosis,cervical movement between the two groups showed no statistically significant difference (P>0.05).The surgical time and blood loss in group A were 110±13min and 250±80ml,and in group B respectively 120± 30min and 230±100ml,the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05).In group A,51 patients after surgery(67.1%) had axial symptoms,8 patients(10.4%) with C5 nerve root palsy, 1 patient(1.32%) with mild cervical kyphosis.In group B,37 cases (10.5%) had axial symptoms,3 patients (2.4%) with C5 nerve root

  3. A Preliminary Test of Measurement of Joint Angles and Stride Length with Wireless Inertial Sensors for Wearable Gait Evaluation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Watanabe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop wearable sensor system for gait evaluation using gyroscopes and accelerometers for application to rehabilitation, healthcare and so on. In this paper, simultaneous measurement of joint angles of lower limbs and stride length was tested with a prototype of wearable sensor system. The system measured the joint angles using the Kalman filter. Signals from the sensor attached on the foot were used in the stride length estimation detecting foot movement automatically. Joint angles of the lower limbs were measured with stable and reasonable accuracy compared to those values measured with optical motion measurement system with healthy subjects. It was expected that the stride length measurement with the wearable sensor system would be practical by realizing more stable measurement accuracy. Sensor attachment position was suggested not to affect significantly measurement of slow and normal speed movements in a test with the rigid body model. Joint angle patterns measured in 10 m walking with a healthy subject were similar to common patterns. High correlation between joint angles at some characteristic points and stride velocity were also found adequately. These results suggested that the wireless wearable inertial sensor system could detect characteristics of gait.

  4. Device for Measuring Landslide Critical Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xueling; Xia Weisheng; Huang Daoyou; Yu Yun

    2016-01-01

    The mountain landslide has high destructive effects, discussion of its landslide critical angle has always been one of the major concerns, and we designed a system that can automatically measure the landslide critical angle. This equipment consists of the

  5. RESEARCH OF BASIFACIAL CONTOURING SCULPTURE BY MANDIBULAR ANGLE OSTECTOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jian-lin; DAI Chuan-chang; ZHU Guo-xian; ZHANG Ying; JIN Yu-qing; WANG Wei; QI Chuan-liang

    2006-01-01

    Objective Mandibular angle ostectomy is usually applied to the facial contouring sculpture.We evaluated the various techniques in order to enhance the precision and avoid unnecessary damage. Methods Before operation the area and quantity resected bone were designed according to facial measurement, mandible pantomography and orthophoria and lateral localized radiograph of skull. The Incises of mandibular angle ostectomy included intraoral, retroauricular or intraoral associated with retroauricular. Howerer, the sagittal resection of mandible outer table was necessary in all intraoral incise. Results Single mandibular angle ostectomy was not satisfactory for the patients having mandible hypertrophy with over-width basifacial contouring. Mandibular angle ostectomy combined with the sagittal resection of outer table of mandibular angle were required. Good symmetry and ap pearance were gained in 206 cases. One case had facial paralysis. Two patients occured mandibular fracture during the operation. Three cases complicated angled deformity at mandible body. Conclusion Reduction mandibuloplasty should be selected depends on varied types of mandibular angle hypertrophy before operation.

  6. A study of images of Projective Angles of pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jue [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhaoqi, Zhang [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)], E-mail: zhaoqi5000@vip.sohu.com; Yu Wei; Miao Cuilian; Yan Zixu; Zhao Yike [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15

    Aims: In images of magnetic resonance and computed tomography (CT) there are visible angles between pulmonary veins and the coronary, transversal or sagittal section of body. In this study these angles are measured and defined as Projective Angles of pulmonary veins. Several possible influential factors and characters of distribution are studied and analyzed for a better understanding of this imaging anatomic character of pulmonary veins. And it could be the anatomic base of adjusting correctly the angle of the central X-ray of the angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing the catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Method: Images of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) and contrast enhanced computer tomography (CECT) of the left atrium and pulmonary veins of 137 health objects and patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are processed with the technique of post-processing, and Projective Angles to the coronary and transversal sections are measured and analyzed statistically. Result: Project Angles of pulmonary veins are one of real and steady imaging anatomic characteristics of pulmonary veins. The statistical distribution of variables is relatively concentrated, with a fairly good representation of average value. It is possible to improve the angle of the central X-ray according to the average value in the selective angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing the catheter ablation of AF.

  7. Characteristics of Rotary Electromagnet with Large Tooth-pitch Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruan Jian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the conventional electro-mechanical converter of 2D valve had problems of step lose due to its small tooth-pitch angle, a novel rotary electromagnet with large tooth-pitch angle and coreless rotor structure was proposed. Combined with the approaches of magnetic circuit analysis, finite element simulation and experimental study, the static and dynamic characteristics of electromagnet including torque-angle characteristics, frequency response and step response were studied. The experimental results are in a close agreement with the simulated results. The electromagnet has sinusoidal torque-angle characteristics and good dynamic response. The maximum static torque is approximately 0.083N.M, and its frequency width is about 125Hz/-3dB, 130Hz/-90°, respectively, and the rise time is about 5.5 ms. It is appropriate to be used as the electro-mechanical converter of 2D proportional valve.

  8. Bistatic MIMO Radar Clutter Suppression by Exploiting the Transmit Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The transmit angle of bistatic radars can be obtained by introducing Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO radar techniques. The Three-Dimensional (3D clutter spectra, that is, the transmit angle, receive angle, and Doppler frequency, are introduced using the additional angle information to Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP. This study reviews the researches on bistatic MIMO-STAP. 3D space-time adaptive processing methods for airborne bistatic side-looking MIMO radars, such as 3D-LCMV, 3D-ACR, 3D-JDL, and 3D projection-based reduced dimensional STAP methods, are discussed. Simulation results show that the proposed methods can improve the small-sample support performance of range-dependent clutter suppression in bistatic side-looking MIMO radar. Finally, the results are summarized and the prospects of bistatic MIMO-STAP are discussed.

  9. Flow tilt angles near forest edges - Part 1: Sonic anemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Mann, Jakob; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg

    2010-01-01

    -sets. These features of the investigated sonic anemometers make them unsuitable for measuring vertical velocities over highly turbulent forested terrain. By comparing the sonic anemometer results to that of a conically scanning Doppler lidar (Dellwik et al., 2010b), sonic anemometer accuracy for measuring mean flow...... distortion and vertical alignment, it was only possible to a limited extent to relate sonic anemometer flow tilt angles to upwind forest edges, but the results by the lidar indicated that an internal boundary layer affect flow tilt angles at 21m above the forest. This is in accordance with earlier studies......An analysis of flow tilt angles from a fetch-limited beech forest site with clearings is presented in the context of vertical advection of carbon dioxide. Flow angles and vertical velocities from two sonic anemometers by different manufacturers were analyzed. Instead of using rotations, where zero...

  10. Correlation between lumbar lordosis angle and degree of gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite in asymptomatic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Barbosa Milani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite has been cited as a common dermatological alteration. It occurs mainly in adult women and tends to gather around the thighs and buttocks. Its presence and severity have been related to many factors, including biotype, age, sex, circulatory changes, and, as some authors have suggested, mechanical alterations such as lumbar hyperlordosis. OBJECTIVE: To correlate the degree of cellulite with the angle of lumbar lordosis in asymptomatic women. METHODS: Fifty volunteers were evaluated by digital photos, palpation, and thermograph. The degree of cellulite was classified on a scale of 1-4. Analyses were performed on the superior, inferior, right and left buttocks (SRB, IRB, SLB, ILB, and the superior right and left thighs (SRT, SLT. The volunteers underwent a lateral-view X-ray, and the angle of lumbar lordosis was measured using Cobb's method (inferior endplate of T12 and the superior endplate of S. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Spearman's correlation. A significance level of 5% was adopted. RESULTS: Volunteers had a mean age of 26.1 ± 4.4 years and a mean body mass index of 20.7 ± 1.9 kg/m². There was no significant difference in lumbar lordosis angle between those with cellulite classes 2 and 3 (p > 0.297. There was also no correlation between lumbar lordosis angle and the degree of cellulite (p > 0.085 and r > 0.246. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis suggests that there is no correlation between the degree of cellulite and the angle of lumbar lordosis as measured using Cobb's method.

  11. Evaluation of the anterior chamber angle in Asian Indian eyes by ultrasound biomicroscopy and gonioscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Sushmita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the ultrasound biomicroscopic measurement of the anterior chamber angle in Asian Indian eyes, with the angle width estimated by gonioscopy. Materials and Methods: Participants: Patients with open and closed angles attending a glaucoma clinic were recruited for the study. Observation Procedures: Temporal quadrants of the angles of patients were categorized by gonioscopy as Grade 0 to Grade 4, using Shaffer′s classification. These angles were quantified by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM using the following biometric characteristics: Angle opening distance at 250 µ (AOD 250 and 500 µ (AOD 500 from the scleral spur and trabecular meshwork-ciliary process distance (TCPD. The angles were further segregated as "narrow angles" (Schaffer′s Grade 2 or less and "open angles" (Schaffer′s Grade 3 and 4. Main Outcome Measures: The UBM measurements were computed in each case and analyzed in relation to the gonioscopic angle evaluation. Results: One hundred and sixty three eyes of 163 patients were analyzed. One hundred and six eyes had "narrow angles" and 57 eyes had "open angles" on gonioscopy. There was a significant difference among the mean UBM measurements of each angle grade estimated by gonioscopy ( P < 0.001. The Pearson correlation coefficient between all UBM parameters and gonioscopy grades was significant at the 0.01 level. The mean AOD 250, AOD 500 and TCPD in narrow angles were 58±49 µ, 102±84 µ and 653±124 respectively, while it was 176±47 µ, 291±62 µ and 883±94 µ in eyes with open angles ( P < 0.001 respectively. Conclusions: The angle width estimated by gonioscopy correlated significantly with the angle dimensions measured by UBM. Gonioscopy, though a subjective test, is a reliable method for estimation of the angle width.

  12. 30 CFR 56.19037 - Fleet angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 56.19037 Section 56.19037 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Sheaves § 56.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979, shall not...

  13. 30 CFR 57.19037 - Fleet angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 57.19037 Section 57.19037 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Sheaves § 57.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979, shall not...

  14. Vapor-liquid transitions of dipolar fluids in disordered porous media: Performance of angle-averaged potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spöler, C.; Klapp, S. H. L.

    2004-11-01

    Using replica integral equations in the reference hypernetted-chain (RHNC) approximation we calculate vapor-liquid spinodals, chemical potentials, and compressibilities of fluids with angle-averaged dipolar interactions adsorbed to various disordered porous media. Comparison with previous RHNC results for systems with true angle-dependent Stockmayer (dipolar plus Lennard-Jones) interactions [C. Spöler and S. H. L. Klapp, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 3628 (2003); ibid.120, 6734 (2004)] indicate that, for a dilute hard sphere matrix, the angle-averaged fluid-fluid (ff) potential is a reasonable alternative for reduced fluid dipole moments m*2=μ2/(ɛ0σ3)⩽2.0. This range is comparable to that estimated in bulk fluids, for which RHNC results are presented as well. Finally, results for weakly polar matrices suggest that angle-averaged fluid-matrix (fm) interactions can reproduce main features observed for true dipolar (fm) interactions such as the shift of the vapor-liquid spinodals towards lower temperatures and higher densities. However, the effective attraction induced by dipolar (fm) interaction is underestimated rather than overestimated as in the case of angle-averaged ff interactions.

  15. A spin- and angle-resolving photoelectron spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Berntsen, M H; Leandersson, M; Hahlin, A; hlund, J \\AA; Wannberg, B; nsson, M M\\aa; Tjernberg, O

    2010-01-01

    A new type of hemispherical electron energy analyzer that permits angle and spin resolved photoelectron spectroscopy has been developed. The analyzer permits standard angle resolved spectra to be recorded with a two-dimensional detector in parallel with spin detection using a mini-Mott polarimeter. General design considerations as well as technical solutions are discussed and test results from the Au(111) surface state are presented.

  16. The correlation of multi-angle thermal infrared data and the choice of optimal view angles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Wenjie; XU; Xiru

    2004-01-01

    Based on the matrix formula of thermal infrared radiant system, the components temperature can be retrieved by the inversive matrix. Around the stability problem of retrieved result, the research work we did was focused on (i) the correlation of (wk,j) which is the key to affect the retrieval accuracy, (ii) a general method which can help us find the number of retrievable parameters and evaluate the retrieval error before its performance, (iii) the choice of "optimal viewing angle group" based on the formula of absolute error propagation. The row winter wheat field was chosen as an example. The results can provide a theoretical basis for multi-angle thermal infrared remote sensing and components temperature retrieval.

  17. Is Lumbo-Sacral Angle Related to Plantar Loading Patterns in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Aydın

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Loss of lumbar lordosis is a clinical feature of ankylosing spondylitis (AS. Pedobarographic analysis assesses the interaction between the foot and the supporting surface. Postural abnormalities can reflect as pressure distribution deviations on pedobarography. The objective of the present study was to assess whether loss of lumbar lordosis detected with lumbo-sacral angle measurement is related to postural control assessed by plantar loading distribution in patients with AS. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients (two female, 30 male, mean age: 43.06±7.8 years with the diagnosis of AS, who already had a lateral lumbo-sacral X-ray performed within the past one year, were included in the study. Static and dynamic pedobarographic analyses of the patients were performed. The radiographic measurement of lumbo-sacral angle was done from lateral lumbo-sacral X-rays of the patients. Results: The static pedobarographic measurement revealed that lumbo-sacral angle was significantly correlated with forefoot plantar pressure (p=0.042; r=0.361. In the dynamic assessment, the maximum pressures were lower under the first metatarsal area in patients with lower lumbo-sacral angle (p=0.352; r=0.048. Conclusion: These findings suggest that foot joints may contribute to the compensation mechanism against the postural changes in patients with AS, statically and dynamically.

  18. Does Angling Technique Selectively Target Fishes Based on Their Behavioural Type?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D M Wilson

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been growing recognition that fish harvesting practices can have important impacts on the phenotypic distributions and diversity of natural populations through a phenomenon known as fisheries-induced evolution. Here we experimentally show that two common recreational angling techniques (active crank baits versus passive soft plastics differentially target wild largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris based on variation in their behavioural tendencies. Fish were first angled in the wild using both techniques and then brought back to the laboratory and tested for individual-level differences in common estimates of personality (refuge emergence, flight-initiation-distance, latency-to-recapture and with a net, and general activity in an in-lake experimental arena. We found that different angling techniques appear to selectively target these species based on their boldness (as characterized by refuge emergence, a standard measure of boldness in fishes but not other assays of personality. We also observed that body size was independently a significant predictor of personality in both species, though this varied between traits and species. Our results suggest a context-dependency for vulnerability to capture relative to behaviour in these fish species. Ascertaining the selective pressures angling practices exert on natural populations is an important area of fisheries research with significant implications for ecology, evolution, and resource management.

  19. The Power of Pictures : Vertical Picture Angles in Power Pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessner, Steffen R.; Ryan, Michelle K.; Schubert, Thomas W.; van Quaquebeke, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that variations in vertical picture angle cause the subject to appear more powerful when depicted from below and less powerful when depicted from above. However, do the media actually use such associations to represent individual differences in power? We argue that the d

  20. Proper Angle of Sono-guided Central Venous Line Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegari, Hassan; Forouzan, Arash; Fahimi, Mohammad Ali; Zohrevandi, Behzad; Ghanavati, Mandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Determining the proper angle for inserting central venous catheter (CV line) is of great importance for decreasing the complications and increasing success rate. The present study was designed to determine the proper angle of needle insertion for internal jugular vein catheterization. Methods: In the present case series study, candidate patients for catheterization of the right internal jugular vein under guidance of ultrasonography were studied. At the time of proper placing of the catheter, photograph was taken and Auto Cad 2014 software was used to measure the angles of the needle in the sagittal and axial planes, as well as patient’s head rotation. Result: 114 patients with the mean age of 56.96 ± 14.71 years were evaluated (68.4% male). The most common indications of catheterization were hemodialysis (55.3%) and shock state (24.6%). The mean angles of needle insertion were 102.15 ± 6.80 for axial plane, 36.21 ± 3.12 for sagittal plane and the mean head rotation angle was 40.49 ± 5.09. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study it seems that CV line insertion under the angles 102.15 ± 6.80 degrees in the axial plane, 36.21 ± 3.12 in the sagittal plane and 40.49 ± 5.09 head rotation yield satisfactory results. PMID:27299146

  1. Capillary rise with velocity-dependent dynamic contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, M N; Ralston, J; Sedev, R

    2008-11-04

    The classic description of the rate of capillary rise given by the Washburn equation, which assumes that the contact angle preserves the equilibrium value at all times, has been recently questioned in the light of the known experimental dependence of the dynamic contact angle on the velocity of the contact line. For a number of such proposed functions of velocity for the dynamic contact angle, we analyze the resulting dependences of the contact angle and of the time of rise, respectively, on the height of the capillary rise. By applying our results to the particular cases of a high-viscosity silicone oil and water, respectively, in a glass capillary, we show that, in general, strong similarities arise between the various approaches and the classic theory in what concerns the time dependence of the capillary rise, which explains the lack of consistent experimental evidence for deviations in the rate of capillary rise from the Washburn equation. However, for a strong dependency of the contact angle on the velocity in the range of small velocities, as in the case of water on glass, one of the models predicts significant deviations even for the time dependence of the capillary rise. Moreover, our results show that the time or height dependence of the contact angle during the capillary rise can clearly discriminate between the various models.

  2. Measuring static and dynamic contact angles using a liquid needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanedrin, Raymond; Jin, Ming; Frese, Daniel; Scheithauer, Carsten; Willers, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    The optical determination of static and advancing contact angle is made on drops applied or extended, respectively, onto a substrate through the use of thin solid needles. Although this method has been used extensively, this method of dosing can be time consuming, cumbersome and if not meticulously performed can lead to erroneous contact angle results. Herein, we present an alternative way of applying drops onto substrates using a small liquid jet, which is produced by a liquid pressure dosing system acting as a "liquid needle." A comparative static contact angle study on 14 different surfaces with two different liquids were performed utilizing two different ways of dosing: the conventional solid and a novel liquid needle based technique. We found, for all but one sample, that the obtained results were highly comparable. Observed differences can be explained by the characteristics of either way of dosing. In addition, we used the liquid pressure based dosing system for optical advancing contact angle measurement on two different samples. The liquid needle based method facilitates the expansion of a drop from 0.1 to 22 μL within less than 1.2 seconds, which provided constant contact angle versus drop base diameter curves. The obtained results were highly comparable with dynamic Wilhelmy contact angle measurements.

  3. Texture mechanisms and microstructure of biaxial thin films grown by oblique angle deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, A.R.; Karimi, A. [Institut de Physique de la Matiere Condensee (IPMC), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-08-15

    In order to understand the texture formation mechanism in thin films grown under oblique angle deposition (OAD), TiAlN films were deposited at room temperature (RT) under various incident angles. We show that both in-plane and out-of-plane crystallographic orientations respond strongly to the deposition angle. For {alpha} = 0 , the pole figures show a (111) and (200) mixed out-of-plane orientation with random in-plane alignment. In contrast, under OAD, inclined textures are observed with the (111) direction moving toward the incident flux direction and the (200) moving away, showing substantial in-plane alignment. This observation suggests that TiAlN crystals prefer to grow with the (200) direction perpendicular to the substrate while maintaining the minimization of the surface free energy by maximizing the (111) surface area toward the incident flux. The in-plane texture, which is randomly oriented at normal incidence, gives rise to two preferred orientations under oblique angles - one along the direction of flux and other away from the deposition source. The biaxial texture results from a competition among texture mechanism related to surface mobilities of adatoms, geometrical and directional effects. The surface and cross-section of the films were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). OAD films develop a kind of smooth tiles of a roof structure, with no faceted crystallites. The columns of these films were tilted toward the direction of incident flux. The dependence of (111) texture tilt angle and column angle {beta} on the incidence flux angle {alpha} is evaluated using four well-known models. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study reveals a voided, intercolumnar structure with oblique growth toward the flux direction. The selected area diffraction pattern (SAED) pattern supports the pole figure observations. Measurements of the nanoindentation test were performed in order to discuss the change of mechanical properties as a function of incident

  4. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  5. Folded cavity angled-grating broad-area lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunsong; Zhu, Lin

    2013-10-01

    The angled-grating broad-area laser is a promising candidate for high power, high brightness diode laser source. The key point in the design is the angled gratings which can simultaneously support the unique snake-like zigzag lasing mode and eliminate the direct Fabry-Perot (FP) feedback. Unlike a conventional laser waveguide mode, the phase front of the zigzag mode periodically changes along the propagation direction. By use of the mirror symmetry of the zigzag mode, we propose and demonstrate the folded cavity angled-grating broad-area lasers. One benefit of this design is to reduce the required wafer space compared to a regular angled-grating broad-area laser, especially in a long cavity laser for high power operation. Experimental results show that the folded cavity laser exhibits good beam quality in far field with a slightly larger threshold and smaller slope efficiency due to the additional interface loss.

  6. Determination of the position angle of stellar spin axes

    CERN Document Server

    Lesage, Anna-Lea

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the stellar position angle provides valuable information on binary stellar formation or stellar spin axis evolution. We aim to develop a method for determining the absolute stellar position angle using spectro-astrometric analysis of high resolution long-slit spectra. The method has been designed in particular for slowly rotating stars. We investigate its applicability to existing dispersive long-slit spectrographs, identified here by their plate scale, and the size of the resulting stellar sample. The stellar rotation induces a tilt in the stellar lines whose angle depends on the stellar position angle and the orientation of the slit. We developed a rotation model to calculate and reproduce the effects of stellar rotation on unreduced high resolution stellar spectra. Then we retrieved the tilt amplitude using a spectro-astrometric extraction of the position of the photocentre of the spectrum. Finally we present two methods for analysing the position spectrum using either direct measurement of the t...

  7. Shrinkage and trajectory of the flat jet with inclination angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shufeng Ye; Yusheng Xie; Hongzhi Guo; Ye Huang; Shantong Jin

    2003-01-01

    The performance of the flat jet with an inclination angle was investigated by a water model. A mathematical model for theshrinkage and the trajectory of the flat jet with an inclination angle was derived theoretically and verified by experimental data of thewater model. The experimental results indicate that the inclination angle (α) has no influence on the shrinkage of the flat jet, theshrinkage of the flat jet along the width direction decreases with the increasing of the initial velocity at the exit (u0) and the initialthickness of the flat jet (t0). Enough bigger initial exit velocity (u0) and initial thickness can suppress the shrinkage of the flat jetalong the width direction and keep the flat jet stabilized. In addition, the trajectory of the flat jet with an inclination angle is parabolicand must be taking into consideration when to determine the striking distance.

  8. Polarization Position Angle Swings caused by Relativistic Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Polarization position angle swings of ~ 180° observed in extragalacticradio sources are a regular behavior of variability in polarization. They shouldbe due to some kind of physically regular process. We consider relativistic shocksproducing polarization angle swing events. Two magnetic field configurations (force-free field and homogeneous helical field) are considered to demonstrate the results.It is shown that the properties of polarization angle swings and the relationshipbetween the swings and variations in total and polarized flux density are criticallydependent on the configuration of magnetic field and the dynamical behavior of theshock. In particular, we find that in some cases polarization angle swings can occurwhen the total and polarized flux densities only vary by a very small amount. Theseresults may be useful for understanding the polarization variability with both longand short timescales observed in extragalactic radio sources.

  9. TEACHING READING:PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionAmong the four skills,reading has been viewed as the most basic and useful skill for Chinese learners ofEnglish.Many college students will.after leaving their English class,come into contact largely(andsometimes solely)with the written form of the language.Therefore the instruction of reading has becomevery important in English teaching Although great developments have been made both in the linguisticand pragmatic fields of reading analysis.teaching Chinese students the specific skills of reading inEnglish is still a tough problem.Many English teachers have become more and more aware of theChinese students difficulties and more and more aware of how inefficient the traditional approach is inthe design of teaching materials and leaching methods.As a result,this paper is an attempt to analysesome current theoretical achievements and suggest a revised method for teaching Chinese students.

  10. Effect of a suspension seat support chair on the trunk flexion angle and gluteal pressure during computer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] We assessed the effects of a suspension seat support chair on the trunk flexion angle and gluteal pressure during computer work. [Subjects] Ten males were recruited. [Methods] The suspension seat support was developed to prevent abnormal gluteal pressure and a slumped sitting posture during computer work. The gluteal pressure was measured with a TekScan system and the trunk flexion angle was measured with a video camera, to compare the differences between a general chair and the suspension seat support. [Results] The gluteal peak pressures were decreased significantly in the suspension seat support versus the general chair. The trunk flexion angle was also decreased significantly in the suspension seat support compared with the general chair. [Conclusions] This study suggests that the suspension seat support chair contributes to preventing abnormal gluteal pressure and a slumped sitting posture.

  11. A time-compressed simulated geomagnetic storm influences the nest-exiting flight angles of the stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, D M S; Corrêa, A A C; Vaillant, O S; de Melo, V Bandeira; Gouvêa, G S; Ferreira, C G; Ferreira, T A; Wajnberg, E

    2014-03-01

    Insects have been used as models for understanding animal orientation. It is well accepted that social insects such as honeybees and ants use different natural cues in their orientation mechanism. A magnetic sensitivity was suggested for the stingless bee Schwarziana quadripunctata, based on the observation of a surprising effect of a geomagnetic storm on the nest-exiting flight angles. Stimulated by this result, in this paper, the effects of a time-compressed simulated geomagnetic storm (TC-SGS) on the nest-exiting flight angles of another stingless bee, Tetragonisca angustula, are presented. Under an applied SGS, either on the horizontal or vertical component of the geomagnetic field, both nest-exiting flight angles, dip and azimuth, are statistically different from those under geomagnetic conditions. The angular dependence of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra of whole stingless bees shows the presence of organized magnetic nanoparticles in their bodies, which indicates this material as a possible magnetic detector.

  12. Variable angle of strabismus related to timing of opiate ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jonathan J; Brown, Valerie; Fern, Alasdair I

    2009-04-01

    Heroin (diamorphine) is a highly addictive opiate with potential for misuse. A small number of reports have linked the commencement of heroin misuse to acute exotropia with diplopia and subsequent withdrawal to esotropia in individuals without previous symptoms.(1-5) We describe a young adult who sought strabismus surgery to correct a large-angle exotropia. Detailed patient history and orthoptic measurements at different times of the day revealed a fluctuating angle of divergence relating to the timing of opiate ingestion, rendering surgery inappropriate. We suggest that opiate misuse, which may not willingly be disclosed by patients, should be specifically asked about before acquired-strabismus surgery is undertaken in adults.

  13. Sending Hidden Data via Google Suggest

    CERN Document Server

    Bialczak, Piotr; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Google Suggest is a service incorporated within Google Web Search which was created to help user find the right search phrase by proposing the autocompleting popular phrases while typing. The paper presents a new network steganography method called StegSuggest which utilizes suggestions generated by Google Suggest as a hidden data carrier. The detailed description of the method's idea is backed up with the analysis of the network traffic generated by the Google Suggest to prove its feasibility. The traffic analysis was also performed to discover the occurrence of two TCP options: Window Scale and Timestamp which StegSuggest uses to operate. Estimation of method steganographic bandwidth proves that it is possible to insert 100 bits of steganogram into every suggestions list sent by Google Suggest service.

  14. Meningiomas of the cerebellopontine angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, C; Carvalho, G; Tatagiba, M; Lima, M; Samii, M

    1996-01-01

    Meningiomas of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) represent a clinically and surgically interesting entity. The opportunity of complete surgical excision and the incidence of impairment of nerval structures largely depend on the tumour biology that either leads to displacement of surrounding structures by an expansive type of growth or to an enveloping of nerval and vascular structures by an en plaque type of growth. As the origin and the direction of growth are very variable, the exact tumour extension in relation to the nerval structures and the tumour origin can be identified sometimes only at the time of surgery. Out of a series of 230 meningiomas of the posterior skull base operated between 1978 and 1993, data of 134 meningiomas involving the cerebellopontine angle are presented. There were 20% male and 80% female patients, age at the time of surgery ranging from 18 to 76 years, on the average 51 years. The clinical presentation was characterized by a predominant disturbance of the cranial nerves V (19%), VII (11%), VIII (67%) and the caudal cranial nerves (6%) and signs of ataxia (28%). 80% of the meningiomas were larger than 30 mm in diameter, 53% led to evident brainstem compression or dislocation and 85% extended anteriorly to the internal auditory canal. Using the lateral suboccipital approach in the majority of cases and a combined presigmoidal or combined suboccipital and subtemporal approaches in either sequence in 5%, complete tumour removal (Simpson I and II) was accomplished in 95% and subtotal tumour removal in 5%. Histologically the meningiotheliomatous type was most common (49%) followed by the mixed type (19%), fibroblastic (16%), psammomatous (7%), hemangioblastic (7%) and anaplastic (2%) types. Major post-operative complications were CSF leakage (8%) requiring surgical revision in 2% and hemorrhage (3%) requiring revision in 2%. While the majority of neurological disturbances showed signs of recovery, facial nerve paresis or paralysis was

  15. The change of GRB polarization angles in the magnetic-dominated jet model

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The polarimetric measurement on the prompt phase of GRB 100826A shows that the polarization angle changes $\\sim 90^{\\circ}$ between two adjacent time intervals. This phenomenon can be naturally interpreted in the framework of the magnetic-dominated-jet (MDJ) model. The MDJ model suggests that the bulk Lorentz factor of outflow increases as $\\Gamma\\propto r^{1/3}$ until reaching a saturated value $\\Gamma_{\\rm sat}$. Electrons move in the magnetic field and produce synchrotron photons. A beam of synchrotron photons travel alone the jet direction and then collide with the cold electrons at the front of the jet. After the Compton scattering process, these photons are detected by the observer locating slightly off-axis. If photons are emitted before the bulk Lorentz factor saturates, the change of polarization angle is a natural result of the acceleration of outflow.

  16. NUMERICAL STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN APPARENT SLIP LENGTH AND CONTACT ANGLE BY LATTICE BOLTZMANN METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ren-liang; DI Qin-feng; WANG Xin-liang; DING Wei-peng; GONG Wei

    2012-01-01

    The apparent slip between solid wall and liquid is studied by using the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) and the Shan-Chen multiphase model in this paper.With a no-slip bounce-back scheme applied to the interface,flow regimes under different wall wettabilities are investigated.Because of the wall wettability,liquid apparent slip is observed.Slip lengths for different wall wettabilities are found to collapse nearly onto a single curve as a function of the static contact angle,and thereby a relationship between apparent slip length and contact angle is suggested.Our results also show that the wall wettability leads to the formation of a low-density layer between solid wall and liquid,which produced apparent slip in the micro-scale.

  17. Characterizing the microscopic physics near moving contact lines using dynamic contact angle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramé, E; Garoff, S; Willson, K R

    2004-09-01

    Directly probing the fluid flow and liquid-vapor interface shape in the microscopic immediate vicinity of the moving contact line can only be accomplished in very specific and isolated cases. Yet this physics is critical to macroscopic dynamic wetting. Here we examine the microscopic (or inner) physics of spreading silicone fluids using data of macroscopic dynamic contact angle versus Capillary number Ca=U mu/sigma. This dynamic contact angle is precisely defined so that it can be related back to the microscopic behavior through detailed theory. Our results indicate that the parameters describing the inner region have a detectable dependence on spreading velocity when this velocity exceeds a critical value. This dependence is not scaled (i.e., the data are not collapsed) by Ca, which suggests that an additional time scale must be present in the model of the inner region.

  18. The equivalent incidence angle for porous absorbers backed by a hard surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    the oblique incidence absorption coefficient at a specific incidence angle and the random incidence absorption coefficient. The equivalent angle is found to be around 55 under local reaction conditions, and 45 for extendedly reacting porous absorbers. As practical guidelines for measuring absorption...... coefficients by free-field techniques, a broad incidence angle range can be suggested: 20 hi65 for extended reaction and hi65 for locally reacting porous absorbers, if an average difference of 0.05 is allowed....

