WorldWideScience

Sample records for angle resolved xps

  1. XPS and angle resolved XPS, in the semiconductor industry: Characterization and metrology control of ultra-thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brundle, C.R.; Conti, Giuseppina; Mack, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the development of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS, used as a characterization and metrology method for ultra-thin films in the semiconductor wafer processing industry. After a brief explanation of how the relative roles of XPS and Auger electron spectroscopy, AES, have changed over the last 15 years or so in the semiconductor industry, we go into some detail as to what is implied by metrology, as opposed to characterization, for thin films in the industry, and then describe how XPS, and particularly angle resolved XPS, ARXPS, have been implemented as a metrology 'tool' for thickness, chemical composition, and non-destructive depth profiling, of transistor gate oxide material, a key requirement in front-end processing. We take a historical approach, dealing first with the early use for SiO 2 films on Si(1 0 0), then moving to silicon oxynitride, SiO x N y in detail, and finally and briefly HfO 2 -based material, which is used today in the most advanced devices (32 nm node).

  2. Formation of complexes between functionalized chitosan membranes and copper: A study by angle resolved XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado-López, Belén [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Vieira, Rodrigo Silveira [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Rabelo, Rodrigo Balloni; Beppu, Marisa Masumi [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6066, 13081-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Casado, Juan [Departamento de Química-Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique, E-mail: castellon@uma.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain)

    2017-01-01

    Chitosan is a biopolymer with potential applications in various fields. Recently, it has been used for heavy metals removal like copper, due to the presence of amino and hydroxyl groups in its structure. Chitosan membranes were crosslinked with epichlorohydrin and bisoxirano and functionalized with chelating agents, such as iminodiacetic acid, aspartic acid and tris-(2-amino-ethyl) polyamine. These membranes were used for copper adsorption and the formed complexes were characterized. Thermal and crystalline properties of chitosan membranes were studied by TG-DCS and X-ray diffraction. Raman, XPS and FT-IR data confirmed that copper is linked to the modified chitosan membranes by the amino groups. The oxidation state of copper-chitosan membranes were also studied by angle resolved XPS, and by UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Chitosan membranes were crosslinked with epichlorohydrin and bisoxirano and functionalized with chelating agents. • The chelating agent were iminodiacetic acid, aspartic acid and tris-(2-amino-ethyl) polyamine. • The functionalized membranes were used for copper adsorption and studied by ARXPS, Raman, TG-DCS, FT-IR and XRD. • Spectroscopic data confirmed that copper is linked to the modified chitosan membranes by the amino groups.

  3. Depth profile analysis of polymerized fluorine compound on photo-resist film with angle-resolved XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Yoshitoki; Kubota, Toshio; Oinaka, Syuhei

    2013-01-01

    Angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) is an observation technique which is very effective in chemical depth analysis method less than photoelectron detected depth. For the analysis of depth profile, several analysis methods have been proposed to calculate the depth profile using the ARXPS method. The present report is the measurements of depth profile of the fluorine in a fluorine-containing photo-resist film using the ARXPS method and the depth profile of concentration have been successfully determined using the ARCtick 1.0 software. It has been observed that thickness of the fluorocarbon enriched surface layer of the photo-resist was 2.7 nm, and so that the convert of the ARXPS data from the angle profile to the depth profile was proved to be useful analysis method for the ultrathin layer depth. (author)

  4. Direct angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since 1997 we systematically perform direct angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) on in-situ grown thin (< 30 nm) cuprate films. Specifically, we probe low-energy electronic structure and properties of high-c superconductors (HTSC) under different degrees of epitaxial (compressive vs. tensile) strain.

  5. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    Measurements of the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the S(1s) core level of a c(2 x 2)S/Ni(001) are analyzed to determine the spacing between the S overlayer and the first and second Ni layers. ARPEFS is a type of photoelectron diffraction measurement in which the photoelectron kinetic energy is swept typically from 100 to 600 eV. By using this wide range of intermediate energies we add high precision and theoretical simplification to the advantages of the photoelectron diffraction technique for determining surface structures. We report developments in the theory of photoelectron scattering in the intermediate energy range, measurement of the experimental photoemission spectra, their reduction to ARPEFS, and the surface structure determination from the ARPEFS by combined Fourier and multiple-scattering analyses. 202 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Indoor Measurement of Angle Resolved Light Absorption by Black Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amdemeskel, Mekbib Wubishet; Iandolo, Beniamino; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    Angle resolved optical spectroscopy of photovoltaic (PV) samples gives crucial information on PV panels under realistic working conditions. Here, we introduce measurements of angle resolved light absorption by PV cells, performed indoors using a collimated high radiance broadband light source. Our...... indoor method offers a significant simplification as compared to measurements by solar trackers. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we show characterization of black silicon solar cells. The experimental results showed stable and reliable optical responses that makes our setup suitable for indoor......, angle resolved characterization of solar cells....

  7. Quantification of the toxic hexavalent chromium content in an organic matrix by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultra-low-angle microtomy (ULAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greunz, Theresia, E-mail: theresia.greunz@jku.at [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microscopic and Spectroscopic Material Characterisation (CDL-MS-MACH), Center for Surface and Nanoanalytics (ZONA), Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Duchaczek, Hubert; Sagl, Raffaela [voestalpine Stahl GmbH, voestalpine-Straße 3, 4031 Linz (Austria); Duchoslav, Jiri; Steinberger, Roland [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microscopic and Spectroscopic Material Characterisation (CDL-MS-MACH), Center for Surface and Nanoanalytics (ZONA), Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Strauß, Bernhard [voestalpine Stahl GmbH, voestalpine-Straße 3, 4031 Linz (Austria); Stifter, David [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microscopic and Spectroscopic Material Characterisation (CDL-MS-MACH), Center for Surface and Nanoanalytics (ZONA), Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Common methods are not suitable for a reliable determination of Cr(VI) in organic coatings on steel. • Our proposed method is a combination of XPS and ultra-low-angle microtomy (ULAM). • The results allow referring to legal regulations of the Cr(VI) concentration. • For this method no accurate sample parameters are required. - Abstract: Cr(VI) is known for its corrosion inhibitive properties and is, despite legal regulations, still a potential candidate to be added to thin (1–3 μm) protective coatings applied on, e.g., electrical steel as used for transformers, etc. However, Cr(VI) is harmful to the environment and to the human health. Hence, a reliable quantification of it is of decisive interest. Commonly, an alkaline extraction with a photometric endpoint detection of Cr(VI) is used for such material systems. However, this procedure requires an accurate knowledge on sample parameters such as dry film thickness and coating density that are occasionally associated with significant experimental errors. We present a comprehensive study of a coating system with a defined Cr(VI) pigment concentration applied on electrical steel. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to resolve the elemental chromium concentration and the chemical state. Turning to the fact that XPS is extremely surface sensitive (<10 nm) and that the lowest commonly achievable lateral resolution is a number of times higher than the coating thickness (∼2 μm), a bulk analysis was achieved with XPS line scans on extended wedge-shaped tapers through the coating. For that purpose a special sample preparation step performed on an ultra-microtome was required prior to analysis. Since a temperature increase leads to a reduction of Cr(VI) we extend our method on samples, which were subjected to different curing temperatures. We show that our proposed approach now allows to determine the elemental and Cr(VI) concentration and distribution inside the coating.

  8. Energy- and angled-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegg, D.J.; Thompson, J.S.; Compton, R.N.; Alton, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Energy- and angle-resolved photoelectron detachment spectroscopy is currently being used to investigate the structure of negative ions and their interaction with radiation. Measurements of the electron affinity of the Ca atom and the partial cross sections for photodetachment of the metastable negative ion, He - (1s2s2p 4 P), are reported. 5 refs., 5 figs

  9. Angle-resolved diffraction grating biosensor based on porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Changwu; Li, Peng [School of Physical Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Jia, Zhenhong, E-mail: jzhh@xju.edu.cn; Liu, Yajun; Mo, Jiaqing; Lv, Xiaoyi [College of Information Science and Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China)

    2016-03-07

    In this study, an optical biosensor based on a porous silicon composite structure was fabricated using a simple method. This structure consists of a thin, porous silicon surface diffraction grating and a one-dimensional porous silicon photonic crystal. An angle-resolved diffraction efficiency spectrum was obtained by measuring the diffraction efficiency at a range of incident angles. The angle-resolved diffraction efficiency of the 2nd and 3rd orders was studied experimentally and theoretically. The device was sensitive to the change of refractive index in the presence of a biomolecule indicated by the shift of the diffraction efficiency spectrum. The sensitivity of this sensor was investigated through use of an 8 base pair antifreeze protein DNA hybridization. The shifts of the angle-resolved diffraction efficiency spectrum showed a relationship with the change of the refractive index, and the detection limit of the biosensor reached 41.7 nM. This optical device is highly sensitive, inexpensive, and simple to fabricate. Using shifts in diffraction efficiency spectrum to detect biological molecules has not yet been explored, so this study establishes a foundation for future work.

  10. Angle-resolved effective potentials for disk-shaped molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.heinemann@tu-berlin.de; Klapp, Sabine H. L., E-mail: klapp@physik.tu-berlin.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Palczynski, Karol, E-mail: karol.palczynski@helmholtz-berlin.de; Dzubiella, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.dzubiella@helmholtz-berlin.de [Institut für Physik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB), Institute of Soft Matter and Functional Materials, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-12-07

    We present an approach for calculating coarse-grained angle-resolved effective pair potentials for uniaxial molecules. For integrating out the intramolecular degrees of freedom we apply umbrella sampling and steered dynamics techniques in atomistically-resolved molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. Throughout this study we focus on disk-like molecules such as coronene. To develop the methods we focus on integrating out the van der Waals and intramolecular interactions, while electrostatic charge contributions are neglected. The resulting coarse-grained pair potential reveals a strong temperature and angle dependence. In the next step we fit the numerical data with various Gay-Berne-like potentials to be used in more efficient simulations on larger scales. The quality of the resulting coarse-grained results is evaluated by comparing their pair and many-body structure as well as some thermodynamic quantities self-consistently to the outcome of atomistic MD simulations of many-particle systems. We find that angle-resolved potentials are essential not only to accurately describe crystal structures but also for fluid systems where simple isotropic potentials start to fail already for low to moderate packing fractions. Further, in describing these states it is crucial to take into account the pronounced temperature dependence arising in selected pair configurations due to bending fluctuations.

  11. Angle-resolved photoluminescence spectrum of a uniform phosphor layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Ichiro; Ohta, Masamichi

    2017-10-01

    A photoluminescence spectrum depends on an emission angle due to self-absorption in a phosphor material. Assuming isotropic initial emission and Lambert-Beer's law, we have derived simple expressions for the angle-resolved spectra emerging from the top and bottom surfaces of a uniform phosphor layer. The transmittance of an excitation light through the phosphor layer can be regarded as a design parameter. For a strongly-absorbing phosphor layer, the forward flux is less intense and more red-shifted than the backward flux. The red-shift is enhanced as the emission direction deviates away from the plane normal. When we increase the transmittance, the backward flux decreases monotonically. The forward flux peaks at a certain transmittance value. The two fluxes become similar to each other for a weakly-absorbing phosphor layer. We have observed these behaviors in experiment. In a practical application, self-absorption decreases the efficiency of conversion and results in angle-dependent variations in chromaticity coordinates. A patterned phosphor layer with a secondary optical element such as a remote reflector alleviates these problems.

  12. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on iron-chalcogenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maletz, Janek; Zabolotnyy, Volodymyr; Evtushinsky, Daniil; Thirupathaiah, Setti; Wolter-Giraud, Anja; Harnagea, Luminita; Kordyuk, Alexander; Borisenko, Sergey [IFW Dresden (Germany); Yaresko, Alexander [MPI-FKF, Stuttgart (Germany); Vasiliev, Alexander [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Chareev, Dimitri [RAS, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Rienks, Emile [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (Germany); Buechner, Bernd [IFW Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden (Germany); Shermadini, Zurab; Luetkens, Hubertus; Sedlak, Kamil; Khasanov, Rustem; Amato, Alex; Krzton-Maziopa, Anna; Conder, Kazimierz; Pomjakushina, Ekaterina [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Klauss, Hans-Henning [TU Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The electronic structure of the iron chalcogenide superconductors FeSe{sub 1-x} and Rb{sub 0.77}Fe{sub 1.61}Se{sub 2} was investigated by high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). The results were compared to DFT calculations and μSR measurements. Both compounds share ''cigar-shaped'' Fermi surface sheets in their electronic structure, that can be found in almost all iron-pnictide superconductors. These features originate from a strong interplay of two hole- and electron-like bands in the Brillouin zone center, leading to a pronounced singularity in the density of states just below the Fermi level. This facilitates the coupling to a bosonic mode responsible for superconductivity.

  13. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of formaldehyde and methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, P. R.; Taylor, J. W.; Grimm, F. A.; Carlson, Thomas A.

    1984-10-01

    Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to obtain the angular distribution parameter, β, for the valence orbitals (IP < 21.1 eV) of formaldehyde and methanol over the 10-30 eV photon energy range using dispersed polarized synchrotron radiation as the excitation source. It was found that the energy dependence of β in the photoelectron energy range between 2 and 10 eV can be related to the molecular-orbital type from which ionization occurs. This generalized energy behavior is discussed with regard to earlier energy-dependence studies on molecules of different orbital character. Evidence is presented for the presence of resonance photoionization phenomena in formaldehyde in agreement with theoretical cross-section calculations.

  14. Angle-dependent XPS study of the mechanisms of 'high-low temperature' activation of GaAs photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiaoqing; Chang Benkang

    2005-01-01

    The surface chemical compositions, atomic concentration percentage and layer thickness after 'high-temperature' single-step activation and 'high-low temperature' two-step activation were obtained using quantitative analysis of angle-dependent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that compared to single-step activation, the thickness of GaAs-O interface barrier had a remarkable decrease, the degree of As-O bond became much smaller and the Ga-O bond became dominating, and at the same time the thickness of (Cs, O) layer also had a deduction while the ratio of Cs to O had no change after two-step activation. The measured spectral response curves showed that a increase of 29% of sensitivity had been obtained after two-step activation. To explore the inherent mechanisms of influences of the evolution of GaAs(Cs, O) surface layers on photoemission, surface electric barrier models based on the experimental results were built. By calculation of electron escape probability it was found that the decrease of thickness of GaAs-O interface barrier and (Cs, O) layer is the main reasons, which explained why higher sensitivity is achieved after two-step activation than single-step activation

  15. Precision angle-resolved autoionization resonances in Ar and Ne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrah, N.; Langer, B.; Gorczyca, T.W. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Theoretical work has shown that the electron angular distribution and the shape of the autoionization resonances are crucial to the understanding of certain types of electron-electron correlation. Autoionization resonances in Ne (Ar) result from the decay of the excited discrete state Ne{sup *} 2s2p{sup 6} np (Ar{sup *} 3s3p{sup 6} np) into the continuum state Ne{sup +} 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5} + e{sup {minus}} (ks,kd) (Ar{sup +} 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5} + e{sup {minus}} (ks,kd)). Since the continuum can also be reached by direct photoionization, both paths add coherently, giving rise to interferences that produce the characteristic Beutler-Fano line shape. In this work, the authors report on quantitative angle-resolved electron spectrometry studies of (a) the Ne 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 2s2p{sup 6} np (n=3-5) autoionizing resonances and the 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 2p{sup 4}3s3p doubly excited resonance, (b) the Ar 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 3s3p{sup 6} np (n=4-9) autoionization resonances and extended R-matrix calculations of the angular-distribution parameters for both Ne and Ar measurements. Their results are compared with previous theoretical work by Taylor.

  16. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies of cuprate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palczewski, Ari Deibert [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of three different angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies on cuprate superconductors. The first study compares the band structure from two different single layer cuprates Tl2Ba2CuO6+δ (Tl2201) Tc, max ≈ 95 K and (Bi 1.35Pb0.85)(Sr1.47La0.38)CuO6+δ (Bi2201) Tc, max ≈ 35 K. The aim of the study was to provide some insight into the reasons why single layer cuprate's maximum transition temperatures are so different. The study found two major differences in the band structure. First, the Fermi surface segments close to (π,0) are more parallel in Tl2201 than in Bi2201. Second, the shadow band usually related to crystal structure is only present in Bi2201, but absent in higher Tc Tl2201. The second study looks at the different ways of doping Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi2212) in-situ by only changing the post bake-out vacuum conditions and temperature. The aim of the study is to systematically look into the generally overlooked experimental conditions that change the doping of a cleaved sample in ultra high vacuum (UHV) experiments. The study found two major experimental facts. First, in inadequate UHV conditions the carrier concentration of Bi2212 increases with time, due to the absorption of oxygen from CO2/CO molecules, prime contaminants present in UHV systems. Second, in a very clean UHV system at elevated temperatures (above about 200 K), the carrier concentration decreases due to the loss of oxygen atoms from the Bi-O layer. The final study probed the particle-hole symmetry of the pseudogap phase in high temperature superconducting cuprates by looking at the thermally excited bands above the Fermi level. The data showed a particle-hole symmetric pseudogap which symmetrically closes away from the nested FS before the node. The data is

  17. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies of cuprate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palczewski, Ari Deibert [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of three different angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies on cuprate superconductors. The first study compares the band structure from two different single layer cuprates Tl2Ba2CuO6+δ (Tl2201) Tc,max ~95 K and (Bi1.35Pb0.85)(Sr1.47La0.38)CuO6+δ (Bi2201) Tc,max 35 K. The aim of the study was to provide some insight into the reasons why single layer cuprate's maximum transition temperatures are so different. The study found two major di erences in the band structure. First, the Fermi surface segments close to ( π,0) are more parallel in Tl2201 than in Bi2201. Second, the shadow band usually related to crystal structure is only present in Bi2201, but absent in higher Tc Tl2201. The second study looks at the different ways of doping Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi2212) in-situ by only changing the post bake-out vacuum conditions and temperature. The aim of the study is to systematically look into the generally overlooked experimental conditions that change the doping of a cleaved sample in ultra high vacuum (UHV) experiments. The study found two major experimental facts. First, in inadequate UHV conditions the carrier concentration of Bi2212 increases with time, due to the absorption of oxygen from CO2/CO molecules, prime contaminants present in UHV systems. Second, in a very clean UHV system at elevated temperatures (above about 200 K), the carrier concentration decreases due to the loss of oxygen atoms from the Bi-O layer. The final study probed the particle-hole symmetry of the pseudogap phase in high temperature superconducting cuprates by looking at the thermally excited bands above the Fermi level. The data showed a particle-hole symmetric pseudogap which symmetrically closes away from the nested FS before the node. The data is consistent with

  18. Time-Resolved Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.; Besselink, R.; Stawski, Tomasz; Castricum, H.L.; Levy, D.; Zayat, M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on time-resolved studies of nanostructure development in sol-gel liquids, that is, diluted sols, wet gels, and drying thin fffilms. The most commonly investigated classes of sol-gel materials are silica, organically modified silica, template-directed mesostructured silica,

  19. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectrometry: new electron optics and detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoof, H.A. van.

    1980-01-01

    A new spectrometer system is described, designed to measure angle-resolved energy distributions of photoemitted electrons efficiently. Some results are presented of measurements on a Si(001) surface. (Auth.)

  20. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with quantum gas microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrdt, A.; Greif, D.; Demler, E.; Knap, M.; Grusdt, F.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum gas microscopes are a promising tool to study interacting quantum many-body systems and bridge the gap between theoretical models and real materials. So far, they were limited to measurements of instantaneous correlation functions of the form 〈O ̂(t ) 〉 , even though extensions to frequency-resolved response functions 〈O ̂(t ) O ̂(0 ) 〉 would provide important information about the elementary excitations in a many-body system. For example, single-particle spectral functions, which are usually measured using photoemission experiments in electron systems, contain direct information about fractionalization and the quasiparticle excitation spectrum. Here, we propose a measurement scheme to experimentally access the momentum and energy-resolved spectral function in a quantum gas microscope with currently available techniques. As an example for possible applications, we numerically calculate the spectrum of a single hole excitation in one-dimensional t -J models with isotropic and anisotropic antiferromagnetic couplings. A sharp asymmetry in the distribution of spectral weight appears when a hole is created in an isotropic Heisenberg spin chain. This effect slowly vanishes for anisotropic spin interactions and disappears completely in the case of pure Ising interactions. The asymmetry strongly depends on the total magnetization of the spin chain, which can be tuned in experiments with quantum gas microscopes. An intuitive picture for the observed behavior is provided by a slave-fermion mean-field theory. The key properties of the spectra are visible at currently accessible temperatures.

  1. Difference structures from time-resolved small-angle and wide-angle x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Prakash; Saldin, D. K.

    2018-05-01

    Time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering/wide-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) is capable of recovering difference structures directly from difference SAXS/WAXS curves. It does so by means of the theory described here because the structural changes in pump-probe detection in a typical time-resolved experiment are generally small enough to be confined to a single residue or group in close proximity which is identified by a method akin to the difference Fourier method of time-resolved crystallography. If it is assumed, as is usual with time-resolved structures, that the moved atoms lie within the residue, the 100-fold reduction in the search space (assuming a typical protein has about 100 residues) allows the exaction of the structure by a simulated annealing algorithm with a huge reduction in computing time and leads to a greater resolution by varying the positions of atoms only within that residue. This reduction in the number of potential moved atoms allows us to identify the actual motions of the individual atoms. In the case of a crystal, time-resolved calculations are normally performed using the difference Fourier method, which is, of course, not directly applicable to SAXS/WAXS. The method developed in this paper may be thought of as a substitute for that method which allows SAXS/WAXS (and hence disordered molecules) to also be used for time-resolved structural work.

  2. Analysis of electronic structure of amorphous InGaZnO/SiO2 interface by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueoka, Y.; Ishikawa, Y.; Maejima, N.; Matsui, F.; Matsui, H.; Yamazaki, H.; Urakawa, S.; Horita, M.; Daimon, H.; Uraoka, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The electronic structures of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) on a SiO 2 layers before and after annealing were observed by constant final state X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (CFS-XPS) and X-ray adsorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES). From the results of angle-resolved CFS-XPS, the change in the electronic state was clearly observed in the a-IGZO bulk rather than in the a-IGZO/SiO 2 interface. This suggests that the electronic structures of the a-IGZO bulk strongly affected the thin-film transistor characteristics. The results of XANES indicated an increase in the number of tail states upon atmospheric annealing (AT). We consider that the increase in the number of tail states decreased the channel mobility of AT samples

  3. Angle Resolved Performance Measurements on PV Glass and Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juutilainen, Line Tollund; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2016-01-01

    The angular response of PV-modules has significant impact on the energy production. This is especially pronounced in BIPV where installation angles often are far from optimal. Nevertheless, a gain in energy yield may be obtained by choosing a proper glass as superstrate. In this work we present...... the concept of PV balconies as cost efficient and easy way of integrating PV into buildings. The experimental work consists of the fabrication of single cell mini modules with different glass covering, and characterizing their angular response in a custom made setup, where only the direct sunlight is used...... as a light source. As a special case we estimate the annual yield for each glass in the case of PV balconies for a specific geographical location and orientation of the module....

  4. Dual analyzer system for surface analysis dedicated for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy at liquid surfaces and interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedermaier, Inga; Kolbeck, Claudia; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Maier, Florian, E-mail: florian.maier@fau.de [Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II, FAU Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    The investigation of liquid surfaces and interfaces with the powerful toolbox of ultra-high vacuum (UHV)-based surface science techniques generally has to overcome the issue of liquid evaporation within the vacuum system. In the last decade, however, new classes of liquids with negligible vapor pressure at room temperature—in particular, ionic liquids (ILs)—have emerged for surface science studies. It has been demonstrated that particularly angle-resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) allows for investigating phenomena that occur at gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces on the molecular level. The results are not only relevant for IL systems but also for liquids in general. In all of these previous ARXPS studies, the sample holder had to be tilted in order to change the polar detection angle of emitted photoelectrons, which restricted the liquid systems to very thin viscous IL films coating a flat solid support. We now report on the concept and realization of a new and unique laboratory “Dual Analyzer System for Surface Analysis (DASSA)” which enables fast ARXPS, UV photoelectron spectroscopy, imaging XPS, and low-energy ion scattering at the horizontal surface plane of macroscopically thick non-volatile liquid samples. It comprises a UHV chamber equipped with two electron analyzers mounted for simultaneous measurements in 0° and 80° emission relative to the surface normal. The performance of DASSA on a first macroscopic liquid system will be demonstrated.

  5. Dual analyzer system for surface analysis dedicated for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy at liquid surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermaier, Inga; Kolbeck, Claudia; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Maier, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of liquid surfaces and interfaces with the powerful toolbox of ultra-high vacuum (UHV)-based surface science techniques generally has to overcome the issue of liquid evaporation within the vacuum system. In the last decade, however, new classes of liquids with negligible vapor pressure at room temperature—in particular, ionic liquids (ILs)—have emerged for surface science studies. It has been demonstrated that particularly angle-resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) allows for investigating phenomena that occur at gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces on the molecular level. The results are not only relevant for IL systems but also for liquids in general. In all of these previous ARXPS studies, the sample holder had to be tilted in order to change the polar detection angle of emitted photoelectrons, which restricted the liquid systems to very thin viscous IL films coating a flat solid support. We now report on the concept and realization of a new and unique laboratory “Dual Analyzer System for Surface Analysis (DASSA)” which enables fast ARXPS, UV photoelectron spectroscopy, imaging XPS, and low-energy ion scattering at the horizontal surface plane of macroscopically thick non-volatile liquid samples. It comprises a UHV chamber equipped with two electron analyzers mounted for simultaneous measurements in 0° and 80° emission relative to the surface normal. The performance of DASSA on a first macroscopic liquid system will be demonstrated.

  6. Quantification of the toxic hexavalent chromium content in an organic matrix by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultra-low-angle microtomy (ULAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greunz, Theresia; Duchaczek, Hubert; Sagl, Raffaela; Duchoslav, Jiri; Steinberger, Roland; Strauß, Bernhard; Stifter, David

    2017-02-01

    Cr(VI) is known for its corrosion inhibitive properties and is, despite legal regulations, still a potential candidate to be added to thin (1-3 μm) protective coatings applied on, e.g., electrical steel as used for transformers, etc. However, Cr(VI) is harmful to the environment and to the human health. Hence, a reliable quantification of it is of decisive interest. Commonly, an alkaline extraction with a photometric endpoint detection of Cr(VI) is used for such material systems. However, this procedure requires an accurate knowledge on sample parameters such as dry film thickness and coating density that are occasionally associated with significant experimental errors. We present a comprehensive study of a coating system with a defined Cr(VI) pigment concentration applied on electrical steel. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to resolve the elemental chromium concentration and the chemical state. Turning to the fact that XPS is extremely surface sensitive (distribution inside the coating.

  7. Evaluation of process influences on surface chemistry of epoxy acrylate based solder mask via XPS, ToF-SIMS and contact angle measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmeister, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.hofmeister@de.bosch.com [Robert Bosch GmbH, Postfach 30 02 40, 70442 Stuttgart (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials IFAM, Wiener Str. 12, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Maaß, Sebastian [Robert Bosch GmbH, Postfach 30 02 40, 70442 Stuttgart (Germany); Fladung, Thorsten; Mayer, Bernd [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials IFAM, Wiener Str. 12, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    Epoxy acrylate based solder mask formulations were conditioned by different printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing and PCB assembly process stages. Depending on these different influences the chemistry of the solder mask surface was investigated regarding adhesion to possible adhesion partners. The combination of X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and the contact angle method, for surface energy determination, provided a detailed understanding of the surface near region up to the topmost monolayer, which forms the contact zone in which adhesion takes place. The combination of ToF-SIMS and XPS provided molecular information of surface components comprising quantitative information. The influences of all process steps, like UV, chemical and thermal treatment, on the chemical surface composition and appearance were identified. Based on the results a chemical surface model could be created regarding the different adhesion mechanisms. It has been shown that an enrichment of siloxanes at the surface is generated by different mechanisms that were distinguished based on ToF-SIMS. Even though an oxidation process in the surface near region (10 nm) was indicated by XPS, no increase of the surface polar groups and thus no polarity increase could be observed within the first monolayer. A surface model derived from the analysis results shows generation and occupation of free sites at the surface through all stages of the process. An occupation of free sites by siloxanes from additives in the solder mask formulation results in a siloxane dominated topmost monolayer. - Highlights: • A surface model describing the process influences is proposed. • Detailed siloxane reaction analysis was possible with ToF-SIMS. • Photo-chemical, chemical and thermal surface modification occur during PCB manufacturing.

  8. Angle-resolved imaging of single-crystal materials with MeV helium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strathman, M D; Baumann, S [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The simplest form of angle-resolved mapping for single-crystal materials is the creation of a channeling angular scan. Several laboratories have expanded this simple procedure to include mapping as a function of two independent tilts. These angle-resolved images are particularly suited to the assessment of crystal parameters including disorder, lattice location of impurities, and lattice stress. This paper will describe the use of the Charles Evans and Associates RBS-400 scattering chamber for acquisition, display, and analysis of angle-resolved images obtained from backscattered helium ions. Typical data acquisition times are 20 min for a {+-}2deg X-Y tilt scan with 2500 pixels (8/100deg resolution), and 10 nC per pixel. In addition, we will present a method for automatically aligning crystals for channeling measurements based on this imaging technology. (orig.).

  9. Angle-resolved imaging of single-crystal materials with MeV helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strathman, M.D.; Baumann, S.

    1992-01-01

    The simplest form of angle-resolved mapping for single-crystal materials is the creation of a channeling angular scan. Several laboratories have expanded this simple procedure to include mapping as a function of two independent tilts. These angle-resolved images are particularly suited to the assessment of crystal parameters including disorder, lattice location of impurities, and lattice stress. This paper will describe the use of the Charles Evans and Associates RBS-400 scattering chamber for acquisition, display, and analysis of angle-resolved images obtained from backscattered helium ions. Typical data acquisition times are 20 min for a ±2deg X-Y tilt scan with 2500 pixels (8/100deg resolution), and 10 nC per pixel. In addition, we will present a method for automatically aligning crystals for channeling measurements based on this imaging technology. (orig.)

  10. Energy and angle resolved ion scattering spectroscopy: new possibilities for surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellings, G.J.A.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the design and development of a novel, very sensitive and high-resolving spectrometer for surface analysis is described. This spectrometer is designed for Energy and Angle Resolved Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (EARISS). There are only a few techniques that are sensitive enough to study the outermost atomic layer of surfaces. One of these techniques, Low-Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS), is discussed in chapter 2. Since LEIS is destructive, it is important to make a very efficient use of the scattered ions. This makes it attractive to simultaneously carry out energy and angle dependent measurements (EARISS). (Auth.)

  11. Development of Field Angle Resolved Specific Heat Measurement System for Unconventional Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Matsubara, Takeshi; Machida, Yo; Izawa, Koichi; Onuki, Yoshichika; Salce, Bernard; Flouquet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    We developed a measurement system for field angle resolved specific heat under multiple extreme conditions at low temperature down to 50 mK, in magnetic field up to 7 T, and under high pressure up to 10 GPa. We demonstrated the performance of our developed system by measuring field angle dependence of specific heat of pressure induced unconventional superconductor CeIrSi 3

  12. Time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering study on soap-free emulsion polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motokawa, Ryuhei [Research Group of Soft Matter and Neutron Scattering, Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Koizumi, Satoshi [Research Group of Soft Matter and Neutron Scattering, Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)]. E-mail: koizumi@neutrons.tokai.jaeri.go.jp; Hashimoto, Takeji [Research Group of Soft Matter and Neutron Scattering, Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakahira, Takayuki [Department of Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology, Chiba University, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Annaka, Masahiko [Department of Chemistry, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    We investigated an aqueous soap-free emulsion polymerization process of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) by ultra-small-angle and time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering methods. The results indicate that the compartmentalization of chain end radicals into solid-like micelle cores crucially leads to the quasi-living behavior of the radical polymerization by prohibiting recombination process.

  13. Evaluation of the resolving power of different angles in MPR images of 16DAS-MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Mikio; Usui, Junshi; Nozawa, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the resolving power of three-dimensional (3D) multiplanar reformation (MPR) images with various angles by using 16 data acquisition system multi detector row computed tomography (16DAS-MDCT). We reconstructed the MPR images using data with a 0.75 mm slice thickness of the axial image in this examination. To evaluate resolving power, we used an original new phantom (RC phantom) that can be positioned at any slice angle in MPR images. We measured the modulation transfer function (MTF) by using the methods of measuring pre-sampling MTF, and used Fourier transform of image data of the square wave chart. The scan condition and image reconstruction condition that were adopted in this study correspond to the condition that we use for three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography(3D-CTA) examination of the head in our hospital. The MTF of MPR images showed minimum values at slice angles in parallel with the axial slice, and showed maximum values at the sagittal slice and coronal slice angles that are parallel to the Z-axis. With an oblique MPR image, MTF did not change with angle changes in the oblique sagittal slice plane, but in the oblique coronal slice plane, MTF increased as the tilt angle increased from the axial plane to the Z plane. As a result, we could evaluate the resolving power of a head 3D image by measuring the MTF of the axial image and sagittal image or the coronal image. (author)

  14. [Evaluation of the resolving power of different angles in MPR images of 16DAS-MDCT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Mikio; Usui, Junshi; Nozawa, Takeo

    2007-03-20

    In this study, we evaluated the resolving power of three-dimensional (3D) multiplanar reformation (MPR) images with various angles by using 16 data acquisition system multi detector row computed tomography (16DAS-MDCT) . We reconstructed the MPR images using data with a 0.75 mm slice thickness of the axial image in this examination. To evaluate resolving power, we used an original new phantom (RC phantom) that can be positioned at any slice angle in MPR images. We measured the modulation transfer function (MTF) by using the methods of measuring pre-sampling MTF, and used Fourier transform of image data of the square wave chart. The scan condition and image reconstruction condition that were adopted in this study correspond to the condition that we use for three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3D-CTA) examination of the head in our hospital. The MTF of MPR images showed minimum values at slice angles in parallel with the axial slice, and showed maximum values at the sagittal slice and coronal slice angles that are parallel to the Z-axis. With an oblique MPR image, MTF did not change with angle changes in the oblique sagittal slice plane, but in the oblique coronal slice plane, MTF increased as the tilt angle increased from the axial plane to the Z plane. As a result, we could evaluate the resolving power of a head 3D image by measuring the MTF of the axial image and sagittal image or the coronal image.

  15. Angle resolved characterization of nanostructured and conventionally textured silicon solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Ormstrup, Jeppe; Ommen, Martin Lind

    2015-01-01

    current, open circuit voltage, fill factor (FF) and power conversion efficiency are each measured as function of the relative incident angle between the solar cell and the light source. The relative incident angle is varied from 0° to 90° in steps of 10° in orthogonal axes, such that each solar cell......We report angle resolved characterization of nanostructured and conventionally textured silicon solar cells. The nanostructured solar cells are realized through a single step, mask-less, scalable reactive ion etching (RIE) texturing of the surface. Photovoltaic properties including short circuit...

  16. Gauge invariance in the theoretical description of time-resolved angle-resolved pump/probe photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freericks, J. K.; Krishnamurthy, H. R.; Sentef, M. A.; Devereaux, T. P.

    2015-10-01

    Nonequilibrium calculations in the presence of an electric field are usually performed in a gauge, and need to be transformed to reveal the gauge-invariant observables. In this work, we discuss the issue of gauge invariance in the context of time-resolved angle-resolved pump/probe photoemission. If the probe is applied while the pump is still on, one must ensure that the calculations of the observed photocurrent are gauge invariant. We also discuss the requirement of the photoemission signal to be positive and the relationship of this constraint to gauge invariance. We end by discussing some technical details related to the perturbative derivation of the photoemission spectra, which involve processes where the pump pulse photoexcites electrons due to nonequilibrium effects.

  17. Angle-resolved photoemission study of NiO and CoO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Z.X.; Lindberg, P.A.P.; Shih, C.K.; Spicer, W.E.; Lindau, I.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report an angle-resolved photoemission investigation of the electronic structures of NiO and CoO. The lattice effects on the photoemission spectra of these highly correlated materials are important. The magnitudes of dispersions of the oxygen bands agree with band calculations, but the experimental data of the localized 3d bands do not agree with the band calculations

  18. Review of RDC Soft Computing Techniques for Accurate Measurement of Resolver Rotor Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Mohan Reddy Sivappagari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A resolver is a position sensor or transducer that measures the instantaneous angular position of the rotating shaft to which it is attached. Resolver produces two amplitude modulated signals; SIN and COS as output signals. These two signals need to be demodulated and converted to digital signals before they can be used for control. There are several techniques available in the literature to measure the rotor shaft angle. This paper focuses on the design of both hardware and software based resolver to digital converter (RDC techniques available in the literature. This literature review helps the researchers to know about all these methods and plan future work on RDCs to improve the angle tracking performance.

  19. Combined angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, density functional theory and kinetic study of nitridation of gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, H.; Monier, G.; Hoggan, P. E.; Bideux, L.; Robert-Goumet, C.; Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2018-01-01

    The high density of interface and surface states that cause the strong Fermi pinning observed on GaAs surfaces can be reduced by depositing GaN ultra-thin films on GaAs. To further improve this passivation, it is necessary to investigate the nitridation phenomena by identifying the distinct steps occurring during the process and to understand and quantify the growth kinetics of GaAs nitridation under different conditions. Nitridation of the cleaned GaAs substrate was performed using N2 plasma source. Two approaches have been combined. Firstly, an AR-XPS (Angle Resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) study is carried out to determine the chemical environments of the Ga, As and N atoms and the composition depth profile of the GaN thin film which allow us to summarize the nitridation process in three steps. Moreover, the temperature and time treatment have been investigated and show a significant impact on the formation of the GaN layer. The second approach is a refined growth kinetic model which better describes the GaN growth as a function of the nitridation time. This model clarifies the exchange mechanism of arsenic with nitrogen atoms at the GaN/GaAs interface and the phenomenon of quasi-saturation of the process observed experimentally.

  20. Photoelectron spectroscopy at a free-electron laser. Investigation of space-charge effects in angle-resolved and core-level spectroscopy and realizaton of a time-resolved core-level photoemission experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczynski-Buehlow, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The free-electron laser (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH) is a very interesting light source with which to perform photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) experiments. Its special characteristics include highly intense photon pulses (up to 100 J/pulse), a photon energy range of 30 eV to 1500 eV, transverse coherence as well as pulse durations of some ten femtoseconds. Especially in terms of time-resolved PES (TRPES), the deeper lying core levels can be reached with photon energies up to 1500 eV with acceptable intensity now and, therefore, element-specific, time-resolved core-level PES (XPS) is feasible at FLASH. During the work of this thesis various experimental setups were constructed in order to realize angle-resolved (ARPES), core-level (XPS) as well as time-resolved PES experiments at the plane grating monochromator beamline PG2 at FLASH. Existing as well as newly developed systems for online monitoring of FEL pulse intensities and generating spatial and temporal overlap of FEL and optical laser pulses for time-resolved experiments are successfully integrated into the experimental setup for PES. In order to understand space-charge effects (SCEs) in PES and, therefore, being able to handle those effects in future experiments using highly intense and pulsed photon sources, the origin of energetic broadenings and shifts in photoelectron spectra are studied by means of a molecular dynamic N-body simulation using a modified Treecode Algorithm for sufficiently fast and accurate calculations. It turned out that the most influencing parameter is the ''linear electron density'' - the ratio of the number of photoelectrons to the diameter of the illuminated spot on the sample. Furthermore, the simulations could reproduce the observations described in the literature fairly well. Some rules of thumb for XPS and ARPES measurements could be deduced from the simulations. Experimentally, SCEs are investigated by means of ARPES as well as XPS measurements as a function of FEL pulse

  1. Photoelectron spectroscopy at a free-electron laser. Investigation of space-charge effects in angle-resolved and core-level spectroscopy and realizaton of a time-resolved core-level photoemission experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marczynski-Buehlow, Martin

    2012-01-30

    The free-electron laser (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH) is a very interesting light source with which to perform photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) experiments. Its special characteristics include highly intense photon pulses (up to 100 J/pulse), a photon energy range of 30 eV to 1500 eV, transverse coherence as well as pulse durations of some ten femtoseconds. Especially in terms of time-resolved PES (TRPES), the deeper lying core levels can be reached with photon energies up to 1500 eV with acceptable intensity now and, therefore, element-specific, time-resolved core-level PES (XPS) is feasible at FLASH. During the work of this thesis various experimental setups were constructed in order to realize angle-resolved (ARPES), core-level (XPS) as well as time-resolved PES experiments at the plane grating monochromator beamline PG2 at FLASH. Existing as well as newly developed systems for online monitoring of FEL pulse intensities and generating spatial and temporal overlap of FEL and optical laser pulses for time-resolved experiments are successfully integrated into the experimental setup for PES. In order to understand space-charge effects (SCEs) in PES and, therefore, being able to handle those effects in future experiments using highly intense and pulsed photon sources, the origin of energetic broadenings and shifts in photoelectron spectra are studied by means of a molecular dynamic N-body simulation using a modified Treecode Algorithm for sufficiently fast and accurate calculations. It turned out that the most influencing parameter is the ''linear electron density'' - the ratio of the number of photoelectrons to the diameter of the illuminated spot on the sample. Furthermore, the simulations could reproduce the observations described in the literature fairly well. Some rules of thumb for XPS and ARPES measurements could be deduced from the simulations. Experimentally, SCEs are investigated by means of ARPES as well as XPS measurements as a function of

  2. Pitch angle resolved measurements of escaping charged fusion products in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the flux of charged fusion products escaping from the TFTR plasma have been made with a new type of detector which can resolve the particle flux vs. pitch angle, energy, and time. The design of this detector is described, and results from the 1987 TFTR run are presented. These results are roughly consistent with predictions from a simple first-orbit particle loss model with respect to the pitch angle, energy, time, and plasma current dependence of the signals. 11 refs., 9 figs

  3. Pitch angle resolved measurements of escaping charged fusion products in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweben, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the flux of charged fusion products escaping from the TFTR plasma have been made with a new type of detector which can resolve the particle flux vs. pitch angle, energy, and time. The design of this detector is described, and results from the 1987 TFTR run are presented. These results are roughly consistent with predictions from a simple first-orbit particle loss model with respect to the pitch angle, energy, time, and plasma current dependence of the signals. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Bogoliubov Angle, Particle-Hole Mixture and Angular Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy in Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, A.

    2010-05-04

    Superconducting excitations - Bogoliubov quasiparticles - are the quantum mechanical mixture of negatively charged electron (-e) and positively charged hole (+e). We propose a new observable for Angular Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES) studies that is the manifestation of the particle-hole entanglement of the superconducting quasiparticles. We call this observable a Bogoliubov angle. This angle measures the relative weight of particle and hole amplitude in the superconducting (Bogoliubov) quasiparticle. We show how this quantity can be measured by comparing the ratio of spectral intensities at positive and negative energies.

  5. Angle-resolved ion TOF spectrometer with a position sensitive detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Norio [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Heiser, F; Wieliczec, K; Becker, U

    1996-07-01

    A angle-resolved ion time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a position sensitive anode has been investigated. Performance of this spectrometer has been demonstrated by measuring an angular distribution of a fragment ion pair, C{sup +} + O{sup +}, from CO at the photon energy of 287.4 eV. The obtained angular distribution is very close to the theoretically expected one. (author)

  6. Electronic structure of Sr2RuO4 studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasawa, H.; Aiura, Y.; Saitoh, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Hase, I.; Ikeda, S.I.; Bando, H.; Kubota, M.; Ono, K.

    2007-01-01

    Electronic structure of the monolayer strontium ruthenate Sr 2 RuO 4 was investigated by high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We present photon-energy (hν) dependence of the electronic structure near the Fermi level along the ΓM line. The hν dependence has shown a strong spectral weight modulation of the Ru 4d xy and 4d zx bands

  7. Angle-resolved reflection spectroscopy of high-quality PMMA opal crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtsev, Ivan V.; Tambasov, Igor A.; Ivanenko, Alexander A.; Zyryanov, Victor Ya.

    2018-02-01

    PMMA opal crystal was prepared by a simple hybrid method, which includes sedimentation, meniscus formation and evaporation. We investigated three surfaces of this crystal by angle-resolved reflective light spectroscopy and SEM study. The angle-resolved reflective measurements were carried out in the 400-1100 nm range. We have determined the high-quality ordered surface of the crystal region. Narrow particle size distribution of the surface has been revealed. The average particle diameter obtained with SEM was nearly 361 nm. The most interesting result was that reflectivity of the surface turned out up to 98% at normal light incidence. Using a fit of dependences of the maximum reflectivity wavelength from an angle based on the Bragg-Snell law, the wavelength of maximum 0° reflectivity, the particle diameter and the fill factor have been determined. For the best surface maximum reflectivity wavelength of a 0° angle was estimated to be 869 nm. The particle diameter and fill factor were calculated as 372 nm and 0.8715, respectively. The diameter obtained by fitting is in excellent agreement with the particle diameter obtained with SEM. The reflectivity maximum is assumed to increase significantly when increasing the fill factor. We believe that using our simple approach to manufacture PMMA opal crystals will significantly increase the fabrication of high-quality photonic crystal templates and thin films.

  8. An experimentalist's guide to the matrix element in angle resolved photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An introduction to the art of angle resolved photoemission is presented. • Matrix element effects are described by a nearly free electron final state model. • ARPES spectral weight of a Bloch band can be calculated from the Fourier transform of its Wannier orbital. • Experimental handedness and improper polarization introduce dichroism. • Instructive showcases from modern ARPES are discussed in detail. - Abstract: Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is commonly known as a powerful probe of the one-electron removal spectral function in ordered solid state. With increasing efficiency of light sources and spectrometers, experiments over a wide range of emission angles become more and more common. Consequently, the angular variation of ARPES spectral weight – often times termed “matrix element effect” – enters as an additional source of information. In this tutorial, we develop a simple but instructive free electron final state approach based on the three-step model to describe the intensity distribution in ARPES. We find a compact expression showing that the ARPES spectral weight of a given Bloch band is essentially determined by the momentum distribution (the Fourier transform) of its associated Wannier orbital – times a polarization dependent pre-factor. While the former is giving direct information on the symmetry and shape of the electronic wave function, the latter can give rise to surprising geometric effects. We discuss a variety of modern and instructive experimental showcases for which this simplistic formalism works astonishingly well and discuss the limits of this approach.

  9. An experimentalist's guide to the matrix element in angle resolved photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Simon, E-mail: skmoser@lbl.gov [Advanced Light Source (ALS), Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Institute of Physics (IPHYS), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • An introduction to the art of angle resolved photoemission is presented. • Matrix element effects are described by a nearly free electron final state model. • ARPES spectral weight of a Bloch band can be calculated from the Fourier transform of its Wannier orbital. • Experimental handedness and improper polarization introduce dichroism. • Instructive showcases from modern ARPES are discussed in detail. - Abstract: Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is commonly known as a powerful probe of the one-electron removal spectral function in ordered solid state. With increasing efficiency of light sources and spectrometers, experiments over a wide range of emission angles become more and more common. Consequently, the angular variation of ARPES spectral weight – often times termed “matrix element effect” – enters as an additional source of information. In this tutorial, we develop a simple but instructive free electron final state approach based on the three-step model to describe the intensity distribution in ARPES. We find a compact expression showing that the ARPES spectral weight of a given Bloch band is essentially determined by the momentum distribution (the Fourier transform) of its associated Wannier orbital – times a polarization dependent pre-factor. While the former is giving direct information on the symmetry and shape of the electronic wave function, the latter can give rise to surprising geometric effects. We discuss a variety of modern and instructive experimental showcases for which this simplistic formalism works astonishingly well and discuss the limits of this approach.

  10. Angle-resolved photoemission investigation of SmB{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlawenka, Peter; Rader, Oliver; Siemensmeyer, Konrad; Weschke, Eugen; Varykhalov, Andrei; Rienks, Emile [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (Germany); Shitsevalova, Natalya [Institute for Problems of Material Science, Kiev (Ukraine); Gabani, Slavomir; Flachbart, Karol [IEP, Slovak Academy of Science, Kosice (Slovakia)

    2015-07-01

    Recently the mixed valence compound SmB{sub 6} has drawn great attention. Theoretically predicted surface states, which should result from a hybridisation of localised f-bands with conduction electrons and a band inversion, would make SmB{sub 6} the first realisation of a so called topological Kondo insulator. Conductivity and transport measurements, as well as spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy seem to fortify the scenario of a topological nature of the conductive surface. We investigate the surface electronic structure of SmB{sub 6} by means of high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements below 1 K. We will present new insights into the surface states that determine the low temperature conductivity of this material.

  11. Angle-resolved photoemission in high Tc cuprates from theoretical viewpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohyama, T.; Maekawa, S.

    2000-01-01

    The angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) technique has been developed rapidly over the last decade, accompanied by the improvement of energy and momentum resolutions. This technique has been established as the most powerful tool to investigate the high T c cuprate superconductors. We review recent ARPES data on the cuprates from a theoretical point of view, with emphasis on the systematic evolution of the spectral weight near the momentum (π, 0) from insulator to overdoped systems. The effects of charge stripes on the ARPES spectra are also reviewed. Some recent experimental and theoretical efforts to understand the superconducting state and the pseudogap phenomenon are discussed. (author)

  12. Initial angle resolved measurements of fast neutrals using a multichannel linear AXUV detector system on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veshchev, E. A.; Ozaki, T.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sudo, S.

    2006-01-01

    A new multichannel diagnostic for fast ion distribution studies has been developed and successfully tested on the Large Helical Device (LHD) in different plasma heating conditions. The diagnostic is based on a linear array AXUV detector consisting of 20 segments, charge sensitive preamplifiers, and a set of pulse height analysis channels. The main advantage of this system is the possibility to make time, energy, and angle-resolved measurements of charge exchange neutral particles in a single plasma discharge. This feature makes the new diagnostic a very helpful and powerful tool intended to contribute to the understanding of fast ion behavior in a complex helical plasma geometry like the one of LHD

  13. Determination of electronic states in crystalline semiconductors and metals by angle-resolved photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, K.A.

    1979-08-01

    An important part of the theoretical description of the solid state is band structure, which relies on the existence of dispersion relations connecting the electronic energy and wavevector in materials with translational symmetry. These relations determine the electronic behavior of such materials. The elaboration of accurate band structures, therefore, is of considerable fundamental and practical importance. Angle-resolved photoemission (ARP) spectroscopy provides the only presently available method for the detailed experimental investigation of band structures. This work is concerned with its application to both semiconducting and metallic single crystals

  14. Electronic structure of superconducting Bi2212 crystal by angle resolved ultra violet photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, N.L.; Shrivastava, P.; Garg, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    The electronic structure of a high quality superconducting Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 Osub(8+δ) (Bi2212) single crystal is studied by angle resolved ultra violet photoemission (ARUPS) using He I (21.2 eV). Our results appear to show two bands crossing the Fermi level in ΓX direction of the Brillouin zone as reported by Takahashi et al. The bands at higher binding energy do not show any appreciable dispersion. The nature of the states near the Fermi level is discussed and the observed band structure is compared with the band structure calculations. (author)

  15. Linear and circular dichroism in angle resolved Fe 3p photomission. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, E.; Waddill, G.D.; Tobin, J.G.; Sterne, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Using a recently developed spin-polarized, fully relativistic, multiple scattering approach based on the layer KKR Green function method, we have reproduced the Fe 3p angle-resolved soft x-ray photoemission spectra and analyzed the associated large magnetic dichroism effects for excitation with both linearly and circularly polarized light. Comparison between theory and experiment yields a spin-orbit splitting of 1.0--1.2 eV and an exchange splitting of 0.9-- 1.0 eV for Fe 3p. These values are 50--100% larger than those hitherto obtained experimentally

  16. Simple surface structure determination from Fourier transforms of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Shirley, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The authors show by Fourier analyses of experimental data, with no further treatment, that the positions of all the strong peaks in Fourier transforms of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS) from adsorbed surfaces can be explicitly predicted from a trial structure with an accuracy of about {+-} 0.3 {angstrom} based on a single-scattering cluster model together with the concept of a strong backscattering cone, and without any additional analysis. This characteristic of ARPEFS Fourier transforms can be developed as a simple method for determining the structures of adsorbed surfaces to an accuracy of about {+-} 0.1 {angstrom}.

  17. Robust depth selectivity in mesoscopic scattering regimes using angle-resolved measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, P; Kim, A D; Moscoso, M

    2013-03-01

    We study optical imaging of tissues in the mesoscopic scattering regime in which light multiply scatters in tissues but is not fully diffusive. We use the radiative transport equation to model light propagation and an ℓ1-optimization method to solve the inverse source problem. We show that recovering the location and strength of several point-like sources that are close to each other is not possible when using angle-averaged measurements. The image reliability is limited by a spatial scale that is on the order of the transport mean-free path, even under the most ideal conditions. However, by using just a few angle-resolved measurements, the proposed method is able to overcome this limitation.

  18. Setup for angle-resolved electron spectrometry using monochromatised synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenbach, H.; Franke, C.; Malutzki, R.; Wachter, A.; Schmidt, V.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus is described which is well suited for angle-resolved electron spectrometry of free atoms and molecules using monochromatised synchrotron radiation. Two variations are presented, one for room temperature gaseous species, the other for metallic vapours. The analyser is of the cylindrical mirror type, designed, however, so as to accept with one sector the entire source volume independently of the photon beam diameter. It can be equipped with a positon-sensitive detector instead of a channeltron, which extends its potentiality. The system consists of up to three cylindrical mirror sector analysers (CMAs) where a double-sector CMA can be rotated around the photon beam direction, allowing angular distribution measurements, and another sector CMA is mounted in a fixed position providing a signal for reference purposes. A detailed description and experimental tests are given for the performance of the CMA, i.e. its imaging properties, resolution and transmissions, as well as for possible instrumental asymmetries affecting angle-resolved experiments. (orig.)

  19. Design of angle-resolved illumination optics using nonimaging bi-telecentricity for 193 nm scatterfield microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Martin Y; Barnes, Bryan M; Silver, Richard M

    2018-03-01

    Accurate optics-based dimensional measurements of features sized well-below the diffraction limit require a thorough understanding of the illumination within the optical column and of the three-dimensional scattered fields that contain the information required for quantitative metrology. Scatterfield microscopy can pair simulations with angle-resolved tool characterization to improve agreement between the experiment and calculated libraries, yielding sub-nanometer parametric uncertainties. Optimized angle-resolved illumination requires bi-telecentric optics in which a telecentric sample plane defined by a Köhler illumination configuration and a telecentric conjugate back focal plane (CBFP) of the objective lens; scanning an aperture or an aperture source at the CBFP allows control of the illumination beam angle at the sample plane with minimal distortion. A bi-telecentric illumination optics have been designed enabling angle-resolved illumination for both aperture and source scanning modes while yielding low distortion and chief ray parallelism. The optimized design features a maximum chief ray angle at the CBFP of 0.002° and maximum wavefront deviations of less than 0.06 λ for angle-resolved illumination beams at the sample plane, holding promise for high quality angle-resolved illumination for improved measurements of deep-subwavelength structures using deep-ultraviolet light.

  20. Angle resolved mass spectrometry of positive ions transmitted through high aspect ratio channels in a radio frequency discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels - Adamowicz, E.; Stoffels, W.W.; Tachibana, K.; Imai, S.

    1997-01-01

    The behavior of positive ions in high aspect ratio structures, relevant to the reactive ion etching of deep trenches, has been studied by means of energy resolved mass spectrometry. High aspect ratio trenches are simulated by capillary plates with various aspect ratios. Angle resolved measurements

  1. a Study on SODIUM(110) and Other Nearly Free Electron Metals Using Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyo, In-Whan

    Electronic properties of the epitaxially grown Na(110) film have been studied using angle resolved ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation as the light source. Na provides an ideal ground to study the fundamental aspects of the electron-electron interactions in metals, because of its simple Fermi surface and small pseudopotential. The absolute band structure of Na(110) using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been mapped out using the extrema searching method. The advantage of this approach is that the usual assumption of the unoccupied state dispersion is not required. We have found that the dispersion of Na(1l0) is very close to the parabolic band with the effective mass 1.21 M_{rm e} at 90 K. Self-consistent calculations of the self-energy for the homogeneous electron gas have been performed using the Green's function technique within the framework of the GW approximation, in the hope of understanding the narrowing mechanism of the bandwidth observed for all the nearly-free-electron (NFE) metals. Good agreements between the experimental data and our calculated self-energy were obtained not only for our data on k-dependency from Na(l10), but also for the total bandwidth corrections for other NFE metals, only if dielectric functions beyond the random phase approximation were used. Our findings emphasize the importance of the screening by long wavelength plasmons. Off-normal spectra of angle resolved photoemission from Na(110) show strong asymmetry of the bulk peak intensity for the wide range of photon energies. Using a simple analysis, we show this asymmetry has an origin in the interference of the surface Umklapp electrons with the normal electrons. We have also performed the detailed experimental studies of the anomalous Fermi level structure observed in the forbidden gap region of Na. This was claimed by A. W. Overhauser as the evidence of the charge density wave in the alkali metal. The possibility of this hypothesis is

  2. Angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of square antidot lattices studied by Brillouin light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IOM-CNR), Sede di Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Montoncello, F.; Giovannini, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via G. Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Madami, M.; Carlotti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A. O. [Information Storage Materials Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2015-06-29

    The Brillouin light scattering technique has been exploited to study the angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of squared Permalloy antidot lattice. Frequency dispersion of spin waves has been measured for a set of fixed wave vector magnitudes, while varying the wave vector in-plane orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field. The magnonic band gap between the two most dispersive modes exhibits a minimum value at an angular position, which exclusively depends on the product between the selected wave vector magnitude and the lattice constant of the array. The experimental data are in very good agreement with predictions obtained by dynamical matrix method calculations. The presented results are relevant for magnonic devices where the antidot lattice, acting as a diffraction grating, is exploited to achieve multidirectional spin wave emission.

  3. Angle-resolved X-ray fluorescence spectrometry using synchrotron radiation at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, W.; Rothe, J.; Hormes, J.; Gries, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements on the centroid depth of ion-implanted phosphorus-in-silicon specimen by the method of angle-resolved, self-ratio X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (AR/SR/XFS) have been carried out using 'white' synchrotron radiation (SR). The measurements were performed using a modified wavelength-dispersive fluorescence spectrometer. Problems due to the use of SR, like carbonaceous specimen contamination and sample heating were overcome by flooding the specimen chamber with helium and by pre-absorbing the non-exciting parts of the incident SR with suitable filters, respectively. The decaying primary intensity was monitored by measuring the compensation current of the photoelectrons emitted from a tungsten wire stretched across the primary beam. Results have been obtained for specimen with dose density levels of 10 16 cm -2 and 3x10 15 cm -2 . (orig.)

  4. Dimensional Crossover in a Charge Density Wave Material Probed by Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, C. W.; Berthod, C.; Puppin, M.; Berger, H.; Wolf, M.; Hoesch, M.; Monney, C.

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data reveal evidence of a crossover from one-dimensional (1D) to three-dimensional (3D) behavior in the prototypical charge density wave (CDW) material NbSe3 . In the low-temperature 3D regime, gaps in the electronic structure are observed due to two incommensurate CDWs, in agreement with x-ray diffraction and electronic-structure calculations. At higher temperatures we observe a spectral weight depletion that approaches the power-law behavior expected in one dimension. From the warping of the quasi-1D Fermi surface at low temperatures, we extract the energy scale of the dimensional crossover. This is corroborated by a detailed analysis of the density of states, which reveals a change in dimensional behavior dependent on binding energy. Our results offer an important insight into the dimensionality of excitations in quasi-1D materials.

  5. Angle-resolved photoemission studies of the superconducting gap symmetry in Fe-based superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-B. Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The superconducting gap is the fundamental parameter that characterizes the superconducting state, and its symmetry is a direct consequence of the mechanism responsible for Cooper pairing. Here we discuss about angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements of the superconducting gap in the Fe-based high-temperature superconductors. We show that the superconducting gap is Fermi surface dependent and nodeless with small anisotropy, or more precisely, a function of the momentum location in the Brillouin zone. We show that while this observation seems inconsistent with weak coupling approaches for superconductivity in these materials, it is well supported by strong coupling models and global superconducting gaps. We also suggest that a smaller lifetime of the superconducting Cooper pairs induced by the momentum dependent interband scattering inherent to these materials could affect the residual density of states at low energies, which is critical for a proper evaluation of the superconducting gap.

  6. High Resolution Angle Resolved Photoemission Studies on Quasi-Particle Dynamics in Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leem, C.S.

    2010-06-02

    We obtained the spectral function of the graphite H point using high resolution angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). The extracted width of the spectral function (inverse of the photo-hole lifetime) near the H point is approximately proportional to the energy as expected from the linearly increasing density of states (DOS) near the Fermi energy. This is well accounted by our electron-phonon coupling theory considering the peculiar electronic DOS near the Fermi level. And we also investigated the temperature dependence of the peak widths both experimentally and theoretically. The upper bound for the electron-phonon coupling parameter is 0.23, nearly the same value as previously reported at the K point. Our analysis of temperature dependent ARPES data at K shows that the energy of phonon mode of graphite has much higher energy scale than 125K which is dominant in electron-phonon coupling.

  7. General theoretical description of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of van der Waals structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, B.

    2018-04-01

    We develop a general theory to model the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) of commensurate and incommensurate van der Waals (vdW) structures, formed by lattice mismatched and/or misaligned stacked layers of two-dimensional materials. The present theory is based on a tight-binding description of the structure and the concept of generalized umklapp processes, going beyond previous descriptions of ARPES in incommensurate vdW structures, which are based on continuous, low-energy models, being limited to structures with small lattice mismatch/misalignment. As applications of the general formalism, we study the ARPES bands and constant energy maps for two structures: twisted bilayer graphene and twisted bilayer MoS2. The present theory should be useful in correctly interpreting experimental results of ARPES of vdW structures and other systems displaying competition between different periodicities, such as two-dimensional materials weakly coupled to a substrate and materials with density wave phases.