  19. Comparison of different passive knee extension torque-angle assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Sandro R; Vaz, João R; Bruno, Paula M; Valamatos, Maria J; Mil-Homens, Pedro

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have used isokinetic dynamometry to assess joint torques and angles during passive extension of the knee, often without reporting upon methodological errors and reliability outcomes. In addition, the reliability of the techniques used to measure passive knee extension torque-angle and the extent to which reliability may be affected by the position of the subjects is also unclear. Therefore, we conducted an analysis of the intra- and inter-session reliability of two methods of assessing passive knee extension: (A) a 2D kinematic analysis coupled to a custom-made device that enabled the direct measurement of resistance to stretch and (B) an isokinetic dynamometer used in two testing positions (with the non-tested thigh either flexed at 45° or in the neutral position). The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) of torque, the slope of the torque-angle curve, and the parameters of the mathematical model that were fit to the torque-angle data for the above conditions were measured in sixteen healthy male subjects (age: 21.4 ± 2.1 yr; BMI: 22.6 ± 3.3 kg m(-2); tibial length: 37.4 ± 3.4 cm). The results found were: (1) methods A and B led to distinctly different torque-angle responses; (2) passive torque-angle relationship and stretch tolerance were influenced by the position of the non-tested thigh; and (3) ICCs obtained for torque were higher than for the slope and for the mathematical parameters that were fit to the torque-angle curve. In conclusion, the measurement method that is used and the positioning of subjects can influence the passive knee extension torque-angle outcome.

  20. Angle-Resolved Plasmonic Properties of Single Gold Nanorod Dimers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wu; Xuxing Lu; Qiannan Zhu; Junwei Zhao; Qishun Shen; Li Zhan; Weihai Ni

    2014-01-01

    Through wet-chemical assembly methods, gold nanorods were placed close to each other and formed a dimer with a gap distance*1 nm, and hence degenerated plasmonic dipole modes of individual nanorods coupled together to produce hybridized bonding and antibonding resonance modes. Previous studies using a condenser for illumination result in averaged signals over all excitation angles. By exciting an individual dimer obliquely at different angles, we demonstrate that these two new resonance modes are highly tunable and sensitive to the angle between the excitation polarization and the dimer orientation, which follows cos2u dependence. Moreover, for dimer structures with various structure angles, the resonance wavelengths as well as the refractive index sensitivities were found independent of the structure angle. Cal-culated angle-resolved plasmonic properties are in good agreement with the measurements. The assembled nanostructures investigated here are important for fundamental researches as well as potential applications when they are used as building blocks in plasmon-based optical and optoelectronic devices.

  1. Determination of the Contact Angle Based on the Casimir Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    In several crystal growth processed based on capillarity, a melt comes into contact with a crucible wall at an angle defined as the contact angle. For molten metals and semiconductors, this contact angle is dependent upon both the crucible and melt material and typical values fall in the range 80-170deg. However, on a microscopic scale, there does not exist a precise and sharp contact angle but rather the melt and solid surfaces merge smoothly and continuously over a distance of up to several micrometers. Accurate modeling requires a more advanced treatment of this interaction. The interaction between the melt and solid surfaces can be calculated by considering two forces: a short-range repulsive force and a longer range (up to a few micrometers) Casimir force. The Casimir force between the two bodies of complex geometry is calculated using a retarded temperature Green's function (Matsubara type) for the photon in the medium. The governing equations are cast in the form of a set of boundary integral equations which are then solved numerically for the case of molten Ge on SiO2. The shape of the molten surface approaching the flat solid body is determined, and the contact angle is defined as the angle between the two surfaces at the microscopically asymptotic distance of 1-2 micrometers. The formulation of this model and the results of the numerical calculations will be presented and discussed.

  2. Guidance law with impact time and impact angle constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Youan; Ma Guoxin; Liu Aili

    2013-01-01

    A novel closed-form guidance law with impact time and impact angle constraints is proposed for salvo attack of anti-ship missiles,which employs missile's normal acceleration (not jerk) as the control command directly.Firstly,the impact time control problem is formulated as tracking the designated time-to-go (the difference between the designated impact time and the current flight time) for the actual time-to-go of missile,and the impact angle control problem is formulated as tracking the designated heading angle for the actual heading angle of missile.Secondly,a biased proportional navigation guidance (BPNG) law with designated heading angle constraint is constructed,and the actual time-to-go estimation for this BPNG is derived analytically by solving the system differential equations.Thirdly,by adding a feedback control to this constructed BPNG to eliminate the time-to-go error-the difference between the standard time-to-go and the actual time-to-go,a guidance law with adjustable coefficients to control the impact time and impact angle simultaneously is developed.Finally,simulation results demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the proposed approach.

  3. Limbus Impact on Off-angle Iris Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph W [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of iris recognition depends on the quality of data capture and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Off-angle iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics that tries to address several issues including corneal refraction, complex 3D iris texture, and blur. In this paper, we present an additional significant challenge that degrades the performance of the off-angle iris recognition systems, called the limbus effect . The limbus is the region at the border of the cornea where the cornea joins the sclera. The limbus is a semitransparent tissue that occludes a side portion of the iris plane. The amount of occluded iris texture on the side nearest the camera increases as the image acquisition angle increases. Without considering the role of the limbus effect, it is difficult to design an accurate off-angle iris recognition system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that investigates the limbus effect in detail from a biometrics perspective. Based on results from real images and simulated experiments with real iris texture, the limbus effect increases the hamming distance score between frontal and off-angle iris images ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 depending upon the limbus height.

  4. OCULAR BIOMETRY IN ANGLE CLOSURE GLAUCOMA AND SENILE CATARACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-lan; SHENG Yao-hua; YE Xiang-yu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare ocular biometric values in angle closure glaucoma and cataract in senile population.Methods Ocular biometry was performed in eyes classified to have angle closure glaucoma (29 eyes) and senile cataract (31 eyes). Ocular biometry readings between two groups were compared and analyzed statistically. Intraocular pressure was also recorded before and after lens extraction.Results Anterior chamber depth was shallower in patients with angle closure glaucoma group [(1.79±0.56) mm] compared with senile cataract group [(2.69±0.40) mm] (P<0.01). Lens thickness was greater in angle closure glaucoma group [(5.30±0.61) mm] than that in senile cataract group [(3.84±0.61) mm] (P<0.01). Phacoemusification was performed in 5 patients with persistent acute attack of angle closure glaucoma. IOPs were controlled in all five cases after lens extraction.Conclusion Eyes with angle closure glaucoma seems to have significantly shallow anterior chamber and greater lens thickness compared to senile cataract eyes in the same age. Lens extraction might be effective in those cases with such anatomy features.

  5. Are You Suggesting That's My Hand? The Relation Between Hypnotic Suggestibility and the Rubber Hand Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Guilmette, D N; Longo, M R; Moore, J W; Oakley, D A; Halligan, P W; Mehta, M A; Deeley, Q

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility (HS) is the ability to respond automatically to suggestions and to experience alterations in perception and behavior. Hypnotically suggestible participants are also better able to focus and sustain their attention on an experimental stimulus. The present study explores the relation between HS and susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI). Based on previous research with visual illusions, it was predicted that higher HS would lead to a stronger RHI. Two behavioral output measures of the RHI, an implicit (proprioceptive drift) and an explicit (RHI questionnaire) measure, were correlated against HS scores. Hypnotic suggestibility correlated positively with the implicit RHI measure contributing to 30% of the variation. However, there was no relation between HS and the explicit RHI questionnaire measure, or with compliance control items. High hypnotic suggestibility may facilitate, via attentional mechanisms, the multisensory integration of visuoproprioceptive inputs that leads to greater perceptual mislocalization of a participant's hand. These results may provide insight into the multisensory brain mechanisms involved in our sense of embodiment.

  6. Check the special moves Halftone a central sun sunspot different angles using local correlation tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh Askarikhah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunspots, solar magnetic field effect on a large scale are outstanding. In this research field study of surface movement (special move in a Lightening Solar Shade Halftone sphere central angle of the sun in three different here. The evolution of current research and special horizontal movement in a sunspot on the basis of time-series observations imaging data in the blue spectral range with a wavelength continuum Central line spots active area of 4504 angstroms During the 3 day 10933NOAA dated 7 January (9.0 hours (UT 12:35 until (UT 12: 56, 8 January (8.0 hours (UT 06: 00 to (UT 06 21, Jan 9 (6/0 of the time (UT 05: 00 to (UT 05: 21, 2007 were obtained by using LCT (local correlation tracking has studied. Halftone stains in the three-averaged (averaged over 10 consecutive images and averaged over 20 consecutive images flow rate for each of the three categories Map angles (total 9 speed stream map obtained, as well as a lot of speed graph speed on the map, each of which is for an angle we examined. What is clear in some parts of the maps quickly climb (eruption in plasma and in some places fall (collapse plasma-level Halftone be observed. The maps quickly, the (current intensity Halftone patterns toward the inner penumbra shadow and movement patterns foreign to the outside strongly suggest Halftone That resulted in the dismissal of this shift is the dividing line that location is reached. Due to the frequency graph maps quickly we realized all three angles to this topic Slick passing moves quickly, especially given that the three angles of the half shadow has fallen. As well as speed of movement of the intensity of the Halftone patterns of the dividing line within the shadows of the reductions in external Halftone dividing line toward the photosphere increases.

  7. The Clinical Outcomes of Three Surgical Managements on Primary Angle-closure Glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiulan; Zhang; Leilei; Teng; Ang; Li; Shaolin; Du; Yunyun; Zhu; Jian; Ge

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of trabeculectomy, phacotrabeculectomy and phacoemulsification in the management of primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG).Methods: A prospective observational study was performed in 88 chronic PACG patients (97 eyes) who were divided into three groups following defined indications to receive different surgical interventions. The indications and clinical outcomes were evaluated. The mean follow-up was (17.7±4.9) months.Results: Success rate in trabeculectomy, phacotrabeculectomy and phacoemulsification group was 81.08%, 78.57‰ and 81.25‰, respectively. The anterior chamber depth was deeper and the angle was wider postoperatively vs. preoperatively both in phacotrabeculectomy and phacoemulsification group. No obvious changes were seen in trabeculectomy group. The coefficient of outflow facility of aqueous humor (C values)significantly increased in three groups postoperatively (P<0.01 ). No severe intraoperative complications were found and the incidence of postoperative complications was low. Five eyes sustained hypotony 3± 1.87 months in trabeculectomy group and 1 eye happened malignant glaucoma in phacotrabeculectomy group. The visual acuity in patients with phacotrabeculectomy plus intraocular lens implantation and those only with phacoemulsification plus intraocular lens implantation were improved 78.57% and 93.74%, respectively. No significant improvement was found in trabeculectomy group (x2 = 47.10, P<0.001).Conclusion: Three surgical interventions were beneficial to manage PACG and with co-existing cataract. The indication choosing was suggested according to visual acuity,angle closure circumference, cataract, medication requirements and optic nerve damage.Phacotrabeculectomy was recommended for angle closed ≥180° circumference while phacoemulsification for angle closed < 180°.

  8. Caustic graphene plasmons with Kelvin angle

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Xihang; Gao, Fei; Xu, Hongyi; Yang, Zhaoju; Zhang, Baile

    2015-01-01

    A century-long argument made by Lord Kelvin that all swimming objects have an effective Mach number of 3, corresponding to the Kelvin angle of 19.5 degree for ship waves, has been recently challenged with the conclusion that the Kelvin angle should gradually transit to the Mach angle as the ship velocity increases. Here we show that a similar phenomenon can happen for graphene plasmons. By analyzing the caustic wave pattern of graphene plasmons stimulated by a swift charged particle moving uniformly above graphene, we show that at low velocities of the charged particle, the caustics of graphene plasmons form the Kelvin angle. At large velocities of the particle, the caustics disappear and the effective semi-angle of the wave pattern approaches the Mach angle. Our study introduces caustic wave theory to the field of graphene plasmonics, and reveals a novel physical picture of graphene plasmon excitation during electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurement.

  9. Contact angle measurements under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages, Carol; Méndez, Eduardo

    2007-08-01

    The precise control of the ambient humidity during contact angle measurements is needed to obtain stable and valid data. For a such purpose, a simple low-cost device was designed, and several modified surfaces relevant to biosensor design were studied. Static contact angle values for these surfaces are lower than advancing contact angles published for ambient conditions, indicating that thermodynamic equilibrium conditions are needed to avoid drop evaporation during the measurements.

  10. Step angles to reduce the north-finding error caused by rate random walk with fiber optic gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Xie, Jun; Yang, Chuanchuan; He, Changhong; Wang, Xinyue; Wang, Ziyu

    2015-10-20

    We study the relationship between the step angles and the accuracy of north finding with fiber optic gyroscopes. A north-finding method with optimized step angles is proposed to reduce the errors caused by rate random walk (RRW). Based on this method, the errors caused by both angle random walk and RRW are reduced by increasing the number of positions. For when the number of positions is even, we proposed a north-finding method with symmetric step angles that can reduce the error caused by RRW and is not affected by the azimuth angles. Experimental results show that, compared with the traditional north-finding method, the proposed methods with the optimized step angles and the symmetric step angles can reduce the north-finding errors by 67.5% and 62.5%, respectively. The method with symmetric step angles is not affected by the azimuth angles and can offer consistent high accuracy for any azimuth angles.

  11. On the role of energy barriers in determining contact angle hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J; Chen, P

    2006-11-30

    The thermodynamic model of contact angles on rough, heterogeneous surfaces developed by Long et al. [J. Long, M.N. Hyder, R.Y.M. Huang and P. Chen, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 118 (2005) 173] was employed to study the role of energy barriers in determining contact angle hysteresis. Major energy barriers corresponding to metastable states and minor energy barriers corresponding to secondary metastable states were defined. Distributions of major and/or minor energy barriers as a function of apparent contact angle for various surfaces were obtained. The reproducibility of contact angle measurement, the effect of vibrational energy on contact angle hysteresis and the "stick-slip" phenomenon were discussed. Quantitative relations between contact angles and vibrational energy were obtained. It was found that receding contact angles are normally poorly reproducible for hydrophilic surfaces, but for extremely hydrophobic surfaces, advancing contact angles may have a poor reproducibility. When the vibrational energy available to a system increases, the measured advancing contact angle will decrease while the receding angle will increase until both reach a common value: the system equilibrium angle. This finding not only agrees well with the experimental observations in system equilibrium contact angle measurements, but also lays a theoretical foundation for such measurements. A small vibrational energy may result in a "stick-slip" phenomenon.

  12. Distinguishing features of shallow angle plunging jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Suraj S.; Trujillo, Mario F.

    2013-08-01

    Numerical simulations employing an algebraic volume-of-fluid methodology are used to study the air entrainment characteristics of a water jet plunging into a quiescent water pool at angles ranging from θ = 10° to θ = 90° measured from the horizontal. Our previous study of shallow angled jets [S. S. Deshpande, M. F. Trujillo, X. Wu, and G. L. Chahine, "Computational and experimental characterization of a liquid jet plunging into a quiescent pool at shallow inclination," Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 34, 1-14 (2012)], 10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2012.01.011 revealed the existence of a clearly discernible frequency of ingestion of large air cavities. This is in contrast with chaotic entrainment of small air pockets reported in the literature in case of steeper or vertically plunging jets. In the present work, the differences are addressed by first quantifying the cavity size and entrained air volumes for different impingement angles. The results support the expected trend - reduction in cavity size (D43) as θ is increased. Time histories of cavity volumes in the vicinity of the impingement region confirm the visual observations pertaining to a near-periodic ingestion of large air volumes for shallow jets (10°, 12°), and also show that such cavities are not formed for steep or vertical jets. Each large cavity (defined as Dc/Dj ≳ 3) exists in close association with a stagnation point flow. A local mass and momentum balance shows that the high stagnation pressure causes a radial redirection of the jet, resulting in a flow that resembles the initial impact of a jet on the pool. In fact, for these large cavities, their speed matches closely Uimpact/2, which coincides with initial cavity propagation for sufficiently high Froude numbers. Furthermore, it is shown that the approximate periodicity of air entrainment scales linearly with Froude number. This finding is confirmed by a number of simulations at θ = 12°. Qualitatively, for steeper jets, such large stagnation

  13. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  14. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  15. Query term suggestion in academic search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, S.; Sappelli, M.; Kraaij, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate query term suggestion in the context of academic professional search. Our overall goal is to support scientists in their information seeking tasks. We set up an interactive search system in which terms are extracted from clicked documents and suggested to the user before e

  16. Repulsion-based model for contact angle saturation in electrowetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hassan Abdelmoumen Abdellah; Mohamed, Hany Ahmed; Abdelgawad, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new model for contact angle saturation phenomenon in electrowetting on dielectric systems. This new model attributes contact angle saturation to repulsion between trapped charges on the cap and base surfaces of the droplet in the vicinity of the three-phase contact line, which prevents these surfaces from converging during contact angle reduction. This repulsion-based saturation is similar to repulsion between charges accumulated on the surfaces of conducting droplets which causes the well known Coulombic fission and Taylor cone formation phenomena. In our model, both the droplet and dielectric coating were treated as lossy dielectric media (i.e., having finite electrical conductivities and permittivities) contrary to the more common assumption of a perfectly conducting droplet and perfectly insulating dielectric. We used theoretical analysis and numerical simulations to find actual charge distribution on droplet surface, calculate repulsion energy, and minimize energy of the total system as a function of droplet contact angle. Resulting saturation curves were in good agreement with previously reported experimental results. We used this proposed model to predict effect of changing liquid properties, such as electrical conductivity, and system parameters, such as thickness of the dielectric layer, on the saturation angle, which also matched experimental results.

  17. Intraocular pressure fluctuation after water drinking test in primary angle-closure glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chieh Poon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Only a few studies have assessed intraocular pressure (IOP changes during the water drinking test (WDT in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG. Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate IOP changes during WDT in patients with PACG versus primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG. Settings and Design: This was a prospective and single tertiary center study. Materials and Methods: PACG and POAG patients (n = 15 each without prior glaucoma surgery were enrolled and subjected to WDT, wherein they consumed an amount of water proportional to their body weight within 10 min. IOP was measured at baseline and every 15 min for 1 h after water intake. Statistical Analysis Used: Intergroup comparisons were performed using Mann–Whitney U-test for continuous variables and Chi-square test for categorical variables. Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used for comparisons of IOP before and after water intake in the two groups. Regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with IOP fluctuations during WDT. Results: IOP changes over 1 h after water intake showed no significant differences between groups. The mean maximum fluctuation from baseline was 3.61 ± 2.49 and 3.79 ± 1.91 mmHg, respectively, in the PACG and POAG groups. The mean peak IOP was 19.17 ± 4.32 and 19.87 ± 3.44 mmHg in the PACG and PAOG groups, respectively. The axial length and anterior chamber depth showed no correlations with IOP fluctuations. Conclusions: We found similar IOP fluctuation curves and peak IOP values in both PACG and POAG patients subjected to WDT. These findings suggest that WDT is a useful test to induce IOP peaks in both POAG and PACG patients.

  18. Wide-angle energy-momentum spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dodson, Christopher M; Li, Dongfang; Zia, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Light emission is defined by its distribution in energy, momentum, and polarization. Here, we demonstrate a method that resolves these distributions by means of wide-angle energy-momentum spectroscopy. Specifically, we image the back focal plane of a microscope objective through a Wollaston prism to obtain polarized Fourier-space momentum distributions, and disperse these two-dimensional radiation patterns through an imaging spectrograph without an entrance slit. The resulting measurements represent a convolution of individual radiation patterns at adjacent wavelengths, which can be readily deconvolved using any well-defined basis for light emission. As an illustrative example, we use this technique with the multipole basis to quantify the intrinsic emission rates for electric and magnetic dipole transitions in europium-doped yttrium oxide (Eu$^{3+}$:Y$_{2}$O$_{3}$) and chromium-doped magnesium oxide (Cr$^{3+}$:MgO). Once extracted, these rates allow us to reconstruct the full, polarized, two-dimensional radi...

  19. Narrow-angle astrometry with PRIMA

    CERN Document Server

    Sahlmann, J; Mérand, A; Zimmerman, N; Abuter, R; Chazelas, B; Delplancke, F; Henning, T; Kaminski, A; Köhler, R; Launhardt, R; Mohler, M; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Quirrenbach, A; Reffert, S; Schmid, C; Schuhler, N; Schulze-Hartung, T

    2012-01-01

    The Extrasolar Planet Search with PRIMA project (ESPRI) aims at characterising and detecting extrasolar planets by measuring the host star's reflex motion using the narrow-angle astrometry capability of the PRIMA facility at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer. A first functional demonstration of the astrometric mode was achieved in early 2011. This marked the start of the astrometric commissioning phase with the purpose of characterising the instrument's performance, which ultimately has to be sufficient for exoplanet detection. We show results obtained from the observation of bright visual binary stars, which serve as test objects to determine the instrument's astrometric precision, its accuracy, and the plate scale. Finally, we report on the current status of the ESPRI project, in view of starting its scientific programme.

  20. Pneumatic Rotary Actuator Angle Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 彭光正; 伍清河

    2003-01-01

    Based on the adaptive control method, a kind of parameter adjustor was used to control pneumatic rotary actuator to track the expected output. The system uses electropneumatic proportional valve as control device, which adjusts the gas flow of actuator 's two cavities, then changes the pressure of cavity and pushes the piston of actuator to move, so the rotary actuator 's axis can be made to revolve to the required angle at last. According to the characteristic of pneumatic system, the control system was described with a fourth-order mathematic model. The control rule is deduced by model reference adaptive control method. By the result of experiment, it was proved that by using the adaptive control method, the output of rotary actuator could track the expected value timely and accurately.

  1. A superconducting large-angle magnetic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, James R.; Anastas, George V., Jr.; Bushko, Dariusz A.; Flynn, Frederick J.; Goldie, James H.; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Hockney, Richard L.; Torti, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation has completed a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 program to develop a Superconducting Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension (LAMS) for the NASA Langley Research Center. The Superconducting LAMS was a hardware demonstration of the control technology required to develop an advanced momentum exchange effector. The Phase 2 research was directed toward the demonstration for the key technology required for the advanced concept CMG, the controller. The Phase 2 hardware consists of a superconducting solenoid ('source coils') suspended within an array of nonsuperconducting coils ('control coils'), a five-degree-of-freedom positioning sensing system, switching power amplifiers, and a digital control system. The results demonstrated the feasibility of suspending the source coil. Gimballing (pointing the axis of the source coil) was demonstrated over a limited range. With further development of the rotation sensing system, enhanced angular freedom should be possible.

  2. Estimation of crank angle for cycling with a powered prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, B E; Shultz, A; Ledoux, E; Goldfarb, M

    2014-01-01

    In order for a prosthesis to restore power generation during cycling, it must supply torque in a manner that is coordinated with the motion of the bicycle crank. This paper outlines an algorithm for the real time estimation of the angular position of a bicycle crankshaft using only measurements internal to an intelligent knee and ankle prosthesis. The algorithm assumes that the rider/prosthesis/bicycle system can be modeled as a four-bar mechanism. Assuming that a prosthesis can generate two independent angular measurements of the mechanism (in this case the knee angle and the absolute orientation of the shank), Freudenstein's equation can be used to synthesize the mechanism continuously. A recursive least-squares algorithm is implemented to estimate the Freudenstein coefficients, and the resulting link lengths are used to reformulate the equation in terms of input-output relationships mapping both measured angles to the crank angle. Using two independent measurements allows the algorithm to uniquely determine the crank angle from multi-valued functions. In order to validate the algorithm, a bicycle was mounted on a trainer and configured with the prosthesis using an artificial hip joint attached to the seat post. Motion capture was used to monitor the mechanism for forward and backward pedaling and the results are compared to the output of the presented algorithm. Once the parameters have converged, the algorithm is shown to predict the crank angle within 15° of the externally measured value throughout the entire crank cycle during forward rotation.

  3. Determination of refractive index of various materials on Brewster angle

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhonov, Eugene A

    2015-01-01

    Studied experimentally the origin of the non-zero reflection of p-polarized radiation (TM) of Brewster's angle. The results have shown the residual reflected light in the vicinity of Brewster angle occurs due to inaccessibility 100% polarization degree the incident linearly-polarized radiation and installation of the zero azimuthal angle. These factors create the s-component of the radiation reflected from the examined surface indeed. A smooth change of reflected light polarization in the vicinity of Brewster angle in the sequence p-s-p appears due to the changing power proportion of reflected p-, and s-components but not is the result of the atomically thin transitional layer at the border of the material/environment according to Drude model. Metrological aspects of refractive index measurement by Brewster angle are investigated: due to the above-mentioned factors, as well as due to the contribution of the reflected scattered light caused by on residual roughness of the optical surface. Advantages of Brewste...

  4. New real-time heartbeat detection method using the angle of a single-lead electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Hye; Cho, Sung-Pil; Kim, Wonky; Lee, Kyoung-Joung

    2015-04-01

    This study presents a new real-time heartbeat detection algorithm using the geometric angle between two consecutive samples of single-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. The angle was adopted as a new index representing the slope of ECG signal. The method consists of three steps: elimination of high-frequency noise, calculation of the angle of ECG signal, and detection of R-waves using a simple adaptive thresholding technique. The MIT-BIH arrhythmia database, QT database, European ST-T database, T-wave alternans database and synthesized ECG signals were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm and compare with the results of other methods suggested in literature. The proposed method shows a high detection rate-99.95% of the sensitivity, 99.95% of the positive predictivity, and 0.10% of the fail detection rate on the four databases. The result shows that the proposed method can yield better or comparable performance than other literature despite the relatively simple process. The proposed algorithm needs only a single-lead ECG, and involves a simple and quick calculation. Moreover, it does not require post-processing to enhance the detection. Thus, it can be effectively applied to various real-time healthcare and medical devices.

  5. Suggestions for Preview in Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Na

    2015-01-01

    Among the factors which affect the efficiency of learning English, preview stands out as an increasingly significant one in English studying.Some constructive suggestions about the preview are given to apply in the preview of English.

  6. FDA Suggests Limits on Lead in Cosmetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162726.html FDA Suggests Limits on Lead in Cosmetics Agency notes ... the authority to enforce such a limit, the FDA recommended in a draft guidance issued Thursday that ...

  7. Afferent input, efference copy, signal noise, and biases in perception of joint angle during active versus passive elbow movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, V; Krouchev, N I; Kalaska, J F

    2007-09-01

    Psychophysical studies have reported an overestimation of limb position in the direction of movement during the early part of active movements. The main hypothesis tested in this study is that the overestimation results from a process of forward prediction of limb state driven by an efference copy of the outgoing motor command. This hypothesis predicts that position overestimation should decrease or disappear during passive movements, for which there should be no efference copy. Seven subjects were asked to remember and to report the perceived angle of their elbow joint at different times during active and passive movements. They showed a highly velocity-dependent overestimation of the elbow joint angle near the beginning of the movement in both active and passive trials. Toward the end of the movement, subjects showed a relatively velocity-independent underestimation of their elbow angle in all trials. Contrary to the prediction of the efference copy hypothesis, the amplitude and the velocity-dependent slope of the elbow angle overestimation were both greater during the early part of passive movements than active movements. This indicates that psychophysical evidence of early overestimation of arm position on its own is not a sufficient proof of forward prediction based on an efference copy, at least under the conditions of this study. Decreased errors during active movements suggest that an efference copy can improve the accuracy of state estimation during active movements. Error patterns seem to parallel the likely level of sensorimotor noise, suggesting a probabilistic mechanism for position estimation.

  8. Acute angle closure glaucoma following ileostomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Meirelles Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Angle-closure glaucoma can be induced by drugs that may cause pupillary dilatation. We report a case of a patient that developed bilateral angle closure glaucoma after an ileostomy surgery because of systemic atropine injection. This case report highlights the importance of a fast ophthalmologic evaluation in diseases with ocular involvement in order to make accurate diagnoses and appropriate treatments.

  9. Automatic cobb angle determination from radiographic images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardjono, Tri Arief; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; Ooijen, van Peter M.A.; Purnama, Ketut E.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Automatic measurement of Cobb angle in patients with scoliosis. Objective. To test the accuracy of an automatic Cobb angle determination method from frontal radiographical images. Summary of Background Data. Thirty-six frontal radiographical images of patients with scoliosis. Met

  10. Automatic Cobb Angle Determination From Radiographic Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardjono, Tri Arief; Wilkinson, Michael H. F.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Purnama, Ketut E.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Automatic measurement of Cobb angle in patients with scoliosis. Objective. To test the accuracy of an automatic Cobb angle determination method from frontal radiographical images. Summary of Background Data. Thirty-six frontal radiographical images of patients with scoliosis. Methods.

  11. Automatic control of a drop-foot stimulator based on angle measurement using bioimpedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahrstaedt, Holger; Schauer, Thomas; Shalaby, Raafat; Hesse, Stefan; Raisch, Jörg

    2008-08-01

    The topic of this contribution is iterative learning control of a drop-foot stimulator in which a predefined angle profile during the swing phase is realized. Ineffective dorsiflexion is compensated by feedback-controlled stimulation of the muscle tibialis anterior. The ankle joint measurement is based on changes in the bioimpedance (BI) caused by leg movements. A customized four-channel BI measurement system was developed. The suggested control approach and the new measurement method for the joint angle were successfully tested in preliminary experiments with a neurologically intact subject. Reference angle measurements were taken with a marker-based optical system. An almost linear relation between joint angle and BI was found for the angle range applicable during gait. The desired angle trajectory was closely tracked by the iterative learning controller after three gait cycles. The final root mean square tracking error was below 5 degrees.

  12. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses.

  13. Assessment of angle velocity in girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejero Marta

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it has been demonstrated that the peak height velocity (PHV is a predictive factor of progression in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, little is known about the usefulness of angle progression in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to establish a relationship between height and angle velocities, as well as to determine if peak angle velocity (PAV occurs at the same time than PHV. Methods A retrospective study of a cohort of girls with idiopathic scoliotic curves greater than 10°. Data of 132 girls who participated in a previous retrospective study about growth in AIS were used to calculate height and angle velocities. Relationship between height and angle velocities was estimated by the use of a Linear Mixed Model. Results PHV and PAV take place simultaneously 1 year before menarche in progressive curves managed with a brace in AIS. Changes in angle velocity are influenced by changes in height growth velocity, in such a way that as from 6 months post-menarche, height growth velocity in this group of girls estimates curve progression velocity (β-coefficient -0.88, p = 0.04. Conclusion As from 6 months post-menarche, there is an inverse relationship between height velocity and curve progression in the group of AIS girls with progressive curves managed with a brace. Because height velocity is decreasing from 1 year before menarche, this finding corroborates that at the end of puberty, there is still a risk of progression in this group of girls despite bracing. The assessment of both height and angle velocity might be useful in clinical practice at the time of assessing brace effectiveness and how long bracing has to be indicated.

  14. Apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprebon, Ciro; McHale, Glen; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    2016-12-21

    We theoretically investigate the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis of a droplet placed on a liquid infused surface. We show that the apparent contact angle is not uniquely defined by material parameters, but also has a dependence on the relative size between the droplet and its surrounding wetting ridge formed by the infusing liquid. We derive a closed form expression for the contact angle in the limit of vanishing wetting ridge, and compute the correction for small but finite ridge, which corresponds to an effective line tension term. We also predict contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces generated by the pinning of the contact lines by the surface corrugations. Our analytical expressions for both the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis can be interpreted as 'weighted sums' between the contact angles of the infusing liquid relative to the droplet and surrounding gas phases, where the weighting coefficients are given by ratios of the fluid surface tensions.

  15. Apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprebon, Ciro; McHale, Glen; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    We theoretically investigate the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis of a droplet placed on a liquid infused surface. We show that the apparent contact angle is not uniquely defined by material parameters, but also has a strong dependence on the relative size between the droplet and its surrounding wetting ridge formed by the infusing liquid. We derive a closed form expression for the contact angle in the limit of vanishing wetting ridge, and compute the correction for small but finite ridge, which corresponds to an effective line tension term. We also predict contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces generated by the pinning of the contact lines by the surface corrugations. Our analytical expressions for both the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis can be interpreted as `weighted sums' between the contact angles of the infusing liquid relative to the droplet and surrounding gas phases, where the weighting coefficients are given by ratios of the fluid surface tensions.

  16. Apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Semprebon, Ciro; McHale, Glen; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis of a droplet placed on a liquid infused surface. We show that the apparent contact angle is not uniquely defined by material parameters, but also has a strong dependence on the relative size between the droplet and its surrounding wetting ridge formed by the infusing liquid. We derive a closed form expression for the contact angle in the limit of vanishing wetting ridge, and compute the correction for small b...