  8. Angle and Spin Resolved Auger Emission Theory and Applications to Atoms and Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Lohmann, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    The Auger effect must be interpreted as the radiationless counterpart of photoionization and is usually described within a two-step model. Angle and spin resolved Auger emission physics deals with the theoretical and numerical description, analysis and interpretation of such types of experiments on free atoms and molecules. This monograph derives the general theory applying the density matrix formalism and, in terms of irreducible tensorial sets, so called state multipoles and order parameters, for parameterizing the atomic and molecular systems, respectively. Propensity rules and non-linear dependencies between the angular distribution and spin polarization parameters are included in the discussion. The numerical approaches utilizing relativistic distorted wave (RDWA), multiconfigurational Dirac-Fock (MCDF), and Greens operator methods are described. These methods are discussed and applied to theoretical predictions, numerical results and experimental data for a variety of atomic systems, especially the rare...

  9. An ultrafast angle-resolved photoemission apparatus for measuring complex materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, Christopher L.; Lanzara, Alessandra; Jozwiak, Christopher; Zhang Wentao

    2012-01-01

    We present technical specifications for a high resolution time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy setup based on a hemispherical electron analyzer and cavity-dumped solid state Ti:sapphire laser used to generate pump and probe beams, respectively, at 1.48 and 5.93 eV. The pulse repetition rate can be tuned from 209 Hz to 54.3 MHz. Under typical operating settings the system has an overall energy resolution of 23 meV, an overall momentum resolution of 0.003 Å −1 , and an overall time resolution of 310 fs. We illustrate the system capabilities with representative data on the cuprate superconductor Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ . The descriptions and analyses presented here will inform new developments in ultrafast electron spectroscopy.

  10. A tunable low-energy photon source for high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harter, John W.; Monkman, Eric J.; Shai, Daniel E.; Nie Yuefeng; Uchida, Masaki; Burganov, Bulat; Chatterjee, Shouvik; King, Philip D. C.; Shen, Kyle M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a tunable low-energy photon source consisting of a laser-driven xenon plasma lamp coupled to a Czerny-Turner monochromator. The combined tunability, brightness, and narrow spectral bandwidth make this light source useful in laboratory-based high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy experiments. The source supplies photons with energies up to ∼7 eV, delivering under typical conditions >10 12 ph/s within a 10 meV spectral bandwidth, which is comparable to helium plasma lamps and many synchrotron beamlines. We first describe the lamp and monochromator system and then characterize its output, with attention to those parameters which are of interest for photoemission experiments. Finally, we present angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data using the light source and compare its performance to a conventional helium plasma lamp.

  11. Time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering of a micelle-to-vesicle transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egelhaaf, S U [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 -Grenoble (France); Schurtenberger, P [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-04-01

    Amphiphilic molecules spontaneously self-assemble in solution to form a variety of aggregates. Only limited information is available on the kinetics of the structural transitions as well as on the existence of non-equilibrium or metastable states. Aqueous mixtures of lecithin and bile salt are very interesting biological model-systems which exhibit a spontaneous transition from polymer-like mixed micelles to vesicles upon dilution. The small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument D22, with its very high neutron flux and the broad range of scattering vectors covered in a single instrumental setting, allowed us for the first time to perform time-resolved scattering experiments in order to study the micelle-to-vesicle transition. The temporal evolution of the aggregate structures were followed and detailed information was obtained even on molecular length-scales. (author). 5 refs.

  12. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of liquid water at 29.5 eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Junichi; West, Christopher W; Suzuki, Toshinori

    2017-07-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of liquid water was performed using extreme ultraviolet radiation at 29.5 eV and a time-of-flight photoelectron spectrometer. SiC/Mg coated mirrors were employed to select the single-order 19th harmonic from laser high harmonics, which provided a constant photon flux for different laser polarizations. The instrument was tested by measuring photoemission anisotropy for rare gases and water molecules and applied to a microjet of an aqueous NaI solution. The solute concentration was adjusted to eliminate an electric field gradient around the microjet. The observed photoelectron spectra were analyzed considering contributions from liquid water, water vapor, and an isotropic background. The anisotropy parameters of the valence bands (1 b 1 , 3 a 1 , and 1 b 2 ) of liquid water are considerably smaller than those of gaseous water, which is primarily attributed to electron scattering in liquid water.

  13. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of liquid water at 29.5 eV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Nishitani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of liquid water was performed using extreme ultraviolet radiation at 29.5 eV and a time-of-flight photoelectron spectrometer. SiC/Mg coated mirrors were employed to select the single-order 19th harmonic from laser high harmonics, which provided a constant photon flux for different laser polarizations. The instrument was tested by measuring photoemission anisotropy for rare gases and water molecules and applied to a microjet of an aqueous NaI solution. The solute concentration was adjusted to eliminate an electric field gradient around the microjet. The observed photoelectron spectra were analyzed considering contributions from liquid water, water vapor, and an isotropic background. The anisotropy parameters of the valence bands (1b1, 3a1, and 1b2 of liquid water are considerably smaller than those of gaseous water, which is primarily attributed to electron scattering in liquid water.

  14. An ultrafast angle-resolved photoemission apparatus for measuring complex materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Christopher L.; Jozwiak, Christopher; Zhang, Wentao; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2012-12-01

    We present technical specifications for a high resolution time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy setup based on a hemispherical electron analyzer and cavity-dumped solid state Ti:sapphire laser used to generate pump and probe beams, respectively, at 1.48 and 5.93 eV. The pulse repetition rate can be tuned from 209 Hz to 54.3 MHz. Under typical operating settings the system has an overall energy resolution of 23 meV, an overall momentum resolution of 0.003 Å-1, and an overall time resolution of 310 fs. We illustrate the system capabilities with representative data on the cuprate superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. The descriptions and analyses presented here will inform new developments in ultrafast electron spectroscopy.

  15. Direct observation of superconducting gaps in MgB 2 by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souma, S.; Machida, Y.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Matsui, H.; Wang, S.-C.; Ding, H.; Kaminski, A.; Campuzano, J. C.; Sasaki, S.; Kadowaki, K.

    2004-08-01

    High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been carried out to clarify the anomalous superconductivity of MgB 2. We observed three bands crossing the Fermi level, which are ascribed to B2p-σ, π and surface bands. We have succeeded for the first time in directly observing the superconducting gaps of these bands separately. We have found that the superconducting-gap sizes of σ and surface bands are 6.5 ± 0.5 and 6.0 ± 0.5 meV, respectively, while that of the π band is much smaller (1.5 ± 0.5 meV). The present experimental result unambiguously demonstrates the validity of the two-band superconductivity in MgB 2.

  16. Direct observation of superconducting gaps in MgB2 by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souma, S.; Machida, Y.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Matsui, H.; Wang, S.-C.; Ding, H.; Kaminski, A.; Campuzano, J.C.; Sasaki, S.; Kadowaki, K.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been carried out to clarify the anomalous superconductivity of MgB 2 . We observed three bands crossing the Fermi level, which are ascribed to B2p-σ, π and surface bands. We have succeeded for the first time in directly observing the superconducting gaps of these bands separately. We have found that the superconducting-gap sizes of σ and surface bands are 6.5 ± 0.5 and 6.0 ± 0.5 meV, respectively, while that of the π band is much smaller (1.5 ± 0.5 meV). The present experimental result unambiguously demonstrates the validity of the two-band superconductivity in MgB 2

  17. Fourier-domain angle-resolved low coherence interferometry for clinical detection of dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Neil G.; Zhu, Yizheng; Wax, Adam

    2010-02-01

    Improved methods for detecting dysplasia, or pre-cancerous growth are a current clinical need, particularly in the esophagus. The currently accepted method of random biopsy and histological analysis provides only a limited examination of tissue in question while being coupled with a long time delay for diagnosis. Light scattering spectroscopy, in contrast, allows for inspection of the cellular structure and organization of tissue in vivo. Fourier-domain angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry (a/LCI) is a novel light scattering spectroscopy technique that provides quantitative depth-resolved morphological measurements of the size and optical density of the examined cell nuclei, which are characteristic biomarkers of dysplasia. Previously, clinical viability of the a/LCI system was demonstrated through analysis of ex vivo human esophageal tissue in Barrett's esophagus patients using a portable a/LCI, as was the development of a clinical a/LCI system. Data indicating the feasibility of the technique in other organ sites (colon, oral cavity) will be presented. We present an adaptation of the a/LCI system that will be used to investigate the presence of dysplasia in vivo in Barrett's esophagus patients.

  18. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure: Multiple layers of emitters and multiple initial states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, W.R.A.; Kellar, S.A.; Moler, E.J.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA; Chen, Y.; Wu, H.; Shirley, D.A.; Hussain, Z.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS) has been applied to experimental systems involving multiple layers of emitters and non-s core-level photoemission in an effort to broaden the utility of the technique. Most of the previous systems have been comprised of atomic or molecular overlayers adsorbed onto a single-crystal, metal surface and the photoemission data were taken from an s atomic core-level in the overlayer. For such a system, the acquired ARPEFS data is dominated by the p o final state wave backscattering from the substrate atoms and is well understood. In this study, we investigate ARPEFS as a surface-region structure determination technique when applied to experimental systems comprised of multiple layers of photoemitters and arbitrary initial state core-level photoemission. Understanding the data acquired from multiple layers of photoemitters is useful for studying multilayer interfaces, ''buried'' surfaces, and clean crystals in ultra- high vacuum. The ability to apply ARPEFS to arbitrary initial state core-level photoemission obviously opens up many systems to analysis. Efforts have been ongoing to understand such data in depth. We present clean Cu(111) 3s, 3p, and 3d core-level, normal photoemission data taken on a high resolution soft x-ray beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, California and clean Ni(111) 3p normal photoemission data taken at the National Synchrotron Light Source in Upton, New York, USA

  19. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of rare earth LaSb{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michiardi, Matteo; Arnold, Fabian; Faerch Fisher, Karl Frederik; Svane, Axel; Bianchi, Marco; Brummerstedt Iversen, Bo; Hofmann, Philip [Aarhus University (Denmark); Shwetha, G.; Kanchana, V. [IIT-Hyderabad (India); Ganapathy, Vaitheeswaran [University of Hyderabad (India)

    2016-07-01

    Several rare earth diantimonides have been found to exhibit intriguing electronic properties such as anisotropic linear and non-saturating magnetoresistance. Among these materials, LaSb{sub 2} is not only considered for application in magnetoresistive devices but it is also found to be superconducting at low temperatures and it is investigated as candidate material to host charge density wave phases. Despite the several studies on its transport properties, the electronic structure of LaSb{sub 2} is still largely unknown. Here we present an angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and ab-initio calculation study of LaSb{sub 2}(001). The observed band structure is found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Our results reveal that LaSb{sub 2} is a semimetal with a strongly nested two-dimensional Fermi surface. The low energy spectrum is characterized by four massive hole pockets and by four shallow, strongly directional, electron pockets that exhibit Dirac-like dispersion. We speculate on the possibility that this peculiar electronic structure drives the magnetoresistance to its quantum limit, explaining its unconventional behavior.

  20. High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission investigation of potassium and phosphate tungsten bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Sanhita; Kumari, Spriha; Raj, Satyabrata

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electronic structure of potassium and phosphate tungsten bronzes. • Origin of transport anomalies in bronzes. • Flat segments of Fermi surfaces are connected by a nesting vector, q. • Nesting driven charge-density wave is responsible for the anomalies. - Abstract: We have performed high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and density functional ab initio theoretical calculation to study the electronic structure of potassium (K_0_._2_5WO_3) and phosphate (P_4W_1_2O_4_4) tungsten bronzes. We have experimentally determined the band dispersions and Fermi surface topology of these bronzes and compared with our theoretical calculations and a fair agreement has been seen between them. Our experimental as well as theoretical investigation elucidates the origin of transport anomalies in these bronzes. The Fermi surfaces of these bronzes consist of flat patches, which can be connected with each other by a constant nesting wave vector, q. The scattering wave vectors found from diffraction measurements match with these nesting vectors and the anomalies in the transport properties of these bronzes can be well explained by the evolution of charge-density wave with a partial nesting between the flat segments of the Fermi surfaces.

  1. Electronic properties of novel topological quantum materials studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-12-17

    The discovery of quantum Hall e ect has motivated the use of topology instead of broken symmetry to classify the states of matter. Quantum spin Hall e ect has been proposed to have a separation of spin currents as an analogue of the charge currents separation in quantum Hall e ect, leading us to the era of topological insulators. Three-dimensional analogue of the Dirac state in graphene has brought us the three-dimensional Dirac states. Materials with three-dimensional Dirac states could potentially be the parent compounds for Weyl semimetals and topological insulators when time-reversal or space inversion symmetry is broken. In addition to the single Dirac point linking the two dispersion cones in the Dirac/Weyl semimetals, Dirac points can form a line in the momentum space, resulting in a topological node line semimetal. These fascinating novel topological quantum materials could provide us platforms for studying the relativistic physics in condensed matter systems and potentially lead to design of new electronic devices that run faster and consume less power than traditional, silicon based transistors. In this thesis, we present the electronic properties of novel topological quantum materials studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES).

  2. Fingerprints of entangled spin and orbital physics in itinerant ferromagnets via angle-resolved resonant photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Pieve, F.

    2016-01-01

    A method for mapping the local spin and orbital nature of the ground state of a system via corresponding flip excitations is proposed based on angle-resolved resonant photoemission and related diffraction patterns, obtained here via an ab initio modified one-step theory of photoemission. The analysis is done on the paradigmatic weak itinerant ferromagnet bcc Fe, whose magnetism, a correlation phenomenon given by the coexistence of localized moments and itinerant electrons, and the observed non-Fermi-Liquid behavior at extreme conditions both remain unclear. The combined analysis of energy spectra and diffraction patterns offers a mapping of local pure spin-flip, entangled spin-flip-orbital-flip excitations and chiral transitions with vortexlike wave fronts of photoelectrons, depending on the valence orbital symmetry and the direction of the local magnetic moment. Such effects, mediated by the hole polarization, make resonant photoemission a promising tool to perform a full tomography of the local magnetic properties even in itinerant ferromagnets or macroscopically nonmagnetic systems.

  3. Invited Article: High resolution angle resolved photoemission with tabletop 11 eV laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yu; Vishik, Inna M.; Yi, Ming; Yang, Shuolong; Lee, James J.; Chen, Sudi; Rebec, Slavko N.; Leuenberger, Dominik; Shen, Zhi-Xun [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Liu, Zhongkai [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zong, Alfred [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Jefferson, C. Michael; Merriam, Andrew J. [Lumeras LLC, 207 McPherson St, Santa Cruz, California 95060 (United States); Moore, Robert G.; Kirchmann, Patrick S. [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with 113.778 nm wavelength (10.897 eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10 MHz, provides a flux of 2 × 10{sup 12} photons/s, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2 meV and 0.012 Å{sup −1}, respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2 meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2 Å{sup −1}, granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source and showcase its performance for rare earth metal tritellurides, high temperature cuprate superconductors, and iron-based superconductors.

  4. Development of angle-resolved low coherence interferometry for clinical detection of dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizheng Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the development of angle-resolved low coherence interferometry (a/LCI from initial development through clinical application. In the first applications, the approach used a time-domain interferometry scheme and was validated using animal models of carcinogenesis to assess the feasibility of detecting dysplasia in situ. Further development of the approach led to Fourier-domain interferometry schemes with higher throughput and endoscope-compatible probes to enable clinical application. These later implementations have been applied to clinical studies of dysplasia in Barrett′s esophagus tissues, a metaplastic tissue type that is associated with an increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. As an alternative to systematic biopsy, the a/LCI approach offers high sensitivity and specificity for detecting dysplasia in these tissues while avoiding the need for tissue removal or exogenous contrast agents. Here, the various implementations of a/LCI are discussed and the results of the preliminary animal experiments and ex vivo human tissue studies are reviewed. A review of a recent in vivo clinical study is also presented.

  5. Extracting the temperature of hot carriers in time- and angle-resolved photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulstrup, Søren; Hofmann, Philip; Johannsen, Jens Christian; Grioni, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of light with a material's electronic system creates an out-of-equilibrium (non-thermal) distribution of optically excited electrons. Non-equilibrium dynamics relaxes this distribution on an ultrafast timescale to a hot Fermi-Dirac distribution with a well-defined temperature. The advent of time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TR-ARPES) experiments has made it possible to track the decay of the temperature of the excited hot electrons in selected states in the Brillouin zone, and to reveal their cooling in unprecedented detail in a variety of emerging materials. It is, however, not a straightforward task to determine the temperature with high accuracy. This is mainly attributable to an a priori unknown position of the Fermi level and the fact that the shape of the Fermi edge can be severely perturbed when the state in question is crossing the Fermi energy. Here, we introduce a method that circumvents these difficulties and accurately extracts both the temperature and the position of the Fermi level for a hot carrier distribution by tracking the occupation statistics of the carriers measured in a TR-ARPES experiment

  6. Extracting the temperature of hot carriers in time- and angle-resolved photoemission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulstrup, Søren; Johannsen, Jens Christian; Grioni, Marco; Hofmann, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of light with a material's electronic system creates an out-of-equilibrium (non-thermal) distribution of optically excited electrons. Non-equilibrium dynamics relaxes this distribution on an ultrafast timescale to a hot Fermi-Dirac distribution with a well-defined temperature. The advent of time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TR-ARPES) experiments has made it possible to track the decay of the temperature of the excited hot electrons in selected states in the Brillouin zone, and to reveal their cooling in unprecedented detail in a variety of emerging materials. It is, however, not a straightforward task to determine the temperature with high accuracy. This is mainly attributable to an a priori unknown position of the Fermi level and the fact that the shape of the Fermi edge can be severely perturbed when the state in question is crossing the Fermi energy. Here, we introduce a method that circumvents these difficulties and accurately extracts both the temperature and the position of the Fermi level for a hot carrier distribution by tracking the occupation statistics of the carriers measured in a TR-ARPES experiment.

  7. Surface State Dynamics of Topological Insulators Investigated by Femtosecond Time- and Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamoon Hedayat

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Topological insulators (TI are known for striking quantum phenomena associated with their spin-polarized topological surface state (TSS. The latter in particular forms a Dirac cone that bridges the energy gap between valence and conduction bands, providing a unique opportunity for prospective device applications. In TI of the BixSb2−xTeySe3−y (BSTS family, stoichiometry determines the morphology and position of the Dirac cone with respect to the Fermi level. In order to engineer specific transport properties, a careful tuning of the TSS is highly desired. Therefore, we have systematically explored BSTS samples with different stoichiometries by time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TARPES. This technique provides snapshots of the electronic structure and discloses the carrier dynamics in surface and bulk states, providing crucial information for the design of electro-spin current devices. Our results reveal the central role of doping level on the Dirac cone structure and its femtosecond dynamics. In particular, an extraordinarily long TSS lifetime is observed when the the vertex of the Dirac cone lies at the Fermi level.

  8. The development of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy; 1900-1960

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, J.G.; La Trobe Univ., Bundoora

    1981-01-01

    Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) is now a sophisticated and particularly powerful technique for studying the electronic structure of matter, in addition the photoelectric effect has been of great significance in the history of 20th-century physics. This article seeks to uncover the origins and chart the development of the ARPES field, and focusses on the first half of this century; that is, up to the beginnings of the modern phase in the late 1960's. It is suggested that present workers will find interest in, and indeed profit from a knowledge of, the enormous experimental effort that was made to acquire quality data, the frustrating attempts that were initially made to understand them theoretically, and the contribution of early wave-mechanics, which brought order to a troubled field and thereby provided the necessary foundation for current studies. In addition, it is noted that the physicists involved often obtained inspiration and important insights which led them into studies of other significant problems of 20th-century physics. (orig.)

  9. Thin resolver using the easy magnetization axis of the grain-oriented silicon steel as an angle indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisho Oshino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new type of thin resolver is presented, in which the easy axis of the magnetic anisotropy in the grain-oriented silicon steel is used as an angle indicator. The total thickness including a rotor, PCB coils and a back yoke can be made less than 4 mm. With a rotor of 50 mm diameter, a good linear response (non-linearity error < 0.4% between the mechanical angle input and the electrical angle output has been obtained. The influence of a weak magnetic anisotropy in the non-grain-oriented silicon steel used for the back yoke on the accuracy of the resolver can be deleted by the method proposed in this paper.

  10. Branch Point Withdrawal in Elongational Startup Flow by Time-Resolved Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Ruocco, N.; Auhl, D.; Bailly, C.; Lindner, P.; Pyckhout-Hintzen, W.; Wischnewski, A.; Leal, L. G.; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Richter, D.

    2016-01-01

    We present a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigation of a blend composed of a dendritic polymer and a linear matrix with comparable viscosity in start-up of an elongational flow at Tg + 50. The two-generation dendritic polymer is diluted to 10% by weight in a matrix of a long well-entangled linear chains. Both components consist of mainly 1,4-cis-polyisoprene but differ in isotopic composition. The resulting scattering contrast is sufficiently high to permit time-resolved measurements of the system structure factor during the start-up phase and to follow the retraction processes involving the inner sections of the branched polymer in the nonlinear deformation response. The outer branches and the linear matrix, on the contrary, are in the linear deformation regime. The linear matrix dominates the rheological signature of the blend and the influence of the branched component can barely be detected. However, the neutron scattering intensity is predominantly that of the (branched) minority component so that its dynamics is clearly evident. In the present paper, we use the neutron scattering data to validate the branch point withdrawal process, which could not be unambiguously discerned from rheological measurements in this blend. The maximal tube stretch that the inner branches experience, before the relaxed outer arm material is incorporated into the tube is determined. The in situ scattering experiments demonstrate for the first time the leveling-off of the strain as the result of branch point withdrawal and chain retraction directly on the molecular level. We conclude that branch point motion in the mixture of architecturally complex polymers occurs earlier than would be expected in a purely branched system, presumably due to the different topological environment that the linear matrix presents to the hierarchically deep-buried tube sections. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  11. Branch Point Withdrawal in Elongational Startup Flow by Time-Resolved Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Ruocco, N.

    2016-05-27

    We present a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigation of a blend composed of a dendritic polymer and a linear matrix with comparable viscosity in start-up of an elongational flow at Tg + 50. The two-generation dendritic polymer is diluted to 10% by weight in a matrix of a long well-entangled linear chains. Both components consist of mainly 1,4-cis-polyisoprene but differ in isotopic composition. The resulting scattering contrast is sufficiently high to permit time-resolved measurements of the system structure factor during the start-up phase and to follow the retraction processes involving the inner sections of the branched polymer in the nonlinear deformation response. The outer branches and the linear matrix, on the contrary, are in the linear deformation regime. The linear matrix dominates the rheological signature of the blend and the influence of the branched component can barely be detected. However, the neutron scattering intensity is predominantly that of the (branched) minority component so that its dynamics is clearly evident. In the present paper, we use the neutron scattering data to validate the branch point withdrawal process, which could not be unambiguously discerned from rheological measurements in this blend. The maximal tube stretch that the inner branches experience, before the relaxed outer arm material is incorporated into the tube is determined. The in situ scattering experiments demonstrate for the first time the leveling-off of the strain as the result of branch point withdrawal and chain retraction directly on the molecular level. We conclude that branch point motion in the mixture of architecturally complex polymers occurs earlier than would be expected in a purely branched system, presumably due to the different topological environment that the linear matrix presents to the hierarchically deep-buried tube sections. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  12. Comparison of models and measurements of angle-resolved scatter from irregular aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milstein, Adam B.; Richardson, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed and validated a method for modeling the elastic scattering properties of biological and inert aerosols of irregular shape at near- and mid-wave infrared wavelengths. The method, based on Gaussian random particles, calculates the ensemble-average optical cross section and Mueller scattering matrix, using the measured aerodynamic size distribution and previously-reported refractive index as inputs. The utility of the Gaussian particle model is that it is controlled by only two parameters (σ and Γ) which we have optimized such that the model best reproduces the full angle-resolved Mueller scattering matrices measured at λ=1.55 µm in the Standoff Aerosol Active Signature Testbed (SAAST). The method has been applied to wet-generated singlet biological spore samples, dry-generated biological spore clusters, and kaolin. The scattering computation is performed using the Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA), which requires significant computational resources, and is thus implemented on LLGrid, a large parallel grid computer. For the cases presented, the best fit Gaussian particle model is in good qualitative correspondence with microscopy images of the corresponding class of particles. The measured and computed cross sections agree well within a factor of two overall, with certain cases bearing closer correspondence. In particular, the DDA reproduces the shape of the measured scatter function more accurately than Mie predictions. The DDA-computed depolarization factors are also in good agreement with measurement. - Highlights: • We model elastic scattering of biological and inert aerosols of irregular shape. • We calculate cross sections and Mueller matrix using random particle shape model. • Scatter models employ refractive index and measured size distribution as inputs. • Discrete dipole approximation (DDA) with parallelization enables model calculations. • DDA-modeled cross section and Mueller matrix agree well with measurements at 1.55 μm

  13. Correlation, temperature and disorder: Recent developments in the one-step description of angle-resolved photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jürgen; Minár, Ján; Ebert, Hubert

    2018-04-01

    Various apparative developments extended the potential of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy tremendously during the last two decades. Modern experimental arrangements consisting of new photon sources, analyzers and detectors supply not only extremely high angle and energy resolution but also spin resolution. This provides an adequate platform to study in detail new materials like low-dimensional magnetic structures, Rashba systems, topological insulator materials or high TC superconductors. The interest in such systems has grown enormously not only because of their technological relevance but even more because of exciting new physics. Furthermore, the use of photon energies from few eV up to several keV makes this experimental technique a rather unique tool to investigate the electronic properties of solids and surfaces. The following article reviews the corresponding recent theoretical developments in the field of angle-resolved photoemission with a special emphasis on correlation effects, temperature and relativistic aspects. The most successful theoretical approach to deal with angle-resolved photoemission is the so-called spectral function or one-step formulation of the photoemission process. Nowadays, the one-step model allows for photocurrent calculations for photon energies ranging from a few eV to more than 10 keV, to deal with arbitrarily ordered and disordered systems, to account for finite temperatures, and considering in addition strong correlation effects within the dynamical mean-field theory or similar advanced approaches.

  14. Resolving surface chemical states in XPS analysis of first row transition metals, oxides and hydroxides: Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biesinger, Mark C., E-mail: biesingr@uwo.ca [Surface Science Western, University of Western Ontario, University of Western Ontario Research Park, Room LL31, 999 Collip Circle, London, Ontario, N6G 0J3 (Canada); ACeSSS (Applied Centre for Structural and Synchrotron Studies), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Payne, Brad P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Grosvenor, Andrew P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5C9 (Canada); Lau, Leo W.M. [Surface Science Western, University of Western Ontario, University of Western Ontario Research Park, Room LL31, 999 Collip Circle, London, Ontario, N6G 0J3 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Gerson, Andrea R.; Smart, Roger St.C. [ACeSSS (Applied Centre for Structural and Synchrotron Studies), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    Chemical state X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of first row transition metals and their oxides and hydroxides is challenging due to the complexity of their 2p spectra resulting from peak asymmetries, complex multiplet splitting, shake-up and plasmon loss structure, and uncertain, overlapping binding energies. Our previous paper [M.C. Biesinger et al., Appl. Surf. Sci. 257 (2010) 887-898.] in which we examined Sc, Ti, V, Cu and Zn species, has shown that all the values of the spectral fitting parameters for each specific species, i.e. binding energy (eV), full wide at half maximum (FWHM) value (eV) for each pass energy, spin-orbit splitting values and asymmetric peak shape fitting parameters, are not all normally provided in the literature and data bases, and are necessary for reproducible, quantitative chemical state analysis. A more consistent, practical and effective approach to curve fitting was developed based on a combination of (1) standard spectra from quality reference samples, (2) a survey of appropriate literature databases and/or a compilation of literature references and (3) specific literature references where fitting procedures are available. This paper extends this approach to the chemical states of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni metals, and various oxides and hydroxides where intense, complex multiplet splitting in many of the chemical states of these elements poses unique difficulties for chemical state analysis. The curve fitting procedures proposed use the same criteria as proposed previously but with the additional complexity of fitting of multiplet split spectra which has been done based on spectra of numerous reference materials and theoretical XPS modeling of these transition metal species. Binding energies, FWHM values, asymmetric peak shape fitting parameters, multiplet peak separation and peak area percentages are presented. The procedures developed can be utilized to remove uncertainties in the analysis of surface states in nano

  15. Intra- and intercycle interference of angle-resolved electron emission in laser-assisted XUV atomic ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramajo, A. A.; Della Picca, R.; López, S. D.; Arbó, D. G.

    2018-03-01

    A theoretical study of ionization of the hydrogen atom due to an XUV pulse in the presence of an infrared (IR) laser is presented. Well-established theories are usually used to describe the laser-assisted photoelectron effect: the well-known soft-photon approximation firstly posed by Maquet et al (2007 J. Mod. Opt. 54 1847) and Kazansky’s theory in (2010 Phys. Rev. A 82, 033420). However, these theories completely fail to predict the electron emission perpendicularly to the polarization direction. Making use of a semiclassical model (SCM), we study the angle-resolved energy distribution of PEs for the case that both fields are linearly polarized in the same direction. We thoroughly analyze and characterize two different emission regions in the angle-energy domain: (i) the parallel-like region with contribution of two classical trajectories per optical cycle and (ii) the perpendicular-like region with contribution of four classical trajectories per optical cycle. We show that our SCM is able to assess the interference patterns of the angle-resolved PE spectrum in the two different mentioned regions. Electron trajectories stemming from different optical laser cycles give rise to angle-independent intercycle interferences known as sidebands. These sidebands are modulated by an angle-dependent coarse-grained structure coming from the intracycle interference of the electron trajectories born during the same optical cycle. We show the accuracy of our SCM as a function of the time delay between the IR and the XUV pulses and also as a function of the laser intensity by comparing the semiclassical predictions of the angle-resolved PE spectrum with the continuum-distorted wave strong field approximation and the ab initio solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation.

  16. Band structures of 4f and 5f materials studied by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Shin-ichi

    2016-04-20

    Recent remarkable progress in angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) has enabled the direct observation of the band structures of 4f and 5f materials. In particular, ARPES with various light sources such as lasers (hν ~ 7 eV) or high-energy synchrotron radiations (hν >/~ 400 eV) has shed light on the bulk band structures of strongly correlated materials with energy scales of a few millielectronvolts to several electronvolts. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the behaviors of 4f and 5f band structures of various rare-earth and actinide materials observed by modern ARPES techniques, and understand how they can be described using various theoretical frameworks. For 4f-electron materials, ARPES studies of CeMIn5(M = Rh, Ir, and Co) and YbRh2Si2 with various incident photon energies are summarized. We demonstrate that their 4f electronic structures are essentially described within the framework of the periodic Anderson model, and that the band-structure calculation based on the local density approximation cannot explain their low-energy electronic structures. Meanwhile, electronic structures of 5f materials exhibit wide varieties ranging from itinerant to localized states. For itinerant U5f compounds such as UFeGa5, their electronic structures can be well-described by the band-structure calculation assuming that all U5f electrons are itinerant. In contrast, the band structures of localized U5f compounds such as UPd3 and UO2 are essentially explained by the localized model that treats U5f electrons as localized core states. In regards to heavy fermion U-based compounds such as the hidden-order compound URu2Si2, their electronic structures exhibit complex behaviors. Their overall band structures are generally well-explained by the band-structure calculation, whereas the states in the vicinity of EF show some deviations due to electron correlation effects. Furthermore, the electronic structures of URu2Si2 in the paramagnetic and hidden-order phases are

  17. Band structure and Fermi surface of UPd2Al3 studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Shin-ichi; Saitoh, Yuji; Okane, Tetsuo; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Fujimori, Atsushi; Haga, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Onuki, Yoshichika

    2007-01-01

    We have observed the band structure and Fermi surfaces of the heavy Fermion superconductor UPd 2 Al 3 by angle-resolved photoemission experiments in the soft X-ray region. We observed renormalized quasi-particle bands in the vicinity of the Fermi level and strongly dispersive bands on the higher binding energy side. Our observation suggests that the structure previously assigned to contributions from localized states in the U 5f spectrum has strong energy dispersions

  18. The use of angle resolved electron and photon stimulated desorption for the determination of molecular structure at surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madey, T.E.; Stockbauer, R.

    1983-01-01

    A brief review of recent data related to the use of angle-resolved electron stimulated desorption and photon stimulated desorption in determining the structures of molecules at surfaces is made. Examples include a variety of structural assignments based on ESIAD (electron stimulated desorption ion angular distributions), the observation of short-range local ordering effects induced in adsorbed molecules by surface impurities, and the application of photon stimulated desorption to both ionic and covalent adsorbate systems. (Author) [pt

  19. Instrument-related geometrical factors affecting the intensity in XPS and ARXPS experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera-Gomez, A., E-mail: aherrera@qro.cinvestav.mx [CINVESTAV-Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico); Aguirre-Tostado, F.S. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon 66600 (Mexico); Mani-Gonzalez, P.G.; Vazquez-Lepe, M.; Sanchez-Martinez, A.; Ceballos-Sanchez, O. [CINVESTAV-Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico); Wallace, R.M. [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Conti, G.; Uritsky, Y. [Applied Materials, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Instrument geometrical-factors affecting the XPS angular dependence are described. {yields} The geometrical factors in XPS instruments are transferable to other systems. {yields} Practical protocols are presented for assessing the size of analysis area and volume. {yields} Practical protocols are presented for assessing the size of the X-ray beam spot. {yields} Practical protocols are described for assessing the manipulator's axis of rotation. - Abstract: The angular dependence of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) signal is influenced not only by the electron take-off angle, but also by instrument-related geometrical factors. The XPS signal is, in fact, integrated over the overlap between the X-ray beam, the spectrometer analysis volume, and the sample surface. This overlap depends on the size and shape of the spectrometer analysis volume and X-ray beam, as well as on their relative orientation. In this paper it is described the models and protocols for the characterization of the parameters defining the geometry of an XPS instrument. The protocols include practical methods for assessing the spectrometer analysis area and the X-ray beam spot dimension. Simple systems consisting of flat and 'thick' gold films on silicon wafers were employed. The parameters found with those samples are transferable to other more complex systems since they are geometrical in nature. The method allows for the prediction of the actual intensity of XPS peaks, hence removing the need of normalizing the peak areas to the area of a determined substrate peak. The associated reduction of the uncertainty in half is of special importance since the quantitative analysis of angle-resolved XPS data could be very sensitive to noise. Two rotating and one non-rotating XPS instruments are described. Some examples of the applications of the method are also provided.

  20. Study of the local structure of binary surfaces by electron diffraction (XPS, LEED)

    OpenAIRE

    Gereová, Katarína

    2006-01-01

    Study of local structure of binary surface with usage of ultra-thin film of cerium deposited on a Pd (111) single-crystal surface is presented. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and diffraction (XPS, XPD), angle resolved UV photoemission spectroscopy (ARUPS) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) was used for our investigations. LEED and X-ray excited photoemission intensities results represent a surface-geometrical structure. As well, mapping of ultra-violet photoelectron intensities as a...

  1. Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy on Electronic Structure and Electron-Phonon Coupling in Cuprate Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, X.J.

    2010-04-30

    In addition to the record high superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}), high temperature cuprate superconductors are characterized by their unusual superconducting properties below T{sub c}, and anomalous normal state properties above T{sub c}. In the superconducting state, although it has long been realized that superconductivity still involves Cooper pairs, as in the traditional BCS theory, the experimentally determined d-wave pairing is different from the usual s-wave pairing found in conventional superconductors. The identification of the pairing mechanism in cuprate superconductors remains an outstanding issue. The normal state properties, particularly in the underdoped region, have been found to be at odd with conventional metals which is usually described by Fermi liquid theory; instead, the normal state at optimal doping fits better with the marginal Fermi liquid phenomenology. Most notable is the observation of the pseudogap state in the underdoped region above T{sub c}. As in other strongly correlated electrons systems, these unusual properties stem from the interplay between electronic, magnetic, lattice and orbital degrees of freedom. Understanding the microscopic process involved in these materials and the interaction of electrons with other entities is essential to understand the mechanism of high temperature superconductivity. Since the discovery of high-T{sub c} superconductivity in cuprates, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has provided key experimental insights in revealing the electronic structure of high temperature superconductors. These include, among others, the earliest identification of dispersion and a large Fermi surface, an anisotropic superconducting gap suggestive of a d-wave order parameter, and an observation of the pseudogap in underdoped samples. In the mean time, this technique itself has experienced a dramatic improvement in its energy and momentum resolutions, leading to a series of new discoveries not

  2. Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy on Electronic Structure and Electron-Phonon Coupling in Cuprate Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.J.

    2010-01-01

    In addition to the record high superconducting transition temperature (T c ), high temperature cuprate superconductors are characterized by their unusual superconducting properties below T c , and anomalous normal state properties above T c . In the superconducting state, although it has long been realized that superconductivity still involves Cooper pairs, as in the traditional BCS theory, the experimentally determined d-wave pairing is different from the usual s-wave pairing found in conventional superconductors. The identification of the pairing mechanism in cuprate superconductors remains an outstanding issue. The normal state properties, particularly in the underdoped region, have been found to be at odd with conventional metals which is usually described by Fermi liquid theory; instead, the normal state at optimal doping fits better with the marginal Fermi liquid phenomenology. Most notable is the observation of the pseudogap state in the underdoped region above T c . As in other strongly correlated electrons systems, these unusual properties stem from the interplay between electronic, magnetic, lattice and orbital degrees of freedom. Understanding the microscopic process involved in these materials and the interaction of electrons with other entities is essential to understand the mechanism of high temperature superconductivity. Since the discovery of high-T c superconductivity in cuprates, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has provided key experimental insights in revealing the electronic structure of high temperature superconductors. These include, among others, the earliest identification of dispersion and a large Fermi surface, an anisotropic superconducting gap suggestive of a d-wave order parameter, and an observation of the pseudogap in underdoped samples. In the mean time, this technique itself has experienced a dramatic improvement in its energy and momentum resolutions, leading to a series of new discoveries not thought possible

  3. Electronic structure of heavy fermion system CePt2In7 from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Bing; Yu Li; Lyu Shou-Peng; Jia Xiao-Wen; Zhang Yan; Wang Chen-Lu; Hu Cheng; Ding Ying; Sun Xuan; Hu Yong; Liu Jing; Gao Qiang; Zhao Lin; Liu Guo-Dong; Liu Kai; Lu Zhong-Yi; Bauer, E D; Thompson, J D; Xu Zu-Yan; Chen Chuang-Tian

    2017-01-01

    We have carried out high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurements on the Ce-based heavy fermion compound CePt 2 In 7 that exhibits stronger two-dimensional character than the prototypical heavy fermion system CeCoIn 5 . Multiple Fermi surface sheets and a complex band structure are clearly resolved. We have also performed detailed band structure calculations on CePt 2 In 7 . The good agreement found between our measurements and the calculations suggests that the band renormalization effect is rather weak in CePt 2 In 7 . A comparison of the common features of the electronic structure of CePt 2 In 7 and CeCoIn 5 indicates that CeCoIn 5 shows a much stronger band renormalization effect than CePt 2 In 7 . These results provide new information for understanding the heavy fermion behaviors and unconventional superconductivity in Ce-based heavy fermion systems. (paper)

  4. Multi-angle lensless digital holography for depth resolved imaging on a chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ting-Wei; Isikman, Serhan O.; Bishara, Waheb; Tseng, Derek; Erlinger, Anthony; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-01-01

    A multi-angle lensfree holographic imaging platform that can accurately characterize both the axial and lateral positions of cells located within multi-layered micro-channels is introduced. In this platform, lensfree digital holograms of the micro-objects on the chip are recorded at different illumination angles using partially coherent illumination. These digital holograms start to shift laterally on the sensor plane as the illumination angle of the source is tilted. Since the exact amount of this lateral shift of each object hologram can be calculated with an accuracy that beats the diffraction limit of light, the height of each cell from the substrate can be determined over a large field of view without the use of any lenses. We demonstrate the proof of concept of this multi-angle lensless imaging platform by using light emitting diodes to characterize various sized microparticles located on a chip with sub-micron axial and lateral localization over ~60 mm2 field of view. Furthermore, we successfully apply this lensless imaging approach to simultaneously characterize blood samples located at multi-layered micro-channels in terms of the counts, individual thicknesses and the volumes of the cells at each layer. Because this platform does not require any lenses, lasers or other bulky optical/mechanical components, it provides a compact and high-throughput alternative to conventional approaches for cytometry and diagnostics applications involving lab on a chip systems. PMID:20588819

  5. Angle-resolved photoemission study and first-principles calculation of the electronic structure of LaSb2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acatrinei, Alice I; Browne, D; Losovyj, Y B; Young, D P; Moldovan, M; Chan, Julia Y; Sprunger, P T; Kurtz, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    In this work we present valence band studies of LaSb 2 using angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation and compare these data with band structure calculations. Valence band spectra reveal that Sb 5p states are dominant near the Fermi level and are hybridized with the La 5d states just below. The calculations show a fair agreement with the experimentally determined valence band spectra, allowing an identification of the observed features. We measured some dispersion for kbar, especially for Sb 5p states; no significant dispersion was found for k || . (letter to the editor)

  6. Thickness determination of thin solid films by angle-resolved X-ray fluorescence spectrometry using monochromatized synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, W.; Drotbohm, P.; Rothe, J.; Hormes, J.; Ottermann, C. R.; Bange, K.

    1995-05-01

    Thickness measurements by the method of angle-resolved, self-ratio X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (AR/SR/XFS) have been carried out on thin solid films using monochromatized synchrotron radiation at the Bonn storage ring ELSA. Synchrotron radiation was monochromatized by means of a double-crystal monochromator and fluorescence radiation was detected by a Si(Li) semiconductor detector. The results for sample systems consisting of Au on Si, Cr on SiO2 and TiO2 on alkali-free glass are very satisfactory and agree well with results obtained by other methods.

  7. Temperature-induced band shift in bulk γ-InSe by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanfeng; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Yafei; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Feng, Yue; Tu, Jian; Gu, Chenyi; Sun, Yizhe; Liu, Chang; Nie, Yuefeng; Edmond Turcu, Ion C.; Xu, Yongbing; He, Liang

    2018-05-01

    Indium selenide (InSe) has recently become popular research topics because of its unique layered crystal structure, direct band gap and high electron mobilities. In this work, we have acquired the electronic structure of bulk γ-InSe at various temperatures using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). We have also found that as the temperature decreases, the valence bands of γ-InSe exhibit a monotonic shift to lower binding energies. This band shift is attributed to the change of lattice parameters and has been validated by variable temperature X-ray diffraction measurements and theoretical calculations.

  8. Time-dependent first-principles study of angle-resolved secondary electron emission from atomic sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Yasumitsu; Watanabe, Kazuyuki

    2018-02-01

    Angle-resolved secondary electron emission (ARSEE) spectra were analyzed for two-dimensional atomic sheets using a time-dependent first-principles simulation of electron scattering. We demonstrate that the calculated ARSEE spectra capture the unoccupied band structure of the atomic sheets. The excitation dynamics that lead to SEE have also been revealed by the time-dependent Kohn-Sham decomposition scheme. In the present study, the mechanism for the experimentally observed ARSEE from atomic sheets is elucidated with respect to both energetics and the dynamical aspects of SEE.

  9. Electronic structure of C r2AlC as observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takahiro; Pinek, Damir; Fujita, Taishi; Nakatake, Masashi; Ideta, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Kiyohisa; Ouisse, Thierry

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the electronic band structure and Fermi surfaces (FSs) of C r2AlC single crystals with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We evidence hole bands centered around the M points and electron bands centered around the Γ point in reciprocal space. Electron and hole bands exhibit an open, tubular structure along the c axis, confirming the quasi-two-dimensional character of this highly anisotropic, nanolamellar compound. Dependence of the photoionization cross sections on beam light polarization and orientation allows us to assess the orbital character of each observed band locally. Despite some differences, density functional theory calculations show a good agreement with experiment.

  10. Elasticity of Tantalum to 105 Gpa using a stress and angle-resolved x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cynn, H; Yoo, C S

    1999-01-01

    Determining the mechanical properties such as elastic constants of metals at Mbar pressures has been a difficult task in experiment. Following the development of anisotropic elastic theory by Singh et al.[l], Mao et a1.[2] have recently developed a novel experimental technique to determine the elastic constants of Fe by using the stress and energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (SEX). In this paper, we present an improved complementary technique, stress and angle-resolved x-ray diffraction (SAX), which we have applied to determine the elastic constants of tantalum to 105 GPa. The extrapolation of the tantalum elastic data shows an excellent agreement with the low-pressure ultrasonic data[3]. We also discuss the improvement of this SAX method over the previous SEX.[elastic constant, anisotropic elastic theory, angle-dispersive synchrotron x-ray diffraction, mechanical properties

  11. The UHV Experimental Chamber For Optical Measurements (Reflectivity and Absorption) and Angle Resolved Photoemission of the BEAR Beamline at ELETTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquali, L.; Nannarone, S.; De Luisa, A.

    2004-01-01

    The experimental station of the BEAR (Bending magnet for Emission, Absorption and Reflectivity) beamline at ELETTRA (Trieste, Italy) is an UHV chamber conceived to fully exploit the spectroscopic possibilities offered by the light spot produced by the beamline. Spectroscopies include reflectivity (θ-2θ and diffuse), optical absorption, fluorescence and angle resolved photoemission. The chamber can be rotated around the beam axis to select the s (TE) or p (TM) incidence conditions and/or the position of the ellipse of polarization with respect to the sample. Photon detectors (e.g. photodiodes) and electron detector (hemispherical analyzer - 1 deg. angular resolution, 20 meV energy resolution) cover about completely the full 2π solid angle above the sample surface in any light incidence condition

  12. Three-dimensional super-resolved live cell imaging through polarized multi-angle TIRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cheng; Zhao, Guangyuan; Liu, Wenjie; Chen, Youhua; Zhang, Zhimin; Jin, Luhong; Xu, Yingke; Kuang, Cuifang; Liu, Xu

    2018-04-01

    Measuring three-dimensional nanoscale cellular structures is challenging, especially when the structure is dynamic. Owing to the informative total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) imaging under varied illumination angles, multi-angle (MA) TIRF has been examined to offer a nanoscale axial and a subsecond temporal resolution. However, conventional MA-TIRF still performs badly in lateral resolution and fails to characterize the depth image in densely distributed regions. Here, we emphasize the lateral super-resolution in the MA-TIRF, exampled by simply introducing polarization modulation into the illumination procedure. Equipped with a sparsity and accelerated proximal algorithm, we examine a more precise 3D sample structure compared with previous methods, enabling live cell imaging with a temporal resolution of 2 s and recovering high-resolution mitochondria fission and fusion processes. We also shared the recovery program, which is the first open-source recovery code for MA-TIRF, to the best of our knowledge.

  13. Fermi Surface and Band Structure of (Ca,La)FeAs2 Superconductor from Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xu; Liu De-Fa; Zhao Lin; Guo Qi; Mu Qing-Ge; Chen Dong-Yun; Shen Bing; Yi He-Mian; Huang Jian-Wei; He Jun-Feng; Peng Ying-Ying; Liu Yan; He Shao-Long; Liu Guo-Dong; Dong Xiao-Li; Zhang Jun; Ren Zhi-An; Zhou Xing-Jiang; Chen Chuang-Tian; Xu Zu-Yan

    2013-01-01

    The (Ca,R)FeAs 2 (R=La, Pr, etc.) superconductors with a signature of superconductivity transition above 40 K possess a new kind of block layers that consist of zig-zag As chains. We report the electronic structure of the new (Ca,La)FeAs 2 superconductor investigated by both band structure calculations and high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements. Band structure calculations indicate that there are four hole-like bands around the zone center Γ(0,0) and two electron-like bands near the zone corner M(π, π) in CaFeAs 2 . In our angle-resolved photoemission measurements on (Ca 0.9 La 0.1 )FeAs 2 , we have observed three hole-like bands around the Γ point and one electron-like Fermi surface near the M(π, π) point. These results provide important information to compare and contrast with the electronic structure of other iron-based compounds in understanding the superconductivity mechanism in the iron-based superconductors. (express letter)

  14. Carbon Condensation during High Explosive Detonation with Time Resolved Small Angle X-ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammons, Joshua; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Nielsen, Michael; Lauderbach, Lisa; Hodgin, Ralph; Bastea, Sorin; Fried, Larry; May, Chadd; Sinclair, Nicholas; Jensen, Brian; Gustavsen, Rick; Dattelbaum, Dana; Watkins, Erik; Firestone, Millicent; Ilavsky, Jan; van Buuren, Tony; Willey, Trevor; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Collaboration; Los Alamos National Laboratory Collaboration; Washington State University/Advanced Photon Source Team

    Carbon condensation during high-energy detonations occurs under extreme conditions and on very short time scales. Understanding and manipulating soot formation, particularly detonation nanodiamond, has attracted the attention of military, academic and industrial research. An in-situ characterization of these nanoscale phases, during detonation, is highly sought after and presents a formidable challenge even with today's instruments. Using the high flux available with synchrotron X-rays, pink beam small angle X-ray scattering is able to observe the carbon phases during detonation. This experimental approach, though powerful, requires careful consideration and support from other techniques, such as post-mortem TEM, EELS and USAXS. We present a comparative survey of carbon condensation from different CHNO high explosives. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Angle resolved photoelectron distribution of the 1{pi} resonance of CO/Pt(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarlammert, Thorben; Wegner, Sebastian; Tsilimis, Grigorius; Zacharias, Helmut [Physikalisches Institut, Westfaelische Wilhelms Universitaet, Muenster (Germany); Golovin, Alexander [Institute of Physics, St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    The CO 1{pi} level of a c(4 x 2)-2CO/Pt(111) reconstruction shows a significant resonance when varying the photon energy between h{nu}=23 eV and h{nu}=48 e V. This resonance has not been observed in gas phase measurements or on the Pt(1 10) surface. To investigate the photoelectron distribution of the 1{pi} level high harmonic radiaton has been used. By conversion in rare gases like argon, neon, or helium photon energies of up to 100 eV have been generated at repetition r ates of up to 10 kHz. The single harmonics have been separated and focused by a toroidal grating and directed to the sample surface. A time-of-flight detector with multiple anodes registers the kinetic energies of the emitted photoelectrons and enables the simultaneous detection of multiple emission angles. The angular distributions of photoelectrons emitted from the CO 1{pi} level have been measured for a variety of initial photon energies. Further the angular distributions of the CO 1{pi} level photoelectrons emitted from a CO-Pt{sub 7} cluster have been calculated using the MSX{alpha}-Method which shows good agreement with the ex perimental data.

  16. The electronic structure of clean and adsorbate-covered Bi2Se3: an angle-resolved photoemission study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Marco; Hatch, Richard; Guan, Dandan

    2012-01-01

    Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is used for a detailed study of the electronic structure of the topological insulator Bi2Se3. Nominally stoichiometric and calcium-doped samples were investigated. The pristine surface shows the topological surface state in the bulk band gap. As time passes....... For a sufficiently strong band bending, additional states appear at the Fermi level. These are interpreted as quantized conduction band states. For large band bendings, these states are found to undergo a strong Rashba splitting. The formation of quantum well states is also observed for the valence band states......, the Dirac point moves to higher binding energies, indicating an increasingly strong downward bending of the bands near the surface. This time-dependent band bending is related to a contamination of the surface and can be accelerated by intentionally exposing the surface to carbon monoxide and other species...

  17. Soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of heavily boron-doped superconducting diamond films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yokoya, T. Nakamura, T. Matushita, T. Muro, H. Okazaki, M. Arita, K. Shimada, H. Namatame, M. Taniguchi, Y. Takano, M. Nagao, T. Takenouchi, H. Kawarada and T. Oguchi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have performed soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (SXARPES of microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition diamond films with different B concentrations in order to study the origin of the metallic behavior of superconducting diamond. SXARPES results clearly show valence band dispersions with a bandwidth of ~23 eV and with a top of the valence band at gamma point in the Brillouin zone, which are consistent with the calculated valence band dispersions of pure diamond. Boron concentration-dependent band dispersions near the Fermi level (EF exhibit a systematic shift of EF, indicating depopulation of electrons due to hole doping. These SXARPES results indicate that diamond bands retain for heavy boron doping and holes in the diamond band are responsible for the metallic states leading to superconductivity at low temperature. A high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy spectrum near EF of a heavily boron-doped diamond superconductor is also presented.

  18. A Polarization-Adjustable Picosecond Deep-Ultraviolet Laser for Spin- and Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Feng-Feng; Yang Feng; Zhang Shen-Jin; Wang Zhi-Min; Xu Feng-Liang; Peng Qin-Jun; Zhang Jing-Yuan; Xu Zu-Yan; Wang Xiao-Yang; Chen Chuang-Tian

    2012-01-01

    We report on a polarization-adjustable picosecond deep-ultraviolet (DUV) laser at 177.3 nm. The DUV laser was produced by second harmonic generation from a mode-locked laser at 355 nm in nonlinear optical crystal KBBF. The laser delivered a maximum average output power of 1.1 mW at 177.3 nm. The polarization of the 177.3 nm beam was adjusted with linear and circular polarization by means of λ/4 and λ/2 wave plates. To the best of our knowledge, the laser has been employed as the circularly polarized and linearly polarized DUV light source for a spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with high resolution for the first time. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  19. Quantifying electronic band interactions in van der Waals materials using angle-resolved reflected-electron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobst, Johannes; van der Torren, Alexander J H; Krasovskii, Eugene E; Balgley, Jesse; Dean, Cory R; Tromp, Rudolf M; van der Molen, Sense Jan

    2016-11-29

    High electron mobility is one of graphene's key properties, exploited for applications and fundamental research alike. Highest mobility values are found in heterostructures of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride, which consequently are widely used. However, surprisingly little is known about the interaction between the electronic states of these layered systems. Rather pragmatically, it is assumed that these do not couple significantly. Here we study the unoccupied band structure of graphite, boron nitride and their heterostructures using angle-resolved reflected-electron spectroscopy. We demonstrate that graphene and boron nitride bands do not interact over a wide energy range, despite their very similar dispersions. The method we use can be generally applied to study interactions in van der Waals systems, that is, artificial stacks of layered materials. With this we can quantitatively understand the 'chemistry of layers' by which novel materials are created via electronic coupling between the layers they are composed of.

  20. Evidence of the nature of core-level photoemission satellites using angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, E.J.; Kellar, S.A.; Huff, W.R.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The authors present a unique method of experimentally determining the angular momentum and intrinsic/extrinsic origin of core-level photoemission satellites by examining the satellite diffraction pattern in the Angle Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) mode. They show for the first time that satellite peaks not associated with chemically differentiated atomic species display an ARPEFS intensity oscillation. They present ARPEFS data for the carbon 1s from ({radical}3x{radical}3)R30 CO/Cu(111) and p2mg(2xl)CO/Ni(110), nitrogen 1s from c(2x2) N{sub 2}/Ni(100), cobalt 1s from p(1x1)Co/Cu(100), and nickel 3p from clean nickel (111). The satellite peaks and tails of the Doniach-Sunjic line shapes in all cases exhibit ARPEFS curves which indicate an angular momentum identical to the main peak and are of an intrinsic nature.

  1. Early stages of spinodal decomposition in Fe-Cr resolved by in-situ small-angle neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörnqvist, M.; Thuvander, M.; Steuwer, A.; King, S.; Odqvist, J.; Hedström, P.

    2015-02-01

    In-situ, time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigations of the early stages of the spinodal decomposition process in Fe-35Cr were performed at 773 and 798 K. The kinetics of the decomposition, both in terms of characteristic distance and peak intensity, followed a power-law behaviour from the start of the heat treatment (a'= 0.10-0.11 and a″ = 0.67-0.86). Furthermore, the method allows tracking of the high-Q slope, which is a sensitive measure of the early stages of decomposition. Ex-situ SANS and atom probe tomography were used to verify the results from the in-situ investigations. Finally, the in-situ measurement of the evolution of the characteristic distance at 773 K was compared with the predictions from the Cahn-Hilliard-Cook model, which showed good agreement with the experimental data (a'= 0.12-0.20 depending on the assumed mobility).

  2. Exploring electronic structure of one-atom thick polycrystalline graphene films: A nano angle resolved photoemission study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, José; Razado, Ivy; Lorcy, Stéphane; Fleurier, Romain; Pichonat, Emmanuelle; Vignaud, Dominique; Wallart, Xavier; Asensio, María C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to produce large, continuous and defect free films of graphene is presently a major challenge for multiple applications. Even though the scalability of graphene films is closely associated to a manifest polycrystalline character, only a few numbers of experiments have explored so far the electronic structure down to single graphene grains. Here we report a high resolution angle and lateral resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (nano-ARPES) study of one-atom thick graphene films on thin copper foils synthesized by chemical vapor deposition. Our results show the robustness of the Dirac relativistic-like electronic spectrum as a function of the size, shape and orientation of the single-crystal pristine grains in the graphene films investigated. Moreover, by mapping grain by grain the electronic dynamics of this unique Dirac system, we show that the single-grain gap-size is 80% smaller than the multi-grain gap recently reported by classical ARPES. PMID:23942471

  3. Direct observation of superconducting gaps in MgB{sub 2} by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souma, S.; Machida, Y.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Matsui, H.; Wang, S.-C.; Ding, H.; Kaminski, A.; Campuzano, J.C.; Sasaki, S.; Kadowaki, K

    2004-08-01

    High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been carried out to clarify the anomalous superconductivity of MgB{sub 2}. We observed three bands crossing the Fermi level, which are ascribed to B2p-{sigma}, {pi} and surface bands. We have succeeded for the first time in directly observing the superconducting gaps of these bands separately. We have found that the superconducting-gap sizes of {sigma} and surface bands are 6.5 {+-} 0.5 and 6.0 {+-} 0.5 meV, respectively, while that of the {pi} band is much smaller (1.5 {+-} 0.5 meV). The present experimental result unambiguously demonstrates the validity of the two-band superconductivity in MgB{sub 2}.

  4. Method to map one-dimensional electronic wave function by using multiple Brillouin zone angle resolved photoemission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Wook Lee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES is a powerful tool to investigate electronic structures in solids and has been widely used in studying various materials. The electronic structure information by ARPES is obtained in the momentum space. However, in the case of one-dimensional system, we here show that we extract the real space information from ARPES data taken over multiple Brillouin zones (BZs. Intensities in the multiple BZs are proportional to the photoemission matrix element which contains information on the coefficient of the Bloch wave function. It is shown that the Bloch wave function coefficients can be extracted from ARPES data, which allows us to construct the real space wave function. As a test, we use ARPES data from proto-typical one-dimensional system SrCuO2 and construct the real space wave function.

  5. Evidence of the nature of core-level photoemission satellites using angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moler, E.J.; Kellar, S.A.; Huff, W.R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a unique method of experimentally determining the angular momentum and intrinsic/extrinsic origin of core-level photoemission satellites by examining the satellite diffraction pattern in the Angle Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) mode. They show for the first time that satellite peaks not associated with chemically differentiated atomic species display an ARPEFS intensity oscillation. They present ARPEFS data for the carbon 1s from (√3x√3)R30 CO/Cu(111) and p2mg(2xl)CO/Ni(110), nitrogen 1s from c(2x2) N 2 /Ni(100), cobalt 1s from p(1x1)Co/Cu(100), and nickel 3p from clean nickel (111). The satellite peaks and tails of the Doniach-Sunjic line shapes in all cases exhibit ARPEFS curves which indicate an angular momentum identical to the main peak and are of an intrinsic nature

  6. Surface functional group characterization using chemical derivatization X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (CD-XPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagst, Eda

    2011-03-18

    Chemical derivatization - X-ray photolectron spectroscopy (CD-XPS) was applied successfully in order to determine different functional groups on thin film surfaces. Different amino group carrying surfaces, prepared by spin coating, self-assembly and plasma polymerization, were successfully investigated by (XPS) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. Amino groups were derivatized with the widely used primary amino group tags, pentafluorobenzaldehyde (PFB) and 4-(trifluoromethyl)-benzaldehyde (TFBA), prior to analysis. Primary amino group quantification was then carried out according to the spectroscopical data. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of different terminal groups were prepared and investigated with XPS and spectra were compared with reference surfaces. An angle resolved NEXAFS measurement was applied to determine the orientation of SAMs. Plasma polymerized allylamine samples with different duty cycle, power and pressure values were prepared in order to study the effects of external plasma parameters on the primary amino group retention. CD-XPS was used to quantify the amino groups and experiments show, that the milder plasma conditions promote the retention of amino groups originating from the allylamine monomer. An interlaboratory comparison of OH group determination on plasma surfaces of polypropylene treated with oxygen plasma, was studied. The surfaces were investigated with XPS and the [OH] amount on the surfaces was calculated. (orig.)

  7. Angle-resolved environmental X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: A new laboratory setup for photoemission studies at pressures up to 0.4 Torr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangolini, F.; Wabiszewski, G. E.; Egberts, P.; Åhlund, J.; Backlund, K.; Karlsson, P. G.; Adiga, V. P.; Streller, F.; Wannberg, B.; Carpick, R. W.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the development and demonstrates the capabilities of a new laboratory-based environmental X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy system incorporating an electrostatic lens and able to acquire spectra up to 0.4 Torr. The incorporation of a two-dimensional detector provides imaging capabilities and allows the acquisition of angle-resolved data in parallel mode over an angular range of 14° without tilting the sample. The sensitivity and energy resolution of the spectrometer have been investigated by analyzing a standard Ag foil both under high vacuum (10 −8 Torr) conditions and at elevated pressures of N 2 (0.4 Torr). The possibility of acquiring angle-resolved data at different pressures has been demonstrated by analyzing a silicon/silicon dioxide (Si/SiO 2 ) sample. The collected angle-resolved spectra could be effectively used for the determination of the thickness of the native silicon oxide layer.