  17. Contact angle hysteresis of microbead suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmare, Prashant R; Mitra, Sushanta K

    2010-11-16

    Microbead suspensions are often used in microfluidic devices for transporting biomolecules. An experimental investigation on the wettability of microbead suspension is presented in this study. The variation in the surface tension and the equilibrium contact angle with the change in the volume fraction of the microbead is presented here. The surface tension of the microbead suspension is measured with the pendant drop technique, whereas the dynamic contact angle measurements, i.e., advancing and receding contact angles, are measured with the sessile drop technique. An equilibrium contact angle of a suspension with particular volume fraction is determined by computing an average over the measured advancing and receding contact angles. It is observed that the surface tension and the equilibrium contact angle determined from advancing and receding contact angles vary with the magnitude of the microbeads volume fraction in the suspension. A decrease in the surface tension with an increase in the volume fraction of the microbead suspension is observed. The advancement and the recession in contact line for dynamic contact angle measurements are achieved with the motorized dosing mechanism. For microbead suspensions, the advancement of the contact line is faster as compared to the recession of the contact line for the same flow rate. The presence of microbeads assists in the advancement and the recession of the contact line of the suspension. A decrease in the equilibrium contact angles with an increase in the microbead suspension volume fraction is observed. Inclusion of microbeads in the suspension increases the wetting capability for the considered combination of the microbead suspension and substrate. Finally, empirical correlations for the surface tension and the contact angle of the suspension as a function of microbead volume fraction are proposed. Such correlations can readily be used to develop mechanistic models for the capillary transport of microbead

  18. Correlation of non-traumatic neck pain with cervical angle and shoulder retractor power in adult clerical population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Avadhut Godbole

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A forward head posture (or chin poking is perhaps the most common abnormality associated with NP and is commonly defined as the protrusion of the head in the sagittal plane so that the head is placed anterior to the trunk. Forward head posture can occur because of an anterior translation of the head, lower cervical flexion, or both, and it is claimed to be associated with an increase in upper-cervical extension. It is suggested that forward head posture leads to an increase in the compressive forces on the cervical apophyseal joints and posterior part of the vertebra and to changes in connective tissue length and strength (because of stretching of the anterior structures of the neck and shortening of the posterior muscles resulting in pain. The objective of the study was to correlate neck pain with cervical angle and shoulder retractor power in non-traumatic neck pain patients. Methods: 50 clerical workers having non traumatic neck pain were included. Neck pain was measured on VAS, cervical angle was measured using photometric method and shoulder retractor power was measured. Results: VAS showed moderate positive correlation with cervical angles (0.63 and 0.72 and moderate negative correlation with shoulder retractor power (-0.59 and -0.71. A moderate positive correlation of craniocervical angle to VAS seen (0.66 whereas there was negative correlation with shoulder retractors I and II (-0.59 and -0.61 A positive correlation was seen between VAS and craniocervical angle but is moderately negative with shoulder retractors I (Rhomboids and II (Middle trapezius (0.78, 0.04, -0.69 and -0.64. Conclusion: A moderate increase in cranio vertebral and craniocervical angle showed plausible weakness in lower Trapezius and rhomboids among clerks` having Non-traumatic neck pain. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 859-862

  19. Nonlocal hydrodynamic influence on the dynamic contact angle: Slip models versus experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, M.C.T.; Summers, J.L.; Shikhmurzaev, Y. D.; Clarke, A.; Blake, T. D.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments reported by Blake et al. [Phys. Fluids. 11, 1995 (1999)] suggest that the dynamic contact angle formed between the free surface of a liquid and a moving solid boundary at a fixed contact-line speed depends on the flow field/geometry near the moving contact line. The present paper examines quantitatively whether or not it is possible to attribute this effect to bending of the free surface due to hydrodynamic stresses acting upon it and hence interpret the results in terms of the so...

  20. Small angle neutron scattering and small angle X-ray scattering studies of platinum-loaded carbon foams

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P U Sastry; V K Aswal; A G Wagh

    2008-11-01

    The morphology of carbon nanofoam samples comprising platinum nanoparticles dispersed in the matrix was characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results show that the structure of pores of carbon matrix exhibits a mass (pore) fractal nature and the average radius of the platinum particles is about 2.5 nm. The fractal dimension as well as the size distribution parameters of platinum particles varies markedly with the platinum content and annealing temperature. Transmission electron micrographs of the samples corroborate the SANS and SAXS results.

  1. Feasibility of laser trabeculoplasty in angle closure glaucoma: a review of favorable histopathological findings in narrow angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Alexis Galeno; Asrani, Sanjay G; Paula, Jayter Silva

    2017-02-28

    Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) has been indicated as a safe and efficient treatment for primary open-angle glaucoma; however, recent studies have also shown positive results with the use of SLT in some clinical conditions related to primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Despite the potential benefits of SLT in selected cases of PACG, the mechanisms underlying the modifications in the trabecular meshwork tissue of patients with PACG are poorly understood. This narrative review approached both the current, limited knowledge about the histological changes observed in different forms of PACG and the clinical results of SLT treatment for PACG. Favorable outcomes of SLT in patients with PACG, specifically in areas of non-occluded angle, need further substantiation through large controlled clinical trials. A deeper understanding of the biomolecular changes of those areas is essential to improve both laser technical details and the clinical efficacy of SLT therapy.

  2. Scattering-angle based filtering of the waveform inversion gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-11-22

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach to maneuver the complex non-linearity associated with the problem of velocity update. In anisotropic media, the non-linearity becomes far more complex with the potential trade-off between the multiparameter description of the model. A gradient filter helps us in accessing the parts of the gradient that are suitable to combat the potential non-linearity and parameter trade-off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which the low scattering angle of the gradient update is initially muted out in the FWI implementation, in what we may refer to as a scattering angle continuation process. The result is a low wavelength update dominated by the transmission part of the update gradient. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce vertically near-zero wavenumber updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Relaxing the filtering at a later stage in the FWI implementation allows for smaller scattering angles to contribute higher-resolution information to the model. The benefits of the extended domain based filtering of the gradient is not only it\\'s ability in providing low wavenumber gradients guided by the scattering angle, but also in its potential to provide gradients free of unphysical energy that may correspond to unrealistic scattering angles.

  3. Fabrication of zero contact angle ultra-super hydrophilic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jothi Prakash, C G; Clement Raj, C; Prasanth, R

    2017-01-05

    Zero contact angle surfaces have been created with the combined effect of nanostructure and UV illumination. The contact angle of titanium surface has been optimized to 3.25°±1°. with nanotubular structures through electrochemical surface modification. The porosity and surface energy of tubular TiO2 layer play critical role over the surface wettability and the hydrophilicity of the surface. The surface free energy has been enhanced from 23.72mJ/m(2) (bare titanium surface) to 87.11mJ/m(2) (nanotubular surface). Similar surface with TiO2 nanoparticles coating shows superhydrophilicity with contact angle up to 5.63°±0.95°. This implies liquid imbibition and surface curvature play a crucial role in surface hydrophilicity. The contact angle has been further reduced to 0°±0.86° by illuminating the surface with UV radiation. Results shows that by tuning the nanotube morphology, highly porous surfaces can be fabricated to reduce contact angle and enhance wettability. This study provides an insight into the inter-relationship between surface structural factors and ultra-superhydrophilic surfaces which can help to optimize thermal hydraulic and self cleaning surfaces.

  4. The Influence of Dynamic Contact Angle on Wetting Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rame, Enrique; Garoff, Steven

    2005-01-01

    When surface tension forces dominate, and regardless of whether the situation is static or dynamic, the contact angle (the angle the interface between two immiscible fluids makes when it contacts a solid) is the key parameter that determines the shape of a fluid-fluid interface. The static contact angle is easy to measure and implement in models predicting static capillary surface shapes and such associated quantities as pressure drops. By contrast, when the interface moves relative to the solid (as in dynamic wetting processes) the dynamic contact angle is not identified unambiguously because it depends on the geometry of the system Consequently, its determination becomes problematic and measurements in one geometry cannot be applied in another for prediction purposes. However, knowing how to measure and use the dynamic contact angle is crucial to determine such dynamics as a microsystem throughput reliably. In this talk we will present experimental and analytical efforts aimed at resolving modeling issues present in dynamic wetting. We will review experiments that show the inadequacy of the usual hydrodynamic model when a fluid-fluid meniscus moves over a solid surface such as the wall of a small tube or duct. We will then present analytical results that show how to parametrize these problems in a predictive manner. We will illustrate these ideas by showing how to implement the method in numerical fluid mechanical calculations.

  5. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Jun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendicular to the rotating shaft. The reversal measurement method is applied to decrease the effect of inclinometer drifts caused by temperature, to eliminate inclinometer and rotating shaft mechanical error and inclinometer systematic error to attain high measurement accuracy. The uncertainty estimation shows that the accuracy of rotating shaft tilt angle measurement depends mainly on the inclinometer uncertainty and its uncertainty is almost the same as the inclinometer uncertainty in the simulation. The experimental results indicate that measurement time is 4 seconds; the range of rotating shaft tilt angle is 0.002° and its standard deviation is 0.0006° using NS-5/P2 inclinometer, whose precision and resolution are ±0.01° and 0.0005°, respectively.

  6. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Wang, Zhiqian; Shen, Chengwu; Wen, Zhuoman; Liu, Shaojin; Cai, Sheng; Li, Jianrong

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendicular to the rotating shaft. The reversal measurement method is applied to decrease the effect of inclinometer drifts caused by temperature, to eliminate inclinometer and rotating shaft mechanical error and inclinometer systematic error to attain high measurement accuracy. The uncertainty estimation shows that the accuracy of rotating shaft tilt angle measurement depends mainly on the inclinometer uncertainty and its uncertainty is almost the same as the inclinometer uncertainty in the simulation. The experimental results indicate that measurement time is 4 seconds; the range of rotating shaft tilt angle is 0.002° and its standard deviation is 0.0006° using NS-5/P2 inclinometer, whose precision and resolution are ±0.01° and 0.0005°, respectively.

  7. Contact angles of wetting and water stability of soil structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, V. A.; Yaroslavtseva, N. V.; Yashin, M. A.; Frid, A. S.; Lazarev, V. I.; Tyugai, Z. N.; Milanovskiy, E. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    From the soddy-podzolic soils and typical chernozems of different texture and land use, dry 3-1 mm aggregates were isolated and sieved in water. As a result, water-stable aggregates and water-unstable particles composing dry 3-1 mm aggregates were obtained. These preparations were ground, and contact angles of wetting were determined by the static sessile drop method. The angles varied from 11° to 85°. In most cases, the values of the angles for the water-stable aggregates significantly exceeded those for the water-unstable components. In terms of carbon content in structural units, there was no correlation between these parameters. When analyzing the soil varieties separately, the significant positive correlation between the carbon content and contact angle of aggregates was revealed only for the loamy-clayey typical chernozem. Based on the multivariate analysis of variance, the value of contact wetting angle was shown to be determined by the structural units belonging to water-stable or water-unstable components of macroaggregates and by the land use type. In addition, along with these parameters, the texture has an indirect effect.

  8. Analysis of the changing Solar Radiation Angle on Hainan Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Zhiwu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the only tropical provinces in China, Hainan province has advantageous geographical location, and abundant solar energy resources. But because of Local ideas and habits, especially the lack of theoretical research on local solar resources, development and application of solar energy in Hainan is almost blank. In this paper, we studied the variation regularity of sunlight angle on Hainan tropical island, analyzed the revolution and rotation of the earth, and the change rule of sunlight angle caused by the sun’s movement between the tropic of cancer and the tropic of capricorn, deduced the change rule of sunlight angle in the spring equinox, the autumnal equinox, summer solstice and winter solstice day, and got the movement rules of solar elevation angle throughout the year. Theoretic analysis is consistent with field measurement results. These rules are of importance and can effectively guide the local People’s daily life and production, such as the reasonable layout of the buildings, floor distance between different heights of buildings, the direction of the lighting windows of tall buildings, installation angle of photovoltaic panels, and other similar solar energy absorbing and conversion equipment.

  9. Determination of the position angle of stellar spin axes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, A.-L.; Wiedemann, G.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Measuring the stellar position angle provides valuable information on binary stellar formation or stellar spin axis evolution. Aims: We aim to develop a method for determining the absolute stellar position angle using spectro-astrometric analysis of high resolution long-slit spectra. The method has been designed in particular for slowly rotating stars. We investigate its applicability to existing dispersive long-slit spectrographs, identified here by their plate scale, and the size of the resulting stellar sample. Methods: The stellar rotation induces a tilt in the stellar lines whose angle depends on the stellar position angle and the orientation of the slit. We developed a rotation model to calculate and reproduce the effects of stellar rotation on unreduced high resolution stellar spectra. Then we retrieved the tilt amplitude using a spectro-astrometric extraction of the position of the photocentre of the spectrum. Finally we present two methods for analysing the position spectrum using either direct measurement of the tilt or a cross-correlation analysis. Results: For stars with large apparent diameter and using a spectrograph with a small plate scale, we show that it is possible to determine the stellar position angle directly within 10° with a signal-to-noise ratio of the order of 6. Under less favourable conditions, i.e. larger plate scale or smaller stellar diameter, the cross-correlation method yields comparable results. Conclusions: We show that with the currently existing instruments, it is possible to determine the stellar position angle of at least 50 stars precisely, mostly K-type giants with apparent diameter down to 5 milliarcseconds. If we consider errors of around 10° still acceptable, we may include stars with apparent diameter down to 2 mas in the sample that then comprises also some main sequence stars.

  10. THE BEHAVIOR OF THE PITCH ANGLE OF SPIRAL ARMS DEPENDING ON OPTICAL WAVELENGTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-García, Eric E.; Puerari, Ivânio; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Luna, A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); González-Lópezlira, Rosa A. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Campus Morelia, Michoacán, México, C.P. 58089 (Mexico); Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura, E-mail: ericmartinez@inaoep.mx [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, U. P. Adolfo López Mateos, Zacatenco, 07730 México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-09-20

    Based on integral field spectroscopy data from the CALIFA survey, we investigate the possible dependence of spiral arm pitch angle with optical wavelength. For three of the five studied objects, the pitch angle gradually increases at longer wavelengths. This is not the case for two objects where the pitch angle remains constant. This result is confirmed by the analysis of SDSS data. We discuss the possible physical mechanisms to explain this phenomenon, as well as the implications of the results.

  11. Two-Photon-Exchange Correction to Elastic ep Scattering in the Forward Angle Limit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hai-Qing

    2009-01-01

    The two-photon-exchange (TPE) correction to elastic ep ecattering in the forward angle region is discussed based on a simple hadronic model.It is found that the correction is exactly zero in the forward angle limit.This analytical result gives a good explanation of the previous numerical results and shows the clear power behavior of the TPE correction to elastic ep scattering in the forward angle region.

  12. Effect of moisture equilibration time and medium on contact angles of bacterial spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschlbeck, Elisabeth; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Contact angle measurement of microorganisms is often described in literature, either to investigate their hydrophobic characteristic or the adhesion behavior of cells. However, in some key aspects the preparation methods differ. Thus, it is difficult to compare results and to choose a procedure for repetition of measurements. The aim of this paper is to point out some critical points during microorganism film preparation that can alter the resulting contact angles. Depending on the moisturizing medium and equilibration time, contact angles differ significantly.

  13. Evaluation of angle dependence in spectral emissivity of ceramic tiles measured by FT-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, C.; Ogasawara, N.; Yamada, H.; Yamada, S.; Kikuchi, T.

    2015-05-01

    Ceramic tiles are widely used for building walls. False detections are caused in inspections by infrared thermography because of the infrared reflection and angle dependence of emissivity. As the first problem, ceramic tile walls are influenced from backgrounds reflection. As the second problem, in inspection for tall buildings, the camera angles are changed against the height. Thus, to reveal the relation between the emissivity and angles is needed. However, there is very little data about it. It is impossible to decrease the false detection on ceramic tile walls without resolving these problems; background reflection and angle dependence of emissivity. In this study, the angle problem was investigated. The purpose is to establish a revision method in the angle dependence of the emissivity for infrared thermography. To reveal the relation between the emissivity and angles, the spectral emissivity of a ceramic tile at various angles was measured by FT-IR and infrared thermographic instrument. These two experimental results were compared with the emissivity-angle curves from the theoretical formula. In short wavelength range, the two experimental results showed similar behavior, but they did not agree with the theoretical curve. This will be the subject of further study. In long wavelength range, the both experimental results almost obeyed the theoretical curve. This means that it is possible to revise the angle dependence of spectral emissivity, for long wavelength range.

  14. Effect of flow field and geometry on the dynamic contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanov, A V; Shikhmurzaev, Y D

    2007-05-01

    A number of recent experiments suggest that, at a given wetting speed, the dynamic contact angle formed by an advancing liquid-gas interface with a solid substrate depends on the flow field and geometry near the moving contact line. In the present work, this effect is investigated in the framework of an earlier developed theory that was based on the fact that dynamic wetting is, by its very name, a process of formation of a new liquid-solid interface (newly "wetted" solid surface) and hence should be considered not as a singular problem but as a particular case from a general class of flows with forming or/and disappearing interfaces. The results demonstrate that, in the flow configuration of curtain coating, where a liquid sheet ("curtain") impinges onto a moving solid substrate, the actual dynamic contact angle indeed depends not only on the wetting speed and material constants of the contacting media, as in the so-called slip models, but also on the inlet velocity of the curtain, its height, and the angle between the falling curtain and the solid surface. In other words, for the same wetting speed the dynamic contact angle can be varied by manipulating the flow field and geometry near the moving contact line. The obtained results have important experimental implications: given that the dynamic contact angle is determined by the values of the surface tensions at the contact line and hence depends on the distributions of the surface parameters along the interfaces, which can be influenced by the flow field, one can use the overall flow conditions and the contact angle as a macroscopic multiparametric signal-response pair that probes the dynamics of the liquid-solid interface. This approach would allow one to investigate experimentally such properties of the interface as, for example, its equation of state and the rheological properties involved in the interface's response to an external torque, and would help to measure its parameters, such as the coefficient of

  15. Increased Anterior Pelvic Angle Characterizes the Gait of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Hiroaki; Fujisawa, Takashi X.; Yatsuga, Chiho; Kubota, Masafumi; Matsuo, Hideaki; Takiguchi, Shinichiro; Shimada, Seiichiro; Imai, Yuto; Hiratani, Michio; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Tomoda, Akemi

    2017-01-01

    Background Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have motor problems. Previous studies have reported that the characteristic gait in children with ADHD is immature and that subjects demonstrate higher levels of variability in gait characteristics for the lower extremities than healthy controls. However, little is known about body movement during gait in children with ADHD. The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristic body movements associated with ADHD symptoms in children with ADHD. Methods Using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, we compared gait variables in boys with ADHD (n = 19; mean age, 9.58 years) and boys with typical development (TD) (n = 21; mean age, 10.71 years) to determine the specific gait characteristics related to ADHD symptoms. We assessed spatiotemporal gait variables (i.e. speed, stride length, and cadence), and kinematic gait variables (i.e. angle of pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle) to measure body movement when walking at a self-selected pace. Results In comparison with the TD group, the ADHD group demonstrated significantly higher values in cadence (t = 3.33, p = 0.002) and anterior pelvic angle (t = 3.08, p = 0.004). In multiple regression analysis, anterior pelvic angle was associated with the ADHD rating scale hyperactive/impulsive scores (β = 0.62, t = 2.58, p = 0.025), but not other psychiatric symptoms in the ADHD group. Conclusions Our results suggest that anterior pelvic angle represents a specific gait variable related to ADHD symptoms. Our kinematic findings could have potential implications for evaluating the body movement in boys with ADHD. PMID:28099484

  16. The morphology of the sella turcica in velocardiofacial syndrome suggests involvement of a neural crest developmental field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølsted, Kirsten; Boers, Maria; Kjaer, Inger

    2010-06-01

    We described the morphology of the sella turcica in individuals with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and compared the morphology with that of a control group of individuals from the Oslo University Craniofacial Growth Archive. The aim was to measure the cranial base angles in individuals with VCFS and, if possible, to discover the developmental field that may be involved in the condition. The study included 33 patients with VCFS from the Copenhagen Cleft Palate Center, Denmark. The genotype was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The morphology of the sella turcica was described and measurements of the cranial base angles were performed on lateral cephalometric radiographs. The VCFS individuals had larger deviations in the morphology of the sella turcica compared to individuals from the Oslo University Craniofacial Growth archive. The deviations were mostly in the posterior part of the dorsum sellae. Individuals with VCFS had increased cranial base angles. The results of this study combined with the information in the literature on the main defects in VCFS (palatal abnormalities, cardiac anomalies, thymic hypoplasia or aplasia, hypothyroidism, and posterior brain abnormality), suggest involvement of a specific developmental field.

  17. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  18. Physics Courses--Some Suggested Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    To communicate the relevance and excitement of science activity to students, the use of more imaginative, and even openly speculative, case studies in physics courses is suggested. Some useful examples are Magnetic Monopoles, Constants, Black Holes, Antimatter, Zero Mass Particles, Tachyons, and the Bootstrap Hypothesis. (DF)

  19. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  20. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  1. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track is to evaluate approaches for supporting users in searching collections of books who express their information needs both in a query and through example books. The track investigates the complex nature of relevance in book search and the role of traditional...

  2. Suggestions on Training MTI Translators and Interpreters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩

    2013-01-01

    This article gives a brief review of the current state of training MTI translators and interpreters.After analyzing the problems that exist in course of the training,the author,as a student of MTI,puts forth some suggestions to improve the MTI training in colleges and universities to train practical translators and interpreters from the point of view of learning.

  3. BJUT at TREC 2015 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    of Technology, Beijing 100124, China 2. Beijing Key Laboratory of Trusted Computing, Beijing 100124, China 3. National Engineering Laboratory for...CTISCP, Beijing 100124, China ⇤yangzhen@bjut.edu.cn Abstract In this paper we described our efforts for TREC contextual suggestion task. Our goal of this

  4. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  5. Integrating Composition and Literature: Some Practical Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiker, Donald A.

    This paper suggests that it is possible to construct a course that integrates the teaching of composition with the teaching of literature without allowing the secondary goal of heightened literary understanding to overwhelm the primary goal of improved expository writing. It presents a syllabus for a four-week unit on Ernest Hemingway's "The Sun…

  6. Three Suggestions to Improve Medical English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄佳丽

    2012-01-01

    As a kind of ESP,medical English teaching has an important impact on both English teachers and medical students.A good medical English teaching can help the medical students to improve themselves smoothly and easily in the medical area.In this article,three suggestions were provided for the medical English teachers to improve their English teaching in medical field.

  7. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  8. Teaching Software Engineering: Problems and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching Software Engineering is a challenging task. This paper presents some problems encountered during teaching the course of software engineering to computer science and computer engineering students for few offerings. We present problems encountered and which are related to its title and contents and present suggested solutions.

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SIZE OF PONTOCEREBELLAR ANGLE TUMOR AND AUDIOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the size ofpontocerebellar angle tumor and audiology.Methods: Retrospective analysis of accoustically evoked brainstem response (ABR) waveforms and pure tone threshold in 27 subjects with tumor of pontocerebellar angle.Results: ABR wave forms and pure tone threshold were significantly affected statistically by the size of tumors,especially those tumor larger than 3 cm in diameter.Conclusion: The primary symptom of the patient was unilateral hearing loss.Early discovery of the lesion is important and ABR is a sensitive tool for early diagnose of the tumor.

  10. Angle of Arrival Detection with Fifth Order Phase Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Khmou, Youssef

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a fifth order propagator operators are proposed for estimating the Angles Of Arrival (AOA) of narrowband electromagnetic waves impinging on antenna array when its number of sensors is larger than the number of radiating sources. The array response matrix is partitioned into five linearly dependent phases to construct the noise projector using five different propagators from non diagonal blocks of the spectral matrice of the received data; hence, five different estimators are proposed to estimate the angles of the sources. The simulation results proved the performance of the proposed estimators in the presence of white noise comparatively to high resolution eigen based spectra.

  11. Canaloplasty versus Viscocanalostomy in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagdy, Faried Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of canaloplasty versus viscocanalostomy in management of uncontrolled primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) with medication. Methods Canaloplasty surgery was applied for thirty eyes of thirty patients (45–55 years) with a mean age of 48 years (Group A) and viscocanalostomy surgery was applied also for thirty eyes of thirty patients (43–54 years) with a mean age of 46 years (group B). All patients were with uncontrolled primary open angle glaucoma by maximally tolerated medical therapy. Results Intraocular pressure (IOP) in both surgeries was significantly reduced through follow up period (p glaucoma (POAG) with medication.

  12. Flow tilt angles near forest edges - Part 2: Lidar anemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Mann, Jakob; Bingöl, Ferhat

    2010-01-01

    ) a fetch-limited beech forest site taken at 48–175 m a.g.l. (above ground level), (2) a reference site in flat agricultural terrain and (3) a second reference site in complex terrain are presented. The method to derive flow tilt angles and mean vertical velocities from lidar has several advantages compared...... vertical velocity, whereas the error due to flow inhomogeneity on the horizontal mean wind speed is independent of the lidar beam angle. For the presented measurements over forest, it is evaluated that the systematic error due to the inhomogeneity of the flow is less than 0.2°. The results of the vertical...... conical scans were promising, and yielded positive flow angles for a sector where the forest is fetch-limited. However, more data and analysis are needed for a complete evaluation of the lidar technique....

  13. Digital holographic metrology based on multi-angle interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Jiang, Chao; Jia, Shuhai

    2016-09-15

    We propose a multi-angle interferometry method for digital holographic metrology. In an application of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, the hologram corresponding to a different illumination angle is recorded as the illumination angle with a single wavelength tilted at regular intervals by an electronically controlled rotating stage. A Fourier-transform-based axial depth scanning algorithm formed by the reconstructed phase is used to obtain the height point by point over the whole field of view. Hence, the 3D reconstruction can be obtained effectively; even the object has large depth discontinuities resulting from the difficulty of the phase unwrapping. Due to a monochrome source only being used, the method is available for objects with wavelength-dependent reflectivity and those that are free of chromatic aberration caused by the different wavelengths.

  14. The Effect of the Phase Angle between the Forewing and Hindwing on the Aerodynamic Performance of a Dragonfly-Type Ornithopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Takahashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dragonflies achieve agile maneuverability by flapping four wings independently. Different phase angles between the flapping forewing and hindwing have been observed during various flight modes. The aerodynamic performance depends on phase angle control, as exemplified by an artificial flying ornithopter. Here, we present a dragonfly-like ornithopter whose phase angle was designed to vary according to the phase lag between the slider-cranks of the forewing and hindwing. Two microelectromechanical systems (MEMS differential pressure sensors were attached to the center of both forewing and hindwing to evaluate the aerodynamic performance during flapping motions when the phase angle was changed. By varying the phase angle in both the tethered condition and free-flight, the performance of the forewing remained approximately constant, whereas that of the hindwing exhibited obvious variations; the maximum average value was two-fold higher than the minimum. The experimental results suggest that simple phase angle changes enable a flying ornithopter to control flight force balance without complex changes in the wing kinematics.

  15. Entrainment Characteristics for variable-angle plunging liquid jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Suraj; Trujillo, Mario

    2013-11-01

    Simulations based on an algebraic VoF method are used to study the entrainment characteristics of a water jet plunging into a quiescent pool at angles ranging from 10 to 90 deg. with pool. Our previous study of shallow plunging jets (Deshpande et al. 2012) revealed a discernible frequency in the formation of large air cavities. This contrasts the well-documented chaotic entrainment at steeper inclinations, suggesting a different entrainment mechanism exists for shallow angles. Quantitatively, it is found that larger cavities and greater volume of entrained air occur at shallower angles (10, 12 deg.). A precursor to the formation of these large cavities is the presence of a stagnation region in the zone of impingement. Using a local mass and momentum balance, we show that this stagnation region deflects the incoming jet at wide angles producing large air cavities. Entrainment in shallow jets is similar to the initial impact of the jet with a pool, but it occurs periodically. The recurrence is a consequence of jet disruption by traveling waves on the pool. Qualitative analysis, supported with simulations, demonstrates linear scaling of entrainment period with Froude number.

  16. Surface free energy of a solid from contact angle hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibowski, Emil

    2003-04-25

    Nature of contact angle hysteresis is discussed basing on the literature data (Colloids Surf. A 189 (2001) 265) of dynamic advancing and receding contact angles of n-alkanes and n-alcohols on a very smooth surface of 1,1,2,-trichloro-1,2,2,-trifluoroethane (FC-732) film deposited on a silicon plate. The authors considered the liquid absorption and/or retention (swelling) processes responsible for the observed hysteresis. In this paper hysteresis is considered to be due to the liquid film left behind the drop during retreating of its contact line. Using the contact angle hysteresis an approach is suggested for evaluation of the solid surface free energy. Molecular spacing and the film structure are discussed to explain the difference in n-alkanes and n-alcohols behaviour as well as to explain the difference between dispersion free energy gamma(s)(d) and total surface free energy gamma(s)(tot) of FC-732, as determined from the advancing contact angles and the hysteresis, respectively.

  17. Effects of handle angle and work orientation on hammering: I. Wrist motion and hammering performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmarklin, R W; Marras, W S

    1989-08-01

    This research investigated the range of wrist motion characteristics associated with the ergonomic principle of "bending the tool and not the wrist" as applied to the hammer. It is thought that bending the tool reduces angular wrist motion, which has been shown in the literature to be a risk factor in hand/wrist disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome and tenosynovitis. Hammer handles angled at 0 (straight), 20, and 40 deg were investigated in this study. For novices, hammer handles bent at 20 and 40 deg resulted in less total ulnar deviation than straight hammers. However, there was a trade-off in beginning and ending positions of the wrist in that the angled hammers reduced ulnar deviation at the impact position but increased radial deviation at the starting position of a hammer stroke. Handle angle did not significantly affect hammering performance. Wrist motion was affected minimally by hammering orientation, but hammering performance was significantly worse in the wall orientation compared with the bench orientation. This research suggests that for novice users, hammers with handles bent in the range of 20 to 40 deg could possibly decrease the incidence of hand/wrist disorders caused by hammering.

  18. Penetration and impact resistance of PDC cutters inclined at different attack angles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to develop a rotary-percussive bit with diamond-enhanced cutters assisted by high pressure water jets,it is necessary to study the damage mechanism and the penetration properties of PDC cutters subject to different impactload level and rock types. Therefore the impact experiments of the single PDC cutters with different attack angles in fourrocks: black basalt, Missouri red granite, Halston limestone, and a very soft (Roubidoux) sandstone were carried out,and the effects of rake angles of PDC cutters on both the penetration and impact resistance of PDC cutters have been discussed in detail. Test results show that a PDC insert can withstand a very strong impact in compression but is easily damaged by impact shearing, the PDC cutters are more easily damaged by shearing if the attack angles are relatively small, the45 PDC cutters have the least penetration resistance among the cutters tested. Thus it is suggested that the attack anglesof PDC cutters should be larger than 30 for bits which must withstand impact from a hammer

  19. Model benchmarking and reference signals for angled-beam shear wave ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrin, John C.; Hopkins, Deborah; Datuin, Marvin; Warchol, Mark; Warchol, Lyudmila; Forsyth, David S.; Buynak, Charlie; Lindgren, Eric A.

    2017-02-01

    For model benchmark studies, the accuracy of the model is typically evaluated based on the change in response relative to a selected reference signal. The use of a side drilled hole (SDH) in a plate was investigated as a reference signal for angled beam shear wave inspection for aircraft structure inspections of fastener sites. Systematic studies were performed with varying SDH depth and size, and varying the ultrasonic probe frequency, focal depth, and probe height. Increased error was observed with the simulation of angled shear wave beams in the near-field. Even more significant, asymmetry in real probes and the inherent sensitivity of signals in the near-field to subtle test conditions were found to provide a greater challenge with achieving model agreement. To achieve quality model benchmark results for this problem, it is critical to carefully align the probe with the part geometry, to verify symmetry in probe response, and ideally avoid using reference signals from the near-field response. Suggested reference signals for angled beam shear wave inspections include using the `through hole' corner specular reflection signal and the full skip' signal off of the far wall from the side drilled hole.

  20. Bite Angle Effects in Hydroformylation Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    van LEEUWEN

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in rhodium catalyzed hydroformylation using xanthene-based ligands will be reviewed.The calculated natural bite angles of the ligands discussed are in the range 100-123℃ While the general trend is clear-higher 1:b ratios at wider angles, small changes in the bite angle do not exhibit a regular effect on the selectivity of the reaction.The same is true for the rate of CO dissociation;the larger the rate of the CO dissociation, the larger the rate of hydroformylation, but for small changes the effects do not comply with this rule.

  1. Exploring Dissections of Rectangles into Right-Angled Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In this article we highlight how a simple classroom activity associated with the dissection of rectangles into right-angled triangles can lead on to a number of interesting explorations for students following a post-16 mathematics course. Several results connected with this construction are obtained, and some of the educational benefits of…

  2. Intermittent acute angle closure glaucoma and chronic angle closure following topiramate use with plateau iris configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajjoub LZ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lamise Z Rajjoub, Nisha Chadha, David A Belyea Department of Ophthalmology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: This is a case report describing recurrent intermittent acute angle closure episodes in the setting of topiramate use in a female suffering from migraines. Despite laser peripheral iridotomy placement for the pupillary block component, and the discontinuation of topiramate, the acute angle closure did not resolve in the left eye with chronic angle closure and the patient required urgent trabeculectomy. The right eye responded to laser peripheral iridotomy immediately and further improved after the cessation of topiramate. While secondary angle closure glaucoma due to topiramate use has been widely reported, its effects in patients with underlying primary angle closure glaucoma have not been discussed. Our report highlights the importance of recognizing the often multifactorial etiology of angle closure glaucoma to help guide clinical management. Keywords: angle closure glaucoma, plateau iris, topiramate, secondary glaucoma, drug-induced glaucoma

  3. CKM angle $\\gamma$ from LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Smith, Jackson

    2015-01-01

    Results of the latest $\\gamma$ combination from LHCb are presented, along with the six LHCb measurements used as inputs. In addition, the anticipated precision attainable for measuring $\\gamma$ after the LHCb Upgrade is outlined

  4. Simple nonlinear models suggest variable star universality

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, John F; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G; Ditto, William L

    2015-01-01

    Dramatically improved data from observatories like the CoRoT and Kepler spacecraft have recently facilitated nonlinear time series analysis and phenomenological modeling of variable stars, including the search for strange (aka fractal) or chaotic dynamics. We recently argued [Lindner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 054101] that the Kepler data includes "golden" stars, whose luminosities vary quasiperiodically with two frequencies nearly in the golden ratio, and whose secondary frequencies exhibit power-law scaling with exponent near -1.5, suggesting strange nonchaotic dynamics and singular spectra. Here we use a series of phenomenological models to make plausible the connection between golden stars and fractal spectra. We thereby suggest that at least some features of variable star dynamics reflect universal nonlinear phenomena common to even simple systems.

  5. Suggestions for Improving Translation Teaching Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋蕾

    2016-01-01

    In the traditional translation teaching mode, the teacher is the main body of classroom, the teachers often explain too much and give few opportunities to students to practice. Even in terms of observation and evaluation of translation, it is also basically teacher-centered, so there is rare opportunity and time for students to debate and to express their own views. So the author gives some suggestions on solving this problem.

  6. Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy: a suggestive electroclinical pattern

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To determine if there is an electroencephalographic pattern suggestive of pyridoxine dependent epilepsy that could be used to improve the chances of early diagnosis.
METHODS—A retrospective study was made of all the clinical records and electroencephalograms of neonates identified with pyridoxine dependent seizures between 1983 and 1994, at this hospital. Neonates whose seizures began after more than 28 days of life were excluded; in all, five patients from four fami...

  7. Effect of phacoemulsification on drainage angle status in angle closure eyes with or without extensive peripheral anterior synechiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Golshan; Moghimi, Sasan; Eslami, Yadollah; Fakhraie, Ghasem; Zarei, Reza; Lin, Shan

    2013-01-21

    Purpose. To evaluate the anatomic effects of phacoemulsification on drainage angle status in primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Methods. A total of 62 eyes of 58 patients underwent cataract surgery in Farabi Rye Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Patients were examined postoperatively on day 1, week 1, and week 6. Indentation gonioscopy and AS-OCT were performed preoperatively and at 6 weeks after surgery. Main outcome measures were angle and anterior segment parameters by AS-OCT and amount of peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) by gonioscopy. Thirty-five eyes had PAS =180 degrees (group 1) and 27 eyes had >180-degree synechial closure (group 2). Results. Mean age of the patients was 64.3±9.0 years. The mean extent of PAS was significantly reduced from 45.9 to 32.2 degrees (p180 degrees.

  8. Intrarater and Interrater Reliability of the Flexicurve Index, Flexicurve Angle, and Manual Inclinometer for the Measurement of Thoracic Kyphosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Barrett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to describe the interrater and intrarater reliability of the flexicurve index, flexicurve angle, and manual inclinometer in swimmers. A secondary objective was to determine the level of agreement between the inclinometer angle and the flexicurve angle and to provide an equation to approximate one angle from the other. Methods. Thirty swimmers participated. Thoracic kyphosis was measured using the flexicurve and the manual inclinometer. Intraclass correlation coefficient, 95% confidence interval, and standard error of measurement were computed. Results. The flexicurve angle and index showed excellent intrarater (ICC = 0.94 and good interrater (ICC = 0.86 reliability. The inclinometer demonstrated excellent intrarater (ICC = 0.92 and interrater (ICC = 0.90 reliability. The flexicurve angle was systematically smaller and correlated poorly with the inclinometer angle (R2=0.384. The following equations can be used for approximate conversions: flexicurve angle = (0.275 × inclinometer angle + 8.478; inclinometer angle = (1.396 × flexicurve angle + 8.694. Conclusion. The inclinometer and flexicurve are both reliable instruments for thoracic kyphosis measurement in swimmers. Although the flexicurve and inclinometer angles are not directly comparable, the approximate conversion factors provided will permit translation of flexicurve angle to inclinometer angle and vice versa.

  9. Small angle diffraction imaging for disease diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, S.J. [Department of Materials and Medical Sciences, Cranfield University, Shrivenham, Swindon, Wiltshire SN6 8LA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: s.j.wilkinson@dl.ac.uk; Rogers, K.D. [Department of Materials and Medical Sciences, Cranfield University, Shrivenham, Swindon, Wiltshire SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Hall, C.J. [Darebury Research Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lewis, R.A. [Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Round, A. [Darebury Research Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Pinder, S.E. [Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Boggis, C. [Withington Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Hufton, A. [Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-11

    Current work in small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) as a means of determining the disease state of tissue biopsy samples is showing encouraging results. Statistical analyses of SAXS patterns have identified components of the data which correlate well with the presence or absence of cancer in breast tissue. A study has now been started which attempts to create images of macroscopic scale samples using this information. One way of building up a two-dimensional map of this SAXS information on such a sample would be to raster scan a small X-ray beam. However, the time taken to perform such a scan is likely to make this technique impractical, especially if it would be considered for use in a clinical environment. Some initial work using a wide, thin X-ray beam, has shown that it is possible to deconvolve a model SAXS pattern from the smeared out SAXS pattern and is verified using slightly modified methods. Three distinct tissue types were successfully distinguished and imaged from a single scan of the beam. We are continuing this work by building a more sophisticated phantom and using a higher quality SAXS facility on the SRS in the UK. The results of the first steps towards disease specific imaging are presented. The possibility of making tomographic SAXS images is also being pursued. Techniques for data analysis on SAXS from blocks of tissues are discussed.

  10. Small angle diffraction imaging for disease diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, S. J.; Rogers, K. D.; Hall, C. J.; Lewis, R. A.; Round, A.; Pinder, S. E.; Boggis, C.; Hufton, A.

    2005-08-01

    Current work in small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) as a means of determining the disease state of tissue biopsy samples is showing encouraging results. Statistical analyses of SAXS patterns have identified components of the data which correlate well with the presence or absence of cancer in breast tissue. A study has now been started which attempts to create images of macroscopic scale samples using this information. One way of building up a two-dimensional map of this SAXS information on such a sample would be to raster scan a small X-ray beam. However, the time taken to perform such a scan is likely to make this technique impractical, especially if it would be considered for use in a clinical environment. Some initial work using a wide, thin X-ray beam, has shown that it is possible to deconvolve a model SAXS pattern from the smeared out SAXS pattern and is verified using slightly modified methods. Three distinct tissue types were successfully distinguished and imaged from a single scan of the beam. We are continuing this work by building a more sophisticated phantom and using a higher quality SAXS facility on the SRS in the UK. The results of the first steps towards disease specific imaging are presented. The possibility of making tomographic SAXS images is also being pursued. Techniques for data analysis on SAXS from blocks of tissues are discussed.

  11. Rubber hand illusion affects joint angle perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin V Butz

    Full Text Available The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI is a well-established experimental paradigm. It has been shown that the RHI can affect hand location estimates, arm and hand motion towards goals, the subjective visual appearance of the own hand, and the feeling of body ownership. Several studies also indicate that the peri-hand space is partially remapped around the rubber hand. Nonetheless, the question remains if and to what extent the RHI can affect the perception of other body parts. In this study we ask if the RHI can alter the perception of the elbow joint. Participants had to adjust an angular representation on a screen according to their proprioceptive perception of their own elbow joint angle. The results show that the RHI does indeed alter the elbow joint estimation, increasing the agreement with the position and orientation of the artificial hand. Thus, the results show that the brain does not only adjust the perception of the hand in body-relative space, but it also modifies the perception of other body parts. In conclusion, we propose that the brain continuously strives to maintain a consistent internal body image and that this image can be influenced by the available sensory information sources, which are mediated and mapped onto each other by means of a postural, kinematic body model.

  12. Nanofluid surface wettability through asymptotic contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei, Saeid; Wen, Dongsheng; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian

    2011-03-15

    This investigation introduces the asymptotic contact angle as a criterion to quantify the surface wettability of nanofluids and determines the variation of solid surface tensions with nanofluid concentration and nanoparticle size. The asymptotic contact angle, which is only a function of gas-liquid-solid physical properties, is independent of droplet size for ideal surfaces and can be obtained by equating the normal component of interfacial force on an axisymmetric droplet to that of a spherical droplet. The technique is illustrated for a series of bismuth telluride nanofluids where the variation of surface wettability is measured and evaluated by asymptotic contact angles as a function of nanoparticle size, concentration, and substrate material. It is found that the variation of nanofluid concentration, nanoparticle size, and substrate modifies both the gas-liquid and solid surface tensions, which consequently affects the force balance at the triple line, the contact angle, and surface wettability.

  13. Modification of Classical SPM for Slightly Rough Surface Scattering with Low Grazing Angle Incidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Based on the impedance/admittance rough boundaries, the reflection coefficients and the scattering cross section with low grazing angle incidence are obtained for both VV and HH polarizations. The error of the classical perturbation method at grazing angle is overcome for the vertical polarization at a rough Neumann boundary of infinite extent. The derivation of the formulae and the numerical results show that the backscattering cross section depends on the grazing angle to the fourth power for both Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions with low grazing angle incidence. Our results can reduce to that of the classical small perturbation method by neglecting the Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions.

  14. Effect of granular size on the angle of repose in the chute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Avalanche in the chute has been studied to examine how the sizes of granules affect the angle of repose θr when the width of the chute is fixed. The results show that the angle of repose in the chute has exponential decay with λ,which is the reciprocal of granular diameter d. The fluctuation of the angle of repose is also studied during the chute being tilted,and the results indicate that the fluctuation of the angle of repose increases with the increase of granular diameter d.

  15. Effect of granular size on the angle of repose in the chute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ying; ZHANG GuoQin

    2009-01-01

    Avalanche in the chute has been studied to examine how the sizes of granules affect the angle of re-poseθr when the width of the chute is fixed. The results show that the angle of repose in the chute has exponential decay with λ, which is the reciprocal of granular diameter d. The fluctuation of the angle of repose is also studied during the chute being tilted, and the results indicate that the fluctuation of the angle of repose increases with the increase of granular diameter d.

  16. Contact Angle Adjustment in Equation of States Based Pseudo-Potential Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Anjie; Uddin, Rizwan

    2015-01-01

    Single component pseudo-potential lattice Boltzmann model has been widely applied in multiphase simulation due to its simplicity and stability. In many research, it has been claimed that this model can be stable for density ratios larger than 1000, however, the application of the model is still limited to small density ratios when the contact angle is considered. The reason is that the original contact angle adjustment method influences the stability of the model. Moreover, simulation results in present work show that, by applying the contact angle adjustment method, the density distribution near the wall is artificially changed, and the contact angle is dependent on the surface tension. Hence, it is very inconvenient to apply this method with a fixed contact angle, and the accuracy of the model cannot be guaranteed. To solve these problems, a contact angle adjustment method based on the geometry analysis is proposed and numerically compared with the original method. Simulation results show that, with the new...

  17. Automatic learning-based beam angle selection for thoracic IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amit, Guy; Marshall, Andrea [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Purdie, Thomas G., E-mail: tom.purdie@rmp.uhn.ca; Jaffray, David A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2 (Canada); Techna Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Levinshtein, Alex [Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Hope, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Patricia [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2 (Canada); Pekar, Vladimir [Philips Healthcare, Markham, Ontario L6C 2S3 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The treatment of thoracic cancer using external beam radiation requires an optimal selection of the radiation beam directions to ensure effective coverage of the target volume and to avoid unnecessary treatment of normal healthy tissues. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning is a lengthy process, which requires the planner to iterate between choosing beam angles, specifying dose–volume objectives and executing IMRT optimization. In thorax treatment planning, where there are no class solutions for beam placement, beam angle selection is performed manually, based on the planner’s clinical experience. The purpose of this work is to propose and study a computationally efficient framework that utilizes machine learning to automatically select treatment beam angles. Such a framework may be helpful for reducing the overall planning workload. Methods: The authors introduce an automated beam selection method, based on learning the relationships between beam angles and anatomical features. Using a large set of clinically approved IMRT plans, a random forest regression algorithm is trained to map a multitude of anatomical features into an individual beam score. An optimization scheme is then built to select and adjust the beam angles, considering the learned interbeam dependencies. The validity and quality of the automatically selected beams evaluated using the manually selected beams from the corresponding clinical plans as the ground truth. Results: The analysis included 149 clinically approved thoracic IMRT plans. For a randomly selected test subset of 27 plans, IMRT plans were generated using automatically selected beams and compared to the clinical plans. The comparison of the predicted and the clinical beam angles demonstrated a good average correspondence between the two (angular distance 16.8° ± 10°, correlation 0.75 ± 0.2). The dose distributions of the semiautomatic and clinical plans were equivalent in terms of primary target volume

  18. Magnetic Scope Angles for Axions

    CERN Multimedia

    Seife, Charles

    2005-01-01

    After 2 years of staring at the sun, an unconventional "telescope" made from a leftover magnet has returned its first results. Although it hasn't yet found the quarry it was designed to spot - a particle that might or might not exist physicists say the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is beginning to glimpse uncharted territory

  19. View angle dependence of cloud optical thicknesses retrieved by MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas

    2005-01-01

    This study examines whether cloud inhomogeneity influences the view angle dependence of MODIS cloud optical thickness (tau) retrieval results. The degree of cloud inhomogeneity is characterized through the local gradient in 11 microns brightness temperature. The analysis of liquid phase clouds in a one year long global dataset of Collection 4 MODIS data reveals that while optical thickness retrievals give remarkably consistent results for all view directions if clouds are homogeneous, they give much higher tau-values for oblique views than for overhead views if clouds are inhomogeneous and the sun is fairly oblique. For solar zenith angles larger than 55deg, the mean optical thickness retrieved for the most inhomogeneous third of cloudy pixels is more than 30% higher for oblique views than for overhead views. After considering a variety of possible scenarios, the paper concludes that the most likely reason for the increase lies in three-dimensional radiative interactions that are not considered in current, one-dimensional retrieval algorithms. Namely, the radiative effect of cloud sides viewed at oblique angles seems to contribute most to the enhanced tau-values. The results presented here will help understand cloud retrieval uncertainties related to cloud inhomogeneity. They complement the uncertainty estimates that will start accompanying MODIS cloud products in Collection 5 and may eventually help correct for the observed view angle dependent biases.

  20. 高校人事管理问题探析及相应建议--基于人事争议的问卷调查结果%Investigation and Suggestions of Problems in the Personnel Administration in Universities---conclusions based on the results of questionnaires into personnel controversies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施节敏

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing need of solving the problems in the human resources of institutes of higher education. For building up a modern institution and constitution in universities legally and democratically, we must be face the problems seriously. Through questionnaires that cover more than 60 institutions across the country and our careful analysis and summary, we found that the main problems are the over-expanding administration, a lack of respect for de-mocracy, defective management system, insufficient administration and imbalance of teaching, researching and morality. Based on these, we provide 6 suggestions to diminish disputes on human resources so as to build a harmonious cam-pus.%高校人事管理存在的问题,是高校建立现代大学制度、制定大学章程,实现高校依法治校、民主办学必须面对的问题。通过对全国60所高校的问卷调查的分析总结,得出结论:高校人事管理中存在的主要问题是高校行政权力泛化、民主权得不到充分尊重,高校的制度不完善、管理不到位以及没有摆正“师德、教学、科研”三者之间的关系。由此提出了避免和减少高校人事争议的六条建议。

  1. Contact angle hysteresis on superhydrophobic stripes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubov, Alexander L; Mourran, Ahmed; Möller, Martin; Vinogradova, Olga I

    2014-08-21

    We study experimentally and discuss quantitatively the contact angle hysteresis on striped superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of a solid fraction, ϕS. It is shown that the receding regime is determined by a longitudinal sliding motion of the deformed contact line. Despite an anisotropy of the texture the receding contact angle remains isotropic, i.e., is practically the same in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The cosine of the receding angle grows nonlinearly with ϕS. To interpret this we develop a theoretical model, which shows that the value of the receding angle depends both on weak defects at smooth solid areas and on the strong defects due to the elastic energy of the deformed contact line, which scales as ϕS(2)lnϕS. The advancing contact angle was found to be anisotropic, except in a dilute regime, and its value is shown to be determined by the rolling motion of the drop. The cosine of the longitudinal advancing angle depends linearly on ϕS, but a satisfactory fit to the data can only be provided if we generalize the Cassie equation to account for weak defects. The cosine of the transverse advancing angle is much smaller and is maximized at ϕS ≃ 0.5. An explanation of its value can be obtained if we invoke an additional energy due to strong defects in this direction, which is shown to be caused by the adhesion of the drop on solid sectors and is proportional to ϕS(2). Finally, the contact angle hysteresis is found to be quite large and generally anisotropic, but it becomes isotropic when ϕS ≤ 0.2.

  2. A microscopic view on contact angle selection

    OpenAIRE

    Snoeijer, Jacco H.; Andreotti, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the equilibrium condition for a liquid that partially wets a solid on the level of intermolecular forces. Using a mean field continuum description, we generalize the capillary pressure from variation of the free energy and show at what length scale the equilibrium contact angle is selected. After recovering Young's law for homogeneous substrates, it is shown how hysteresis of the contact angle can be incorporated in a self-consistent fashion. In all cases the liquid-vapor interface...

  3. Angle of repose and segregation in cohesive granular matter*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrolli, Arshad

    2002-03-01

    We study the effect of fluids on the angle of repose and the segregation of granular matter in two experimental systems. In the regime where the volume fraction of the introduced fluid (liquid) is small, liquid bridges between particles are formed thus giving rise to cohesive forces between particles. In the first series of experiments, we pour the mixture of granular matter and liquid from a reservoir into a silo and imaging the resulting pile through the transparent glass side walls [1]. The angle of repose is observed to increase sharply with the volume fraction of the fluid and then saturate at a value that depends on the size of the particles. The viscosity of the fluid is observed to have a significant effect on the angle of repose and the extent of segregation. Similar phenomena is observed in both the angle of repose and the maximum angle of stability, when the granular-fluid mixture is placed inside a horizontal cylindrical container and rotated. In case of bidisperse particles, segregation is observed to decrease and finally saturate depending on the size ratio of the particles and the viscosity of the fluid. Preferential clumping of small particles causes layering to occur when the size of the clumps of small particles exceeds the size of large particles. We also report experiments in which the particles are poured into a silo filled with a fluid to understand the limit of maximum volume fraction of the fluid. In this case the angle of repose is observed to be unchanged from the dry case. However, the segregation is observed to decrease with an increase in the viscosity of the fluid. * Work in collaboration with Azadeh Samadani, and funded by NSF under Grant No. DMR-9983659. [1]: A. Samadani and A. Kudrolli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5102 (2000); Phys. Rev. E 64, 051301 (2001).

  4. Dihedral angle of carbonatite melts in mantle residue near the upper mantle and transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S. K.; Rohrbach, A.; Schmidt, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonate melts are thought to be ideal metasomatic agents in the deep upper mantle (Green & Wallace, 1988) and these melts are low in viscosities (10-1-10-3 Pa·s) compared to primitive basalt (101-102 Pa·s), furthermore the ability to form an interconnected grain-edge melt network at low melt fractions (3 GPa (Dasgupta et al. 2006, Ghosh et al., 2009), dissolve a number of geochemically incompatible elements much better than silicate melts (Blundy and Dalton, 2000). Previous studies of carbonate melt dihedral angles in olivine-dominated matrices yielded 25-30oat 1-3 GPa, relatively independent of melt composition (Watson et al., 1990) and temperature (Hunter and McKenzie, 1989). Dihedral angles of carbonate melts in contact with deep mantle silicate phases (e.g. garnet, wadsleyite, and ringwoodite) which constitute more than 70 % of the deep upper mantle and transition zone have not been studied yet. We have performed multi-anvil experiments on carbonate-bearing peridotites with 5.0 wt% CO2 from 13.5 to 20 GPa 1550 oC to investigate the dihedral angle of magnesio-carbonatite melts in equilibrium with garnet, olivine (and its high-pressure polymorphs), and clinoenstatite. The dihedral angle of carbonate melts in the deep upper mantle and transition zone is ~30° for majorite garnet and olivine (and its polymorphs) dominated matrices. It does not change with increasing pressure in the range 13.5-20 GPa. Our results suggest that very low melt fractions of carbonatite melt forming in the deep upper mantle and transition zone are interconnected at melt fractions less than 0.01. Consistent with geophysical observations, this could possibly explain low velocity regions in the deep mantle and transition zone.

  5. The EMG activity and mechanics of the running jump as a function of takeoff angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakihana, W; Suzuki, S

    2001-10-01

    To characterize the electromyographic (EMG) activity, ground reaction forces, and kinematics were used in the running jump with different takeoff angles. Two male long jumpers volunteered to perform running jumps at different approach speeds by varying the number of steps (from 3 to 9) in the run-up. Subject TM achieved a greater vertical velocity of the center of gravity (CG) at takeoff for all approach distances. This jumping strategy was associated with greater backward trunk lean at touchdown and takeoff, a lesser range of motion for the thigh during the support phase, more extended knee and ankle angles at touchdown, and a more flexed knee angle at takeoff. Accompanying these differences in kinematics, TM experienced greater braking impulses and lesser propulsion impulses for the forward-backward component of the ground reaction force. Furthermore, TM activated mainly the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, lateral gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior, while if rarely activated the biceps femoris from just before contact to roughly the first two-thirds of the support phase. These results indicate that TM used a greater takeoff angle in the running jump because he enabled and sustained a greater blocking effect via the coordination patterns of the muscles relative to the hip, knee, and ankle joints. These findings also suggest that the muscle activities recorded in the present experiment are reflected in kinematics and kinetics. Further, the possible influence of these muscle activities on joint movements in the takeoff leg, and their effect on the vertical and/or horizontal velocity of the jump are discussed.

  6. Suggestions about Taxi Service in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2006-01-01

    @@ No matter what kinds1 of work we are engaged in, we usually play the role of the customers2 in life. Maybe we offer service to our clients, but at the same time, we get service from other people. So, to the society3, it is very important of the level of the service occupations4. In this essay, I want to talk about the service of the taxi in Beijing5. Because there are some problems in this service occupation, I will give three suggestions to these problems6.

  7. Winding angles of long lattice walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Yosi; Kantor, Yacov

    2016-07-01

    We study the winding angles of random and self-avoiding walks (SAWs) on square and cubic lattices with number of steps N ranging up to 107. We show that the mean square winding angle of random walks converges to the theoretical form when N → ∞. For self-avoiding walks on the square lattice, we show that the ratio /2 converges slowly to the Gaussian value 3. For self-avoiding walks on the cubic lattice, we find that the ratio /2 exhibits non-monotonic dependence on N and reaches a maximum of 3.73(1) for N ≈ 104. We show that to a good approximation, the square winding angle of a self-avoiding walk on the cubic lattice can be obtained from the summation of the square change in the winding angles of lnN independent segments of the walk, where the ith segment contains 2i steps. We find that the square winding angle of the ith segment increases approximately as i0.5, which leads to an increase of the total square winding angle proportional to (lnN)1.5.

  8. LHCb Measurement of the CKM angle $\\gamma$ at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Ali, S

    2014-01-01

    In this poster we present the latest result by the LHCb collaboration in determining the CKM angle $\\gamma$ ($(67.1 \\pm 12)^{\\circ}$). The result is determined by combining several $B \\to Dh$ analyses. Latest results from the decay time dependent $B_{s} \\to D_{s}K$ analysis is also reported, along with a few other decay channels interesting for determination of $\\gamma$ in the future.

  9. Hanging angles of two electrostatically repelling pith balls of different masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuc G.; Mungan, Carl E.

    2011-09-01

    An analytic solution can be derived for the angles of two mutually repelling charged pith balls of unequal mass hanging from strings from a common point of attachment. Just as in the equal-mass case, a cubic equation is found for the square of the sine of either angle, and an approximation can be used to avoid Cardano's formula for small angles. These results extend a standard problem treated in introductory undergraduate courses in electricity and magnetism.

  10. Study on Surface Wettability of Bamboo by Measurement of Contact Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the wettability of the processed bamboo surfaces. The important surface energy and acid-base properties for processed bamboo have been estimated by using contact angle techniques. According to the results, the change of ages has a positive relation with the contact angles of water on processed bamboo. The contact angles were increased after the bamboo surface treated in high temperature condition and preservation. The different treat methods have a stro...

  11. Three-dimensional finger joint angles by hand posture and object properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Sun; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify three-dimensional finger joint angles for various hand postures and object properties. Finger joint angles were measured using a VICON system for 10 participants while they pinched objects with two, three, four and five fingers and grasped them with five fingers. The objects were cylinders and square pillars with diameters of 2, 4, 6 and 8 cm and weights of 400, 800, 1400 and 1800 g. Hand posture and object size more significantly affected the joint flexion angles than did object shape and weight. Object shape affected only the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint angle of the index finger and the flexion angle of the MCP joint of the little finger. Larger flexion angles resulted when the hand posture was grasping with five fingers. The joint angle increased linearly as the object size decreased. This report provides fundamental information about the specific joint angles of the thumb and fingers. Practitioner Summary: Three-dimensional finger joint angles are of special interest in ergonomics because of their importance in handheld devices and musculoskeletal hand disorders. In this study, the finger joint angles corresponding to various hand postures and objects with different properties were determined.

  12. Reflectivity Model of Low Grazing Angle Radar Sea Clutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Sheng; CHEN Jie; CAI Tao; TU Xu-yan

    2005-01-01

    The commonly used reflectivity models of radar sea clutter are summarized. Among these models, the adjusted Barton model and the adjusted Morchin model are compared. From the analysis result, the γ-p reflectivity model is presented for low grazing angle radar sea clutter by the adjustment of the original Barton reflectivity model. The model takes into account radar frequency, grazing angle, sea condition, and polarization property. The influences of these factors on the proposed model are analyzed. The model absorbs the merits from commonly used reflectivity models for sea clutter. It introduces several researchers' opinions, and extends them. And it accounts for the reflectivity at arbitrary radar frequency from VHF to X-band, arbitrary low grazing angle, arbitrary sea condition and different polarization property. One of the main results is the proposed γ-p reflectivity model can reflect the influence of polarization on sea clutter reflectivity to some extent. The proposed γ-p reflectivity model of low-angle radar-sea clutter is validated by comparing the simulated and statistically experimental data.

  13. Estimation of Carrying Angle Based on CT Images in Preoperative Surgical Planning for Cubitus Deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim,Eugene

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, the carrying angle of the elbow is measured using simple two-dimensional radiography or goniometry, which has questionable reliability. This study proposes a novel method for estimating carrying angles using computed tomography that can enhance the reliability of the angle measurement. Data of CT scans from 25 elbow joints were processed to build segmented three-dimensional models. The cross-sectional centerlines of the ulna and the humerus were traced from the 3D models, and the angle between 2 vectors formed from the centerlines of the humerus and the ulna was defined as the "three-dimensional carrying angle." These angles were compared with those measured by simple radiograph. Two cases of angular deformity were underwent surgery based on this preoperative surgical planning, and the postoperative 3D carrying angles were evaluated using the proposed method. The mean value of the calculated three-dimensional carrying angle was 20.7 degrees +/-3.61, while it was 16.3 degrees +/-3.21 based on simple radiography without statistical difference. Based on the 3D carrying angle estimations, 2 surgical cases of cubitus deformities were planned by comparison with the normal contra-lateral elbow. Postoperative angle estimations confirmed that the corrected angles were nearly identical to the planned angles for both cases. The results of this study showed that the carrying angle can be accurately estimated using three-dimensional CT and that the proposed method is useful in evaluating deformities of the elbow with high reliability.

  14. Accurate Compensation of Attitude Angle Error in a Dual-Axis Rotation Inertial Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Yang, Gongliu; Zou, Rui; Wang, Jing; Li, Jing

    2017-01-01

    In the dual-axis rotation inertial navigation system (INS), besides the gyro error, accelerometer error, rolling misalignment angle error, and the gimbal angle error, the shaft swing angle and the axis non-orthogonal angle also affect the attitude accuracy. Through the analysis of the structure, we can see that the shaft swing angle and axis non-orthogonal angle will produce coning errors which cause the fluctuation of the attitude. According to the analysis of the rotation vector, it can be seen that the coning error will generate additional drift velocity along the rotating shaft, which can reduce the navigation precision of the system. In this paper, based on the establishment of the modulation average frame, the vector projection is carried out, and then the attitude conversion matrix and the attitude error matrix mainly including the shaft swing angle and axis non-orthogonal are obtained. Because the attitude angles are given under the static condition, the shaft swing angle and the axis non-orthogonal angle are estimated by the static Kalman filter (KF). This kind of KF method has been widely recognized as the standard optimal estimation tool for estimating the parameters such as coning angles (α1 , α2), initial phase angles (ϕ1,ϕ2), and the non-perpendicular angle (η). In order to carry out the system level verification, a dual axis rotation INS is designed. Through simulation and experiments, the results show that the amplitudes of the attitude angles’ variation are reduced by about 20%–30% when the shaft rotates. The attitude error equation is reasonably simplified and the calibration method is accurate enough. The attitude accuracy is further improved. PMID:28304354

  15. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

  16. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhegger, Bruno; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Elias Junior, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Araujo Neto, César Augusto; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation. PMID:26811555

  17. Impact Angle Control of Interplanetary Shock Geoeffectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, D M

    2015-01-01

    We use OpenGGCM global MHD simulations to study the nightside magnetospheric, magnetotail, and ionospheric responses to interplanetary (IP) fa st forward shocks. Three cases are presented in this study: two inclined oblique shocks, here after IOS-1 and IOS-2, where the latter has a Mach number twice stronger than the former. Both shocks have impact angles of 30$^o$ in relation to the Sun-Earth line. Lastly, we choose a frontal perpendicular shock, FPS, whose shock normal is along the Sun-Earth line, with the same Mach number as IOS-1. We find that, in the IOS-1 case, due to the north-south asymmetry, the magnetotail is deflected southward, leading to a mild compression. The geomagnetic activity observed in the nightside ionosphere is then weak. On the other hand, in the head-on case, the FPS compresses the magnetotail from both sides symmetrically. This compression triggers a substorm allowing a larger amount of stored energy in the magnetotail to be released to the nightside ionosphere, resulting in stronger...

  18. Segment adaptive gradient angle interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Christine M; Frakes, David H

    2013-08-01

    We introduce a new edge-directed interpolator based on locally defined, straight line approximations of image isophotes. Spatial derivatives of image intensity are used to describe the principal behavior of pixel-intersecting isophotes in terms of their slopes. The slopes are determined by inverting a tridiagonal matrix and are forced to vary linearly from pixel-to-pixel within segments. Image resizing is performed by interpolating along the approximated isophotes. The proposed method can accommodate arbitrary scaling factors, provides state-of-the-art results in terms of PSNR as well as other quantitative visual quality metrics, and has the advantage of reduced computational complexity that is directly proportional to the number of pixels.