  8. Synchrotron-radiation XPS analysis of ultra-thin silane films: Specifying the organic silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Paul M., E-mail: paul.dietrich@yahoo.de [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und – prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Glamsch, Stephan [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und – prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Freie Universität Berlin, Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Fabeckstr. 34/36, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Ehlert, Christopher [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und – prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Chemie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Straße 24-25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Lippitz, Andreas [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und – prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Kulak, Nora [Freie Universität Berlin, Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Fabeckstr. 34/36, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Unger, Wolfgang E.S. [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und – prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A synchrotron-based XPS method to analyze ultra-thin silane films is presented. • Specification and quantification of organic next to inorganic silicon is demonstrated. • Non-destructive chemical depth profiles of the silane monolayers were obtained. - Abstract: The analysis of chemical and elemental in-depth variations in ultra-thin organic layers with thicknesses below 5 nm is very challenging. Energy- and angle-resolved XPS (ER/AR-XPS) opens up the possibility for non-destructive chemical ultra-shallow depth profiling of the outermost surface layer of ultra-thin organic films due to its exceptional surface sensitivity. For common organic materials a reliable chemical in-depth analysis with a lower limit of the XPS information depth z{sub 95} of about 1 nm can be performed. As a proof-of-principle example with relevance for industrial applications the ER/AR-XPS analysis of different organic monolayers made of amino- or benzamidosilane molecules on silicon oxide surfaces is presented. It is demonstrated how to use the Si 2p core-level region to non-destructively depth-profile the organic (silane monolayer) – inorganic (SiO{sub 2}/Si) interface and how to quantify Si species, ranging from elemental silicon over native silicon oxide to the silane itself. The main advantage of the applied ER/AR-XPS method is the improved specification of organic from inorganic silicon components in Si 2p core-level spectra with exceptional low uncertainties compared to conventional laboratory XPS.

  9. Early stages of spinodal decomposition in Fe–Cr resolved by in-situ small-angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hörnqvist, M., E-mail: magnus.hornqvist@chalmers.se; Thuvander, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Fysikgränd 3, S-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Steuwer, A. [MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Gardham Ave., Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); King, S. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom); Odqvist, J.; Hedström, P. [Materials Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Brinellvägen 23, S-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-02-09

    In-situ, time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigations of the early stages of the spinodal decomposition process in Fe–35Cr were performed at 773 and 798 K. The kinetics of the decomposition, both in terms of characteristic distance and peak intensity, followed a power-law behaviour from the start of the heat treatment (a′{sup  }= 0.10–0.11 and a″ = 0.67–0.86). Furthermore, the method allows tracking of the high–Q slope, which is a sensitive measure of the early stages of decomposition. Ex-situ SANS and atom probe tomography were used to verify the results from the in-situ investigations. Finally, the in-situ measurement of the evolution of the characteristic distance at 773 K was compared with the predictions from the Cahn-Hilliard-Cook model, which showed good agreement with the experimental data (a′{sup  }= 0.12–0.20 depending on the assumed mobility)

  10. Time-resolved small angle neutron scattering measurements of asphaltene nanoparticle aggregation kinetics in incompatible crude oil mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Thomas G.; Lin, Min Y.

    2003-01-01

    We use time-resolved-small angle neutron scattering to study the kinetics of asphaltene nanoparticle aggregation in incompatible crude oil mixtures. We induce asphaltene aggregation by mixing asphaltene-rich Syrian crude oil (SACO) with a paraffinic British crude oil and observe the scattered neutron intensity, I, as a function of wave number, q, over times, t, ranging from twenty minutes to about a week. We observe a growth in I at low q as the nanoscale asphaltenes agglomerate into microscale aggregates and interpret this growth as an increase in surface scattering from the aggregates. We fit I(q,t) to an empirical model and measure the growth in the power-law exponent, α, associated with the low-q logarithmic slope of I(q). We define a time, τ α , associated with the first appearance of the aggregates when α>3; τ α increases as a function of the volume fraction, φ m , of SACO in the mixture. The surface scattering intensity initially increases and then saturates at long times when the aggregate structures no longer evolve at the length scales we probe. Based on this saturation, we define a time scale, τ I , which is larger than τ α but has essentially the same dependence on φ m . We interpret τ α (φ m ) and τ I (φ m ) in terms of a simple aggregation model based on diffusion-limited kinetics and a repulsive potential barrier that models the effective solvent quality

  11. SmB6 electron-phonon coupling constant from time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzi, A.; Crepaldi, A.; Cilento, F.; Manzoni, G.; Frantzeskakis, E.; Zacchigna, M.; van Heumen, E.; Huang, Y. K.; Golden, M. S.; Parmigiani, F.

    2016-08-01

    SmB6 is a mixed valence Kondo system resulting from the hybridization between localized f electrons and delocalized d electrons. We have investigated its out-of-equilibrium electron dynamics by means of time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The transient electronic population above the Fermi level can be described by a time-dependent Fermi-Dirac distribution. By solving a two-temperature model that well reproduces the relaxation dynamics of the effective electronic temperature, we estimate the electron-phonon coupling constant λ to range from 0.13 ±0.03 to 0.04 ±0.01 . These extremes are obtained assuming a coupling of the electrons with either a phonon mode at 10 or 19 meV. A realistic value of the average phonon energy will give an actual value of λ within this range. Our results provide an experimental report on the material electron-phonon coupling, contributing to both the electronic transport and the macroscopic thermodynamic properties of SmB6.

  12. Early stages of spinodal decomposition in Fe–Cr resolved by in-situ small-angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hörnqvist, M.; Thuvander, M.; Steuwer, A.; King, S.; Odqvist, J.; Hedström, P.

    2015-01-01

    In-situ, time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigations of the early stages of the spinodal decomposition process in Fe–35Cr were performed at 773 and 798 K. The kinetics of the decomposition, both in terms of characteristic distance and peak intensity, followed a power-law behaviour from the start of the heat treatment (a′   = 0.10–0.11 and a″ = 0.67–0.86). Furthermore, the method allows tracking of the high–Q slope, which is a sensitive measure of the early stages of decomposition. Ex-situ SANS and atom probe tomography were used to verify the results from the in-situ investigations. Finally, the in-situ measurement of the evolution of the characteristic distance at 773 K was compared with the predictions from the Cahn-Hilliard-Cook model, which showed good agreement with the experimental data (a′   = 0.12–0.20 depending on the assumed mobility)

  13. Angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) analysis of lanthanum oxide for micro-flexography printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, S., E-mail: suhaimihas@uthm.edu.my; Yusof, M. S., E-mail: mdsalleh@uthm.edu.my; Maksud, M. I., E-mail: midris1973@gmail.com [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Embong, Z., E-mail: zaidi@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Micro-flexography printing was developed in patterning technique from micron to nano scale range to be used for graphic, electronic and bio-medical device on variable substrates. In this work, lanthanum oxide (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has been used as a rare earth metal candidate as depositing agent. This metal deposit was embedded on Carbon (C) and Silica (Si) wafer substrate using Magnetron Sputtering technique. The choose of Lanthanum as a target is due to its wide application in producing electronic devices such as thin film battery and printed circuit board. The La{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposited on the surface of Si wafer substrate was then analyzed using Angle Resolve X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS). The position for each synthetic component in the narrow scan of Lanthanum (La) 3d and O 1s are referred to the electron binding energy (eV). The La 3d narrow scan revealed that the oxide species of this particular metal is mainly contributed by La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and La(OH){sub 3}. The information of oxygen species, O{sup 2-} component from O 1s narrow scan indicated that there are four types of species which are contributed from the bulk (O{sup 2−}), two chemisorb component (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and La(OH){sub 3} and physisorp component (OH). Here, it is proposed that from the adhesive and surface chemical properties of La, it is suitable as an alternative medium for micro-flexography printing technique in printing multiple fine solid lines at nano scale. Hence, this paper will describe the capability of this particular metal as rare earth metal for use in of micro-flexography printing practice. The review of other parameters contributing to print fine lines will also be described later.

  14. Angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) analysis of lanthanum oxide for micro-flexography printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S.; Yusof, M. S.; Embong, Z.; Maksud, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    Micro-flexography printing was developed in patterning technique from micron to nano scale range to be used for graphic, electronic and bio-medical device on variable substrates. In this work, lanthanum oxide (La2O3) has been used as a rare earth metal candidate as depositing agent. This metal deposit was embedded on Carbon (C) and Silica (Si) wafer substrate using Magnetron Sputtering technique. The choose of Lanthanum as a target is due to its wide application in producing electronic devices such as thin film battery and printed circuit board. The La2O3 deposited on the surface of Si wafer substrate was then analyzed using Angle Resolve X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS). The position for each synthetic component in the narrow scan of Lanthanum (La) 3d and O 1s are referred to the electron binding energy (eV). The La 3d narrow scan revealed that the oxide species of this particular metal is mainly contributed by La2O3 and La(OH)3. The information of oxygen species, O2- component from O 1s narrow scan indicated that there are four types of species which are contributed from the bulk (O2-), two chemisorb component (La2O3) and La(OH)3 and physisorp component (OH). Here, it is proposed that from the adhesive and surface chemical properties of La, it is suitable as an alternative medium for micro-flexography printing technique in printing multiple fine solid lines at nano scale. Hence, this paper will describe the capability of this particular metal as rare earth metal for use in of micro-flexography printing practice. The review of other parameters contributing to print fine lines will also be described later.

  15. Investigations of time resolved x-ray wide-angle scattering and x-ray small-angle scattering at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachmann, H.G.; Gehrke, R.; Prieske, W.; Riekel, C.

    1985-01-01

    Instrumentation is described for the simultaneous wide-angle and small-angle x-ray scattering. The method was applied to the study of the isothermal crystallization of polyethylene terephthalates. In agreement with the classical theories of crystallization, the data showed that the density difference between the crystals and the non-crystalline regions does not change with time. The mechanisms of melting, recrystallization, and crystal thickening were investigated by small-angle x-ray scattering with stepwise changes and continuous changes of temperature using polyethylene terephthalate

  16. Development of soft x-ray time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy system with a two-dimensional angle-resolved time-of-flight analyzer at SPring-8 BL07LSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Manami; Yamamoto, Susumu; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Yukawa, Ryu; Fukushima, Akiko; Harasawa, Ayumi; Kakizaki, Akito; Matsuda, Iwao [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Kousa, Yuka; Kondoh, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Tanaka, Yoshihito [RIKEN/SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    We have developed a soft x-ray time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy system using synchrotron radiation (SR) at SPring-8 BL07LSU and an ultrashort pulse laser system. Two-dimensional angle-resolved measurements were performed with a time-of-flight-type analyzer. The photoemission spectroscopy system is synchronized to light pulses of SR and laser using a time control unit. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated by mapping the band structure of a Si(111) crystal over the surface Brillouin zones and observing relaxation of the surface photo-voltage effect using the pump (laser) and probe (SR) method.

  17. Bulk electronic state of high-Tc cuprate La2-xSrxCuO4 observed by high-energy angle integrated and resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, S.; Sekiyama, A.; Tsunekawa, M.; Ernst, P.T.; Shigemoto, A.; Yamasaki, A.; Irizawa, A.; Imada, S.; Sing, M.; Muro, T.; Sasagawa, T.; Takagi, H.; Suga, S.

    2005-01-01

    The high-energy core-level photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements have been performed for La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 (LSCO). Polar-angle dependence of the Cu 2p core-level PES has revealed a discrepancy between bulk and surface. We have observed by the high-energy ARPES that the Fermi surface of LSCO with x=0.16 is electron-like, in contrast to previous low-energy ARPES results

  18. An Angle Resolved Photoemission Study of a Mott Insulator and Its Evolution to a High Temperature Superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronning, Filip

    2002-03-19

    One of the most remarkable facts about the high temperature superconductors is their close proximity to an antiferromagnetically ordered Mott insulating phase. This fact suggests that to understand superconductivity in the cuprates we must first understand the insulating regime. Due to material properties the technique of angle resolved photoemission is ideally suited to study the electronic structure in the cuprates. Thus, a natural starting place to unlocking the secrets of high Tc would appears to be with a photoemission investigation of insulating cuprates. This dissertation presents the results of precisely such a study. In particular, we have focused on the compound Ca{sub 2-x}Na{sub x}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. With increasing Na content this system goes from an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator with a Neel transition of 256K to a superconductor with an optimal transition temperature of 28K. At half filling we have found an asymmetry in the integrated spectral weight, which can be related to the occupation probability, n(k). This has led us to identify a d-wave-like dispersion in the insulator, which in turn implies that the high energy pseudogap as seen by photoemission is a remnant property of the insulator. These results are robust features of the insulator which we found in many different compounds and experimental conditions. By adding Na we were able to study the evolution of the electronic structure across the insulator to metal transition. We found that the chemical potential shifts as holes are doped into the system. This picture is in sharp contrast to the case of La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} where the chemical potential remains fixed and states are created inside the gap. Furthermore, the low energy excitations (ie the Fermi surface) in metallic Ca{sub 1.9}Na{sub 0.1}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} is most well described as a Fermi arc, although the high binding energy features reveal the presence of shadow bands. Thus, the results in this dissertation provide a

  19. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of strontium lanthanum copper oxide thin films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, John Wallace

    Among the multitude of known cuprate material families and associated structures, the archetype is "infinite-layer" ACuO2, where perfectly square and flat CuO2 planes are separated by layers of alkaline earth atoms. The infinite-layer structure is free of magnetic rare earth ions, oxygen chains, orthorhombic distortions, incommensurate superstructures, ordered vacancies, and other complications that abound among the other material families. Furthermore, it is the only cuprate that can be made superconducting by both electron and hole doping, making it a potential platform for decoding the complex many-body interactions responsible for high-temperature superconductivity. Research on the infinite-layer compound has been severely hindered by the inability to synthesize bulk single crystals, but recent progress has led to high-quality superconducting thin film samples. Here we report in situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements of epitaxially-stabilized Sr1-chiLa chiCuO2 thin films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. At low doping, the material exhibits a dispersive lower Hubbard band typical of other cuprate parent compounds. As carriers are added to the system, a continuous evolution from Mott insulator to superconducting metal is observed as a coherent low-energy band develops on top of a concomitant remnant lower Hubbard band, gradually filling in the Mott gap. For chi = 0.10, our results reveal a strong coupling between electrons and (pi,pi) anti-ferromagnetism, inducing a Fermi surface reconstruction that pushes the nodal states below the Fermi level and realizing nodeless superconductivity. Electron diffraction measurements indicate the presence of a surface reconstruction that is consistent with the polar nature of Sr1-chiLachiCuO2. Most knowledge about the electron-doped side of the cuprate phase diagram has been deduced by generalizing from a single material family, Re2-chi CechiCuO4, where robust antiferromagnetism has been observed past chi

  20. Angle resolved photoemission study of Fermi surfaces and single-particle excitations of quasi-low dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gweon, Gey-Hong

    Using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) as the main experimental tool and the single particle Green's function as the main theoretical tool, materials of various degrees of low dimensionality and different ground states are studied. The underlying theme of this thesis is that of one dimensional physics, which includes charge density waves (CDW's) and the Luttinger liquid (LL). The LL is the prime example of a lattice non-Fermi liquid (non-FL) and CDW fluctuations also give non-FL behaviors. Non-FL physics is an emerging paradigm of condensed matter physics. It is thought by some researchers that one dimensional LL behavior is a key element in solving the high temperature superconductivity problem. TiTe2 is a quasi-2 dimensional (quasi-2D) Fermi liquid (FL) material very well suited for ARPES lineshape studies. I report ARPES spectra at 300 K which show an unusual behavior of a peak moving through the Fermi energy (EF). I also report a good fit of the ARPES spectra at 25 K obtained by using a causal Green's function proposed by K. Matho. SmTe3 is a quasi-2D CDW material. The near EF ARPES spectra and intensity map reveal rich details of an anisotropic gap and imperfectly nested Fermi surface (FS) for a high temperature CDW. A simple model of imperfect nesting can be constructed from these data and predicts a CDW wavevector in very good agreement with the value known from electron diffraction. NaMo6O17 and KMo 6O17 are also quasi-2D CDW materials. The "hidden nesting" or "hidden 1 dimensionality" picture for the CDW is confirmed very well by our direct image of the FS. K0.3MoO3, the so-called "blue bronze," is a quasi-1 dimensional (quasi-1D) CDW material. Even in its metallic phase above the CDW transition temperature, its photoemission spectra show an anomalously weak intensity at EF and no clear metallic Fermi edge. I compare predictions of an LL model and a CDW fluctuation model regarding these aspects, and find that the LL scenario explains them

  1. Penetration route of functional molecules in stratum corneum studied by time-resolved small- and wide-angle x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatta, Ichiro; Ohta, Noboru; Yagi, Naoto; Nakazawa, Hiromitsu; Obata, Yasuko; Inoue, Katsuaki

    2011-01-01

    We studied effects of functional molecules on corneocytes in stratum corneum using time-resolved small- and wide-angle x-ray diffraction after applying a functional molecule. From these results it was revealed that in the stratum corneum a typical hydrophilic molecule, ethanol, penetrates via the transcellular route and on the other hand a typical hydrophobic molecule, d-limonene, penetrates via the intercellular route.

  2. The Fermi surface and band folding in La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}, probed by angle-resolved photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razzoli, E; Radovic, M; Patthey, L; Shi, M [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Sassa, Y; Chang, J [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Drachuck, G; Keren, A; Shay, M [Department of Physics, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Maansson, M; Mesot, J [Laboratory for Synchrotron and Neutron Spectroscopy, EPF Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Berntsen, M H; Tjernberg, O [Materials Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, S-16440 Kista (Sweden); Pailhes, S [CEA, CNRS, CE Saclay, Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Momono, N [Department of Applied Sciences, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan); Oda, M; Ido, M [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Lipscombe, O J; Hayden, S M, E-mail: ming.shi@psi.c [H H Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    A systematic angle-resolved photoemission study of the electronic structure of La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} in a wide doping range is presented in this paper. In addition to the main energy band, we observed a weaker additional band, the ({pi}, {pi}) folded band, which shows unusual doping dependence. The appearance of the folded band suggests that a Fermi surface reconstruction is doping dependent and could already occur at zero magnetic field.

  3. Electronic structure of the dilute magnetic semiconductor G a1 -xM nxP from hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and angle-resolved photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keqi, A.; Gehlmann, M.; Conti, G.; Nemšák, S.; Rattanachata, A.; Minár, J.; Plucinski, L.; Rault, J. E.; Rueff, J. P.; Scarpulla, M.; Hategan, M.; Pálsson, G. K.; Conlon, C.; Eiteneer, D.; Saw, A. Y.; Gray, A. X.; Kobayashi, K.; Ueda, S.; Dubon, O. D.; Schneider, C. M.; Fadley, C. S.

    2018-04-01

    We have investigated the electronic structure of the dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) G a0.98M n0.02P and compared it to that of an undoped GaP reference sample, using hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HXPS) and hard x-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (HARPES) at energies of about 3 keV. We present experimental data, as well as theoretical calculations, to understand the role of the Mn dopant in the emergence of ferromagnetism in this material. Both core-level spectra and angle-resolved or angle-integrated valence spectra are discussed. In particular, the HARPES experimental data are compared to free-electron final-state model calculations and to more accurate one-step photoemission theory. The experimental results show differences between G a0.98M n0.02P and GaP in both angle-resolved and angle-integrated valence spectra. The G a0.98M n0.02P bands are broadened due to the presence of Mn impurities that disturb the long-range translational order of the host GaP crystal. Mn-induced changes of the electronic structure are observed over the entire valence band range, including the presence of a distinct impurity band close to the valence-band maximum of the DMS. These experimental results are in good agreement with the one-step photoemission calculations and a prior HARPES study of G a0.97M n0.03As and GaAs [Gray et al., Nat. Mater. 11, 957 (2012), 10.1038/nmat3450], demonstrating the strong similarity between these two materials. The Mn 2 p and 3 s core-level spectra also reveal an essentially identical state in doping both GaAs and GaP.

  4. Resolving a discrete ambiguity in the CKM angle β through Bu,d → J/ψK* and Bs → J/ψφ decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dighe, A.S.; Dunietz, I.; Fleischer, R.

    1998-04-01

    It is well known that sin(2β), where β is one of the angles of the unitarity triangle of the CKM matrix, can be determined in a theoretically clean way by measuring mixing-induced CP violation in the decay B d →J/ψK S . Another clean extraction of this CKM angle is provided by the time-dependent angular distribution for the decay products of B d →J/ψ(→l + l - )K* 0 (→π 0 K S ), where we have more observables at our disposal than in the case of B d →J/ψK S , so that in addition to sin(2β) also cos(2β) can be probed in a direct way. Unfortunately a sign ambiguity remains in cos(2β). If it could be resolved, a discrete ambiguity in the extraction of the CKM angle β could be resolved as well, which would allow a more incisive test of the CKM model of CP violation. This note shows that detailed time-dependent studies of B u,d →J/ψK * and B s →J/ψφ decay processes can determine the sign of cos(2β), thereby removing the corresponding ambiguity in the extraction of the CKM angle β. (author)

  5. Sub-nanometer resolution XPS depth profiling: Sensing of atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szklarczyk, Marek, E-mail: szklarcz@chem.uw.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Shim-Pol, ul. Lubomirskiego 5, 05-080 Izabelin (Poland); Macak, Karol; Roberts, Adam J. [Kratos Analytical Ltd, Wharfside, Trafford Wharf Road, Manchester, M17 1GP (United Kingdom); Takahashi, Kazuhiro [Kratos XPS Section, Shimadzu Corp., 380-1 Horiyamashita, Hadano, Kanagawa 259-1304 (Japan); Hutton, Simon [Kratos Analytical Ltd, Wharfside, Trafford Wharf Road, Manchester, M17 1GP (United Kingdom); Głaszczka, Rafał [Shim-Pol, ul. Lubomirskiego 5, 05-080 Izabelin (Poland); Blomfield, Christopher [Kratos Analytical Ltd, Wharfside, Trafford Wharf Road, Manchester, M17 1GP (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Angle resolved photoelectron depth profiling of nano thin films. • Sensing atomic position in SAM films. • Detection of direction position of adsorbed molecules. - Abstract: The development of a method capable of distinguishing a single atom in a single molecule is important in many fields. The results reported herein demonstrate sub-nanometer resolution for angularly resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). This is made possible by the incorporation of a Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) model, which utilize density corrected electronic emission factors to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experimental results. In this paper we report on the comparison between experimental ARXPS results and reconstructed for both inorganic and organic thin film samples. Unexpected deviations between experimental data and calculated points are explained by the inaccuracy of the constants and standards used for the calculation, e.g. emission factors, scattering intensity and atomic density through the studied thickness. The positions of iron, nitrogen and fluorine atoms were determined in the molecules of the studied self-assembled monolayers. It has been shown that reconstruction of real spectroscopic data with 0.2 nm resolution is possible.

  6. Electronic structure studies of ferro-pnictide superconductors and their parent compounds using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setti, Thirupathaiah

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of high temperature superconductivity in the iron pnictide compound LaO 1-x F x FeAs with T c = 26 K as created enormous interest in the high-T c superconductor community. So far, four prototypes of crystal structures have been found in the Fe-pnictide family. All four show a structural deformation followed or accompanied by a magnetic transition from a high temperature paramagnetic conductor to a low temperature antiferromagnetic metal whose transition temperature T N varies between the compounds. Charge carrier doping, isovalent substitution of the As atoms or the application of pressure suppresses the antiferromagnetic spin density wave (SDW) order and leads to a superconducting phase. More recently high Tc superconductivity has been also detected in iron chalchogenides with similar normal state properties. Since superconductivity is instability of the normal state, the study of normal state electronic structure in comparison with superconducting state could reveal important information on the pairing mechanism. Therefore, it is most important to study the electronic structure of these new superconductors, i.e., to determine Fermi surfaces and band dispersions near the Fermi level at the high symmetry points in order to obtain a microscopic understanding of the superconducting properties. Using the technique angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) one measures the electrons ejected from a sample when photons impinge on it. In this way one can map the Fermi surface which provides useful information regarding the physics behind the Fermi surface topology of high T c superconductors. Furthermore, this technique provides information on the band dispersion, the orbital character of the bands, the effective mass, the coupling to bosonic excitations, and the superconducting gap. This emphasizes the importance of studying the electronic structure of the newly discovered Fe-pnictides using ARPES. In this work we have studied the electronic

  7. Electronic structure studies of ferro-pnictide superconductors and their parent compounds using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setti, Thirupathaiah

    2011-07-14

    The discovery of high temperature superconductivity in the iron pnictide compound LaO{sub 1-x}F{sub x}FeAs with T{sub c} = 26 K as created enormous interest in the high-T{sub c} superconductor community. So far, four prototypes of crystal structures have been found in the Fe-pnictide family. All four show a structural deformation followed or accompanied by a magnetic transition from a high temperature paramagnetic conductor to a low temperature antiferromagnetic metal whose transition temperature T{sub N} varies between the compounds. Charge carrier doping, isovalent substitution of the As atoms or the application of pressure suppresses the antiferromagnetic spin density wave (SDW) order and leads to a superconducting phase. More recently high Tc superconductivity has been also detected in iron chalchogenides with similar normal state properties. Since superconductivity is instability of the normal state, the study of normal state electronic structure in comparison with superconducting state could reveal important information on the pairing mechanism. Therefore, it is most important to study the electronic structure of these new superconductors, i.e., to determine Fermi surfaces and band dispersions near the Fermi level at the high symmetry points in order to obtain a microscopic understanding of the superconducting properties. Using the technique angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) one measures the electrons ejected from a sample when photons impinge on it. In this way one can map the Fermi surface which provides useful information regarding the physics behind the Fermi surface topology of high T{sub c} superconductors. Furthermore, this technique provides information on the band dispersion, the orbital character of the bands, the effective mass, the coupling to bosonic excitations, and the superconducting gap. This emphasizes the importance of studying the electronic structure of the newly discovered Fe-pnictides using ARPES. In this work we have

  8. Large-angle magnetization dynamics investigated by vector-resolved magnetization-induced optical second-harmonic generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, T.; Silva, T.J.; Nibarger, J.P.; Rasing, T.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the relationship between nonlinear magnetic responses and the change in the Gilbert damping parameter alpha for patterned and unpatterned thin Permalloy films when subjected to pulsed magnetic fields. An improved magnetization-vector-resolved technique utilizing magnetization-induced

  9. Rapid high-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with pulsed laser source and time-of-flight spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlieb, K.; Hussain, Z.; Bostwick, A.; Lanzara, A.; Jozwiak, C.

    2013-09-01

    A high-efficiency spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES) spectrometer is coupled with a laboratory-based laser for rapid high-resolution measurements. The spectrometer combines time-of-flight (TOF) energy measurements with low-energy exchange scattering spin polarimetry for high detection efficiencies. Samples are irradiated with fourth harmonic photons generated from a cavity-dumped Ti:sapphire laser that provides high photon flux in a narrow bandwidth, with a pulse timing structure ideally matched to the needs of the TOF spectrometer. The overall efficiency of the combined system results in near-EF spin-resolved ARPES measurements with an unprecedented combination of energy resolution and acquisition speed. This allows high-resolution spin measurements with a large number of data points spanning multiple dimensions of interest (energy, momentum, photon polarization, etc.) and thus enables experiments not otherwise possible. The system is demonstrated with spin-resolved energy and momentum mapping of the L-gap Au(111) surface states, a prototypical Rashba system. The successful integration of the spectrometer with the pulsed laser system demonstrates its potential for simultaneous spin- and time-resolved ARPES with pump-probe based measurements.

  10. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with 9-eV photon-energy pulses generated in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberger, H.; Ermolov, A.; Belli, F.; Liu, H.; Calegari, F.; Chávez-Cervantes, M.; Li, M. T.; Lin, C. T.; Abdolvand, A.; Russell, P. St. J.; Cavalleri, A.; Travers, J. C.; Gierz, I.

    2015-08-01

    A recently developed source of ultraviolet radiation, based on optical soliton propagation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, is applied here to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Near-infrared femtosecond pulses of only few μJ energy generate vacuum ultraviolet radiation between 5.5 and 9 eV inside the gas-filled fiber. These pulses are used to measure the band structure of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 with a signal to noise ratio comparable to that obtained with high order harmonics from a gas jet. The two-order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency promises time-resolved ARPES measurements at repetition rates of hundreds of kHz or even MHz, with photon energies that cover the first Brillouin zone of most materials.

  11. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with 9-eV photon-energy pulses generated in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromberger, H.; Liu, H.; Chávez-Cervantes, M.; Gierz, I.; Ermolov, A.; Belli, F.; Abdolvand, A.; Russell, P. St. J.; Travers, J. C.; Calegari, F.; Li, M. T.; Lin, C. T.; Cavalleri, A.

    2015-01-01

    A recently developed source of ultraviolet radiation, based on optical soliton propagation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, is applied here to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Near-infrared femtosecond pulses of only few μJ energy generate vacuum ultraviolet radiation between 5.5 and 9 eV inside the gas-filled fiber. These pulses are used to measure the band structure of the topological insulator Bi 2 Se 3 with a signal to noise ratio comparable to that obtained with high order harmonics from a gas jet. The two-order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency promises time-resolved ARPES measurements at repetition rates of hundreds of kHz or even MHz, with photon energies that cover the first Brillouin zone of most materials

  12. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with 9-eV photon-energy pulses generated in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberger, H., E-mail: Hubertus.Bromberger@mpsd.mpg.de; Liu, H.; Chávez-Cervantes, M.; Gierz, I. [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ermolov, A.; Belli, F.; Abdolvand, A.; Russell, P. St. J.; Travers, J. C. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Calegari, F. [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies, IFN-CNR, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Li, M. T.; Lin, C. T. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Cavalleri, A. [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Rd. Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-31

    A recently developed source of ultraviolet radiation, based on optical soliton propagation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, is applied here to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Near-infrared femtosecond pulses of only few μJ energy generate vacuum ultraviolet radiation between 5.5 and 9 eV inside the gas-filled fiber. These pulses are used to measure the band structure of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} with a signal to noise ratio comparable to that obtained with high order harmonics from a gas jet. The two-order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency promises time-resolved ARPES measurements at repetition rates of hundreds of kHz or even MHz, with photon energies that cover the first Brillouin zone of most materials.

  13. Size effects in van der Waals clusters studied by spin and angle-resolved electron spectroscopy and multi-coincidence ion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolles, D; Pesic, Z D; Zhang, H; Bilodeau, R C; Bozek, J D; Berrah, N

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the valence and inner-shell photoionization of free rare-gas clusters by means of angle and spin resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and momentum resolving electron-multi-ion coincidence spectroscopy. The electron measurements probe the evolution of the photoelectron angular distribution and spin polarization parameters as a function of photon energy and cluster size, and reveal a strong cluster size dependence of the photoelectron angular distributions in certain photon energy regions. In contrast, the spin polarization parameter of the cluster photoelectrons is found to be very close to the atomic value for all covered photon energies and cluster sizes. The ion imaging measurements, which probe the fragmentation dynamics of multiply charged van der Waals clusters, also exhibit a pronounced cluster size dependence

  14. Angle-resolved-photoemission study of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ: Metallicity of the Bi-O plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, B.O.; Shen, Z.; Dessau, D.S.; Spicer, W.E.; Olson, C.G.; Mitzi, D.B.; Kapitulnik, A.; List, R.S.; Arko, A.

    1990-01-01

    We have performed high-resolution angle-resolved-photoemission experiments on Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ single crystals with different annealing histories. By depositing a small amount of Au on the surface, we were able to distinguish electronic states associated with the Bi-O surface layer. We found that the Bi-O atomic surface layer is metallic and superconducting for samples that were high-temperature annealed in oxygen but not for as-grown samples. The Cu-O plane is found to be superconducting in all samples

  15. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with 9-eV photon-energy pulses generated in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Bromberger, H.; Ermolov, A.; Belli, F.; Liu, H.; Calegari, F.; Chavez-Cervantes, M.; Li, M. T.; Lin, C. T.; Abdolvand, A.; Russell, P. St. J.; Cavalleri, A.; Travers, J. C.; Gierz, I.

    2015-01-01

    A recently developed source of ultraviolet radiation, based on optical soliton propagation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, is applied here to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Near-infrared femtosecond pulses of only few {\\mu}J energy generate vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation between 5.5 and 9 eV inside the gas-filled fiber. These pulses are used to measure the band structure of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 with a signal to noise ratio comparable to ...

  16. Unusually large chemical potential shift in a degenerate semiconductor: Angle-resolved photoemission study of SnSe and Na-doped SnSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Mizokawa, T.; Saini, N. L.; Arita, M.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Tan, G.; Zhao, L. D.; Kanatzidis, M. G.

    2018-03-01

    We have studied the electronic structure of SnSe and Na-doped SnSe by means of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The valence-band top reaches the Fermi level by the Na doping, indicating that Na-doped SnSe can be viewed as a degenerate semiconductor. However, in the Na-doped system, the chemical potential shift with temperature is unexpectedly large and is apparently inconsistent with the degenerate semiconductor picture. The large chemical potential shift and anomalous spectral shape are key ingredients for an understanding of the novel metallic state with the large thermoelectric performance in Na-doped SnSe.

  17. Tetragonal and collapsed-tetragonal phases of CaFe2As2 : A view from angle-resolved photoemission and dynamical mean-field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roekeghem, Ambroise; Richard, Pierre; Shi, Xun; Wu, Shangfei; Zeng, Lingkun; Saparov, Bayrammurad; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Qian, Tian; Sefat, Athena S.; Biermann, Silke; Ding, Hong

    2016-06-01

    We present a study of the tetragonal to collapsed-tetragonal transition of CaFe2As2 using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and dynamical mean field theory-based electronic structure calculations. We observe that the collapsed-tetragonal phase exhibits reduced correlations and a higher coherence temperature due to the stronger Fe-As hybridization. Furthermore, a comparison of measured photoemission spectra and theoretical spectral functions shows that momentum-dependent corrections to the density functional band structure are essential for the description of low-energy quasiparticle dispersions. We introduce those using the recently proposed combined "screened exchange + dynamical mean field theory" scheme.

  18. Crystallization behavior of polyethylene on silicon wafers in solution casting processes traced by time-resolved measurements of synchrotron grazing-incidence small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, S; Masunaga, H; Takata, M; Itou, K; Tashiro, K; Okuda, H; Takahara, A

    2009-01-01

    Crystallization behavior of polyethylene (PE) on silicon wafers in solution casting processes has been successfully traced by time-resolved grazing-incidence small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering (GISWAXS) measurements utilizing synchrotron radiation. A p-xylene solution of PE kept at ca. 343 K was dropped on a silicon wafer at ca. 298 K. While the p-xylene evaporated naturally from the dropped solution sample, PE chains crystallized to be a thin film. Raman spectral measurements were performed simultaneously with the GISWAXS measurements to evaluate quantitatively the p-xylene the dropped solution contained. Grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) patterns indicated nucleation and crystal growth in the dropped solution and the following as-cast film. GIWAXS and Raman spectral data revealed that crystallization of PE was enhanced after complete evaporation of the p-xylene from the dropped solution. The [110] and [200] directions of the orthorhombic PE crystal became relatively parallel to the wafer surface with time, which implied that the flat-on lamellae with respect to the wafer surface were mainly formed in the as-cast film. On the other hand, grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) patterns implied formation of isolated lamellae in the dropped solution. The lamellae and amorphous might alternatively be stacked in the preferred direction perpendicular to the wafer surface. The synchrotron GISWAXS experimental method could be applied for kinetic study on hierarchical structure of polymer thin films.

  19. EUV-angle resolved scatter (EUV-ARS): a new tool for the characterization of nanometre structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Herrero, Analía.; Mentzel, Heiko; Soltwisch, Victor; Jaroslawzew, Sina; Laubis, Christian; Scholze, Frank

    2018-03-01

    The advance of the semiconductor industry requires new metrology methods, which can deal with smaller and more complex nanostructures. Particularly for inline metrology a rapid, sensitive and non destructive method is needed. Small angle X-ray scattering under grazing incidence has already been investigated for this application and delivers significant statistical information which tracks the profile parameters as well as their variations, i.e. roughness. However, it suffers from the elongated footprint at the sample. The advantage of EUV radiation, with its longer wavelengths, is that larger incidence angles can be used, resulting in a significant reduction of the beam footprint. Targets with field sizes of 100 μm and smaller are accessible with our experimental set-up. We present a new experimental tool for the measurement of small structures based on the capabilities of soft X-ray and EUV scatterometry at the PTB soft X-ray beamline at the electron storage ring BESSY II. PTB's soft X-ray radiometry beamline uses a plane grating monochromator, which covers the spectral range from 0.7 nm to 25 nm and was especially designed to provide highly collimated radiation. An area detector covers the scattered radiation from a grazing exit angle up to an angle of 30° above the sample horizon and the fluorescence emission can be detected with an energy dispersive X-ray silicon drift detector. In addition, the sample can be rotated and linearly moved in vacuum. This new set-up will be used to explore the capabilities of EUV-scatterometry for the characterization of nanometre-sized structures.

  20. Imaging XPS - a new technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurker, N.; Ebel, M.F.; Ebel, H.

    1983-01-01

    XPS imaging promises to be a powerful analytic tool because it enables specific information on both elements and bonding to be recorded on a two-dimensional distribution map. As far as the authors are aware, the only scanning XPS method to date which has been found to be practical is essentially a scanned-particle-beam method, like scanning AES, and it is only applicable to thin film specimens. This paper provides the basic ideas of a new imaging XPS technique based on a quite different concept. It will be applicable to any kind of specimen that can be analysed in a conventional XPS system. It makes use of the dispersion properties of a spherical condenser-type spectrometer and applies a two-dimensional electron detection device for decoding the energy and emission position of an analysed photoelectron. Experimental arrangement and theory of operation are presented. (author)

  1. An angle-resolved, wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for depth profile analysis of ion-implanted semiconductors using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, W.; Hormes, J.; Kuetgens, U.; Gries, W. H.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for angle-resolved, wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation has been built and tested at the beam line BN2 of the Bonn electron stretcher and accelerator (ELSA). The apparatus is to be used for nondestructive depth profile analysis of ion-implanted semiconductors as part of the multinational Versailles Project of Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) project on ion-implanted reference materials. In particular, the centroid depths of depth profiles of various implants is to be determined by use of the angle-resolved signal ratio technique. First results of measurements on implants of phosphorus (100 keV, 1016 cm-2) and sulfur (200 keV, 1014 cm-2) in silicon wafers using ``white'' synchrotron radiation are presented and suggest that it should be generally possible to measure the centroid depth of an implant at dose densities as low as 1014 cm-2. Some of the apparative and technical requirements are discussed which are peculiar to the use of synchrotron radiation in general and to the use of nonmonochromatized radiation in particular.

  2. An angle-resolved, wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for depth profile analysis of ion-implanted semiconductors using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, W.; Hormes, J.; Kuetgens, U.; Gries, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for angle-resolved, wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation has been built and tested at the beam line BN2 of the Bonn electron stretcher and accelerator (ELSA). The apparatus is to be used for nondestructive depth profile analysis of ion-implanted semiconductors as part of the multinational Versailles Project of Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) project on ion-implanted reference materials. In particular, the centroid depths of depth profiles of various implants is to be determined by use of the angle-resolved signal ratio technique. First results of measurements on implants of phosphorus (100 keV, 10 16 cm -2 ) and sulfur (200 keV, 10 14 cm -2 ) in silicon wafers using ''white'' synchrotron radiation are presented and suggest that it should be generally possible to measure the centroid depth of an implant at dose densities as low as 10 14 cm -2 . Some of the apparative and technical requirements are discussed which are peculiar to the use of synchrotron radiation in general and to the use of nonmonochromatized radiation in particular

  3. Energy and angle resolved studies of double photo-ionisation of helium by electron time-of-flight coincidence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viefhaus, J.; Avaldi, L.; Heiser, F.; Hentges, R.; Gessner, O.; Ruedel, A.; Wiedenhoeft, M.; Wieliczek, K.; Becker, U. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany)

    1996-10-28

    Helium double photo-ionization is studied by a novel coincidence technique which employs time-of-flight spectrometers. Using this technique it is possible to collect simultaneously all the electron pairs, with different energy sharing, emitted by the absorption of a single energetic incident photon. The measurements, in a configuration where the two electrons emerge at 180{sup o} relative angle, provide the more complete information on the contribution of the ungerade amplitude to the triple differential cross section and allow the establishment of a relative scale for the full coincidence angular distribution measured by other experiments at the same photon energies, but only for a few selected energy-sharing conditions. (author).

  4. Pump laser-induced space-charge effects in HHG-driven time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oloff, L.-P., E-mail: oloff@physik.uni-kiel.de; Hanff, K.; Stange, A.; Rohde, G.; Diekmann, F.; Bauer, M.; Rossnagel, K., E-mail: rossnagel@physik.uni-kiel.de [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-06-14

    With the advent of ultrashort-pulsed extreme ultraviolet sources, such as free-electron lasers or high-harmonic-generation (HHG) sources, a new research field for photoelectron spectroscopy has opened up in terms of femtosecond time-resolved pump-probe experiments. The impact of the high peak brilliance of these novel sources on photoemission spectra, so-called vacuum space-charge effects caused by the Coulomb interaction among the photoemitted probe electrons, has been studied extensively. However, possible distortions of the energy and momentum distributions of the probe photoelectrons caused by the low photon energy pump pulse due to the nonlinear emission of electrons have not been studied in detail yet. Here, we systematically investigate these pump laser-induced space-charge effects in a HHG-based experiment for the test case of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Specifically, we determine how the key parameters of the pump pulse—the excitation density, wavelength, spot size, and emitted electron energy distribution—affect the measured time-dependent energy and momentum distributions of the probe photoelectrons. The results are well reproduced by a simple mean-field model, which could open a path for the correction of pump laser-induced space-charge effects and thus toward probing ultrafast electron dynamics in strongly excited materials.

  5. Angle resolved electron spectroscopy of spontaneous ionization processes occurring in doubly charged ion-surface collisions at grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, P.A.A.F.; Emmichoven, P.A.Z. van; Niehaus, A.

    1989-01-01

    The experimental setup used to measure electron spectra at well defined detection angles for grazing incidence doubly charged ion-surface collisions at keV-energies is described. Electron spectra are reported for the rare gas ions colliding with a Cu(110)-surface. The spectra are analyzed in terms of various spontaneous ionization processes using a newly developed model. It is found that double capture followed by atomic auto-ionization on the incoming trajectory and Auger-capture processes in which the first and second hole in the doubly charged projectiles are successively filled are the main processes contributing to the electron spectra. From a comparison of model calculations with measured spectra it is concluded that the metal electrons cannot adapt adiabatically to the sudden changes of the charge state of the projectile in front of the surface. A parameter characterizing the partly diabatic behavior is determined. The variation of spectra upon adsorption of a monolayer of oxygen on the surface is reported and discussed. (author)

  6. Angularly-resolved elastic scatter from single particles collected over a large solid angle and with high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aptowicz, Kevin B; Chang, Richard K

    2005-01-01

    Elastic light scattering from a single non-spherical particle of various morphologies has been measured simultaneously with a large angular range (90 deg. < θ < 165 deg. and 0 deg. < φ < 360 deg.) and with high angular resolution (1024 pixels in θ and 512 pixels in φ). Because the single-shot laser pulse is short (pulse duration of 70 ns), the tumbling and flowing particle can be treated as frozen in space. The large angle two-dimensional angular optical scattering (hereafter referred to as LA TAOS) intensity pattern, I(θ,φ), has been measured for a variety of particle morphology, such as the following: (1) single polystyrene latex (PSL) sphere; (2) cluster of PSL spheres; (3) single Bacillus subtilis (BG) spore; (4) cluster of BG spores; (5) dried aggregates of bio-aerosols as well as background clutter aerosols. All these measurements were made using the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser (0.532 μm). Islands structures in the LA TAOS patterns seem to be the prominent feature. Efforts are being made to extract metrics from these islands and compare them to theoretical results based on the T-matrix method

  7. Effects of strain on the electronic structure, superconductivity, and nematicity in FeSe studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, G. N.; Nakayama, K.; Sugawara, K.; Sato, T.; Urata, T.; Tanabe, Y.; Tanigaki, K.; Nabeshima, F.; Imai, Y.; Maeda, A.; Takahashi, T.

    2017-06-01

    One of central issues in iron-based superconductors is the role of structural change to the superconducting transition temperature (Tc). It was found in FeSe that the lattice strain leads to a drastic increase in Tc, accompanied by suppression of nematic order. By angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on tensile- or compressive-strained and strain-free FeSe, we experimentally show that the in-plane strain causes a marked change in the energy overlap (Δ Eh -e ) between the hole and electron pockets in the normal state. The change in Δ Eh -e modifies the Fermi-surface volume, leading to a change in Tc. Furthermore, the strength of nematicity is also found to be characterized by Δ Eh -e . These results suggest that the key to understanding the phase diagram is the fermiology and interactions linked to the semimetallic band overlap.

  8. Aggregation of bovine serum albumin upon cleavage of its disulfide bonds, studied by the time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering technique with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Tatzuo; Inoko, Yoji; Izumi, Yoshinobu; Tagawa, Hiroyuki; Muroga, Yoshio

    1985-01-01

    A rapid mixing system of the stopped-flow type, used with small-angle X-ray scattering equipment using synchrotron radiation, is described. The process of aggregation of bovine serum albumin was traced with a time interval of 50 s, initiated upon cleavage of its disulfide bonds by reduction with dithiothreitol. The results indicate that a 218-fold molar excess of dithiothreitol over the number of moles of disulfide bonds in bovine serum albumin is sufficient to initiate the reaction immediately after mixing, which reaches equilibrium in about 15 min. On the other hand, half this amount is not sufficient to initiate the reaction, so that the reaction is delayed by about 150 s. Such a single-shot time-resolved experiment showed that experiments with a time interval of 100 ms are possible with repeated multi-shot runs. (Auth.)

  9. Aggregation of bovine serum albumin upon cleavage of its disulfide bonds, studied by the time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering technique with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueki, Tatzuo; Inoko, Yoji; Hiragi, Yuzuru; Kataoka, Mikio; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Izumi, Yoshinobu; Tagawa, Hiroyuki; Muroga, Yoshio

    1985-11-01

    A rapid mixing system of the stopped-flow type, used with small-angle X-ray scattering equipment using synchrotron radiation, is described. The process of aggregation of bovine serum albumin was traced with a time interval of 50s, initiated upon cleavage of its disulfide bonds by reduction with dithiothreitol. The results indicate that a 218-fold molar excess of dithiothreitol over the number of moles of disulfide bonds in bovine serum albumin is sufficient to initiate the reaction immediately after mixing, which reaches equilibrium in about 15 min. On the other hand, half this amount is not sufficient to initiate the reaction, so that the reaction is delayed by about 150s. Such a single-shot time-resolved experiment showed that experiments with a time interval of 100 ms are possible with repeated multi-shot runs. 26 refs.; 8 figs.

  10. Probing long-range structural order in SnPc/Ag(111) by umklapp process assisted low-energy angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauernik, Stephan; Hein, Petra; Gurgel, Max; Falke, Julian; Bauer, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Laser-based angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is performed on tin-phthalocyanine (SnPc) adsorbed on silver Ag(111). Upon adsorption of SnPc, strongly dispersing bands are observed which are identified as secondary Mahan cones formed by surface umklapp processes acting on photoelectrons from the silver substrate as they transit through the ordered adsorbate layer. We show that the photoemission data carry quantitative structural information on the adsorbate layer similar to what can be obtained from a conventional low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) study. More specifically, we compare photoemission data and LEED data probing an incommensurate-to-commensurate structural phase transition of the adsorbate layer. Based on our results we propose that Mahan-cone spectroscopy operated in a pump-probe configuration can be used in the future to probe structural dynamics at surfaces with a temporal resolution in the sub-100-fs regime.

  11. Electronic structure investigation of MoS2 and MoSe2 using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and ab initio band structure studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahatha, S K; Patel, K D; Menon, Krishnakumar S R

    2012-11-28

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and ab initio band structure calculations have been used to study the detailed valence band structure of molybdenite, MoS(2) and MoSe(2). The experimental band structure obtained from ARPES has been found to be in good agreement with the theoretical calculations performed using the linear augmented plane wave (LAPW) method. In going from MoS(2) to MoSe(2), the dispersion of the valence bands decreases along both k(parallel) and k(perpendicular), revealing the increased two-dimensional character which is attributed to the increasing interlayer distance or c/a ratio in these compounds. The width of the valence band and the band gap are also found to decrease, whereas the valence band maxima shift towards the higher binding energy from MoS(2) to MoSe(2).

  12. Determining the thickness of aliphatic alcohol monolayers covalently attached to silicon oxide surfaces using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Austin W. H.; Kim, Dongho; Gates, Byron D.

    2018-04-01

    The thickness of alcohol based monolayers on silicon oxide surfaces were investigated using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). Advantages of using alcohols as building blocks for the formation of monolayers include their widespread availability, ease of handling, and stability against side reactions. Recent progress in microwave assisted reactions demonstrated the ease of forming uniform monolayers with alcohol based reagents. The studies shown herein provide a detailed investigation of the thickness of monolayers prepared from a series of aliphatic alcohols of different chain lengths. Monolayers of 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-decanol, and 1-dodecanol were each successfully formed through microwave assisted reactions and characterized by ARXPS techniques. The thickness of these monolayers consistently increased by ∼1.0 Å for every additional methylene (CH2) within the hydrocarbon chain of the reagents. Tilt angles of the molecules covalently attached to silicon oxide surfaces were estimated to be ∼35° for each type of reagent. These results were consistent with the observations reported for thiol based or silane based monolayers on either gold or silicon oxide surfaces, respectively. The results of this study also suggest that the alcohol based monolayers are uniform at a molecular level.

  13. Introducing a standard method for experimental determination of the solvent response in laser pump, x-ray probe time-resolved wide-angle x-ray scattering experiments on systems in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kasper Skov; Brandt van Driel, Tim; Kehres, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In time-resolved laser pump, X-ray probe wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments on systems in solution the structural response of the system is accompanied by a solvent response. The solvent response is caused by reorganization of the bulk solvent following the laser pump event, and in order...... response-the solvent term-experimentally when applying laser pump, X-ray probe time-resolved wide-angle X-ray scattering. The solvent term describes difference scattering arising from the structural response of the solvent to changes in the hydrodynamic parameters: pressure, temperature and density. We...... is demonstrated to exhibit first order behaviour with respect to the amount of energy deposited in the solution. We introduce a standardized method for recording solvent responses in laser pump, X-ray probe time-resolved X-ray wide-angle scattering experiments by using dye mediated solvent heating. Furthermore...

  14. Photoelectron spectra of N2+: Rotational line profiles studied with HeI-excited angle-resolved spectroscopy and with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohrwall, G.; Baltzer, P.; Bozek, J.

    2004-01-01

    We have recorded angle-resolved He I photoelectron spectra of the three outer most valence states in N+2, with high enough resolution to observe rotational line profiles. For the two Sigma states, the X 2 Sigma +g and the B 2 Sigma +u, we found that the rotational branches corresponding to different changes in rotational quantum number can differ dramatically in beta value. The well-known difference in beta value for the nu=0 and nu =1 vibrations of the X 2 Sigma +g state was found to be due to different rotational branching ratios and also different beta values of the rotational branches. For the nu=0-2 vibrations of the A 2 Pi u state, the beta value difference between rotational branches is much less pronounced than in the X and B states. We have also recorded synchrotron-radiation-excited photoelectron spectra of the nu=0 vibrational peaks of the X 2 Sigma +g and B 2 Sigma +u states where rotational line profiles are resolved. The intensities of the rotational branches were studied as function of photon energy, the X state between 23 and 65 eV, and We have recorded angle-resolved He I photoelectron spectra of the three outermost valence states in N+2, with high enough resolution to observe rotational line profiles. For the two Sigma states, the X 2 Sigma +g and the B 2 Sigma +u, we found that the rotational branches corresponding to different changes in rotational quantum number can differ dramatically in beta value. The well-known difference in beta value for the nu=0 and nu=1 vibrations of the X 2 Sigma +g state was found to be due to different rotational branching ratios and also different beta values of the rotational branches. For the nu=0-2 vibrations of the A 2 Pi u state, the beta value difference between rotational branches is much less pronounced than in the X and B states. We have also recorded synchrotron-radiation-excited photoelectron spectra of the nu=0 vibrational peaks of the X 2 Sigma +g and B 2 Sigma +u states where rotational line profiles a

  15. Photoelectron spectra of N2 +: Rotational line profiles studied with He;I endash excited angle-resolved spectroscopy and with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehrwall, G.; Baltzer, P.; Bozek, J.

    1999-01-01

    We have recorded angle-resolved He I photoelectron spectra of the three outermost valence states in N 2 + , with high enough resolution to observe rotational line profiles. For the two Σ states, the X 2 Σ g + and the B 2 Σ u + , we found that the rotational branches corresponding to different changes in rotational quantum number can differ dramatically in β value. The well-known difference in β value for the ν=0 and ν=1 vibrations of the X 2 Σ g + state was found to be due to different rotational branching ratios and also different β values of the rotational branches. For the ν=0 endash 2 vibrations of the A 2 Π u state, the β value difference between rotational branches is much less pronounced than in the X and B states. We have also recorded synchrotron-radiation-excited photoelectron spectra of the ν=0 vibrational peaks of the X 2 Σ g + and B 2 Σ u + states where rotational line profiles are resolved. The intensities of the rotational branches were studied as function of photon energy, the X state between 23 and 65 eV, and the B state between 23 and 45 eV. The results for the X state have recently been presented in a Letter [G. Oehrwall, P. Baltzer, and J. Bozek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 546, 1998]. The rotational branching ratios of the two states have very different behaviors as functions of photon energy. The relative intensities of the rotational branches in the X state change significantly over the studied energy range. The 3σ g →kσ u shape resonance apparently gives rise to a non-Franck-Condon-like behavior for the rotational branching ratio of the X state. In the B state, the rotational branching ratios remain essentially constant over the studied energy range. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  16. High-Energy Anomaly in the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectra of Nd2-xCexCuO4: Evidence for a Matrix Element Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienks, E. D. L.; ńrrälä, M.; Lindroos, M.; Roth, F.; Tabis, W.; Yu, G.; Greven, M.; Fink, J.

    2014-09-01

    We use polarization-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the high-energy anomaly (HEA) in the dispersion of Nd2-xCexCuO4, x =0.123. We find that at particular photon energies the anomalous, waterfall-like dispersion gives way to a broad, continuous band. This suggests that the HEA is a matrix element effect: it arises due to a suppression of the intensity of the broadened quasiparticle band in a narrow momentum range. We confirm this interpretation experimentally, by showing that the HEA appears when the matrix element is suppressed deliberately by changing the light polarization. Calculations of the matrix element using atomic wave functions and simulation of the ARPES intensity with one-step model calculations provide further evidence for this scenario. The possibility to detect the full quasiparticle dispersion further allows us to extract the high-energy self-energy function near the center and at the edge of the Brillouin zone.

  17. High-energy anomaly in the angle-resolved photoemission spectra of Nd(2-x)Ce(x)CuO₄: evidence for a matrix element effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienks, E D L; Ärrälä, M; Lindroos, M; Roth, F; Tabis, W; Yu, G; Greven, M; Fink, J

    2014-09-26

    We use polarization-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the high-energy anomaly (HEA) in the dispersion of Nd(2-x)Ce(x)CuO₄, x=0.123. We find that at particular photon energies the anomalous, waterfall-like dispersion gives way to a broad, continuous band. This suggests that the HEA is a matrix element effect: it arises due to a suppression of the intensity of the broadened quasiparticle band in a narrow momentum range. We confirm this interpretation experimentally, by showing that the HEA appears when the matrix element is suppressed deliberately by changing the light polarization. Calculations of the matrix element using atomic wave functions and simulation of the ARPES intensity with one-step model calculations provide further evidence for this scenario. The possibility to detect the full quasiparticle dispersion further allows us to extract the high-energy self-energy function near the center and at the edge of the Brillouin zone.

  18. High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission studies of high Tc superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rong.

    1990-01-01

    An angle-resolved photoemission study of the normal and superconducting states in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 was performed. Measurements in the normal state show bands dispersing through the Fermi level from at least 350 meV below E F . The Fermi level crossings are consistant with local-density band calculation, including a point calculated to be of Bi-O character. Additional measurements were made where bands crossed the Fermi level between 100 and 250K, along with measurements on an adjacent Pt foil. The Fermi edges of both materials agree to within the noise. Below the Fermi level, the spectra show correlation effects on the form of an increased effective mass. The shape of the spectra can be explained by a lifetime-broadened photohole and secondary electrons. The effective inverse photohole lifetime is linear in energy. A superconducting gap has been measured at a number of points where there is density at the Fermi level in the normal state. By proper modeling, a gap of 24 meV was obtained for all these points, including points of Cu-O and Bi-O character respectively, according to band calculation. The lack of gap anisotropy in the basal plane suggests that pinning in this material is not d-wave pairing

  19. Effect of Cleaving Temperature on the Surface and Bulk Fermi Surface of Sr2RuO4 Investigated by High Resolution Angle-Resolved Photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shan-Yu; Zhang Wen-Tao; Weng Hong-Ming; Zhao Lin; Liu Hai-Yun; Jia Xiao-Wen; Liu Guo-Dong; Dong Xiao-Li; Zhang Jun; Dai Xi; Fang Zhong; Zhou Xing-Jiang; Mao Zhi-Qiang; Chen Chuang-Tian; Xu Zu-Yan

    2012-01-01

    High resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurements are carried out to systematically investigate the effect of cleaving temperature on the electronic structures and Fermi surfaces of Sr 2 RuO 4 . Unlike previous reports, which found that a high cleaving temperature can suppress the surface Fermi surface, we find that the surface Fermi surface remains obvious and strong in Sr 2 RuO 4 cleaved at high temperature, even at room temperature. This indicates that cleaving temperature is not a key effective factor in suppressing surface bands. On the other hand, the bulk bands can be enhanced in an aged surface of Sr 2 RuO 4 that has been cleaved and held for a long time. We have also carried out laser ARPES measurements on Sr 2 RuO 4 by using a vacuum ultra-violet laser (photon energy at 6.994 eV) and found an obvious enhancement of bulk bands even for samples cleaved at low temperature. This information is important for realizing an effective approach to manipulating and detecting the surface and bulk electronic structure of Sr 2 RuO 4 . In particular, the enhancement of bulk sensitivity, along with the super-high instrumental resolution of VUV laser ARPES, will be advantageous in investigating fine electronic structure and superconducting properties of Sr 2 RuO 4 in the future. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  20. Molar concentration-depth profiles at the solution surface of a cationic surfactant reconstructed with angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuangye; Morgner, Harald

    2011-01-01

    In the current work, we first reconstructed the molar fraction-depth profiles of cation and anion near the surface of tetrabutylammonium iodide dissolved in formamide by a refined calculation procedure, based on angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. In this calculation procedure, both the transmission functions of the core levels and the inelastic mean free paths of the photoelectrons have been taken into account. We have evaluated the partial molar volumes of surfactant and solvent by the densities of such solutions with different bulk concentrations. With those partial molar volumes, the molar concentration-depth profiles of tetrabutylammonium ion and iodide ion were determined. The surface excesses of both surfactant ions were then achieved directly by integrating these depth profiles. The anionic molar concentration-depth profiles and surface excesses have been compared with their counterparts determined by neutral impact ion scattering spectroscopy. The comparisons exhibit good agreements. Being capable of determining molar concentration-depth profiles of surfactant ions by core levels with different kinetic energies may extend the applicable range of ARXPS in investigating solution surfaces.

  1. A universal high energy anomaly in angle resolved photoemission spectra of high temperature superconductors -- possible evidence of spinon and holon branches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, J.; Gweon, G.-H.; McElroy, K.; Zhou, S.Y.; Jozwiak, C.; Rotenberg, E.; Bill, A.; Sasagawa, T.; Eisaki, H.; Uchida, S.; Takagi, H.; Lee, D.-H.; Lanzara, A.

    2006-01-01

    A universal high energy anomaly in the single particle spectral function is reported in three different families of high temperature superconductors by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. As we follow the dispersing peak of the spectral function from the Fermi energy to the valence band complex, we find dispersion anomalies marked by two distinctive high energy scales, E 1 approx 0.38eV and E 2 approx 0.8 eV. E 1 marks the energy above which the dispersion splits into two branches. One is a continuation of the near parabolic dispersion, albeit with reduced spectral weight, and reaches the bottom of the band at the Gamma point at approx 0.5 eV. The other is given by a peak in the momentum space, nearly independent of energy between E 1 and E 2 . Above E 2 , a band-like dispersion re-emerges. We conjecture that these two energies mark the disintegration of the low energy quasiparticles into a spinon and holon branch in the high T c cuprates

  2. Electronic structure of charge-density-wave state in quasi-2D KMo6O17 purple bronze characterized by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, M. A.; Avila, J.; Drouard, S.; Guyot, H.; Asensio, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    We report on an angle-resolved-photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) investigation of layered quasi-two dimensional (2D) Molybdenum purple bronze KMo6O17 in order to study and characterizes the transition to a charge-density-wave (CDW) state. We have performed photoemission temperature dependent measurements cooling down from room temperature (RT) to 32 K, well below the Peierls transition for this material, with CDW transition temperature Tc =110 K. The spectra have been taken at a selected kF point of the Fermi surface (FS) that satisfies the nesting condition of the FS, looking for the characteristic pseudo-gap opening in this kind of materials. The pseudogap has been estimated and it result to be in agreement with our previous works. The shift to lower binding energy of crossing Fermi level ARPES feature have been also confirmed and studied as a function of temperature, showing a rough like BCS behaviour. Finally we have also focused on ARPES measurements along ΓM¯ high symmetry direction for both room and low temperature states finding some insight for ‘shadow’ or back folded bands indicating the new periodicity of real lattice after the CDW lattice distortion.

  3. Charge-density-wave partial gap opening in quasi-2D KMo 6O 17 purple bronze studied by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, M. A.; Avila, J.; Pantin, V.; Drouard, S.; Guyot, H.; Asensio, M. C.

    2006-05-01

    Low dimensional (LD) metallic oxides have been a subject of continuous interest in the last two decades, mainly due to the electronic instabilities that they present at low temperatures. In particular, charge density waves (CDW) instabilities associated with a strong electron-phonon interaction have been found in Molybdenum metallic oxides such as KMo 6O 17 purple bronze. We report an angle resolved photoemission (ARPES) study from room temperature (RT) to T ˜40 K well below the Peierls transition temperature for this material, with CDW transition temperature TCDW ˜120 K. We have focused on photoemission spectra along ΓM high symmetry direction as well as photoemission measurements were taken as a function of temperature at one representative kF point in the Brillouin zone in order to look for the characteristic gap opening after the phase transition. We found out a pseudogap opening and a decrease in the density of states near the Fermi energy, EF, consistent with the partial removal of the nested portions of the Fermi surface (FS) at temperature below the CDW transition. In order to elucidate possible Fermi liquid (FL) or non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behaviour we have compared the ARPES data with that one reported on quasi-1D K 0.3MoO 3 blue bronze.

  4. Charge-density-wave partial gap opening in quasi-2D KMo6O17 purple bronze studied by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valbuena, M.A.; Avila, J.; Pantin, V.; Drouard, S.; Guyot, H.; Asensio, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Low dimensional (LD) metallic oxides have been a subject of continuous interest in the last two decades, mainly due to the electronic instabilities that they present at low temperatures. In particular, charge density waves (CDW) instabilities associated with a strong electron-phonon interaction have been found in Molybdenum metallic oxides such as KMo 6 O 17 purple bronze. We report an angle resolved photoemission (ARPES) study from room temperature (RT) to T ∼40 K well below the Peierls transition temperature for this material, with CDW transition temperature T CDW ∼120 K. We have focused on photoemission spectra along ΓM high symmetry direction as well as photoemission measurements were taken as a function of temperature at one representative k F point in the Brillouin zone in order to look for the characteristic gap opening after the phase transition. We found out a pseudogap opening and a decrease in the density of states near the Fermi energy, E F , consistent with the partial removal of the nested portions of the Fermi surface (FS) at temperature below the CDW transition. In order to elucidate possible Fermi liquid (FL) or non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behaviour we have compared the ARPES data with that one reported on quasi-1D K 0.3 MoO 3 blue bronze

  5. Charge-density-wave partial gap opening in quasi-2D KMo{sub 6}O{sub 17} purple bronze studied by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valbuena, M.A. [LURE, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, Bat. 209D, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Avila, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM - CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - B.P. 48, 91192 GIF-SUR-YVETTE Cedex (France); Pantin, V. [LURE, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, Bat. 209D, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Drouard, S. [LEPES-CENES, B.P. 166x, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Guyot, H. [LEPES-CENES, B.P. 166x, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Asensio, M.C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM - CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain) and Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - B.P. 48, 91192 GIF-SUR-YVETTE Cedex (France)]. E-mail: asensio@synchrotron-soleil.fr

    2006-05-30

    Low dimensional (LD) metallic oxides have been a subject of continuous interest in the last two decades, mainly due to the electronic instabilities that they present at low temperatures. In particular, charge density waves (CDW) instabilities associated with a strong electron-phonon interaction have been found in Molybdenum metallic oxides such as KMo{sub 6}O{sub 17} purple bronze. We report an angle resolved photoemission (ARPES) study from room temperature (RT) to T {approx}40 K well below the Peierls transition temperature for this material, with CDW transition temperature T {sub CDW} {approx}120 K. We have focused on photoemission spectra along {gamma}M high symmetry direction as well as photoemission measurements were taken as a function of temperature at one representative k {sub F} point in the Brillouin zone in order to look for the characteristic gap opening after the phase transition. We found out a pseudogap opening and a decrease in the density of states near the Fermi energy, E {sub F}, consistent with the partial removal of the nested portions of the Fermi surface (FS) at temperature below the CDW transition. In order to elucidate possible Fermi liquid (FL) or non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behaviour we have compared the ARPES data with that one reported on quasi-1D K{sub 0.3}MoO{sub 3} blue bronze.

  6. Experimental set-up for time resolved small angle X-ray scattering studies of nanoparticles formation using a free-jet micromixer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmiroli, Benedetta [Institute for Biophysics and Nanosystem Research, Austrian Academy of Science, Schmiedlstrasse 6, Graz (Austria); Grenci, Gianluca [TASC INFM/CNR, SS 14 km 163.5, Basovizza, TS (Italy); Cacho-Nerin, Fernando; Sartori, Barbara; Laggner, Peter [Institute for Biophysics and Nanosystem Research, Austrian Academy of Science, Schmiedlstrasse 6, Graz (Austria); Businaro, Luca [TASC INFM/CNR, SS 14 km 163.5, Basovizza, TS (Italy); Amenitsch, Heinz, E-mail: heinz.amenitsch@elettra.trieste.i [Institute for Biophysics and Nanosystem Research, Austrian Academy of Science, Schmiedlstrasse 6, Graz (Austria)

    2010-02-15

    Recently, we have designed, fabricated and tested a free-jet micromixer for time resolved small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of nanoparticles formation in the <100 mus time range. The microjet has a diameter of 25 mum and a time of first accessible measurement of 75 mus has been obtained. This result can still be improved. In this communication, we present a method to estimate whether a given chemical or biological reaction can be investigated with the micromixer, and to optimize the beam size for the measurement at the chosen SAXS beamline. Moreover, we describe a system based on stereoscopic imaging which allows the alignment of the jet with the X-ray beam with a precision of 20 mum. The proposed experimental procedures have been successfully employed to observe the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) nanoparticles from the reaction of sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) and calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). The induction time has been estimated in the order of 200 mus and the determined radius of the particles is about 14 nm.

  7. Adsorption site and structure determination of c(2x2) N{sub 2}/Ni(100) using angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, E.J.; Kellar, S.A.; Huff, W.R.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The authors have determined the atomic spatial structure of c(2x2) N2Ni(100) with Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the nitrogen 1s core level using monochromatized x-rays from beamline 6.1 at SSRL and beamline 9.3.2 at the ALS. The chemically shifted N 1s peak intensities were summed together to obtain ARPEFS curves for both nitrogen atoms in the molecule. They used a new, highly-optimized program based on the Rehr-Albers scattering matrix formalism to find the adsorption site and to quantitatively determine the bond-lengths. The nitrogen molecule stands upright at an atop site, with a N-Ni bond length of 2.25(1) {angstrom}, a N-N bond length of 1.10(7) {angstrom}, and a first layer Ni-Ni spacing of 1.76(4) {angstrom}. The shake-up peak shows an identical ARPEFS diffraction pattern, confirming its intrinsic nature and supporting a previous use of this feature to decompose the peak into contributions from the chemically inequivalent nitrogen atoms. Comparison to a previously published theoretical treatment of N-N-Ni and experimental structures of analogous adsorbate systems demonstrates the importance of adsorbate-adsorbate interactions in weakly chemisorbed systems.

  8. Electron-plasmon and electron-phonon satellites in the angle-resolved photoelectron spectra of n -doped anatase TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Fabio; Verdi, Carla; Poncé, Samuel; Giustino, Feliciano

    2018-04-01

    We develop a first-principles approach based on many-body perturbation theory to investigate the effects of the interaction between electrons and carrier plasmons on the electronic properties of highly doped semiconductors and oxides. Through the evaluation of the electron self-energy, we account simultaneously for electron-plasmon and electron-phonon coupling in theoretical calculations of angle-resolved photoemission spectra, electron linewidths, and relaxation times. We apply this methodology to electron-doped anatase TiO2 as an illustrative example. The simulated spectra indicate that electron-plasmon coupling in TiO2 underpins the formation of satellites at energies comparable to those of polaronic spectral features. At variance with phonons, however, the energy of plasmons and their spectral fingerprints depends strongly on the carrier concentration, revealing a complex interplay between plasmon and phonon satellites. The electron-plasmon interaction accounts for approximately 40% of the total electron-boson interaction strength, and it is key to improve the agreement with measured quasiparticle spectra.

  9. Investigation on Surface Polarization of Al2O3-capped GaN/AlGaN/GaN Heterostructure by Angle-Resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Tian Li; Pan, Ji Sheng; Wang, Ning; Cheng, Kai; Yu, Hong Yu

    2017-08-17

    The surface polarization of Ga-face gallium nitride (GaN) (2 nm)/AlGaN (22 nm)/GaN channel (150 nm)/buffer/Si with Al 2 O 3 capping layer is investigated by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). It is found that the energy band varies from upward bending to downward bending in the interface region, which is believed to be corresponding to the polarization variation. An interfacial layer is formed between top GaN and Al 2 O 3 due to the occurrence of Ga-N bond break and Ga-O bond forming during Al 2 O 3 deposition via the atomic layer deposition (ALD). This interfacial layer is believed to eliminate the GaN polarization, thus reducing the polarization-induced negative charges. Furthermore, this interfacial layer plays a key role for the introduction of the positive charges which lead the energy band downward. Finally, a N 2 annealing at 400 °C is observed to enhance the interfacial layer growth thus increasing the density of positive charges.

  10. Time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with optimized high-harmonic pulses using frequency-doubled Ti:Sapphire lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eich, S.; Stange, A.; Carr, A.V.; Urbancic, J.; Popmintchev, T.; Wiesenmayer, M.; Jansen, K.; Ruffing, A.; Jakobs, S.; Rohwer, T.; Hellmann, S.; Chen, C.; Matyba, P.; Kipp, L.; Rossnagel, K.; Bauer, M.; Murnane, M.M.; Kapteyn, H.C.; Mathias, S.; Aeschlimann, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a scheme to generate high intensity XUV pulses from HHG with variable time-bandwidth product. • Shorter-wavelength driven high-harmonic XUV trARPES provides higher photon flux and increased energy resolution. • High-quality high-harmonic XUV trARPES data with sub 150 meV energy and sub 30 fs time resolution is presented. - Abstract: Time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (trARPES) using femtosecond extreme ultraviolet high harmonics has recently emerged as a powerful tool for investigating ultrafast quasiparticle dynamics in correlated-electron materials. However, the full potential of this approach has not yet been achieved because, to date, high harmonics generated by 800 nm wavelength Ti:Sapphire lasers required a trade-off between photon flux, energy and time resolution. Photoemission spectroscopy requires a quasi-monochromatic output, but dispersive optical elements that select a single harmonic can significantly reduce the photon flux and time resolution. Here we show that 400 nm driven high harmonic extreme-ultraviolet trARPES is superior to using 800 nm laser drivers since it eliminates the need for any spectral selection, thereby increasing photon flux and energy resolution to <150 meV while preserving excellent time resolution of about 30 fs

  11. Electronic structure of transition metal dichalcogenides PdTe2 and Cu0.05PdTe2 superconductors obtained by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Zhao Jian-Zhou; Yu Li; Hu Cheng; Liu De-Fa; Peng Ying-Ying; Xie Zhuo-Jin; He Jun-Feng; Chen Chao-Yu; Feng Ya; Yi He-Mian; Liu Xu; Zhao Lin; He Shao-Long; Liu Guo-Dong; Dong Xiao-Li; Zhang Jun; Lin Cheng-Tian; Chen Chuang-Tian; Xu Zu-Yan

    2015-01-01

    The layered transition metal chalcogenides have been a fertile land in solid state physics for many decades. Various MX 2 -type transition metal dichalcogenides, such as WTe 2 , IrTe 2 , and MoS 2 , have triggered great attention recently, either for the discovery of novel phenomena or some extreme or exotic physical properties, or for their potential applications. PdTe 2 is a superconductor in the class of transition metal dichalcogenides, and superconductivity is enhanced in its Cu-intercalated form, Cu 0.05 PdTe 2 . It is important to study the electronic structures of PdTe 2 and its intercalated form in order to explore for new phenomena and physical properties and understand the related superconductivity enhancement mechanism. Here we report systematic high resolution angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) studies on PdTe 2 and Cu 0.05 PdTe 2 single crystals, combined with the band structure calculations. We present in detail for the first time the complex multi-band Fermi surface topology and densely-arranged band structure of these compounds. By carefully examining the electronic structures of the two systems, we find that Cu-intercalation in PdTe 2 results in electron-doping, which causes the band structure to shift downwards by nearly 16 meV in Cu 0.05 PdTe 2 . Our results lay a foundation for further exploration and investigation on PdTe 2 and related superconductors. (rapid communication)

  12. Time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering study of the early stage of amyloid formation of an apomyoglobin mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortore, Maria Grazia; Spinozzi, Francesco; Vilasi, Silvia; Sirangelo, Ivana; Irace, Gaetano; Shukla, Anuj; Narayanan, Theyencheri; Sinibaldi, Raffaele; Mariani, Paolo

    2011-12-01

    The description of the fibrillogenesis pathway and the identification of “on-pathway” or “off-pathway” intermediates are key issues in amyloid research as they are concerned with the mechanism for onset of certain diseases and with therapeutic treatments. Recent results on the fibril formation process revealed an unexpected complexity both in the number and in the types of species involved, but the early aggregation events are still largely unknown, mainly because of their experimental inaccessibility. To provide information on the early stage events of self-assembly of an amyloidogenic protein, during the so-called lag phase, stopped-flow time-resolved small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments were performed. Using a global fitting analysis, the structural and aggregation properties of the apomyoglobin W7FW14F mutant, which is monomeric and partly folded at acidic pH but forms amyloid fibrils after neutralization, were derived from the first few milliseconds onward. SAXS data indicated that the first aggregates appear in less than 20 ms after the pH jump to neutrality and further revealed the simultaneous presence of diverse species. In particular, worm-like unstructured monomers, very large assemblies, and elongated particles were detected, and their structural features and relative concentrations were derived as a function of time on the basis of our model. The final results show that, during the lag phase, early assembling occurs due to the presence of transient monomeric species very prone to association and through successive competing aggregation and rearrangement processes leading to coexisting on-pathway and off-pathway transient species.

  13. Characterization of weakly absorbing thin films by multiple linear regression analysis of absolute unwrapped phase in angle-resolved spectral reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jingtao; Lu, Rongsheng

    2018-04-30

    The simultaneous determination of t, n(λ), and κ(λ) of thin films can be a tough task for the high correlation of fit parameters. The strong assumptions about the type of dispersion relation are commonly used as a consequence to alleviate correlation concerns by reducing the free parameters before the nonlinear regression analysis. Here we present an angle-resolved spectral reflectometry for the simultaneous determination of weakly absorbing thin film parameters, where a reflectance interferogram is recorded in both angular and spectral domains in a single-shot measurement for the point of the sample being illuminated. The variations of the phase recovered from the interferogram as functions of t, n, and κ reveals that the unwrapped phase is monotonically related to t, n, and κ, thereby allowing the problem of correlation to be alleviated by multiple linear regression. After removing the 2π ambiguity of the unwrapped phase, the merit function based on the absolute unwrapped phase performs a 3D data cube with variables of t, n and κ at each wavelength. The unique solution of t, n, and κ can then be directly determined from the extremum of the 3D data cube at each wavelength with no need of dispersion relation. A sample of GaN thin film grown on a polished sapphire substrate is tested. The experimental data of t and [n(λ), κ(λ)] are confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy and the comparison with the results of other related works, respectively. The consistency of the results shows the proposed method provides a useful tool for the determination of the thickness and optical constants of weakly absorbing thin films.

  14. Bulk electronic structures of n-type superconductor Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4 probed by high energy angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunekawa, M.; Sekiyama, A.; Kasai, S.; Yamasaki, A.; Fujiwara, H.; Sing, M.; Shigemoto, A.; Imada, S.; Onose, Y.; Tokura, Y.; Muro, T.; Suga, S.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a high-energy angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) study of the n-type high-T C cuprate, Nd 1.85 Ce 0.15 CuO 4 (NCCO). Our bulk sensitive results suggest a hole-like Fermi surface as seen by the so far reported low-energy ARPES studies. The soft X-ray Cu 2p core-level photoemission spectra show clear polar-angle dependence, suggesting the difference in electron states between the bulk and surface

  15. Electronic structure, Dirac points and Fermi arc surface states in three-dimensional Dirac semimetal Na3Bi from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Aiji; Chen Chaoyu; Wang Zhijun; Shi Youguo; Feng Ya; Yi Hemian; Xie Zhuojin; He Shaolong; He Junfeng; Peng Yingying; Liu Yan; Liu Defa; Hu Cheng; Zhao Lin; Liu Guodong; Dong Xiaoli; Zhang Jun; Nakatake, M; Iwasawa, H; Shimada, K

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetals have linearly dispersive 3D Dirac nodes where the conduction band and valence band are connected. They have isolated 3D Dirac nodes in the whole Brillouin zone and can be viewed as a 3D counterpart of graphene. Recent theoretical calculations and experimental results indicate that the 3D Dirac semimetal state can be realized in a simple stoichiometric compound A 3 Bi ( A = Na, K, Rb). Here we report comprehensive high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) measurements on the two cleaved surfaces, (001) and (100), of Na 3 Bi. On the (001) surface, by comparison with theoretical calculations, we provide a proper assignment of the observed bands, and in particular, pinpoint the band that is responsible for the formation of the three-dimensional Dirac cones. We observe clear evidence of 3D Dirac cones in the three-dimensional momentum space by directly measuring on the k x – k y plane and by varying the photon energy to get access to different out-of-plane k z s. In addition, we reveal new features around the Brillouin zone corners that may be related with surface reconstruction. On the (100) surface, our ARPES measurements over a large momentum space raise an issue on the selection of the basic Brillouin zone in the (100) plane. We directly observe two isolated 3D Dirac nodes on the (100) surface. We observe the signature of the Fermi-arc surface states connecting the two 3D Dirac nodes that extend to a binding energy of ∼150 meV before merging into the bulk band. Our observations constitute strong evidence on the existence of the Dirac semimetal state in Na 3 Bi that are consistent with previous theoretical and experimental work. In addition, our results provide new information to clarify on the nature of the band that forms the 3D Dirac cones, on the possible formation of surface reconstruction of the (001) surface, and on the issue of basic Brillouin zone selection for the (100) surface. (rapid communication)

  16. Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy Studies of the Mott Insulator to Superconductor Evolution in Ca2-xNaxCuO2Cl2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Kyle Michael

    2005-09-02

    It is widely believed that many of the exotic physical properties of the high-T{sub c} cuprate superconductors arise from the proximity of these materials to the strongly correlated, antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state. Therefore, one of the fundamental questions in the field of high-temperature superconductivity is to understand the insulator-to-superconductor transition and precisely how the electronic structure of Mott insulator evolves as the first holes are doped into the system. This dissertation presents high-resolution, doping dependent angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) studies of the cuprate superconductor Ca{sub 2-x}Na{sub x}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, spanning from the undoped parent Mott insulator to a high-temperature superconductor with a T{sub c} of 22 K. A phenomenological model is proposed to explain how the spectral lineshape, the quasiparticle band dispersion, and the chemical potential all progress with doping in a logical and self-consistent framework. This model is based on Franck-Condon broadening observed in polaronic systems where strong electron-boson interactions cause the quasiparticle residue, Z, to be vanishingly small. Comparisons of the low-lying states to different electronic states in the valence band strongly suggest that the coupling of the photohole to the lattice (i.e. lattice polaron formation) is the dominant broadening mechanism for the lower Hubbard band states. Combining this polaronic framework with high-resolution ARPES measurements finally provides a resolution to the long-standing controversy over the behavior of the chemical potential in the high-T{sub c} cuprates. This scenario arises from replacing the conventional Fermi liquid quasiparticle interpretation of the features in the Mott insulator by a Franck-Condon model, allowing the reassignment of the position of the quasiparticle pole. As a function of hole doping, the chemical potential shifts smoothly into the valence band while spectral weight is transferred

  17. XANES and XPS studies of the reduction of ammonium paramolybdate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halada, G.P.; Clayton, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    in situ glancing-angle x-ray reflectivity experiments were performed on electrochemical reduction products formed in a dilute paramolybdate solution on a platinum electrode. These data were compared with x-ray photoelectron spectra which showed formation of simple molybdate, pentavalent and tetravalent species at increasingly negative potentials. X-ray absorption data demonstrated changes in edge position, pre-edge structure and edge height corresponding to reduction and subsequent growth of the reduction product film at a number of the potentials examined with XPS

  18. Resolving overlapping peaks in ARXPS data: The effect of noise and fitting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz-Flores, Jaime; Herrera-Gomez, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Noise is an important factor affecting the fitting of overlapping peaks in XPS data. ► The combined information in ARXPS data can be used to improve fitting reliability. ► The error on the estimation of the peak parameters depends on the peak-fitting method. ► Simultaneous fitting method is much more robust against noise than sequential fitting. ► The estimation of the error range is better done with ARXPS data than with XPS data. - Abstract: Peak-fitting of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data can be very sensitive to noise when the difference on the binding energy among the peaks is smaller than the width of the peaks. This sensitivity depends on the fitting algorithm. Angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) analysis offers the opportunity of employing the combined information contained in the data at the various angles to reduce the sensitivity to noise. The assumption of shared peak parameters (center and width) among the spectra for the different angles, and how it is introduced into the analysis, plays a basic role. Sequential fitting is the usual practice in ARXPS data peak-fitting. It consist on first estimating the center and width of the peaks from the data acquired at one of the angles, and then using those parameters as a starting approximation for fitting the data for each of the rest of the angles. An improvement of this method consists of averaging the centers and widths of the peaks obtained at the different angles, and then employing these values to assess the areas of the peaks for each angle. Another strategy for using the combined information is by assessing the peak parameters from the sum of the experimental data. The complete use of the combined information contained in the data-set is optimized by the simultaneous fitting method. It consists of the assessment of the center and width of the peaks by fitting the data at all the angles simultaneously. Computer-generated data was employed to compare the sensitivity with respect

  19. Non-destructive determination of ultra-thin GaN cap layer thickness in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure by angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Anshu; Yadav, Brajesh S.; Raman, R.; Kapoor, Ashok K.

    2018-02-01

    Angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) investigations have been carried out to characterize the GaN cap layer in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure. The paper discusses the qualitative (presence or absence of a cap layer) and quantitative (cap layer thickness) characterization of cap layer in HEMT structure non-destructively using ARXPS measurements in conjunction with the theoretical modeling. Further the relative sensitive factor (RSF=σ/Ga σAl ) for Ga to Al ratio was estimated to be 0.963 and was used in the quantification of GaN cap layer thickness. Our results show that Al/Ga intensity ratio varies with the emission angle in the presence of GaN cap layer and otherwise remains constant. Also, the modeling of this intensity ratio gives its thickness. The finding of ARXPS was also substantiated by SIMS depth profiling studies.

  20. Non-destructive determination of ultra-thin GaN cap layer thickness in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure by angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Goyal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS investigations have been carried out to characterize the GaN cap layer in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure. The paper discusses the qualitative (presence or absence of a cap layer and quantitative (cap layer thickness characterization of cap layer in HEMT structure non-destructively using ARXPS measurements in conjunction with the theoretical modeling. Further the relative sensitive factor (RSF=σGaσAl for Ga to Al ratio was estimated to be 0.963 and was used in the quantification of GaN cap layer thickness. Our results show that Al/Ga intensity ratio varies with the emission angle in the presence of GaN cap layer and otherwise remains constant. Also, the modeling of this intensity ratio gives its thickness. The finding of ARXPS was also substantiated by SIMS depth profiling studies.

  1. Investigation of the electron dynamics of Si(111) 7 x 7 and development of a time-of-flight spectrometer for time- and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damm, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This thesis consists of two main parts. The first one reports about recent investigations of the electron dynamics on the Si(111) 7 x 7 surface employing time- and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission (2PPE). The second part describes the construction and demonstration of the capabilities of a new electron time-of-flight spectrometer. It is shown that the electron dynamics of this surface are governed by adatom and bulk states. Variation of different experimental parameters leads to the suggestion that electrons scatter from the adatom states into the conduction band of Silicon. The localization in real space can be estimated from the distribution of the photoemission intensity in momentum space to be within one 7 x 7 unit cell. The electron population in the conduction band as well as those in the adatom band show a very long-living component. In addition to recombination through defect states, these electrons can undergo radiative recombination with holes in the valence band. The second part of this thesis reports about the design, construction and demonstration of the capabilities of a new electron time-of-flight spectrometer for applications in time- and angle-resolved 2PPE experiments. The new spectrometer is designed in a flexible manner to maximize either the energy resolution or the acceptance angle, respectively. By employing a position-sensitive electron detector it is possible for the first time to measure the energy as well as all components of the parallel momentum of the photoemitted electrons and thereby to fully characterize electrons from surface states. The time-resolution can be estimated from the width of a peak induced by photons scattered from the sample to be better than 150 ps. At the minimum of about 40 mm of the adjustable drift distance this leads to a energy resolution below 5 meV for electrons with kinetic energies of 1 eV. Thereby, the parallel momentum resolution is below 5 mA -1 for parallel momentum values k parallel ≤1A -1

  2. Depth distribution of secondary phases in kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 by angle-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Just

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The depth distribution of secondary phases in the solar cell absorber material Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS is quantitatively investigated using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES analysis at the K-edge of sulfur at varying incidence angles. Varying information depths from several nanometers up to the full thickness is achieved. A quantitative profile of the phase distribution is obtained by a self-consistent fit of a multilayer model to the XANES spectra for different angles. Single step co-evaporated CZTS thin-films are found to exhibit zinc and copper sulfide secondary phases preferentially at the front or back interfaces of the film.

  3. Comparative Study of Surface-lattice-site Resolved Neutralization of Slow Multicharged Ions during Large-angle Quasi-binary Collisions with Au(110): Simulation and Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, F.W.

    2001-01-01

    In this article we extend our earlier studies of the azimuthal dependences of low energy projectiles scattered in large angle quasi-binary collisions from Au(110). Measurements are presented for 20 keV Ar 9+ at normal incidence, which are compared with our earlier measurements for this ion at 5 keV and 10 0 incidence angle. A deconvolution procedure based on MARLOWE simulation results carried out at both energies provides information about the energy dependence of projectile neutralization during interactions just with the atoms along the top ridge of the reconstructed Au(110) surface corrugation, in comparison to, e.g., interactions with atoms lying on the sidewalls. To test the sensitivity of the agreement between the MARLOWE results and the experimental measurements, we show simulation results obtained for a non-reconstructed Au(110) surface with 20 keV Ar projectiles, and for different scattering potentials that are intended to simulate the effects on scattering trajectory of a projectile inner shell vacancy surviving the binary collision, In addition, simulation results are shown for a number of different total scattering angles, to illustrate their utility in finding optimum values for this parameter prior to the actual measurements

  4. Depth-Resolved Composition and Electronic Structure of Buried Layers and Interfaces in a LaNiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} Superlattice from Soft- and Hard- X-ray Standing-Wave Angle-Resolved Photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiteneer, D. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Pálsson, G.K., E-mail: gunnar.palsson@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Nemšák, S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Peter-Grünberg-Institut PGI-6, Forschungszentrum Julich, 52425 Julich (Germany); Gray, A.X. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Kaiser, A.M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Son, J.; LeBeau, J. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Conti, G. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); and others

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Depth resolved electronic structure of LaNiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} superlattices is measured. • The structure is determined by x-ray standing wave angle-resolved photoemission. • Similarity to the electronic structure of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} is discussed. - Abstract: LaNiO{sub 3} (LNO) is an intriguing member of the rare-earth nickelates in exhibiting a metal-insulator transition for a critical film thickness of about 4 unit cells [Son et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 062114 (2010)]; however, such thin films also show a transition to a metallic state in superlattices with SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) [Son et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 202109 (2010)]. In order to better understand this transition, we have studied a strained LNO/STO superlattice with 10 repeats of [4 unit-cell LNO/3 unit-cell STO] grown on an (LaAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.3}(Sr{sub 2}AlTaO{sub 6}){sub 0.7} substrate using soft x-ray standing-wave-excited angle-resolved photoemission (SWARPES), together with soft- and hard- x-ray photoemission measurements of core levels and densities-of-states valence spectra. The experimental results are compared with state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) calculations of band structures and densities of states. Using core-level rocking curves and x-ray optical modeling to assess the position of the standing wave, SWARPES measurements are carried out for various incidence angles and used to determine interface-specific changes in momentum-resolved electronic structure. We further show that the momentum-resolved behavior of the Ni 3d e{sub g} and t{sub 2g} states near the Fermi level, as well as those at the bottom of the valence bands, is very similar to recently published SWARPES results for a related La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} superlattice that was studied using the same technique (Gray et al., Europhysics Letters 104, 17004 (2013)), which further validates this experimental approach and our conclusions. Our

  5. Investigations on the density fluctuations of deuterium in niobium and tantalum by means of energy resolving neutron small-angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenzing, W.

    1978-01-01

    Density fluctuations of solved deuterium were measured by means of small angle scattering ob subthermal neutrons at deuterated niobium and tantalum single crystals between temperatures of 340 and 640 K. The concentrations were varied at the NbD between c = 0.10 and c = 0.53 (atomic ratio D-atom / Nb-atom). The center point was at the critical concentration of c = 0.31. In TaD there was only one concentration c = 0.14 (D-atoms / Ta-atoms) measured. At the critical point of Tsub(c) approx. 455 K no diverging critical scattering intensity was observed. (orig./HSI) [de

  6. Simulation of angle-resolved photoemission spectra by approximating the final state by a plane wave: From graphene to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puschnig, Peter, E-mail: peter.puschnig@uni-graz.at; Lüftner, Daniel

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Computational study on angular dependent photoemission spectroscopy. • Graphene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules. • Plane wave final state approximation accounts for experimental findings. - Abstract: We present a computational study on the angular-resolved photoemission spectra (ARPES) from a number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and graphene. Our theoretical approach is based on ab-initio density functional theory and the one-step model where we greatly simplify the evaluation of the matrix element by assuming a plane wave for the final state. Before comparing our ARPES simulations with available experimental data, we discuss how typical approximations for the exchange-correlation energy affect orbital energies. In particular, we show that by employing a hybrid functional, considerable improvement can be obtained over semi-local functionals in terms of band widths and relative energies of π and σ states. Our ARPES simulations for graphene show that the plane wave final state approximation provides indeed an excellent description when compared to experimental band maps and constant binding energy maps. Furthermore, our ARPES simulations for a number of polycyclic aromatic molecules from the oligo-acene, oligo-phenylene, phen-anthrene families as well as for disc-shaped molecules nicely illustrate the evolution of the electronic structure from molecules with increasing size towards graphene.

  7. Energy dispersions of single-crystalline Bi2.0Sr1.8Ca0.8La0.3Cu2.1O8+δ superconductors determined using angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, P.A.P.; Shen, Z.; Dessau, D.S.; Wells, B.O.; Mitzi, D.B.; Lindau, I.; Spicer, W.E.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1989-01-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission studies of single-crystalline La-doped Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu- 90-K superconductors (Bi 2.0 Sr 1.8 Ca 0.8 La 0.3 Cu 2.1 O 8+δ ) were performed utilizing synchrotron radiation covering the photon energy range 10--40 eV. The data conclusively reveal a dispersionless character of the valence-band states as a function of the wave-vector component parallel to the c axis, in agreement with the predictions of band calculations. Band effects are evident from both intensity modulations of the spectral features in the valence band and from energy dispersions as a function of the wave vector component lying in the basal a-b plane

  8. Differences between GaAs/GaInP and GaAs/AlInP interfaces grown by movpe revealed by depth profiling and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Escalante, M.C.; Gabás, M.; García, I.; Barrigón, E.; Rey-Stolle, I.; Algora, C.; Palanco, S.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • GaAs, AlInP and GaInP epi-layers grown in a MOVPE facility. • GaAs/GaInP and GaAs/AlInP interfaces studied through the combination of angle resolved and depth profile X-ray photoelectros spectroscopies. • GaAs/GaInP interface shows no features appart from GaAs, GaInP and mixed GaInAs or GaInAsP phases. • GaAs/AlInP interface shows traces of an anomalous P environment, probably due to P-P clusters. - Abstract: GaAs/GaInP and GaAs/AlInP interfaces have been studied using photoelectron spectroscopy tools. The combination of depth profile through Ar + sputtering and angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provides reliable information on the evolution of the interface chemistry. Measurement artifacts related to each particular technique can be ruled out on the basis of the results obtained with the other technique. GaAs/GaInP interface spreads out over a shorter length than GaAs/AlInP interface. The former could include the presence of the quaternary GaInAsP in addition to the nominal GaAs and GaInP layers. On the contrary, the GaAs/AlInP interface exhibits a higher degree of compound mixture. Namely, traces of P atoms in a chemical environment different to the usual AlInP coordination were found at the top of the GaAs/AlInP interface, as well as mixed phases like AlInP, GaInAsP or AlGaInAsP, located at the interface.

  9. Differences between GaAs/GaInP and GaAs/AlInP interfaces grown by movpe revealed by depth profiling and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Escalante, M.C., E-mail: mclopez@uma.es [Nanotech Unit, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Gabás, M. [The Nanotech Unit, Depto. de Física Aplicada I, Andalucía Tech, Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071 Málaga Spain (Spain); García, I.; Barrigón, E.; Rey-Stolle, I.; Algora, C. [Instituto de Energía Solar, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avda. Complutense 30, 28040 Madrid Spain (Spain); Palanco, S.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R. [The Nanotech Unit, Depto. de Física Aplicada I, Andalucía Tech, Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071 Málaga Spain (Spain)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • GaAs, AlInP and GaInP epi-layers grown in a MOVPE facility. • GaAs/GaInP and GaAs/AlInP interfaces studied through the combination of angle resolved and depth profile X-ray photoelectros spectroscopies. • GaAs/GaInP interface shows no features appart from GaAs, GaInP and mixed GaInAs or GaInAsP phases. • GaAs/AlInP interface shows traces of an anomalous P environment, probably due to P-P clusters. - Abstract: GaAs/GaInP and GaAs/AlInP interfaces have been studied using photoelectron spectroscopy tools. The combination of depth profile through Ar{sup +} sputtering and angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provides reliable information on the evolution of the interface chemistry. Measurement artifacts related to each particular technique can be ruled out on the basis of the results obtained with the other technique. GaAs/GaInP interface spreads out over a shorter length than GaAs/AlInP interface. The former could include the presence of the quaternary GaInAsP in addition to the nominal GaAs and GaInP layers. On the contrary, the GaAs/AlInP interface exhibits a higher degree of compound mixture. Namely, traces of P atoms in a chemical environment different to the usual AlInP coordination were found at the top of the GaAs/AlInP interface, as well as mixed phases like AlInP, GaInAsP or AlGaInAsP, located at the interface.

  10. Quasiparticle dynamics across the full Brillouin zone of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ traced with ultrafast time and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi L. Dakovski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark in the cuprate family of high-temperature superconductors is the nodal-antinodal dichotomy. In this regard, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES has proven especially powerful, providing band structure information directly in energy-momentum space. Time-resolved ARPES (trARPES holds great promise of adding ultrafast temporal information, in an attempt to identify different interaction channels in the time domain. Previous studies of the cuprates using trARPES were handicapped by the low probing energy, which significantly limits the accessible momentum space. Using 20.15 eV, 12 fs pulses, we show for the first time the evolution of quasiparticles in the antinodal region of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ and demonstrate that non-monotonic relaxation dynamics dominates above a certain fluence threshold. The dynamics is heavily influenced by transient modification of the electron-phonon interaction and phase space restrictions, in stark contrast to the monotonic relaxation in the nodal and off-nodal regions.

  11. On calculating intensity from XPS spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegh, Janos

    2006-01-01

    The intensity calculation is the basis for all quantitative applications of electron spectroscopy. Unfortunately, some misinterpreted terms are used and correctly interpreted terms are misused in the overwhelming majority of publications in XPS, including most textbooks as well as accepted and proposed standards. Due to this mistake the number of the detected electrons is given as having dimension of energy (?) and also the formulas for calculating the peak area and its standard deviation are wrong. Since in all other spectroscopic fields the number of the detected particles is dimensionless, continuing this practice leads to isolating XPS from both other measurement sciences and theory, because the measured total intensity in XPS is simply not comparable to the ones derived with other spectroscopic methods or theoretically. Therefore, the basic measuring processes and terms are critically reviewed and their physically correct interpretation is given. This interpretation reveals that the error is hidden in the incorrect interpretation of both the measurement process and the measured quantity. It is shown that through using the correct interpretation both the dimensions of the intensity calculated from electron spectroscopic measurements as well as the formulas related to the intensity and its standard deviation will agree with all other spectroscopic fields

  12. XPS - an essential tool in biomaterial research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    StJohn, H.A.W.; Greisser, H.J. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Clayton, VIC (Australia). Molecular Science

    1999-12-01

    Full text: Increased life expectancy has markedly enhanced the need for biomedical devices to combat life-threatening conditions (e.g., pacemakers, artificial blood vessels) or improve the quality of life (e.g., intraocular lenses, artificial ligaments, contact lenses). While the biomedical device industry has delivered remarkable benefits, many existing and emerging needs and applications are not adequately met with existing synthetic materials. Depending on the application, a biomaterial needs to meet a number of requirements to be `biocompatible`, such as appropriate mechanical properties, transparency, resistance to enzymatic degradation, and appropriate biological responses by the host environment. Surface science and surface analysis plays a key role in understanding and optimizing the molecular interfacial interactions between synthetic materials surfaces and biological media which lead to biological responses to implants. Many biological molecules such as proteins and lipids have surfactant activity and respond to interfaces on contact. Thus, an important part of achieving `biocompatibility` is to produce an appropriate surface chemical composition that avoids undesirable biological consequences triggered by biological molecules recognizing a `foreign` material interface. XPS surface analysis has proved uniquely suitable for studying several aspects of biomaterials. In order to interpret biological responses in terms of surface chemistry, it is essential that the surface be well characterized. However, for polymers this can be quite a challenge due to the inherent mobility of polymer chains. For instance, polyurethanes present a surface chemistry that differs from the `bulk` chemistry. It is often desirable to utilize a bulk material with desirable bulk properties and improve its biocompatibility by the application of a surface modification or a thin coating. XPS has been used to verify the intended coating chemistry and the uniformity of thin coatings. On

  13. XPS - an essential tool in biomaterial research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    StJohn, H.A.W.; Greisser, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Increased life expectancy has markedly enhanced the need for biomedical devices to combat life-threatening conditions (e.g., pacemakers, artificial blood vessels) or improve the quality of life (e.g., intraocular lenses, artificial ligaments, contact lenses). While the biomedical device industry has delivered remarkable benefits, many existing and emerging needs and applications are not adequately met with existing synthetic materials. Depending on the application, a biomaterial needs to meet a number of requirements to be 'biocompatible', such as appropriate mechanical properties, transparency, resistance to enzymatic degradation, and appropriate biological responses by the host environment. Surface science and surface analysis plays a key role in understanding and optimizing the molecular interfacial interactions between synthetic materials surfaces and biological media which lead to biological responses to implants. Many biological molecules such as proteins and lipids have surfactant activity and respond to interfaces on contact. Thus, an important part of achieving 'biocompatibility' is to produce an appropriate surface chemical composition that avoids undesirable biological consequences triggered by biological molecules recognizing a 'foreign' material interface. XPS surface analysis has proved uniquely suitable for studying several aspects of biomaterials. In order to interpret biological responses in terms of surface chemistry, it is essential that the surface be well characterized. However, for polymers this can be quite a challenge due to the inherent mobility of polymer chains. For instance, polyurethanes present a surface chemistry that differs from the 'bulk' chemistry. It is often desirable to utilize a bulk material with desirable bulk properties and improve its biocompatibility by the application of a surface modification or a thin coating. XPS has been used to verify the intended coating chemistry and the uniformity of thin coatings. On

  14. An XPS study of bromine in methanol etching and hydrogen peroxide passivation treatments for cadmium zinc telluride radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, S.; Sellin, P.J.; Watts, J.F.; Baker, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► CdZnTe single crystal etched in bromine-in-methanol and passivated in H 2 O 2 . ► XPS depth used to accurately determine enriched Te layer and TeO 2 thickness. ► For 0.2 and 2.0 (v/v) % bromine-in-methanol treatments, enriched Te layer thickness determined to be 1.3 and 1.8 nm, respectively. ► After passivation in 30 wt.% H 2 O 2 , the oxide thickness varies between 1.0 and 1.25 nm depending on the calculation method. - Abstract: The performance of single crystal CdZnTe radiation detectors is dependent on both the bulk and the surface properties of the material. After single crystal fabrication and mechanical polishing, modification of the surface to remove damage and reduce the surface leakage current is generally achieved through chemical etching followed by a passivation treatment. In this work, CdZnTe single crystals have been chemically etched using a bromine in methanol (BM) treatment. The BM concentrations employed were 0.2 and 2.0 (v/v) % and exposure times varied between 5 and 120 s. Angle resolved XPS and sputter depth profiling has been employed to characterize the surfaces for the different exposure conditions. A Te rich surface layer was formed for all exposures and the layer thickness was found to be independent of exposure time. The enriched Te layer thickness was accurately determined by calibrating the sputter rate against a CdTe layer of known thickness. For BM concentrations of 0.2 (v/v) % and 2 (v/v) %, the Te layer thickness was determined to be 1.3 ± 0.2 and 1.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively. The BM etched surfaces have subsequently been passivated in a 30 wt.% H 2 O 2 solution employing exposure time of 15 s. The oxide layer thickness has been calculated using two standard XPS methodologies, based on the Beer–Lambert expression. The TeO 2 thickness calculated from ARXPS data are slightly higher than the thickness obtained by the simplified Beer–Lambert expression. For BM exposures of 30–120 s followed by a passivation

  15. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of cyclopropane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, P. R.; Taylor, J. W.; Carlson, Thomas A.; Whitley, T. A.; Grimm, F. A.

    1985-10-01

    The angular distribution parameter, β, determined for the valence orbitals (IP < 18 eV) of cyclopropane in the 10-30 eV photon energy range using dispersed polarized synchrotron radiation. The energy dependence of β for photoelectron energies between, 2 and 10 eV above threshold was found to be similar to those found previously for other σ orbitals. The effects of Jahn-Teller splitting on β for the 3e' orbital were found to be small but definitely present. The overall shape and magnitude of the β( hv) curve are, however, sufficiently for the different Jahn-Teller components that, for purposes of orbital assignments using β( hv) curves the shape and magnitude of the curves can be considered associated only with the initial state. Resonance photoionization features at a photon ener of ≈ 18 eV were observed in the 3e' and 3a' 1 orbitals and tentatively assigned to autoionization.

  16. Spatial structure determination of (√3 x √3)R30 degrees and (1.5 x 1.5)R18 degrees CO on Cu(111) using angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moler, E.J.; Kellar, S.A.; Huff, W.R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The authors report a study of the spatial structure of (√3 x √3)R30 degrees (low coverage) and (1.5 x 1.5)R18 degrees (intermediate coverage) CO adsorbed on Cu(111), using the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) technique at beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source. The CO molecule adsorbs on an atop site for both adsorption phases. Full multiple-scattering spherical-wave (MSSW) calculations were used to extract the C-Cu. bond length and the first Cu-Cu layer spacing for each adsorption phase. The authors find that the C-Cu bond length remains unchanged with increasing coverage, but the 1st Cu-Cu layer spacing contracts at the intermediate coverage. They calculate the bending mode force constant in the (1.5 x 1.5)R18 degrees phase to be K δ = 2.2 (1) x 10 -12 dyne-cm/rad from their experimentally determined bond lengths combined with previously published infra-red absorption frequencies

  17. Spatial structure determination of ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30{degrees} and (1.5 x 1.5)R18{degrees}CO on Cu(111) using angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, E.J.; Kellar, S.A.; Huff, W.R.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The authors report a study of the spatial structure of ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30{degrees} (low coverage) and (1.5 x 1.5)R18{degrees} (intermediate coverage) CO adsorbed on Cu(111), using the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) technique at beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source. The CO molecule adsorbs on an atop site for both adsorption phases. Full multiple-scattering spherical-wave (MSSW) calculations were used to extract the C-Cu. bond length and the first Cu-Cu layer spacing for each adsorption phase. The authors find that the C-Cu bond length remains unchanged with increasing coverage, but the 1st Cu-Cu layer spacing contracts at the intermediate coverage. They calculate the bending mode force constant in the (1.5 x 1.5)R18{degrees} phase to be K{sub {delta}} = 2.2 (1) x 10{sup {minus}12} dyne-cm/rad from their experimentally determined bond lengths combined with previously published infra-red absorption frequencies.

  18. Band alignment of HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N determined by angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Man Hon Samuel, E-mail: m.owen.sg@ieee.org, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org; Bhuiyan, Maruf Amin; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: m.owen.sg@ieee.org, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Ji Sheng [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Tok, Eng Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2014-07-21

    The band-alignment of atomic layer deposited (ALD)-HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N was studied by high resolution angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The band bending near the HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N interface was investigated, and the potential variation across the interface was taken into account in the band alignment calculation. It is observed that the binding energies for N 1s and Al 2p in In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N decreases and the corresponding extracted valence band offsets increases with increasing θ (i.e., closer to the HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N interface), as a result of an upward energy band bending towards the HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N interface. The resultant valence band offset and the conduction band offset for the ALD-HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N interface calculated was found to be 0.69 eV and 1.01 eV, respectively.

  19. Tl Cuprate Superconductors Studied by XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, R. P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Siegal, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1421 (United States); Overmyer, D. L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1421 (United States); Ren, Z. F. [Department of Chemistry, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260-3000 (United States); Lao, J. Y. [Department of Chemistry, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260-3000 (United States); Wang, J. H. [Department of Chemistry, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260-3000 (United States)

    1999-07-01

    XPS measurements on epitaxial thin films of the Tl cuprate superconductors Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8, Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10, and Tl0.78Bi0.22Ba0.4Sr1.6Ca2Cu3O9-{delta} are presented. These data, together with previous measurements in this lab on Tl2Ba2CuO6-{delta} and TlBa2CaCu2O7-{delta}, comprise a comprehensive data set for comparison of Tl cuprates in which the number of Tl-O and Cu-O layers, and hence the chemical and electronic properties, vary. (c) 2000 American Vacuum Society.

  20. Tl Cuprate Superconductors Studied by XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, R. P.; Siegal, M. P.; Overmyer, D. L.; Ren, Z. F.; Lao, J. Y.; Wang, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    XPS measurements on epitaxial thin films of the Tl cuprate superconductors Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8, Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10, and Tl0.78Bi0.22Ba0.4Sr1.6Ca2Cu3O9-δ are presented. These data, together with previous measurements in this lab on Tl2Ba2CuO6-δ and TlBa2CaCu2O7-δ, comprise a comprehensive data set for comparison of Tl cuprates in which the number of Tl-O and Cu-O layers, and hence the chemical and electronic properties, vary. (c) 2000 American Vacuum Society

  1. XPS analysis of boron doped heterofullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, B; Koetz, R [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Muhr, H J; Nesper, R [ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Boron heterofullerenes were generated through arc-evaporation of doped graphite rods in a helium atmosphere. According to mass spectrometric analysis only mono-substituted fullerenes like C{sub 59}B, C{sub 69}B and higher homologues together with a large fraction of higher undoped fullerenes were extracted and enriched when pyridine was used as the solvent. XPS analysis of the extracts indicated the presence of two boron species with significantly different binding energies. One peak was assigned to borid acid. The second one corresponds to boron in the fullerene cage, which is mainly C{sub 59}B, according to the mass spectrum. This boron is in a somewhat higher oxidation state than that of ordinary boron-carbon compounds. The reported synthesis and extraction procedure opens a viable route for production of macroscopic amounts of these compounds. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  2. Development of a high-resolution soft x-ray (30--1500 eV) beamline at the Advanced Light Source and its use for the study of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, W.R.A.

    1996-02-01

    ALS Bending magnet beamline 9.3.2 is for high resolution spectroscopy, with circularly polarized light. Fixed included-angle SGM uses three gratings for 30--1500 eV photons; circular polarization is produced by an aperture for selecting the beam above or below the horizontal plane. Photocurrent from upper and lower jaws of entrance slit sets a piezoelectric drive feedback loop on the vertically deflecting mirror for stable beam. End station has a movable platform. With photomeission data from Stanford, structure of c(2x2)P/Fe(100) was determined using angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS). Multiple-scattering spherical-wave (MSSW) calculations indicate that P atoms adsorb in fourfold hollow sites 1.02A above the first Fe layer. Self-consistent-field Xα scattered wave calculation confirm that the Fe 1 -Fe 2 space is contracted for S/Fe but not for P/Fe; comparison is made to atomic N and O on Fe(100). Final-state effects on ARPEFS curves used literature data from the S 1s and 2p core levels of c(2x2)S/Ni(001); a generalized Ramsauer-Townsend splitting is present in the 1s but not 2p data. An approximate method for analyzing ARPEFS data from a non-s initial state using only the higher-ell partial wave was tested successfully. ARPEFS data from clean surfaces were collected normal to Ni(111) (3p core levels) and 5 degree off-normal from Cu(111)(3s, 3p). Fourier transforms (FT) resemble adsorbate systems, showing backscattering signals from atoms up to 4 layers below emitters. 3p FTs show scattering from 6 nearest neighbors in the same crystal layer as the emitters. MSSW calulation indicate that Cu 3p photoemission is mostly d-wave. FTs also indicate double-scattering and single-scattering from laterally distant atoms; calculations indicate that the signal is dominated by photoemission from the first 2 crystal layers

  3. A study of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure as applied to the Ni 3p, Cu 3s, and Cu 3p core levels of the respective clean (111) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, W.R.A.; Moler, E.J.; Kellar, S.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The first non-s initial state angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS) study of clean surfaces for the purpose of further understanding the technique is reported. The surface structure sensitivity of ARPEFS applied to clean surfaces and to arbitrary initial states is studied using normal photoemission data taken from the Ni 3p core levels of a Ni(111) single crystal and the Cu 3s and the Cu 3p core-levels of a Cu(111) single crystal. The Fourier transforms of these clean surface data are dominated by backscattering. Unlike the s initial state data, the p initial state data show a peak in the Fourier transform corresponding to in-plane scattering from the six nearest-neighbors to the emitter. Evidence was seen for single-scattering events from in the same plane as the emitters and double-scattering events. Using a newly developed, multiple-scattering calculation program, ARPEFS data from clean surfaces and from p initial states can be modeled to high precision. Although there are many layers of emitters when measuring photoemission from a clean surface, test calculations show that the ARPEFS signal is dominated by photoemission from atoms in the first two crystal layers. Thus, ARPEFS applied to clean surfaces is sensitive to surface reconstruction. The known contraction of the first two Cu(111) layers is confirmed. The best-fit calculation for clean Ni(111) indicates an expansion of the first two layers. To better understand the ARPEFS technique, the authors studied s and non-s initial state photoemission from clean metal surfaces.

  4. XPS and NEXAFS study of tyrosine-terminated propanethiol assembled on gold

    CERN Document Server

    Petoral, R M

    2003-01-01

    Tyrosine-terminated propanethiol (TPT), tyrosine linked to 3-mercaptopropionic acid through an amide bond, is adsorbed to gold surfaces. The adsorbates are characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). XPS is used to investigate the chemical binding and electronic structure of the monolayer. Strong molecular binding of the tyrosine derivative on the gold surface through the sulfur atom is attained. Angle-dependent XPS results shows that TPT molecules are oriented with the sulfur atoms molecularly oriented close to the gold surface and that the phenol moiety is oriented away from the gold surface. Average orientation of the adsorbate on gold is deduced using the NEXAFS results. It shows that the main molecular axis is tilted approximately 38 deg. relative to the Au surface normal. The ring plane of the phenol moiety exhibits a preferential orientation with an average tilt angle of the normal of the ring plane from the surfa...

  5. Visualization of Gas Distribution in a Model AP-XPS Reactor by PLIF: CO Oxidation over a Pd(100 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ knowledge of the gas phase around a catalyst is essential to make an accurate correlation between the catalytic activity and surface structure in operando studies. Although ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS can provide information on the gas phase as well as the surface structure of a working catalyst, the gas phase detected has not been spatially resolved to date, thus possibly making it ambiguous to interpret the AP-XPS spectra. In this work, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF is used to visualize the CO2 distribution in a model AP-XPS reactor, during CO oxidation over a Pd(100 catalyst. The results show that the gas composition in the vicinity of the sample measured by PLIF is significantly different from that measured by a conventional mass spectrometer connected to a nozzle positioned just above the sample. In addition, the gas distribution above the catalytic sample has a strong dependence on the gas flow and total chamber pressure. The technique presented has the potential to increase our knowledge of the gas phase in AP-XPS, as well as to optimize the design and operating conditions of in situ AP-XPS reactors for catalysis studies.

  6. Scoliosis angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, T.

    1978-01-01

    The most commonly used methods of assessing the scoliotic deviation measure angles that are not clearly defined in relation to the anatomy of the patient. In order to give an anatomic basis for such measurements it is proposed to define the scoliotic deviation as the deviation the vertebral column makes with the sagittal plane. Both the Cobb and the Ferguson angles may be based on this definition. The present methods of measurement are then attempts to measure these angles. If the plane of these angles is parallel to the film, the measurement will be correct. Errors in the measurements may be incurred by the projection. A hypothetical projection, called a 'rectified orthogonal projection', is presented, which correctly represents all scoliotic angles in accordance with these principles. It can be constructed in practice with the aid of a computer and by performing measurements on two projections of the vertebral column; a scoliotic curve can be represented independent of the kyphosis and lordosis. (Auth.)

  7. SERS, XPS, and DFT Study of Adenine Adsorption on Silver and Gold Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliai, Marco; Caporali, Stefano; Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio; Pratesi, Giovanni; Schettino, Vincenzo

    2012-01-19

    The adsorption of adenine on silver and gold surfaces has been investigated combining density functional theory calculations with surface-enhanced Raman scattering and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, obtaining useful insight into the orientation and interaction of the nucleobase with the metal surfaces.

  8. XPS investigations of tribofilms formed on CrN coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandrino, Djordje, E-mail: djordje.mandrino@imt.si; Podgornik, Bojan

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Formation of tribofilms from lubricant additives on CrN surfaces during tribological contact confirmed by XPS. • Chemistry & chemical state of tribofilms obtained by XPS. • Thin sulphate film forms at the top of sulphide tribofilm. • Final type of sulphide in tribolayer depends on additive chemistry and testing temperature. - Abstract: Action of lubrication additives in the case of uncoated steel surfaces, including the type and mechanism of tribofilm formation is well known and understood. However, contact type of tribofilms which might form under the tribological contact between CrN coated surfaces, remains more or less unexplored. The aim of this investigation was to study the type of tribofilms formed on the CrN coated steel samples subjected to lubricated reciprocating sliding contact under different contact conditions Contact surface and tribofilms formed were studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Sample surfaces were first imaged by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine areas of tribofilm formation as well as areas not affected by tribological contact. In these areas survey and high resolution (HR) XPS measurements were performed to obtain information about surface chemistry and oxidation states of the constituent elements. It was found that differences between different samples, observed by the XPS measurements, may reflect differences in chemistry of tribofilms formed under different contact conditions.

  9. Design concept of the high-resolution end-station PEAXIS at BESSY II: Wide-Q-range RIXS and XPS measurements on solids, solutions, and interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieutenant, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.lieutenant@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hofmann, Tommy, E-mail: tommy.hofmann@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Schulz, Christian, E-mail: schulz-c@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Yablonskikh, Mikhail V., E-mail: mikhail.yablonskikh@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Department of Physics, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Habicht, Klaus, E-mail: habicht@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Aziz, Emad F., E-mail: emad.aziz@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Department of Physics, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji 444-8585, Okazaki (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Continuous rotation of the RIXS arm allowing truly Q-dependent measurements. • A systematic way to assess all RIXS spectrometer parameters using a figure of merit. • An analytical calculation of the energy dependent settings of a RIXS spectrometer. • Robustness analysis of spectrometer parameters for tolerances in engineering design. - Abstract: The design of a soft X-ray end-station for the Berlin Electron Synchrotron BESSY II is presented. It will be used for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) and Angle-dependent X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (AdXPS) studies for energy material science. In RIXS-mode the instrument operates with two spherical Variable Line Space (VLS) gratings for energy resolving measurements in two overlapping energy ranges from 200 to 1200 eV. The end-station will allow measurements of solid samples, solutions and interfaces in a wide range of experimental conditions with high energy resolution covering a large Q-range realized by a continuous rotation of the RIXS detector arm by 120°. Besides the description of this end-station, a systematic way is shown for the design of a RIXS instrument assessing the grating parameters based on existing theories and for the calculation of optimal instrument settings as a function of photon energy. Different grating inclinations, line densities, groove shapes and RIXS instrument lengths were investigated. Possible parameter combinations were calculated analytically and the resulting instrument performance was determined by ray-tracing simulations using the simulation package RAY. The performance of the RIXS instrument was evaluated by choosing the product of the intensity at the detector and the square of the resolving power as figure of merit to optimize the spectrometer. The robustness of the optimized parameters has been checked in order to define tolerance parameters for the engineering design of the spectrometer.

  10. Characterization of fossil remains using XRF, XPS and XAFS spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zougrou, I M; Katsikini, M; Pinakidou, F; Paloura, E C; Brzhezinskaya, M; Papadopoulou, L; Vlachos, E; Tsoukala, E

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation micro-X-Ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF), X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopies are applied for the study of paleontological findings. More specifically the costal plate of a gigantic terrestrial turtle Titanochelon bacharidisi and a fossilized coprolite of the cave spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea are studied. Ca L 2,3 -edge NEXAFS and Ca 2p XPS are applied for the identification and quantification of apatite and Ca containing minerals. XRF mapping and XAFS are employed for the study of the spatial distribution and speciation of the minerals related to the deposition environment. (paper)

  11. Comparative study of surface-lattice-site resolved neutralization of slow multicharged ions during large-angle quasi-binary collisions with Au(1 1 0): Simulation and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, F.W.; Morozov, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    In this article we extend our earlier studies of the azimuthal dependences of low energy projectiles scattered in large angle quasi-binary collisions (BCs) from Au(1 1 0). Measurements are presented for 20 keV Ar 9+ at normal incidence, which are compared with our earlier measurements for this ion at 5 keV and 10 deg. incidence angle. A deconvolution procedure based on MARLOWE simulation results carried out at both energies provides information about the energy dependence of projectile neutralization during interactions just with the atoms along the top ridge of the reconstructed Au(1 1 0) surface corrugation, in comparison to, e.g. interactions with atoms lying on the sidewalls. To test the sensitivity of the agreement between the MARLOWE results and the experimental measurements, we show simulation results obtained for a non-reconstructed Au(1 1 0) surface with 20 keV Ar projectiles, and for different scattering potentials that are intended to simulate the effects on scattering trajectory of a projectile inner shell vacancy surviving the BC. In addition, simulation results are shown for a number of different total scattering angles, to illustrate their utility in finding optimum values for this parameter prior to the actual measurements

  12. XPS study of palladium sensitized nano porous silicon thin film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Porous silicon; passivation; palladium; oxidation; XPS. Abstract. Nano porous silicon (PS) was formed on -type monocrystalline silicon of 2–5 cm resistivity and (100) orientation by electrochemical anodization method using HF and ethanol as the electrolytes. High density of surface states, arising due to its ...

  13. XPS studies of the oxide formed on pure Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremery, P.; David, D.; Beranger, G.; Oviedo, C.; Garcia, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    The XPS technique was used to study titanium samples oxidized at 200 ton of pure oxigen at different times and temperatures with the aim of producing variable oxide thicknesses. The thicknesses of different oxigen layers were determined by the nuclear reaction O 16 (d,p) O 17 *. (author) [pt

  14. Quantitative XPS analysis of thin iron-oxide films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graat, P.C.J.; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    1997-01-01

    Over the last decade Tougaard et al. (see e.g. Ref. 1) provided a formalism to calculate the contribution of inelastically scattered electrons to an XPS or AES spectrum. In that formalism it was assumed that the signal electrons move along straight lines to the surface. Recently, Werner et al. pr...

  15. Introduction to x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liesegang, J.; Pigram, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: XPS is one of several important surface analytical tools. Developed in Sweden in the 1960s, it was originally named by Kai Siegbahn as Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis or ESCA; and although it is the best method for non-invasively determining the elemental composition of the first 10 nm of any surface, modern XPS systems are capable of much more than elemental chemical analysis. High resolution photoelectron energy analysis (c. 0.2 eV) now permits easy identification of chemical state as well as concentration; angular variation of detection and depth profiling allow quantitative analysis as a function of depth below a sample surface; energy loss mechanisms may be studied; Auger peaks can be measured in an XPS system; and developments in the area of photoelectron imaging allow high resolution (c. 7 μm) mapping of the distribution of elements and their chemical states to be determined spatially on non-homogeneous surfaces. The workshop sessions will outline the link between the physics and chemistry of surfaces and the process of photoemission. The presentation will illustrate the features and capabilities of a newly acquired Kratos (UK) Axis Ultra XPS and Imaging System recently installed in the Centre for Materials and Surface Science at La Trobe University, and its capabilities regarding the foregoing issues. The first part of the presentation will outline the basics of XPS and the second part will illustrate its usefulness, and in particular, will illustrate the power of the instrumentation through the presentation of several applications of both fundamental and industrial significance. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  16. Surface studies on uranium monocarbide using XPS and SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asuvathraman, R.

    1995-01-01

    The air-exposed surfaces of sintered and arc-melted UC samples were examined by XPS and SIMS. XPS results indicate that the surface is covered with a very thin layer of UO 2 mixed with free carbon, which would have formed along with the oxide during the reaction between UC and oxygen or moisture. From the SIMS depth profile of oxygen, the thickness of the oxide layer is found to be approximately 10 nm. The SIMS oxygen images of the surface as a function of etching time reveal that the surface of UC consists of a top layer of adsorbed moisture/oxygen; this contamination layer is followed by a layer containing uranium oxide, uranium hydroxide and free carbon and then grain boundary oxide and finally bulk UC. The behaviour of sintered and arc-melted samples is similar. ((orig.))