  19. 六种临床诊断酶学测定参考方法的应用及国际比对结果分析%Application of reference methods suggested by IFCC and analysis of the 2006 ring trial results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 齐丽丽; 刘海燕; 田真; 何振坤; 李淑葵; 但万春; 徐国宾

    2008-01-01

    (CRMs)represented an efficient tool to assess the analytic performance for the verification of trueness and in two labs.The measurement accuracy of the assays for catalytic activity concentrations of 6 enzymes [alanine aminotransferase(ALT),aspartate aminotransferase(AST),lactate dehydrogenase(LDH),creatine kinase(CK),gamma-glutamyhransferase(GGT),amylase(AMY)]was further verified and validated by international ring trial program.Results The within-laboratory variations of 6 enzymes in both of the reference lab were ranged from 0.5%-1.9%.Their results showed fully agreement with deviation less than 2.1%.The value of CRM was in the tolerant limit and analytic accuracy was verified.The results of four enzymes(ALT,AST,GGT,AMY)lay within (x)±s.However,the result of CK and LDH lay within (x)±2s.Except sample A for the LDH testing,we did not find any deviation variable in the detection of other enzymes.Conclusions The reference methods for the measurement of catalytic activity of enzymes(ALT,AST,LDH,CK,GGT,AMY)at 37℃ in the two labs by use of two sets of apparatus systems of PE and Agilent have been established and these methods showed excellent stability and accuracy.

  20. Suggested revision for west mexican archeological sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S V; Taylor, R E

    1966-12-16

    A review of the radiocarbon dates and published and unpublished archeological data from the West Mexican states of Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, and Colima has resulted in a revised tentative chronology for West Mexico.

  1. Exploration of Opinion-aware Approach to Contextual Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...suggestion are crawled. Approximately 60,442 candidate sug- gestions are crawled for all contexts, resulting in average 1208 candidate suggestions per

  2. Investigating Of Proper Photovoltaic Panel Tilt Angle to Be Used As Shading Device inKuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Bunyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic panels can act as power generator as well as external shading devices with proper tilt angle. In this paper we will study the performance of a Silicon Photovoltaic system with different tilt angle arrangement in Kuwait (latitude 30˚ N. In the study the PV system is installed facing south to collectmaximum solar radiation at noon. The angle is varied from 00 to 900 , during full year at the Solstice (the time at which the day and night come into balance and Equinox (the end of the day’s increase or decrease in day night hours periods, to achieve optimum tilt angle, higher in magnitude than 30 0 with competitive output power. The results show that the performance and the output power of the PV system with 50˚ tilt angle, is equivalent to the corresponding values at tilt angle equal to Kuwait latitude (30˚ during the whole year.

  3. Asymmetric dihedral angle offsets for large-size lunar laser ranging retroreflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsubo, Toshimichi; Kunimori, Hiroo; Noda, Hirotomo; Hanada, Hideo; Araki, Hiroshi; Katayama, Masato

    2011-08-01

    The distribution of two-dimensional velocity aberration is off-centered by 5 to 6 microradians in lunar laser ranging, due to the stable measurement geometry in the motion of the Earth and the Moon. The optical responses of hollow-type retroreflectors are investigated through numerical simulations, especially focusing on large-size, single-reflector targets that can ultimately minimize the systematic error in future lunar laser ranging. An asymmetric dihedral angle offset, i.e. setting unequal angles between the three back faces, is found to be effective for retroreflectors that are larger than 100 mm in diameter. Our numerical simulation results reveal that the optimized return energy increases approximately 3.5 times more than symmetric dihedral angle cases, and the optimized dihedral angle offsets are 0.65-0.8 arcseconds for one angle, and zeroes for the other two angles.

  4. Determinants of developing widened spatial QRS-T angle in HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawood, Farah Z; Roediger, Mollie P; Grandits, Greg;

    2014-01-01

    QRS-T angle was automatically measured from standard electrocardiogram of 1444 HIV-infected individuals without baseline widened spatial QRS-T angle from the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy [SMART], a clinical trial comparing two antiretroviral treatment strategies [Drug.......81) and 1.93 (1.21, 3.09), respectively], and diabetes [2.28 (1.33, 3.91)] predicted incident widened spatial QRS-T angle. CONCLUSIONS: Drug conservation treatment strategy, female gender, smoking, and diabetes are independently predictive of incident widened spatial QRS-T angle in HIV-infected individuals.......BACKGROUND: A widened electrocardiographic spatial QRS-T angle has been shown to be predictive of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected individuals. However, determinants and risk factors of developing widened QRS-T angle over time in this population remain unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Spatial...

  5. Fractal Approach in Petrology: Combining Ultra-Small Angle (USANA) and Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LoCelso, F.; Triolo, F.; Triolo, A.; Lin, J.S.; Lucido, G.; Triolo, R.

    1999-10-14

    Ultra small angle neutron scattering instruments have recently covered the gap between the size resolution available with conventional intermediate angle neutron scattering and small angle neutron scattering instruments on one side and optical microscopy on the other side. Rocks showing fractal behavior in over two decades of momentum transfer and seven orders of magnitude of intensity are examined and fractal parameters are extracted from the combined USANS and SANS curves.

  6. A discussion on improving typhoon observation through radar by scanning the negative elevation angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BaLin Xu; ShaoHui Miao; LiPing Liu; ChangDao Wu; GaiLi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Certain feasibilities and features were discussed in typhoon detection by radar with a negative elevation angle according to the relationship between the remote detecting range and the elevation angle of the new generation weather radar, in order to rectify the disadvantages of detecting capability for remote low-level echo with a lowest elevation angle of 0.5° in the common detecting mode. The data obtained from detecting the typhoon of Haitang and Changmi with radar for their negative elevation angles and the observed data for the common lowest elevation angle of 0.5° were compared to each other. The results showed that the detection of remote low level cloud system with radar could be improved by using the negative elevation angle, and the structure and the evolution trend of a typhoon could be better judged. The increasing degree of detection for negative elevation angles in the current volume scanning mode should be helpful for predicting the intensity and developing trend of windstorms, to further improve the capability of warning and nowcasting. The detection of negative elevation angle could also help reveal the development and change of typhoon’s low level cloud system. As far as the typhoons of Haitang and Changmi were concerned, the detecting area of Changmi was increased by 1.09 times with the negative elevation angle of 0.31°, compared with the elevation angle of 0.48° if the threshold value for the sea echo within 100 km was eliminated. Several volume scans of Haitang were increased by 2.1%-7.9%for the negative elevation angle of 0.36° compared with the elevation angle of 0.49°. Therefore, the radar detecting capability of typhoons could be improved by the detection of negative elevation angles to some extent. This could make up for the disadvantages of a low detecting capability for remote low-level echo in the common detecting mode. At the same time, a negative elevation angle could be easily influenced by the ground clutter and the close

  7. Simple Hydrostatic Model of Contact Angle Hysteresis of a Sessile Drop on Rough Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛在砂; 杨超; 陈家镛

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of hysteresis of contact angle is an important topic subject to a long time of argument.A simple hydrostatic model of sessile drops under the gravity in combination with an ideal surface roughness model is used to interpret the process of drop volume increase or decrease of a planar sessile drop and to shed light on the contact angle hysteresis and its relationship with the solid surface roughness. With this model, the advancing and receding contact angles are conceptually explained in terms of equilibrium contact angle and surface roughness only,without invoking the thermodynamic multiplicity. The model is found to be qualitatively consistent to experimental observations on contact angle hysteresis and it suggests a possible way to approach the hysteresis of three-dimensional sessile drops.

  8. Nanometer scale high-aspect-ratio trench etching at controllable angles using ballistic reactive ion etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cybart, Shane; Roediger, Peter; Ulin-Avila, Erick; Wu, Stephen; Wong, Travis; Dynes, Robert

    2012-11-30

    We demonstrate a low pressure reactive ion etching process capable of patterning nanometer scale angled sidewalls and three dimensional structures in photoresist. At low pressure the plasma has a large dark space region where the etchant ions have very large highly-directional mean free paths. Mounting the sample entirely within this dark space allows for etching at angles relative to the cathode with minimal undercutting, resulting in high-aspect ratio nanometer scale angled features. By reversing the initial angle and performing a second etch we create three-dimensional mask profiles.

  9. Angle measurement error and compensation for decentration rotation of circular gratings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xi-jun; WANG Zhen-huan; ZENG Qing-shuang

    2010-01-01

    As the geometric center of circular grating does not coincide with the rotation center,the angle measurement error of circular grating is analyzed.Based on the moire fringe equations in decentration condition,the mathematical model of angle measurement error is derived.It is concluded that the deeentration between the centre of circular grating and the center of revolving shaft leads to the first-harmonic error of angle measurement.The correctness of the result is proved by experimental data.The method of error compensation is presented,and the angle measurement accuracy of the circular grating is effectively improved by the error compensation.

  10. Blind Source Separation in Farsi Language by Using Hermitian Angle in Convolutive Enviroment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Soltani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a T-F masking method for convolutive blind source separation based on hermitian angle concept. The hermitian angle is calculated between T-F domain mixture vector and reference vector. Two different reference vectors are assumed for calculating two different hermitian angles, and then these angles are clustered with k-means or FCM method to estimate unmixing masks. The well-known permutation problem is solved based on k-means clustering of estimated masks which are partitioned to small groups. The experimental results show an improvement in performance when using two different reference vectors compared to only one.

  11. Tag Correspondence Model for User Tag Suggestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂存超; 刘知远; 孙茂松

    2015-01-01

    Some microblog services encourage users to annotate themselves with multiple tags, indicating their attributes and interests. User tags play an important role for personalized recommendation and information retrieval. In order to better understand the semantics of user tags, we propose Tag Correspondence Model (TCM) to identify complex correspondences of tags from the rich context of microblog users. The correspondence of a tag is referred to as a unique element in the context which is semantically correlated with this tag. In TCM, we divide the context of a microblog user into various sources (such as short messages, user profile, and neighbors). With a collection of users with annotated tags, TCM can automatically learn the correspondences of user tags from multiple sources. With the learned correspondences, we are able to interpret implicit semantics of tags. Moreover, for the users who have not annotated any tags, TCM can suggest tags according to users’ context information. Extensive experiments on a real-world dataset demonstrate that our method can effciently identify correspondences of tags, which may eventually represent semantic meanings of tags.

  12. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose & gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  13. Leishmania major: Parasite Interactions Suggesting Sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Maria Auxiliadora de

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In five experiments, Leishmania (Leishmania major (MRHO/SU/59/P-strain grew poorly when seeded in FYTS medium supplemented with 15% fetal calf serum, but presented several peculiar pairs of promastigotes diametrically opposed and attached at their posterior ends (5.8-13.5%. As seen in Giemsa-stained smears, a ring-like line and/or an enlargement, generally occurred at the parasite junction. A close proximity of nuclei, which sometimes were difficult to distinguish from each other, was also observed at this junction. Several of these pairs appeared to be composed of fused cells in which the nuclei could be apparently fused, as shown by fluorescence microscopy to detect ß-tubulin and DNA, and by scanning electron microscopy. Under other culture conditions these pairs were absent or occurred at very low rates (0.2-2.2%. Such pairs differ markedly from longitudinally dividing cells and resemble those described in two other Leishmania species, as well as in Herpetomonas megaseliae and Phytomonas davidi, suggesting steps of a putative sexual process

  14. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality.

  15. Suggested use of vaccines in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothydev Kesavadev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has emerged as a disease of major public health importance in India affecting the rich and the poor alike. Conventionally, comprehensive diabetes management is aimed at preventing micro and macro vascular complications. However, morbidity and mortality due to infections are also significant. In developing countries like India, the concept of adult immunization is far from reality. Recently the H1N1 pandemic has triggered the necessity for considering immunization in all age groups for the prevention of vaccine-preventable fatal infectious diseases. Considering the economics of immunization in a developing country, providing free vaccines to all adults may not be a practical solution, although the free universal immunization program for children is in existence for several decades. There is no consensus on the use of vaccines in diabetes subjects in India. However, there are some clinics offering routine pneumococcal, influenza and other vaccinations. Patients with diabetes have a deranged immune system making them more prone for infections. Hospitalization and death due to pneumococcal disease and influenza are higher in diabetes patients. They, like other healthy individuals, have a normal humoral response to vaccination with clinically significant benefits. The American Diabetes Association, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, United Kingdom Guidelines and a number of other scientific organizations have well defined guidelines for vaccination in diabetes. In this article we make some suggestions for clinicians in India, regarding use of vaccines in subjects with diabetes.

  16. QUEST: wide angle Cherenkov light measurements at EAS-TOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    EAS-Top Collaboration; Korosteleva, E. E.; Kuzmichev, L. A.; Prosin, V. V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.

    Wide angle Cherenkov light detectors based upon the QUASAR-370 photo-multipliers have been installed on five Cherenkov telescopes of the EAS-TOP array to study the energy spectrum and composition of primary cosmic rays around the knee . The energy threshold of quasars array was close to that of EAS-TOP electromagnetic detectors array. The first results of joint analysis of Cherenkov and electromagnetic data together with the adequate CORSIKA simulation results are discussed.

  17. Harnessing Genetic Variation in Leaf Angle to Increase Productivity of Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Sandra K; McCormick, Ryan F; Rooney, William L; Mullet, John E

    2015-11-01

    The efficiency with which a plant intercepts solar radiation is determined primarily by its architecture. Understanding the genetic regulation of plant architecture and how changes in architecture affect performance can be used to improve plant productivity. Leaf inclination angle, the angle at which a leaf emerges with respect to the stem, is a feature of plant architecture that influences how a plant canopy intercepts solar radiation. Here we identify extensive genetic variation for leaf inclination angle in the crop plant Sorghum bicolor, a C4 grass species used for the production of grain, forage, and bioenergy. Multiple genetic loci that regulate leaf inclination angle were identified in recombinant inbred line populations of grain and bioenergy sorghum. Alleles of sorghum dwarf-3, a gene encoding a P-glycoprotein involved in polar auxin transport, are shown to change leaf inclination angle by up to 34° (0.59 rad). The impact of heritable variation in leaf inclination angle on light interception in sorghum canopies was assessed using functional-structural plant models and field experiments. Smaller leaf inclination angles caused solar radiation to penetrate deeper into the canopy, and the resulting redistribution of light is predicted to increase the biomass yield potential of bioenergy sorghum by at least 3%. These results show that sorghum leaf angle is a heritable trait regulated by multiple loci and that genetic variation in leaf angle can be used to modify plant architecture to improve sorghum crop performance.

  18. Dosimetric dependence on the collimator angle in prostate volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Isa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the dose-volume variations of planning target volume (PTV and organs-at-risk (OARs in prostate volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT when varying collimator angle. The collimator angle has the largest impact and is worth considering, so, its awareness is essential for a planner to produce an optimal prostate VMAT plan in a reasonable time frame. Methods: Single-arc VMAT plans at different collimator angles (0o, 15o, 30o, 45o, 60o, 75o and 90o were created systematically using a Harold heterogeneous pelvis phantom. The conformity index (CI, homogeneity index (HI, gradient index (GI, machine monitor units (MUs, dose-volume histogram and mean and maximum dose of the PTV were calculated and analyzed. On the other hand, the dose-volume histogram and mean and maximum doses of the OARs such as the bladder, rectum and femoral heads for different collimator angles were determined from the plans.Results: There was no significant difference, based on the planned dose-volume evaluation criteria, found in the VMAT optimizations for all studied collimator angles. A higher CI (0.53 and lower HI (0.064 were found in the 45o collimator angle. In addition, the 15o collimator angle provided a lower value of HI similar to the 45o collimator angle. Collimator angles of 75o and 90o were found to be good for rectum sparing, and collimator angles of 75o and 30o were found to be good for sparing of right and left femur, respectively. The PTV dose coverage for each plan was comparatively independent of the collimator angle. Conclusion: Our study indicates that the dosimetric results provide support and guidance to allow the clinical radiation physicists to make careful decisions in implementing suitable collimator angles to improve the PTV coverage and OARs sparing in prostate VMAT.

  19. A highly accurate dynamic contact angle algorithm for drops on inclined surface based on ellipse-fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z N; Wang, S Y

    2015-02-01

    To improve the accuracy in the calculation of dynamic contact angle for drops on the inclined surface, a significant number of numerical drop profiles on the inclined surface with different inclination angles, drop volumes, and contact angles are generated based on the finite difference method, a least-squares ellipse-fitting algorithm is used to calculate the dynamic contact angle. The influences of the above three factors are systematically investigated. The results reveal that the dynamic contact angle errors, including the errors of the left and right contact angles, evaluated by the ellipse-fitting algorithm tend to increase with inclination angle/drop volume/contact angle. If the drop volume and the solid substrate are fixed, the errors of the left and right contact angles increase with inclination angle. After performing a tremendous amount of computation, the critical dimensionless drop volumes corresponding to the critical contact angle error are obtained. Based on the values of the critical volumes, a highly accurate dynamic contact angle algorithm is proposed and fully validated. Within nearly the whole hydrophobicity range, it can decrease the dynamic contact angle error in the inclined plane method to less than a certain value even for different types of liquids.

  20. Angles-only relative navigation in highly elliptical orbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-jia; CUI Nai-gang

    2010-01-01

    For angles-only relative navigation system only measures line-of-sight information,there are inherent problems in the ability to determine the range between Chaser and Target.Angles-only relative navigation is an at tractive alternative for inspecting or rendezvous with noncooperative target,if adequate accuracy can be achieved.Angles-only relative navigation model considering J2 perturbation is presented for tracking and rendezvous with nonco operative target in highly elliptical orbit.Impulsive out-of-plane maneuvers of the Chaser axe used to improve the navigation accuracy.The frrst impulse burns in cross-track directions to change the orbit inclination of the Chaser.The second impulse burns after one orbit period to change the orbit of the Chaser back.The simulation results show that the relative navigation system without maneuvers can' t correct the initial state errors,while impulsive out-of plane maneuvers of the Chaser improves the navigation accuracy.Angles-only relative navigation with chaser vehicle maneuvers to improve observability is effective when the spacecrafts are in highly elliptical orbits.

  1. Determination Method of Bridge Rotation Angle Response Using MEMS IMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiko Sekiya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To implement steel bridge maintenance, especially that related to fatigue damage, it is important to monitor bridge deformations under traffic conditions. Bridges deform and rotate differently under traffic load conditions because their structures differ in terms of length and flexibility. Such monitoring enables the identification of the cause of stress concentrations that cause fatigue damage and the proposal of appropriate countermeasures. However, although bridge deformation monitoring requires observations of bridge angle response as well as the bridge displacement response, measuring the rotation angle response of a bridge subject to traffic loads is difficult. Theoretically, the rotation angle response can be calculated by integrating the angular velocity, but for field measurements of actual in-service bridges, estimating the necessary boundary conditions would be difficult due to traffic-induced vibration. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a method for determining the rotation angle response of an in-service bridge from its angular velocity, as measured by a inertial measurement unit (IMU. To verify our proposed method, field measurements were conducted using nine micro-electrical mechanical systems (MEMS IMUs and two contact displacement gauges. The results showed that our proposed method provided high accuracy when compared to the reference responses calculated by the contact displacement gauges.

  2. Contact angle hysteresis and pinning at periodic defects in statics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Stanimir; Pesheva, Nina; Nikolayev, Vadim S

    2014-07-01

    This article deals with the theoretical prediction of the wetting hysteresis on nonideal solid surfaces in terms of the surface heterogeneity parameters. The spatially periodical chemical heterogeneity is considered. We propose precise definitions for both the advancing and the receding contact angles for the Wilhelmy plate geometry. It is well known that in such a system, a multitude of metastable states of the liquid meniscus occurs for each different relative position of the defect pattern on the plate with respect to the liquid level. As usual, the static advancing and receding angles are assumed to be a consequence of the preceding contact line motion in the respective direction. It is shown how to select the appropriate states among all metastable states. Their selection is discussed. The proposed definitions are applicable to both the static and the dynamic contact angles on heterogeneous surfaces. The static advancing and receding angles are calculated for two examples of periodic heterogeneity patterns with sharp borders: the horizontal alternating stripes of a different wettability (studied analytically) and the doubly periodic pattern of circular defects on a homogeneous base (studied numerically). The wetting hysteresis is determined as a function of the defect density and the spatial period. A comparison with the existing results is carried out.

  3. Optical Enhancement of Exoskeleton-Based Estimation of Glenohumeral Angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Camilo; Unzueta, Luis; de Los Reyes-Guzmán, Ana; Ruiz, Oscar E; Flórez, Julián

    2016-01-01

    In Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation (RAR) the accurate estimation of the patient limb joint angles is critical for assessing therapy efficacy. In RAR, the use of classic motion capture systems (MOCAPs) (e.g., optical and electromagnetic) to estimate the Glenohumeral (GH) joint angles is hindered by the exoskeleton body, which causes occlusions and magnetic disturbances. Moreover, the exoskeleton posture does not accurately reflect limb posture, as their kinematic models differ. To address the said limitations in posture estimation, we propose installing the cameras of an optical marker-based MOCAP in the rehabilitation exoskeleton. Then, the GH joint angles are estimated by combining the estimated marker poses and exoskeleton Forward Kinematics. Such hybrid system prevents problems related to marker occlusions, reduced camera detection volume, and imprecise joint angle estimation due to the kinematic mismatch of the patient and exoskeleton models. This paper presents the formulation, simulation, and accuracy quantification of the proposed method with simulated human movements. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of the method accuracy to marker position estimation errors, due to system calibration errors and marker drifts, has been carried out. The results show that, even with significant errors in the marker position estimation, method accuracy is adequate for RAR.

  4. Opening angles and residual strains in normal rat trachea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳兆荣; 王忆勤; 滕忠照; 徐刚; 汤伟昌

    2002-01-01

    The no-load state and zero-stress state of the normal rat trachea were analyzed. It was found that there exist compressive residual strains in the inner wall region of the rat trachea and tensile residual strains in the outer wall region. The fact that the opening angle of the rat trachea cut at the cartilaginous region is significantly larger than that cut at the muscular portion shows that residual strains exist mainly in the muscular region in the rat trachea. It was also indicated that the opening angles and residual strains expressed by cutting at the muscular portion are basically identical along longitudinal location and those expressed by cutting in the cartilaginous region tend to increase in the longitudinal direction in the normal rat, and that there exists quantitatively positive correlation between the opening angles and residual strains in rat trachea. The results will help to further understand the opening angles and residual strains in the trachea and study tracheal remodeling in response to mechanical environment.

  5. IMU-Based Joint Angle Measurement for Gait Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Seel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is concerned with joint angle calculation based on inertial measurement data in the context of human motion analysis. Unlike most robotic devices, the human body lacks even surfaces and right angles. Therefore, we focus on methods that avoid assuming certain orientations in which the sensors are mounted with respect to the body segments. After a review of available methods that may cope with this challenge, we present a set of new methods for: (1 joint axis and position identification; and (2 flexion/extension joint angle measurement. In particular, we propose methods that use only gyroscopes and accelerometers and, therefore, do not rely on a homogeneous magnetic field. We provide results from gait trials of a transfemoral amputee in which we compare the inertial measurement unit (IMU-based methods to an optical 3D motion capture system. Unlike most authors, we place the optical markers on anatomical landmarks instead of attaching them to the IMUs. Root mean square errors of the knee flexion/extension angles are found to be less than 1° on the prosthesis and about 3° on the human leg. For the plantar/dorsiflexion of the ankle, both deviations are about 1°.

  6. Method on camouflaged target recognition using the angle of ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuansun, Xiao-bo; Wu, Wen-Yuan; Huang, Yan-hua; Li, Zhao-zhao

    2015-10-01

    Using polarimetric information of the camouflaged target surface to identify camouflage has been a hot research area in camouflage detecting. The main method is to use the difference in the degree of polarization(DOP) between background and target to add the contrast ratio of them. The measurement of the DOP has some requirements on the intensity of reflected radiation. In case of low reflected radiation intensity, the difference in the DOP for different materials is not so distinguishable. In addition, the linear degree of polarization is largely under the effects of detection angle and surface roughness, so it is hard to differentiate the degree of polarization when the targets with similar surface roughness are detected at the same detection angle. By analyzing the elements affecting the reflected electromagnetic radiation amplitudes and phase on the camouflaged target surface, this article makes a research on the polarization character of reflected radiation A method on camouflaged target recognition directly or indirectly by taking the angle of ellipsometry (AOE) imaging under the linear polarized light. The function model of the angle of incidence, complex refractive index and AOE was modeled, then the model was simulated by MATLAB and the results showed it can describe the distribution properties of AOE. A new thought for the approach of identifying camouflaged target recognition by detecting polarimetric information was proposed, and it has a deep theoretical and practical significance in camouflaged target recognition.

  7. Characterization of treated porcelain surfaces via dynamic contact angle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, R D; Shen, C

    1995-01-01

    Successful porcelain repair requires conditioning of porcelain surfaces. Conditioning is intended to facilitate wetting by repair materials and improve interfacial bonding. The objective of this investigation was to determine the effects of selected surface treatments upon the wettability of a representative feldspathic porcelain. Dynamic contact angle analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the effects of such treatments. Standardized porcelain specimens were subjected to the following five treatment regimens: (1) control (no treatment); (2) airborne particle abrasion using 50 microns aluminum oxide; (3) etching with ammonium bifluoride gel; (4) etching with acidulated phosphate fluoride gel; and (5) etching with hydrofluoric acid gel. Following treatment, specimens were cleansed and dried. Advancing contact angles were quantified using dynamic contact angle analysis. Mean values and 95% confidence intervals were (in degrees): control, 63.8 +/- 2.7; ammonium bifluoride, 39.4 +/- 2.0; airborne particle abrading, 29.1 +/- 2.9; acidulated phosphate fluoride, 24.9 +/- 1.7; and hydrofluoric acid, 16.5 +/- 1.2. Significant differences were found between all treatment groups (P = .05). Subsequent scanning electron microscopy examination of treated surfaces indicated lesser contact angles were associated with surfaces displaying deeper and wider grooves. Apparently, the resultant increase in surface area produces increased wettability. It is inferred that an increase in surface area may correspond to enhanced resin-porcelain bonding.

  8. IMU-based joint angle measurement for gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seel, Thomas; Raisch, Jörg; Schauer, Thomas

    2014-04-16

    This contribution is concerned with joint angle calculation based on inertial measurement data in the context of human motion analysis. Unlike most robotic devices, the human body lacks even surfaces and right angles. Therefore, we focus on methods that avoid assuming certain orientations in which the sensors are mounted with respect to the body segments. After a review of available methods that may cope with this challenge, we present a set of new methods for: (1) joint axis and position identification; and (2) flexion/extension joint angle measurement. In particular, we propose methods that use only gyroscopes and accelerometers and, therefore, do not rely on a homogeneous magnetic field. We provide results from gait trials of a transfemoral amputee in which we compare the inertial measurement unit (IMU)-based methods to an optical 3D motion capture system. Unlike most authors, we place the optical markers on anatomical landmarks instead of attaching them to the IMUs. Root mean square errors of the knee flexion/extension angles are found to be less than 1° on the prosthesis and about 3° on the human leg. For the plantar/dorsiflexion of the ankle, both deviations are about 1°.

  9. Contact angle hysteresis and pinning at periodic defects in statics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Stanimir; Pesheva, Nina; Nikolayev, Vadim S.

    2014-07-01

    This article deals with the theoretical prediction of the wetting hysteresis on nonideal solid surfaces in terms of the surface heterogeneity parameters. The spatially periodical chemical heterogeneity is considered. We propose precise definitions for both the advancing and the receding contact angles for the Wilhelmy plate geometry. It is well known that in such a system, a multitude of metastable states of the liquid meniscus occurs for each different relative position of the defect pattern on the plate with respect to the liquid level. As usual, the static advancing and receding angles are assumed to be a consequence of the preceding contact line motion in the respective direction. It is shown how to select the appropriate states among all metastable states. Their selection is discussed. The proposed definitions are applicable to both the static and the dynamic contact angles on heterogeneous surfaces. The static advancing and receding angles are calculated for two examples of periodic heterogeneity patterns with sharp borders: the horizontal alternating stripes of a different wettability (studied analytically) and the doubly periodic pattern of circular defects on a homogeneous base (studied numerically). The wetting hysteresis is determined as a function of the defect density and the spatial period. A comparison with the existing results is carried out.

  10. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai

    2016-09-09

    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate suggestions individually and return the top-k best of them. However, the top-k suggestions have high redundancy with respect to the topics. To provide informative suggestions, the returned k suggestions are expected to be diverse, i.e., maximizing the relevance to the user query and the diversity with respect to topics that the user might be interested in simultaneously. In this paper, an objective function considering both factors is defined for evaluating a suggestion set. We show that maximizing the objective function is a submodular function maximization problem subject to n matroid constraints, which is an NP-hard problem. An greedy approximate algorithm with an approximation ratio O((Formula presented.)) is also proposed. Experimental results show that our suggestion outperforms other methods on providing relevant and diverse suggestions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  12. Comparing polynomial and cubic spline interpolation of segment angles for estimating L5/S1 net moment during symmetric lifting tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; Chang, Chien-Chi; Faber, Gert S; Kingma, Idsart; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2010-02-10

    Simple video-based methods previously proposed for field research to estimate L5/S1 net moments during real-world manual materials handling rely on polynomial interpolation on the joint angles from key frames extracted from video recordings; however, polynomial interpolations may not converge as the number of interpolation points increases. Therefore, we compared L5/S1 net moments calculated from continuous kinematic measurements to those calculated from both polynomial and cubic spline interpolation on body segments angles during lifting tasks. For small number of interpolation points (polynomial fits decreased with the increase in the number of interpolation points; however, above 6 interpolation points error for the polynomial fits started to increase while the error from the spline fit continued to decrease. These results suggest that cubic spline interpolation on body segments angles provides a more robust basis for calculating L5/S1 net moment from a few key video frames.

  13. Spirality: A Noval Way to Measure Spiral Arm Pitch Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Douglas W.; Boe, Benjamin; Henderson, Casey L.; Hartley, Matthew; Davis, Benjamin L.; Pour Imani, Hamed; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.

    2015-01-01

    We present the MATLAB code Spirality, a novel method for measuring spiral arm pitch angles by fitting galaxy images to spiral templates of known pitch. For a given pitch angle template, the mean pixel value is found along each of typically 1000 spiral axes. The fitting function, which shows a local maximum at the best-fit pitch angle, is the variance of these means. Error bars are found by varying the inner radius of the measurement annulus and finding the standard deviation of the best-fit pitches. Computation time is typically on the order of 2 minutes per galaxy, assuming at least 8 GB of working memory. We tested the code using 128 synthetic spiral images of known pitch. These spirals varied in the number of spiral arms, pitch angle, degree of logarithmicity, radius, SNR, inclination angle, bar length, and bulge radius. A correct result is defined as a result that matches the true pitch within the error bars, with error bars no greater than ±7°. For the non-logarithmic spiral sample, the correct answer is similarly defined, with the mean pitch as function of radius in place of the true pitch. For all synthetic spirals, correct results were obtained so long as SNR > 0.25, the bar length was no more than 60% of the spiral's diameter (when the bar was included in the measurement), the input center of the spiral was no more than 6% of the spiral radius away from the true center, and the inclination angle was no more than 30°. The synthetic spirals were not deprojected prior to measurement. The code produced the correct result for all barred spirals when the measurement annulus was placed outside the bar. Additionally, we compared the code's results against 2DFFT results for 203 visually selected spiral galaxies in GOODS North and South. Among the entire sample, Spirality's error bars overlapped 2DFFT's error bars 64% of the time. For those galaxies in which Source code is available by email request from the primary author.

  14. Suggestions for writing high quality scientific papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marc Fisher

    2011-01-01

    @@ Writing a good scientific paper that will be accepted by a high quality journal requires careful planning and preparation.The process actually begins with the design and performance of the study to be reported upon in the paper.The main sections of the paper which include the introduction,methods,results and discussion are actually components of the planning and execution of the study to be reported.