  17. XPS studies of nitrogen doping niobium used for accelerator applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ziqin; Lu, Xiangyang; Tan, Weiwei; Zhao, Jifei; Yang, Deyu; Yang, Yujia; He, Yuan; Zhou, Kui

    2018-05-01

    Nitrogen doping study on niobium (Nb) samples used for the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities was carried out. The samples' surface treatment was attempted to replicate that of the Nb SRF cavities, which includes heavy electropolishing (EP), nitrogen doping and the subsequent EP with different amounts of material removal. The surface chemical composition of Nb samples with different post treatments has been studied by XPS. The chemical composition of Nb, O, C and N was presented before and after Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) etching. No signals of poorly superconducting nitrides NbNx was found on the surface of any doped Nb sample with the 2/6 recipe before GCIB etching. However, in the depth range greater than 30 nm, the content of N element is below the XPS detection precision scope even for the Nb sample directly after nitrogen doping treatment with the 2/6 recipe.

  18. Combined UHV/high-pressure catalysis setup for depth-resolved near-surface spectroscopic characterization and catalytic testing of model catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Lukas; Rameshan, Raffael; Klötzer, Bernhard; Penner, Simon; Rameshan, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    An ultra-high vacuum (UHV) setup for "real" and "inverse" model catalyst preparation, depth-resolved near-surface spectroscopic characterization, and quantification of catalytic activity and selectivity under technologically relevant conditions is described. Due to the all-quartz reactor attached directly to the UHV-chamber, transfer of the catalyst for in situ testing without intermediate contact to the ambient is possible. The design of the UHV-compatible re-circulating batch reactor setup allows the study of reaction kinetics under close to technically relevant catalytic conditions up to 1273 K without contact to metallic surfaces except those of the catalyst itself. With the attached differentially pumped exchangeable evaporators and the quartz-microbalance thickness monitoring equipment, a reproducible, versatile, and standardised sample preparation is possible. For three-dimensional near-surface sample characterization, the system is equipped with a hemispherical analyser for X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron-beam or X-ray-excited Auger-electron spectroscopy, and low-energy ion scattering measurements. Due the dedicated geometry of the X-ray gun (54.7°, "magic angle") and the rotatable sample holder, depth analysis by angle-resolved XPS measurements can be performed. Thus, by the combination of characterisation methods with different information depths, a detailed three-dimensional picture of the electronic and geometric structure of the model catalyst can be obtained. To demonstrate the capability of the described system, comparative results for depth-resolved sample characterization and catalytic testing in methanol steam reforming on PdGa and PdZn near-surface intermetallic phases are shown.

  19. XPS quantification of the hetero-junction interface energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Z.S.; Wang Yan; Huang, Y.L.; Zhou, Z.F.; Zhou, Y.C.; Zheng Weitao; Sun, Chang Q.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Quantum entrapment or polarization dictates the performance of dopant, impurity, interface, alloy and compounds. ► Interface bond energy, energy density, and atomic cohesive energy can be determined using XPS and our BOLS theory. ► Presents a new and reliable method for catalyst design and identification. ► Entrapment makes CuPd to be a p-type catalyst and polarization derives AgPd as an n-type catalyst. - Abstract: We present an approach for quantifying the heterogeneous interface bond energy using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Firstly, from analyzing the XPS core-level shift of the elemental surfaces we obtained the energy levels of an isolated atom and their bulk shifts of the constituent elements for reference; then we measured the energy shifts of the specific energy levels upon interface alloy formation. Subtracting the referential spectrum from that collected from the alloy, we can distil the interface effect on the binding energy. Calibrated based on the energy levels and their bulk shifts derived from elemental surfaces, we can derive the bond energy, energy density, atomic cohesive energy, and free energy at the interface region. This approach has enabled us to clarify the dominance of quantum entrapment at CuPd interface and the dominance of polarization at AgPd and BeW interfaces, as the origin of interface energy change. Developed approach not only enhances the power of XPS but also enables the quantification of the interface energy at the atomic scale that has been an issue of long challenge.

  20. SORCE XPS Level 3 Solar Spectral Irradiance 6-Hour Means V010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SORCE XUV Photometer System (XPS) Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) 6-Hour Data Product SOR3XPS6 contains solar XUV irradiances in the 0.1 to 27 nm range, as well...

  1. Charge compensation and binding energy referencing in XPS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metson, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The past decade has seen a number of significant advances in the capabilities of commercial X-ray Photoelectron spectrometers. Of note have been the near universal adoption of monochromatised X-ray sources, very useful advances in spatial resolution, particularly in spectroscopy, and radical developments in sample handling and automation. However one of the most significant advances has been the development of several relatively new concepts in charge compensation. Throughout the evolution of XPS, the ability to compensate for surface charging and accurately determine binding energies, particularly with electrically inhomogenous samples, has remained one of the most intractable problems. Beginning perhaps with the Kratos, 'in the lens' electrostatic mirror/electron source coupled with a magnetic snorkel lens, a number of concepts have been advanced which take a quite different conceptual approach to charge compensation. They differ in a number of quite fundamental ways to the electron flood type compensators widely used and absolutely essential with instruments based on monochromatised sources. The concept of the local return of secondary electrons to their point of emission, largely negates the problems associated with differential charging across different regions of the surface, and suggests the possibility of overcoming one of the central limitations of XPS, that is the inability to compare absolute binding energies of species in different electrical as well as chemical environments. The general status of charge compensation and the use of internal binding energy references in XPS will be reviewed, along with some practical examples of where these techniques work, and where there is clearly still room for further development. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  2. An XPS study of pulsed plasma polymerised allyl alcohol film growth on polyurethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Lucy [Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Bismarck, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Polymer and Composite Engineering (PaCE) Group, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Lee, Adam F. [Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Wilson, Darren [Smith and Nephew Research Centre, York Science Park, Heslington, York YO10 5DF (United Kingdom); Wilson, Karen [Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: kw13@york.ac.uk

    2006-09-30

    The growth of highly functionalised poly allyl alcohol films by pulsed plasma polymerisation of CH{sub 2} =CHCH{sub 2}OH on biomedical grade polyurethane has been followed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements. Film thickness is observed to increase approximately linearly with plasma modification time, suggesting a layer-by-layer growth mode of poly allyl alcohol. Water contact angle measurements reveal the change in the surface free energy of wetting decreases linearly with plasma modification up to the monolayer point after which a constant limiting value of -24 mJ m{sup -2} was attained. Films prepared at 20 W plasma power with a duty cycle of 10 {mu}s:500 {mu}s exhibit a high degree of hydroxyl (-OH) retention with minimal fragmentation of the monomer observed. Increasing the plasma power up to 125 W is found to improve -OH retention at the expense of ether formation generating films close to the monomer stoichiometry. Duty cycle plays an important role in controlling both film composition and thickness, with longer off times increasing -OH retention, while longer on times enhance allyl alcohol film growth.

  3. Applications Performance on NAS Intel Paragon XP/S - 15#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Subhash; Simon, Horst D.; Copper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Systems Division received an Intel Touchstone Sigma prototype model Paragon XP/S- 15 in February, 1993. The i860 XP microprocessor with an integrated floating point unit and operating in dual -instruction mode gives peak performance of 75 million floating point operations (NIFLOPS) per second for 64 bit floating point arithmetic. It is used in the Paragon XP/S-15 which has been installed at NAS, NASA Ames Research Center. The NAS Paragon has 208 nodes and its peak performance is 15.6 GFLOPS. Here, we will report on early experience using the Paragon XP/S- 15. We have tested its performance using both kernels and applications of interest to NAS. We have measured the performance of BLAS 1, 2 and 3 both assembly-coded and Fortran coded on NAS Paragon XP/S- 15. Furthermore, we have investigated the performance of a single node one-dimensional FFT, a distributed two-dimensional FFT and a distributed three-dimensional FFT Finally, we measured the performance of NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) on the Paragon and compare it with the performance obtained on other highly parallel machines, such as CM-5, CRAY T3D, IBM SP I, etc. In particular, we investigated the following issues, which can strongly affect the performance of the Paragon: a. Impact of the operating system: Intel currently uses as a default an operating system OSF/1 AD from the Open Software Foundation. The paging of Open Software Foundation (OSF) server at 22 MB to make more memory available for the application degrades the performance. We found that when the limit of 26 NIB per node out of 32 MB available is reached, the application is paged out of main memory using virtual memory. When the application starts paging, the performance is considerably reduced. We found that dynamic memory allocation can help applications performance under certain circumstances. b. Impact of data cache on the i860/XP: We measured the performance of the BLAS both assembly coded and Fortran

  4. XPS Studies of LSCF Interfaces after Cell Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco DiGiuseppe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of this investigation is to explore the possibility of using the depth profile capability of XPS to study interfaces after SOFC button cell testing. The literature uses XPS to study various cathode materials but has devoted little to the understanding of various cathode interfaces especially after testing. In this work, an SOFC button cell is first tested, and then, the LSCF cathode, barrier layer, and electrolyte are sputtered away to study the behavior of different interfaces. This work has shown that some elements have moved into other layers of the SOFC cell. It is argued that the migration of the elements is partly due to a redeposition mechanism after atoms are sputtered away, while the rest is due to interdiffusion between the SDC and YSZ layers. However, additional work is needed to better understand the mechanism by which atoms move around at different interfaces. The cell electrochemical performance is also discussed in some details but is not the focus.

  5. Quantitative XPS analysis of high Tc superconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonski, A.; Sanada, N.; Suzuki, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Nagoshi, M.

    1993-01-01

    The procedure of quantitative XPS analysis involving the relative sensitivity factors is most convenient to apply to high T c superconductor surfaces because this procedure does not require standards. However, a considerable limitation of such an approach is its relatively low accuracy. In the present work, a proposition is made to use for this purpose a modification of the relative sensitivity factor approach accounting for the matrix and the instrumental effects. The accuracy of this modification when applied to the binary metal alloys is 2% or better. A quantitative XPS analysis was made for surfaces of the compounds Bi 2 Sr 2 CuO 6 , Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 , and YBa 2 Cu 3 O Y . The surface composition determined for the polycrystalline samples corresponds reasonably well to the bulk stoichiometry. Slight deficiency of oxygen was found for the Bi-based compounds. The surface exposed on cleavage of the Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 single crystal was found to be enriched with bismuth, which indicates that the cleavage occurs along the BiO planes. This result is in agreement with the STM studies published in the literature

  6. Speciation of uranium after microbial action by XANES and XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodge, C.J.; Francis, A.J.; Lu, F.; Halada, G.P.; Kagwade, S.V.; Clayton, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    The speciation of radionuclides and toxic metals in wastes subjected to microbial action is important in determining the extent of stabilization in a disposal environment. As part of an ongoing study, we investigated the reduction of uranium by a Clostridium sp. using X-ray absorption neat edge spectroscopy (XANES) at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS analysis of uranyl acetate containing hexavalent uranium exhibited a binding energy of 382.0eV at the U 4f 7/2 peak. The sample incubated in the presence of bacteria was shifted to lower binding energy (380.6eV), confirming the reduction of U 6+ to U 4+ at the bacterial surface. XANES analysis, using an electron yield detector, was performed at the M v absorption edge (3d-->5f). The absorption peak energy of the sample exhibited a shift from 3551.1eV to 3550.1eV which is higher than uranium metal (3549.6eV ) but lower than U 4+ (3550.4eV). This indicates the presence of U 3+ which is probably located beneath the surface within the biomass. Anaerobic bacterial treatment of wastes containing uranyl ion can result in the stabilization of uranium

  7. XPS investigation of copper corrosion in hydro-carbonate electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieber, I.; Hildebrand, H.; Schmuki, P. [University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstr.7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Kaluzhina, S.A. [Voronezh State University, University Sq.1, 394006 Voronezh (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Problems of corrosion and effective methods of metal protection are still actual in the present days. Special interest is in copper material, which as basic component of heat exchanger constructions can corrode in contact with carbonate water. The intensity of the corrosion destruction depends on the carbon water concentration and thermal conditions in the system. The present paper provides new insights into the role of the HCO{sub 3}{sup -} - ions in the corrosion process of copper. Copper samples after anodic oxidation in 0.02 and 0.1 M NaHCO{sub 3} have been studied using XPS and SEM. The presence of carbonate compounds in the passive film in 0.1 M NaHCO{sub 3} was established by XPS analysis all over the surface. These compounds are responsible for the protective character of the passive film towards local destruction. In the 0.02 M NaHCO{sub 3} electrolyte carbonate compounds were not found at places of pit formation after multi-cycling of the sample. (authors)

  8. Characterization of carbonated serpentine using XPS and TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, Roland K.; Hill, Mary Ann; Field, Robert D.; Papin, Pallas A.; Hanrahan, Robert J.; Byler, Darrin D.

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing concentration volume of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, there has been an increasing interest in carbon dioxide sequestration. One method is to store the carbon dioxide in mineral form, reacting solution dissolved CO 2 to precipitate carbonates. In order to understand whether or not such an endeavor is feasible, the carbonation reaction must first be understood. In this study, the surface of ground serpentine, untreated, heat treated and following a carbonation experiment, has been characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that the mechanism for the reaction involves dissolution of the serpentine through the formation of an amorphous phase and subsequent precipitation of magnesite. The rate limiting step appears to be the diffusion of Mg out of the amorphous phase

  9. Surface Propensity of Atmospherically Relevant Amino Acids Studied by XPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Alexandra; Gomes, Anderson Herbert de Abreu; Araújo, Oscar Cardoso; de Brito, Arnaldo Naves; Björneholm, Olle

    2017-04-27

    Amino acids constitute an important fraction of the water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) compounds in aerosols and are involved in many processes in the atmosphere. In this work, we applied X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to study aqueous solutions of four amino acids, glycine, alanine, valine, and methionine, in their zwitterionic forms. We found that amino acids with hydrophilic side chains and smaller size, GLY and ALA, tend to stay in the bulk of the liquid, while the hydrophobic and bigger amino acids, VAL and MET, are found to concentrate more on the surface. We found experimental evidence that the amino acids have preferential orientation relative to the surface, with the hydrophobic side chain being closer to the surface than the hydrophilic carboxylate group. The observed amino acid surface propensity has implications in atmospheric science as the surface interactions play a central role in cloud droplet formation, and they should be considered in climate models.

  10. Silicon (100)/SiO2 by XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, David S.; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Madaan, Nitesh; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2013-09-25

    Silicon (100) wafers are ubiquitous in microfabrication and, accordingly, their surface characteristics are important. Herein, we report the analysis of Si (100) via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) using monochromatic Al K radiation. Survey scans show that the material is primarily silicon and oxygen, and the Si 2p region shows two peaks that correspond to elemental silicon and silicon dioxide. Using these peaks the thickness of the native oxide (SiO2) was estimated using the equation of Strohmeier.1 The oxygen peak is symmetric. The material shows small amounts of carbon, fluorine, and nitrogen contamination. These silicon wafers are used as the base material for subsequent growth of templated carbon nanotubes.

  11. XPS analysis of aluminosilicate microspheres bioactivity tested in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todea, M.; Vanea, E. [Faculty of Physics and Institute of Interdisciplinary Research on Bio-Nano-Sciences, Babes Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca 400084 (Romania); Bran, S. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Haţieganu”, Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, 400029 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Berce, P. [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Machine Building and National Centre of Rapid Prototyping, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Simon, S., E-mail: simons@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Faculty of Physics and Institute of Interdisciplinary Research on Bio-Nano-Sciences, Babes Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca 400084 (Romania)

    2013-04-01

    The study aims to characterize surface properties of aluminosilicate microspheres incorporating yttrium, with potential biomedical applications. Micrometric particles of spherical shape were obtained by spray drying method. The behavior of aluminosilicate microspheres without yttrium and with yttrium was investigated under in vitro conditions, by seven days incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF). The surface elemental composition and the atomic environments on outermost layer of the microspheres, prior to and after incubation in SBF were evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to investigate their bioactivity. The results were analyzed to underline the effect of yttrium addition on surface properties of the aluminosilicate microspheres and implicitly on the behavior of the samples in simulated body environments.

  12. Secondary electron measurement and XPS characterization of NEG coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R. K.; Sinha, Atul K.; Gupta, Nidhi; Nuwad, J.; Jagannath,; Gadkari, S. C.; Singh, M. R.; Gupta, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Ternary alloy coatings of IVB and VB materials provide many of benefits over traditional material surfaces such as creation of extreme high vacuum(XHV), lower secondary electron yield(SEY), low photon desorption coefficient. XHV (pressure −10 mbar) is very useful to the study of surfaces of the material in as it is form, high energy particle accelerators(LHC, Photon Factories), synchrotrons (ESRF, Ellectra) etc.. Low secondary electron yield leads to very low multi-pacting utilizes to increase beam life time. In this paper preparation of the coatings and a study of secondary electron yield measurement after heating at different temperatures has been shown also results of their surface characterization based on shift in binding energy has been produced using the surface techniques XPS. Stoichiometry of the film was measured by Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX)

  13. Combined UHV/high-pressure catalysis setup for depth-resolved near-surface spectroscopic characterization and catalytic testing of model catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayr, Lukas; Klötzer, Bernhard; Penner, Simon; Rameshan, Raffael; Rameshan, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    An ultra-high vacuum (UHV) setup for “real” and “inverse” model catalyst preparation, depth-resolved near-surface spectroscopic characterization, and quantification of catalytic activity and selectivity under technologically relevant conditions is described. Due to the all-quartz reactor attached directly to the UHV-chamber, transfer of the catalyst for in situ testing without intermediate contact to the ambient is possible. The design of the UHV-compatible re-circulating batch reactor setup allows the study of reaction kinetics under close to technically relevant catalytic conditions up to 1273 K without contact to metallic surfaces except those of the catalyst itself. With the attached differentially pumped exchangeable evaporators and the quartz-microbalance thickness monitoring equipment, a reproducible, versatile, and standardised sample preparation is possible. For three-dimensional near-surface sample characterization, the system is equipped with a hemispherical analyser for X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron-beam or X-ray-excited Auger-electron spectroscopy, and low-energy ion scattering measurements. Due the dedicated geometry of the X-ray gun (54.7°, “magic angle”) and the rotatable sample holder, depth analysis by angle-resolved XPS measurements can be performed. Thus, by the combination of characterisation methods with different information depths, a detailed three-dimensional picture of the electronic and geometric structure of the model catalyst can be obtained. To demonstrate the capability of the described system, comparative results for depth-resolved sample characterization and catalytic testing in methanol steam reforming on PdGa and PdZn near-surface intermetallic phases are shown

  14. Angle-resolved polarimetry of antenna-mediated fluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohtashami, A.; Osorio, C.I.; Koenderink, A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Optical phase-array antennas can be used to control not only the angular distribution but also the polarization of fluorescence from quantum emitters. The emission pattern of the resulting system is determined by the properties of the antenna, the properties of the emitters, and the strength of the

  15. Theory of angle-resolved photoemission from the cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedegard, P.; Pedersen, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    We show that the photoemission spectrum for an RVB state with bosonic spins and fermionic charges consists of a peak on top of a broad background. The 'Fermi surface' corresponds to hole pockets around certain k-vectors. The theoretical predictions are compared with the available experimental data, and with the results obtained by other approaches. (orig.)

  16. Studies of irradiated zircaloy fuel sheathing using XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, P.K.; Irving, K.G.; Hocking, W.H.; Duclos, A.M.; Gerwing, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    The preliminary results reported here support the hypothesis that CANLUB graphite coating reduces the rate at which oxygen can react with fuel sheathing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) characterization of Zircaloy sheathing obtained from extended-burnup Bruce-type elements (BDL-406-XY (555 MW.h/kgU) and BDL-406-AAH (731 MW.h/kgU)) irradiated in NRU indicates that CANLUB may reduce fuel sheath oxidation, and hence that fission-liberated oxygen may remain in the fuel. Chemical shifts in the Zr 3d spectra suggest that a stoichiometric (ZrO 2 ) oxide film was formed only on Zircaloy in direct contact with fuel. Particulate fuel adhering to the sheath was also determined to be systematically more oxidized on surfaces with CANLUB than on those without it. The unique association of tin on sheathing specimens with the non-CANLUB-coated specimens might also suggest that the tin had segregated from the sheathing. It must be emphasized that further experiments are required to better define the effect of CANLUB on fuel oxidation. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  17. The assessment of metal surface cleanliness by XPS

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C

    2006-01-01

    The most commonly used quantity to characterize surface cleanliness through X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) measurements is the so-called relative atomic surface concentration of carbon (at.% C). We have investigated the relationship between at.% C values and the C 1s peak area on Cu and we find a nearly linear behaviour in the range 15–80 at.% C. Correction factors for the measured at.% C values that enable a comparison of the cleanliness level of different materials, notably Cu, Al and stainless steel, have been determined experimentally. The influence of the storage time and method on the degree of re-contamination of initially clean Cu has been examined. The carbon contamination on clean metallic Cu increases abruptly to some 20 at.% C upon air exposure and continues to increase with storage time in air. Storage in polymer bags can lead to up to 70 at.% C after 1 month, whereas storage in aluminium foil can preserve an acceptable surface cleanliness for a similar storage time.

  18. Studies of irradiated zircaloy fuel sheathing using XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, P K; Irving, K G [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Hocking, W H; Duclos, A M; Gerwing, A F [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1996-12-31

    The preliminary results reported here support the hypothesis that CANLUB graphite coating reduces the rate at which oxygen can react with fuel sheathing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) characterization of Zircaloy sheathing obtained from extended-burnup Bruce-type elements (BDL-406-XY (555 MW.h/kgU) and BDL-406-AAH (731 MW.h/kgU)) irradiated in NRU indicates that CANLUB may reduce fuel sheath oxidation, and hence that fission-liberated oxygen may remain in the fuel. Chemical shifts in the Zr 3d spectra suggest that a stoichiometric (ZrO{sub 2}) oxide film was formed only on Zircaloy in direct contact with fuel. Particulate fuel adhering to the sheath was also determined to be systematically more oxidized on surfaces with CANLUB than on those without it. The unique association of tin on sheathing specimens with the non-CANLUB-coated specimens might also suggest that the tin had segregated from the sheathing. It must be emphasized that further experiments are required to better define the effect of CANLUB on fuel oxidation. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  19. Effects of XPS operational parameters on investigated sample surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrad, O.; Ismail, I.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we studied the effects of the operating conditions of the xray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis technique (XPS) on the investigated samples. Firstly, the performances of the whole system have been verified as well as the accuracy of the analysis. Afterwards, the problem of the analysis of insulating samples caused by the charge buildup on the surface has been studied. The use of low-energy electron beam (<100 eV) to compensate the surface charge has been applied. The effect of X-ray on the samples have been assessed and was found to be nondestructive within the analysis time. The effect of low- and high-energy electron beams on the sample surface have been investigated. Highenergy electrons were found to have destructive effect on organic samples. The sample heating procedure has been tested and its effect on the chemical stat of the surface was followed. Finally, the ion source was used to determine the elements distribution and the chemical stat of different depths of the sample. A method has been proposed to determine these depths (author).

  20. An XPS study on ruthenium compounds and catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, C.L.; Ragaini, V.; Cattania, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    The binding energy (BE) of the relevant peaks of several ruthenium compounds have been measured with a monochromatic small spot XPS. The BE of the 3d 5/2 level of ruthenium is in the range 279.91-282.88 eV. The variation of BE is due either to the variation of the oxidation state or to the different counter-ion. A series of catalysts with varying amounts of ruthenium supported on alumina and prepared using different precursors was also analyzed. The presence of more ruthenium species other than the metal was observed. On the basis of the values previously obtained on unsupported compounds, the species with higher BE were assigned to oxides. On all the samples prepared from RuCl 3 , an additional peak at a very high BE (283.79 eV) has been observed. This peak is related to the presence of chlorine on the surface: it is suggested that it is related to a charge transfer interaction. The influence of this species on the CO reactivity in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction is discussed. (orig.)

  1. Geochemistry of the Cigar Lake uranium deposit: XPS studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunder, S.; Cramer, J.J.; Miller, N.H.

    1996-01-01

    Samples of uranium ore from the Cigar Lake deposit in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, were analyzed using XPS. High-resolution spectra were recorded for the strongest bands of the major elements (U 4f, C 1 s, O 1 s, Pb 4 f, S 2 p, Cu 2 p, Fe 2 p, and the valence region (0-20 eV)) to obtain chemical state information for these samples. In general, the U VI /U IV ratio was very low, i.e., much less than 0.5, the threshold for the oxidative dissolution of UO 2 . The low values of the U VI /U IV ratio observed for samples from the Cigar Lake deposit indicate thermodynamic stability of the uranium ore in the reduced aqueous environment. Similarities between the disposal vault envisaged in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program and the Cigar Lake deposit suggest that, if geochemical conditions in the vault were to be similar to those in the deposit, the long-term dissolution of UO 2 fuel would be very minimal. (orig.)

  2. The equivalent width as a figure of merit for XPS narrow scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Bhupinder; Velázquez, Daniel; Terry, Jeff; Linford, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We introduce a new figure of merit for XPS narrow scans: the equivalent width (EW XPS ). • EW XPS is less subjective and involves lesser user bias than traditional peak fitting. • EW XPS is responsive to changes in chemical states of materials. • EW XPS could be used for quality control and comparing spectra from similar samples. • EW XPS has the potential to be part of an expert software system for machine interpretation of spectra. - Abstract: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is a widely used surface analytical tool that provides information about the near surface regions of materials. And while indispensable for XPS data analysis, peak fitting of narrow scans is often a fairly subjective exercise. Herein we introduce the equivalent width (EW) as an additional and less subjective figure of merit for XPS narrow scans. We believe that this parameter will prove particularly useful for analyzing series of similar or nominally identical spectra, perhaps as a component of an expert software system for the machine interpretation of spectra. It also appears to be useful, shedding light on the chemical state of materials, when additional information about a sample is known. The EW XPS is simply defined as the area of a narrow scan divided by the height of the maximum of its peak envelope. To limit any ambiguity in EW XPS for a series of spectra, we may also list the peak position of the maximum of the envelope (PE max ). The potential usefulness and limitations of the EW XPS and PE max parameters are demonstrated by their application to the narrow scans of: (i) four sets of ozone-treated carbon nanotubes (EW XPS ∼ 2.11–2.16 eV for a Shirley background, and up to 2.88 eV for no background, PE max ∼ 284.4–284.5 eV), (ii) a series of silicon wafers with different oxide thicknesses (EW XPS ∼ 1.5–2.8 eV, PE max ∼ 99–103 eV), (iii) hydrogen-terminated silicon before and after derivatization with pentyl groups, and after annealing of

  3. The equivalent width as a figure of merit for XPS narrow scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhupinder [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, C-100 BNSN, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Velázquez, Daniel [Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Terry, Jeff, E-mail: terryj@iit.edu [Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Linford, Matthew R., E-mail: mrlinford@chem.byu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, C-100 BNSN, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We introduce a new figure of merit for XPS narrow scans: the equivalent width (EW{sub XPS}). • EW{sub XPS} is less subjective and involves lesser user bias than traditional peak fitting. • EW{sub XPS} is responsive to changes in chemical states of materials. • EW{sub XPS} could be used for quality control and comparing spectra from similar samples. • EW{sub XPS} has the potential to be part of an expert software system for machine interpretation of spectra. - Abstract: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is a widely used surface analytical tool that provides information about the near surface regions of materials. And while indispensable for XPS data analysis, peak fitting of narrow scans is often a fairly subjective exercise. Herein we introduce the equivalent width (EW) as an additional and less subjective figure of merit for XPS narrow scans. We believe that this parameter will prove particularly useful for analyzing series of similar or nominally identical spectra, perhaps as a component of an expert software system for the machine interpretation of spectra. It also appears to be useful, shedding light on the chemical state of materials, when additional information about a sample is known. The EW{sub XPS} is simply defined as the area of a narrow scan divided by the height of the maximum of its peak envelope. To limit any ambiguity in EW{sub XPS} for a series of spectra, we may also list the peak position of the maximum of the envelope (PE{sub max}). The potential usefulness and limitations of the EW{sub XPS} and PE{sub max} parameters are demonstrated by their application to the narrow scans of: (i) four sets of ozone-treated carbon nanotubes (EW{sub XPS} ∼ 2.11–2.16 eV for a Shirley background, and up to 2.88 eV for no background, PE{sub max} ∼ 284.4–284.5 eV), (ii) a series of silicon wafers with different oxide thicknesses (EW{sub XPS} ∼ 1.5–2.8 eV, PE{sub max} ∼ 99–103 eV), (iii) hydrogen-terminated silicon before

  4. Thermally Evaporated Iron (Oxide) on an Alumina Barrier Layer, by XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madaan, Nitesh; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Jensen, David S.; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2013-09-06

    We report the XPS characterization of a thermally evaporated iron thin film (6 nm) deposited on an Si/SiO_2/Al_2O_3 substrate using Al Ka X-rays. An XPS survey spectrum, narrow Fe 2p scan, narrow O 1s, and valence band scan are shown.

  5. XPS utilization in the characterization of glycerol based polyesters; Utilizacao de XPS na caracterizacao de poliesteres a base de glicerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brioude, M.M.; Miranda, C.S.; Pereira, R.; Ohara, L.; Bargiela, P.; Rocha, M.G.M.C.; Jose, N.M., E-mail: mgcr@ufba.b [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Inst. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy-XPS allows the determination of all elements of the periodical table, except hydrogen and helium, and is a very used technique for the polymers characterization, its spectra constitutes a 'fingerprint' of the material. Two samples of polymers were prepared from glycerol and fumaric acid and glycerol and terephthalic acid, with a molar ratio of 1:1 and 1:1.5. The general spectra show the presence of carbon and oxygen, the main components of the polymer. From the binding energies values of the C1s and O1s high resolution spectra it was possible to determine the carbon functional groups. Their concentration were determined and the presence of the aromatic carbon in the terephthalic polyesters was observed, and also similar proportions of aliphatic carbon and ester groups in the fumaric acid polyesters. For both polyesters, an amount of carboxyl group appears, indicating the terminal non-reacted groups. These results were confirmed qualitatively by FTIR. (author)

  6. XPS Protocol for the Characterization of Pristine and Functionalized Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, E. D.; Allada, R.; Huffman, C. B.; Arepalli, S.

    2009-01-01

    Recent interest in developing new applications for carbon nanotubes (CNT) has fueled the need to use accurate macroscopic and nanoscopic techniques to characterize and understand their chemistry. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has proved to be a useful analytical tool for nanoscale surface characterization of materials including carbon nanotubes. Recent nanotechnology research at NASA Johnson Space Center (NASA-JSC) helped to establish a characterization protocol for quality assessment for single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Here, a review of some of the major factors of the XPS technique that can influence the quality of analytical data, suggestions for methods to maximize the quality of data obtained by XPS, and the development of a protocol for XPS characterization as a complementary technique for analyzing the purity and surface characteristics of SWCNTs is presented. The XPS protocol is then applied to a number of experiments including impurity analysis and the study of chemical modifications for SWCNTs.

  7. Glaucoma, Open-Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Statistics and Data » Glaucoma, Open-angle Listen Glaucoma, Open-angle Open-angle Glaucoma Defined In open-angle glaucoma, the fluid passes ... 2010 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Glaucoma by Age and Race/Ethnicity The prevalence of ...

  8. XPS and EELS characterization of Mn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosvenor, A.P., E-mail: andrew.grosvenor@usask.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5C9 (Canada); Bellhouse, E.M., E-mail: erika.bellhouse@arcelormittal.com [Global R & D—Hamilton, ArcelorMittal Dofasco, 1330 Burlington St. E, Hamilton, ON L8N 3J5 (Canada); Korinek, A., E-mail: korinek@mcmaster.ca [Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Bugnet, M., E-mail: bugnetm@mcmaster.ca [Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); McDermid, J.R., E-mail: mcdermid@mcmaster.ca [Steel Research Centre, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2016-08-30

    Graphical abstract: XPS and EELS spectra were acquired from Mn2Al2O4, MnSiO3 and Mn2SiO4 standards and unique features identified that will allow unambiguous identification of these compounds when studying the selective oxidation of advanced steels. - Highlights: • Mn2Al2O4, MnSiO3 and Mn2SiO4 standards were synthesized and characterized using both XPS and EELS. • Unique features in both the XPS high resolution and EELS spectra were identified for all compounds. • The spectra can be used to identify these compounds when studying the selective oxidation of steels. - Abstract: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) are strong candidate techniques for characterizing steel surfaces and substrate-coating interfaces when investigating the selective oxidation and reactive wetting of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) during the continuous galvanizing process. However, unambiguous identification of ternary oxides such as Mn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3}, and MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} by XPS or EELS, which can play a significant role in substrate reactive wetting, is difficult due to the lack of fully characterized standards in the literature. To resolve this issue, samples of Mn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} were synthesized and characterized by XPS and EELS. The unique features of the XPS and EELS spectra for the Mn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} standards were successfully derived, thereby allowing investigators to fully differentiate and identify these oxides at the surface and subsurface of Mn, Si and Al alloyed AHSS using these techniques.

  9. Spectrally resolved measurements of the terahertz beam profile generated from a two-color air plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Strikwerda, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Using a THz camera and THz bandpass filters, we measure the frequency - resolved beam profile emitted from a two - color air plasma. We observe a frequency - independent emission angle from the plasma .......Using a THz camera and THz bandpass filters, we measure the frequency - resolved beam profile emitted from a two - color air plasma. We observe a frequency - independent emission angle from the plasma ....

  10. Small angle spectrometers: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.; Foley, K.J.; Schlein, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of experiments at small angles at the Superconducting Super Collider are considered. Topics summarized include a small angle spectrometer, a high contingency spectrometer, dipole and toroid spectrometers, and magnet choices

  11. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  12. Glancing angle x-ray studies of oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenport, A.J.; Isaacs, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    High brightness synchrotron radiation incident at glancing angles has been used to study inhibiting species present in low concentrations in oxide films on aluminum. Glancing incident angle fluorescence measurements give surface-sensitive information on the valence state of elements from the shape of the x-ray absorption edge. Angle-resolved measurements show the depth distribution of the species present. 15 refs., 4 figs

  13. XPS, AES and laser raman spectroscopy: A fingerprint for a materials surface characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi Embong

    2011-01-01

    This review briefly describes some of the techniques available for analysing surfaces and illustrates their usefulness with a few examples such as a metal and alloy. In particular, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and laser Raman spectroscopy are all described as advanced surface analytical techniques. In analysing a surface, AES and XPS would normally be considered first, with AES being applied where high spatial resolution is required and XPS where chemical state information is needed. Laser Raman spectroscopy is useful for determining molecular bonding. A combination of XPS, AES and Laser Raman spectroscopy can give quantitative analysis from the top few atomic layers with a lateral spatial resolution of < 10 nm. (author)

  14. Speciation of uranium in minerals by Sem, Tem, μ-PIXE, XPS and XAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshihiko Ohnuki; Hiroshi Isobe; Tomihiro Kamiya; Takuro Sakai; Takashi Murakami

    2001-01-01

    Many kinds of electromagnetic waves and particle beams are used as analytical probes for the investigation of uranium-mineralogy and speciation. The representatives of the probes are SEM, TEM, μ-PIRE, XPS and XAFS. Each of these analytical probes has its own advantages and disadvantages. We have performed studies to compare the advantages and disadvantages on the basis of the analysis of the distribution and speciation of U containing rock samples collected at the Koongarra uranium deposit, Australia. The spatial resolutions of the probes are in the order of TEM>SEM, μ-PIXE>XFAS, XPS. The lower detection limits of the probes are in the order of μ-PIXE< TEM, SEM< XFAS, XPS. Oxidation state of U was determined by XFAS and XPS. These results indicate that combination of the above probes can give us sufficient data on U speciation not only in natural rock samples but in solid samples obtained in the laboratory. (authors)

  15. Structural, photoluminescence and XPS properties of Tm3þ ions in ZnO nanostructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kabongo, GL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Finally, Tm 4d core level was detected in ZnO: 0.5 mol% Tm(sup3+) sample from high resolution X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) scan....

  16. Research and industrial application of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Ambar Yarmo; Abd Razak Daud; Abdul Kariem Arof

    2000-01-01

    As a developing country, Malaysia is fully committed to research and development especially for industrial development. One of priority fields is advanced materials and surface analysis of such materials is an important aspect in research. Among the tools for surface science analysis is x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) which can be considered new to this country. The industrial sector is also keen to solve their problems and developing their products using XPS. The microelectronic and electrical industries are interested in solving problems related to metal-metal joining , gold silica peeling, surface corrosion and surface coating. The glove industry uses XPS to solve problems due to staining and color fading of their products. Research conducted in universities and research institutes that mainly deal with catalysis, membranes for fuel cells, sensors, batteries, corrosion phenomena and interface interaction in coating finds XPS a useful technique for surface studies. Specific examples from various sectors will be presented in this paper. (Author)

  17. The use of XPS and i.r. spectroscopy in zinc mineral flotation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbassi, F.; Morabini, A.; Cozza, C.

    1985-01-01

    In this work, XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) is applied to the study of the interaction of dodecylamine acetate with smithsonite ZnCo 3 , in relation with the problem of flotation of the mineral. This study confirms that, in spite of ultra-high conditions during analysis XPS is a technique offering a very valuable contribution to the elucidation of mineral flotation problems

  18. Combined PIXE and XPS analysis on republican and imperial Roman coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacca, A.; Prati, P.; Zucchiatti, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Mando, P.A.; Gemme, G.; Parodi, R.; Pera, R.

    2000-01-01

    A combined PIXE and XPS analysis has been performed on a few Roman coins of the republican and imperial age. The purpose was to investigate via XPS the nature and extent of patina in order to be capable of extracting PIXE data relative to the coins bulk. The inclusion of elements from the surface layer, altered by oxidation and inclusion, is a known source of uncertainty in PIXE analyses of coins, performed to assess the composition and the provenance

  19. Generalized molybdenum oxide surface chemical state XPS determination via informed amorphous sample model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas, E-mail: job314@lehigh.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lehigh University, B336 Iacocca Hall, 111 Research Drive, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); PhotoCatalytic Synthesis group, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, Meander 229, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Mendoza-Sanchez, Beatriz [CRANN, Chemistry School, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Fernandez, Vincent [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, F-44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Veenstra, Rick [PhotoCatalytic Synthesis group, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, Meander 229, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Dukstiene, Nijole [Department of Physical and Inorganic Chemistry, Kaunas University of Technology, Radvilenu pl. 19, LT-50254 Kaunas (Lithuania); Roberts, Adam [Kratos Analytical Ltd, Trafford Wharf Road, Wharfside, Manchester, M17 1GP (United Kingdom); Fairley, Neal [Casa Software Ltd, Bay House, 5 Grosvenor Terrace, Teignmouth, Devon TQ14 8NE (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • We analyzed and modeled spectral envelopes of complex molybdenum oxides. • Molybdenum oxide films of varying valence and crystallinity were synthesized. • MoO{sub 3} and MoO{sub 2} line shapes from experimental data were created. • Informed amorphous sample model (IASM) developed. • Amorphous molybdenum oxide XPS envelopes were interpreted. - Abstract: Accurate elemental oxidation state determination for the outer surface of a complex material is of crucial importance in many science and engineering disciplines, including chemistry, fundamental and applied surface science, catalysis, semiconductors and many others. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is the primary tool used for this purpose. The spectral data obtained, however, is often very complex and can be subject to incorrect interpretation. Unlike traditional XPS spectra fitting procedures using purely synthetic spectral components, here we develop and present an XPS data processing method based on vector analysis that allows creating XPS spectral components by incorporating key information, obtained experimentally. XPS spectral data, obtained from series of molybdenum oxide samples with varying oxidation states and degree of crystallinity, were processed using this method and the corresponding oxidation states present, as well as their relative distribution was elucidated. It was shown that monitoring the evolution of the chemistry and crystal structure of a molybdenum oxide sample due to an invasive X-ray probe could be used to infer solutions to complex spectral envelopes.

  20. Versatile technique for assessing thickness of 2D layered materials by XPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y.; Jespersen, Michael; Zakharov, Dmitry N.; Hu, Jianjun; Paul, Rajib; Kumar, Anurag; Pacley, Shanee; Glavin, Nicholas; Saenz, David; Smith, Kyle C.; Fisher, Timothy S.; Voevodin, Andrey A.

    2018-03-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been utilized as a versatile method for thickness characterization of various two-dimensional (2D) films. Accurate thickness can be measured simultaneously while acquiring XPS data for chemical characterization of 2D films having thickness up to approximately 10 nm. For validating the developed technique, thicknesses of few-layer graphene (FLG), MoS2 and amorphous boron nitride (a-BN) layer, produced by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD), plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) respectively, were accurately measured. The intensity ratio between photoemission peaks recorded for the films (C 1s, Mo 3d, B 1s) and the substrates (Cu 2p, Al 2p, Si 2p) is the primary input parameter for thickness calculation, in addition to the atomic densities of the substrate and the film, and the corresponding electron attenuation length (EAL). The XPS data was used with a proposed model for thickness calculations, which was verified by cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurement of thickness for all the films. The XPS method determines thickness values averaged over an analysis area which is orders of magnitude larger than the typical area in cross-sectional TEM imaging, hence provides an advanced approach for thickness measurement over large areas of 2D materials. The study confirms that the versatile XPS method allows rapid and reliable assessment of the 2D material thickness and this method can facilitate in tailoring growth conditions for producing very thin 2D materials effectively over a large area. Furthermore, the XPS measurement for a typical 2D material is non-destructive and does not require special sample preparation. Therefore, after XPS analysis, exactly the same sample can undergo further processing or utilization.

  1. XPS and bioactivity study of the bisphosphonate pamidronate adsorbed onto plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, Kate; Kumar, Sunil; Smart, Roger St.C.; Dutta, Naba; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Anderson, Gail I.; Sekel, Ron

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to investigate bisphosphonate (BP) adsorption onto plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings commonly used for orthopaedic implants. BPs exhibit high binding affinity for the calcium present in HA and hence can be adsorbed onto HA-coated implants to exploit their beneficial properties for improved bone growth at the implant interface. A rigorous XPS analysis of pamidronate, a commonly used nitrogenous BP, adsorbed onto plasma sprayed HA-coated cobalt-chromium substrates has been carried out, aimed at: (a) confirming the adsorption of this BP onto HA; (b) studying the BP diffusion profile in the HA coating by employing the technique of XPS depth profiling; (c) confirming the bioactivity of the adsorbed BP. XPS spectra of plasma sprayed HA-coated discs exposed to a 10 mM aqueous BP solution (pamidronate) for periods of 1, 2 and 24 h showed nitrogen and phosphorous photoelectron signals corresponding to the BP, confirming its adsorption onto the HA substrate. XPS depth profiling of the 2 h BP-exposed HA discs showed penetration of the BP into the HA matrix to depths of at least 260 nm. The bioactivity of the adsorbed BP was confirmed by the observed inhibition of osteoclast (bone resorbing) cell activity. In comparison to the HA sample, the HA sample with adsorbed BP exhibited a 25-fold decrease in primary osteoclast cells

  2. Round robin: Quantitative lateral resolution of PHI XPS microprobes Quantum 2000/Quantera SXM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheithauer, Uwe; Kolb, Max; Kip, Gerard A.M.; Naburgh, Emile; Snijders, J.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The quantitative lateral resolution of 7 PHI XPS microprobes has been estimated in a round robin. • An ellipsoidally shaped quartz crystal monochromatizes the Alkα radiation and refocuses it from the Al anode to the sample surface. • The long tail contributions of the X-ray beam intensity distribution were measured using a new and innovative approach. • This quantitative lateral resolution has a significantly larger value than the nominal X-ray beam diameter. • The quantitative lateral resolution follows a trend in time: The newer the monochromator so much the better the quantitative lateral resolution. - Abstract: The quantitative lateral resolution is a reliable measure for the quality of an XPS microprobe equipped with a focused X-ray beam. It describes the long tail contributions of the X-ray beam intensity distribution. The knowledge of these long tail contributions is essential when judging on the origin of signals of XPS spectra recorded on small-sized features. In this round robin test the quantitative lateral resolution of 7 PHI XPS microprobes has been estimated. As expected, the quantitative lateral resolution has significantly larger values than the nominal X-ray beam diameter. The estimated values of the quantitative lateral resolution follow a trend in time: the newer the monochromator of an XPS microprobe so much the better the quantitative lateral resolution.

  3. Round robin: Quantitative lateral resolution of PHI XPS microprobes Quantum 2000/Quantera SXM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheithauer, Uwe, E-mail: scht.uhg@googlemail.com [82008 Unterhaching (Germany); Kolb, Max, E-mail: max.kolb@airbus.com [Airbus Group Innovations, TX2, 81663 Munich (Germany); Kip, Gerard A.M., E-mail: G.A.M.Kip@utwente.nl [Universiteit Twente, MESA+ Nanolab, Postbus 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Naburgh, Emile, E-mail: e.p.naburgh@philips.com [Materials Analysis, Philips Innovation Services, High Tech Campus 11, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Snijders, J.H.M., E-mail: j.h.m.snijders@philips.com [Materials Analysis, Philips Innovation Services, High Tech Campus 11, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • The quantitative lateral resolution of 7 PHI XPS microprobes has been estimated in a round robin. • An ellipsoidally shaped quartz crystal monochromatizes the Alkα radiation and refocuses it from the Al anode to the sample surface. • The long tail contributions of the X-ray beam intensity distribution were measured using a new and innovative approach. • This quantitative lateral resolution has a significantly larger value than the nominal X-ray beam diameter. • The quantitative lateral resolution follows a trend in time: The newer the monochromator so much the better the quantitative lateral resolution. - Abstract: The quantitative lateral resolution is a reliable measure for the quality of an XPS microprobe equipped with a focused X-ray beam. It describes the long tail contributions of the X-ray beam intensity distribution. The knowledge of these long tail contributions is essential when judging on the origin of signals of XPS spectra recorded on small-sized features. In this round robin test the quantitative lateral resolution of 7 PHI XPS microprobes has been estimated. As expected, the quantitative lateral resolution has significantly larger values than the nominal X-ray beam diameter. The estimated values of the quantitative lateral resolution follow a trend in time: the newer the monochromator of an XPS microprobe so much the better the quantitative lateral resolution.

  4. Neutron spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pynn, R.; Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Fritzsche, H.; Gierlings, M.; Major, J.; Jason, A.

    2005-01-01

    We describe experiments in which the neutron spin echo technique is used to measure neutron scattering angles. We have implemented the technique, dubbed spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME), using thin films of Permalloy electrodeposited on silicon wafers as sources of the magnetic fields within which neutron spins precess. With 30-μm-thick films we resolve neutron scattering angles to about 0.02 deg. with neutrons of 4.66 A wavelength. This allows us to probe correlation lengths up to 200 nm in an application to small angle neutron scattering. We also demonstrate that SESAME can be used to separate specular and diffuse neutron reflection from surfaces at grazing incidence. In both of these cases, SESAME can make measurements at higher neutron intensity than is available with conventional methods because the angular resolution achieved is independent of the divergence of the neutron beam. Finally, we discuss the conditions under which SESAME might be used to probe in-plane structure in thin films and show that the method has advantages for incident neutron angles close to the critical angle because multiple scattering is automatically accounted for

  5. Optimal reconstruction angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, G.O. Jr.; Knight, L.

    1979-07-01

    The question of optimal projection angles has recently become of interest in the field of reconstruction from projections. Here, studies are concentrated on the n x n pixel space, where literative algorithms such as ART and direct matrix techniques due to Katz are considered. The best angles are determined in a Gauss--Markov statistical sense as well as with respect to a function-theoretical error bound. The possibility of making photon intensity a function of angle is also examined. Finally, the best angles to use in an ART-like algorithm are studied. A certain set of unequally spaced angles was found to be preferred in several contexts. 15 figures, 6 tables

  6. Direct formation of a polyamide on Ag(111): Joint XPS and STM studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Martin; Steinrueck, Hans-Peter; Gottfried, J. Michael [Lehrstuhl fuer Physikalische Chemie II, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Schmitz, Christoph H.; Ikonomov, Julian; Sokolowski, Moritz [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The polymer poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA) was synthesized on Ag(111) by co-adsorption of the reactive monomer compounds terephthaloyl chloride (TPC) and p-phenylenediamine (PPD) at 300 K. The resulting adsorbate phases were characterised by photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). A detailed study of the chemical composition and morphology revealed a complex reaction mechanism, by which the formation of amide bonds leads to folded PPTA polymer chains. According to XPS, the chloride of the TPC precursor is not released as HCl as in the bulk reaction, but remains on the surface as chemisorbed Cl or AgCl. Further temperature-programmed XPS studies of pure TPC on Ag(111) reveal that the molecule decomposes already above 130 K, forming chemisorbed Cl (or AgCl) and a phenylene-dicarbonyl species, which is presumably stabilized by the substrate. The adsorbed chlorine partially desorbs above 800 K as molecular AgCl.

  7. XPS characterization of surface and interfacial structure of sputtered TiNi films on Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yongqing; Du Hejun; Zhang, Sam; Huang Weimin

    2005-01-01

    TiNi films were prepared by co-sputtering TiNi and Ti targets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to study surface chemistry of the films and interfacial structure of Si/TiNi system. Exposure of the TiNi film to the ambient atmosphere (23 deg. C and 80% relatively humidity) facilitated quick adsorption of oxygen and carbon on the surface. With time, carbon and oxygen content increased drastically at the surface, while oxygen diffused further into the layer. After a year, carbon content at the surface became as high as 65.57% and Ni dropped below the detection limit of XPS. Depth profiling revealed that significant inter-diffusion occurred between TiNi film and Si substrate with a layer of 90-100 nm. The detailed bond changes of different elements with depth were obtained using XPS and the formation of titanium silicides at the interface were identified

  8. XPS and NEXAFS analysis of dimethyl sulfide adsorbed on the Rh(PVP) nanoparticle surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Hironori; Ogawa, Satoshi; Yagi, Shinya; Kutluk, Galif

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the adsorption reaction of dimethyl sulfide (DMS: (CH 3 ) 2 S) on the surface of Rh(PVP) nanoparticles by using AFM, XPS and NEXAFS techniques. The AFM images show the degree of dispersion of the Rh(PVP) nanoparticles depends on the amount of them. The in-situ XPS results indicate that the dissociation reaction of DMS into atomic S does not depend upon the existence of the Rh(PVP) nanoparticles. The NEXAFS results show that there is a strong chemical bonding between Rh(PVP) nanoparticle and atomic S. The ex-situ XPS results show the atomic S adsorbed on the Rh(PVP) nanoparticles partially desorb by exposing to the air. (author)

  9. Upgrade of the Surface Spectrometer at NEPOMUC for PAES, XPS and STM Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnik, S.; Lippert, F.; Hugenschmidt, C.

    2014-04-01

    The characterization of the elemental composition of surfaces is of great importance for the understanding of many surface processes, such as surface segregation or oxidation. Positron-annihilation-induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES) is a powerful technique for gathering information about the elemental composition of only the topmost atomic layer of a sample. The upgraded surface spectrometer at NEPOMUC (NEtron induced POsitron source MUniCh) enables a comprehensive surface analysis with the complementary techniques STM, XPS and PAES. A new X-ray source for X-ray induced photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was installed to gather additional information on oxidation states. A new scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is used as a complementary method to investigate with atomic resolution the surface electron density. The combination of PAES, XPS and STM allows the characterization of both the elemental composition, and the surface topology.

  10. Operation: Inherent Resolve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Larsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet giver læseren indsigt i den internationale koalitions engagement mod IS igennem Operaton Inherent Resolve; herunder koalitionens strategi i forhold til IS strategi, ligesom det belyser kampagnens legalitet og folkeretlige grundlag, ligesom det giver et bud på overvejelser om kampagnens...

  11. XPS studies of ceramics with pyrochlore structure for radioactive wastes disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teterin, Yu.A.; Vukchevich, L.; Ivanov, K.E.; Utkin, I.O; Teterin, A. Yu.; Maslakov, K.I.; Yudintseva, T.S.; Yudintsev, S.V.; Stefanovsky, S.V.; Lapina, M.I. . E-mail address of corresponding author: vukas@rc.pmf.cg.ac.yu; Vukchevich, L.)

    2005-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study of ceramics CaThSn 2 O 7 and CaThZr 2 O 7 with pyrochlore structure used as matrixes for the disposal of long lived high level radioactive wastes was done. On the basis of the XPS parameters of the core and outer electrons in the binding energy range 0 - 1000 eV the oxidation states of the included metals were determined, quantitative elemental and ionic analysis was carried out and a conclusion on the monophaseness of the studied samples was drawn. The obtained data agree with the X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy results. (author)

  12. Quantitative analysis of satellite structures in XPS spectra of gold and silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauly, N., E-mail: nipauly@ulb.ac.be [Université libre de Bruxelles, Service de Métrologie Nucléaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. F. D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Yubero, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Univ. Sevilla – CSIC, av. Américo Vespucio 49, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Tougaard, S. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Accurate determination of the energy loss functions for Au and Ag. • Calculation of effective inelastic electron scattering cross sections for Au and Ag. • Convolution of these cross sections with varying model primary spectra F(E). • Variation of F(E) until a good agreement with experimental XPS spectra is reached. • Quantitative determination of Au 4f and Ag 3d characteristics. - Abstract: Identification of specific chemical states and local electronic environments at surfaces by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is often difficult because it is not straightforward to quantitatively interpret the shape and intensity of shake-up structures that originate from the photoexcitation process. Indeed the shape and intensity of measured XPS structures are strongly affected by both extrinsic excitations due to electron transport out of the surface and intrinsic excitations induced by the sudden creation of the static core hole. These processes must be taken into account to quantitatively extract, from experimental XPS, the primary excitation spectrum of the considered transition which includes all effects that are part of the initial photo-excitation process, i.e. lifetime broadening, spin–orbit coupling, and multiplet splitting. It was previously shown [N. Pauly, S. Tougaard, F. Yubero, Surf. Sci. 620 (2014) 17] that both extrinsic and intrinsic excitations could be included in an effective energy-differential inelastic electron scattering cross section for XPS which is then convoluted with the primary excitation spectrum to model the full XPS spectrum. This method can thus be applied to determine the primary excitation spectrum from any XPS spectrum. We use this approach in the present paper to determine the Au 4f and Ag 3d photoemission spectra from pure metals. We observe that characteristic energy loss features of the XPS spectra are not only due to photoelectron energy losses. We thus prove the existence of a double shake-up process

  13. A comparative study on defect estimation using XPS and Raman spectroscopy in few layer nanographitic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, K; Ghosh, Subrata; Gopala Krishna, Nanda; Ilango, S; Kamruddin, M; Tyagi, A K

    2016-08-10

    Defects in planar and vertically oriented nanographitic structures (NGSs) synthesized by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) have been investigated using Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. While Raman spectra reveal the dominance of vacancy and boundary type defects respectively in vertical and planar NGSs, XPS provides additional information on vacancy related defect peaks in the C 1s spectrum, which originate from non-conjugated carbon atoms in the hexagonal lattice. Although an excellent correlation prevails between these two techniques, our results show that estimation of surface defects by XPS is more accurate than Raman analysis. Nuances of these techniques are discussed in the context of assessing defects in nanographitic structures.

  14. XPS and SEM studies of chromium oxide films chemically formed on stainless steel 316 L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanov, P.; Marinova, T.

    2000-01-01

    The structure and composition of chromium oxide films formed on stainless steel by immersion in a chromium electrolyte have been studied by SEM and XPS. Cr 2 O 3 crystallites in the range 30-150 nm are fully developed and cover the whole surface. The chemical composition in the depth and the thickness of the oxide layer have been determined by XPS sputter profiles. The oxide film can be described within the framework of a double layer consisting of a thin outer hydrated layer and an inner layer of Cr 2 O 3 . (orig.)

  15. Investigating early stages of biocorrosion with XPS: AISI 304 stainless steel exposed to Burkholderia species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Saastamoinen, Tuomas

    1999-04-01

    We have investigated the interactions of an exopolymer-producing bacteria, Burkholderia sp. with polished AISI 304 stainless steel substrates using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Steel coupons were exposed to the pure bacteria culture in a specially designed flowcell for 6 h during which the experiment was monitored in situ with an optical microscope. XPS results verified the formation of biofilm containing extracellular polymer on all the samples exposed to bacteria. Sputter results indicated that some ions needed for metabolic processes were trapped within the biofilm. Changes in the relative Fe concentration and Fe 2p peak shape indicated that also iron had accumulated into the biofilm.

  16. Research on the surface chemical behavior of uranium metal in hydrogen atmosphere by XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xiaoguo; Wang Xiaolin; Yu Yong; Zhao Zhengping

    2001-01-01

    The surface chemical behavior clean uranium metal in hydrogen atmosphere at 100 and 200 degree C is studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. It leads to hydriding reaction when the hydrogen exposure is 12.0 Pa·s, and the U4f 7/2 binding energy of UH 3 is found to be 378.7 eV. The higher temperature (200 degree C) is beneficial to UH 3 formation at the same hydrogen exposures. XPS elemental depth profiles indicate that the distribution of uranium surface layer is UO 2 , UH 3 and U after exposure to 174.2 Pa·s hydrogen

  17. Conversion electron Moessbauer and XPS study on the effect of polishing of a stainless steel sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, Cs.; Kuzmann, E.; Lakatos-Varsanyi, M.; Vertes, A.; Vass, G.; Romhanyi, K.

    1994-01-01

    Conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and XPS has been used for the surface analysis of an 'X10CrNiTi 18/9 (DIN 1.7440)'-type stainless steel in order to determine the supposed structural and/or chemical changes in the surface layer caused by polishing. Both, CEMS and XPS results can be associated with the appearance of Fe nitride in the outer layer of steel samples after polishing, while no sing of nitrogen was detected in the bulk material. (author) 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  18. Thorough XPS analyses on overlithiated manganese spinel cycled around the 3V plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grissa, R. [IPREM ECP − UMR CNRS 5254, Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, Hélioparc Pau-Pyrénées, 2 Avenue du Président Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Martinez, H., E-mail: herve.martinez@univ-pau.fr [IPREM ECP − UMR CNRS 5254, Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, Hélioparc Pau-Pyrénées, 2 Avenue du Président Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Cotte, S.; Galipaud, J.; Pecquenard, B. [CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, ICMCB–UPR 9048 and Bordeaux INP, 87 Avenue du Dr. Schweitzer, F-33600 Pessac (France); Cras, F.Le [CEA LETI, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Mn2p XPS spectra of Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} (0 < x < 0.25) fitted with reference samples. • XPS Mn mean oxidation states agrees with XRD structural study. • Li{sub 1.2}Mn{sub 1.8}O{sub 4} thin films cycled versus lithium arounds 3 V in liquid electrolyte. • Electrochemical results (over 20 cycles) related to Mn oxidation states evolution. • Irreversible capacity explained on the basis of XPS by active material delamination. - Abstract: Lithium-rich spinel Li{sub 1.2}Mn{sub 1.8}O{sub 4} thin film electrodes operated at 3 V/Li{sup +}/Li are studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), mainly on the basis of the evolution of the Mn2p XPS peak during the electrode cycling. The analysis of this core peak has long been debated in literature given its complex character. Based on manganese oxide references, MnO (Mn{sup 2+}), Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}(Mn{sup 3+}) and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}(Mn{sup 4+}), we propose a deconvolution method to identify each Mn oxidation state. This method is then used for the deconvolution of Mn2p XPS peaks of bulk lithium-rich spinels Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25) for validation before proceeding to the study of cycled Li{sub 1.2}Mn{sub 1.8}O{sub 4} thin film electrodes. Electrochemical measurements exhibit significant capacity loss during the first cycle. Based on XPS analyses, this phenomenon could be explained by mechanical breakup of parts of the electrode. A stable behavior during subsequent cycles is then observed. The presence of Mn{sup 2+} species (XPS) at the most top surface of the electrode and the significant polarization observed during the discharge illustrate the kinetical limitation of the two-phase reaction, despite the reduced thickness of the electrode material.

  19. Angles in hyperbolic lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Morten S.; Södergren, Carl Anders

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior of the den......It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior...... of the density function in both the small and large variable limits. This extends earlier results by Boca, Pasol, Popa and Zaharescu and Kelmer and Kontorovich in dimension 2 to general dimension n . Our proofs use the decay of matrix coefficients together with a number of careful estimates, and lead...

  20. Non-contact measurement of rotation angle with solo camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Xiaochuan; Sun, Anbin; Ye, Xin; Ma, Liqun

    2015-02-01

    For the purpose to measure a rotation angle around the axis of an object, a non-contact rotation angle measurement method based on solo camera was promoted. The intrinsic parameters of camera were calibrated using chessboard on principle of plane calibration theory. The translation matrix and rotation matrix between the object coordinate and the camera coordinate were calculated according to the relationship between the corners' position on object and their coordinates on image. Then the rotation angle between the measured object and the camera could be resolved from the rotation matrix. A precise angle dividing table (PADT) was chosen as the reference to verify the angle measurement error of this method. Test results indicated that the rotation angle measurement error of this method did not exceed +/- 0.01 degree.

  1. Radiofrequency encoded angular-resolved light scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buckley, Brandon W.; Akbari, Najva; Diebold, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    The sensitive, specific, and label-free classification of microscopic cells and organisms is one of the outstanding problems in biology. Today, instruments such as the flow cytometer use a combination of light scatter measurements at two distinct angles to infer the size and internal complexity...... of cells at rates of more than 10,000 per second. However, by examining the entire angular light scattering spectrum it is possible to classify cells with higher resolution and specificity. Current approaches to performing these angular spectrum measurements all have significant throughput limitations...... Encoded Angular-resolved Light Scattering (REALS), this technique multiplexes angular light scattering in the radiofrequency domain, such that a single photodetector captures the entire scattering spectrum from a particle over approximately 100 discrete incident angles on a single shot basis. As a proof...

  2. XPS study of the passive layers formed on lead in aqueous nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Miho; Okuwaki, Akitsugu

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of the lead surface immersed in aqueous nitrate solutions by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows the formation of passive oxide layer containing nitrogen compound. The oxide layer formed on the lead surface in aqueous ammonium nitrate solution was hydrolyzed and cracked. (author)

  3. Thermally Annealed Iron (Oxide) Thin Film on an Alumina Barrier Layer, by XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madaan, Nitesh; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Jensen, David S.; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2013-09-06

    Herein we show characterization of an Fe thin film on Al_2O_3 after thermal annealing under H_2 using Al Ka X-rays. The XPS survey spectrum, narrow Fe 2p scan, and valence band regions are presented. The survey spectrum shows aluminum signals due to exposure of the underlying Al_2O_3 film during Fe nanoparticle formation.

  4. Quantitative depth profiling of K-doped fullerene films using XPS and SIMS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oswald, S.; Janda, Pavel; Dunsch, L.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 141, 1-2 (2003), s. 79-85 E-ISSN 1436-5073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : XPS * SIMS * depth profiling * fullerenes * doping Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.784, year: 2003

  5. PLA-PMMA blends: A study by XPS and ToF-SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossement, D.; Gouttebaron, R.; Cornet, V.; Viville, P.; Hecq, M.; Lazzaroni, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports which are the possibilities of quantification by time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) for some polymer blends. In order to assess the composition of the mixtures, we studied first different poly(L-lactide)/polymethylmethacrylate (PLA/PMMA) blends by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), this technique being quantitative. By XPS fitting of the C 1s level, we found a very good agreement of the measured concentrations with the initial compositions. Concerning ToF-SIMS data treatment, we used principal component analysis (PCA) on negative spectra allowing to discriminate one polymer from the other one. By partial least square regression (PLS), we found also a good agreement between the ToF-SIMS predicted and initial compositions. This shows that ToF-SIMS, in a similar way to XPS, can lead to quantitative results. In addition, the observed agreement between XPS (60-100 A depth analyzed) and ToF-SIMS (10 A depth analyzed) measurements show that there is no segregation of one of the two polymers onto the surface

  6. Diamond/carbon nanotube composites: Raman, FTIR and XPS spectroscopic studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Varga, Marián; Ižák, Tibor; Vretenár, V.; Kozak, Halyna; Holovský, Jakub; Artemenko, Anna; Hulman, M.; Skákalová, V.; Lee, D. S.; Kromka, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 111, Jan (2016), s. 54-61 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC15-22102J; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14SK037 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond * carbon nanotubes * spectroscopy * Raman * FTIR * XPS Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 6.337, year: 2016

  7. XPS and electrochemical studies of the dissolution and passivation of molybdenum-implanted austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vito, E.; Marcus, P.

    1993-01-01

    X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the chemical composition and the chemical states of the passive film formed on austenitic stainless steels (Fe-19Cr-10Ni (at.%)) which have been implanted with molybdenum (Mo + , 100 keV, 2.5 x 10 16 at./cm 2 ). Prior to passivation the implanted alloy was characterized by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy) and XPS. Alloys with well-defined surface concentrations of molybdenum were prepared by ion sputtering the implanted alloy in the preparation chamber of the spectrometer, to a fixed point in the implantation profile. The samples were then transferred without air exposure to a glove box with inert gas in which the electrochemical measurements were performed. After passivation, return transfer of the passivated samples was done with the same transfer device to avoid exposure to air. In 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 , the anodic dissolution current density decreases with increasing Mo content on the alloy surface. Surface analysis by XPS showed that the surface is enriched with molybdenum in the Mo 4+ chemical state. The current density in the passive state is similar for both the non-implanted and the implanted alloys. Surface analysis by XPS showed that the passive film has a bilayer structure (inner oxide and outer hydroxide) and that the hydroxide layer present on the surface of the passive film is markedly enriched with molybdenum in the Mo 6+ chemical state. The XPS measurements indicate that the presence of molybdenum favors the formation of chromium hydroxide at the expense of chromium oxide. A significant enrichment of the alloyed (Cr, Ni) and implanted (Mo) elements was also observed in the metallic phase under the passive film. The possible mechanisms of the effect of molybdenum on the corrosion resistance of stainless steels are discussed in light of the obtained surface analytical results

  8. High resolving power spectrometer for beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshammer, H.W.; Spencer, J.E.

    1992-03-01

    We describe a system designed to analyze the high energy, closely spaced bunches from individual RF pulses. Neither a large solid angle nor momentum range is required so this allows characteristics that appear useful for other applications such as ion beam lithography. The spectrometer is a compact, double-focusing QBQ design whose symmetry allows the Quads to range between F or D with a correspondingly large range of magnifications, dispersion and resolving power. This flexibility insures the possibility of spatially separating all of the bunches along the focal plane with minimal transverse kicks and bending angle for differing input conditions. The symmetry of the system allows a simple geometric interpretationof the resolving power in terms of thin lenses and ray optics. We discuss the optics and the hardware that is proposed to measure emittance, energy, energy spread and bunch length for each bunch in an RF pulse train for small bunch separations. We also discuss how to use such measurements for feedback and feedforward control of these bunch characteristics as well as maintain their stability. 2 refs

  9. XPS and surface resistivity measurements of plasma - treated FEP co-polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitrus, R.K.; Brack, N.; Liesegang, J.; Pigram, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Fluorinated polymers such as fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) play an important role in many applications due to their many desirable properties such as chemical resistivity, inertness, electrical stability and low dielectric constant; however, one disadvantage of fluorinated polymers is their extreme surface hydrophobicity. Previous studies show that plasma treatment will modify the surface by increasing the surface free energy and also offer a rapid and convenient method for pre-treating the polymers for many purposes. This paper, through resistivity and XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) measurements, attempts to discover basic effects of such plasma treatment. Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) co-polymer film of (0.05) mm thickness (obtained commercially) and with the following structure (CF 2 -CF 2 )-(CF(CF 3 )CF 2 )- was used. A suitable cleaning procedure was used to remove adventitious carbon from the surface. XPS has been used to study FEP film properties. The spectra of XPS were analyzed with the main focus on carbon and fluorine as they compose the elemental component of FEP film. A value of 2.05 was obtained for the F/C ratio, which is slightly higher than the theoretical F/C value estimated from the chemical structure of FEP (F/C 2). The clean film was then air plasma treated (pressure 10 -1 torr and power 30W) for various treatment times to produce a higher energy fluoropolymer surface. XPS studies investigated changes to the polymer surface and determined that oxidation occurs on the FEP surface. The oxidation reactions on the FEP surface form oxygen functional groups such as C-O and C=O groups. The results also show that the percentage of CF 2 and CF 3 in the co-polymer surface decreased with exposure time and the percentage of CF, C-C, C-O and C=O increased. There is a sharp decrease in F/C ratio and increase in O/C ratio. In addition to XPS, the resistivity of FEP-film was measured by a

  10. Comparison of the equivalent width, the autocorrelation width, and the variance as figures of merit for XPS narrow scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhupinder [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, C-100 BNSN, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Velázquez, Daniel; Terry, Jeff [Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Linford, Matthew R., E-mail: mrlinford@chem.byu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, C-100 BNSN, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We apply the equivalent and autocorrelation widths and variance to XPS narrow scans. • This approach is complementary to traditional peak fitting methods. • It is bias free and responsive to subtle chemical changes in spectra. • It has the potential for machine interpretation of spectra and quality control. • It has the potential for analysis of complex spectra and tracking charging/artifacts. - Abstract: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is widely used in surface and materials laboratories around the world. It is a near surface technique, providing detailed chemical information about samples in the form of survey and narrow scans. To extract the maximum amount of information about materials it is often necessary to peak fit XPS narrow scans. And while indispensable to XPS data analysis, even experienced practitioners can struggle with their peak fitting. In our previous publication, we introduced the equivalent width (EW{sub XPS}) as both a possible machine automated method, one that requires less expert judgment for characterizing XPS narrow scans, and as an approach that may be well suited for the analysis of complex spectra. The EW{sub XPS} figure of merit was applied to four different data sets. However, as previously noted, other width functions are also regularly employed for analyzing functions. Here we evaluate two other width functions for XPS narrow scan analysis: the autocorrelation width (AW{sub XPS}) and the variance (σ{sub XPS}{sup 2}). These widths were applied to the same four sets of spectra studied before: (a) four C 1s narrow scans of ozone-treated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (EW{sub XPS}: ∼2.11–2.16 eV, AW{sub XPS}: ∼3.9–4.1 eV, σ{sub XPS}{sup 2}: ∼5.0–5.2 eV, and a modified form of σ{sub XPS}{sup 2}, denoted σ{sub XPS}{sup 2*}: ∼6.3–6.8 eV), (b) silicon wafers with different oxide thicknesses (EW{sub XPS}: ∼1.5–2.9 eV, AW{sub XPS}: ∼2.28–4.9, and σ{sub XPS}{sup 2}: ∼0.7–4.9 eV), (iii

  11. Angle of arrival estimation using spectral interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Z.W.; Harrington, C.; Thiel, C.W.; Babbitt, W.R.; Krishna Mohan, R.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a correlative signal processing concept based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatial-spectral (S2) materials that enables direct mapping of RF spectral phase as well as power spectral recording. This configuration can be used for precise frequency resolved time delay estimation between signals received by a phased antenna array system that in turn could be utilized to estimate the angle of arrival. We present an analytical theoretical model and a proof-of-principle demonstration of the concept of time difference of arrival estimation with a cryogenically cooled Tm:YAG crystal that operates on microwave signals modulated onto a stabilized optical carrier at 793 nm.

  12. Angle of arrival estimation using spectral interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Z.W.; Harrington, C.; Thiel, C.W.; Babbitt, W.R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Krishna Mohan, R., E-mail: krishna@spectrum.montana.ed [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    We have developed a correlative signal processing concept based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatial-spectral (S2) materials that enables direct mapping of RF spectral phase as well as power spectral recording. This configuration can be used for precise frequency resolved time delay estimation between signals received by a phased antenna array system that in turn could be utilized to estimate the angle of arrival. We present an analytical theoretical model and a proof-of-principle demonstration of the concept of time difference of arrival estimation with a cryogenically cooled Tm:YAG crystal that operates on microwave signals modulated onto a stabilized optical carrier at 793 nm.

  13. The quadriceps angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Frederiksen, Jane V.; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2012-01-01

    : Pelvic limbs from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). METHODS: Q angles were measured on hip dysplasia (HD) and whole limb (WL) view radiographs of each limb between the acetabular rim, mid-point (Q1: patellar center, Q2: femoral trochlea), and tibial tuberosity. Errors of 0.5-2.0 mm at measurement landmarks...

  14. open angle glaucoma (poag)?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    there is a build up of pressure due to poor outflow of aqueous humor. The outflow obstruction could occur at the trabecular meshwork of the anterior chamber angle or subsequently in the episcleral vein due to raised venous pressure. Such build up of pressure results in glaucoma . Elevated intraocular pressure remains the ...

  15. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology....

  16. At Right Angles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 9. At Right Angles. Shailesh A Shirali. Information and Announcements Volume 17 Issue 9 September 2012 pp 920-920. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/09/0920-0920 ...

  17. Wide angle isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for particle separation. The method uses a wide angle radially expanding vapor of a particle mixture. In particular, selective ionization of one isotope type in the particle mixture is produced in a multichamber separator and the ionized isotope type is accelerated out of the path of the vapor expansion for separate collection

  18. Chemical state analysis of conversion coatings by SR-XPS and TEY-XANES

    CERN Document Server

    Noro, H; Nagoshi, M

    2002-01-01

    Chromate coatings on galvanized steel have been studied by Synchrotron Radiation (SR) based techniques that include X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Total-Electron-Yield X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (TEY-XANES). Non-destructive depth profiling of the coatings by SR-XPS reveals the enhancement of Cr sup 6 sup + in the outer surface. TEY-XANES spectroscopy based on simple specimen current measurement is demonstrated as an effective technique for analyzing chemical states of conversion coatings on general bulk substrates. The sampling depth of this technique, which exceeds several tens of nanometer, is determined by the penetration length of Auger electrons excited by X-ray and the inelastic mean free path of secondary electrons excited by inelastically scattered Auger electrons. The chemical states of phosphoric acid added chromate coatings are studied using this technique. The phosphoric acid is taken into the chromate coatings as partially changed into zinc and chromium phosphates, and the r...

  19. Detergency of stainless steel surface soiled with human brain homogenate: an XPS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, M. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, UMR 5513 LTDS, 69 134 Ecully (France) and Laboratoires ANIOS, 59 260 Lille-Hellemmes (France)]. E-mail: marlene.richard@ec-lyon.fr; Le Mogne, Th. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, UMR 5513 LTDS, 69 134 Ecully (France); Perret-Liaudet, A. [Hopital Neurologique de Lyon et INSERM U512, 69 394 Lyon (France); Rauwel, G. [Laboratoires ANIOS, 59 260 Lille-Hellemmes (France); Criquelion, J. [Laboratoires ANIOS, 59 260 Lille-Hellemmes (France); De Barros, M.I. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, UMR 5513 LTDS, 69 134 Ecully (France); Cetre, J.C. [Unite d' Hygiene et d' Epidemiologie, Hopital de la Croix Rousse, 69 317 Lyon (France); Martin, J.M. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, UMR 5513 LTDS, 69 134 Ecully (France)

    2005-02-15

    In the detergency field of re-usable medical devices, a special attention is focused on the non conventional transmissible agent called prions which is a proteinaceous infectious agent. Few cleaning procedures are effective against prions and few techniques are available to study cleaning effectiveness with respect to proteins in general. In our study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to evaluate the effectiveness of detergent formulations to remove proteins from stainless steel surface soiled with a brain homogenate (BH) from human origin. Our results showed that XPS is a reliable surface analysis technique to study chemical species remaining on surface and substrate properties after cleaning procedures. A semi-quantitative evaluation of the detergency effectiveness could also be performed.

  20. SEM and XPS study of layer-by-layer deposited polypyrrole thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigois-Landureau, E.; Nicolau, Y. F.; Delamar, M.

    1996-01-01

    Layer-by-layer deposition of thin films (a few nm) of polypyrrole was carried out on various substrates such as silver, platinum, electrochemically oxidized aluminum and pretreated glass. SEM micrographs showed that the deposited layers nucleate by an island-type mechanism on hydrated alumina and KOH-pretreated (hydrophilic) glass before forming a continuous film. However, continuous thin films are obtained on chromic acid pretreated (hydrophobic) glass and sputtered Ag or Pt on glass after only 3-4 deposition cycles. The mean deposition rate evaluated by XPS for the first deposition cycles on Ag and Pt is 3 and 4 nm/cycle, respectively, in agreement with previous gravimetric determinations on thicker films, proving the constancy of the deposition rate. The XPS study of the very thin films obtained by a few deposition cycles shows that the first polypyrrole layers are dedoped by hydroxydic (basic) substrate surfaces.

  1. SEM and XPS study of layer-by-layer deposited polypyrrole thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigois-Landureau, E.; Nicolau, Y.F.; Delamar, M.

    1996-01-01

    Layer-by-layer deposition of thin films (a few nm) of polypyrrole was carried out on various substrates such as silver, platinum, electrochemically oxidized aluminum and pretreated glass. SEM micrographs showed that the deposited layers nucleate by an island-type mechanism on hydrated alumina and KOH-pretreated (hydrophilic) glass before forming a continuous film. However, continuous thin films are obtained on chromic acid pretreated (hydrophobic) glass and sputtered Ag or Pt on glass after only 3 endash 4 deposition cycles. The mean deposition rate evaluated by XPS for the first deposition cycles on Ag and Pt is 3 and 4 nm/cycle, respectively, in agreement with previous gravimetric determinations on thicker films, proving the constancy of the deposition rate. The XPS study of the very thin films obtained by a few deposition cycles shows that the first polypyrrole layers are dedoped by hydroxydic (basic) substrate surfaces. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. APS- and XPS-investigations of vanadium, vanadium carbide and graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, A M; Krause, U [Technische Univ. Muenchen (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie und Theoretische Chemie

    1975-11-01

    Soft X-ray appearance potential spectroscopy (APS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to study vanadium, vanadium carbide, and graphite. The chemical shifts for vanadium carbide with respect to metallic vanadium and graphite are compared for the two methods. The Csub(K) structure in APS and the valence band in XPS for vanadium carbide show good agreement with the band structure calculations of Neckel and co-workers. Using the band structure calculations of Painter et al. it is also shown how the multi-peak structure in the APS spectrum of graphite is possibly due to density of states effects. It would therefore appear that plasmon coupling plays only a minor role.

  3. Valence band structure of binary chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors by high-resolution XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyukhin, S.; Golovchak, R.; Kovalskiy, A.; Shpotyuk, O.; Jain, H.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to study regularities in the formation of valence band electronic structure in binary As x Se 100−x , As x S 100−x , Ge x Se 100−x and Ge x S 100−x chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors. It is shown that the highest occupied energetic states in the valence band of these materials are formed by lone pair electrons of chalcogen atoms, which play dominant role in the formation of valence band electronic structure of chalcogen-rich glasses. A well-expressed contribution from chalcogen bonding p electrons and more deep s orbitals are also recorded in the experimental valence band XPS spectra. Compositional dependences of the observed bands are qualitatively analyzed from structural and compositional points of view.

  4. Valence band structure of binary chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors by high-resolution XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyukhin, S., E-mail: sergkoz@igic.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Science, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Golovchak, R. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' (Ukraine); Kovalskiy, A. [Lehigh University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States); Shpotyuk, O. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' (Ukraine); Jain, H. [Lehigh University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)

    2011-04-15

    High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to study regularities in the formation of valence band electronic structure in binary As{sub x}Se{sub 100-x}, As{sub x}S{sub 100-x}, Ge{sub x}Se{sub 100-x} and Ge{sub x}S{sub 100-x} chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors. It is shown that the highest occupied energetic states in the valence band of these materials are formed by lone pair electrons of chalcogen atoms, which play dominant role in the formation of valence band electronic structure of chalcogen-rich glasses. A well-expressed contribution from chalcogen bonding p electrons and more deep s orbitals are also recorded in the experimental valence band XPS spectra. Compositional dependences of the observed bands are qualitatively analyzed from structural and compositional points of view.

  5. Detergency of stainless steel surface soiled with human brain homogenate: an XPS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, M.; Le Mogne, Th.; Perret-Liaudet, A.; Rauwel, G.; Criquelion, J.; De Barros, M.I.; Cetre, J.C.; Martin, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the detergency field of re-usable medical devices, a special attention is focused on the non conventional transmissible agent called prions which is a proteinaceous infectious agent. Few cleaning procedures are effective against prions and few techniques are available to study cleaning effectiveness with respect to proteins in general. In our study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to evaluate the effectiveness of detergent formulations to remove proteins from stainless steel surface soiled with a brain homogenate (BH) from human origin. Our results showed that XPS is a reliable surface analysis technique to study chemical species remaining on surface and substrate properties after cleaning procedures. A semi-quantitative evaluation of the detergency effectiveness could also be performed

  6. Applications of high lateral and energy resolution imaging XPS with a double hemispherical analyser based spectromicroscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escher, M.; Winkler, K.; Renault, O.; Barrett, N.

    2010-01-01

    The design and applications of an instrument for imaging X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are reviewed. The instrument is based on a photoelectron microscope and a double hemispherical analyser whose symmetric configuration avoids the spherical aberration (α 2 -term) inherent for standard analysers. The analyser allows high transmission imaging without sacrificing the lateral and energy resolution of the instrument. The importance of high transmission, especially for highest resolution imaging XPS with monochromated laboratory X-ray sources, is outlined and the close interrelation of energy resolution, lateral resolution and analyser transmission is illustrated. Chemical imaging applications using a monochromatic laboratory Al Kα-source are shown, with a lateral resolution of 610 nm. Examples of measurements made using synchrotron and laboratory ultra-violet light show the broad field of applications from imaging of core level electrons with chemical shift identification, high resolution threshold photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM), work function imaging and band structure imaging.

  7. Pd adsorption on Si(1 1 3) surface: STM and XPS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Shinsuke; Yoshimura, Masamichi; Ueda, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    Pd-induced surface structures on Si(1 1 3) have been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the initial process of the Pd adsorption below 0.10 ML, Pd silicide (Pd 2 Si) clusters are observed to form randomly on the surface. By increasing the Pd coverage to 0.10 ML, the clusters cover the entire surface, and an amorphous layer is formed. After annealing the Si(1 1 3)-Pd surface at 600 deg. C, various types of islands and chain protrusions appears. The agglomeration, coalescence and crystallization of these islands are observed by using high temperature (HT-) STM. It is also found by XPS that the islands correspond to Pd 2 Si structure. On the basis of these results, evolution of Pd-induced structures at high temperatures is in detail discussed

  8. Synchrotron radiation as a source for quantitative XPS: advantages and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosseel, T.M.; Carlson, T.A.; Negri, R.E.; Beall, C.E.; Taylor, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) has a variety of properties which make it an attractive source for quantitative x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Among the most significant are high intensity and tunability. In addition, the intensity of the dispersed radiation is comparable to laboratory line sources. Synchrotron radiation is also a clean source, i.e., it will not contaminate the sample, because it operates under ultra-high vacuum conditions. We have used these properties to demonstrate the advantages of SR as a source for quantitative XPS. We have also found several consequences associated with this source which can either limit its use or provide unique opportunities for analysis and research. Using the tunability of SR, we have measured the energy dependence of the 3p photoionization cross sections of Ti, Cr, and Mn from 50 to 150 eV above threshold at the University of Wisconsin's Tantalus electron-storage ring

  9. XPS characterization of the anodic oxide film formed on uranium metal in sodium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xiaoguo; Wang Xiaolin; Guo Huanjun; Wang Qingfu; Zhao Zhengping; Zhong Yongqiang

    2002-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to examine the anodic oxide film formed on uranium metal in 0.8 mol/L NaOH solution. The U4f 7/2 fitting spectra suggests that the anodic oxide film is composed of uranium trioxide and a small amount of UO 2+x . Under UHV condition, the U4f peak shifts to the lower binding energy, while a gradual increase in the intensity of U5f peak and the broad of U4f peak are also observed. All of these changes are due to reduction of uranium trioxide in the anodic oxide film. XPS quantitative analysis confirms the occurrence of reduction reaction

  10. Highly resolving computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, B.; Petersen, D.; Walter, E.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of highly-resolving devices for computerized tomography, CT diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column has gained increasing importance. As an ambulatory, non-invasive method it has proved in comparative studies to be at least equivalent to myelography in the detection of dislocations of inter-vertebral disks (4,6,7,15). Because with modern devices not alone the bones, but especially the spinal soft part structures are clearly and precisely presented with a resolution of distinctly below 1 mm, a further improvement of the results is expected as experience will increase. The authors report on the diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column with the aid of a modern device for computerized tomography and wish to draw particular attention to the possibility of doing this investigation as a routine, and to the diagnostic value of secondary reconstructions. (BWU) [de

  11. Highly resolving computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, B.; Petersen, D.; Walter, E.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of highly-resolving devices for computerized tomography, CT diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column has gained increasing importance. As an ambulatory, non-invasive method it has proved in comparative studies to be at least equivalent to myelography in the detection of dislocations of inter-vertebral disks (4,6,7,15). Because with modern devices not alone the bones, but especially the spinal soft part structures are clearly and precisely presented with a resolution of distinctly below 1 mm, a further improvement of the results is expected as experience will increase. The authors report on the diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column with the aid of a modern device for computerized tomography and wish to draw particular attention to the possibility of doing this investigation as a routine, and to the diagnostic value of secondary reconstructions.

  12. Comparison of optical models and signals from XPS and VASE characterized titanium after PBS immersion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Penttinen, N.; Hasoň, Stanislav; Silvennoinen, M.; Joska, L.; Silvennoinen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 285, č. 6 (2012), s. 965-968 ISSN 0030-4018 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/10/1782 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : permittivity * XPS titanium * diffractive optical element-based sensor Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.438, year: 2012

  13. XPS investigations on the UV-laser ablation mechanism of poly(ether imide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wambach, J; Kunz, T; Schnyder, B; Koetz, R; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    UV-Laser ablated samples of poly(ether imide) [Kapton{sup TM}] were studied with small-spot XPS. Applying fluences above the threshold level (0.167 J/cm{sup 2}) resulted in the expected behaviour of a decline of both nitrogen and oxygen. Below the threshold level a hint for an altered ablation mechanism was found. (author) 1 fig., 5 refs.

  14. Investigation of CoPd alloys by XPS and EPES using the pattern recognition method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lesiak, B.; Zemek, Josef; Jiříček, Petr; Jozwik, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 428, - (2007), s. 190-196 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0459 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : CoPd alloys * x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) * elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) * pattern recognition method * fuzzy k-nearest neighbour rule (fkNN) * quantitative analysis * surface segregation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.455, year: 2007

  15. The hidden radiation chemistry in plasma modification and XPS analysis of polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, G.A.; Le, T.T.; Elms, F.M.; Wood, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The surface modification of polymers using plasma treatments is being widely researched to achieve changes in the surface energetics and consequent wetting and reactivity for a range of applications. These include i) adhesion for polymer bonding and composite material fabrication and ii) biocompatibility of polymers when used as orthopedic implants, catheters and prosthetics. A low pressure rf plasma produces a variety of species from the introduced gas which may react with the surface of a hydrocarbon polymer, such as polyethylene. In the case of 0 2 and H 2 0, these species include oxygen atoms, singlet molecular oxygen and hydroxyl radicals, all of which may oxidise and, depending on their energy, ablate the polymer surface. In order to better understand the reactive species formed both in and downstream from a plasma and the relative contributions of oxidation and ablation, self-assembled monolayers of n-alkane thiols on gold are being used as well characterised substrates for quantitative X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The identification and quantification of oxidised carbon species on plasma treated polymers from broad, asymmetric XPS signals is difficult, so derivatisation is often used to enhance sensitivity and specificity. For example, trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) selectively labels hydroxyl functionality. The surface analysis of a modified polymer surface may be confounded by high energy radiation chemistry which may occur during XPS analysis. Examples include scission of carbon-halogen bonds (as in TFM adducts), decarboxylation and main-chain polyene formation. The extent of free-radical chemistry occurring in polyethylene while undergoing XPS analysis may be seen by both ESR and FT-IR analysis

  16. Lead-silicate glass surface sputtered by an argon cluster ion beam investigated by XPS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemek, Josef; Jiříček, Petr; Houdková, Jana; Jurek, Karel; Gedeon, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 469, Aug (2017), s. 1-6 ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015088; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12580S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : lead-silicate glass * XPS * BO * NBO * Argon duster ion beam sputtering * X-ray irradiation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.124, year: 2016

  17. An XPS study of tarnishing of a gold mask from a pre-Columbian culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas, D.M.; Cano, E.; Gonzalez, A.G.; Fajardo, S.; Lleras-Perez, R.; Campo-Montero, E.; Belzunce-Varela, F.J.; Bastidas, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The tarnishing originated on a hammered gold mask was analysed. Red tarnishing was observed after three years of storage in an indoor environment in the Gold Museum of Banco de la Republica, Bogota, Colombia. Silver sulphide (Ag 2 S) and silver sulphate (Ag 2 SO 4 ) compounds were identified as the origin of the tarnishing phenomenon, which is attributed to environmental contamination. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were used

  18. Electrochemical maps and movies of the hydrogen evolution reaction on natural crystals of molybdenite (MoS2): basal vs. edge plane activity† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Movies S1 to S4: spatially resolved LSV-SECCM movies obtained from the electrocatalytic HER on the surface of bulk MoS2. Fig. S1 to S14: XRD, XPS, Raman, SEM and OM characterization of MoS2; SEM images of the nanopipets; WCA measurements; LSVs and Tafel plots obtained from the HER on MoS2. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc02545a Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minkyung; Maddar, Faduma M.; Li, Fengwang; Walker, Marc; Zhang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Two dimensional (2D) semiconductor materials, such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) have attracted considerable interest in a range of chemical and electrochemical applications, for example, as an abundant and low-cost alternative electrocatalyst to platinum for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). While it has been proposed that the edge plane of MoS2 possesses high catalytic activity for the HER relative to the “catalytically inert” basal plane, this conclusion has been drawn mainly from macroscale electrochemical (voltammetric) measurements, which reflect the “average” electrocatalytic behavior of complex electrode ensembles. In this work, we report the first spatially-resolved measurements of HER activity on natural crystals of molybdenite, achieved using voltammetric scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM), whereby pixel-resolved linear-sweep voltammogram (LSV) measurements have allowed the HER to be visualized at multiple different potentials to construct electrochemical flux movies with nanoscale resolution. Key features of the SECCM technique are that characteristic surface sites can be targeted and analyzed in detail and, further, that the electrocatalyst area is known with good precision (in contrast to many macroscale measurements on supported catalysts). Through correlation of the local voltammetric response with information from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in a multi-microscopy approach, it is demonstrated unequivocally that while the basal plane of bulk MoS2 (2H crystal phase) possesses significant activity, the HER is greatly facilitated at the edge plane (e.g., surface defects such as steps, edges or crevices). Semi-quantitative treatment of the voltammetric data reveals that the HER at the basal plane of MoS2 has a Tafel slope and exchange current density (J 0) of ∼120 mV per decade and 2.5 × 10–6 A cm–2 (comparable to polycrystalline Co, Ni, Cu and Au), respectively, while the edge

  19. Formation of titanium nitride layers on titanium metal: Results of XPS and AES investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moers, H.; Pfennig, G.; Klewe-Nebenius, H.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Sirch, M.; Willin, E.

    1988-09-01

    The reaction of titanium metal with gaseous nitrogen and ammonia at temperatures of 890 0 C leads to the formation of nitridic overlayers on the metallic substrate. The thicknesses of the overlayers increase with increasing reaction time. Under comparable conditions ammonia reacts much slower than nitrogen. XPS and AES depth profile analyses show continuous changes of the in-depth compositions of the overlayers. This can be interpreted in terms of a very irregular thickness of the overlayers, an assumption which is substantiated by local AES analyses and by the observation of a pronounced crystalline structure of the substrate after annealing pretreatment, which can give rise to locally different reaction rates. The depth profile is also influenced by the broad ranges of stability of the titanium nitride phases formed during the reaction. The quantitative analysis of the titanium/nitrogen overlayers by AES is difficult because of the overlap of titanium and nitrogen Auger peaks. In quantitative XPS analysis problems arise due to difficulties in defining Ti 2p peak areas. This work presents practical procedures for the quantitative evaluation by XPS and AES of nitridic overlayers with sufficient accuracy. (orig.) [de

  20. Gold/silver core-shell 20 nm nanoparticles extracted from citrate solution examined by XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhard, Mark H.; Smith, Jordan N.; Baer, Donald R.

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles of many types are widely used in consumer and medical products. The surface chemistry of particles and the coatings that form during synthesis or use in many types of media can significantly impact the behaviors of particles including dissolution, transformation and biological or environmental impact. Consequently it is useful to be able to extract information about the thickness of surface coatings and other attributes of nanoparticles produced in a variety of ways. It has been demonstrated that X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) can be reliably used to determine the thickness of organic and other nanoparticles coatings and shells. However, care is required to produce reliable and consistent information. Here we report the XPS spectra from gold/silver core-shell nanoparticles of nominal size 20 nm removed from a citrate saturated solution after one and two washing cycles. The Simulation of Electron Spectra for Surface Analysis (SESSA) program had been used to model peak amplitudes to obtain information on citrate coatings that remain after washing and demonstrate the presence of the gold core. This data is provided so that others can compare use of SESSA or other modeling approaches to quantify the nature of coatings to those already published and to explore the impacts particle non-uniformities on XPS signals from core-shell nanoparticles.

  1. GD-OES and XPS coupling: A new way for the chemical profiling of photovoltaic absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercier, Dimitri, E-mail: dimitri.mercier@uvsq.fr [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, 45 av. des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Bouttemy, Muriel; Vigneron, Jackie [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, 45 av. des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Chapon, Patrick [HORIBA Jobin Yvon SAS, F-91165 Longjumeau (France); Etcheberry, Arnaud [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, 45 av. des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • The coupling between GD-OES and XPS analysis is a promising way for fine characterization of thin layers. • Crater surface modifications obtained after GD-OES sputtering depend to the plasma gas. • Inversion of the gas flow improves the surface of the crater. • The modified layer is totally eliminated a few seconds after restarting GD-OES sputtering. - Abstract: In this paper, we examine the complementarity of Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GD-OES) and X Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) for the realization of fine chemical depth profiling of photovoltaic absorbers using Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) materials. The possibility to use sequentially these two techniques is discussed in this paper. We have evaluated the chemical modifications of the crater after GD-OES analyses which depend on the manner of finishing the plasma etching sequence; and we propose different ways to limit or eliminate this effect. For the moment, an intermediate step (wet chemical etching or weak sputtering) is required to obtain a CIGS phase in the crater. Finally, we have demonstrated the possibility to restart the GD-OES analyses of the materials after XPS quantification or GD-OES breaking without modifying the profile shape.

  2. Morphological, chemical and structural characterisation of deciduous enamel: SEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR and XPS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio-Ortega, C M; Contreras-Bulnes, R; Scougall-Vilchis, R J; Morales-Luckie, R A; Olea-Mejía, O F; Rodríguez-Vilchis, L E

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterise the enamel surface of sound deciduous teeth in terms of morphology, chemical composition, structure and crystalline phases. The enamel of 30 human deciduous teeth was examined by: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Chemical differences between incisors and canines were statistically evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test (p ≤ 0.05). Three enamel patterns were observed by SEM: 'mostly smooth with some groves', 'abundant microporosities' and 'exposed prisms'. The average Ca/P molar ratios were 1.37 and 1.03 by EDS and XPS, respectively. The crystallite size determined by XRD was 210.82 ± 16.78 Å. The mean ratio between Ca bonded to phosphate and Ca bonded to hydroxyl was approximately 10:1. The enamel of sound deciduous teeth showed two main patterns: 'mostly smooth with some groves' and 'abundant microporosities'. 'Exposed prisms' was a secondary pattern. There were slight variations among the Ca/P molar ratios found by EDS and XPS, suggesting differences in the mineral content from the enamel surface to the interior. The crystalline phases found in enamel were hydroxyapatite and carbonate apatite, with major type B than type A carbonate incorporation.

  3. Surface chemical characterization of PM{sub 10} samples by XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atzei, Davide, E-mail: datzei@unica.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università di Cagliari, Complesso Universitario di Monserrato, S.S. 554 Bivio per Sestu, I-09042 Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Fantauzzi, Marzia; Rossi, Antonella [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università di Cagliari, Complesso Universitario di Monserrato, S.S. 554 Bivio per Sestu, I-09042 Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Fermo, Paola [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi Milano, Via Golgi 19, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Piazzalunga, Andrea [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi Milano, Via Golgi 19, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze dell’Ambiente e del territorio, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, I-20122 Milano (Italy); Valli, Gianluigi; Vecchi, Roberta [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    Samples of particulate matter (PM) collected in the city of Milan during wintertime were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal optical transmittance (TOT), ionic chromatography (IC) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in order to compare quantitative bulk analysis and surface analysis. In particular, the analysis of surface carbon is here presented following a new approach for the C1s curve fitting aiming this work to prove the capability of XPS to discriminate among elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) and to quantify the carbon-based compounds that might be present in the PM. Since surface of urban PM is found to be rich in carbon it is important to be able to distinguish between the different species. XPS results indicate that aromatic and aliphatic species are adsorbed on the PM surface. Higher concentrations of (EC) are present in the bulk. Also nitrogen and sulfur were detected on the surfaces and a qualitative and quantitative analysis is provided. Surface concentration of sulfate ion is equal to that found by bulk analysis; moreover surface analysis shows an additional signal due to organic sulfur not detectable by the other methods. Surface appears to be also enriched in nitrogen.

  4. Quantitative Surface Analysis by Xps (X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy: Application to Hydrotreating Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beccat P.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available XPS is an ideal technique to provide the chemical composition of the extreme surface of solid materials, vastly applied to the study of catalysts. In this article, we will show that a quantitative approach, based upon fundamental expression of the XPS signal, has enabled us to obtain a consistent set of response factors for the elements of the periodic table. In-depth spadework has been necessary to know precisely the transmission function of the spectrometer used at IFP. The set of response factors obtained enables to perform, on a routine basis, a quantitative analysis with approximately 20% relative accuracy, which is quite acceptable for an analysis of such a nature. While using this quantitative approach, we have developed an analytical method specific to hydrotreating catalysts that allows obtaining the sulphiding degree of molybdenum quite reliably and reproducibly. The usage of this method is illustrated by two examples for which XPS spectroscopy has provided with information sufficiently accurate and quantitative to help understand the reactivity differences between certain MoS2/Al2O3 or NiMoS/Al2O3-type hydrotreating catalysts.

  5. Soft X-ray-induced decomposition of amino acids: An XPS, mass spectrometry, and NEXAFS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubavichus, Yan; Fuchs, Oliver; Weinhardt, Lothar; Heske, Clemens; Umbach, Eberhard; Denlinger, Jonathan D.; Grunze, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Decomposition of five amino acids, alanine, serine, cysteine, aspartic acid, and asparagine, under irradiation with soft X-rays (magnesium Ka X-ray source) in ultra-high vacuum was studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) and mass spectrometry. A comparative analysis of changes in XPS line shapes, stoichiometry and residual gas composition indicates that the molecules decompose by several pathways. Dehydration, decarboxylation, decarbonylation,deamination and desulfurization of pristine molecules accompanied by desorption of H2, H2O, CO2, CO, NH3and H2S are observed with rates depending on the specific amino acid. NEXAFS spectra of cysteine at the carbon, oxygen and nitrogen K-shell and sulfur L2,3 edges complement the XPS and mass spectrometry data and show that the exposure of the sample to an intense soft X-ray synchrotron beam results in the formation of C-C and C-N double and triple bonds. Qualitatively, the amino acids studied can be arranged in the following ascending order of radiation stability:serine< alanine< aspartic acid< cysteine< asparagine

  6. XPS and EPXMA investigation and chemical speciation of aerosol samples formed in LWR core melting experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moers, H.; Jenett, H.; Kaufmann, R.; Klewe-Nebenius, H.; Pfennig, G.; Ache, H.J.

    1985-09-01

    Aerosol samples consisting of fission products and elements of light water reactor structural materials were collected during simulating in a laboratory scale the heat-up phase of a core melt accident. The aerosol particles were formed in a steam atmosphere at temperatures between 1200 and 1900 0 C of the melting charge. The investigation of the samples by use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) permitted the chemical speciation of the detected aerosol constituents silver, cadmium, indium, tellurium, iodine, and cesium. A comparison of the elemental analysis results obtained from XPS with those achieved from electron probe X-ray micro analysis (EPXMA) revealed that aerosol particle surface and aerosol particle bulk are principally composed of the same elements and that these compositions vary with release temperature. In addition, quantitative differences between the composition of surface and bulk have only been observed for those aerosol samples which were collected at higher melting charge temperatures. In order to obtain direct information on chemical species below the surface selected samples were argon ion bombarded. Changes in composition and chemistry were monitored by XPS, and the results were interpreted in light of the effects, which were observed when appropriate standard samples were sputtered. (orig.) [de

  7. Time-Resolved WAXD and SAXS Investigations on Butyl Branched Alkane at Elevated Pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rastogi, A.; Hobbs, J.K.; Rastogi, S.

    2002-01-01

    The crystallization behavior and the morphological aspect of the butyl branched alkane C96H193CH(C4H9)C94H189 have been investigated using time-resolved wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) at atmospheric and elevated pressures. The solution crystallized sample

  8. Cohort study comparing prostate photovaporisation with XPS 180W and HPS 120W laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, B; Capitán, C; Hernández, V; de la Peña, E; Jiménez-Valladolid, I; Guijarro, A; Pérez-Fernández, E; Llorente, C

    2016-01-01

    Prostate photovaporisation with Greenlight laser for the surgical treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia has rapidly evolve to the new XPS 180W. We have previously demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the HPS 120W. The aim of this study was to assess the functional and safety results, with a year of follow-up, of photovaporisation using the XPS 180W laser compared with its predecessor. A cohort study was conducted with a series of 191 consecutive patients who underwent photovaporisation between 1/2008 and 5/2013. The inclusion criteria were an international prostate symptom score (IPSS) >15 after medical failure, a prostate volume <80 cm(3) and a maximum flow <15 mL/s. We assessed preoperative and intraoperative variables (energy used, laser time and total surgical time), complications, catheter hours, length of stay and functional results (maximum flow, IPSS, prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume) at 3, 6 and 12 months. We analysed the homogeneity in preoperative characteristics of the 2 groups through univariate analysis techniques. The postoperative functional results were assessed through an analysis of variance of repeated measures with mixed models. A total of 109 (57.1%) procedures were performed using HPS 120W, and 82 (42.9%) were performed using XPS. There were no differences between the preoperative characteristics. We observed significant differences both in the surgical time and effective laser time in favour of the XPS system. This advantage was 11% (48 ± 15.7 vs. 53.8 ± 16.2, p<.05) and 9% (32.8 ± 11.7 vs. 36 ± 11.6, p<.05), respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the rest of the analysed parameters. The technical improvements in the XPS 180W system help reduce surgical time, maintaining the safety and efficacy profile offered by the HPS 120W system, with completely superimposable results at 1 year of follow-up. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, G.; Cherubini, G.; Fioravanti, A.; Olivi, A.

    1976-09-01

    A method for the analysis of the data derived from neutron small angle scattering measurements has been accomplished in the case of homogeneous particles, starting from the basic theory without making any assumption on the form of particle size distribution function. The experimental scattering curves are interpreted with the aid the computer by means of a proper routine. The parameters obtained are compared with the corresponding ones derived from observations at the transmission electron microscope

  10. Determination of solid angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, S.; Amano, H.; Kasai, A.

    1988-01-01

    The solid angle in extended alpha source measurement for a series of counting geometries has been obtained by two methods: (1) calculated by means of the Nelson Blachmen series; (2) interpolated from the data table given by Gardner. A particular consequence of the application of the Nelson Blachmen series was deduced which was different from that given by the original author. The applicability of these two methods, as well as an experimentally measured method, is also evaluated. (author)

  11. Metasurface Enabled Wide-Angle Fourier Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenwei; Li, Zhancheng; Cheng, Hua; Tang, Chengchun; Li, Junjie; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo

    2018-06-01

    Fourier optics, the principle of using Fourier transformation to understand the functionalities of optical elements, lies at the heart of modern optics, and it has been widely applied to optical information processing, imaging, holography, etc. While a simple thin lens is capable of resolving Fourier components of an arbitrary optical wavefront, its operation is limited to near normal light incidence, i.e., the paraxial approximation, which puts a severe constraint on the resolvable Fourier domain. As a result, high-order Fourier components are lost, resulting in extinction of high-resolution information of an image. Other high numerical aperture Fourier lenses usually suffer from the bulky size and costly designs. Here, a dielectric metasurface consisting of high-aspect-ratio silicon waveguide array is demonstrated experimentally, which is capable of performing 1D Fourier transform for a large incident angle range and a broad operating bandwidth. Thus, the device significantly expands the operational Fourier space, benefitting from the large numerical aperture and negligible angular dispersion at large incident angles. The Fourier metasurface will not only facilitate efficient manipulation of spatial spectrum of free-space optical wavefront, but also be readily integrated into micro-optical platforms due to its compact size. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Resolving inventory differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.H.; Clark, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Determining the cause of an inventory difference (ID) that exceeds warning or alarm limits should not only involve investigation into measurement methods and reexamination of the model assumptions used in the calculation of the limits, but also result in corrective actions that improve the quality of the accountability measurements. An example illustrating methods used by Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel to resolve an ID is presented that may be useful to other facilities faced with a similar problem. After first determining that no theft or diversion of material occurred and correcting any accountability calculation errors, investigation into the IDs focused on volume and analytical measurements, limit of error of inventory difference (LEID) modeling assumptions, and changes in the measurement procedures and methods prior to the alarm. There had been a gradual gain trend in IDs prior to the alarm which was reversed by the alarm inventory. The majority of the NM in the facility was stored in four large tanks which helped identify causes for the alarm. The investigation, while indicating no diversion or theft, resulted in changes in the analytical method and in improvements in the measurement and accountability that produced a 67% improvement in the LEID

  13. Time-resolved studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    When new or more powerful probes become available that offer both shorter data-collection times and the opportunity to apply innovative approaches to established techniques, it is natural that investigators consider the feasibility of exploring the kinetics of time-evolving systems. This stimulating area of research not only can lead to insights into the metastable or excited states that a system may populate on its way to a ground state, but can also lead to a better understanding of that final state. Synchrotron radiation, with its unique properties, offers just such a tool to extend X-ray measurements from the static to the time-resolved regime. The most straight-forward application of synchrotron radiation to the study of transient phenomena is directly through the possibility of decreased data-collection times via the enormous increase in flux over that of a laboratory X-ray system. Even further increases in intensity can be obtained through the use of novel X-ray optical devices. Widebandpass monochromators, e.g., that utilize the continuous spectral distribution of synchrotron radiation, can increase flux on the sample several orders of magnitude over conventional X-ray optical systems thereby allowing a further shortening of the data-collection time. Another approach that uses the continuous spectral nature of synchrotron radiation to decrease data-collection times is the open-quote parallel data collectionclose quotes method. Using this technique, intensities as a function of X-ray energy are recorded simultaneously for all energies rather than sequentially recording data at each energy, allowing for a dramatic decrease in the data-collection time

  14. The influence of flip angle on the magic angle effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurlo, J.V.; Blacksin, M.F.; Karimi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To assess the impact of flip angle with gradient sequences on the ''magic angle effect''. We characterized the magic angle effect in various gradient echo sequences and compared the signal- to-noise ratios present on these sequences with the signal-to-noise ratios of spin echo sequences.Design. Ten normal healthy volunteers were positioned such that the flexor hallucis longus tendon remained at approximately at 55 to the main magnetic field (the magic angle). The tendon was imaged by a conventional spin echo T1- and T2-weighted techniques and by a series of gradient techniques. Gradient sequences were altered by both TE and flip angle. Signal-to-noise measurements were obtained at segments of the flexor hallucis longus tendon demonstrating the magic angle effect to quantify the artifact. Signal-to-noise measurements were compared and statistical analysis performed. Similar measurements were taken of the anterior tibialis tendon as an internal control.Results and conclusions. We demonstrated the magic angle effect on all the gradient sequences. The intensity of the artifact was affected by both the TE and flip angle. Low TE values and a high flip angle demonstrated the greatest magic angle effect. At TE values less than 30 ms, a high flip angle will markedly increase the magic angle effect. (orig.)

  15. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) study of uranium, neptunium and plutonium oxides in silicate-based glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, D.J.; Veal, B.W.; Paulikas, A.P.

    1982-11-01

    Using XPS as the principal investigative tool, we are in the process of examining the bonding properties of selected metal oxides added to silicate glass. In this paper, we present results of XPS studies of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium in binary and multicomponent silicate-based glasses. Models are proposed to account for the very diverse bonding properties of 6+ and 4+ actinide ions in the glasses

  16. Al2O3 e-Beam Evaporated onto Silicon (100)/SiO2, by XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madaan, Nitesh; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Jensen, David S.; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Samha, Hussein; Linford, Matthew R.

    2013-09-25

    We report the XPS characterization of a thin film of Al2O3 (35 nm) deposited via e-beam evaporation onto silicon (100). The film was characterized with monochromatic Al Ka radiation. An XPS survey scan, an Al 2p narrow scan, and the valence band spectrum were collected. The Al2O3 thin film is used as a diffusion barrier layer for templated carbon nanotube (CNT) growth in the preparation of microfabricated thin layer chromatography plates.

  17. Effects of Mn Ion Implantation on XPS Spectroscopy of GaN Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Abdul; Ahmad, Naeem; Rizwan, Muhammad; Khan, Salah Ud-Din; Ali, Fekri Abdulraqeb Ahmed; Zhu, Jianjun

    2018-02-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) thin film was deposited onto a sapphire substrate and then implanted with 250 keV Mn ions at two different doses of 2 × 1016 ions/cm2 and 5 × 1016 ions/cm2. The as-grown and post-implantation-thermally-annealed samples were studied in detail using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS peaks of Ga 3 d, Ga 2 p, N 1 s, Mn 2 p and C 1 s were recorded in addition to a full survey of the samples. The doublet peaks of Ga 2 p for pure GaN were observed blue-shifted when compared with elemental Ga, and appeared further shifted to higher energies for the implanted samples. These observations point to changes in the bonds and the chemical environment of the host as a result of ion implantation. The results revealed broadening of the N 1 s peak after implantation, which is interpreted in terms of the presence of N-Mn bonds in addition to N-Ga bonds. The XPS spectra of Mn 2 p recorded for ion-implanted samples indicated splitting of Mn 2 p 1/2 and Mn 2 p 3/2 peaks higher than that for metallic Mn, which helps rule out the possibility of clustering and points to substitutional doping of Mn. These observations provide a framework that sheds light on the local environment of the material for understanding the mechanism of magnetic exchange interactions in Mn:GaN based diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  18. Combined DFT and XPS investigation of iodine anions adsorption on the sulfur terminated (001) chalcopyrite surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kui, E-mail: likui9606@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhao, Yaolin, E-mail: zhaoyaolin@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, Peng, E-mail: zp32@qq.com [Sino Shaanxi Nuclear Industry Group, Xi’an 710100 (China); He, Chaohui, E-mail: hechaohui@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Deng, Jia, E-mail: djkokocase@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Ding, Shujiang, E-mail: dingsj@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shi, Weiqun, E-mail: shiwq@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology and Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Metal surface sites of (001)-S surface of chalcopyrite show significant chemical affinity to iodide and iodate. • The energetically favorable active site is copper for iodide adsorption and iron for iodate adsorption, respectively. • Iodate undergoes a dissociative adsorption on the copper site of chalcopyrite surface. - Abstract: The adsorption of iodine anions (iodide and iodate) on the sulfur terminated (001) chalcopyrite surface has been systematically investigated combining first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Based on the total energy calculations and geometric optimization, the thermodynamically preferred site was copper atom for iodide adsorption and iron atom for iodate adsorption, respectively. In the case of Cu site mode, the iodate underwent a dissociative adsorption, where one I−O bond of iodate ion was broken and the dissociative oxygen atom adsorbed on the adjacent sulphur site. Projected density of states (PDOS) analysis further clarified the interaction mechanism between active sites of chalcopyrite surface and adsorbates. In addition, full-range XPS spectra qualitatively revealed the presence of iodine on chalcopyrite surface. High resolution XPS spectra of the I 3d peaks after adsorption verified the chemical environment of iodine. The binding energies of 618.8 eV and 623.5 eV for I 3d{sub 5/2} peaks unveiled that the adsorption of iodide and iodate ions on copper-iron sulfide minerals was the result of formation of low solubility metal iodides precipitate. Also two I 3d peaks with low intensity around 618 eV and 630 eV might be related to the inorganic reduction of iodate to iodide by reducing S{sup 2−} ion of chalcopyrite.

  19. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.K.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with 13 C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system

  20. XNAES and XPS studies on modification of SWCNTS upon gas-phase purification treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Xianqing; Wu Ziyu; Zhong Jun; Zhao Ting; Yao Peng; Ibrahim, K.; Qian Haijie

    2009-01-01

    A systematic characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) after successive purification steps, including air oxidation at 350 degree C, hydrochloric acid etching and 600 degree C annealing in Ar, have been performed combining X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the modification degree of SWCNTs increased after the purification procedures, but decreased significantly by annealing in Ar. It also showed that the SWCNTs could bond with chlorine atoms during the hydrochloric acid etching and suggested this modification may be importance for the applications. (authors)

  1. Atomic and nuclear analytical methods. XRF, Moessbauer, XPS, NAA and ion-beam spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a blend of analytical methods based on the phenomenon of atomic and nuclear physics. It comprises comprehensive presentations about X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Moessbauer Spectroscopy (MS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Neutron- Activation Analysis (NAA), Particle Induced X-ray Emission Analysis (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Analysis (RBS), Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission Analysis (PIGE), and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). These techniques are commonly applied in the fields of medicine, biology, environmental studies, archaeology or geology et al. and pursued in major international research laboratories. (orig.)

  2. Combined application of XANES and XPS to study oxygen species adsorbed on Ag foil

    CERN Document Server

    Bukhtiyarov, V I; Kaichev, V V; Knop-Gericke, A; Mayer, R W; Schloegl, R

    2001-01-01

    Adsorbed oxygen species realized in the course of ethylene epoxidation over polycrystalline silver have been characterized by X-ray absorption near the edge structure and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Namely, the combined application of XANES and XPS in similar UHV conditions using the same sample allowed us to assign an XAS feature to the nucleophilic and electrophilic oxygen. This is of great significance, since these species are suggested to be included into the active center for ethylene epoxidation. The differences in the oxygen-silver bonding of these oxygen species are discussed.

  3. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Forest Grown via Chemical Vapor Deposition from Iron Catalyst Nanoparticles, by XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, David S.; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Madaan, Nitesh; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2013-09-25

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have unique chemical and physical properties. Herein, we report an XPS analysis of a forest of multiwalled CNTs using monochromatic Al Kα radiation. Survey scans show only one element: carbon. The carbon 1s peak is centered 284.5 eV. The C 1s envelope also shows the expected π → π* shake-up peak at ca. 291 eV. The valence band and carbon KVV Auger signals are presented. When patterned, the CNT forests can be used as a template for subsequent deposition of metal oxides to make thin layer chromatography plates.1-3

  4. XPS study on the surface reaction of uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 200 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoling; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou; Huang Ruiliang

    1996-12-01

    The surface reaction of uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 200 degree C has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The carbon monoxide adsorption on the surface oxide layer resulted in U4f peak shifting to the lower binding energy and the content of oxygen in the oxide is decreased. O/U radio decreases with increasing the exposure of carbon monoxide to the surface layer. The investigation indicated the surface layer of uranium metal was further reduced in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide at high temperature. (3 refs., 5 figs.)

  5. XPS and Raman study of zinc containing silica microparticles loaded with insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanea, E.; Simon, V., E-mail: viorica.simon@phys.ubbcluj.ro

    2013-09-01

    Zinc–silica microparticles obtained by sol–gel method solely or by combining sol–gel chemistry with freeze-drying and spray-drying procedures were explored as potential insulin drug delivery carriers for their improved loading efficiency. Zinc containing silica hosts of different specific surface area and mean pore volume loaded with insulin under similar conditions were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assess the insulin adherence to these matrices and the biologically active state of the insulin after embedding.

  6. XPS response in the corrosion products analysis for copper exposed at clean air environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariaca, L.; Morcillo, M.; Feliu Jr, S.; Gonzalez, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this work is presented the obtained response for superficial analysis technique by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA), to determine the corrosion products formed during the copper exposure at environment without pollutants (clean air) at 50, 70 and 90 % of relative humidity at 35 Centigrade. One of the copper corrosion products most knew is Cu 2 O. This oxide is formed instantly to be exposed the copper at air. However in function of the exposure time and the relative humidity at it is exposed, the Cu 2 O oxide is transformed at Cu O and Cu(OH) 2 (Author)

  7. ISS Assessment of the Influence of Nonpore Surface in the XPS Analysis of Oil-Producing Reservoir Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon; Toledo; Araujo

    1997-08-15

    The application of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to oil-producing reservoir rocks is new and has shown that pore surface concentrations can be related to rock wettability. In the preparation of fresh fractures of rocks, however, some nonpore surface corresponding to the connection regions in the rocks is created and exposed to XPS. To assess the potential influence of this nonpore surface in the XPS analysis of rocks here we use ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS), which has a resolution comparable to the size of the pores, higher than that of XPS, with an ion gun of He+ at maximum focus. Sample charging effects are partially eliminated with a flood gun of low energy electrons. All the ISS signals are identified by means of a formula which corrects any residual charging on the samples. Three rock samples are analyzed by XPS and ISS. The almost unchanged ISS spectra obtained at different points of a given sample suggest that the nonpore surface created in the fracture process is negligibly small, indicating that XPS data, from a larger surface spot, represents the composition of true pore surfaces. The significant changes observed in ISS spectra from different samples indicate that ISS is sample specific. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  8. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

  9. Studies in small angle scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellenbach, K.

    1980-03-01

    Small angle scattering of neutrons, X-rays and γ-rays are found among the spectroscopic methods developed in the recent years. Although these techniques differ from each other in many respects, e.g. radiation sources and technical equipment needed, their power to resolve physical phenomena and areas of application can be discussed in a general scheme. Selected examples are given illustrating the use of specific technical methods. Jahn-Teller driven structural phase transitions in Rare Earth zircons were studied with neutron scattering as well as small angle γ-ray diffraction. The study of neutron scattering from formations of magnetic domains in the Ising ferromagnet LiTbF 4 is a second example. Both these examples represent more than experimental test cases since the theoretical interpretations of the data obtained are discussed as well. As a last example the use of small angle scattering methods for the study of molecular biological samples is discussed. In particular the experimental procedures used in connection with scattering from aqueous solutions of proteins and protein complexes are given. (Auth.)

  10. Recent trends in spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Taichi

    2017-12-01

    Since the discovery of the Rashba effect on crystal surfaces and also the discovery of topological insulators, spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (SARPES) has become more and more important, as the technique can measure directly the electronic band structure of materials with spin resolution. In the same way that the discovery of high-Tc superconductors promoted the development of high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, the discovery of this new class of materials has stimulated the development of new SARPES apparatus with new functions and higher resolution, such as spin vector analysis, ten times higher energy and angular resolution than conventional SARPES, multichannel spin detection, and so on. In addition, the utilization of vacuum ultra violet lasers also opens a pathway to the realization of novel SARPES measurements. In this review, such recent trends in SARPES techniques and measurements will be overviewed.

  11. Review of the theoretical description of time-resolved angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy in electron-phonon mediated superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, A.F. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Sentef, M.A. [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Moritz, B. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences (SIMES), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Devereaux, T.P. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences (SIMES), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Freericks, J.K. [Department of Physics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-09-15

    We review recent work on the theory for pump/probe photoemission spectroscopy of electron-phonon mediated superconductors in both the normal and the superconducting states. We describe the formal developments that allow one to solve the Migdal-Eliashberg theory in nonequilibrium for an ultrashort laser pumping field, and explore the solutions which illustrate the relaxation as energy is transferred from electrons to phonons. We focus on exact results emanating from sum rules and approximate numerical results which describe rules of thumb for relaxation processes. In addition, in the superconducting state, we describe how Anderson-Higgs oscillations can be excited due to the nonlinear coupling with the electric field and describe mechanisms where pumping the system enhances superconductivity. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. XPS and μ-Raman study of nanosecond-laser processing of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armyanov, S., E-mail: armyanov@ipc.bas.bg [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Stankova, N.E.; Atanasov, P.A. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Shose, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Valova, E.; Kolev, K.; Georgieva, J. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Steenhaut, O.; Baert, K.; Hubin, A. [Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Faculty of Engineering, Research Group, SURF “Electrochemical and Surface Engineering” (Belgium)

    2015-10-01

    Data about the chemical status of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) after nanosecond Q-switched Nd:YAG laser treatment with near infrared, visible and ultraviolet radiation are presented. The μ-Raman spectroscopy analyses reveal as irradiation result a new sharp peak of crystalline silicon. In addition, broad bands appear assigned to D band of amorphous carbon and G band of microcrystalline and polycrystalline graphite. The μ-Raman spectra are variable taken in different inspected points in the trenches formed by laser treatment. The XPS surface survey spectra indicate the constituent elements of PDMS: carbon, oxygen and silicon. The spectra of detail XPS scans illustrate the influence of the laser treatment. The position of Si 2p peaks of the treated samples is close to the value of non-treated except that irradiated by 1064 nm 66 pulses, which is shifted by 0.9 eV. Accordingly, a shift by 0.4 eV is noticed of the O 1s peak, which reflects again a stronger oxidation of silicon. The curve fitting of Si 2p and O 1s peaks after this particular laser treatment shows the degree of conversion of organic to inorganic silicon that takes place during the irradiation.

  13. Spectroellipsometric, AFM and XPS probing of stainless steel surfaces subjected to biological influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnichenko, M.; Chevolleau, Th; Pham, M. T.; Poperenko, L.; Maitz, M. F.

    2002-11-01

    Surface modification of austenitic stainless steel (SS) 316L after incubation in growing cell cultures and cell-free media as control has been studied. The following treatments were applied: mouse fibrosarcoma cells L929 for 3 and 7 days, polymorphonuclear neutrophils for 3 and 7 days and human osteosarcoma cells SAOS-2 for 7 and 14 days. Cells were enzymatically removed in all cases. The modified surfaces were probed in comparison with untreated ones by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XPS shows the appearance of the peak of bonded nitrogen at 400.5 eV characteristic for adsorbed proteins on the surface for each type of cells and for the cell-free medium. Migration of Ni in the adsorbed layer is observed in all cases for samples after the cell cultures. The protein layer thickness is ellipsometrically determined to be within 2.5-6.0 nm for all treated samples with parameterization of its optical constants in Cauchy approach. The study showed that for such biological treatments of the SS the protein layer adsorption is the dominating process in the first 2 weeks, which could play a role in the process of corrosion by complex forming properties with metal ions.