  15. Small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering study on the bilayer structure of synthetic and bovine heart cardiolipins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi [Biophysics Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8510 (Japan); Hayakawa, Tomohiro [Life Science Laboratory, Advanced Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510 (Japan); Ito, Kazuki; Takata, Masaki [Structural Materials Science Laboratory, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kobayashi, Toshihide, E-mail: htakahas@chem-bio.gunma-u.ac.j [Lipid Biology Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2010-10-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a membrane phospholipid containing four fatty acid chains. CL plays an important role in energy transformation in mitochondria. The disorder of CL biosynthesis is involved in a genetic disease, Barth syndrome. Alteration of fatty acid composition of CLs has been found in Barth syndrome patients, i.e., the decrease of unsaturated fatty acid chains. In this study, we investigated how the degree of saturation alters the structure of CL bilayers by using X-ray scattering. Bovine heart CL and two synthetic CLs were compared. Fatty acid compositions of these three CLs have different saturation. Small-angle X-ray scattering data showed that the decrease of the number of double bonds in the unsaturated fatty acid chains causes to thicken the CL bilayers. In addition, wide-angle X-ray scattering data suggested that the decrease reduces the degree of disorder of the hydrophobic region in a liquid crystalline phase. These results may be related to the dysfunction of mitochondria in Barth syndrome.

  16. Precision measurements of the CKM angle gamma

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The level of CP-violation permitted within the Standard Model cannot account for the matter dominated universe in which we live. Within the Standard Model the CKM matrix, which describes the quark couplings, is expected to be unitary. By making precise measurements of the CKM matrix parameters new physics models can be constrained, or with sufficient precision the effects of physics beyond the standard model might become apparent. The CKM angle gamma is the least well known angle of the unitarity triangle. It is the only angle easily accessible at tree-level, and furthermore has almost no theoretical uncertainties. Therefore it provides an invaluable Standard Model benchmark against which other new physics sensitive tests of the CP-violation can be made. I will discuss recent measurements of gamma using the the Run 1 LHCb dataset, which improve our knowledge of this key parameter.

  17. Three paths toward the quantum angle operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeau, Jean Pierre; Szafraniec, Franciszek Hugon

    2016-12-01

    We examine mathematical questions around angle (or phase) operator associated with a number operator through a short list of basic requirements. We implement three methods of construction of quantum angle. The first one is based on operator theory and parallels the definition of angle for the upper half-circle through its cosine and completed by a sign inversion. The two other methods are integral quantization generalizing in a certain sense the Berezin-Klauder approaches. One method pertains to Weyl-Heisenberg integral quantization of the plane viewed as the phase space of the motion on the line. It depends on a family of "weight" functions on the plane. The third method rests upon coherent state quantization of the cylinder viewed as the phase space of the motion on the circle. The construction of these coherent states depends on a family of probability distributions on the line.

  18. Tunable contact angle hysteresis on micropatterned surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Debuisson, Damien; Arscott, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Micropatterned surfaces composed of concentric circular defects having a smooth trench-like profile are formed using a photoresist (SU-8). When an evaporating droplet encounters the micropatterned surface an evaporation phase is observed consisting of distinct discontinuities and steps in the droplet wetting contact angle and base radius respectively. The addition of gaps into the circular defects enables tuning of the contact angle hysteresis; the receding contact angle of fluorocarbon coated SU-8 can be tuned between 34.6{\\deg} and 89.1{\\deg} and that of SU-8 surfaces from 5.6{\\deg} to 43.3{\\deg} depending on the gap length. In addition, a model is developed which accurately predicts the observed behavior.

  19. Magic-angle thermal desorption mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Steven W.; Campbell, Charles T.

    1990-02-01

    Accurate quantitative measurements of desorption rates or adsorbate coverages in thermal desorption mass spectroscopy (TDS) using line-of-sight mass spectrometers are hindered by the fact that the angular distributions of desorption flux can vary widely from desorbate to desorbate, ranging from cos 1ø to cos 9 ø for most species studied to date (ø = polar angle from surface normal). These differences can easily lead to errors exceeding 400% in measuring the relative desorption rates of different species. We show here that, by placing the mass spectrometer's ion source or entrance aperture at a "magic-angle" ø mthese errors can be reduced to less than 26% maximum deviation (or ± 7% standard deviation). Depending upon the sample-to-detector distance, ø m varies from ~ 42° to 34°. It is recommended that TDS experiments be performed at this "magic-angle" for improvement in the quantitative accuracy of coverage or rate measurements.

  20. Weak lensing using only galaxy position angles

    CERN Document Server

    Whittaker, Lee; Battye, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We develop a method for performing a weak lensing analysis using only measurements of galaxy position angles. By analyzing the statistical properties of the galaxy orientations given a known intrinsic ellipticity distribution, we show that it is possible to obtain estimates of the shear by minimizing a $\\chi^2$ statistic. The method is demonstrated using simulations where the components of the intrinsic ellipticity are taken to be Gaussian distributed. Uncertainties on the position angle measurements introduce a bias into the shear estimates which can be reduced to negligible levels by introducing a correction term into the formalism. We generalize our approach by developing an algorithm to obtain direct shear estimators given any azimuthally symmetric intrinsic ellipticity distribution. We demonstrate this technique by applying it to simulations where the ellipticities are taken to follow a log-normal distribution. We compare the performance of the position angle only method with the standard method based on...

  1. Notes on large angle crossing graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Dujmovic, Vida; Morin, Pat; Wolle, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    A graph G is an a-angle crossing (aAC) graph if every pair of crossing edges in G intersect at an angle of at least a. The concept of right angle crossing (RAC) graphs (a=Pi/2) was recently introduced by Didimo et. al. It was shown that any RAC graph with n vertices has at most 4n-10 edges and that there are infinitely many values of n for which there exists a RAC graph with n vertices and 4n-10 edges. In this paper, we give upper and lower bounds for the number of edges in aAC graphs for all 0 < a < Pi/2.

  2. The plain beta-angle measured on radiographs in the assessment of femoroacetabular impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, A; Hamers, A T; Fitze, M; Herzog, R F

    2010-09-01

    The beta-angle is a radiological tool for measuring the distance between the pathological head-neck junction and the acetabular rim with the hip in 90 degrees of flexion in patients with femoroacetabular impingement. Initially it was measured using an open-chamber MRI. We have developed a technique to measure this angle on plain radiographs. Correlation analysis was undertaken to determine the relationship between the range of movement and the beta-angle in 50 patients with femoroacetabular impingement and 50 asymptomatic control subjects. Inter- and intra-observer reliability of the beta-angle was also evaluated. Patients with femoroacetabular impingement had a significantly smaller (p angle (15.6 degrees, 95% confidence interval (CI) 13.3 to 17.7) compared with the asymptomatic group (38.7 degrees, 95% CI 36.5 to 41.0). Correlation between internal rotation and the beta-angle was high in the impingement group and moderate in the asymptomatic group. The beta-angle had excellent inter- and intra-observer reliability in both groups. Our findings suggest that the measurement of the beta-angle on plain radiography may represent a valid, reproducible and cost-effective alternative to open MRI in the assessment of the pathological bony anatomy in patients with cam, pincer and mixed femoroacetabular impingement.

  3. Gathering Ideas Online: Results of the Navy Personnel Command (NPC) Telework Virtual Suggestion Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    participate in telecommuting (another term for telework), and in 2001, the Under Secretary of Defense memorandum provided a policy for telework within...Manpower, Personnel, Training and Education Telecommuting (Telework) Program (CHNAVPERSNOTE 5330). Washington, DC: Author. Commander, Navy

  4. Scientific education and European citizenship. Suggestions and results from the European project SEDEC (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ceriani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Two concepts seemingly distant from each other, scientific education and European citizenship, have been the basis for "SEDEC - Science Education for the Development of European Citizenship", a European project funded by the European Commission in the framework of the Socrates/Comenius programme, aiming at producing training material addressed to European teachers. Started in autumn 2005, the project will end in 2008 with an in-service training course for European teachers and educators.

  5. Suggested isosbestic wavelength calibration in clinical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxter, G

    1979-01-01

    I recommend the use of isosbestic points for conveniently checking the wavelength scale of spectrophotometers in the ultraviolet and visible regions. Colorimetric pH indicators, hemoglobin derivatives, and other radiation-absorbing substances that are convertible into stable isomers of different absorption spectra provide a means for calibrating many different wavelengths by comparing the absorptivities of these isomers in equimolar solutions. The method requires no special precautions and results are independent of substance concentration and temperature between 4 and 45 degrees C. Isosbestic calibration may be important for (e.g.) coenzyme-dependent dehydrogenase activity determinations and in quality assurance programs.

  6. Suggestibility under Pressure: Theory of Mind, Executive Function, and Suggestibility in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Aryn C.; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2009-01-01

    Eighty preschoolers, ages 3 to 5 years old, completed a 4-phase study in which they experienced a live event and received a pressured, suggestive interview about the event a week later. Children were also administered batteries of theory of mind and executive function tasks, as well as the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which…

  7. Angle-Resolved Spectroscopy of Parametric Fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Feng-kuo

    2013-01-01

    The parametric fluorescence from a nonlinear crystal forms a conical radiation pattern. We measure the angular and spectral distributions of parametric fluorescence in a beta-barium borate crystal pumped by a 405-nm diode laser employing angle-resolved imaging spectroscopy. The experimental angle-resolved spectra and the generation efficiency of parametric down conversion are compared with a plane-wave theoretical analysis. The parametric fluorescence is used as a broadband light source for the calibration of the instrument spectral response function in the wavelength range from 450 to 1000 nm.

  8. Hepatitis B in Bangladesh: Further Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shafiul Jamal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Iread with great interest Rashid and Rafiq's article published in the spring issue of this journal(1. The authors not only highlighted the shortcomings of the current hepatitis B vaccination strategy in Bangladesh but also prescribed awonderful policy, which is felt to be both costeffective and befitting with the country's existing programme on immunization. To complement thisI would like to add few more points: ||l|| Most neonates mount an immune response, which is believed to be adequate to reduce their risk of perinatal Hepatitis B Virus (HBV acquisition after vaccination(2. Though the pre-term babies (<37 weeks show a slower response than the term (||“||37 weeks babies, immunogenicity, which is inversely proportional to the gestational age, can be improved by increasing the vaccine dosage (2,3. l| Timing first dose of hepatitis B vaccine with BCG probably has a positive interaction: administration of BCG at the time of HBV vaccine priming at birth markedly increases the cytokines as well as ntibody responses to HBV vaccine(4. This astonishing finding might suggest that BCG has a synergistic effect on hepatitis B vaccination. Bangladesh is reported to have a very high (94% coverage of BCG vaccine(5; the uptake of HBV vaccine can be equally improved by timing it with BCG.l| The present infant vaccination policy will leave adolescents unguarded and hence nationwide prevention of the disease will be delayed. A recent survey unveils that available infrastructure in Bangladesh has sufficient spare capacity to sustain storage of an increased quantity of vaccines(5. To make good use of this unused legroom adolescent vaccination should be started along with infant vaccination. Countries such as Spain and Portugal have both neonatal and adolescent vaccination programmes in place, since 1993 and 2000 respectively, and these countries will be able to end the adolescent programme once the first immunised newborn cohort has reached the target age of the

  9. Accurate Angle Estimator for High-Frame-rate 2-D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer;

    2016-01-01

    angle SD of 1.8°. Similar results are obtained on a straight vessel for both simulations and measurements, where the obtained angle biases are below 1.5° with SDs around 1°. Estimated velocity magnitudes are also kept under 10% bias and 5% relative SD in both simulations and measurements. An in vivo...

  10. Are Galaxy Clusters Suggesting an Accelerating Universe?

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, J A S; Cunha, J V; 10.1063/1.3462638

    2010-01-01

    The present cosmic accelerating stage is discussed through a new kinematic method based on the Sunyaev- Zel'dovich effect (SZE) and X-ray surface brightness data from galaxy clusters. By using the SZE/X-ray data from 38 galaxy clusters in the redshift range $0.14 \\leq z \\leq 0.89 $ [Bonamente et al., Astrop. J. {\\bf 647}, 25 (2006)] it is found that the present Universe is accelerating and that the transition from an earlier decelerating to a late time accelerating regime is relatively recent. The ability of the ongoing Planck satellite mission to obtain tighter constraints on the expansion history through SZE/X-ray angular diameters is also discussed. Our results are fully independent on the validity of any metric gravity theory, the possible matter- energy contents filling the Universe, as well as on the SNe Ia Hubble diagram from which the presenting accelerating stage was inferred.

  11. Mechanical basis for slip along low-angle normal faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Emmanuel; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Lacombe, Olivier

    2012-02-01

    The existence of active low-angle normal faults is much debated because (1) the classical theory of fault mechanics implies that normal faults are locked when the dip is less than 30° and (2) shallow-dipping extensional fault planes do not produce large earthquakes (M > 5.5). However, a number of field observations suggest that brittle deformation occurs on low-angle normal faults at very shallow dip. To reconcile observations and theory, we use an alternative model of fault reactivation including a thick elasto-plastic frictional fault gouge, and test it at large strain by the mean of 2D mechanical modeling. We show that plastic compaction allows reducing the effective friction of faults sufficiently for low-angle normal faults to be active at dip of 20°. As the model predicts that these faults must be active in a slip-hardening regime, it prevents the occurrence of large earthquakes. However, we also evidence the neoformation of Riedel-type shear bands within thick fault zone, which, we believe, may be responsible for repeated small earthquakes and we apply the model to the Gulf of Corinth (Greece).

  12. Understanding Angle and Angle Measure: A Design-Based Research Study Using Context Aware Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies are quickly becoming tools found in the educational environment. The researchers in this study use a form of mobile learning to support students in learning about angle concepts. Design-based research is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated local instruction theory about students' develop of angle and…

  13. Algorithm for automatic angles measurement and screening for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bashir, Areen K; Al-Abed, Mohammad; Abu Sharkh, Fayez M; Kordeya, Mohamed N; Rousan, Fadi M

    2015-01-01

    Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) is a medical term represent the hip joint instability that appear mainly in infants. The examination for this condition can be done by ultrasound for children under 6 months old and by X-ray for children over 6 months old. Physician's assessment is based on certain angles derived from those images, namely the Acetabular Angle, and the Center Edge Angle. In this paper, we are presenting a novel, fully automatic algorithm for measuring the diagnostic angles of DDH from the X-ray images. Our algorithm consists of Automatic segmentation and extraction of anatomical landmarks from X-ray images. Both of Acetabular angle and Center edge angle are automatically calculated. The analysis included X-ray images for 16 children recruited for the purposed of this study. The automatically acquired angles accuracy for Acetabular Angle was around 85%, and an absolute deviation of 3.4°±3.3° compared to the physician's manually calculated angle. The results of this method are very promising for the future development of an automatic method for screening X-ray images DDH that complement and aid the physicians' manual methods.

  14. Anterior Chamber Angle Shape Analysis and Classification of Glaucoma in SS-OCT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soe Ni Ni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography is a high resolution, rapid, and noninvasive diagnostic tool for angle closure glaucoma. In this paper, we present a new strategy for the classification of the angle closure glaucoma using morphological shape analysis of the iridocorneal angle. The angle structure configuration is quantified by the following six features: (1 mean of the continuous measurement of the angle opening distance; (2 area of the trapezoidal profile of the iridocorneal angle centered at Schwalbe's line; (3 mean of the iris curvature from the extracted iris image; (4 complex shape descriptor, fractal dimension, to quantify the complexity, or changes of iridocorneal angle; (5 ellipticity moment shape descriptor; and (6 triangularity moment shape descriptor. Then, the fuzzy k nearest neighbor (fkNN classifier is utilized for classification of angle closure glaucoma. Two hundred and sixty-four swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT images from 148 patients were analyzed in this study. From the experimental results, the fkNN reveals the best classification accuracy (99.11±0.76% and AUC (0.98±0.012 with the combination of fractal dimension and biometric parameters. It showed that the proposed approach has promising potential to become a computer aided diagnostic tool for angle closure glaucoma (ACG disease.

  15. Pre and post operative facial angles in patients submitted to rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soccol, Andréa T

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parameters used in facial aesthetic surgeries are currently based on POWELL and HUMPHREYS (1. These authors have formulated suitable relations between the face and the nose, and defined the face angles. Objective: To compare pre and pos-operative nasolabial, nasofrontal, nasomental and nasofacial angles in patients submitted to rhinoseptoplasty. Method: Prospective analysis of 37 patients submitted to rhinoplasty, with an average of 30±11 years of age, being 13 (36% men and 24 (64% women. The nasolabial, nasofrontal, nasomental and nasofacial angles were measured and compared, before and after the surgery, in profile pictures. Results: An average increase of 8.6o in the nasolabial angle was observed, of 8.5o in the nasofrontal and reduction of 2.3o in the nasofacial angle, and all the measures presented a statistically significant difference between the pre and pos-operative period. The nasomental angle increased, on average, 1.6o, a difference without statistical importance. Conclusions: The nasolabial and nasofrontal angles increase significantly after rhinoseptoplasty, while the nasofacial angle diminishes. There was no significant alteration in the nasomental angle with the accomplishment of the surgery.

  16. Measurement of Capillary Radius and Contact Angle within Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Saitej; Dharmarajan, Ramanathan; Moghaddam, Saeed

    2015-12-01

    The pore radius (i.e., capillary radius) and contact angle determine the capillary pressure generated in a porous medium. The most common method to determine these two parameters is through measurement of the capillary pressure generated by a reference liquid (i.e., a liquid with near-zero contact angle) and a test liquid. The rate of rise technique, commonly used to determine the capillary pressure, results in significant uncertainties. In this study, we utilize a recently developed technique for independently measuring the capillary pressure and permeability to determine the equivalent minimum capillary radii and contact angle of water within micropillar wick structures. In this method, the experimentally measured dryout threshold of a wick structure at different wicking lengths is fit to Darcy's law to extract the maximum capillary pressure generated by the test liquid. The equivalent minimum capillary radii of different wick geometries are determined by measuring the maximum capillary pressures generated using n-hexane as the working fluid. It is found that the equivalent minimum capillary radius is dependent on the diameter of pillars and the spacing between pillars. The equivalent capillary radii of micropillar wicks determined using the new method are found to be up to 7 times greater than the current geometry-based first-order estimates. The contact angle subtended by water at the walls of the micropillars is determined by measuring the capillary pressure generated by water within the arrays and the measured capillary radii for the different geometries. This mean contact angle of water is determined to be 54.7°.

  17. A mechanism for the dependence of sunspot group tilt angles on cycle strength

    CERN Document Server

    Işık, Emre

    2015-01-01

    The average tilt angle of sunspot groups emerging throughout the solar cycle determines the net magnetic flux crossing the equator, which is correlated with the strength of the subsequent cycle. I suggest that a deep-seated, non-local process can account for the observed cycle-dependent changes in the average tilt angle. Motivated by helioseismic observations indicating cycle-scale variations in the sound speed near the base of the convection zone, I determined the effect of a thermally perturbed overshoot region on the stability of flux tubes and on the tilt angles of emerging flux loops. I found that 5-20 K of cooling is sufficient for emerging flux loops to reproduce the reported amplitude of cycle-averaged tilt angle variations, suggesting that it is a plausible effect responsible for the nonlinearity of the solar activity cycle.

  18. A study of operators' computing efficiency with special focus on the readability under different viewing angles of a desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillck, Z.; Asjad, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to determine the reading performance of operators' under different viewing angles of a desktop computer. The effects of text/background color, viewing distance and character size on the speed of reading were investigated. The text and/or the background color combination were varied, with constant luminance contrast. Performance was recorded in terms of words per minutes. Standard workplace design recommendations to position center of visual display terminal 15° and 40°, below horizontal eye level, were taken up for a visually intensive readability task. An orthogonal array, signal-to-noise ratio and the analysis of variance were carried out to investigate the above mentioned operating parameters to determine optimum readability performance. The results suggested that performance was better at 15° viewing angle as compared to 40°.

  19. Ageing effects on knee and ankle joint angles at key events and phases of the gait cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, R K; Sparrow, W A

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine whether joint angles at critical gait events and during major energy generation/absorption phases of the gait cycle would reliably discriminate age-related degeneration during unobstructed walking. The gaits of 24 healthy adults (12 young and 12 elderly) were analysed using the PEAK Motus motion analysis system. The elderly participants showed significantly greater single (60.3% versus 62.3%, p phase. The plantarflexing ankle joint motion during the stance to swing phase transition (A2) for the young group (31.3 degrees ) was about twice ( p gait to assist in weight acceptance. Reduced dorsiflexion by the elderly in the swing phase implies greater risk of toe contact with obstacles. Overall, the results suggest that joint angle measures at critical events/phases in the gait cycle provide a useful indication of age-related degeneration in the control of lower limb trajectories during unobstructed walking.

  20. Radiographic adenoid evaluation - suggestion of referral parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo F.N. Feres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of current radiographic measurements, which were originally conceived to evaluate adenoid hypertrophy, as potential referral parameters. METHODS: children aged from 4 to 14 years, of both genders, who presented nasal obstruction complaints, were subjected to cavum radiography. Radiographic examinations (n = 120 were evaluated according to categorical and quantitative parameters, and data were compared to gold-standard videonasopharyngoscopic examination, regarding accuracy (sensitivity, negative predictive value, specificity, and positive predictive value. RESULTS: radiographic grading systems presented low sensitivity for the identification of patients with two-thirds choanal space obstruction. However, some of these parameters presented relatively high specificity rates when three-quarters adenoid obstruction was the threshold of interest. Amongst the quantitative variables, a mathematical model was found to be more suitable for identifying patients with more than two-thirds obstruction. CONCLUSION: this model was shown to be potentially useful as a screening tool to include patients with, at least, two-thirds adenoid obstruction. Moreover, one of the categorical parameters was demonstrated to be relatively more useful, as well as a potentially safer assessment tool to exclude patients with less than three-quarters obstruction, to be indicated for adenoidectomy.

  1. What is the contact angle of water on graphene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherian, Fereshte; Marcon, Valentina; van der Vegt, Nico F A; Leroy, Frédéric

    2013-02-05

    Although experimental and theoretical studies have addressed the question of the wetting properties of graphene, the actual value of the contact angle of water on an isolated graphene monolayer remains unknown. While recent experimental literature indicates that the contact angle of water on graphite is in the range 90-95°, it has been suggested that the contact angle on graphene may either be as high as 127° or moderately enhanced in comparison with graphite. With the support of classical molecular dynamics simulations using empirical force-fields, we develop an argumentation to show that the value of 127° is an unrealistic estimate and that a value of the order of 95-100° should be expected. Our study establishes a connection between the variation of the work of adhesion of water on graphene-based surfaces and the interaction potential between individual water molecules and these surfaces. We show that a variation of the contact angle from 90° on graphite to 127° on graphene would imply that both of the first two carbon layers of graphite contribute approximately the same interaction energy with water. Such a situation is incompatible with the short-range nature of the interaction between water and this substrate. We also show that the interaction potential energy between water and the graphene-based substrates is the main contribution to the work of adhesion of water with a relative magnitude that is independent of the number of graphene layers. We introduce the idea that the remaining contribution is entropic in nature and is connected to the fluctuations in the water-substrate interaction energy.

  2. Improved Image Retrieval with Color and Angle Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi A. Alnabriss

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, new ideas are proposed to enhance content-based image retrieval applications by representing colored images in terms of its colors and angles as a histogram describing the number of pixels with particular color located in specific angle, then similarity is measured between the two represented histograms. The color quantization technique is a crucial stage in the CBIR system process, we made comparisons between the uniform and the non-uniform color quantization techniques, and then according to our results we used the non-uniform technique which showed higher efficiency. In our tests we used the Corel-1000 images database in addition to a Matlab code, we compared our results with other approaches like Fuzzy Club, IRM, Geometric Histogram, Signature Based CBIR and Modified ERBIR, and our proposed technique showed high retrieving precision ratios compared to the other techniques.

  3. Volumetric characterization of delamination fields via angle longitudinal wave ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, John; Wallentine, Sarah; Welter, John; Dierken, Josiah; Aldrin, John

    2017-02-01

    The volumetric characterization of delaminations necessarily precedes rigorous composite damage progression modeling. Yet, inspection of composite structures for subsurface damage remains largely focused on detection, resulting in a capability gap. In response to this need, angle longitudinal wave ultrasound was employed to characterize a composite surrogate containing a simulated three-dimensional delamination field with distinct regions of occluded features (shadow regions). Simple analytical models of the specimen were developed to guide subsequent experimentation through identification of optimal scanning parameters. The ensuing experiments provided visual evidence of the complete delamination field, including indications of features within the shadow regions. The results of this study demonstrate proof-of-principle for the use of angle longitudinal wave ultrasonic inspection for volumetric characterization of three-dimensional delamination fields. Furthermore, the techniques developed herein form the foundation of succeeding efforts to characterize impact delaminations within inhomogeneous laminar materials such as polymer matrix composites.

  4. Low back pain and lumbar angles in Turkish coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S.; Gumustas, S.; Koc, U. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Medicine

    2007-02-15

    This study was designed to assess the incidence of low back pain among Turkish coal miners and to investigate the relationship between angles of the lumbar spine and low back pain in coal miners. Fifty underground workers (Group I) and 38 age-matched surface workers (Group II) were included in the study. All the subjects were asked about low back pain in the past 5 years. The prevalence of low back pain was higher in Group I than in Group II (78.0%, 32.4%, respectively, P {lt} 0.001). The results of the study showed that low back pain occurred in 78.0% of Turkish coal miners. Although the nature of the occupation may have influenced coal miners' lumbar spinal curvature, lumbar angles are not a determinant for low back pain in this population. Further extensive studies involving ergonomic measurements are needed to validate our results for Turkish coal mining industry.

  5. The Spectral Sharpness Angle of Gamma-ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hoi-Fung; Greiner, Jochen; Sari, Re'em; Bhat, P Narayana; von Kienlin, Andreas; Paciesas, William S; Preece, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    We explain the results of Yu et al. (2015b) of the novel sharpness angle measurement to a large number of spectra obtained from the Fermi gamma-ray burst monitor. The sharpness angle is compared to the values obtained from various representative emission models: blackbody, single-electron synchrotron, synchrotron emission from a Maxwellian or power-law electron distribution. It is found that more than 91% of the high temporally and spectrally resolved spectra are inconsistent with any kind of optically thin synchrotron emission model alone. It is also found that the limiting case, a single temperature Maxwellian synchrotron function, can only contribute up to 58+23 -18% of the peak flux. These results show that even the sharpest but non-realistic case, the single-electron synchrotron function, cannot explain a large fraction of the observed spectra. Since any combination of physically possible synchrotron spectra added together will always further broaden the spectrum, emission mechanisms other than optically...

  6. ASSESSMENT OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NECK SHAFT ANGLE AND NECK LENGTH WITH INTEREPICONDYLAR DISTANCE IN FEMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femur is the longest and strongest bone of the body. It transmits body weight from hip bone to tibia in standing position. Femoral neck is a constricted part connecting head with shaft at an angle of about 125°-known as angle of inclination or neck shaft angle (NSA; this facilitates the movement of hip joint enabling the limb to swing clear of pelvis. Abnormal femoral neck angle (FNA may be associated with various clinical problems ranging from harmless in toeing gait in childhood to disabling osteoarthritis in adults. The current study attempted to find out if a co-relation exists between those parameters and other clinically measurable variables like inter-epicondylar distance or distance between greater trochanter to lateral epicondyle. This may help to predict the risk of fracture neck femur without any risk of radiation exposure and proper prophylactic measures can be undertaken (Vit-D, calcium to decrease risk of fracture. Results: Measurements were taken in dry femora mostly in East Indian population. Variables that were measured in 158 dry femora (85 femora from left side and 73 from the right side are: - a Neck shaft angle of femur, b Neck length of femur, c Neck circumference of femur, d Inter-epicondylar distance of femur, e Distance between lateral epicondyle and greater trochanter of femur. No significant difference was found between the right and left sided femoral groups regarding any of the study variables. From the analysis it was revealed that no positive or negative correlation exists between the study variables. Therefore, it is not possible to predict the value of one or more of them from the magnitude of the other variable(s. Conclusions: Our study attempted to find out if it was possible to predict the risk of fracture neck femur by simple clinical procedure without exposing the subjects to radiation hazards associated with a radiological imaging. A screening test and subsequent prophylactic measures could

  7. Using suggestion to model different types of automatic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Mehta, M A; Oakley, D A; Guilmette, D N; Gabay, A; Halligan, P W; Deeley, Q

    2014-05-01

    Our sense of self includes awareness of our thoughts and movements, and our control over them. This feeling can be altered or lost in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in phenomena such as "automatic writing" whereby writing is attributed to an external source. Here, we employed suggestion in highly hypnotically suggestible participants to model various experiences of automatic writing during a sentence completion task. Results showed that the induction of hypnosis, without additional suggestion, was associated with a small but significant reduction of control, ownership, and awareness for writing. Targeted suggestions produced a double dissociation between thought and movement components of writing, for both feelings of control and ownership, and additionally, reduced awareness of writing. Overall, suggestion produced selective alterations in the control, ownership, and awareness of thought and motor components of writing, thus enabling key aspects of automatic writing, observed across different clinical and cultural settings, to be modelled.

  8. Optical trapping of nanoparticles by full solid-angle focusing

    CERN Document Server

    Salakhutdinov, Vsevolod; Carbone, Luigi; Giacobino, Elisabeth; Bramati, Alberto; Leuchs, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    We propose and implement a dipole-trap for nanoparticles that is based on focusing from the full solid angle with a deep parabolic mirror. The key aspect is the generation of a linear-dipole mode. For such a mode, our calculations predict a trapping potential that is deeper and tighter than the potential obtainable with microscope objectives. We demonstrate the trapping of dot-in-rod nanoparticles. From the detected fluorescence photons we obtain intensity correlation functions of second order with $g^{(2)}(0)< 0.5$, suggesting the trapping of a single quantum emitter.

  9. Malignant melanoma of the cerebello-pontine angle region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Menezes Braga

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of malignant melanoma in the cerebello-pontine angle region is presented in a 72 years old female patient, who had neurological examination and CT scan suggestive of acoustic neuroma. The surgical finding and the histological examination provided the diagnosis. As a primary focus was not found on clinical examination and although autopsy was not carried out, there is a possibility of the diagnosis being a primary malignant melanoma in CNS. This specific location for this kind of tumor was found to be rare when literature is looked up.

  10. The genetic mechanisms of primary angle closure glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahram, D F; Alward, W L; Kuehn, M H

    2015-10-01

    Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma (PACG) is one of the most common types of glaucoma affecting over 15 million individuals worldwide. Family history and ethnicity are strongly associated with the development of the disease, suggesting that one or more genetic factors contribute to PACG. Although strictly heritable disease-causing mutations have not been identified, a number of recent association studies have pointed out genetic factors that appear to contribute to an individual's risk to develop PACG. In addition, genetic factors have been identified that modify PACG endophenotypes for example, axial length. Herein we review the current literature on this important topic.

  11. Wind Turbine Blade with Angled Girders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a reinforced blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade having a new arrangement of two or more girders in the blade, wherein each of the girders is connected to the upper part and the lower part of the shell and forms an angle with another girder thereby...

  12. Incidence angle normalization of radar backscatter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Passive Active (SMAP) satellite (~2014) will include a radar system that will provide L-band multi-polarization backscatter at a constant incidence angle of 40º. During the pre-launch phase of the project there is a need for observations that will support the radar-based soil mo...

  13. Constant Angle Surfaces in the Heisenberg Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johan FASTENAKELS; Marian Ioan MUNTEANU; Joeri VAN DER VEKEN

    2011-01-01

    In this article we extend the notion of constant angle surfaces in S2 × R and H2 × R to general Bianchi-Cartan-Vranceanu spaces. We show that these surfaces have constant Gaussian curvature and we give a complete local classification in the Heisenberg group.

  14. Measurement of the angle alpha at BABAR

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, A

    2009-01-01

    We present recent measurements of the CKM angle alpha using data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e^+e^- collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, operating at the Upsilon(4S) resonance. We present constraints on alpha from B->pipi, B->rhorho and B->rhopi decays.

  15. Molecular mechanisms underlying primary open angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.F.

    2014-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a complex, multigenetic and heterogeneous optic neuropathy. It is an insidious disease that untreated leads to irreversible visual field loss and blindness. Worldwide, glaucoma causes around 12% of blindness. Although various risk factors have been established,

  16. [Cerebellopontine angle meningeal melanocytoma: a benign tumor?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Tortosa, J; Ferri-Níguez, B; Ros de San Pedro, J

    2009-08-01

    We report a case of a rare meningeal melanocytoma in the cerebellopontine angle. One year after tumor gross total removal, the patient suffered a sudden and devastating meningeal melanomatosis. The relevant literature is reviewed looking for the keys to establish preoperative diagnosis and to obtain information about its treatment and postsurgical management.