  14. Spectroellipsometric, AFM and XPS probing of stainless steel surfaces subjected to biological influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnichenko, M.; Chevolleau, Th.; Pham, M.T.; Poperenko, L.; Maitz, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Surface modification of austenitic stainless steel (SS) 316L after incubation in growing cell cultures and cell-free media as control has been studied. The following treatments were applied: mouse fibrosarcoma cells L929 for 3 and 7 days, polymorphonuclear neutrophils for 3 and 7 days and human osteosarcoma cells SAOS-2 for 7 and 14 days. Cells were enzymatically removed in all cases. The modified surfaces were probed in comparison with untreated ones by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XPS shows the appearance of the peak of bonded nitrogen at 400.5 eV characteristic for adsorbed proteins on the surface for each type of cells and for the cell-free medium. Migration of Ni in the adsorbed layer is observed in all cases for samples after the cell cultures. The protein layer thickness is ellipsometrically determined to be within 2.5-6.0 nm for all treated samples with parameterization of its optical constants in Cauchy approach. The study showed that for such biological treatments of the SS the protein layer adsorption is the dominating process in the first 2 weeks, which could play a role in the process of corrosion by complex forming properties with metal ions

  15. Characterization of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans biofilm on high-alloyed stainless steel: XPS and electrochemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dec, Weronika [Institute of Industrial Organic Chemistry, Branch Pszczyna, Doświadczalna Street 27, 43-200 Pszczyna (Poland); Mosiałek, Michał; Socha, Robert P. [Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry PAS, Niezapominajek Street 8, 30-239 Kraków (Poland); Jaworska-Kik, Marzena [Department of Biopharmacy, Medical University of Silesia, Jedności Street 8, 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland); Simka, Wojciech [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego 6 Street, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Michalska, Joanna, E-mail: joanna.k.michalska@polsl.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego 6 Street, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2017-07-01

    Results on D. desulfuricans biofilm formation on austenitic-ferritic duplex (2205 DSS) and superaustenitic (904L) stainless steels are presented. Surface characterization including the structure, configuration and chemical composition of biofilms were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were used to monitor the attachment activity of bacteria on the steels' surface and to determine the effect of bacteria on passivity. It was proved that investigated steels are rapidly colonized by bacteria. The presence of biofilm caused significant ennoblement of 904L steel surface, while retarded the attainment of high passive state of 2205 DSS. XPS analysis revealed significant sulphidation of the biofilm and its layered structure. Accumulation of sulphides and hydroxides was proved in the outermost layer, while the increasing contents of disulphides, organometallic and C-N bonds were detected in the internal part of the biofilm. Irreversible bondings between steel matrix and biofilm had also been observed. - Highlights: • High-alloyed steels are rapidly colonized by sulphate-reducing bacteria. • Higher Ni content stimulates more intensive biofilm growth. • Extracellular polymeric substances indelibly bind to the high-alloyed steels. • Sulphate-reducing bacteria caused irreversible sulphidation of passive films.

  16. Structural, optical, XPS and magnetic properties of Zn particles capped by ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Iu.G., E-mail: yugmor@hotmail.com [Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Academician Osipyan Street 8, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region 142432 (Russian Federation); Belousova, O.V. [Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Academician Osipyan Street 8, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region 142432 (Russian Federation); Ortega, D., E-mail: daniel.ortega@imdea.org [Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia (IMDEA-Nanociencia), Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain); Mafina, M.-K., E-mail: m.k.mafina@qmul.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End, Eng, 231, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Kuznetcov, M.V., E-mail: maxim1968@mail.ru [Department of Chemistry, Materials Chemistry Research Centre, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-05

    Highlights: • Levitation-jet aerosol synthesis of Zn particles capped by ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). • TEM, XRD, UV–vis, FT-IR, Raman, XPS and magnetic characterization of the NPs. • Correlation between unit-cell volume of crystal lattice and maximum magnetization. - Abstract: Spherical zinc particles ranging from 42 to 760 nm in average size and capped with plate-like zinc oxide particles of 10–30 nm in sizes have been prepared by levitation-jet aerosol synthesis through condensation of zinc vapor in an inert/oxidizer gas flow. The nanoparticles have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET measurements, ultra violet visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray electron spectroscopy (XPS), superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), and vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM). Magnetic and XRD data indicate that the observed ferromagnetic ordering related to the changes in unit-cell volume of Zn in the Zn/ZnO interface of the nanoparticles. These results are in good correlation with the optical measurements data.

  17. XPS and FTIR spectroscopic study on microwave treated high phosphorus iron ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omran, Mamdouh; Fabritius, Timo; Elmahdy, Ahmed M.; Abdel-Khalek, Nagui A.; El-Aref, Mortada; Elmanawi, Abd El-Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of microwave radiation on structure and chemical state of high phosphorus iron ore was studied. • FTIR analyses showed that after microwave radiation the functional chemical groups of phosphorus bearing minerals (fluorapatite) dissociated. • High resolution XPS analyses of Fe 2p peaks showed that after microwave radiation a portion of Fe(+III) was reduced to Fe(+II). • Microwave radiation had a positive effect on the magnetic properties of iron oxide, through formation of ferromagnetic phases. - Abstract: A growing interest in microwave heating has emerged recently. Several potential microwave applications regarding minerals’ processing have been investigated. This paper investigates the effect of microwave radiation on Egyptian high phosphorus iron ore. Three different iron ore samples have varying Fe 2 O 3 and P 2 O 5 contents and mineralogical textures were studied. A comparative study has been carried out between untreated and microwave treated iron ore. XRD and FTIR analyses showed that after microwave radiation the crystallinity of iron bearing minerals (hematite) increased, while the functional chemical groups of phosphorus bearing minerals (fluorapatite) and other gangues dissociated. High resolution XPS analyses of Fe 2p peaks showed that after microwave radiation a portion of Fe(+III) was reduced to Fe(+II). This means that after microwave radiation iron oxide (hematite, Fe 3+ ) transformed into more magnetic phase. The results indicated that microwave radiation had a positive effect on the magnetic properties of iron oxide, through formation of ferromagnetic phases

  18. XPS/STM study of model bimetallic Pd–Au/HOPG catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukhtiyarov, Andrey V., E-mail: avb@catalysis.ru [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva Ave. 5, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova str. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Prosvirin, Igor P., E-mail: prosvirin@catalysis.ru [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva Ave. 5, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova str. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Bukhtiyarov, Valerii I., E-mail: vib@catalysis.ru [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva Ave. 5, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova str. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The model Pd–Au/HOPG catalysts preparation has been studied by XPS and STM. • Model “core–shell” type Pd–Au/HOPG catalysts with different Pd/Au ratios were prepared. • Heating of the “core–shell” Pd–Au/HOPG samples up to 400 °C leads to alloy formation. • Contribution of parameters controlling the properties of Pd–Au alloyed particles has been discussed. - Abstract: The preparation of model bimetallic Pd–Au/HOPG catalysts has been investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Initially, model “core–shell” type Pd–Au/HOPG catalysts with similar particle size distribution (5–8 nm), but with different densities of particle locations on the HOPG surface and Pd/Au atomic ratios are prepared. Further, their thermal stability is studied within a temperature range of 50–500 °C at UHV conditions. It has been shown that annealing the model catalysts at a temperature range of 300–400 °C leads to formation of Pd–Au alloyed particles. Enhancement of heating temperature up to 500 °C results in sintering of bimetallic nanoparticles. Contribution of different parameters controlling the properties of Pd–Au alloyed particles has been discussed.

  19. The effect of particle-hole interaction on the XPS core-hole spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masahide; Sjoegren, Lennart

    2004-01-01

    How the effective particle-hole interaction energy, U, or the polarization effect on a secondary electron in a final two-hole one-particle (2h1p) state created by the Coster-Kronig (CK) transition can solely affect the density of the CK particle states and consequently the core-hole spectral function, is discussed. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core-hole spectrum is predominantly governed by the unperturbed initial core-hole energy relative to the zero-point energy. At the latter energy, the real part of the initial core-hole self-energy becomes zero (no relaxation energy shift) and the imaginary part (the lifetime broadening) approximately maximizes. The zero-point energy relative to the double-ionization threshold energy is governed by the ratio of U relative to the bandwidth of the CK continuum. As an example, we study the 5p XPS spectra of atomic Ra (Z=88), Th (Z=90) and U (Z=92). The spectra are interpreted in terms of the change in the unperturbed initial core-hole energy relative to the zero-point energy. We explain why in general an ab initio atomic many-body calculation can provide an overall good description of solid-state spectra predominantly governed by the atomic-like localized core-hole dynamics. We explain this in terms of the change from free atom to metal in both U and the zero-point energy (self-energy)

  20. Rondorfite-type structure — XPS and UV–vis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulski, M., E-mail: mateusz.dulski@smcebi.edu.pl [Institute of Material Science, University of Silesia, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1a, 41-500 Chorzow (Poland); A.Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Bilewska, K., E-mail: kbilewska@us.edu.pl [A.Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1a, 41-500 Chorzow (Poland); Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals, Sowińskiego 5, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Wojtyniak, M., E-mail: marcin.wojtyniak@us.edu.pl [Institute of Material Science, University of Silesia, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1a, 41-500 Chorzow (Poland); Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1a, 41-500 Chorzow (Poland); Szade, J., E-mail: jacek.szade@us.edu.pl [A.Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1a, 41-500 Chorzow (Poland); Kusz, J., E-mail: joachim.kusz@us.edu.pl [A.Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Nowak, A., E-mail: ana.maria.nowak@gmail.com [A.Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1a, 41-500 Chorzow (Poland); Wrzalik, R., E-mail: roman.wrzalik@us.edu.pl [A.Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1a, 41-500 Chorzow (Poland); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Structural and spectroscopic characterization of chlorosilicate mineral, rondorfite. • Characterization of main photoemission lines and valence band spectra. • The study of color origin’s using UV–vis spectroscopy. • Analysis of structural changes in context of origin of natural fluorescence. • Discussion of a new application possibilities of analyzed mineral - Abstract: This paper focuses on X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron and UV–vis spectroscopy of two different (green, orange) rondorfite samples. The differences in the sample color originate from various O/Cl ratios. The orange color was found to be related either to the isomorphic substitution of Fe{sup 3+}/Al{sup 3+} for Mg{sup 2+}, the presence of atypical [MgO{sub 4}] tetrahedrons in crystal structure or electronegativity of the sample. The tetrahedron is known to be very prone to accumulation of impurities and substitute atoms. Moreover, the XPS data showed tetrahedrally coordinated Mg{sup 2+} and isomorphic substitution of Al{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 3+} for Mg{sup 2+}, which influences local disordering and the point defects density and distribution. Non-equilibrium chlorine positions inside the crystal cages as well as Ca-Cl bonds have also been found. The XPS measurements as a function of temperature indicate occurrence of a structural transformation at about 770 K which is accompanied by a rotation of silicate tetrahedra within magnesiosilicate pentamer and luminescence disappearance.

  1. XPS analysis of the carbon fibers surface modified via HMDSO to carbon nanotube growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, L.D.R.; Gomes, M.C.B.; Trava-Airoldi, V.J.; Corat, E.J.; Lugo, D.C. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Carbon fibers (CF) have been widely used to reinforce structural composites. Due to their strength-to-weight properties, CF composites are finding increased structural uses in areas such as aerospace, aeronautical, automobile and others. The strength of the fiber-resin interface bond has been found to be the limiting factor to the mechanical properties of CF-epoxy materials, due to their non-polar nature that limit the affinity of CF to bind chemically to any matrix. The growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the surface of CF is a promising approach for improving mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of structural composites. However growing CNTs on CF presents some obstacles, such as diffusion of metal catalyst particles on CF, uneven CNT growth and loss of mechanical properties of CF. To avoid the diffusion of catalyst particles we modified the CF surface with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) at low temperature (400 °C), also preventing the loss of mechanical properties and allowing uniform CNTs growth. We deposited CNTs via floating catalyst method, with ferrocene providing the catalyst particle and the oxidative dehydrogenation reaction of acetylene providing the carbon. The CF surface modification was analyzed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and CNTs growth via scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun. The XPS analysis showed that HMDSO promotes the binding of oxygen to carbon and silicon present on CF surface, the chemical modification of the surface of the CF enables the uniform growth of carbon nanotubes. (author)

  2. An XPS round robin investigation on analysis of wood pulp fibres and filter paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Campbell, J. M.; Fardim, Pedro; Hultén, Anette Heijnesson; Boisvert, Jean-Philippe; Ernstsson, Marie

    2005-06-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been applied to pulp and paper research for decades. However, there has been no attempt to standardise or even systematically compare experimental and analysis procedures, even though it is known that fibrous, nature-derived and insulating fibre materials pose remarkable challenges to reliable surface analysis. The experimental problems are mainly linked with neutralisation, energy resolution, contamination and X-ray induced degradation. We have tested applicability, reliability and reproducibility of XPS analysis on real pulp samples with varying lignin and extractives contents in a small round robin investigation. We also tested the instrumental set-ups with an acetone-extracted filter paper, used as a reference sample. The data, collected at four different laboratories with state-of-the-art instruments indicate that reproducible results can be obtained, despite minor differences in experimental and analysis procedures. However, we found that a specified sample handling procedure and limited X-ray exposure are crucial for reproducible, reliable data. Based on the round robin data we recommend dose restricted monochromatic measurements, a cellulosic in situ reference and a consistent sample handling procedure. The data confirms that a paper-based reference material and the correlation of high-resolution C 1s data with O/C atomic ratios can be used in testing instruments and experimental set-ups for pulp and paper materials.

  3. Characterization of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans biofilm on high-alloyed stainless steel: XPS and electrochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dec, Weronika; Mosiałek, Michał; Socha, Robert P.; Jaworska-Kik, Marzena; Simka, Wojciech; Michalska, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Results on D. desulfuricans biofilm formation on austenitic-ferritic duplex (2205 DSS) and superaustenitic (904L) stainless steels are presented. Surface characterization including the structure, configuration and chemical composition of biofilms were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were used to monitor the attachment activity of bacteria on the steels' surface and to determine the effect of bacteria on passivity. It was proved that investigated steels are rapidly colonized by bacteria. The presence of biofilm caused significant ennoblement of 904L steel surface, while retarded the attainment of high passive state of 2205 DSS. XPS analysis revealed significant sulphidation of the biofilm and its layered structure. Accumulation of sulphides and hydroxides was proved in the outermost layer, while the increasing contents of disulphides, organometallic and C-N bonds were detected in the internal part of the biofilm. Irreversible bondings between steel matrix and biofilm had also been observed. - Highlights: • High-alloyed steels are rapidly colonized by sulphate-reducing bacteria. • Higher Ni content stimulates more intensive biofilm growth. • Extracellular polymeric substances indelibly bind to the high-alloyed steels. • Sulphate-reducing bacteria caused irreversible sulphidation of passive films.

  4. XPS analysis of the carbon fibers surface modified via HMDSO to carbon nanotube growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, L.D.R.; Gomes, M.C.B.; Trava-Airoldi, V.J.; Corat, E.J.; Lugo, D.C.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Carbon fibers (CF) have been widely used to reinforce structural composites. Due to their strength-to-weight properties, CF composites are finding increased structural uses in areas such as aerospace, aeronautical, automobile and others. The strength of the fiber-resin interface bond has been found to be the limiting factor to the mechanical properties of CF-epoxy materials, due to their non-polar nature that limit the affinity of CF to bind chemically to any matrix. The growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the surface of CF is a promising approach for improving mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of structural composites. However growing CNTs on CF presents some obstacles, such as diffusion of metal catalyst particles on CF, uneven CNT growth and loss of mechanical properties of CF. To avoid the diffusion of catalyst particles we modified the CF surface with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) at low temperature (400 °C), also preventing the loss of mechanical properties and allowing uniform CNTs growth. We deposited CNTs via floating catalyst method, with ferrocene providing the catalyst particle and the oxidative dehydrogenation reaction of acetylene providing the carbon. The CF surface modification was analyzed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and CNTs growth via scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun. The XPS analysis showed that HMDSO promotes the binding of oxygen to carbon and silicon present on CF surface, the chemical modification of the surface of the CF enables the uniform growth of carbon nanotubes. (author)

  5. Rotary friction welding of dissimilar joints and bonding interface characterization by EDX and XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Eder Paduan; Dollinger, Christian Avila [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Marcuzzo, Jossano Saldanha; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro; Toledo, Rafael Cardoso; Piorino Neto, Francisco; An, Chen Ying, E-mail: eder.padua@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Welding of dissimilar materials has been a challenge to engineering. The study and development of new union processes that meet the requirements of projects in the aerospace, nuclear and aviation sector are of great importance to the scientific and productive means. The Rotary friction welding process (RFW) is a process of union that occurs in the solid state, without occurrence of fusion between the parties, and that have like the main bonding mechanisms the diffusion and mechanical mixture. This work has as objective the obtaining of dissimilar joints involving AA 6351-T6 alloy and stainless steel AISI 304l for applications in the aerospace area. The joints obtained by RFW who had procedures and qualified welding process have undergone the techniques of Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) for analysis of the bonding interface. Were obtained joints with superior mechanical properties the AA 6351-T6 alloy, with the fracture occurring in aluminum away from the bonding interface. The analyses carried out by EDX and XPS have shown the occurrence of interdiffusion among the main elements of the materials involved. The Rotary friction welding process proved to be a great method for obtaining of joints between dissimilar materials that are not possible by fusion welding processes. (author)

  6. Rotary friction welding of dissimilar joints and bonding interface characterization by EDX and XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Eder Paduan; Dollinger, Christian Avila; Marcuzzo, Jossano Saldanha; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro; Toledo, Rafael Cardoso; Piorino Neto, Francisco; An, Chen Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Welding of dissimilar materials has been a challenge to engineering. The study and development of new union processes that meet the requirements of projects in the aerospace, nuclear and aviation sector are of great importance to the scientific and productive means. The Rotary friction welding process (RFW) is a process of union that occurs in the solid state, without occurrence of fusion between the parties, and that have like the main bonding mechanisms the diffusion and mechanical mixture. This work has as objective the obtaining of dissimilar joints involving AA 6351-T6 alloy and stainless steel AISI 304l for applications in the aerospace area. The joints obtained by RFW who had procedures and qualified welding process have undergone the techniques of Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) for analysis of the bonding interface. Were obtained joints with superior mechanical properties the AA 6351-T6 alloy, with the fracture occurring in aluminum away from the bonding interface. The analyses carried out by EDX and XPS have shown the occurrence of interdiffusion among the main elements of the materials involved. The Rotary friction welding process proved to be a great method for obtaining of joints between dissimilar materials that are not possible by fusion welding processes. (author)

  7. EXAFS and XPS Study of Rutile-Type Difluorides of First-Row Transition Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Kei-ichiro; Suzuki, Yohei; Moriga, Toshihiro; Yoshiasa, Akira

    2007-01-01

    Although most rutile-type difluorides (MnF2, CoF2 and NiF2) have a positive thermal expansion coefficient, FeF2 has a negative thermal expansion (NTE) along the c-axis in the high temperature region. In this study, we give an explanation of that behavior with Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. From EXAFS results, it has become apparent that the length of the share-edge (Fe-Fe) of FeF6 octahedra increased with the rise of temperature in the high temperature region. We have revealed that the force constant between nearest neighbor atoms (Fe-F) was much larger than that between second-nearest neighbor atoms (Fe-Fe) in FeF2. In XPS measurements, it was discovered that the peak of F 1s of FeF2 was located at the lowest binding energy position as compared to that of other difluorides. This means that the charge density around the F atom in FeF2 was higher than that in other difluorides. It follows from this that the share-edge repulsive force in FeF2 is larger than that in other difluorides. On account of the large repulsive force and the large force constant between nearest neighbor atoms, Fe atoms are attracted to share-edge with the rise of temperature

  8. Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2014-04-01

    It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Theoretical modeling of the uranium 4f XPS for U(VI) and U(IV) oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagus, Paul S. [Department of Chemistry, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203-5017 (United States); Nelin, Connie J. [Consulting and Services, 6008 Maury' s Trail, Austin, Texas 78730 (United States); Ilton, Eugene S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    A rigorous study is presented of the physical processes related to X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS, in the 4f level of U oxides, which, as well as being of physical interest in themselves, are representative of XPS in heavy metal oxides. In particular, we present compelling evidence for a new view of the screening of core-holes that extends prior understandings. Our analysis of the screening focuses on the covalent mixing of high lying U and O orbitals as opposed to the, more common, use of orbitals that are nominally pure U or pure O. It is shown that this covalent mixing is quite different for the initial and final, core-hole, configurations and that this difference is directly related to the XPS satellite intensity. Furthermore, we show that the high-lying U d orbitals as well as the U(5f) orbital may both contribute to the core-hole screening, in contrast with previous work that has only considered screening through the U(5f) shell. The role of modifying the U-O interaction by changing the U-O distance has been investigated and an unexpected correlation between U-O distance and XPS satellite intensity has been discovered. The role of flourite and octahedral crystal structures for U(IV) oxides has been examined and relationships established between XPS features and the covalent interactions in the different structures. The physical views of XPS satellites as arising from shake processes or as arising from ligand to metal charge transfers are contrasted; our analysis provides strong support that shake processes give a more fundamental physical understanding than charge transfer. Our theoretical studies are based on rigorous, strictly ab initio determinations of the electronic structure of embedded cluster models of U oxides with formal U(VI) and U(IV) oxidation states. Our results provide a foundation that makes it possible to establish quantitative relationships between features of the XPS spectra and materials properties.

  10. Theoretical modeling of the uranium 4f XPS for U(VI) and U(IV) oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagus, Paul S.; Nelin, Connie J.; Ilton, Eugene S.

    2013-12-01

    A rigorous study is presented of the physical processes related to X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS, in the 4f level of U oxides, which, as well as being of physical interest in themselves, are representative of XPS in heavy metal oxides. In particular, we present compelling evidence for a new view of the screening of core-holes that extends prior understandings. Our analysis of the screening focuses on the covalent mixing of high lying U and O orbitals as opposed to the, more common, use of orbitals that are nominally pure U or pure O. It is shown that this covalent mixing is quite different for the initial and final, core-hole, configurations and that this difference is directly related to the XPS satellite intensity. Furthermore, we show that the high-lying U d orbitals as well as the U(5f) orbital may both contribute to the core-hole screening, in contrast with previous work that has only considered screening through the U(5f) shell. The role of modifying the U-O interaction by changing the U-O distance has been investigated and an unexpected correlation between U-O distance and XPS satellite intensity has been discovered. The role of flourite and octahedral crystal structures for U(IV) oxides has been examined and relationships established between XPS features and the covalent interactions in the different structures. The physical views of XPS satellites as arising from shake processes or as arising from ligand to metal charge transfers are contrasted; our analysis provides strong support that shake processes give a more fundamental physical understanding than charge transfer. Our theoretical studies are based on rigorous, strictly ab initio determinations of the electronic structure of embedded cluster models of U oxides with formal U(VI) and U(IV) oxidation states. Our results provide a foundation that makes it possible to establish quantitative relationships between features of the XPS spectra and materials properties.

  11. Resolved Hapke parameter maps of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B.; Denevi, B. W.; Boyd, A. K.

    2014-08-01

    We derived spatially resolved near-global Hapke photometric parameter maps of the Moon from 21 months of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) multispectral observations using a novel "tile-by-tile method" (1° latitude by 1° longitude bins). The derived six parameters (w,b,c,BS0,hS, andθ¯p) for each tile were used to normalize the observed reflectance (standard angles i = g = 60°, e = 0° instead of the traditional angles i = g = 30°, e = 0°) within each tile, resulting in accurate normalization optimized for the local photometric response. Each pixel in the seven-color near-global mosaic (70°S to 70°N and 0°E to 360°E) was computed by the median of normalized reflectance from large numbers of repeated observations (UV: ˜50 and visible: ˜126 on average). The derived mosaic exhibits no significant artifacts with latitude or along the tile boundaries, demonstrating the quality of the normalization procedure. The derived Hapke parameter maps reveal regional photometric response variations across the lunar surface. The b, c (Henyey-Greenstein double-lobed phase function parameters) maps demonstrate decreased backscattering in the maria relative to the highlands (except 321 nm band), probably due to the higher content of both SMFe (submicron iron) and ilmenite in the interiors of back scattering agglutinates in the maria. The hS (angular width of shadow hiding opposition effect) map exhibits relatively lower values in the maria than the highlands and slightly higher values for immature highland crater ejecta, possibly related to the variation in a grain size distribution of regolith.

  12. Resolving surface chemical states in XPS analysis of first row transition metals, oxides and hydroxides: Sc, Ti, V, Cu and Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biesinger, Mark C.; Lau, Leo W.M.; Gerson, Andrea R.; Smart, Roger St.C.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical state X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of first row transition metals and their oxides and hydroxides is challenging due to the complexity of the 2p spectra resulting from peak asymmetries, complex multiplet splitting, shake-up and plasmon loss structure, and uncertain, overlapping binding energies. A review of current literature shows that all values necessary for reproducible, quantitative chemical state analysis are usually not provided. This paper reports a more consistent, practical and effective approach to curve-fitting the various chemical states in a variety of Sc, Ti, V, Cu and Zn metals, oxides and hydroxides. The curve-fitting procedures proposed are based on a combination of (1) standard spectra from quality reference samples, (2) a survey of appropriate literature databases and/or a compilation of the literature references, and (3) specific literature references where fitting procedures are available. Binding energies, full-width at half maximum (FWHM) values, spin-orbit splitting values, asymmetric peak-shape fitting parameters, and, for Cu and Zn, Auger parameters values are presented. The quantification procedure for Cu species details the use of the shake-up satellites for Cu(II)-containing compounds and the exact binding energies of the Cu(0) and Cu(I) peaks. The use of the modified Auger parameter for Cu and Zn species allows for corroborating evidence when there is uncertainty in the binding energy assignment. These procedures can remove uncertainties in analysis of surface states in nano-particles, corrosion, catalysis and surface-engineered materials.

  13. Resolving surface chemical states in XPS analysis of first row transition metals, oxides and hydroxides: Sc, Ti, V, Cu and Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biesinger, Mark C., E-mail: biesingr@uwo.ca [Surface Science Western, University of Western Ontario, University of Western Ontario Research Park, Room LL31, 999 Collip Circle, London, Ontario, N6G 0J3 (Canada); ACeSSS (Applied Centre for Structural and Synchrotron Studies), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Lau, Leo W.M. [Surface Science Western, University of Western Ontario, University of Western Ontario Research Park, Room LL31, 999 Collip Circle, London, Ontario, N6G 0J3 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Gerson, Andrea R.; Smart, Roger St.C. [ACeSSS (Applied Centre for Structural and Synchrotron Studies), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    Chemical state X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of first row transition metals and their oxides and hydroxides is challenging due to the complexity of the 2p spectra resulting from peak asymmetries, complex multiplet splitting, shake-up and plasmon loss structure, and uncertain, overlapping binding energies. A review of current literature shows that all values necessary for reproducible, quantitative chemical state analysis are usually not provided. This paper reports a more consistent, practical and effective approach to curve-fitting the various chemical states in a variety of Sc, Ti, V, Cu and Zn metals, oxides and hydroxides. The curve-fitting procedures proposed are based on a combination of (1) standard spectra from quality reference samples, (2) a survey of appropriate literature databases and/or a compilation of the literature references, and (3) specific literature references where fitting procedures are available. Binding energies, full-width at half maximum (FWHM) values, spin-orbit splitting values, asymmetric peak-shape fitting parameters, and, for Cu and Zn, Auger parameters values are presented. The quantification procedure for Cu species details the use of the shake-up satellites for Cu(II)-containing compounds and the exact binding energies of the Cu(0) and Cu(I) peaks. The use of the modified Auger parameter for Cu and Zn species allows for corroborating evidence when there is uncertainty in the binding energy assignment. These procedures can remove uncertainties in analysis of surface states in nano-particles, corrosion, catalysis and surface-engineered materials.

  14. A XPS Study of the Passivity of Stainless Steels Influenced by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guocun

    The influence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) on the passivity of type 304 and 317L stainless steels (SS) was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), microbiological and electrochemical techniques. Samples were exposed to SRB, and then the resultant surfaces were analyzed by XPS, and the corrosion resistance by potentiodynamic polarization in deaerated 0.1 M HCl. To further understand their passivity, the SRB-exposed samples were analyzed by XPS after potentiostatic polarization at a passive potential in the hydrochloric solution. The characterization was performed under two surface conditions: unrinsed and rinsed by deaerated alcohol and deionized water. Comparisons were made with control samples immersed in uninoculated medium. SRB caused a severe loss of the passivity of 304 SS through sulfide formation and possible additional activation to form hexavalent chromium. The sulfides included FeS, FeS_2, Cr_2S _3, NiS and possibly Fe_ {rm 1-x}S. The interaction took place nonuniformly, resulting in undercutting of the passive film and preferential hydration of inner surface layers. The bacterial activation of the Cr^{6+ }^ecies was magnified by subsequent potentiostatic polarization. In contrast, 317L SS exhibited a limited passivity. The sulfides were formed mainly in the outer layers. Although Cr^{6+}^ecies were observed after the exposure, they were dissolved upon polarization. Since 317L SS has a higher Mo content, its higher passivity was ascribed to Mo existing as molybdate on the surface and Mo^{5+} species in the biofilm. Consequently, the interaction of SRB with Mo was studied. It was observed that molybdate could be retained on the surfaces of Mo coupons by corrosion products. In the presence of SRB, however, a considerable portion of the molybdate interacted with intermediate sulfur -containing proteins, forming Mo(V)-S complexes and reducing bacterial growth and sulfate reduction. The limited insolubility of the Mo(V)-S complexes in 0

  15. Structural and XPS studies of PSi/TiO2 nanocomposites prepared by ALD and Ag-assisted chemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iatsunskyi, Igor; Kempiński, Mateusz; Nowaczyk, Grzegorz; Jancelewicz, Mariusz; Pavlenko, Mykola; Załęski, Karol; Jurga, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Porous silicon/TiO 2 nanocomposites have been investigated. • Morphology and chemical composition of PSi/TiO 2 nanocomposites were established. • Valence-band XPS maximums for PSi/TiO 2 nanocomposites were found and analyzed. - Abstract: PSi/TiO 2 nanocomposites fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) were investigated. The morphology and phase structure of PSi/TiO 2 nanocomposites were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Raman spectroscopy. The mean size of TiO 2 nanocrystals was determined by TEM and Raman spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the chemical elemental composition by observing the behavior of the Ti 2p, O 1s and Si 2p lines. TEM, Raman spectroscopy and XPS binding energy analysis confirmed the formation of TiO 2 anatase phase inside the PSi matrix. The XPS valence band analysis was performed in order to investigate the modification of PSi/TiO 2 nanocomposites electronic structure. Surface defects states of Ti 3+ at PSi/TiO 2 nanocomposites were identified by analyzing of XPS valence band spectra

  16. The double Brewster angle effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirion-Lefevre, Laetitia; Guinvarc'h, Régis

    2018-01-01

    The Double Brewster angle effect (DBE) is an extension of the Brewster angle to double reflection on two orthogonal dielectric surfaces. It results from the combination of two pseudo-Brewster angles occurring in complementary incidence angles domains. It can be observed for a large range of incidence angles provided that double bounces mechanism is present. As a consequence of this effect, we show that the reflection coefficient at VV polarization can be at least 10 dB lower than the reflection coefficient at HH polarization over a wide range of incidence angle - typically from 20 to 70∘. It is experimentally demonstrated using a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image that this effect can be seen on buildings and forests. For large buildings, the difference can reach more than 20 dB. xml:lang="fr"

  17. Small-angle X-ray scattering of solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.H.J.; Stuhrmann, H.B.; Vachette, P.; Tardieu, A.

    1982-01-01

    The use of synchrotron radiation in small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques in biological structural studies is described. The main features of the monochromatic radiation systems and the white radiation systems are considered. The detectors, data acquisition and experimental procedures are briefly described. Experimental results are presented for 1) measurements on dilute solutions and weak scatterers, 2) measurement of conformational transitions, 3) contrast variation experiments, 4) time-resolved measurements and 5) complex contrast variation. (U.K.)

  18. Plasma-oxidation of Ge(100)-surfaces characterized by MIES, UPS and XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegewitz, Lienhard; Dahle, Sebastian; Maus-Friedrichs, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Energieforschung und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstr. 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Hoefft, Oliver; Endres, Frank [Institut fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Arnold-Sommerfeld-Str. 6, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Vioel, Wolfgang [HAWK Goettingen, Fakultaet Naturwissenschaften und Technik, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Goettingen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Cleaning and passivation of Germanium surfaces is of tremendous technological interest. Germanium has various applications, for example in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor elements. It turned out to be difficult to prepare contamination free Germanium surfaces by methods of wet chemistry. Several attempts have been made preparing such surfaces by different plasma treatments. We report cleaning and passivation of Ge(100)-surfaces by dielectric barrier discharge plasma at ambient temperature in oxygen and in air studied by Metastable Induced Electron Spectroscopy (MIES) and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS(He I) and XPS). The plasma treatment is carried out in a special high-vacuum chamber which operates up to ambient pressure and is directly connected to the ultra-high vacuum chamber including the analysis equipment. In summary the air plasma treatment as well as the oxygen plasma treatment result in contamination free GeO{sub 2} covered surfaces.

  19. Study of gadolinia-doped ceria solid electrolyte surface by XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Pradyot; Majewski, Peter; Aldinger, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    Gadolinia-doped ceria (CGO) is an important material to be used as electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell for intermediate temperature operation. Ceria doped with 10 mol% gadolinia (Ce 0.9 Gd 0.1 O 1.95 ) was prepared by conventional solid state synthesis and found to be single phase by room temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD). The chemical states of the surface of the prepared sample were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Though Gd was present in its characteristic chemical state, Ce was found in both Ce 4+ and Ce 3+ states. Presence of Ce 3+ state was ascribed to the differential yield of oxygen atoms in the sputtering process

  20. Heat capacity measurements and XPS studies on uranium-lanthanum mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Krishnan, R.; Mittal, V.K.; Babu, R.; Senapati, Abhiram; Bera, Santanu; Nagarajan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Heat capacity measurements were carried out on (U 1-y La y )O 2±x (y = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8) using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in the temperature range 298-800 K. → Enthalpy increment measurements were carried out on the above solid solution using high temperature drop calorimetry in the temperature range 800-1800 K. → Chemical states of U and La in the solid solutions of mixed oxides were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). → The anomalous increase in the heat capacity is attributed to certain thermal excitation process namely Frenkel pair defect of oxygen. → From the XPS investigation, it is observed that the O/M ratio at the surface is higher than that to the bulk. → In uranium rich mixed oxide samples, the surface O/M is greater than 2 whereas that in La rich mixed oxides, it is less than 2, though the bulk O/M in all the samples are less than 2. - Abstract: Heat capacity measurements were carried out on (U 1-y La y )O 2±x (y = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8) using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in the temperature range 298-800 K. Enthalpy increment measurements were carried out on the above solid solutions using high temperature drop calorimetry in the temperature range 800-1800 K. Chemical states of U and La in the solid solutions of mixed oxides were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Oxygen to metal ratios of (U 1-y La y )O 2±x were estimated from the ratios of different chemical states of U present in the sample. Anomalous increase in the heat capacity is observed for (U 1-y La y )O 2±x (y = 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8) with onset temperatures in the range of 1000-1200 K. The anomalous increase in the heat capacity is attributed to certain thermal excitation process, namely, Frenkel pair defect of oxygen. The heat capacity value of (U 1-y La y )O 2±x (y = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8) at 298 K are 65.3, 64.1, 57.7, 51.9 J K -1 mol -1 , respectively. From the XPS investigations

  1. Corrosion behaviour of Ni in aprotic solvents an electrochemical, XPS and AFM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, F.; Monetta, T.; Capobianco, G.; Deganello, A.; Glisenti, A.; Moretti, G.

    1998-01-01

    Electrochemical and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) techniques have been used to study the passivation of nickel in 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 DMF and ACN solutions with different water content. Electrochemical results indicate the anodic formation of a thin, poor protective layer and the possibility of salt precipitation onto the metallic surface. ARXPS results indicate that while in the anodic film formed in DMF, Ni(OH) 2 constitute the superficial component under which a discontinuous layer of NiO and NiSO 4 is present. Ni(OH) 2 and NiSO 4 are the more superficial constituents in the passivation layer formed in ACN, while NiO becomes prevalent in the underlying layers. AFM images show that in both the solvents the sample surface is very dishomogeneous with flakes and fractures. (orig.)

  2. Novel immobilizations of an adhesion peptide on the TiO2 surface: An XPS investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iucci, G.; Dettin, M.; Battocchio, C.; Gambaretto, R.; Bello, C. Di; Polzonetti, G.

    2007-01-01

    The covalent attachment of an adhesive peptide, reproducing the 351-359 sequence of human vitronectin, to oxidized titanium surfaces was investigated by XPS spectroscopy. The peptide enhances osteoblast adhesion to titanium, the most used biomaterial for implants and prostheses. Core level spectra of the TiO 2 surface and of the biomimetic surface were investigated. Novel selective covalent immobilization of (351-359) HVP was carried out by treatment of the TiO 2 surface with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane, glutaric anhydride and a side chain protected peptide sequence presenting only a free terminal amino group, followed by side chain deprotection. An alternative strategy for covalent attachment consists in photoactivation of physisorbed (351-359) HVP directly on the TiO 2 surface; samples were incubated with HVP solution and subsequently irradiated with UV light. A comparison with the results previously obtained for non-selective HVP immobilization will be discussed

  3. XPS and AES investigations of the adhesive bonding properties of thin titanium coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moers, H.; Mohr, J.; Klewe-Nebenius, H.; Pfennig, G.

    1988-07-01

    The bonding properties of PMMA-microstructures on Ti-coated Cu-substrates after an oxidative treatment in alkaline hydrogenperoxide solution were investigated. In order to clarify the basic mechanism, surface analytical investigations by XPS-, AES-, and depth profile measurements have been performed. It was demonstrated that for optimum bonding a TiO 2 surface layer of ca. 30 nm thickness is necessary. Chemical effects as well as a mechanical bonding with open grain boundary structures (dimensions in the μm-range) could be ruled out as bonding mechanisms. A mechanical interlocking of the polymer with micropores (dimensions in the nm-range) of the oxidic overlayer is adopted as the most probable bonding mechanism. (orig.)

  4. InP/ZnS nanocrystals: coupling NMR and XPS for fine surface and interface description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virieux, Héloïse; Le Troedec, Marianne; Cros-Gagneux, Arnaud; Ojo, Wilfried-Solo; Delpech, Fabien; Nayral, Céline; Martinez, Hervé; Chaudret, Bruno

    2012-12-05

    Advanced (1)H, (13)C, and (31)P solution- and solid-state NMR studies combined with XPS were used to probe, at the molecular scale, the composition (of the core, the shell, and the interface) and the surface chemistry of InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots prepared via a non-coordinating solvent strategy. The interface between the mismatched InP and ZnS phases is composed of an amorphous mixed oxide phase incorporating InPO(x) (with x = 3 and predominantly 4), In(2)O(3), and InO(y)(OH)(3-2y) (y = 0, 1). Thanks to the analysis of the underlying reaction mechanisms, we demonstrate that the oxidation of the upper part of the InP core is the consequence of oxidative conditions brought by decarboxylative coupling reactions (ketonization). These reactions occur during both the core preparation and the coating process, but according to different mechanisms.

  5. Electrochemical capacity fading of polyaniline electrode in supercapacitor: An XPS analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Deng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand the electrochemical capacity fading of the polyaniline (PANI electrodes in supercapacitors, for the first time, their chemical structure change during electrochemical cycles was traced with XPS analysis after the HCl doped PANI electrodes were subjected to the cyclic voltammetry test in 1.0 M H2SO4 electrolyte for different cycle numbers. The results showed that the chlorine disappeared in the electrode surface, while the surface element contents of sulfur and oxygen increased with the electrochemical cycles increased. It demonstrated that the hydrolytic degradation of the PANI chains and exchange of dopant occurred during the electrochemical cycling, causing the fading in the mechanical and electrochemical performance of the PANI electrodes. This understanding should lead to better design of the conductive polymer-based energy storage devices.

  6. Stability of boron-doped graphene/copper interface: DFT, XPS and OSEE studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhvalov, D. W.; Zhidkov, I. S.; Kukharenko, A. I.; Slesarev, A. I.; Zatsepin, A. F.; Cholakh, S. O.; Kurmaev, E. Z.

    2018-05-01

    Two different types of boron-doped graphene/copper interfaces synthesized using two different flow rates of Ar through the bubbler containing the boron source were studied. X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE) measurements have demonstrated that boron-doped graphene coating provides a high corrosion resistivity of Cu-substrate with the light traces of the oxidation of carbon cover. The density functional theory calculations suggest that for the case of substitutional (graphitic) boron-defect only the oxidation near boron impurity is energetically favorable and creation of the vacancies that can induce the oxidation of copper substrate is energetically unfavorable. In the case of non-graphitic boron defects oxidation of the area, a nearby impurity is metastable that not only prevent oxidation but makes boron-doped graphene. Modeling of oxygen reduction reaction demonstrates high catalytic performance of these materials.

  7. XPS and TEM study of W-DLC/DLC double-layered film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeno, Takanori; Komiyama, Takao; Miki, Hiroyuki; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Aoyama, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    A double-layered film of tungsten-containing diamond-like carbon (W-DLC) and DLC, (W-DLC)/DLC, was investigated. A film of 1.6 μm in thickness was deposited onto silicon substrate. The investigate double-layered coating was deposited by using the combination of PECVD and co-sputtering of tungsten metal target. Structure, interface and chemical bonding state of the investigated film were analyzed by Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). From the results of the analyses, the structure of double-layered film is that amorphous phase of carbon is continued from DLC to W-DLC and tungsten metal clusters are dispersed in W-DLC layer.

  8. XPS studies of SiO2 surface layers formed by oxygen ion implantation into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, D.; Finster, J.

    1983-01-01

    SiO 2 surface layers of 160 nm thickness formed by 16 O + ion implantation into silicon are examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements into the depth after a step-by-step chemical etching. The chemical nature and the thickness of the transition layer were determined. The results of the XPS measurements show that the outer surface and the bulk of the layers formed by oxygen implantation and subsequent high temperature annealing consist of SiO 2 . There is no evidence for Si or SiO/sub x/ (0 2 and Si is similar to that of thin grown oxide layers. Only its thickness is somewhat larger than in thermal oxide

  9. Study on the surface reaction of uranium metal in hydrogen atmosphere with XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaolin; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou; Zuo Changming; Zhao Chunpei; Chen Hong

    1998-01-01

    The surface reactions of uranium metal in hydrogen atmosphere at 25 degree C and 200 degree C and effects of temperature and carbon monoxide to the hydriding reaction have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The reaction between H 2 and uranium metal at 25 degree C leads to the further oxidation of surface layer of metal due to traces of water vapor. At 200 degree C, it may lead to the hydriding reaction of uranium and the hydriding increases with increasing exposure to H 2 in the initial stages. The U4f 7/2 binding energy of UH 3 has been found to be 378.6 eV. Investigation indicates carbon monoxide inhibits both the hydriding reaction and oxidation on the condition of H 2 -CO atmosphere

  10. Angle Performance on Optima XE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Jonathan; Satoh, Shu

    2011-01-01

    Angle control on high energy implanters is important due to shrinking device dimensions, and sensitivity to channeling at high beam energies. On Optima XE, beam-to-wafer angles are controlled in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In the horizontal direction, the beam angle is measured through a series of narrow slits, and any angle adjustment is made by steering the beam with the corrector magnet. In the vertical direction, the beam angle is measured through a high aspect ratio mask, and any angle adjustment is made by slightly tilting the wafer platen during implant.Using a sensitive channeling condition, we were able to quantify the angle repeatability of Optima XE. By quantifying the sheet resistance sensitivity to both horizontal and vertical angle variation, the total angle variation was calculated as 0.04 deg. (1σ). Implants were run over a five week period, with all of the wafers selected from a single boule, in order to control for any crystal cut variation.

  11. Arsenopyrite and pyrite bioleaching: evidence from XPS, XRD and ICP techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantauzzi, Marzia; Licheri, Cristina; Atzei, Davide; Loi, Giovanni; Elsener, Bernhard; Rossi, Giovanni; Rossi, Antonella

    2011-10-01

    In this work, a multi-technical bulk and surface analytical approach was used to investigate the bioleaching of a pyrite and arsenopyrite flotation concentrate with a mixed microflora mainly consisting of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray-induced Auger electron spectroscopy mineral surfaces investigations, along with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur determination (CHNS) analyses, were carried out prior and after bioleaching. The flotation concentrate was a mixture of pyrite (FeS(2)) and arsenopyrite (FeAsS); after bioleaching, 95% of the initial content of pyrite and 85% of arsenopyrite were dissolved. The chemical state of the main elements (Fe, As and S) at the surface of the bioreactor feed particles and of the residue after bioleaching was investigated by X-ray photoelectron and X-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy. After bioleaching, no signals of iron, arsenic and sulphur originating from pyrite and arsenopyrite were detected, confirming a strong oxidation and the dissolution of the particles. On the surfaces of the mineral residue particles, elemental sulphur as reaction intermediate of the leaching process and precipitated secondary phases (Fe-OOH and jarosite), together with adsorbed arsenates, was detected. Evidence of microbial cells adhesion at mineral surfaces was also produced: carbon and nitrogen were revealed by CHNS, and nitrogen was also detected on the bioleached surfaces by XPS. This was attributed to the deposition, on the mineral surfaces, of the remnants of a bio-film consisting of an extra-cellular polymer layer that had favoured the bacterial action. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  12. Reduction of mixed Mn-Zr oxides: in situ XPS and XRD studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulavchenko, O A; Vinokurov, Z S; Afonasenko, T N; Tsyrul'nikov, P G; Tsybulya, S V; Saraev, A A; Kaichev, V V

    2015-09-21

    A series of mixed Mn-Zr oxides with different molar ratios Mn/Zr (0.1-9) have been prepared by coprecipitation of manganese and zirconium nitrates and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and BET methods. It has been found that at concentrations of Mn below 30 at%, the samples are single-phase solid solutions (MnxZr1-xO2-δ) based on a ZrO2 structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements showed that manganese in these solutions exists mainly in the Mn(4+) state on the surface. An increase in Mn content mostly leads to an increase in the number of Mn cations in the structure of solid solutions; however, a part of the manganese cations form Mn2O3 and Mn3O4 in the crystalline and amorphous states. The reduction of these oxides with hydrogen was studied by a temperature-programmed reduction technique, in situ XRD, and near ambient pressure XPS in the temperature range from 100 to 650 °C. It was shown that the reduction of the solid solutions MnxZr1-xO2-δ proceeds via two stages. During the first stage, at temperatures between 100 and 500 °C, the Mn cations incorporated into the solid solutions MnxZr1-xO2-δ undergo partial reduction. During the second stage, at temperatures between 500 and 700 °C, Mn cations segregate on the surface of the solid solution. In the samples with more than 30 at% Mn, the reduction of manganese oxides was observed: Mn2O3 → Mn3O4 → MnO.

  13. XPS and FTIR spectroscopic study on microwave treated high phosphorus iron ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omran, Mamdouh, E-mail: mamdouh.omran@oulu.fi [Process Metallurgy Research Group, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu (Finland); Mineral Processing and Agglomeration Lab, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Cairo (Egypt); Fabritius, Timo [Process Metallurgy Research Group, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu (Finland); Elmahdy, Ahmed M.; Abdel-Khalek, Nagui A. [Mineral Processing and Agglomeration Lab, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Cairo (Egypt); El-Aref, Mortada; Elmanawi, Abd El-Hamid [Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt)

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • The effect of microwave radiation on structure and chemical state of high phosphorus iron ore was studied. • FTIR analyses showed that after microwave radiation the functional chemical groups of phosphorus bearing minerals (fluorapatite) dissociated. • High resolution XPS analyses of Fe 2p peaks showed that after microwave radiation a portion of Fe(+III) was reduced to Fe(+II). • Microwave radiation had a positive effect on the magnetic properties of iron oxide, through formation of ferromagnetic phases. - Abstract: A growing interest in microwave heating has emerged recently. Several potential microwave applications regarding minerals’ processing have been investigated. This paper investigates the effect of microwave radiation on Egyptian high phosphorus iron ore. Three different iron ore samples have varying Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} contents and mineralogical textures were studied. A comparative study has been carried out between untreated and microwave treated iron ore. XRD and FTIR analyses showed that after microwave radiation the crystallinity of iron bearing minerals (hematite) increased, while the functional chemical groups of phosphorus bearing minerals (fluorapatite) and other gangues dissociated. High resolution XPS analyses of Fe 2p peaks showed that after microwave radiation a portion of Fe(+III) was reduced to Fe(+II). This means that after microwave radiation iron oxide (hematite, Fe{sup 3+}) transformed into more magnetic phase. The results indicated that microwave radiation had a positive effect on the magnetic properties of iron oxide, through formation of ferromagnetic phases.

  14. Colloidal diatomite, radionickel, and humic substance interaction: a combined batch, XPS, and EXAFS investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Guodong; Shen, Runpu; Dong, Huaping; Li, Yimin

    2013-06-01

    This work determined the influence of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) on the interaction mechanism and microstructure of Ni(II) onto diatomite by using batch experiments, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) methods. Macroscopic and spectroscopic experiments have been combined to see the evolution of the interaction mechanism and microstructure of Ni(II) in the presence of HA/FA as compared with that in the absence of HA/FA. The results indicated that the interaction of Ni(II) with diatomite presents the expected solution pH edge at 7.0, which is modified by addition of HA/FA. In the presence of HA/FA, the interaction of Ni(II) with diatomite increased below solution pH 7.0, while Ni(II) interaction decreased above solution pH 7.0. XPS analysis suggested that the enrichment of Ni(II) onto diatomite may be due to the formation of (≡SO)2Ni. EXAFS results showed that binary surface complexes and ternary surface complexes of Ni(II) can be simultaneously formed in the presence of HA/FA, whereas only binary surface complexes of Ni(II) are formed in the absence of HA/FA, which contribute to the enhanced Ni(II) uptake at low pH values. The results observed in this work are important for the evaluation of Ni(II) and related radionuclide physicochemical behavior in the natural soil and water environment.

  15. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  16. Erosion Behaviour of API X100 Pipeline Steel at Various Impact Angles and Particle Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Okonkwo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Erosion is the gradual removal of material due to solid particle impingement and results in a failure of pipeline materials. In this study, a series of erosion tests were carried out to investigate the influence of particle speed and impact angle on the erosion mechanism of API X100 pipeline steel. A dry erosion machine was used as the test equipment, while the particle speed ranged from 20 to 80 m/s and impact angles of 30° and 90° were used as test parameters. The eroded API X100 steel surface was characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The weight loss and erosion rate were also investigated. The results showed that at a 90° impact angle, a ploughing mechanism was occurring on the tested specimens, while material removal through low-angle cutting was the dominant mechanism at lower impact angles. Embedment of alumina particles on the target steel surface, micro-cutting, and low-angle cutting were observed at low impact angles. Therefore, the scratches, cuttings, and severe ploughings observed on some failed oil and gas pipelines could be attributed to the erosion mechanism.

  17. Quantitative analysis of Si1-xGex alloy films by SIMS and XPS depth profiling using a reference material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Won Jin; Jang, Jong Shik; Lee, Youn Seoung; Kim, Ansoon; Kim, Kyung Joong

    2018-02-01

    Quantitative analysis methods of multi-element alloy films were compared. The atomic fractions of Si1-xGex alloy films were measured by depth profiling analysis with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Intensity-to-composition conversion factor (ICF) was used as a mean to convert the intensities to compositions instead of the relative sensitivity factors. The ICFs were determined from a reference Si1-xGex alloy film by the conventional method, average intensity (AI) method and total number counting (TNC) method. In the case of SIMS, although the atomic fractions measured by oxygen ion beams were not quantitative due to severe matrix effect, the results by cesium ion beam were very quantitative. The quantitative analysis results by SIMS using MCs2+ ions are comparable to the results by XPS. In the case of XPS, the measurement uncertainty was highly improved by the AI method and TNC method.

  18. Automated analysis of angle closure from anterior chamber angle images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Mani; Cheng, Jun; Perera, Shamira A; Tun, Tin A; Liu, Jiang; Aung, Tin

    2014-10-21

    To evaluate a novel software capable of automatically grading angle closure on EyeCam angle images in comparison with manual grading of images, with gonioscopy as the reference standard. In this hospital-based, prospective study, subjects underwent gonioscopy by a single observer, and EyeCam imaging by a different operator. The anterior chamber angle in a quadrant was classified as closed if the posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen. An eye was classified as having angle closure if there were two or more quadrants of closure. Automated grading of the angle images was performed using customized software. Agreement between the methods was ascertained by κ statistic and comparison of area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). One hundred forty subjects (140 eyes) were included, most of whom were Chinese (102/140, 72.9%) and women (72/140, 51.5%). Angle closure was detected in 61 eyes (43.6%) with gonioscopy in comparison with 59 eyes (42.1%, P = 0.73) using manual grading, and 67 eyes (47.9%, P = 0.24) with automated grading of EyeCam images. The agreement for angle closure diagnosis between gonioscopy and both manual (κ = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI), 0.81-0.96) and automated grading of EyeCam images was good (κ = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.85). The AUC for detecting eyes with gonioscopic angle closure was comparable for manual and automated grading (AUC 0.974 vs. 0.954, P = 0.31) of EyeCam images. Customized software for automated grading of EyeCam angle images was found to have good agreement with gonioscopy. Human observation of the EyeCam images may still be needed to avoid gross misclassification, especially in eyes with extensive angle closure. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  19. Time resolved techniques: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.C.; Tischler, J.Z.

    1990-06-01

    Synchrotron sources provide exceptional opportunities for carrying out time-resolved x-ray diffraction investigations. The high intensity, high angular resolution, and continuously tunable energy spectrum of synchrotron x-ray beams lend themselves directly to carrying out sophisticated time-resolved x-ray scattering measurements on a wide range of materials and phenomena. When these attributes are coupled with the pulsed time-structure of synchrotron sources, entirely new time-resolved scattering possibilities are opened. Synchrotron beams typically consist of sub-nanosecond pulses of x-rays separated in time by a few tens of nanoseconds to a few hundred nanoseconds so that these beams appear as continuous x-ray sources for investigations of phenomena on time scales ranging from hours down to microseconds. Studies requiring time-resolution ranging from microseconds to fractions of a nanosecond can be carried out in a triggering mode by stimulating the phenomena under investigation in coincidence with the x-ray pulses. Time resolution on the picosecond scale can, in principle, be achieved through the use of streak camera techniques in which the time structure of the individual x-ray pulses are viewed as quasi-continuous sources with ∼100--200 picoseconds duration. Techniques for carrying out time-resolved scattering measurements on time scales varying from picoseconds to kiloseconds at present and proposed synchrotron sources are discussed and examples of time-resolved studies are cited. 17 refs., 8 figs

  20. Study of electron beam effects on surfaces using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettings, M.; Coad, J.P.

    1976-02-01

    Discrepancies in the surface analyses of oxidised or heavily contaminated materials have been observed between X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and techniques using electron beams (primarily Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)). These discrepancies can be ascribed to the influence of the primary electron beam and to illustrate the various types of electron effects different materials were analysed using XPS and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) before and after large area electron bombardment. The materials used included chrome and stainless steels, nickel, platinum, glass and brass. (author)

  1. Measurement of the angle gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.; Sphicas, P.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA

    1993-12-01

    The angle γ as defined in the Wolfenstein approximation is not completely out of reach of current or proposed dedicated B experiments. This work represents but a first step in the direction of extracting the third angle of the unitarity triangle by study the feasibility of using new decay modes in a hadronic machine. (A.B.). 11 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  2. Nucleation of small angle boundaries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The internal stresses induced by the strain gradients in an array of lattice cells delineated by low-angle dislocation boundaries are partially relieved by the creation of new low-angle boundaries. This is shown to be a first-order transition...

  3. Wide angle spectrometers for intermadiate energy electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leconte, P.

    1982-10-01

    It is shown that improvements of the detector acceptances (in solid angle and momentum bite) is as important as increased duty cycle for coincidence experiments. To have a maximum efficiency and thus to reduce the cost of experiments, it is imperative to develop maximum solid angle systems. This implies an axial symmetry with respect to the incoming beam. At Saclay, we have investigated some of the properties of specific detectors covering up to 90% of 4π steradians for a high energy, 100% duty cycle electron accelerator. The techniques of wide angle spectrometers have already been explored on a large scale in high energy physics. However, in the case of charged particles, such detectors, compared to classical iron dipole spectrometers, present a smaller resolving power and a rather low background rejection. The choice of which of these two solutions is to be used depends on the conditions of the specific experiment

  4. New layout of time resolved beam energy spectrum measurement for dragon-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Shuqing; Zhang Kaizhi; Shi Jinshui

    2010-01-01

    A new layout of time resolved beam energy spectrum measurement is proposed for Dragon-I by a new method named RBS (rotating beams in solenoids). The basic theory of RBS and the new layout are presented and the measuring error is also discussed. The derived time resolved beam energy spectrum is discrete and is determined by measuring the beam's rotating angle and expanding width through a group of solenoids at the export of Dragon-I. (authors)

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Time-resolved ESR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckert, D.

    1986-06-01

    The time-resolved ESR spectroscopy is one of the modern methods in radiospectroscopy and plays an important role in solving various problems in chemistry and biology. Proceeding from the basic ideas of time-resolved ESR spectroscopy the experimental equipment is described generally including the equipment developed at the Central Institute of Isotope and Radiation Research. The experimental methods applied to the investigation of effects of chemically induced magnetic polarization of electrons and to kinetic studies of free radicals in polymer systems are presented. The theory of radical pair mechanism is discussed and theoretical expressions are summarized in a computer code to compute the theoretical polarization for each pair of the radicals

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verano-Braga, Thiago; Schwämmle, Veit; Sylvester, Marc

    2012-01-01

    proteins involved in the Ang-(1-7) signaling, we performed a mass spectrometry-based time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteome study of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) treated with Ang-(1-7). We identified 1288 unique phosphosites on 699 different proteins with 99% certainty of correct peptide...

  9. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokmakoff, Andrei [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Champion, Paul [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Heilweil, Edwin J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Nelson, Keith A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ziegler, Larry [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2009-05-14

    This document contains the Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, which was held in Meredith, NH from May 9-14, 2009. The study of molecular dynamics in chemical reaction and biological processes using time-resolved spectroscopy plays an important role in our understanding of energy conversion, storage, and utilization problems. Fundamental studies of chemical reactivity, molecular rearrangements, and charge transport are broadly supported by the DOE's Office of Science because of their role in the development of alternative energy sources, the understanding of biological energy conversion processes, the efficient utilization of existing energy resources, and the mitigation of reactive intermediates in radiation chemistry. In addition, time-resolved spectroscopy is central to all fiveof DOE's grand challenges for fundamental energy science. The Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy conference is organized biennially to bring the leaders in this field from around the globe together with young scientists to discuss the most recent scientific and technological advances. The latest technology in ultrafast infrared, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy and the scientific advances that these methods enable were covered. Particular emphasis was placed on new experimental methods used to probe molecular dynamics in liquids, solids, interfaces, nanostructured materials, and biomolecules.

  10. Resolving Ethical Issues at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninga, Jacques S.

    2013-01-01

    Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

  11. Relationship between the Angle of Repose and Angle of Internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). The angle of internal friction ... compression chambers. Lorenzen, 1957 (quoted by Mohsenin,. 1986), reported that the design of deep ... tiongiven for lateral pressure in deep bins as presented by Mohsenin. (1986). The presence of moisture ...

  12. XPS investigations of ruthenium deposited onto representative inner surfaces of nuclear reactor containment buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Direction de la Prevention des Accidents Majeurs (DPAM), Centre de Cadarache, BP3-13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]. E-mail: christian.mun@irsn.fr; Ehrhardt, J.J. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement (LCPME) UMR 7564, CNRS-Nancy University-405, rue de Vandoeuvre 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France)]. E-mail: ehrhardt@lcpe.cnrs-nancy.fr; Lambert, J. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement (LCPME) UMR 7564, CNRS-Nancy University-405, rue de Vandoeuvre 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Madic, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)]. E-mail: charles.madic@cea.fr

    2007-07-15

    In the case of a hypothetical severe accident in a nuclear power plant, interactions of gaseous RuO{sub 4} with reactor containment building surfaces (stainless steel and epoxy paint) could possibly lead to a black Ru-containing deposit on these surfaces. Some scenarios include the possibility of formation of highly radiotoxic RuO{sub 4}(g) by the interactions of these deposits with the oxidizing medium induced by air radiolysis, in the reactor containment building, and consequently dispersion of this species. Therefore, the accurate determination of the chemical nature of ruthenium in the deposits is of the high importance for safety studies. An experiment was designed to model the interactions of RuO{sub 4}(g) with samples of stainless steel and of steel covered with epoxy paint. Then, these deposits have been carefully characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The analysis by XPS of Ru deposits formed by interaction of RuO{sub 4}(g), revealed that the ruthenium is likely to be in the IV oxidation state, as the shapes of the Ru 3d core levels are very similar with those observed on the RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O reference powder sample. The analysis of O 1s peaks indicates a large component attributed to the hydroxyl functional groups. From these results, it was concluded that Ru was present on the surface of the deposits as an oxyhydroxide of Ru(IV). It has also to be pointed out that the presence of 'pure' RuO{sub 2}, or of a thin layer of RuO{sub 3} or Ru{sub 2}O{sub 5}, coming from the decomposition of RuO{sub 4} on the surface of samples of stainless steel and epoxy paint, could be ruled out. These findings will be used for further investigations of the possible revolatilisation phenomena induced by ozone.