  17. Effect of glenohumeral abduction angle on the mechanical interaction between the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons for the intact, partial-thickness torn, and repaired supraspinatus tendon conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andarawis-Puri, Nelly; Kuntz, Andrew F; Ramsey, Matthew L; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2010-07-01

    Rotator cuff tears are difficult to manage because of the structural and mechanical inhomogeneity of the supraspinatus tendon. Previously, we showed that with the arm at the side, the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons mechanically interact such that conditions that increase supraspinatus tendon strain, such as load or full-thickness tears, also increase infraspinatus tendon strain. This suggests that the infraspinatus tendon may shield the supraspinatus tendon from further injury while becoming at increased risk of injury itself. In this study, the effect of glenohumeral abduction angle on the interaction between the two tendons was evaluated for supraspinatus tendon partial-thickness tears and two repair techniques. Principal strains were quantified in both tendons for 0 degrees , 30 degrees , and 60 degrees of glenohumeral abduction. Results showed that interaction between the two tendons is interrupted by an increase in abduction angle for all supraspinatus tendon conditions evaluated. Infraspinatus tendon strain was lower at 30 degrees and 60 degrees than at 0 degrees abduction angle. In conclusion, interaction between the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons is interrupted with increase in abduction angle. Additionally, 30 degrees abduction should be further evaluated for management of rotator cuff tears and repairs as it is the angle at which both supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon strain is decreased.

  18. Small-angle neutron scattering from micellar solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Aswal; P S Goyal

    2004-07-01

    Micellar solutions are the suspension of the colloidal aggregates of the surfactant molecules in aqueous solutions. The structure (shape and size) and the interaction of these aggregates, referred to as micelles, depend on the molecular architecture of the surfactant molecule, presence of additives and the solution conditions such as temperature, concentration etc. This paper gives the usefulness of small-angle neutron scattering to the study of micellar solutions with some of our recent results.

  19. Angle Class II correction with MARA appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Chiqueto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects produced by the MARA appliance in the treatment of Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion. METHODS: The sample consisted of 44 young patients divided into two groups: The MARA Group, with initial mean age of 11.99 years, treated with the MARA appliance for an average period of 1.11 years, and the Control Group, with initial mean age of 11.63 years, monitored for a mean period of 1.18 years with no treatment. Lateral cephalograms were used to compare the groups using cephalometric variables in the initial and final phases. For these comparisons, Student's t test was employed. RESULTS: MARA appliance produced the following effects: Maxillary growth restriction, no change in mandibular development, improvement in maxillomandibular relationship, increased lower anterior facial height and counterclockwise rotation of the functional occlusal plane. In the upper arch, the incisors moved lingually and retruded, while the molars moved distally and tipped distally. In the lower arch, the incisors proclined and protruded, whereas the molars mesialized and tipped mesially. Finally, there was a significant reduction in overbite and overjet, with an obvious improvement in molar relationship. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the MARA appliance proved effective in correcting Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion while inducing skeletal changes and particularly dental changes.OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos proporcionados pelo aparelho MARA no tratamento da má oclusão de Classe II, 1ª divisão. MÉTODOS: utilizou-se uma amostra de 44 jovens, divididos em dois grupos - Grupo MARA, com idade inicial média de 11,99 anos e tratado com o aparelho MARA por um período médio de 1,11 ano; e Grupo Controle, com idade inicial média de 11,63 ano e observado por um período médio de 1,18 ano, sem nenhum tratamento. Utilizou-se as telerradiografias em norma lateral para comparar os grupos quanto às variáveis cefalométricas das

  20. Belief in the paranormal and suggestion in the seance room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard; Greening, Emma; Smith, Matthew

    2003-08-01

    In Experiment 1, participants took part in a fake seance. An actor suggested that a table was levitating when, in fact, it remained stationary. After the seance, approximately one third of participants incorrectly reported that the table had moved. Results also showed a significant relationship between the reported movement of the table and belief in the paranormal, with a greater percentage of believers than disbelievers, reporting that the table had moved. Experiment 2 varied whether the suggestion was consistent, or inconsistent, with participants' belief in the paranormal. Results again showed that believers were more susceptible to suggestion than disbelievers, but only when the suggestion was consistent with their belief in the paranormal. Approximately one fifth of participants believed that the fake seances contained genuine paranormal phenomena.

  1. Enhancing business intelligence by means of suggestive reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika; Raj, Ram Gopal; Tahir, Muhammad; Cambria, Erik; Syed, Karim Bux Shah

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  2. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons. PMID:25054188

  3. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Qazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers’ choices and designers’ understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1 classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2 categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3 perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  4. Angle-resolved effective potentials for disk-shaped molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.heinemann@tu-berlin.de; Klapp, Sabine H. L., E-mail: klapp@physik.tu-berlin.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Palczynski, Karol, E-mail: karol.palczynski@helmholtz-berlin.de; Dzubiella, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.dzubiella@helmholtz-berlin.de [Institut für Physik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB), Institute of Soft Matter and Functional Materials, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-12-07

    We present an approach for calculating coarse-grained angle-resolved effective pair potentials for uniaxial molecules. For integrating out the intramolecular degrees of freedom we apply umbrella sampling and steered dynamics techniques in atomistically-resolved molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. Throughout this study we focus on disk-like molecules such as coronene. To develop the methods we focus on integrating out the van der Waals and intramolecular interactions, while electrostatic charge contributions are neglected. The resulting coarse-grained pair potential reveals a strong temperature and angle dependence. In the next step we fit the numerical data with various Gay-Berne-like potentials to be used in more efficient simulations on larger scales. The quality of the resulting coarse-grained results is evaluated by comparing their pair and many-body structure as well as some thermodynamic quantities self-consistently to the outcome of atomistic MD simulations of many-particle systems. We find that angle-resolved potentials are essential not only to accurately describe crystal structures but also for fluid systems where simple isotropic potentials start to fail already for low to moderate packing fractions. Further, in describing these states it is crucial to take into account the pronounced temperature dependence arising in selected pair configurations due to bending fluctuations.

  5. Angle-resolved effective potentials for disk-shaped molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Thomas; Palczynski, Karol; Dzubiella, Joachim; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2014-12-07

    We present an approach for calculating coarse-grained angle-resolved effective pair potentials for uniaxial molecules. For integrating out the intramolecular degrees of freedom we apply umbrella sampling and steered dynamics techniques in atomistically-resolved molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. Throughout this study we focus on disk-like molecules such as coronene. To develop the methods we focus on integrating out the van der Waals and intramolecular interactions, while electrostatic charge contributions are neglected. The resulting coarse-grained pair potential reveals a strong temperature and angle dependence. In the next step we fit the numerical data with various Gay-Berne-like potentials to be used in more efficient simulations on larger scales. The quality of the resulting coarse-grained results is evaluated by comparing their pair and many-body structure as well as some thermodynamic quantities self-consistently to the outcome of atomistic MD simulations of many-particle systems. We find that angle-resolved potentials are essential not only to accurately describe crystal structures but also for fluid systems where simple isotropic potentials start to fail already for low to moderate packing fractions. Further, in describing these states it is crucial to take into account the pronounced temperature dependence arising in selected pair configurations due to bending fluctuations.

  6. Decoding low dihedral angles in gabbroic layered intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holness, M. B.; Humphreys, M.; Veksler, I. V.

    2010-12-01

    Texturally equilibrated rocks are granular with a unimodal grain size, smoothly curved grain boundaries, and angles at three-grain junctions of 110-140°. Gabbros are not texturally equilibrated: primocrysts commonly have planar faces whereas later-formed phases fill in the interstitial spaces. Augite-plagioclase-plagioclase dihedral angles (Θcpp) rarely attain the equilibrium value in gabbros and the population of disequilibrium angles preserves otherwise inaccessible information about rock history. The Θcpp population varies significantly between different basaltic bodies. In a rapidly cooled dolerite Θcpp has a low median (60-70°) and a high standard deviation (20-25°). The plagioclase-augite grain boundaries are generally planar. In more slowly cooled gabbros in layered intrusions, the angle populations have a higher median (80-110°) with a low standard deviation (10-15°). The plagioclase-augite grain boundaries are generally planar far from the triple junction, but curve within 10 microns of the junction. This curvature is commonly asymmetric. The angle population in solidified gabbros infiltrated by low-temperature melts is similar to that in dolerites, although the low angles are associated with cuspate interstitial grains. The dihedral angle is a function of both the original solidification process and subsequent high-temperature (melt-absent) grain boundary migration. Infilling of a melt pocket by overgrowth of the bounding solid phases necessitates supersaturation, and this is easier to attain for planar faces, resulting in inhibition of augite growth into pores bounded by planar plagioclase grains and an asymmetry of the initial augite-plag-plag junction. If the solidified gabbro is kept sufficiently hot these initial junction geometries can change during textural equilibration. In the Skaergaard, Rum and Bushveld intrusions, the median Θcpp varies with liquidus assemblage, increasing step-wise on the addition of a new liquidus phase. Locally

  7. Experimental Validation of the Invariance of Electrowetting Contact Angle Saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevalliot, S.; Dhindsa, M.; Kuiper, S.; Heikenfeld, J.

    2011-01-01

    Basic electrowetting theory predicts that a continued increase in applied voltage will allow contact angle modulation to zero degrees. In practice, the effect of contact angle saturation has always been observed to limit the contact angle modulation, often only down to a contact angle of 60 to 70°.

  8. Electronic structure of MgB2 from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, H; Shen, K M; Lee, S; Damascelli, A; Lu, D H; Feng, D L; Shen, Z-X; Tajima, S

    2002-04-15

    The first angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy results from MgB2 single crystals are reported. Along the GammaK and GammaM directions, we observed three distinct dispersive features approaching the Fermi energy. These can be assigned to the theoretically predicted sigma (B 2p(x,y)) and pi (B 2p(z)) bands. In addition, a small parabolic-like band is detected around the Gamma point, which can be attributed to a surface-derived state. The overall agreement between our results and the band calculations suggests that the electronic structure of MgB2 is of a conventional nature, thus implying that electron correlations are weak and may be of little importance to superconductivity in this system.

  9. Characteristic lengths at moving contact lines for a perfectly wetting fluid: the influence of speed on the dynamic contact angle

    OpenAIRE

    Eggers, Jens; Stone, Howard A.

    2002-01-01

    It is common to relate the dynamic contact angle $\\theta_d$ to the relative speed between the substrate and the contact line; theory suggests $\\theta_d^3 \\propto U$. In fact, available physical models show that the dynamic angle involves speed logarithmically and in a model dependent manner. Experimental data consistent with this interpretation is cited.

  10. Detailed statistical contact angle analyses; "slow moving" drops on inclining silicon-oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M; Groß, K; Grub, J; Heib, F

    2015-06-01

    Contact angle determination by sessile drop technique is essential to characterise surface properties in science and in industry. Different specific angles can be observed on every solid which are correlated with the advancing or the receding of the triple line. Different procedures and definitions for the determination of specific angles exist which are often not comprehensible or reproducible. Therefore one of the most important things in this area is to build standard, reproducible and valid methods for determining advancing/receding contact angles. This contribution introduces novel techniques to analyse dynamic contact angle measurements (sessile drop) in detail which are applicable for axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric drops. Not only the recently presented fit solution by sigmoid function and the independent analysis of the different parameters (inclination, contact angle, velocity of the triple point) but also the dependent analysis will be firstly explained in detail. These approaches lead to contact angle data and different access on specific contact angles which are independent from "user-skills" and subjectivity of the operator. As example the motion behaviour of droplets on flat silicon-oxide surfaces after different surface treatments is dynamically measured by sessile drop technique when inclining the sample plate. The triple points, the inclination angles, the downhill (advancing motion) and the uphill angles (receding motion) obtained by high-precision drop shape analysis are independently and dependently statistically analysed. Due to the small covered distance for the dependent analysis (static to the "slow moving" dynamic contact angle determination. They are characterised by small deviations of the computed values. Additional to the detailed introduction of this novel analytical approaches plus fit solution special motion relations for the drop on inclined surfaces and detailed relations about the reactivity of the freshly cleaned silicon wafer

  11. The angle property of positive real functions simply derived

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørsboe, Helge

    1973-01-01

    The angle property of positive real (rational) functionsZ(s), namely, that|arg s | geqq |arg Z(s)|in the right half of thes-plane, can be demonstrated very simply by an examination of the imaginary parts of the functionsln(s/Z(s))andln (sZ(s)), i.e.,arg s mp arg Z(s). In particular, on a contour...... enclosing the entire first quadrant,arg s mp arg Z(s)can rather easily be shown to be nonnegative. The extremum theorem of analytic functions then assures thatarg s mp arg Z(s)cannot be negative inside the first quadrant; thus the angle property is demonstrated in the first quadrant. The same result...

  12. Determination of the effective electroweak mixing angle from Z decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Ahlen, S.; Alcaraz, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alverson, G.; Alviggi, M. G.; Ambrosi, G.; An, Q.; Anderhub, H.; Anderson, A. L.; Andreev, V. P.; Antonov, L.; Antreasyan, D.; Arce, P.; Arefiev, A.; Atamanchuk, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Baba, P. V. K. S.; Bagnaia, P.; Bakken, J. A.; Baksay, L.; Ball, R. C.; Banerjee, S.; Bao, J.; Barillère, R.; Barone, L.; Baschirotto, A.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Bechtluft, J.; Becker, R.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bencze, Gy. L.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Bilei, G. M.; Bizzarri, R.; Blaising, J. J.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bock, R.; Böhm, A.; Borgia, B.; Bosetti, M.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Boutigny, D.; Bouwens, B.; Brambilla, E.; Branson, J. G.; Brock, I. C.; Brooks, M.; Bujak, A.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Busenitz, J.; Buytenhuijs, A.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caria, M.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A. M.; Castello, R.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chang, Y. H.; Chaturvedi, U. K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, W. Y.; Chiefari, G.; Chien, C. Y.; Choi, M. T.; Chung, S.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coan, T. E.; Cohn, H. O.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Contin, A.; Cui, X. T.; Cui, X. Y.; Dai, T. S.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Degré, A.; Deiters, K.; Dénes, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; Dhina, M.; DiBitonto, D.; Diemoz, M.; Dimitrov, H. R.; Dionisi, C.; Djambazov, L.; Dova, M. T.; Drago, E.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; Easo, S.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Erné, F. C.; Extermann, P.; Fabbretti, R.; Fabre, M.; Falciano, S.; Fan, S. J.; Fackler, O.; Fay, J.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fernandez, D.; Fernandez, G.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, F.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.; Filthaut, F.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisher, P. H.; Forconi, G.; Foreman, T.; Fredj, L.; Freudenreich, K.; Friebel, W.; Fukushima, M.; Gailloud, M.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gallo, E.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gele, D.; Gentile, S.; Goldfarb, S.; Gong, Z. F.; Gonzalez, E.; Gougas, A.; Goujon, D.; Gratta, G.; Gruenewald, M.; Gu, C.; Guanziroli, M.; Guo, J. K.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gustafson, H. R.; Gutay, L. J.; Hangarter, K.; Hartmann, B.; Hasan, A.; Hauschildt, D.; He, C. F.; He, J. T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, M.; Herten, G.; Hervé, A.; Hilgers, K.; Hofer, H.; Hoorani, H.; Hu, G.; Hu, G. Q.; Ille, B.; Ilyas, M. M.; Innocente, V.; Janssen, H.; Jezequel, S.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; Kasser, A.; Khan, R. A.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Kapinos, P.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, M.; Khokhar, S.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, Y. G.; Kinnison, W. W.; Kirkby, A.; Kirkby, D.; Kirsch, S.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Klöckner, R.; König, A. C.; Koffeman, E.; Kornadt, O.; Koutsenko, V.; Koulbardis, A.; Kraemer, R. W.; Kraemer, T.; Krastev, V. R.; Krenz, W.; Krivshich, A.; Kuijten, H.; Kumar, K. S.; Kunin, A.; Landi, G.; Lanske, D.; Lanzano, S.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, D. M.; Leedom, I.; Leggett, C.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leiste, R.; Lenti, M.; Leonardi, E.; Leytens, X.; Li, C.; Li, H. T.; Li, P. J.; Liao, J. Y.; Lin, W. T.; Lin, Z. Y.; Linde, F. L.; Lindemann, B.; Lista, L.; Liu, Y.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y. S.; Lubbers, J. M.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, D.; Ludovici, L.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, J. M.; Ma, W. G.; MacDermott, M.; Malhotra, P. K.; Malik, R.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Maolinbay, M.; Marchesini, P.; Marion, F.; Marin, A.; Martin, J. P.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G. G. G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mcbride, P.; McHamon, T.; McNally, D.; Merk, M.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mi, Y.; Mills, G. B.; Mir, Y.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Möller, M.; Monteleoni, B.; Morand, R.; Morganti, S.; Moulai, N. E.; Mount, R.; Müller, S.; Nadtochy, A.; Nagy, E.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Neyer, C.; Niaz, M. A.; Nippe, A.; Nowak, H.; Organtini, G.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Pascale, G.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pei, Y. J.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Perrier, J.; Pevsner, A.; Piccolo, D.; Pieri, M.; Piroué, P. A.; Plasil, F.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Qi, Z. D.; Qian, J. M.; Qureshi, K. N.; Raghavan, R.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rattaggi, M.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Read, K.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Ricker, A.; Riemann, S.; Riemers, B. C.; Riles, K.; Rind, O.; Rizvi, H. A.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Roe, B. P.; Röhner, M.; Romero, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rosmalen, R.; Rosselet, Ph.; van Rossum, W.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Rubio, J. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sachwitz, M.; Salicio, J.; Salicio, J. M.; Sanders, G. S.; Santocchia, A.; Sarakinos, M. S.; Sartorelli, G.; Sassowsky, M.; Sauvage, G.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmitz, D.; Schmitz, P.; Schneegans, M.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Shotkin, S.; Schreiber, H. J.; Shukla, J.; Schulte, R.; Schulte, S.; Schultze, K.; Schwenke, J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Scott, I.; Sehgal, R.; Seiler, P. G.; Sens, J. C.; Servoli, L.; Sheer, I.; Shen, D. Z.; Shevchenko, S.; Shi, X. R.; Shumilov, E.; Shoutko, V.; Son, D.; Sopczak, A.; Spartiotis, C.; Spickermann, T.; Spillantini, P.; Starosta, R.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Sticozzi, F.; Stone, H.; Strauch, K.; Stringfellow, B. C.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L. Z.; Susinno, G. F.; Suter, H.; Swain, J. D.; Syed, A. A.; Tang, X. W.; Taylor, L.; Terzi, G.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tonutti, M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tully, C.; Tung, K. L.; Ulbricht, J.; Urbán, L.; Uwer, U.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R. T.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Vikas, P.; Vikas, U.; Vikas, U.; Vivargent, M.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Vuilleumier, L.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, C. R.; Wang, G. H.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z. M.; Warner, C.; Weber, A.; Weber, J.; Weill, R.; Wenaus, T. J.; Wenninger, J.; White, M.; Willmott, C.; Wittgenstein, F.; Wright, D.; Wu, S. X.; Wynhoff, S.; Wysłouch, B.; Xie, Y. Y.; Xu, J. G.; Xu, Z. Z.; Xue, Z. L.; Yan, D. S.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, G.; Ye, C. H.; Ye, J. B.; Ye, Q.; Yeh, S. C.; Yin, Z. W.; You, J. M.; Yunus, N.; Yzerman, M.; Zaccardelli, C.; Zemp, P.; Zeng, M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, G. J.; Zhou, J. F.; Zhu, R. Y.; Zichichi, A.; van der Zwaan, B. C. C.; L3 Collaboration

    1993-07-01

    The effective electroweak mixing angle sin2overlineθw is measured from the production and decay of the Z boson in e +e - interactions. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 18pb -1 with about 420 000 hadronic and 40 000 leptonic Z decays. The mixing angle sin2overlineθw is determined from several independent measurements: the leptonic and hadronic cross sections, the forward-backward asymmetries of charged leptons and b-quarks, and the τ-polarization. The results are found to be in good agreement with each other. The value of sin2overlineθw from a fit to the asymmetries in a model independent method is 0.2321±0.0021 and from a global fit to the data in the Standard Model framework is 0.2328±0.0013.

  13. Trajectory reshaping based guidance with impact time and angle constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel impact time and angle constrained guidance law for homing missiles. The guidance law is first developed with the prior-assumption of a stationary target, which is followed by the practical extension to a maneuvering target scenario. To derive the closed-form guidance law, the trajectory reshaping technique is utilized and it results in defining a specific polynomial function with two unknown coefficients. These coefficients are determined to satisfy the impact time and angle constraints as well as the zero miss distance. Furthermore, the proposed guidance law has three additional guidance gains as design parameters which make it possible to adjust the guided trajectory according to the operational conditions and missile’s capability. Numerical simulations are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed guidance law.

  14. Performance measurement of broadband, wide-angle polarizing beam splitter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei-bin; ZHENG Zhen-rong; GU Pei-fu; ZHANG Yue-guang

    2007-01-01

    Polarizing beam splitter (PBS) is a critical optical component in projection display system because PBS performance greatly influences the contrast and brightness of the system. PBS performance is usually measured by spectrophotometer after coating and cementing, but the measured result cannot represent the actual performance in practice because people usually change the incident angle in one plane (horizontal plane) and do not consider the other plane (vertical plane). Geometrical polarization rotation occurring at reduced F-number influences the measuring precision of s-polarization transmittance (Ts) and p-polarization reflectance (Rp). A more accurate and practical way to measure the performance of broadband, wide-angle PBS is presented in this paper.

  15. XFEL OSCILLATOR SIMULATION INCLUDING ANGLE-DEPENDENT CRYSTAL REFLECTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawley, William; Lindberg, Ryan; Kim, K-J; Shvyd' ko, Yuri

    2010-08-23

    The oscillator package within the GINGER FEL simulation code has now been extended to include angle-dependent reflectivity properties of Bragg crystals. Previously, the package was modified to include frequencydependent reflectivity in order to model x-ray FEL oscillators from start-up from shot noise through to saturation. We present a summary of the algorithms used for modeling the crystal reflectivity and radiation propagation outside the undulator, discussing various numerical issues relevant to the domain of high Fresnel number and efficient Hankel transforms. We give some sample XFEL-O simulation results obtained with the angle-dependent reflectivity model, with particular attention directed to the longitudinal and transverse coherence of the radiation output.

  16. Lorentz Angle Measurement for CO2/Isobutane Gas Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Hoshina, K; Khalatyan, N S; Nitoh, O; Okuno, H; Kato, Y; Kobayashi, M; Kurihara, Y; Kuroiwa, H; Nakamura, Y; Sakieda, K; Suzuki, Y; Watanabe, T

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a Lorentz angle measurement system for cool gas mixtures in the course of our R&D for a proposed JLC central drift chamber (JLC-CDC). The measurement system is characterized by the use of two laser beams to produce primary electrons and flash ADCs to read their signals simultaneously. With this new system, we have measured Lorentz angles for CO2/isobutane gas mixtures with different proportions (95:5, 90:10, and 85:15), varying drift field from 0.6 to 2.0 kV/cm and magnetic field up to 1.5 T. The results of the measurement are in good agreement with GARFIELD/MAGBOLTZ simulations.

  17. Scattering angle base filtering of the inversion gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach based on the availability of low frequencies to maneuver the complex nonlinearity associated with the problem of velocity inversion. I develop a model gradient filter to help us access the parts of the gradient more suitable to combat this potential nonlinearity. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which low scattering angles of the gradient update are initially muted. The result are long-wavelength updates controlled by the ray component of the wavefield. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce near zero wavelength updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Allowing smaller scattering angle to contribute provides higher resolution information to the model.

  18. A wide-angle camera module for disposable endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Dongha; Yeon, Jesun; Yi, Jason; Park, Jongwon; Park, Soo Nam; Lee, Nanhee

    2016-08-01

    A wide-angle miniaturized camera module for disposable endoscope is demonstrated in this paper. A lens module with 150° angle of view (AOV) is designed and manufactured. All plastic injection-molded lenses and a commercial CMOS image sensor are employed to reduce the manufacturing cost. The image sensor and LED illumination unit are assembled with a lens module. The camera module does not include a camera processor to further reduce its size and cost. The size of the camera module is 5.5 × 5.5 × 22.3 mm3. The diagonal field of view (FOV) of the camera module is measured to be 110°. A prototype of a disposable endoscope is implemented to perform a pre-clinical animal testing. The esophagus of an adult beagle dog is observed. These results demonstrate the feasibility of a cost-effective and high-performance camera module for disposable endoscopy.

  19. Precision Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle in Moller Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Anthony, P L; Arroyo, C; Bega, K; Biesiada, J; Bosted, P E; Bower, G; Cahoon, J; Carr, R; Cates, G D; Chen, J P; Chudakov, E; Cooke, M; Decowski, P; Deur, A; Emam, W; Erickson, R; Fieguth, T; Field, C; Gao, J; Gary, M; Gustafsson, K; Hicks, R S; Holmes, R; Hughes, E W; Humensky, T B; Jones, G M; Kaufman, L J; Keller, L; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kumar, K S; La Violette, P; Lhuillier, D; Lombard-Nelsen, R M; Marshall, Z; Mastromarino, P; McKeown, R D; Michaels, R; Niedziela, J; Olson, M; Paschke, K D; Peterson, G A; Pitthan, R; Relyea, D; Rock, S E; Saxton, O; Singh, J; Souder, P A; Szalata, Z M; Turner, J; Tweedie, B; Vacheret, A; Walz, D; Weber, T; Weisend, J; Woods, M; Younus, I

    2005-01-01

    We report on a precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in fixed target electron-electron (Moller) scattering: A_PV = -131 +/- 14 (stat.) +/- 10 (syst.) parts per billion, leading to the determination of the weak mixing angle \\sin^2\\theta_W^eff = 0.2397 +/- 0.0010 (stat.) +/- 0.0008 (syst.), evaluated at Q^2 = 0.026 GeV^2. Combining this result with the measurements of \\sin^2\\theta_W^eff at the Z^0 pole, the running of the weak mixing angle is observed with over 6 sigma significance. The measurement sets constraints on new physics effects at the TeV scale.

  20. Searching for the Neutrino Mixing Angle Theta-13 at Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Maury

    2007-01-01

    Two neutrino mixing angles have been measured, and much of the neutrino community is turning its attention to the unmeasured mixing angle, $\\quq$, whose best limit comes from the reactor neutrino experiment CHOOZ.\\cite{bib:chooz} New two detector reactor neutrino experiments are being planned, along with more ambitious accelerator experiments, to measure or further limit $\\quq$. Here I will overview how to measure $\\quq$ using reactor neutrinos, mention some experiments that were considered and are not going forward, and review the current status of four projects: Double Chooz in France, Daya Bay in China, RENO in South Korea and Angra in Brazil. Finally I will mention how the neutrino observer can gauge progress in these projects two years from now as we approach the times corresponding to early estimates for new results.

  1. Refractivity estimations from an angle-of-arrival spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xiao-Feng; Huang Si-Xun

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the probability of atmospheric refractivity estimation by using field measurements at an array of radio receivers in terms of angle-of-arrival spectrum. Angle-of-arrival spectrum information is simulated by the ray optics model and refractivity is expressed in the presence of an ideal tri-linear profile. The estimation of the refractivity is organized as an optimization problem and a genetic algorithm is used to search for the optimal solution from various trial refractivity profiles. Theoretical analysis demonstrates the feasibility of this method to retrieve the refractivity parameters. Simulation results indicate that this approach has a fair anti-noise ability and its accuracy performance is mainly dependent on the antenna aperture size and its positions.

  2. Spectral Properties of Grain Boundaries at Small Angles of Rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Hempel, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    We study some spectral properties of a simple two-dimensional model for small angle defects in crystals and alloys. Starting from a periodic potential $V \\colon \\R^2 \\to \\R$, we let $V_\\theta(x,y) = V(x,y)$ in the right half-plane $\\{x \\ge 0\\}$ and $V_\\theta = V \\circ M_{-\\theta}$ in the left half-plane $\\{x < 0\\}$, where $M_\\theta \\in \\R^{2 \\times 2}$ is the usual matrix describing rotation of the coordinates in $\\R^2$ by an angle $\\theta$. As a main result, it is shown that spectral gaps of the periodic Schr\\"odinger operator $H_0 = -\\Delta + V$ fill with spectrum of $R_\\theta = -\\Delta + V_\\theta$ as $0 \

  3. Towards measuring the stop mixing angle at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolbiecki, Krzysztof; Tattersall, Jamie; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    We address the question of how to determine the stop mixing angle and its CP-violating phase at the LHC. As an observable we discuss ratios of branching ratios for different decay modes of the light stop t{sub 1} to charginos and neutralinos. These observables can have a very strong dependence on the parameters of the stop sector. We discuss in detail the origin of these effects. Using various combinations of the ratios of branching ratios we argue that, depending on the scenario, the observable may be promising in exposing the light stop mass, the mixing angle and the CP phase. This will, however, require a good knowledge of the supersymmetric spectrum, which is likely to be achievable only in combination with results from a linear collider. (orig.)

  4. High angle of attack aerodynamics subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flows

    CERN Document Server

    Rom, Josef

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamics of aircraft at high angles of attack is a subject which is being pursued diligently, because the modern agile fighter aircraft and many of the current generation of missiles must perform well at very high incidence, near and beyond stall. However, a comprehensive presentation of the methods and results applicable to the studies of the complex aerodynamics at high angle of attack has not been covered in monographs or textbooks. This book is not the usual textbook in that it goes beyond just presenting the basic theoretical and experimental know-how, since it contains reference material to practical calculation methods and technical and experimental results which can be useful to the practicing aerospace engineers and scientists. It can certainly be used as a text and reference book for graduate courses on subjects related to high angles of attack aerodynamics and for topics related to three-dimensional separation in viscous flow courses. In addition, the book is addressed to the aerodynamicist...

  5. Cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma relapsing towards middle cranial fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Nishizaki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Facial nerve schwannomas involving posterior and middle fossas are quite rare. Here, we report an unusual case of cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma that involved the middle cranial fossa, two years after the first operation. A 53-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of a progressive left side hearing loss and 6-month history of a left facial spasm and palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed 4.5 cm diameter of left cerebellopontine angle and small middle fossa tumor. The tumor was subtotally removed via a suboccipital retrosigmoid approach. The tumor relapsed towards middle cranial fossa within a two-year period. By subtemporal approach with zygomatic arch osteotomy, the tumor was subtotally removed except that in the petrous bone involving the facial nerve. In both surgical procedures, intraoperative monitoring identified the facial nerve, resulting in preserved facial function. The tumor in the present case arose from broad segment of facial nerve encompassing cerebellopontine angle, meatus, geniculate/labyrinthine and possibly great petrosal nerve, in view of variable symptoms. Preservation of anatomic continuity of the facial nerve should be attempted, and the staged operation via retrosigmoid and middle fossa approaches using intraoperative facial monitoring, may result in preservation of the facial nerve.

  6. Output characteristics of right angle cone mirror cavity laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongqi Li; Zuhai Cheng

    2005-01-01

    The anti-misalignment stability and output characteristics of the right angle cone cavity laser are experimentally studied. When the misalignment angle of the cone mirror turns to 46.8 minutes, the single-pulse output energy of the plano-cone cavity laser decreases 24% and the near-field beam patterns have little change; as for the beam directional stability, when the measuring place stands 3.12 m in front of the output mirror, the near-field beam patterns of the plano-cone laser are located at the primary places until the misalignment angle of the cone mirror turns to 18 minutes. These results show that the plano-cone cavity laser has better performances in comparison with the plano-concave cavity laser. The analytical results of the mode instrument are also obtained, which show that the near-field beam intensity distribution of the plano-cone mirror cavity laser is near to the plane wave.

  7. Eccentricity effect of micropatterned surface on contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashaninejad, Navid; Chan, Weng Kong; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2012-03-13

    This article experimentally shows that the wetting property of a micropatterned surface is a function of the center-to-center offset distance between successive pillars in a column, referred to here as eccentricity. Studies were conducted on square micropatterns which were fabricated on a silicon wafer with pillar eccentricity ranging from 0 to 6 μm for two different pillar diameters and spacing. Measurement results of the static as well as the dynamic contact angles on these surfaces revealed that the contact angle decreases with increasing eccentricity and increasing relative spacing between the pillars. Furthermore, quantification of the contact angle hysteresis (CAH) shows that, for the case of lower pillar spacing, CAH could increase up to 41%, whereas for the case of higher pillar spacing, this increment was up to 35%, both corresponding to the maximum eccentricity of 6 μm. In general, the maximum obtainable hydrophobicity corresponds to micropillars with zero eccentricity. As the pillar relative spacing decreases, the effect of eccentricity on hydrophobicity becomes more pronounced. The dependence of the wettability conditions of the micropatterned surface on the pillar eccentricity is attributed to the contact line deformation resulting from the changed orientation of the pillars. This finding provides additional insights in design and fabrication of efficient micropatterned surfaces with controlled wetting properties.

  8. On some relations between advancing, receding and Young's contact angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibowski, Emil

    2007-05-31

    Problems of experimental determination and theoretical verification of equilibrium contact angles are discussed basing on the literature data. A relationship between the advancing and receding contact angles versus the equilibrium contact angle is described and then verified using the literature contact angles determined on paraffin wax and polypropylene. Using the proposed relationship and experimentally determined equilibrium contact angles, obtained by plotting the advancing and receding contact angles versus the contact angle hysteresis or by applying vibration of the system liquid drop/solid surface, it is found that the same value of the surface free energy for paraffin wax is calculated from the contact angles of water and ethylene glycol. However, in the case of polypropylene some inconsistency appears between the equilibrium contact angles of the probe liquid used and the calculated surface free energy. More experimental data of the equilibrium contact angle are needed to verify further the relationship.

  9. The changes of the interspace angle after anterior correction and instrumentation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Qi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In idiopathic scoliosis patients, after anterior spinal fusion and instrumentation, the discs (interspace angle between the lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV and the next caudal vertebra became more wedged. We reviewed these patients and analyzed the changes of the angle. Methods By reviewing the medical records and roentgenograms of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients underwent anterior spinal fusion and instrumentation, Cobb angle of the curve, correction rate, coronal balance, LIV rotation, interspace angle were measured and analyzed. Results There were total 30 patients included. The mean coronal Cobb angle of the main curve (thoracolumbar/lumbar curve before and after surgery were 48.9° and 11.7°, respectively, with an average correction rate of 76.1%. The average rotation of LIV before surgery was 2.1 degree, and was improved to 1.2 degree after surgery. The interspace angle before surgery, on convex side-bending films, after surgery, at final follow up were 3.2°, -2.3°, 1.8° and 4.9°, respectively. The difference between the interspace angle after surgery and that preoperatively was not significant (P = 0.261, while the interspace angle at final follow-up became larger than that after surgery, and the difference was significant(P = 0.012. The interspace angle after surgery was correlated with that on convex side-bending films (r = 0.418, P = 0.022, and the interspace angle at final follow-up was correlated with that after surgery (r = 0.625, P = 0.000. There was significant correlation between the loss of the interspace angle and the loss of coronal Cobb angle of the main curve during follow-up(r = 0.483, P = 0.007. Conclusion The interspace angle could be improved after anterior correction and instrumentation surgery, but it became larger during follow-up. The loss of the interspace angle was correlated with the loss of coronal Cobb angle of the main curve during follow-up.

  10. Mandibular Angle Fractures: Comparison of One Miniplate vs. Two Miniplates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Hajmohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monocortical miniplate fixation is an accepted and reliable method for internal fixation of mandibular angle fractures. Although placement of a second miniplate may theoretically provide more stability; however, the clinical importance of this issue remains controversial.Objectives: The present study assessed the postoperative complications and outcomes associated with the fixation of mandibular angle fractures using 1 and 2 miniplates in patients with favorable mandibular angle fractures.Patients and Methods: A prospective study of 87 patients (73 males, 14 females with favorable mandibular angle fractures was done. In the first group, a 4-hole miniplate was placed at the superior border through an intraoral approach. In group 2, patients were treated with 2 miniplates, one placed at the superior border (similar to group 1 and the other on the lateral aspect of the angle at the inferior border through an intraoral and transcutaneous approach using a trocar. Postoperative complications including malocclusion, malunion and sensory disturbances associated with surgery, additional maxillomandibular fixation (MMF by means of an arch bar and wires for a longer period (for delayed union and infection were assessed in patients of both groups up to 12 months postoperatively. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test.Results: In the single miniplate group, 25 patients showed lip numbness associated with surgery (55.6%, 22 patients required additional use of MMF (48.9% and 3 patients developed infections (6.7%. In the double miniplate group 20 patients showed lip numbness associated with surgery (47.6%, 18 patients required additional use of MMF (42.9% and 1 patient developed infection (2.4%. None of the patients in either group showed malocclusion or malunion. No significant difference was observed between the groups regarding overall complication rate.Conclusions: In this study, use of one miniplate or two miniplates for treatment of

  11. Radiographic measures of thoracic kyphosis in osteoporosis: Cobb and vertebral centroid angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, A.M.; Greig, A.M. [University of Melbourne, Centre for Health, Exercise and Sports Medicine, School of Physiotherapy, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria (Australia); Wrigley, T.V.; Tully, E.A.; Adams, P.E.; Bennell, K.L. [University of Melbourne, Centre for Health, Exercise and Sports Medicine, School of Physiotherapy, Victoria (Australia)

    2007-08-15

    Several measures can quantify thoracic kyphosis from radiographs, yet their suitability for people with osteoporosis remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the vertebral centroid and Cobb angles in people with osteoporosis. Lateral radiographs of the thoracic spine were captured in 31 elderly women with osteoporosis. Thoracic kyphosis was measured globally (T1-T12) and regionally (T4-T9) using Cobb and vertebral centroid angles. Multisegmental curvature was also measured by fitting polynomial functions to the thoracic curvature profile. Canonical and Pearson correlations were used to examine correspondence; agreement between measures was examined with linear regression. Moderate to high intra- and inter-rater reliability was achieved (SEM = 0.9-4.0 ). Concurrent validity of the simple measures was established against multisegmental curvature (r = 0.88-0.98). Strong association was observed between the Cobb and centroid angles globally (r = 0.84) and regionally (r = 0.83). Correspondence between measures was moderate for the Cobb method (r = 0.72), yet stronger for the centroid method (r = 0.80). The Cobb angle was 20% greater for regional measures due to the influence of endplate tilt. Regional Cobb and centroid angles are valid and reliable measures of thoracic kyphosis in people with osteoporosis. However, the Cobb angle is biased by endplate tilt, suggesting that the centroid angle is more appropriate for this population. (orig.)

  12. A protocol for clinical evaluation of the carrying angle of the elbow by anatomic landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampagni, Maria Luisa; Casino, Daniela; Martelli, Sandra; Visani, Andrea; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to present an in vivo protocol to estimate the carrying angle of the elbow in full extension. Forty-four arms were measured by using an electrogoniometer to acquire 3-dimensional coordinates of the landmarks. An algorithm based on the Cardan decomposition method was used to compute the carrying angle and the flexion and pronation angles of the elbow. The mean carrying angle was 12.42 degrees +/- 4.06 degrees , in agreement with the literature and with values obtained by a standard goniometer (r = 0.46; P = .000). Our protocol provided excellent repeatability (interclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.85), greater than a goniometer (ICC = 0.76), and a standard error of measurement of only 1.62 degrees . Flexion was a significant factor (P = .01) in carrying angle estimation. This study suggests that the carrying angle cannot be estimated independently by the flexion angle, even when measured in apparently full extension, and it could be useful in elbow disorders, such as fractures or epicondylar disease management and evaluation of elbow reconstruction.

  13. On MSDT inversion with multi-angle remote sensing data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With the wavelet transform, image of multi-angle remote sensing is decomposed into multi-resolution. With data of each resolution, we try target-based multi-stages inversion, taking the inversion result of coarse resolution as the prior information of the next inversion. The result gets finer and finer until the resolution of satellite observation. In this way, the target-based multi-stages inversion can be used in remote sensing inversion of large-scaled coverage. With MISR data, we inverse structure parameters of vegetation in semiarid grassland of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The result proves that this way is efficient.

  14. Moderate biomanipulation for eutrophication control in reservoirs using fish captured in angling competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral S.D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angling competitions are a popular leisure activity in reservoirs of Southern Portugal. These competitions can gather more than 100 anglers aiming to catch the maximum fish weight. Groundbaiting and catch-and-release angling are two common practices for anglers in competition. In this study, the loads of nutrients from commercial groundbait powders used in angling competitions in the Maranhão reservoir and the possible balance out of those nutrients through a moderate biomanipulation of the fish biomass caught in competitions were analysed. In order to achieve this aim, chemical analyses to groundbait powders most purchased by Portuguese anglers and to fish species most captured in competitions were made. Mass balances on inputs and outputs of nutrients considering some biomanipulation scenarios were evaluated. Results demonstrated that an effective management on angling competitions implementing a moderate biomanipulation of fish in reservoirs could promote the control of fish fauna and eutrophication, balancing out nutrients from angling.

  15. Mechanism of contact angle saturation and an energy-based model for electrowetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Zhao; Zhong-Cheng, Liang

    2016-06-01

    Electrowetting, as a well-known approach to increasing droplet wettability on a solid surface by electrical bias, has broad applications. However, it is limited by contact angle saturation at large voltage. Although several debated hypotheses have been proposed to describe it, the physical origin of contact angle saturation still remains obscure. In this work, the physical factors responsible for the onset of contact angle saturation are explored, and the correlated theoretical models are established to characterize electrowetting behavior. Combination of the proper 3-phase system employed succeeds in dropping the saturating contact angle below 25°, and validates that the contact angle saturation is not a result of device-related imperfection. Project supported by the Fund from the Research Center of Optical Communications Engineering & Technology, Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. ZSF0402).

  16. Joint Angles and Mutual Coupling Estimation Algorithm for Bistatic MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of angle estimation for a bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar with unknown mutual coupling and proposed a joint algorithm for angles and mutual coupling estimation with the characteristics of uniform linear arrays and subspaces exploitation. We primarily obtain an initial estimate of DOA and DOD, then employ the local one-dimensional searching to estimate exactly DOA and DOD, and finally evaluate the parameters of mutual coupling coefficients via the estimated angles. Exploiting twice of the one-dimensional local searching, our method has much lower computational cost than the algorithm in (Liu and Liao (2012, and automatically obtains the paired two-dimensional angle estimation. Slightly better performance for angle estimation has been achieved via our scheme in contrast to (Liu and Liao (2012, while the two methods indicate very close performance of mutual coupling estimation. The simulation results verify the algorithmic effectiveness of our scheme.

  17. A liquid crystal display with consistent moving image quality regardless of viewing angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Man; Kim, Seung-Ryul; Kim, Jongbin; Kim, Minkoo; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes a new overdrive (OD) technology to precisely compensate for the viewing angle dependent characteristics of LCDs. This paper reports that optical response of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) is considerably dependent on viewing angles for the first time. The new OD technology applies different OD look-up tables (LUTs) depending on the viewing angles. In addition, we combine a new OD technology with an eye tracker that is usually adopted for autostereoscopic 3D LCD systems. The application results show that a new OD technology improves the motion image quality perfectly regardless of viewing angles. We expect that our proposed method will definitely enable the LCD products to have consistent motion image quality regardless of viewing angles.

  18. Effects of flexibility on aerodynamic performance of delta wings with different sweep angles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Force measurement and surface oil flow visualization experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel to investigate the effects of flexibility on aerodynamic performance of delta wings with different sweep angles.The experimental results indicate that the maximum lift coefficient is increased and the stall angle is delayed as the sweep angle increases for both rigid and flexible wings.It is also found that the maximum lift coefficients of the flexible wings with a sweep angle from 35° to 50° are higher than those of the rigid ones.The increment of the maximum lift coefficient in particular achieves 32.9% compared with the case without lift enhancement for the 40° flexible delta wing.Moreover,the surface oil flow visualization experiments show that the stall of the flexible wing of the moderate low sweep angle is accompanied by helical flow structure,while the vortex bursting appears on the corresponding rigid wing.

  19. Iphone app use to Cobb angle in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Does this apply?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antenor Rafael de Oliveira Mazzuia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To validate a new method of measuring the Cobb angle for scoliosis from the mobile app CobbMeter to facilitate the evaluation and measurement in clinical practice.METHODS: Five observers with minimum experience of two years in the field performed radiographic measurements of Cobb angle in 24 radiographs of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis through the CobbMeter. Observers performed serial measures on the images with the application, which were repeated after one month. The most experienced appraiser of the group, after measurements were made through the application, determined the Cobb angle in each radiography by the traditional method.RESULTS: The mean standard deviation by comparing the angles electronically and manually measured had no clinical significance. Although 40% of electronic measurements are outside the confidence interval when compared to manual measurements, this difference was insignificant in clinical practice.CONCLUSIONS: The CobbMeter is another alternative for measuring Cobb angle in scoliosis.

  20. Optimum Design of Highway Excavation Slope Angle: Evidence from Dawu Section of Jingzhu Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The optimum design of the highway excavation slope angle is one of the most important problems to the highway construction and to the slope improvement. The Dawu Section of Jingzhu (Beijing-Zhuhai) Highway is taken as an example to illustrate the study method for excavation slope angle design.The analysis of the engineering condition from different angles with different factors shows that the stability of the slope is calculated by using residual pushing force and the Sarma method. Then the sensitive analysis of the slope stability is conducted by using residual pushing force method. Finally, the optimum angle of design is presented on the precondition of ensuring the whole stability of slope and the economic reasonability. The study results show that the most sensitive factors are the shear strength parameter and t he seismic force, and that the optimum excavation slope angle is 60°.``

  1. Contact angle and contact angle hysteresis measurements using the capillary bridge technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restagno, Frédéric; Poulard, Christophe; Cohen, Céline; Vagharchakian, Laurianne; Léger, Liliane

    2009-09-15

    A new experimental technique is proposed to easily measure both advancing and receding contact angles of a liquid on a solid surface, with unprecedented accuracy. The technique is based on the analysis of the evolution of a capillary bridge formed between a liquid bath and a solid surface (which needs to be spherical) when the distance between the surface and the liquid bath is slowly varied. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated using a low-energy perfluorinated surface with two different test liquids (water and hexadecane). A detailed description of both experimental procedures and computational modeling are given, allowing one to determine contact angle values. It is shown that the origin of the high accuracy of this technique relies on the fact that the contact angles are automatically averaged over the whole periphery of the contact. This method appears to be particularly adapted to the characterization of surfaces with very low contact angle hysteresis.

  2. The small angle diffractometer SANS at PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    With the start-up of SINQ an instrument for small angle neutron scattering will be operational which compares well with the world`s largest and most powerful facilities of this kind. Following the classical principle of the D11-instrument of ILL, it is equipped with state-of-the-art components as are nowadays available, including options for further upgrading. Great emphasis was laid upon providing a flexible, universal multi-user facility which guarantees a comfortable and reliable operation. In the present paper, the principle layout of the instrument is presented, and the individual components are described in detail. The paper concludes with model application of small angle scattering to a system of dilute CuCo alloys which undergo a phase separation under thermal treatment, forming spherical Co-precipitates dispersed in a Cu-rich matrix. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs.

  3. Absorbing angles, Steiner minimal trees, and antipodality

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, Horst; de Wet, P Oloff; 10.1007/s10957-009-9552-1

    2011-01-01

    We give a new proof that a star $\\{op_i:i=1,...,k\\}$ in a normed plane is a Steiner minimal tree of its vertices $\\{o,p_1,...,p_k\\}$ if and only if all angles formed by the edges at o are absorbing [Swanepoel, Networks \\textbf{36} (2000), 104--113]. The proof is more conceptual and simpler than the original one. We also find a new sufficient condition for higher-dimensional normed spaces to share this characterization. In particular, a star $\\{op_i: i=1,...,k\\}$ in any CL-space is a Steiner minimal tree of its vertices $\\{o,p_1,...,p_k\\}$ if and only if all angles are absorbing, which in turn holds if and only if all distances between the normalizations $\\frac{1}{\\|p_i\\|}p_i$ equal 2. CL-spaces include the mixed $\\ell_1$ and $\\ell_\\infty$ sum of finitely many copies of $R^1$.

  4. Reactor mixing angle from hybrid neutrino masses

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, D Aristizabal

    2014-01-01

    In terms of its eigenvector decomposition, the neutrino mass matrix (in the basis where the charged lepton mass matrix is diagonal) can be understood as originating from a tribimaximal dominant structure with small deviations, as demanded by data. If neutrino masses originate from at least two different mechanisms, referred to as "hybrid neutrino masses", the experimentally observed structure naturally emerges provided one mechanism accounts for the dominant tribimaximal structure while the other is responsible for the deviations. We demonstrate the feasibility of this picture in a fairly model-independent way by using lepton-number-violating effective operators, whose structure we assume becomes dictated by an underlying $A_4$ flavor symmetry. We show that if a second mechanism is at work, the requirement of generating a reactor angle within its experimental range always fixes the solar and atmospheric angles in agreement with data, in contrast to the case where the deviations are induced by next-to-leading ...

  5. Picoliter water contact angle measurement on polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael; Urquhart, Andrew J; Zelzer, Mischa; Davies, Martyn C; Alexander, Morgan R

    2007-06-19

    Water contact angle measurement is the most common method for determining a material's wettability, and the sessile drop approach is the most frequently used. However, the method is generally limited to macroscopic measurements because the base diameter of the droplet is usually greater than 1 mm. Here we report for the first time on a dosing system to dispense smaller individual droplets with control of the position and investigate whether water contact angles determined from picoliter volume water droplets are comparable with those obtained from the conventional microliter volume water droplets. This investigation was conducted on a group of commonly used polymers. To demonstrate the higher spatial resolution of wettability that can be achieved using picoliter volume water droplets, the wettability of a radial plasma polymer gradient was mapped using a 250 microm interval grid.

  6. Gaia: focus, straylight and basic angle

    CERN Document Server

    Mora, A; Bombrun, A; Boyadian, J; Chassat, F; Corberand, P; Davidson, M; Doyle, D; Escolar, D; Gielesen, W L M; Guilpain, T; Hernandez, J; Kirschner, V; Klioner, S A; Koeck, C; Laine, B; Lindegren, L; Serpell, E; Tatry, P; Thoral, P

    2016-01-01

    The Gaia all-sky astrometric survey is challenged by several issues affecting the spacecraft stability. Amongst them, we find the focus evolution, straylight and basic angle variations Contrary to pre-launch expectations, the image quality is continuously evolving, during commissioning and the nominal mission. Payload decontaminations and wavefront sensor assisted refocuses have been carried out to recover optimum performance. An ESA-Airbus DS working group analysed the straylight and basic angle issues and worked on a detailed root cause analysis. In parallel, the Gaia scientists have also analysed the data, most notably comparing the BAM signal to global astrometric solutions, with remarkable agreement. In this contribution, a status review of these issues will be provided, with emphasis on the mitigation schemes and the lessons learned for future space missions where extreme stability is a key requirement.

  7. Gaia: focus, straylight and basic angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, A.; Biermann, M.; Bombrun, A.; Boyadjian, J.; Chassat, F.; Corberand, P.; Davidson, M.; Doyle, D.; Escolar, D.; Gielesen, W. L. M.; Guilpain, T.; Hernandez, J.; Kirschner, V.; Klioner, S. A.; Koeck, C.; Laine, B.; Lindegren, L.; Serpell, E.; Tatry, P.; Thoral, P.

    2016-07-01

    The Gaia all-sky astrometric survey is challenged by several issues affecting the spacecraft stability. Amongst them, we find the focus evolution, straylight and basic angle variations Contrary to pre-launch expectations, the image quality is continuously evolving, during commissioning and the nominal mission. Payload decontaminations and wavefront sensor assisted refocuses have been carried out to recover optimum performance. An ESA-Airbus DS working group analysed the straylight and basic angle issues and worked on a detailed root cause analysis. In parallel, the Gaia scientists have also analysed the data, most notably comparing the BAM signal to global astrometric solutions, with remarkable agreement. In this contribution, a status review of these issues will be provided, with emphasis on the mitigation schemes and the lessons learned for future space missions where extreme stability is a key requirement.

  8. Sparse regularization in limited angle tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Frikel, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the reconstruction problem of limited angle tomography. Such problems arise naturally in applications like digital breast tomosynthesis, dental tomography, electron microscopy etc. Since the acquired tomographic data is highly incomplete, the reconstruction problem is severely ill-posed and the traditional reconstruction methods, such as filtered backprojection (FBP), do not perform well in such situations. To stabilize the reconstruction procedure additional prior knowledge about the unknown object has to be integrated into the reconstruction process. In this work, we propose the use of the sparse regularization technique in combination with curvelets. We argue that this technique gives rise to an edge-preserving reconstruction. Moreover, we show that the dimension of the problem can be significantly reduced in the curvelet domain. To this end, we give a characterization of the kernel of limited angle Radon transform in terms of curvelets and derive a characterization of solutions obtained thr...

  9. AGN jet physics and apparent opening angles

    CERN Document Server

    Clausen-Brown, Eric; Pushkarev, Alexander B; Kovalev, Yuri Y; Lister, Matthew L

    2013-01-01

    We present a new method to measure Gamma*theta_j in flux-limited samples of active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets, where Gamma is the bulk Lorentz factor and theta_j is the jet's half-opening angle. The Gamma*theta_j parameter is physically important for models of jet launching, and also determines the effectiveness of jet instabilities and magnetic reconnection. We measure Gamma*theta_j by analyzing the observed distribution of apparent opening angles in very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) flux-limited samples of jets, given some prior knowledge of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) radio luminosity function. We then apply this method to the MOJAVE flux-limited sample of radio loud objects and find Gamma*theta_j = 0.1 +- 0.03, which implies that AGN jets are subject to a variety of physical processes that require causal connection.

  10. Is a Knowledge of Surface Topology and Contact Angles Enough to Define the Drop Impact Outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Ileana; Veronesi, Federico; Caldarelli, Aurora; Zani, Maurizio; Raimondo, Mariarosa; Marengo, Marco

    2016-06-28

    It is well known that a superhydrophobic surface may not be able to repel impacting droplets because of the so-called Cassie-to-Wenzel transition. It has been proven that a critical value of the receding contact angle (θR) exists for the complete rebound of water, recently experimentally measured to be 100° for a large range of impact velocities. On the contrary, in the present work, no rebound was observed when low-surface-tension liquids such as hexadecane (σ = 27.5 mN/m at 25 °C) are concerned, even for very low impact velocities and very high values of θR and low contact angle hysteresis. Therefore, the critical threshold of θR ≈ 100° does not sound acceptable for all liquids and for all hydrophobic surfaces. For the same Weber numbers, a Cassie-to-Wenzel state transition occurs after the impact as a result of the easier penetration of low-surface-tension fluids in the surface structure. Hence, a criterion for the drop rebound of low-surface-tension liquids must consider not only the contact angle values with surfaces but also their surface tension and viscosity. This suggests that, even if it is possible to produce surfaces with enhanced static repellence against oils and organics, generally the realization of synthetic materials with self-cleaning and antisticking abilities in dynamic phenomena, such as spray impact, remains an unsolved task. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the chemistry of the surface, the physicochemical interactions with the liquid drops, and the possible wettability gradient of the surface asperity also play important roles in determining the critical Weber number above which impalement occurs. Therefore, the classical numerical simulations of drop impact on dry surfaces are definitively not able to capture the final outcomes of the impact for all possible fluids if the surface topology and chemistry and/or the wettability gradient in the surface structure are not properly reflected.

  11. Muscle and reflex changes with varying joint angle in hemiparetic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alibiglou Laila

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite intensive investigation, the origins of the neuromuscular abnormalities associated with spasticity are not well understood. In particular, the mechanical properties induced by stretch reflex activity have been especially difficult to study because of a lack of accurate tools separating reflex torque from torque generated by musculo-tendinous structures. The present study addresses this deficit by characterizing the contribution of neural and muscular components to the abnormally high stiffness of the spastic joint. Methods Using system identification techniques, we characterized the neuromuscular abnormalities associated with spasticity of ankle muscles in chronic hemiparetic stroke survivors. In particular, we systematically tracked changes in muscle mechanical properties and in stretch reflex activity during changes in ankle joint angle. Modulation of mechanical properties was assessed by applying perturbations at different initial angles, over the entire range of motion (ROM. Experiments were performed on both paretic and non-paretic sides of stroke survivors, and in healthy controls. Results Both reflex and intrinsic muscle stiffnesses were significantly greater in the spastic/paretic ankle than on the non-paretic side, and these changes were strongly position dependent. The major reflex contributions were observed over the central portion of the angular range, while the intrinsic contributions were most pronounced with the ankle in the dorsiflexed position. Conclusion In spastic ankle muscles, the abnormalities in intrinsic and reflex components of joint torque varied systematically with changing position over the full angular range of motion, indicating that clinical perceptions of increased tone may have quite different origins depending upon the angle where the tests are initiated. Furthermore, reflex stiffness was considerably larger in the non-paretic limb of stroke patients than in healthy control subjects

  12. An investigation on the effects of resection angle on apical sea!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmi H

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The goal of a successful endodontic surgery is to establish an adequate seal in apical region. Therefore during surgery, root-end resection is essential for an appropriate situation and proper access."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate root-end resection angle to establish adequate apical seal in periapical surgery,"nMaterials and Methods: Forty-five intact extracted human maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into three 15-tooth groups. The root canals were instrumented and then obturated using lateral condensation technique. AM roots were resected at 3mm from apical portion. Angles of root resection for each group were 0, 30 and 45 degrees. Then all teeth surfaces, except the cut ones, were covered with nail polish and immersed in methylen blue for 7 days. After 7 days, nail polish was removed from the surfaces and samples were split in buccolingual direction. Then, dye penetration (mm was measured using a stereozoom microscope (Loupe [X4 magnification] and eye lens. In order to analyze the data, unilateral variance analysis was used."nResults: The values of dye penetration were: 7.23±3.34 (0°, 8.46±3.01(30° and 9.74±4.11 (45°. There"nwas no significant difference between three groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: It is suggested that the angle of root-end resection put a limited effect on apical seal if retrograde cavity depth is increased.

  13. Mechanisms of eyewitness suggestibility: tests of the explanatory role hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, Eric J; Chrobak, Quin M; Zaragoza, Maria S; Weihing, Caitlin A

    2017-02-07

    In a recent paper, Chrobak and Zaragoza (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 827-844, 2013) proposed the explanatory role hypothesis, which posits that the likelihood of developing false memories for post-event suggestions is a function of the explanatory function the suggestion serves. In support of this hypothesis, they provided evidence that participant-witnesses were especially likely to develop false memories for their forced fabrications when their fabrications helped to explain outcomes they had witnessed. In three experiments, we test the generality of the explanatory role hypothesis as a mechanism of eyewitness suggestibility by assessing whether this hypothesis can predict suggestibility errors in (a) situations where the post-event suggestions are provided by the experimenter (as opposed to fabricated by the participant), and (b) across a variety of memory measures and measures of recollective experience. In support of the explanatory role hypothesis, participants were more likely to subsequently freely report (E1) and recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (E2, source test) when the post-event suggestion helped to provide a causal explanation for a witnessed outcome than when it did not serve this explanatory role. Participants were also less likely to recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (on measures of subjective experience) when their explanatory strength had been reduced by the presence of an alternative explanation that could explain the same outcome (E3, source test + warning). Collectively, the results provide strong evidence that the search for explanatory coherence influences people's tendency to misremember witnessing events that were only suggested to them.

  14. Kinematics of Gait: New Method for Angle Estimation Based on Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan B. Popović

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A new method for estimation of angles of leg segments and joints, which uses accelerometer arrays attached to body segments, is described. An array consists of two accelerometers mounted on a rigid rod. The absolute angle of each body segment was determined by band pass filtering of the differences between signals from parallel axes from two accelerometers mounted on the same rod. Joint angles were evaluated by subtracting absolute angles of the neighboring segments. This method eliminates the need for double integration as well as the drift typical for double integration. The efficiency of the algorithm is illustrated by experimental results involving healthy subjects who walked on a treadmill at various speeds, ranging between 0.15 m/s and 2.0 m/s. The validation was performed by comparing the estimated joint angles with the joint angles measured with flexible goniometers. The discrepancies were assessed by the differences between the two sets of data (obtained to be below 6 degrees and by the Pearson correlation coefficient (greater than 0.97 for the knee angle and greater than 0.85 for the ankle angle.

  15. Kinematics of gait: new method for angle estimation based on accelerometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurić-Jovičić, Milica D; Jovičić, Nenad S; Popović, Dejan B

    2011-01-01

    A new method for estimation of angles of leg segments and joints, which uses accelerometer arrays attached to body segments, is described. An array consists of two accelerometers mounted on a rigid rod. The absolute angle of each body segment was determined by band pass filtering of the differences between signals from parallel axes from two accelerometers mounted on the same rod. Joint angles were evaluated by subtracting absolute angles of the neighboring segments. This method eliminates the need for double integration as well as the drift typical for double integration. The efficiency of the algorithm is illustrated by experimental results involving healthy subjects who walked on a treadmill at various speeds, ranging between 0.15 m/s and 2.0 m/s. The validation was performed by comparing the estimated joint angles with the joint angles measured with flexible goniometers. The discrepancies were assessed by the differences between the two sets of data (obtained to be below 6 degrees) and by the Pearson correlation coefficient (greater than 0.97 for the knee angle and greater than 0.85 for the ankle angle).

  16. Starting position of movement and perception of angle of trunk flexion while standing with eyes closed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, K; Miyaguchi, A; Toyama, H; Kunita, K; Asai, H

    1999-08-01

    The present study attempted to investigate the effect of position on the perception of angle of trunk flexion while standing. For this purpose, the range effect was factored out by setting the constant target angle at 10 degrees, with varied starting positions of trunk flexion. We found that subjects underestimated angle of trunk flexion when the starting position was close to a quiet standing posture, overestimated when close to maximum trunk flexion, and correctly perceived it when at the middle position. Less perceptual distortion was observed at the positions close to maximum trunk flexion in the present study than in our previous one, in which various target angles of trunk flexion were reproduced from a quiet standing posture. The reduced distortion in the present study was believed to have resulted from factoring out the range effect. The flexion angle of the hip joint changed in tandem with that of the trunk, while very little movement was observed in the ankle, knee, and neck joints. Judging from the changing pattern of hip-joint angle, the muscle activity of the erector spinae and biceps femoris increased gradually to 90 degrees trunk flexion. In contrast, the actual increment of muscle activity reached zero or a minimum value at the middle angles as the angle of trunk flexion increased. It was assumed that the abrupt change in kinesthetic information associated with muscle activity exerted a great influence on the perception of trunk flexion.

  17. Wireless Orbiter Hang-Angle Inclinometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Angel; Perotti, Jose; Green, Eric; Byon, Jonathan; Burns, Bradley; Mata, Carlos; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman

    2011-01-01

    A document describes a system to reliably gather the hang-angle inclination of the orbiter. The system comprises a wireless handheld master station (which contains the main station software) and a wireless remote station (which contains the inclinometer sensors, the RF transceivers, and the remote station software). The remote station is designed to provide redundancy to the system. It includes two RF transceivers, two power-management boards, and four inclinometer sensors.

  18. Black hole microstates from branes at angle

    CERN Document Server

    Pieri, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We derive the leading g_s perturbation of the SUGRA fields generated by a supersymmetric configuration of respectively 1, 2 or 4 D3-branes intersecting at an arbitrary angle via the computation of the string theory disk scattering amplitude of one massless NSNS field interacting with open strings stretched between the branes. The configuration with four branes is expected to be relevant for black hole microstate counting in four dimensions.

  19. Target Localization Based on Angle of Arrivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Chao Cao

    2007-01-01

    Mobile location using angle of arrival (AOA) measurements has received considerable attention. This paper presents an approximation of maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) for localizing a source based on AOA measurements. By introducing an intermediate variable, the nonlinear equations relating AOA estimates can be transformed into a set of equations which are linear in the unknown parameters. It is an approximate realization of the MLE. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the previous contribution.

  20. Contact angle hysteresis at the nanometer scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, Mathieu; Monthioux, Marc; Ondarçuhu, Thierry

    2011-04-01

    Using atomic force microscopy with nonconventional carbon tips, the pinning of a liquid contact line on individual nanometric defects was studied. This mechanism is responsible for the occurrence of the contact angle hysteresis. The presence of weak defects which do not contribute to the hysteresis is evidenced for the first time. The dissipated energy associated with strong defects is also measured down to values in the range of kT, which correspond to defect sizes in the order of 1 nm.