  13. XPS study of the passive films formed on nitrogen-implanted austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, P.; Bussell, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels (304-type) have been implanted with nitrogen ions in order to investigate the effects of implanted nitrogen on their electrochemical behaviour and on the nature of the passive film formed on the steels in acid (0.5M H 2 SO 4 ). Alloys with two nitrogen doses have been prepared (2.5x10 16 and 2x10 17 N atoms/cm 2 ). The implanted alloys have been characterized by 15 N-NRA (nuclear reaction analysis) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). Alloy surfaces with well-defined N concentrations were prepared, prior to the electrochemical measurements, by argon-ion sputtering of the implanted material for a fixed time in order to reach a well-defined point on the nitrogen depth profile. The samples were then transferred without exposure to air to an electrochemical cell mounted in an inert gas glove box. The implanted nitrogen modifies the electrochemical behaviour of the alloy. The anodic dissolution in the active state is enhanced, and the current density in the passive state is increased. Surface analysis of the alloys by XPS after passivation shows that implanted nitrogen is enriched on the surface during dissolution and passivation of the alloys. The process by which N is enriched on the surface is anodic segregation, which was first observed and characterized for S on Ni and Ni-Fe alloys. The passive films formed on both the unimplanted and implanted alloys have a bilayer structure with an inner oxide layer and an outer hydroxide layer, but on the nitrogen-implanted alloy, a chromium nitride phase is formed at the expense of the chromium oxide. After passivation of the implanted alloys, three chemical states of nitrogen are detected in the N 1s spectrum. The high binding energy (399.4 eV) peak corresponds to a nitrogen species located on the surface of the passive film, which is produced by reaction of the implanted nitrogen with the solution. (orig./WL)

  14. Interaction of cysteine and copper ions on the surface of iron: EIS, polarization and XPS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Deab, Mohamed S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The current study demonstrates a comprehensive study for Cysteine + Cu(II) ions as an efficient inhibitor as demonstrated by EIS, XPS and potentiodynamic polarization measurements, in addition to traditional weight loss measurements. → The novelty of the current work originates from the combined use of an eco-friendly compound (i.e., cysteine) with a minute amount of copper ions (in the micro molar range) as a corrosion inhibitor for low carbon steel in acidic medium. To this end, cysteine shows only moderate inhibition ca. 60% for iron which jumps up to more than 95% in the presence of micro molar range of Cu(II) ions. → Cysteine-Cu(II) blends are found superior to benzotriazole (BTAH)-Cu(II) blends in terms of their long-term stability in addition to the avoidance of the use of the well-reported highly toxic BTAH. - Abstract: This study addresses the enhancing effect of copper ions on the inhibition efficiency (IE) of cysteine (an eco-friendly compound) against the corrosion of iron in 0.5 M sulphuric acid. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data revealed a significant increase in the polarization resistance (R p ) of the iron/solution interface in the presence of cysteine and Cu(II) ions instead of cysteine alone. That is, IE of 95% is obtained in the presence of 5 mM cysteine and 25 μM Cu(II) ions, compared to 66% in absence of Cu(II) ions. Moreover, electrochemical polarization measurements indicate that cysteine and Cu(II) ions blends act as mixed-type inhibitors for the corrosion of iron. The formation of Cu(I)-cysteinate complex and/or cysteine SAM at Cu atop the iron surface (as evident from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) blocks the underlying iron surface and imparts a pronounced protection against its corrosion. IE of cysteine-Cu(II) blend remains effectively unchanged with immersion time indicating its high stability in the used acidic medium.

  15. Polarization-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing of CdS nanocrystals in a nonresonant region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, S.M.; Seo, J.T.; Yang, Q.; Creemore, L.; Battle, R.; Tabibi, B.; Yu, W.

    2006-01-01

    The third-order susceptibilities of various concentrations of TOPO-passivated CdS nanocrystals (NCs) with the size near the Bohr radius were investigated using polarization-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) in a nonresonant excitation region with 532 nm wavelength and 8 ns pulse width. The second hyperpolarizabilities left angle γ h xxxx right angle and left angle γ h xyyx right angle of the CdS NCs were ∝1.25 x 10 -42 m 5 /V 2 and ∝3.66 x 10 -43 m 5 /V 2 , respectively. The ratio (left angle γ h xyyx right angle / left angle γ h xxxx right angle) of the hyperpolarizabilities was ∝0.29 that indicated a large contribution of electronic polarization process to the third-order nonlinearity of CdS NCs. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Surface refinement and electronic properties of graphene layers grown on copper substrate: An XPS, UPS and EELS study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Siokou, A.; Ravani, F.; Karakalos, S.; Frank, Otakar; Kalbáč, Martin; Galiotis, C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 257, č. 23 (2011), s. 9785-9790 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR IAA400400911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : graphene * XPS * EELS Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.103, year: 2011

  17. A comparative study of Mg and Pt contacts on semi-insulating GaAs: electrical and XPS characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubecký, F.; Kindl, Dobroslav; Hubík, Pavel; Mičušík, M.; Dubecký, M.; Boháček, P.; Vanko, G.; Gombia, E.; Nečas, V.; Mudroň, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 395, Feb (2017), s. 131-135 ISSN 0169-4332 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : semi-insulating GaAs * metal -semiconductor contact * interface * work function * electron transport * XPS Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  18. An in situ XPS study of L-cysteine co-adsorbed with water on polycrystalline copper and gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgensen, Astrid; Raschke, Hannes; Esser, Norbert; Hergenröder, Roland

    2018-03-01

    The interactions of biomolecules with metal surfaces are important because an adsorbed layer of such molecules introduces complex reactive functionality to the substrate. However, studying these interactions is challenging: they usually take place in an aqueous environment, and the structure of the first few monolayers on the surface is of particular interest, as these layers determine most interfacial properties. Ideally, this requires surface sensitive analysis methods that are operated under ambient conditions, for example ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS). This paper focuses on an AP-XPS study of the interaction of water vapour and l-Cysteine on polycrystalline copper and gold surfaces. Thin films of l-Cysteine were characterized with XPS in UHV and in a water vapour atmosphere (P ≤ 1 mbar): the structure of the adsorbed l-Cysteine layer depended on substrate material and deposition method, and exposure of the surface to water vapour led to the formation of hydrogen bonds between H2O molecules and the COO- and NH2 groups of adsorbed l-Cysteine zwitterions and neutral molecules, respectively. This study also proved that it is possible to investigate monolayers of biomolecules in a gas atmosphere with AP-XPS using a conventional laboratory Al-Kα x-ray source.

  19. Ring magnet firing angle control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, M.J.; Lewis, L.G.; Rabe, H.H.

    1975-01-01

    A device is provided for controlling the firing angles of thyratrons (rectifiers) in a ring magnet power supply. A phase lock loop develops a smooth ac signal of frequency equal to and in phase with the frequency of the voltage wave developed by the main generator of the power supply. A counter that counts from zero to a particular number each cycle of the main generator voltage wave is synchronized with the smooth AC signal of the phase lock loop. Gates compare the number in the counter with predetermined desired firing angles for each thyratron and with coincidence the proper thyratron is fired at the predetermined firing angle

  20. Comparing XPS on bare and capped ZrN films grown by plasma enhanced ALD: Effect of ambient oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneshwar, Triratna; Cadien, Ken

    2018-03-01

    In this article we compare x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements on bare- and capped- zirconium nitride (ZrN) films to investigate the effect of ambient sample oxidation on the detected bound O in the form of oxide ZrO2 and/or oxynitride ZrOxNy. ZrN films in both bare- and Al2O3/AlN capped- XPS samples were grown by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) technique using tetrakis dimethylamino zirconium (TDMAZr) precursor, forming gas (5% H2, rest N2) inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and as received research grade process gases under identical process conditions. Capped samples were prepared by depositing 1 nm thick PEALD AlN on ZrN, followed by additional deposition of 1 nm thick ALD Al2O3, without venting of ALD reactor. On bare ZrN sample at room temperature, spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements with increasing ambient exposure times (texp) showed a self-limiting surface oxidation with the oxide thickness (dox) approaching 3.7 ± 0.02 nm for texp > 120 min. In XPS data measured prior to sample sputtering (tsput = 0), ZrO2 and ZrOxNy were detected in bare- samples, whereas only ZrN and Al2O3/AlN from capping layer were detected in capped- samples. For bare-ZrN samples, appearance of ZrO2 and ZrOxNy up to sputter depth (dsput) of 15 nm in depth-profile XPS data is in contradiction with measured dox = 3.7 nm, but explained from sputtering induced atomic inter-diffusion within analyzed sample. Appearance of artifacts in the XPS spectra from moderately sputtered (dsput = 0.2 nm and 0.4 nm) capped-ZrN sample, provides an evidence to ion-bombardment induced modifications within analyzed sample.

  1. Cryogenic XPS study of fast-frozen sulfide minerals: Flotation-related adsorption of n-butyl xanthate and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhlin, Yuri, E-mail: yumikh@icct.ru [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of sciences, Akademgorodok, 50/24, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Karacharov, Anton; Tomashevich, Yevgeny [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of sciences, Akademgorodok, 50/24, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Shchukarev, Andrey [Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå SE-901 87 (Sweden)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Mineral/aqueous solution interfaces were studied with quasi in situ cryo-XPS. • Dibutyl dixanthogen was the major xanthate adsorption product on pyrite. • Dixanthogen and minor cuprous xanthate were uptaken by chalcopyrite. • Xanthate was chemisorbed at PbS. • Ice-repellent character of hydrophobic particles caused charging effects in XPS. - Abstract: Cryogenic XPS of wet particulate samples separated via centrifugation and fast-frozen allows quasi in situ examination of solid surfaces, adsorbates, and reaction products, largely preventing the loss both of volatiles and hydrated species at mineral/water interfaces. Here, the cryo-XPS has been applied to characterize the surfaces and interfacial layers of natural pyrite (FeS{sub 2}), chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}), and galena (PbS) in solutions of a common flotation collector, potassium n-butyl xanthate (KBX), in conjunction with zeta-potential measurement. It was found, in particular, that dibutyl dixanthogen was the major adsorbate at pyrite in 0.1 mM KBX and 10 mM KBX solutions; dixanthogen and cuprous xanthate in the next stage were formed on chalcopyrite, and predominant chemisorbed butyl xanthate was present at galena, including in 10 mM KBX solution. The results may suggest that the production of dixanthogens at the interface has been underestimated while the quantities of surface metal xanthates could be over evaluated in previous studies. Pronounced differential charging effects were observed in the XPS experiment for the samples moderately hydrophobized by the xanthate treatment; we proposed that the effect was due to electrically isolated mineral particles with hydrophobic and ice-repellent surfaces, which retained, however, some frozen water islets.

  2. Energy-resolved photoemission studies of Be-containing surfaces for fusion; Energievariierte Photoemissionsstudien an berylliumhaltigen Oberflaechen fuer die Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppen, Martin

    2013-02-04

    Fusion research aims at the exploitation of the deuterium-tritium reaction for energy production. Next step on the roadmap is the construction of the experimental reactor ITER. The three elements beryllium, carbon and tungsten are to be used as armour materials for the vacuum vessel. After erosion due to plasma processes, these materials are transported and redeposited together with plasma impurities like oxygen from surface oxides. This leads to the formation of compounds by chemical reactions and diffusive processes, induced both by elevated temperatures and implantation of energetic particles. Due to the complexity of the induced surface processes, a method is required which is capable of both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the involved chemical species. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provides the chemical analysis. Since diffusive processes play an important role in solid-state reactions, a depth-resolved method is required. In this work, energy-resolved XPS using synchrotron radiation with variable photon energies is extended towards a quantitative depth-resolved analysis. For the quantitative analysis a new model is derived which calculates the depth-resolved composition and the respective composition-dependent electron inelastic mean free path in a self-consistent way. Input is the XPS data which is normalized with all parameters influencing the photoelectron intensities. This fully quantitative model is applied to describe the interaction of energetic oxygen ions with the beryllium-tungsten alloy Be{sub 2}W. Oxygen ions from the plasma are able to interact with plasma facing materials. Formation of Be{sub 2}W is to be expected at the first wall and in the divertor region of ITER. Irradiation of this alloy leads to its decompositions. After decomposition, formation of beryllium oxide BeO is preferred compared to formation of tungsten oxides. Heating to 600K leads to chemical reduction of tungsten oxides. Metallic Be acts as reduction agent

  3. Quantitative chemical state XPS analysis of first row transition metals, oxides and hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biesinger, M C; Payne, B P; McIntryre, N S [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Hart, B R; Lau, L Wm [Surface Science Western, Room G1, Western Science Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Grosvenor, A P [Department of Chemistry, Gunning/Lemieux Chemistry Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G2 (Canada); Smart, R StC [ACeSSS, Applied Centre for Structural and Synchrotron Studies, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)], E-mail: biesingr@uwo.ca

    2008-03-15

    Practical quantitative chemical state X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of first row transition metals, oxides and hydroxides is challenging due to the complexity of their M 2p spectra. Complex multiplet splitting, shake-up and plasmon loss structure can play a role in the interpretation of the chemical states present. This paper will show practical curve fitting procedures for the quantitative measurement of different chemical states for metal oxides and hydroxides from a survey of transition metals. It will also discuss some of the limitations and pitfalls present as well as give practical examples of their successful use. These curve-fitting procedures are based on 1) standard spectra from quality reference samples, 2) a survey of appropriate literature databases and/or a compilation of literature references, 3) fitting of multiplet split spectra based on spectra of numerous reference materials and theoretical modelling, 4) spectral subtractions routines, again using reference spectra, and 5) specific literature references where fitting procedures are available.

  4. Quantitative chemical state XPS analysis of first row transition metals, oxides and hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biesinger, M C; Payne, B P; McIntryre, N S; Hart, B R; Lau, L Wm; Grosvenor, A P; Smart, R StC

    2008-01-01

    Practical quantitative chemical state X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of first row transition metals, oxides and hydroxides is challenging due to the complexity of their M 2p spectra. Complex multiplet splitting, shake-up and plasmon loss structure can play a role in the interpretation of the chemical states present. This paper will show practical curve fitting procedures for the quantitative measurement of different chemical states for metal oxides and hydroxides from a survey of transition metals. It will also discuss some of the limitations and pitfalls present as well as give practical examples of their successful use. These curve-fitting procedures are based on 1) standard spectra from quality reference samples, 2) a survey of appropriate literature databases and/or a compilation of literature references, 3) fitting of multiplet split spectra based on spectra of numerous reference materials and theoretical modelling, 4) spectral subtractions routines, again using reference spectra, and 5) specific literature references where fitting procedures are available

  5. SEM, Scanning Auger and XPS characterization of chemically pretreated Ti surfaces intended for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarek, M. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: marcinp@ichf.edu.pl; Lewandowska, M. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Roguska, A. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Kurzydlowski, K.J. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Janik-Czachor, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)

    2007-07-15

    Titanium is known as a biocompatible metal characterized by biological and corrosion immunity and good mechanical properties, including a high fracture toughness. In a variety of environments, this metal undergoes 'natural' oxidation which determine its resistance to corrosion. It can also be exposed to chemical treatments in acidic or alkaline solutions which 'enforces' chemical and morphological changes of Ti surface. Those methods, if well controlled, may increase the effective Ti surface area, making it more biocompatible. However, the morphological and chemical factors responsible for their interactions with biological cells are still not well known. The aim of this work was to compare surface chemical and morphological changes introduced by commonly used aqueous NaOH pretreatment with those occurring in a new 'piranha' acidic solution. Particular attention was paid to possible changes which may be decisive for the biocompatibility of the Ti-elements subjected to these surface modifications. Surface analytical techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) or X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) combined with Ar{sup +} ion sputtering allowed us to investigate in detail the chemical composition of Ti oxide layers. SEM examinations provided morphological characterization of the surface of Ti samples. The results revealed large difference in morphology of Ti surfaces pretreated with different procedures whereas only minor difference in the chemistry of the surfaces were detected.

  6. Study of the temperature dependent nitrogen retention in tungsten surfaces by XPS-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plank, Ulrike [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fakultaet fuer Physik der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Schellingstrasse 4, D-80799 Muenchen (Germany); Meisl, Gerd; Hoeschen, Till [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    To reduce the power load on the divertor of fusion experiments, nitrogen (N) is puffed into the plasma. As a side effect, nitrogen gets implanted into the tungsten (W) walls of the reactor and forms nitride layers. Their formation and, therefore, the N accumulation in W showed an unexpected temperature dependence in previous experiments. To study the nitrogen retention, we implanted N ions with an energy of 300 eV into W and observed the evolution of the surface composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We find that the N content does not change when the sample is annealed up to 800 K after implantation at lower temperatures. In contrast, the N concentration decreases with increasing implantation temperature. At 800 K implantation temperature, the N saturation level is about 5 times lower compared to 300 K implantation. A possible explanation for this difference is an enhanced diffusion during ion bombardment due to changes in the structure or in the chemical state of the tungsten nitride system. Ongoing tungsten nitride erosion experiments shall help to clarify whether the strong temperature dependence is the result of enhanced diffusion or of phase changes.

  7. XPS and XANES studies of biomimetic composites based on B-type nano-hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goloshchapov, D. L.; Gushchin, M. S.; Kashkarov, V. M.; Seredin, P. V.; Ippolitov, Y. A.; Khmelevsky, N. O.; Aksenenko, A. Yu.

    2018-06-01

    The paper presents an investigation of the local atomic structure of nanocrystalline carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (CHAP) contained in biomimetic composites - analogues of intact human tooth tissues. Using the XPS technique, the presence of impurity Mg and F atoms and structurally bound carbon in CHAP, at the concentrations typical of apatite enamel and dentine was determined. The XANES method was used to study the changes occurring in P L2,3 spectra of biocomposites with CHAP, depending on the percentage of the amino acid matrix. The appearance of maxima in the spectra of XANES P L2,3 near 135.7 eV for the samples with the composition of amino acid complex/hydroxyapatite - 5/95, 25/75 and the splitting of a broad peak of 146.9 eV in the spectrum of a biocomposite with a composition of 40/60 indicates at the interaction of molecular complex of amino acids with atomic environment of phosphorus. This fact can be used in the fundamental medicine for synthesizing of new biomaterials in dentistry.

  8. XPS analysis of PE and EVA samples irradiated at different γ-doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorey, Samuel; Gaston, Fanny; Marque, Sylvain R. A.; Bortolotti, Benjamin; Dupuy, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    The principal plastic materials used for the fluid contact and storage in the biopharmaceutical industry are mainly made up of semi-crystalline polymers, polyolefins, PVC, Siloxane and PET. The polyethylene (PE) and the polypropylene (PP) are often used as fluid contact in multi-layer materials like films. As one sterilisation way of single-use plastic devices used in medical and pharmaceutical fields can take place via γ-irradiation, the effect of sterilization on plastics must be investigated. The irradiation process leads to the production of radicals, which can generate changes in the polymer structure and on the polymer surface. It is well known that the presence of oxygen with free radicals precede the generation of peroxide species so called ROS (reactive oxygen species) which are highly reactive. The purpose of this work is to investigate the γ-rays impact on the surface of PE (polyethylene) and EVA (polyethylene vinyl alcohol) based films when ionized at different doses. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was applied to determine the surface compositions of the polymers to highlight the different chemical moieties generated during the γ-irradiation process and to monitor the potential presence of the ROS.

  9. Electronic state of cerium-based catalysts studied by spectroscopic methods (XPS, XAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Normand, F.; Bernhardt, P.; Hilaire, L.; Kili, K.; Maire, G.; Krill, G.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) of the 3d core level of cerium and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) of the L III absorption edge of cerium have been used to study Pd/CeO 2 , Pd-Ce/γAl 2 O 3 and Ce/γAl 2 O 3 catalysts. The oxidation state of cerium was found to decrease with decreasing amounts of cerium on the surface. It was quite close to III for very low contents of cerium (2-3%). For higher cerium contents the oxidation state was nearer to IV but differences between the two methods were found, owing to the fact that XAS is a volume sensitive probe. The oxidation state of cerium was also lower for Pd-Ce/γAl 2 O 3 than for Ce/γAl 2 O 3 , suggesting the formation of Ce III OCl, chlorine coming from the precursor salt of palladium. 15 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  10. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of Photosensitive ZrO2 array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhu, R.; Kou, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Based on organic zirconium source as the starting material, by adding chemical modifiers which are made up with photosensitive ZrO2 sol. A uniformed ZrO2 array dot was fabricated with a mean diameter of around 800 nm. By using UV-vis spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis method, studies the photosensitive ZrO2 gel film of photochemical reaction process and the photosensitive mechanism, to determine the zirconium atom centered chelate structure, reaction formed by metal chelate Zr atom for the center, and to establish the molecular model of the chelate. And studied the ultraviolet light in the process of the variation of the XPS spectra, Zr3d5/2 to 184.9 eV corresponding to the binding energy of the as the combination of state peak gradually reduce; By combining with the status of Zr-O peak gradually increase; The strength of the peak is gradually decline. This suggests that in the process of ultraviolet light photo chemical reaction happened. This study is of great significance to the micro fabrication of ZrO2 array not only to the memory devices but also to the optical devices.

  11. XPS STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF TiN/TiC BILAYERS PRODUCED BY PULSED VACUUM ARC DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISABETH RESTREPO PARRA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available se crecieron bicapas de TiN/TiC sobre sustratos de acero inoxidable 304 usando un sistema de deposición física de vapor asistida por plasma en forma de arco pulsado a dos diferentes temperaturas del sustrato (50º C y150º C. Para el análisis de la composición química se empleó la técnica de la espectroscopía de fotoelectrones de rayos X (XPS. Se observó el comportamiento de las líneas Ti2p, N1s y C1s. Los análisis de energía de enlace confirmaron la conformación de TiN y TiC. Los picos C1s y Ti2p sufrieron un corrimiento a medida que se incrementó el tiempo de esputtering, revelando contaminación debido a la presencia de hidrocarburos. Además, los perfiles de profundidad de las bicapas de TiN/TiC mostraron que las películas crecidas a una temperatura de 150 ° C tienen una capa de TiN más gruesa que las muestras crecidas a 50º C. El nitrógeno se difundió en la capa de TiC y el carbón en la capa de TiN para ambas temperaturas.

  12. XPS analysis of the effect of fillers on PTFE transfer film development in sliding contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, T. A.; Kennedy, F. E.; Jayne, D. T.

    1993-01-01

    The development of transfer films atop steel counterfaces in contact with unfilled and bronze-filled PTFE has been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sliding apparatus was contained within the vacuum of the analytical system, so the effects of the native oxide, hydrocarbon, and adsorbed gaseous surface layers of the steel upon the PTFE transfer behavior could be studied in situ. For both the filled and the unfilled PTFE, cleaner surfaces promoted greater amounts of transfer. Metal fluorides, which formed at the transfer film/counterface interface, were found solely in cases where the native oxide had been removed to expose the metallic surface prior to sliding. These fluorides also were found at clean metal/PTFE interfaces formed in the absence of frictional contact. A fraction of these fluorides resulted from irradiation damage inherent in XPS analysis. PTFE transfer films were found to build up with repeated sliding passes, by a process in which strands of transfer filled in the remaining counterface area. Under these reported test conditions, the transfer process is not expected to continue atop previously deposited transfer films. The bronze-filled composite generated greater amounts of transfer than the unfilled PTFE. The results are discussed relative to the observed increase in wear resistance imparted to PTFE by a broad range of inorganic fillers.

  13. RBS and XPS analyses of the composite calcium phosphate coatings for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide-Ektessabi, Ari; Yamaguchi, Tetsuro; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

    2005-01-01

    The calcium phosphate coatings on metallic implants are widely used for biomedical applications. The calcium phosphate coatings require mechanical strength, strong adhesion to the metallic implants, chemical stability and low dissolution into the human body fluid for stable functioning in the corrosive environment of the human body. In this study, a novel approach for improving the calcium phosphate coatings is utilized by adding trace metallic element into the coatings. We focused on teeth enamel, which is the hardest calcium phosphate tissue in the human body. Zn concentration increases exponentially from the interior to the surface of the enamel. As the Zn concentration increases, so the local hardness increases. Our previous studies suggest that Zn has influence on the hardness and other properties of enamel, calcium phosphate tissue. Calcium phosphate coatings doped with Zn was fabricated and characterized. The atomic composition and chemical state were investigated by using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), respectively. Scratch test was also carried out for measuring the adhesion of the coatings

  14. Surface science approach to Pt/carbon model catalysts: XPS, STM and microreactor studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motin, Abdul Md.; Haunold, Thomas; Bukhtiyarov, Andrey V.; Bera, Abhijit; Rameshan, Christoph; Rupprechter, Günther

    2018-05-01

    Pt nanoparticles supported on carbon are an important technological catalyst. A corresponding model catalyst was prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD) of Pt on sputtered HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite). The carbon substrate before and after sputtering as well as the Pt/HOPG system before and after Pt deposition and annealing were examined by XPS and STM. This yielded information on the surface density of defects, which serve as nucleation centres for Pt, and on the size distribution (mean size/height) of the Pt nanoparticles. Two different model catalysts were prepared with mean sizes of 2.0 and 3.6 nm, both turned out to be stable upon UHV-annealing to 300 °C. After transfer into a UHV-compatible flow microreactor and subsequent cleaning in UHV and under mbar pressure, the catalytic activity of the Pt/HOPG model system for ethylene hydrogenation was examined under atmospheric pressure flow conditions. This enabled to determine temperature-dependent conversion rates, turnover frequencies (TOFs) and activation energies. The catalytic results obtained are in line with the characteristics of technological Pt/C, demonstrating the validity of the current surface science based model catalyst approach.

  15. XPS and XAES measurements on trapped rare gases in transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Sasaki, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    Electronic structures of rare gases implanted in various transition metals have been investigated by means of an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray-induced Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES). The Auger-parameter method is applied to the evaluation of electronic relaxation energy of rare gas atoms due to the surrounding metal potential. The extra-atomic relaxation energy of four kinds of rare gases (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) in the same metal matrix (Ti) increases with the atomic mass of the rare gases. On the other hand, the extra-atomic relaxation energy of the same rare gas (Xe) in different metal matrices ranges from 3.0 eV (in Mo). These values increase with the number of d-electrons in the metals. This tendency and the absolute values of the relaxation energies are in good agreement with those calculated for 3d transition metals referenced to their gas-phase values. Based on these results, it is concluded that the energetically implanted rare gases are trapped at the substitution site in the metal lattice as an isolated atom, and the trapped atoms feel the surrounding metal potential. It is also made clear that the potential affecting the implanted atom is d-like, and the relaxation energy of the implanted rare gas during the photoemission process is almost equal to those of the metal itself. (orig.)

  16. Chemistry Characterization of Jet Aircraft Engine Particulate by XPS: Results from APEX III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wal, Randy L.; Bryg, Victoria M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports XPS analysis of jet exhaust particulate from a B737, Lear, ERJ, and A300 aircraft during the APEX III NASA led field campaign. Carbon hybridization and bonding chemistry are identified by high-resolution scans about the C1s core-shell region. Significant organic content as gauged by the sp3/sp2 ratio is found across engines and platforms. Polar oxygen functional groups include carboxylic, carbonyl and phenol with combined content of 20 percent or more. By lower resolution survey scans various elements including transition metals are identified along with lighter elements such as S, N, and O in the form of oxides. Burning additives within lubricants are probable sources of Na, Ba, Ca, Zn, P and possibly Sn. Elements present and their percentages varied significantly across all engines, not revealing any trend or identifiable cause for the differences, though the origin is likely the same for the same element when observed. This finding suggests that their presence can be used as a tracer for identifying soots from aircraft engines as well as diagnostic for monitoring engine performance and wear.

  17. Two Comments on Bond Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, P.

    1997-09-01

    Tetrahedral Bond Angle from Elementary Trigonometry The alternative approach of using the scalar (or dot) product of vectors enables the determination of the bond angle in a tetrahedral molecule in a simple way. There is, of course, an even more straightforward derivation suitable for students who are unfamiliar with vectors, or products thereof, but who do know some elementary trigonometry. The starting point is the figure showing triangle OAB. The point O is the center of a cube, and A and B are at opposite corners of a face of that cube in which fits a regular tetrahedron. The required bond angle alpha = AÔB; and using Pythagoras' theorem, AB = 2(square root 2) is the diagonal of a face of the cube. Hence from right-angled triangle OEB, tan(alpha/2) = (square root 2) and therefore alpha = 2tan-1(square root 2) is approx. 109° 28' (see Fig. 1).

  18. Resolving runaway electron distributions in space, time, and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldan, C.; Cooper, C. M.; Aleynikov, P.; Eidietis, N. W.; Lvovskiy, A.; Pace, D. C.; Brennan, D. P.; Hollmann, E. M.; Liu, C.; Moyer, R. A.; Shiraki, D.

    2018-05-01

    Areas of agreement and disagreement with present-day models of runaway electron (RE) evolution are revealed by measuring MeV-level bremsstrahlung radiation from runaway electrons (REs) with a pinhole camera. Spatially resolved measurements localize the RE beam, reveal energy-dependent RE transport, and can be used to perform full two-dimensional (energy and pitch-angle) inversions of the RE phase-space distribution. Energy-resolved measurements find qualitative agreement with modeling on the role of collisional and synchrotron damping in modifying the RE distribution shape. Measurements are consistent with predictions of phase-space attractors that accumulate REs, with non-monotonic features observed in the distribution. Temporally resolved measurements find qualitative agreement with modeling on the impact of collisional and synchrotron damping in varying the RE growth and decay rate. Anomalous RE loss is observed and found to be largest at low energy. Possible roles for kinetic instability or spatial transport to resolve these anomalies are discussed.

  19. Minimum resolvable power contrast model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shuai; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    Signal-to-noise ratio and MTF are important indexs to evaluate the performance of optical systems. However,whether they are used alone or joint assessment cannot intuitively describe the overall performance of the system. Therefore, an index is proposed to reflect the comprehensive system performance-Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast (MRP) model. MRP is an evaluation model without human eyes. It starts from the radiance of the target and the background, transforms the target and background into the equivalent strips,and considers attenuation of the atmosphere, the optical imaging system, and the detector. Combining with the signal-to-noise ratio and the MTF, the Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast is obtained. Finally the detection probability model of MRP is given.

  20. The Influence of Dynamic Contact Angle on Wetting Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rame, Enrique; Garoff, Steven

    2005-01-01

    When surface tension forces dominate, and regardless of whether the situation is static or dynamic, the contact angle (the angle the interface between two immiscible fluids makes when it contacts a solid) is the key parameter that determines the shape of a fluid-fluid interface. The static contact angle is easy to measure and implement in models predicting static capillary surface shapes and such associated quantities as pressure drops. By contrast, when the interface moves relative to the solid (as in dynamic wetting processes) the dynamic contact angle is not identified unambiguously because it depends on the geometry of the system Consequently, its determination becomes problematic and measurements in one geometry cannot be applied in another for prediction purposes. However, knowing how to measure and use the dynamic contact angle is crucial to determine such dynamics as a microsystem throughput reliably. In this talk we will present experimental and analytical efforts aimed at resolving modeling issues present in dynamic wetting. We will review experiments that show the inadequacy of the usual hydrodynamic model when a fluid-fluid meniscus moves over a solid surface such as the wall of a small tube or duct. We will then present analytical results that show how to parametrize these problems in a predictive manner. We will illustrate these ideas by showing how to implement the method in numerical fluid mechanical calculations.

  1. Angle-selective all-dielectric Huygens’ metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, D.; Chong, K. E.; Miroshnichenko, A. E.; Choi, D.-Y.; Neshev, D. N.; Pertsch, T.; Kivshar, Y. S.; Staude, I.

    2017-11-01

    We experimentally and numerically study the angularly resolved transmission properties of dielectric metasurfaces consisting of silicon nanodisks which support electric and magnetic dipolar Mie-type resonances in the near-infrared spectral range. First, we concentrate on Huygens’ metasurfaces which are characterised by a spectral overlap of the fundamental electric and magnetic dipole resonances of the silicon nanodisks at normal incidence. Huygens’ metasurfaces exhibit a high transmitted intensity over the spectral width of the resonances due to impedance matching, while the transmitted phase shows a variation of 2π as the wavelength is swept across the width of the resonances. We observe that the transmittance of the Huygens’ metasurfaces depends on the incidence angle and is sensitive to polarisation for non-normal incidence. As the incidence angle is increased starting from normal incidence, the two dipole resonances are shifted out of the spectral overlap and the resonant features appear as pronounced transmittance minima. Next, we consider a metasurface with an increased nanodisk radius as compared to the Huygens’ metasurface, which supports spectrally separate electric and magnetic dipole resonances at normal incidence. We show that for TM polarisation, we can shift the resonances of this metasurface into spectral overlap and regain the high resonant transmittance characteristic of Huygens’ metasurfaces at a particular incidence angle. Furthermore, both metasurfaces are demonstrated to reject all TM polarised light incident under angles other than the design overlap angle at their respective operation frequency. Our experimental observations are in good qualitative agreement with numerical calculations.

  2. Angle-resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy in hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossard, Frédéric; Sponza, Lorenzo; Schué, Léonard; Attaccalite, Claudio; Ducastelle, François; Barjon, Julien; Loiseau, Annick

    2017-09-01

    Electron energy loss spectra were measured on hexagonal boron nitride single crystals employing an electron energy loss spectroscopic setup composed of an electron microscope equipped with a monochromator and an in-column filter. This setup provides high-quality energy-loss spectra and allows also for the imaging of energy-filtered diffraction patterns. These two acquisition modes provide complementary pieces of information, offering a global view of excitations in reciprocal space. As an example of the capabilities of the method we show how easily the core loss spectra at the K edges of boron and nitrogen can be measured and imaged. Low losses associated with interband and/or plasmon excitations are also measured. This energy range allows us to illustrate that our method provides results whose quality is comparable to that obtained from nonresonant x-ray inelastic scattering but with advantageous specificities such as an enhanced sensitivity at low q and a much greater simplicity and versatility that make it well adapted to the study of two-dimensional materials and related heterostructures. Finally, by comparing theoretical calculations to our measures, we are able to relate the range of applicability of ab initio calculations to the anisotropy of the sample and assess the level of approximation required for a proper simulation of our acquisition method.

  3. Studies of Dirac and Weyl fermions by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lunan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three parts. First, we study magnetic domains in Nd2Fe14B single crystals using high resolution magnetic force microscopy (MFM). In addition to the elongated, wavy nano-domains reported by a previous MFM study, we found that the micrometer size, star-shaped fractal pattern is constructed of an elongated network of nano-domains about 20 nm in width, with resolution-limited domain walls thinner than 2 nm. Second, we studied extra Dirac cones of multilayer graphene on SiC surface by ARPES and SPA-LEED. We discovered extra Dirac cones on Fermi surface due to SiC 6 x 6 and graphene 6√ 3 6√ 3 coincidence lattice on both single-layer and three-layer graphene sheets. We interpreted the position and intensity of the Dirac cone replicas, based on the scattering vectors from LEED patterns. We found the positions of replica Dirac cones are determined mostly by the 6 6 SiC superlattice even graphene layers grown thicker. Finally, we studied the electronic structure of MoTe2 by ARPES and experimentally con rmed the prediction of type II Weyl state in this material. By combining the result of Density Functional Theory calculations and Berry curvature calculations with out experimental data, we identi ed Fermi arcs, track states and Weyl points, all features predicted to exist in a type II Weyl semimetal. This material is an excellent playground for studies of exotic Fermions.

  4. Angle-resolved photoemission on the Kondo surface alloy CePd{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulazzi, Mattia; Seibel, Christoph; Schwab, Holger [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII (Germany); Shimada, Kenya; Jiang, Jiang [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Reinert, Friedrich [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Gemeinschaftslabor fuer Nanoanalytik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    This films of the Cerium were evaporated on a Pd(001) substrate an further annealed to obtain a thin surface alloy layer of stoichiometry CePd{sub 7}, as observed by Auger spectroscopy. From LEED measurements it was possible to determine that the alloy has a (√(5) x √(5))R26.6 {sup circle} reconstruction, commensurate to the Palladium substrate. Photon-energy dependent ARPES measurements crossing the 4d-4f resonance show the presence of a strong peak near the Fermi level, having actually two components, the actual Kondo peak at the Fermi level and the spin-orbit peak at 280 meV binding energy. Resonant and non-resonant Fermi surface maps shows large intensity variations of the Pd bands, when measured at the resonance, a sign of strong hybridization between the conduction and the 4f electrons. While previous work assigns the CePd7 to the class of intermediate valence systems, our work shows that it is actually a Kondo system, with a rather high Kondo temperature.

  5. Electrostatic mass spectrometer for concurrent mass-, energy- and angle-resolved measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golikov, Yu.K.; Krasnova, N.K.

    1999-01-01

    A new electron-optical scheme is considered. An energy- and mass-analyser with angular resolution are combined in one device, in which a time-of-flight principle of mass separation is used. The tool is created on the basis of electrostatic field of quasi-conical systems possessing the high-energy dispersion and high-angular resolution. A regime of simultaneous angular and energy resolution is found. If there is an ion-pulsed source then the ion groups of equal mass will be registered at the same time at a position-sensitive detector located at the edge of the field. Real parameters of the suggested scheme are calculated

  6. Angle-resolved investigation of ion dynamics in high power impulse magnetron sputtering deposition system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čada, Martin; Adámek, Petr; Straňák, V.; Kment, Štěpán; Olejníček, Jiří; Hubička, Zdeněk; Hippler, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 549, DEC (2013), s. 177-183 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12002 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : HiPIMS * titania * Katsumata probe * ion sensitive probe * IVDF * angular resolution Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.867, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040609013011127

  7. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of the chloro-substituted methanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, P. R.; Taylor, J. W.; Carlson, Thomas A.; Grimm, F. A.

    1983-09-01

    The angular distribution parameter, β, was determined for the valence orbitals (IP ' 21.2 eV) of CCl 4, CHCl 3, CH 2Cl 2, and CH 3Cl in the 10-30 eV photon energy range using dispersed polarized synchrotron radiation. The energy dependence of β in the photoelectron energy range of 2 to 10 eV for the non-bonding chlorine n(Cl) orbitals of these molecules was found to be similar for all n(Cl) orbitals investigated. The energy dependence of β for the σ orbitals in these molecules was similar to that observed previously for other σ orbitals. The experimental CCl 4 results were compared with theoretical CCl 4 results obtained using the Xα multiple scattering formalism. Theory predicts the existence of two strong shape resonances in each of the valence orbitals of CCl 4. The overall agreement between experiment and theory is evaluated along with the experimental evidence concerning the verification of the predicted shape resonances.

  8. Indoor measurement of angle resolved light absorption by antireflective glass in solar panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amdemeskel, Mekbib Wubishet; Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Riedel, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    measurements with trackers. The experimental results showed optical responses that are stable and suitable for indoor characterization of solar cells. We find the characteristic optical response of six different antireflective glasses, and based on such measurements, we perform PVsyst simulations and present...

  9. A picosecond widely tunable deep-ultraviolet laser for angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Feng-Feng; Yang Feng; Zhang Shen-Jin; Xu Zhi; Wang Zhi-Min; Xu Feng-Liang; Peng Qin-Jun; Zhang Jing-Yuan; Xu Zu-Yan; Wang Xiao-Yang; Chen Chuang-Tian

    2013-01-01

    We develop a picosecond widely tunable laser in a deep-ultraviolet region from 175 nm to 210 nm, generated by two stages of frequency doubling of a 80-MHz mode-locked picosecond Ti:sapphire laser. A β-BaB 2 O 4 walk-off compensation configuration and a KBe 2 BO 3 F 2 prism-coupled device are adopted for the generation of second harmonic and fourth harmonics, respectively. The highest power is 3.72 mW at 193 nm, and the fluctuation at 2.85 mW in 130 min is less than ±2%

  10. Comparative study of rare earth hexaborides using high resolution angle-resolved photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramankutty, S.V., E-mail: s.v.ramankutty@uva.nl [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jong, N. de; Huang, Y.K.; Zwartsenberg, B. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Massee, F. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Bay, T.V. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Golden, M.S., E-mail: m.s.golden@uva.nl [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Frantzeskakis, E., E-mail: e.frantzeskakis@uva.nl [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • ARPES electronic structure study of rare-earth (RE) hexaborides SmB{sub 6}, CeB{sub 6} and YbB{sub 6}. • Increasing RE valence Yb[II], Sm[II/III], Ce[III] increases d-band occupancy. • YbB{sub 6} and SmB{sub 6} posses 2D states at E{sub F}, whereas the Fermi surface of CeB{sub 6} is 3D. • ARPES, LEED and STM data prove structural relaxation of the SmB{sub 6}(001) surface. - Abstract: Strong electron correlations in rare earth hexaborides can give rise to a variety of interesting phenomena like ferromagnetism, Kondo hybridization, mixed valence, superconductivity and possibly topological characteristics. The theoretical prediction of topological properties in SmB{sub 6} and YbB{sub 6} has rekindled the scientific interest in the rare earth hexaborides, and high-resolution ARPES has been playing a major role in the debate. The electronic band structure of the hexaborides contains the key to understand the origin of the different phenomena observed, and much can be learned by comparing the experimental data from different rare earth hexaborides. We have performed high-resolution ARPES on the (001) surfaces of YbB{sub 6}, CeB{sub 6} and SmB{sub 6}. On the most basic level, the data show that the differences in the valence of the rare earth element are reflected in the experimental electronic band structure primarily as a rigid shift of the energy position of the metal 5d states with respect to the Fermi level. Although the overall shape of the d-derived Fermi surface contours remains the same, we report differences in the dimensionality of these states between the compounds studied. Moreover, the spectroscopic fingerprint of the 4f states also reveals considerable differences that are related to their coherence and the strength of the d–f hybridization. For the SmB{sub 6} case, we use ARPES in combination with STM imaging and electron diffraction to reveal time dependent changes in the structural symmetry of the highly debated SmB{sub 6}(001) surface. All in all, our study highlights the suitability of electron spectroscopies like high-resolution ARPES to provide links between electronic structure and function in complex and correlated materials such as the rare earth hexaborides.

  11. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of band tails in lightly doped cuprates

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrov, A. S.; Reynolds, K.

    2007-01-01

    We amend ab initio strongly-correlated band structures by taking into account the band-tailing phenomenon in doped charge-transfer Mott-Hubbard insulators. We show that the photoemission from band tails accounts for sharp "quasi-particle" peaks, rapid loss of their intensities in some directions of the Brillouin zone ("Fermi-arcs") and high-energy "waterfall" anomalies as a consequence of matrix-element effects of disorder-localised states in the charge-transfer gap of doped cuprates.

  12. Electronic structure of ion arsenic high temperature superconductors studied by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the present thesis is to present our ARPES results on the iron arsenic superconductors. As revealed by a series of ARPES measurements on both the AEFe2As2 and the RFeAs(O,F) families (parent compound and carrier-doped systems), the electronic structures of the pnictides are complicated, three dimensional, and closely linked to their superconducting behavior (13; 14; 15; 16; 17; 18; 19). Parent compounds of these materials exhibit the basic hole-electron pocket dual plus an apparent Fermi surface reconstruction caused by long range antiferromagnetism (13; 15). When carriers are introduced, the chemical potential shifts in accordance with the Luttinger theorem and the rigid band shifting picture (13). Importantly, both the appearance and disappearance of the superconducting dome at low and high doping levels have intimate relation with topological changes at the Fermi surfaces, resulting in a specific Fermi topology being favored by superconductivity (15; 16). On the low doping side, superconductivity emerges in the phase diagram once the antiferromagnetic reconstruction disappears below the Fermi level, returning the Fermi surface to its paramagnetic-like appearance. On the high doping side, superconductivity disappears around a doping level at which the central hole pocket vanishes due to increasing electron concentration. Such phenomena are evidence for the governing role the electronic structure plays in their superconducting behavior.

  13. Phonon contribution to quasiparticle lifetimes in Cu measured by angle-resolved photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, B.A.; Balasubramanian, T.; Jensen, E.

    1995-01-01

    The line shape of the photoelectron spectrum emitted from the sp-derived surface state at bar Γ on Cu(111) is investigated. The line shape is Lorentzian, and the temperature dependence of the width is linear, varying from 30 meV at 30 K to 75 meV at 625 K. Less than 5-meV variation with binding energy is observed. The temperature dependence is explained as the phonon contribution to the inverse hole lifetime, predicted to be 2πλk b T allowing the determination that the electron-phonon mass enhancement parameter λ=0.14±0.02 for this surface state at bar Γ. This is compared to λ=0.15 reported as an average over the bulk Fermi surface

  14. Extracting the temperature of hot carriers in time- and angle-resolved photoemission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulstrup, Søren; Johannsen, Jens Christian; Grioni, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of light with a material’s electronic system creates an out-of-equilibrium (nonthermal) distribution of optically excited electrons. Non-equilibrium dynamics relaxes this distribution on an ultrafast timescale to a hot Fermi-Dirac distribution with a well-defined temperature......, we introduce a method that circumvents these difficulties and accurately extracts both the temperature and the position of the Fermi level for a hot carrier distribution by tracking the occupation statistics of the carriers measured in a TR-ARPES experiment...

  15. On angle resolved RF magnetron sputtering of Ge-Sb-Te thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gutwirth, J.; Wágner, T.; Bezdička, Petr; Hrdlička, M.; Vlček, Milan; Frumar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 355, 37-42 (2009), s. 1935-1938 ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC523; GA ČR GA203/06/1368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : amorphous semiconductors * films and coatings * sputtering Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.252, year: 2009

  16. Time and angle resolved phonon absorption in the fractional quantum hall regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devitt, A.M.

    2000-09-01

    The work described in this thesis is a study of the phonon absorption by a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in the fractional quantum Hall regime and also at ν = 1/2. The fractional quantum Hall effect arises in 2DES's in high magnetic fields and is characterised by the quantisation of the transverse or Hall resistance and the vanishing longitudinal conductivity. The filling factor denotes the number of filled Landau levels and the quantum Hall effect occurs when this ratio is at certain rational odd denominator filling factors. The phenomenology of the effect arises due to the existence of an energy gap between the ground state and the lowest excited state. This energy gap is characterised by a deep minimum, or minima, at finite in-plane wavevector. Acoustic phonon absorption is expected to probe the energy gap at wavevectors close to or at the minimum in the dispersion curve. The experiments reported here incorporate the use of a thin film heater to produce a pulse of phonons of which a fraction are absorbed by the 2DES. A fast amplifier and signal averaging board enable detection of small signals due to absorption of phonons. The technique used allows time resolution of the phonon signal which typically takes place over a period of 10 μs or so. The time resolution enables different phonon modes to be studied. By altering the position of the heater relative to the 2DES angular resolution is also possible. The phonon absorption at several different filling factors has been investigated and the energy gaps found are in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions. The absorption at ν 1/2 has also been investigated. Here the composite fermions are expected to have a well defined Fermi wavevector. The absorption at ν = 1/2 and the fractional quantum Hall states is found to be qualitatively and quantitatively different. We see that the change in electron temperature atν = 1/2 is much less than at ν = 1/3 due to the larger heat capacity. At ν = 1/2 the electron system exhibits saturation behaviour consistent with the emission of phonons of the same energy as those absorbed. The ν 1/3 state shows no such saturation and the results are consistent with the absorption across and energy gap. Results taken at odd denominator fractional quantum Hall states have. enabled sketches of the dispersion curves to be made. It is found that these energy gaps are in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions. The energies are found to be consistent with their predicted position on the theoretical dispersion curve. Measurements at even denominator filling factors yield estimates for the finite thickness of the 2DES which axe again in agreement with theory. (author)

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. The Dark Energy Survey: Prospects for resolved stellar populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetto, Bruno M. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santiago, Basílio X. [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Girardi, Léo [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Osservatorio Astronomica di Padova-INAF, Padova (Italy); Camargo, Julio I. B. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Balbinot, Eduardo [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Porto Alegre (Brazil); da Costa, Luiz N. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Maia, Marcio A. G. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Makler, Martin [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ogando, Ricardo L. C. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pellegrini, Paulo S. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ramos, Beatriz [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); de Simoni, Fernando [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Armstrong, R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Bertin, E. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Desai, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Kuropatkin, N. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lin, H. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Mohr, J. J. [Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Tucker, D. L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of the Galaxy.

  20. Spectral and angle dependent emission of solar fluorescence collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straeter, Hendrik; Knabe, Sebastian; Bauer, Gottfried H. [Institute of Physics, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Fluorescence collectors (FCs) provide the option for concentration and simultaneous spectral selection of solar photons of direct or diffuse light. The energetic and commercial benefit of these systems depend on the yield of the conversion of solar photons into luminescence photons and on the efficiency of their respective conductance to the edges of the FC where they are coupled into appropriate solar cells. For the characterization of the performance of FCs and the identification of losses, we have performed angle and spectrally resolved measurements of fluorescence photons from FC with two different types of optical designs, a PMMA substrate with homogeneous depth dependent dye concentration and a novel type of FC, which consist of a transparent substrate with a thin overlayer containing the absorbing and emitting dye. We have recorded the edge fluorescence when illuminating the entire FC surface laterally homogeneously, as well as for slit-like excitation on the front surface with variation of the distance of the illuminated slit from the edge. We compare the experimental fluorescence results with a 2-dimensional ray-tracing approach and verify the spectral and angle dependent edge emission. Moreover we illuminate the FC with long wavelength photons which are not absorbed and conclude, again from angle dependent and spectrally resolved edge emission, on scattering losses at surfaces and in the bulk.

  1. [XPS analysis of beads formed by fuse breaking of electric copper wire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Meng, Qing-Shan; Wang, Xin-Ming; Gao, Wei; Di, Man

    2010-05-01

    The in-depth composition of beads formed by fuse breaking of the electric copper wire in different circumstances was studied by XPS with Ar+ ion sputtering. In addition, the measured Auger spectra and the calculated Auger parameters were compared for differentiation of the substances of Cu and Cu2O. Corresponding to the sputtering depth, the molten product on a bead induced directly by fuse breaking of the copper wire without cover may be distinguished as three portions: surface layer with a drastic decrease in carbon content; intermediate layer with a gentle change in oxygen content and gradually diminished carbon peak, and consisting of Cu2O; transition layer without Cu2O and with a rapid decrease in oxygen content. While the molten product on a bead formed by fuse breaking of the copper wire after its insulating cover had been burned out may be distinguished as two portions: surface layer with carbon content decreasing quickly; subsurface layer without Cu2O and with carbon and oxygen content decreasing gradually. Thus, it can be seen that there was an obvious interface between the layered surface product and the substrate for the first type of bead, while as to the second type of bead there was no interface. As a result, the presence of Cu2O and the quantitative results can be used to identify the molten product on a bead induced directly by fuse breaking of the copper wire without cover and the molten product on a bead formed by fuse breaking of the cupper wire after its insulating cover had been burned out, as a complementary technique for the judgments of fire cause.

  2. Characterization study of native oxides on GaAs(100) surface by XPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liu; Zhang, Lian-dong; Liu, Hui; Gao, Xiang; Miao, Zhuang; Cheng, Hong-chang; Wang, Long; Niu, Sen

    2013-08-01

    In order to know more about the surface state of GaAs(100) epitaxial wafer during a storage period of two years, the XPS analysis was carried out four times on the surface, respectively polished by chemical etching, stored in desiccator for half a year, one year and two years. The results indicated that even after cleaned by proper etchant solutions, the fresh surface was slightly oxidized with Ga2O3, As2O3 and organic contaminant. The epi-wafer was always exposed to air during the storage period, so more and more oxides turned out. The mixed oxide layer comprised of C-OR, COOR, Ga2O3, As2O3 and As2O5 appeared after only half a year. In the ageing process of two years, the oxide types of gallium or arsenic did not change with stable content of Ga2O3 and remarkably fluctuating relative contents of As2O3 and As2O5. Based on the intensity ratio of Ga 3d-Ga2O3 to Ga 3d-GaAs, the thickness of oxide layer was estimated. The oxide layer generated after chemical polishing was very thin, just only 0.435nm thick, and then it grew rapidly, approximately 1.822nm after one year while almost no change any more subsequently. It was indicated that after the epi-wafer was stored for one year, because of volatile As2O3 or As2O5, there remained a large amount of Ga2O3 in oxide layer, which prevented the reactions between bulk material and oxide layer with oxygen. So native oxide layer plays a role as passive film to protect epi-wafer against the environment during a long storage period.

  3. Raman and XPS characterization of vanadium oxide thin films with temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ureña-Begara, Ferran, E-mail: ferran.urena@uclouvain.be [Université catholique de Louvain, Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Crunteanu, Aurelian [XLIM Research Institute, UMR 7252, CNRS/Université de Limoges, Limoges (France); Raskin, Jean-Pierre [Université catholique de Louvain, Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive study of the oxidation of VO{sub 2} thin films from R.T. up to 550 °C. • Phase changes and mixed-valence vanadium oxides formed during the oxidation process. • Reported Raman and XPS signatures for each vanadium oxide. • Monitoring of the current and resistance evolution at the surface of the films. • Oxidation model describing the evolution of the vanadium oxides and phase changes. - Abstract: The oxidation mechanisms and the numerous phase transitions undergone by VO{sub 2} thin films deposited on SiO{sub 2}/Si and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates when heated from room temperature (R.T.) up to 550 °C in air are investigated by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the films undergo several intermediate phase transitions between the initial VO{sub 2} monoclinic phase at R.T. and the final V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase at 550 °C. The information about these intermediate phase transitions is scarce and their identification is important since they are often found during the synthesis of vanadium dioxide films. Significant changes in the film conductivity have also been observed to occur associated to the phase transitions. In this work, current and resistance measurements performed on the surface of the films are implemented in parallel with the Raman measurements to correlate the different phases with the conductivity of the films. A model to explain the oxidation mechanisms and phenomena occurring during the oxidation of the films is proposed. Peak frequencies, full-width half-maxima, binding energies and oxidation states from the Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments are reported and analyzed for all the phases encountered in VO{sub 2} films prepared on SiO{sub 2}/Si and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates.

  4. XPS and SIMS characterisation of TiOxNy solar absorber films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metson, J.B.; Prince, K.E.; Bittar, A.; Tornquist, J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: TiO x N y thin films have useful properties as selective solar absorbers when used in tandem with a collector substrate. Such films are transparent across a reasonable window of the solar spectrum, but have low thermal emissivity. They are however limited by their thermal stability under the typical operating conditions they experience. In this study, TiO x N y films have been deposited on Si and Cu substrates using ion beam assisted deposition. The films are amorphous and x and y were controlled by altering the O 2 /N 2 ratio in the gas source. After annealing at temperatures of 200 - 400 deg C, films have been depth profiled using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. Profiles reveal the degradation of the film by migration of the substrate atoms through the films, to the sample surface. In general, films with x 1 show improved stability, ultimately at the expense of a reduced transmission window. Thermal stability is also improved by the use of diffusion barriers either at the substrate film interface or at the surface of the film. However contrary to previous suggestions, the degradation mechanism involves the formation not of an oxide at the film surface but a phase which is nitrogen rich. The nature of this phase, formed by diffusion of the substrate atoms, has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These investigations reveal very complex behaviour in the early stages of film failure, with an almost intact TiO x N y layer surviving, but being progressively buried by the growth of the reaction layer at the film surface. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  5. XPS investigation of monatomic and cluster argon ion sputtering of tantalum pentoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Robin, E-mail: r.simpson@surrey.ac.uk [The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering Sciences, University of Surrey (United Kingdom); Thermo Scientific, East Grinstead (United Kingdom); White, Richard G. [Thermo Scientific, East Grinstead (United Kingdom); Watts, John F.; Baker, Mark A. [The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering Sciences, University of Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Ion beam induced oxide reduction from monatomic and gas cluster ion beam exposure are compared. • Lower relative level of preferential sputtering is shown in gas cluster ion beam depth profiling. • A lack of “steady state” is observed in gas cluster ion beam depth profiles of tantalum pentoxide. • Possible mechanisms behind the observed results, including temperature effects are proposed. - Abstract: In recent years, gas cluster ion beams (GCIB) have become the cutting edge of ion beam technology to sputter etch organic materials in surface analysis. However, little is currently known on the ability of argon cluster ions (Ar{sub n}{sup +}) to etch metal oxides and other technologically important inorganic compounds and no depth profiles have previously been reported. In this work, XPS depth profiles through a certified (European standard BCR-261T) 30 nm thick Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer grown on Ta foil using monatomic Ar{sup +} and Ar{sub 1000}{sup +} cluster ions have been performed at different incident energies. The preferential sputtering of oxygen induced using 6 keV Ar{sub 1000}{sup +} ions is lower relative to 3 keV and 500 eV Ar{sup +} ions. Ar{sup +} ions exhibit a steady state O/Ta ratio through the bulk oxide but Ar{sub 1000}{sup +} ions show a gradual decrease in the O/Ta ratio as a function of depth. The depth resolution and etch rate is substantially better for the monatomic beam compared to the cluster beam. Higher O concentrations are observed when the underlying Ta bulk metal is sputtered for the Ar{sub 1000}{sup +} profiles compared to the Ar{sup +} profiles.

  6. Frequency scaling for angle gathers

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A H; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Angle gathers provide an extra dimension to analyze the velocity after migration. Space-shift and time shift-imaging conditions are two methods used to obtain angle gathers, but both are reasonably expensive. By scaling the time-lag axis of the time-shifted images, the computational cost of the time shift imaging condition can be considerably reduced. In imaging and more so Full waveform inversion, frequencydomain Helmholtz solvers are used more often to solve for the wavefields than conventional time domain extrapolators. In such cases, we do not need to extend the image, instead we scale the frequency axis of the frequency domain image to obtain the angle gathers more efficiently. Application on synthetic data demonstrate such features.

  7. Angle imaging: Advances and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Desmond T L; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Perera, Shamira A; Aung, Tin

    2011-01-01

    Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is a major form of glaucoma in large populous countries in East and South Asia. The high visual morbidity from PACG is related to the destructive nature of the asymptomatic form of the disease. Early detection of anatomically narrow angles is important and the subsequent prevention of visual loss from PACG depends on an accurate assessment of the anterior chamber angle (ACA). This review paper discusses the advantages and limitations of newer ACA imaging technologies, namely ultrasound biomicroscopy, Scheimpflug photography, anterior segment optical coherence tomography and EyeCam, highlighting the current clinical evidence comparing these devices with each other and with clinical dynamic indentation gonioscopy, the current reference standard. PMID:21150037

  8. Local atomic structure of Fe/Cr multilayers: Depth-resolved method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babanov, Yu. A.; Ponomarev, D. A.; Devyaterikov, D. I.; Salamatov, Yu. A.; Romashev, L. N.; Ustinov, V. V.; Vasin, V. V.; Ageev, A. L.

    2017-10-01

    A depth-resolved method for the investigation of the local atomic structure by combining data of X-ray reflectivity and angle-resolved EXAFS is proposed. The solution of the problem can be divided into three stages: 1) determination of the element concentration profile with the depth z from X-ray reflectivity data, 2) determination of the X-ray fluorescence emission spectrum of the element i absorption coefficient μia (z,E) as a function of depth and photon energy E using the angle-resolved EXAFS data Iif (E , ϑl) , 3) determination of partial correlation functions gij (z , r) as a function of depth from μi (z , E) . All stages of the proposed method are demonstrated on a model example of a multilayer nanoheterostructure Cr/Fe/Cr/Al2O3. Three partial pair correlation functions are obtained. A modified Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and a regularization method are applied.

  9. Variable angle asymmetric cut monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B.

    1993-09-01

    A variable incident angle, asymmetric cut, double crystal monochromator was tested for use on beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). For both undulator and wiggler beams the monochromator can expand area of footprint of beam on surface of the crystals to 50 times the area of incident beam; this will reduce the slope errors by a factor of 2500. The asymmetric cut allows one to increase the acceptance angle for incident radiation and obtain a better match to the opening angle of the incident beam. This can increase intensity of the diffracted beam by a factor of 2 to 5 and can make the beam more monochromatic, as well. The monochromator consists of two matched, asymmetric cut (18 degrees), silicon crystals mounted so that they can be rotated about three independent axes. Rotation around the first axis controls the Bragg angle. The second rotation axis is perpendicular to the diffraction planes and controls the increase of the area of the footprint of the beam on the crystal surface. Rotation around the third axis controls the angle between the surface of the crystal and the wider, horizontal axis for the beam and can make the footprint a rectangle with a minimum. length for this area. The asymmetric cut is 18 degrees for the matched pair of crystals, which allows one to expand the footprint area by a factor of 50 for Bragg angles up to 19.15 degrees (6 keV for Si[111] planes). This monochromator, with proper cooling, will be useful for analyzing the high intensity x-ray beams produced by both undulators and wigglers at the APS

  10. The determination of acid-base properties of polymer surfaces by XPS: Present status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehimi, M.M.; Delamar, M.; Shahidzadeh-Ahmadi, N.; Arefi-Khonsari, F.; Amouroux, J.; Watts, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    The use of the molecular probe technique in conjunction with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for the assessment of acid-base properties of polymer surfaces is reviewed. The method is based on the determination of the concentration and chemical shifts of Lewis acids (bases) sorbed in polymers of basic (acidic) character. In the case of chloroform (Lewis acid) sorbed in polymers of Lewis basic character, C12p binding energy is linearly correlated with ΔH AB , the heat of acid-base complex formation chloroform-polymer. This relationship has been used to determine the acid-base properties of poly(phenylene oxide), a homopolymer, and ammonia plasma-treated polypropylene. This work shows that XPS can now indeed be used to quantitatively assess the acid-base properties of modified polymer surfaces and perhaps be extended to map acid-base properties of polymer surfaces at the micron or submicron scale. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. Growth of TiC films by Pulsed Laser Evaporation (PLE) and characterization by XPS and AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rist, O.; Murray, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    Thin films of TiC with a thickness of some 100 nm have been grown on Si(100) substrates by Pulsed Laser Evaporation (PLE). Advantages of PLE in comparison with more conventional growth methods e.g. PVD or CVD are reported. The feasibility of growing stoichiometric thin films of TiC by PLE was investigated. These films produced have been analysed in situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). XPS results and Auger sputter depht profiles indicate that the films grown between RT and 500degC are stoichiometric TiC. Film/substrate interdiffusion is observed at 600degC substrate temperature and higher. (orig.)

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Mediation for resolving family disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamenecka-Usova M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the understanding of the institute of marriage and its importance in the society has changed. Marriage is no longer assumed to be a commitment for a lifetime. As the principle of equality has replaced hierarchy as the guiding principle of family law it gave more grounds for family disputes and it became socially acceptable to leave marriages that are intolerable or merely unfulfilling. The aim of this article is to suggest an alternative dispute resolution method-mediation as a worthy option for resolving family conflicts.

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication