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Sample records for angle of rest

  1. Significance of the resting angles of hair-cell bundles for Hopf bifurcation criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Joong; Ahn, Kang-Hun

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the significance of the inclined angle of a hair bundle at equilibrium. We find that, while the angle gives a geometrical conversion factor between the bundle deflection and the ion channel displacement, it also controls the dynamics of the bundle. We show that a Hopf bifurcation, which enhances sensitivity, can be driven by the geometrical factor. However, existing experimental data indicate that mammalian auditory hair-cell bundles are located far away from the Hopf bifurcation point, suggesting that the high sensitivity of mammalian hearing might come from other mechanisms.

  2. Network Centrality of Resting-State fMRI in Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma Before and After Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqin Cai

    Full Text Available Using voxel-wise degree centrality (DC, as measured by resting-state fMRI, we aimed to study alterations in the brain functional networks in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG and to reveal the plastic trajectories of surgery.A total of 23 preoperative PACG patients (49.48 ± 14.37 years old were recruited to undergo a resting-state fMRI scan, and 9 of them were rescanned 3 months after surgery. All PACG patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including intraocular pressure (IOP, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness, vertical cup to disc ratio (V C/D, and average cup to disc ratio (A C/D. Another 23 gender- and age-matched healthy controls (48.18 ± 9.40 years old underwent scanning once for comparison. The group difference in DC was calculated in each voxel, and the correlations between the DC value and each of the clinical variables were analyzed in the PACG patients.Preoperative PACG (pre-PACG patients showed significantly decreased DC in the bilateral visual cortices but increased DC in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and caudate (p < 0.05, corrected compared with the controls. Statistical analysis showed a significantly negative correlation between DC in the bilateral visual cortices and the IOP score and between DC in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and both the A C/D and V C/D scores in the pre-PACG patients. Three months after surgery, these postoperative PACG (post-PACG patients showed a significantly increased DC in both the bilateral visual cortices and the left precentral gyrus compared with the pre-PACG patients.Our results suggest that PACG may contribute to decreased functional centrality in the visual system and to increased degree centrality in cognition-emotional processing regions. Alterations in visual areas seem to parallel the cup to disc ratio, but not the duration of angle closure. The changes of functional centrality in PACG patients after operation may reveal the

  3. The Achilles tendon resting angle as an indirect measure of Achilles tendon length following rupture, repair, and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Carmont

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: The ATRA increases following injury, is reduced by surgery, and then increases again during initial rehabilitation. The angle also correlates with patient-reported symptoms early in the rehabilitation phase and with heel-rise height after 1 year. The ATRA might be considered a simple and effective means to evaluate Achilles tendon function 1 year after the rupture.

  4. Estimating Long GRB Jet Opening Angles and Rest-Frame Energetics

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Adam; Briggs, Michael S; Burns, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to estimate the jet opening angles of long duration Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) using the prompt gamma-ray energetics and an inversion of the Ghirlanda relation, which is a correlation between the time-integrated peak energy of the GRB prompt spectrum and the collimation-corrected energy in gamma rays. The derived jet opening angles using this method and detailed assumptions match well with the corresponding inferred jet opening angles obtained when a break in the afterglow is observed. Furthermore, using a model of the predicted long GRB redshift probability distribution observable by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), we estimate the probability distributions for the jet opening angle and rest-frame energetics for a large sample of GBM GRBs for which the redshifts have not been observed. Previous studies have only used a handful of GRBs to estimate these properties due to the paucity of observed afterglow jet breaks, spectroscopic redshifts, and comprehensive prompt gamma-ray observati...

  5. A kinematic comparison of alterations to knee and ankle angles from resting measures to active pedaling during a graded exercise protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peveler, Willard W; Shew, Brandy; Johnson, Samantha; Palmer, Thomas G

    2012-11-01

    Saddle height is one of the most researched areas of bike fit. The current accepted method for adjusting saddle height involves the use of a goniometer to adjust saddle height so that a knee angle between 25° and 35° is obtained. This measurement is taken while the cyclist maintains a static position with the pedal at the 6-o'-clock position. However, the act of pedaling is dynamic, and angles may alter during movement. The purpose of this study was to examine the alterations to knee and ankle angle occurring from static measures to active pedaling across intensities experienced by cyclists during a graded exercise protocol. Thirty-four recreational to highly trained cyclists were evaluated using 2D analysis of stationary position and 3 active levels (level 1, respiratory exchange ratio of 1.00, and max). Dependent measures were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (p = 0.05). When examining the results, it is evident that significant alterations to pedal stroke occur from stationary measures to active pedaling and as intensity increases toward maximal. Plantar flexion increased when moving from stationary measures to active pedaling, which resulted in an increase in knee angle. Although still greater than stationary measures, less plantar flexion occurred at higher intensities when compared with lower intensity cycling. Less plantar flexion at higher intensities is most likely a result of application of a larger downward torque occurring because of greater power requirements at higher intensities. There appeared to be greater variability in angle when examining novice cyclists in relation to more experienced cyclists. Although stationary measures are where a bike fit session will begin, observation during the pedal cycle may be needed to fine-tune the riders' fit.

  6. Clustering of resting state networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan H Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The goal of the study was to demonstrate a hierarchical structure of resting state activity in the healthy brain using a data-driven clustering algorithm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The fuzzy-c-means clustering algorithm was applied to resting state fMRI data in cortical and subcortical gray matter from two groups acquired separately, one of 17 healthy individuals and the second of 21 healthy individuals. Different numbers of clusters and different starting conditions were used. A cluster dispersion measure determined the optimal numbers of clusters. An inner product metric provided a measure of similarity between different clusters. The two cluster result found the task-negative and task-positive systems. The cluster dispersion measure was minimized with seven and eleven clusters. Each of the clusters in the seven and eleven cluster result was associated with either the task-negative or task-positive system. Applying the algorithm to find seven clusters recovered previously described resting state networks, including the default mode network, frontoparietal control network, ventral and dorsal attention networks, somatomotor, visual, and language networks. The language and ventral attention networks had significant subcortical involvement. This parcellation was consistently found in a large majority of algorithm runs under different conditions and was robust to different methods of initialization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The clustering of resting state activity using different optimal numbers of clusters identified resting state networks comparable to previously obtained results. This work reinforces the observation that resting state networks are hierarchically organized.

  7. Perception of perspective angles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    We perceive perspective angles, that is, angles that have an orientation in depth, differently from what they are in physical space. Extreme examples are angles between rails of a railway line or between lane dividers of a long and straight road. In this study, subjects judged perspective angles bet

  8. Rest requirements and rest management of personnel in shift work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammell, B.D. [PDG Environmental, Melbourne, FL (United States); Scheuerle, A. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A difficulty-weighted shift assignment scheme is proposed for use in prolonged and strenuous field operations such as emergency response, site testing, and short term hazardous waste remediation projects. The purpose of the work rotation plan is to increase productivity, safety, and moral of workers. Job weighting is accomplished by assigning adjustments to the mental and physical intensity of the task, the protective equipment worn, and the climatic conditions. The plan is based on medical studies of sleep deprivation, the effects of rest adjustments, and programs to reduce sleep deprivation and normalize shift schedules.

  9. Resting state EEG correlates of memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, Kate; Tishler, Ward; Manceor, Stephanie; Hamilton, Kelly; Gaulden, Andrew; Parr, Elaine; Wamsley, Erin J

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that post-training sleep benefits human memory. At the same time, emerging data suggest that other resting states may similarly facilitate consolidation. In order to identify the conditions under which non-sleep resting states benefit memory, we conducted an EEG (electroencephalographic) study of verbal memory retention across 15min of eyes-closed rest. Participants (n=26) listened to a short story and then either rested with their eyes closed, or else completed a distractor task for 15min. A delayed recall test was administered immediately following the rest period. We found, first, that quiet rest enhanced memory for the short story. Improved memory was associated with a particular EEG signature of increased slow oscillatory activity (<1Hz), in concert with reduced alpha (8-12Hz) activity. Mindwandering during the retention interval was also associated with improved memory. These observations suggest that a short period of quiet rest can facilitate memory, and that this may occur via an active process of consolidation supported by slow oscillatory EEG activity and characterized by decreased attention to the external environment. Slow oscillatory EEG rhythms are proposed to facilitate memory consolidation during sleep by promoting hippocampal-cortical communication. Our findings suggest that EEG slow oscillations could play a significant role in memory consolidation during other resting states as well. PMID:26802698

  10. Differential deployment of REST and CoREST promotes glial subtype specification and oligodendrocyte lineage maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Abrajano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The repressor element-1 (RE1 silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF is a master transcriptional regulator that binds to numerous genomic RE1 sites where it acts as a molecular scaffold for dynamic recruitment of modulatory and epigenetic cofactors, including corepressor for element-1-silencing transcription factor (CoREST. CoREST also acts as a hub for various cofactors that play important roles in epigenetic remodeling and transcriptional regulation. While REST can recruit CoREST to its macromolecular complex, CoREST complexes also function at genomic sites independently of REST. REST and CoREST perform a broad array of context-specific functions, which include repression of neuronal differentiation genes in neural stem cells (NSCs and other non-neuronal cells as well as promotion of neurogenesis. Despite their involvement in multiple aspects of neuronal development, REST and CoREST are not believed to have any direct modulatory roles in glial cell maturation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We challenged this view by performing the first study of REST and CoREST in NSC-mediated glial lineage specification and differentiation. Utilizing ChIP on chip (ChIP-chip assays, we identified distinct but overlapping developmental stage-specific profiles for REST and CoREST target genes during astrocyte (AS and oligodendrocyte (OL lineage specification and OL lineage maturation and myelination, including many genes not previously implicated in glial cell biology or linked to REST and CoREST regulation. Amongst these factors are those implicated in macroglial (AS and OL cell identity, maturation, and maintenance, such as members of key developmental signaling pathways and combinatorial transcription factor codes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results imply that REST and CoREST modulate not only neuronal but also glial lineage elaboration. These factors may therefore mediate critical developmental processes

  11. Effects Of Exercise During Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, S.; Berry, P; Cohen, M.; Danelis, J.; Deroshia, C.; Greenleaf, J.; Harris, B.; Keil, L.; Bernauer, E.; Bond, M.; Ellis, S.; Lee, P.; Selzer, R.; Wade, C.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiment to investigate effects of isotonic and isokinetic leg exercises in counteracting effects of bed rest upon physical and mental conditions of subjects. Data taken on capacity for work, endurance and strength, tolerance to sitting up, equilibrium, posture, gait, atrophy, mineralization and density of bones, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid and electrolyte balances, intermediary metabolism of muscles, mood, and performance.

  12. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire reveals multiple phenotypes of resting-state cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Alexander eDiaz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state neuroimaging is a dominant paradigm for studying brain function in health and disease. It is attractive for clinical research because of its simplicity for patients, straightforward standardization, and sensitivity to brain disorders. Importantly, non-sensory experiences like mind wandering may arise from ongoing brain activity. However, little is known about the link between ongoing brain activity and cognition, as phenotypes of resting-state cognition—and tools to quantify them—have been lacking. To facilitate rapid and structured measurements of resting-state cognition we developed a 50-item self-report survey, the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ. Based on ARSQ data from 813 participants assessed after five minutes eyes-closed rest in their home, we identified seven dimensions of resting-state cognition using factor analysis: Discontinuity of Mind, Theory of Mind, Self, Planning, Sleepiness, Comfort, and Somatic Awareness. Further, we showed that the structure of cognition was similar during resting-state fMRI and EEG, and that the test-retest correlations were remarkably high for all dimensions. To explore whether inter-individual variation of resting-state cognition is related to health status, we correlated ARSQ-derived factor scores with psychometric scales measuring depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Mental health correlated positively with Comfort and negatively with Discontinuity of Mind. Finally, we show that sleepiness may partially explain a resting-state EEG profile previously associated with Alzheimer’s disease. These findings indicate that the ARSQ readily provides information about cognitive phenotypes and that it is a promising tool for research on the neural correlates of resting-state cognition in health and disease.

  13. Annihilation of antiproton on deuteron at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system of Faddeev equations for amplitudes of anti pD iteraction at rest accounting for higher partial anti NN waves is derived. From its solution the total and elastic anti pD cross sections are calculated. Predictions for the missing-mass spectrum in the anti pD annihilation are made. The P-wave anti NN states give small contribution to the anti pD cross section at rest, the theoretical value of the latter being less than the experimental cross section extrapolated to the threshold. Let us emphasize that the total anti pD cross section depending weakly on the radii of anti NN interactions is sensitive to the values of the anti NN scattering lengths. Experimental data for anti pD cross sections at rest can be obtained only by extrapolation procedure. Henceforth it is very important to investigate the anti pD interactions at low but non-zero momenta where the direct comparison to the experiment is possible

  14. Tolerogenicity of resting and activated B cells

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Antigen presentation by resting splenic B cells has been shown previously to induce T helper 1 cell (Th1) anergy. In contrast to expectations, it was found here that B cells treated with F(ab')2 goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin (IgM) for 24 or 48 h also presented antigen (Ag) to Th1 cells in a manner that induced dramatic Ag-specific proliferative inactivation. The tolerogenicity of the anti-Ig-treated B cells was consistent with the observation that these B cells were only slightly more effici...

  15. The Semiotic and Conceptual Genesis of Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguay, Denis; Venant, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we try to understand how students at the end of primary school conceive of angle: Is an angle a magnitude for them or a geometric figure, and how do they manage to coordinate the two aspects in their understanding of the concepts of angle and of angle measurement? With the aim of better grasping the way "angle" is…

  16. Effects of ambient temperature on mechanomyography of resting quadriceps muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, William P; Vargo, Michael; Chilibeck, Philip D; Daku, Brian L

    2013-03-01

    It has been speculated that resting muscle mechanical activity, also known as minor tremor, microvibration, and thermoregulatory tonus, has evolved to maintain core temperature in homeotherms, and may play a role in nonshivering thermogenesis. This experiment was done to determine whether resting muscle mechanical activity increases with decreasing ambient temperature. We cooled 20 healthy, human, resting, supine subjects from an ambient temperature of 40° to 12 °C over 65 min. Core temperature, midquadriceps mechanomyography, surface electromyography, and oxygen consumption (VO2) were recorded. Resting muscle mechanical and electrical activity in the absence of shivering increased significantly at temperatures below 21.5 °C. Women defended core temperature more effectively than men, and showed increased resting muscle activity earlier than men. Metabolism measured by VO2 correlated with resting muscle mechanical activity (R = 0.65; p = 0.01). Resting muscle mechanical activity may have evolved, in part, to maintain core temperature in the face of mild cooling.

  17. Study on the Back Rest System of Looms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈革; 毛立民; 周亚勤; 袁立新

    2004-01-01

    Periodic variations of warp tension during a weaving cycle result in corresponding change of back rest position, and the oscillation of back rest affects the fluctuation of warp yarn in return. A mechanical model of back rest system of looms is presented on basis of auto control theory, and the factors affecting the dynamic performance of the back rest are analyzed. In the model, warp yarn is regarded as a viscoelastic medium, and the adjustable parameters and the adjusting range of the back rest system are increased, so the ioom's applicability for the fabric's variety is enlanced.Finally, the methods of designing and adjusting the back rest are discussed, and a trend of back rest system development is given.

  18. REST represses a subset of the pancreatic endocrine differentiation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror;

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to devise successful beta-cell differentiation strategies for the cure of Type 1 diabetes we sought to uncover barriers that restrict endocrine fate acquisition by studying the role of the transcriptional repressor REST in the developing pancreas. Rest expression is prevented...... in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic...... endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1(+) progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3...

  19. Restful Implementation of Catalogue Service for Geospatial Data Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L. C.; Yue, P.; Lu, X. C.

    2013-10-01

    Provenance, also known as lineage, is important in understanding the derivation history of data products. Geospatial data provenance helps data consumers to evaluate the quality and reliability of geospatial data. In a service-oriented environment, where data are often consumed or produced by distributed services, provenance could be managed by following the same service-oriented paradigm. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) is used for the registration and query of geospatial data provenance by extending ebXML Registry Information Model (ebRIM). Recent advance of the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) paradigm has shown great promise for the easy integration of distributed resources. RESTful Web Service aims to provide a standard way for Web clients to communicate with servers based on REST principles. The existing approach for provenance catalogue service could be improved by adopting the RESTful design. This paper presents the design and implementation of a catalogue service for geospatial data provenance following RESTful architecture style. A middleware named REST Converter is added on the top of the legacy catalogue service to support a RESTful style interface. The REST Converter is composed of a resource request dispatcher and six resource handlers. A prototype service is developed to demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

  20. Identification of Resting State Networks Involved in Executive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Joanna; McNulty, Jonathan P; Boran, Lorraine; Roche, Richard A P; Delany, David; Bokde, Arun L W

    2016-06-01

    The structural networks in the human brain are consistent across subjects, and this is reflected also in that functional networks across subjects are relatively consistent. These findings are not only present during performance of a goal oriented task but there are also consistent functional networks during resting state. It suggests that goal oriented activation patterns may be a function of component networks identified using resting state. The current study examines the relationship between resting state networks measured and patterns of neural activation elicited during a Stroop task. The association between the Stroop-activated networks and the resting state networks was quantified using spatial linear regression. In addition, we investigated if the degree of spatial association of resting state networks with the Stroop task may predict performance on the Stroop task. The results of this investigation demonstrated that the Stroop activated network can be decomposed into a number of resting state networks, which were primarily associated with attention, executive function, visual perception, and the default mode network. The close spatial correspondence between the functional organization of the resting brain and task-evoked patterns supports the relevance of resting state networks in cognitive function. PMID:26935902

  1. Opening Angles of Collapsar Jets

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuta, Akira; Ioka, Kunihito

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the jet propagation and breakout from the stellar progenitor for gamma-ray burst (GRB) collapsars by performing two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations and analytical modeling. We find that the jet opening angle is given by $\\theta_j \\sim 1/5 \\Gamma_{0}$, and infer the initial Lorentz factor of the jet at the central engine, $\\Gamma_0$, is a few for existing observations of $\\theta_j$. The jet keeps the Lorentz factor low inside the star by converging cylindricall...

  2. The qualitative criterion of transient angle stability

    OpenAIRE

    Lyu, R; Xue, Y.; Xue, F; Wu, Qiuwei; Yang, Guangya; Zhou, H; Ju, P.

    2015-01-01

    In almost all the literatures, the qualitative assessment of transient angle stability extracts the angle information of generators based on the swing curve. As the angle (or angle difference) of concern and the threshold value rely strongly on the engineering experience, the validity and robust of these criterions are weak. Based on the stability mechanism from the extended equal area criterion (EEAC) theory and combining with abundant simulations of real system, this paper analyzes the crit...

  3. Rest-to-Rest Attitude Naneuvers and Residual Vibration Reduction of a Finite Element Model of Flexible Satellite by Using Input Shaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyamartana Parman

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional rest-to-rest attitude maneuver of flexible spacecraft equipped by on-off reaction jets is studied. Equations of motion of the spacecraft is developed by employing a hybrid system of coordinates and Lagrangian formulation. The finite element method is used to examine discrete elastic deformations of a particular model of satellite carrying flexible solar panels by modelling the panels as flat plate structures in bending. Results indicate that, under an unshaped input, the maneuvers induce undesirable attitude angle motions of the satellite as well as vibration of the solar panels. An input shaper is then applied to reduce the residual oscillation of its motion at several natural frequencies in order to get an expected pointing precision of the satellite. Once the shaped input is given to the satellite, the performance improves significantly.

  4. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  5. Resting stage cells of diatoms in deep waters in Kumano-

    OpenAIRE

    AKIRA, ISHIKAWA; Shingo, Kitami; Ken-Ichiro, Ishii; Toru, NAKAMURA; ICHIRO, IMAI

    2011-01-01

    The abundance and species composition of viable resting stage cells of diatoms were investigated in deep waters (200,500 and 1,000 m depths) collected at neighboring stations in Kumano-Nada, central part of Japan, in April, August and October 2006. Viable resting stage cells were enumerated by the modified extinction dilution method [most probable number (MPN) method] based on incubation. Resting stage cells were detected from all samples, except at 500 m depth in August, in a range of abunda...

  6. Moderating effects of music on resting state networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Benjamin P; Meng, Xiangxiang; DiFrancesco, Mark; Holland, Scott K.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.

    2012-01-01

    Resting state networks (RSNs) are spontaneous, synchronous, low-frequency oscillations observed in the brains of subjects who are awake but at rest. A particular RSN called the default mode network (DMN) has been shown to exhibit changes associated with neurological disorders such as temporal lobe epilepsy or Alzheimer’s disease. Previous studies have also found that differing experimental conditions such as eyes-open versus eyes-closed can produce measurable changes in the DMN. These conditi...

  7. Resting Orientations of Dinosaur Scapulae and Forelimbs: A Numerical Analysis, with Implications for Reconstructions and Museum Mounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Phil; Robins, James H

    2015-01-01

    The inclination of the scapular blade and the resting pose of the forelimb in dinosaurs differ among reconstructions and among skeletal mounts. For most dinosaurian taxa, no attempt has previously been made to quantify the correct resting positions of these elements. Here, we used data from skeletons preserved in articulation to quantify the resting orientations of the scapula and forelimb in dinosaurs. Specimens were included in the study only if they were preserved lying on their sides; for each specimen the angle between forelimb bones at a given joint was included in the analysis only if the joint was preserved in articulation. Using correlation analyses of the angles between the long axis of the sacrum, the first dorsal centrum, and the scapular blade in theropods and Eoraptor, we found that vertebral hyperextension does not influence scapular orientation in saurischians. Among examined taxa, the long axis of the scapular blade was found to be most horizontal in bipedal saurischians, most vertical in basal ornithopods, and intermediate in hadrosauroids. We found that in bipedal dinosaurs other than theropods with semilunate carpals, the resting orientation of the elbow is close to a right angle and the resting orientation of the wrist is such that the hand exhibits only slight ulnar deviation from the antebrachium. In theropods with semilunate carpals the elbow and wrist are more flexed at rest, with the elbow at a strongly acute angle and with the wrist approximately at a right angle. The results of our study have important implications for correct orientations of bones in reconstructions and skeletal mounts. Here, we provide recommendations on bone orientations based on our results.

  8. Effects of eugenol on resting tension of rat atria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivoto, R R; Damiani, C E N; Kassouf Silva, I; Lofrano-Alves, M S; Oliveira, M A; Fogaça, R T H

    2014-04-01

    In cardiac and skeletal muscle, eugenol (μM range) blocks excitation-contraction coupling. In skeletal muscle, however, larger doses of eugenol (mM range) induce calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The effects of eugenol are therefore dependent on its concentration. In this study, we evaluated the effects of eugenol on the contractility of isolated, quiescent atrial trabeculae from male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=131) and measured atrial ATP content. Eugenol (1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 mM) increased resting tension in a dose-dependent manner. Ryanodine [100 µM; a specific ryanodine receptor (RyR) blocker] and procaine (30 mM; a nonspecific RyR blocker) did not block the increased resting tension induced by eugenol regardless of whether extracellular calcium was present. The myosin-specific inhibitor 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), however, reversed the increase in resting tension induced by eugenol. In Triton-skinned atrial trabeculae, in which all membranes were solubilized, eugenol did not change resting tension, maximum force produced, or the force vs pCa relationship (pCa=-log [Ca2+]). Given that eugenol reduced ATP concentration, the increase in resting tension observed in this study may have resulted from cooperative activation of cardiac thin filaments by strongly attached cross-bridges (rigor state).

  9. Resting states are resting traits - an fMRI study of sex differences and menstrual cycle effects in resting state cognitive control networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Helene Hjelmervik; Markus Hausmann; Berge Osnes; René Westerhausen; Karsten Specht

    2014-01-01

    To what degree resting state fMRI is stable or susceptible to internal mind states of the individual is currently an issue of debate. To address this issue, the present study focuses on sex differences and investigates whether resting state fMRI is stable in men and women or changes within relative short-term periods (i.e., across the menstrual cycle). Due to the fact that we recently reported menstrual cycle effects on cognitive control based on data collected during the same sessions, the c...

  10. Characterization of optimal resting tension in human pulmonary arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azar; Bennett, Robert T; Chaudhry, Mubarak A; Qadri, Syed S; Cowen, Mike; Morice, Alyn H; Loubani, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the optimum resting tension (ORT) for in vitro human pulmonary artery (PA) ring preparations. METHODS Pulmonary arteries were dissected from disease free sections of the resected lung in the operating theatre and tissue samples were directly sent to the laboratory in Krebs-Henseleit solution (Krebs). The pulmonary arteries were then cut into 2 mm long rings. PA rings were mounted in 25 mL organ baths or 8 mL myograph chambers containing Krebs compound (37 °C, bubbled with 21% O2: 5% CO2) to measure changes in isometric tension. The resting tension was set at 1-gram force (gf) with vessels being left static to equilibrate for duration of one hour. Baseline contractile reactions to 40 mmol/L KCl were obtained from a resting tension of 1 gf. Contractile reactions to 40 mmol/L KCl were then obtained from stepwise increases in resting tension (1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 gf). RESULTS Twenty PA rings of internal diameter between 2-4 mm were prepared from 4 patients. In human PA rings incrementing the tension during rest stance by 0.6 gf, up to 1.6 gf significantly augmented the 40 mmol/L KCl stimulated tension. Further enhancement of active tension by 0.4 gf, up to 2.0 gf mitigate the 40 mmol/L KCl stimulated reaction. Both Myograph and the organ bath demonstrated identical conclusions, supporting that the radial optimal resting tension for human PA ring was 1.61 g. CONCLUSION The radial optimal resting tension in our experiment is 1.61 gf (15.78 mN) for human PA rings. PMID:27721938

  11. Effects of Bed Rest on Conduction Velocity of the Triceps Surae Stretch Reflex and Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Wood, S. J.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kofman, I. S.; Fisher, E. A.; Esteves, J. T.; Taylor, L. C.; DeDios, Y. E.; Harm, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite rigorous exercise and nutritional management during space missions, astronauts returning from microgravity exhibit neuromuscular deficits and a significant loss in muscle mass in the postural muscles of the lower leg. Similar changes in the postural muscles occur in subjects participating in long-duration bed rest studies. These adaptive muscle changes manifest as a reduction in reflex conduction velocity during head-down bed rest. Because the stretch reflex encompasses both the peripheral (muscle spindle and nerve axon) and central (spinal synapse) components involved in adaptation to calf muscle unloading, it may be used to provide feedback on the general condition of neuromuscular function, and might be used to evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures aimed at preserving muscle mass and function during periods of unloading. Stretch reflexes were measured on 18 control subjects who spent 60 to 90 days in continuous 6 deg head-down bed rest. Using a motorized system capable of rotating the foot around the ankle joint (dorsiflexion) through an angle of 10 degrees at a peak velocity of about 250 deg/sec, a stretch reflex was recorded from the subject's left triceps surae muscle group. Using surface electromyography, about 300 reflex responses were obtained and ensemble-averaged on 3 separate days before bed rest, 3 to 4 times in bed, and 3 times after bed rest. The averaged responses for each test day were examined for reflex latency and conduction velocity (CV) across gender. Computerized posturography was also conducted on these same subjects before and after bed rest as part of the standard measures. Peak-to-peak sway was measured during Sensory Organization Tests (SOTs) to evaluate changes in the ability to effectively use or suppress visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive information for postural control. Although no gender differences were found, a significant increase in reflex latency and a significant decrease in CV were observed during the bed

  12. The qualitative criterion of transient angle stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyu, R.; Xue, Y.; Xue, F.;

    2015-01-01

    In almost all the literatures, the qualitative assessment of transient angle stability extracts the angle information of generators based on the swing curve. As the angle (or angle difference) of concern and the threshold value rely strongly on the engineering experience, the validity and robust of...... these criterions are weak. Based on the stability mechanism from the extended equal area criterion (EEAC) theory and combining with abundant simulations of real system, this paper analyzes the criterions in most literatures and finds that the results could be too conservative or too optimistic. It is...

  13. Behavior of Tilted Angle Shear Connectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koosha Khorramian

    Full Text Available According to recent researches, angle shear connectors are appropriate to transfer longitudinal shear forces across the steel-concrete interface. Angle steel profile has been used in different positions as L-shaped or C-shaped shear connectors. The application of angle shear connectors in tilted positions is of interest in this study. This study investigates the behaviour of tilted-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic loading using experimental push out tests. Eight push-out specimens are tested to investigate the effects of different angle parameters on the ultimate load capacity of connectors. Two different tilted angles of 112.5 and 135 degrees between the angle leg and steel beam are considered. In addition, angle sizes and lengths are varied. Two different failure modes were observed consisting of concrete crushing-splitting and connector fracture. By increasing the size of connector, the maximum load increased for most cases. In general, the 135 degrees tilted angle shear connectors have a higher strength and stiffness than the 112.5 degrees type.

  14. Resting Behaviour of Broilers in Three Different Rearing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zupan, M.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The highest number of broilers is reared in the intensive fattening system on the floor with litter. Besides the intensive systems some sustainable rearing ways are also brought forward (ecological, biologic-dynamic, organic, etc.. The aim of this study was to establish the possible differences in resting behaviour of broilers in three rearing systems: intensive on the floor, free range, and organic system. The results showed great varieties between intensive and less intensive systems. In the intensive system on the floor animals rested statistically highly significantly more than in other two systems. However no differences in the behaviour of broilers in the stall were noticed, ifcompared to broilers in free range and those in the organic system. Comparison of the outdoor area showed that broilers rested statistically significantly more in the organic system. The reasons for different resting behaviour could be in leg weakness, body weight, group size, health problems, age, housing system, etc. Our research did not confirm our hypothesis that the older broilers rest more.

  15. Assessment of OGC Web Processing Services for REST principles

    CERN Document Server

    Granell, Carlos; Tamayo, Alain; Huerta, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    Recent distributed computing trends advocate the use of Representational State Transfer (REST), which aligns to the same principles than shape the Web, to alleviate the inherent complexity of the Web services standards in building service-oriented web applications. In this paper, we focus on the particular case of geospatial services interfaced by the OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) specification, geoprocessing services on top of service oriented architectures, in order to assess whether WPS-based geoprocessing services can be viewed from the architectural principles exposed in REST. Our concluding remarks suggest that the adoption of REST principles, to specially harness the built-in mechanisms of the HTTP application protocol, may be beneficial in scenarios where ad hoc composition of geoprocessing services are required, common for most non-expert users of geospatial information infrastructures.

  16. Predictors of restful sleep in a rehabilitation hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freter, S H; Becker, M R

    1999-01-01

    The effect of hypnotic use on self-rated quality of sleep and therapist-rated level of alertness was examined in an inpatient rehabilitation setting. We examined what other factors were predictive of a restful sleep in this population. Seventy-five inpatients at the Jewish Rehabilitation Hospital in Montreal were included. Patients were asked to rate the quality of their own sleep on a given night. Night nurses recorded whether sleeping pills had been used and rated patients' sleep and number of awakenings during the same night. Patients were evaluated by their physiotherapists and occupational therapists the next day regarding how well rested they seemed according to three parameters: alertness, fatigue, and level of participation in therapy. Thirty-three percent of the patients received sleeping pills on the study night. Sleeping pill use did not predict patient perception of getting a good night of sleep or the somewhat more objective sleep rating by the night nurse. Whether a sleeping pill was taken was also found not to be predictive of restful sleep as estimated by the physical and occupational therapists. Variables significantly associated with therapists' ratings of apparently restful sleep included number of comorbidities, the nurses' rating of how well the patient had slept, the patients' self-assessment of sleep, and whether the patient felt well rested the morning after sleep. However, the patients' own assessment of sleep quality was negatively related to their performance in rehabilitation therapy. This suggests that patient self-report of sleeping difficulty may not be the best or only guideline to follow when considering intervention such as prescribing sleeping pills, particularly because sleeping pill use seems not to influence either patient perception of sleep or how well rested they seem in therapy. PMID:10574171

  17. Predictors of restful sleep in a rehabilitation hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freter, S H; Becker, M R

    1999-01-01

    The effect of hypnotic use on self-rated quality of sleep and therapist-rated level of alertness was examined in an inpatient rehabilitation setting. We examined what other factors were predictive of a restful sleep in this population. Seventy-five inpatients at the Jewish Rehabilitation Hospital in Montreal were included. Patients were asked to rate the quality of their own sleep on a given night. Night nurses recorded whether sleeping pills had been used and rated patients' sleep and number of awakenings during the same night. Patients were evaluated by their physiotherapists and occupational therapists the next day regarding how well rested they seemed according to three parameters: alertness, fatigue, and level of participation in therapy. Thirty-three percent of the patients received sleeping pills on the study night. Sleeping pill use did not predict patient perception of getting a good night of sleep or the somewhat more objective sleep rating by the night nurse. Whether a sleeping pill was taken was also found not to be predictive of restful sleep as estimated by the physical and occupational therapists. Variables significantly associated with therapists' ratings of apparently restful sleep included number of comorbidities, the nurses' rating of how well the patient had slept, the patients' self-assessment of sleep, and whether the patient felt well rested the morning after sleep. However, the patients' own assessment of sleep quality was negatively related to their performance in rehabilitation therapy. This suggests that patient self-report of sleeping difficulty may not be the best or only guideline to follow when considering intervention such as prescribing sleeping pills, particularly because sleeping pill use seems not to influence either patient perception of sleep or how well rested they seem in therapy.

  18. Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Jacobsen, Rikke K; Skaaby, Tea;

    2015-01-01

    included in observational and Mendelian randomisation (MR) meta-analyses of the associations of smoking status and smoking heaviness with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), hypertension, and resting heart rate. For the MR analyses, a genetic variant rs16969968/rs1051730 was used as a proxy......BACKGROUND: -Smoking is an important cardiovascular disease risk factor, but the mechanisms linking smoking to blood pressure are poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Data on 141,317 participants (62,666 never, 40,669 former, 37,982 current smokers) from 23 population-based studies were...... association of smoking heaviness with higher level of resting heart rate, but not with blood pressure. These findings suggest that part of the cardiovascular risk of smoking may operate through increasing resting heart rate....

  19. Expression of REST4 in human gliomas in vivo and influence of pioglitazone on REST in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Huan [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Changsha 410078 (China); Gao, Zhangfeng [Department of Neurosurgery, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Wu, Nayiyuan; Zeng, Liu; Tang, Xinyue; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Zhaoqian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Liansheng [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Changsha 410078 (China); Li, Zhi, E-mail: lizhi489@163.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Changsha 410078 (China)

    2015-08-07

    The repressor element-1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) has an irreplaceable role during the differentiation of neurons. REST has multiple splice variants which link to various types of cancer. Previous work had highlighted the role of REST in glioma, where the expression of REST is enhanced. But whether alternative splicing of REST is expressed in glioma has not been described. Here, we show that a specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens, and will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists have a role of antineoplastic in various tumor cells, which including glioma cells. Moreover, study indicated that PPARγ agonist pioglitazone can promote alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. In this study, we selected pioglitazone as a tool drug to explore whether the role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma is mediated by regulating REST expression or promoting alternative splicing of REST in glioma cells. Results show that pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cell in vitro, which may be mediated by down-regulating REST mRNA level but not by inducing alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. Our study firstly reports the expression of REST4 in glioma tissue samples. And we recommend that pioglitazone, which can reduce the expression level of REST, represents a promising drug for therapy of glioma. - Highlights: • A specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens in vivo. • REST4 will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. • Pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cells. • The role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma may be mediated by down-regulating REST.

  20. 75 FR 80746 - Interpretation of Rest Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Government Printing Office's Web page at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . ] You can also get a copy by sending a request to the Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Rulemaking, ARM-1, 800... Whitlow Letter in its interpretations of section 121.471(g). See Air Transport Ass'n of America, Inc. v....

  1. Democracy in the Rest of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Patrick

    1991-01-01

    Describes the role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the political arena, as well as in development and public welfare roles. Traces the recent history of grassroots efforts to solve social problems in Latin America. NGOs can strengthen institution building and influence national policymaking. (KS)

  2. Modification of Slenderness Coefficient of Angle Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红燕; 李志业

    2004-01-01

    To provide information for amendment to Technical Specifications for Power Transmission Towers (SDGJ94-90), the critical loads of typical compressed angle steels was calculated. The correlation of buckling loads and slenderness of compressed angle steels was obtained with regression. A new slenderness coefficient equation was proposed based on the result of the correlation. A practical measure to ensure good result in nonlinear solution using Arch-length method is put forward.

  3. Separation of uranium in bone rest for their dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium (U) and thorium (Th) recovery, as fundamental part of the 'uranium serie' technique is an alternative method for dating of bone rests in Mexico. That so is how it has been possible its application for dating geological material and in this research it has been determined the age of some mammoth samples from the basin of Mexico valley. (Author)

  4. The cause of ischaemic nocturnal rest pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Bülow, J; Tønnesen, K H;

    1988-01-01

    Adipose tissue blood flow in the forefoot was measured simultaneously with mean systemic arterial blood pressure over 24 hours in 8 patients (15 feet) with different degrees of arterial insufficiency. Mean systemic arterial pressure decreased by 19 +/- 9% during sleep, irrespective of symptomatol......Adipose tissue blood flow in the forefoot was measured simultaneously with mean systemic arterial blood pressure over 24 hours in 8 patients (15 feet) with different degrees of arterial insufficiency. Mean systemic arterial pressure decreased by 19 +/- 9% during sleep, irrespective...

  5. Recitations for the Rest of Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Cynthia

    2010-10-01

    Two-thirds of Physics Departments in the United States offer a Bachelor's degree as their highest degree. At these institutions, the ability to offer a separate recitation for introductory physics courses can be severely limited by the lack of graduate Teaching Assistants and existing teaching commitments within the department. At Louisiana State University in Shreveport a combination of course redesign and technology have been used over the last three years to add an active-learning problem solving recitation within the existing framework of introductory physics courses. One day per week of a three-day-per-week, 50 minute class period is now used for a tablet-computer based recitation, in which students work in collaborative groups on problems while the professor monitors group progress and presents exemplar student solutions to the class in real time. This talk will discuss the structural redesign to the courses, the technology tools (hardware and software) that are being used, and suggest alternative methods that do not require technology. In addition, student data relating to course outcomes in the redesigned courses will be presented for conceptual learning gains, problem solving skills, overall course success, and student-reported attitudes towards course outcomes, showing the positive results of these changes.

  6. Cross-validation of resting metabolic rate prediction equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Knowledge of the resting metabolic rate (RMR) is necessary for determining individual total energy requirements. Measurement of RMR is time consuming and requires specialized equipment. Prediction equations provide an easy method to estimate RMR; however, the accuracy of these equations...

  7. Analysis of factors affecting angle ANB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussels, W; Nanda, R S

    1984-05-01

    Cephalometric analyses based on angular and linear measurements have obvious fallacies, which have been discussed in detail by Moyers and Bookstein. However, the clinical application of such an analysis by the orthodontic profession in treatment planning is widely accepted. Variations of angle ANB are commonly used to determine relative jaw relationships in most of the cephalometric evaluations. Several authors, including points A and B influences angle ANB, as does rotational growth of the upper and lower jaws. In addition, the authors point out that growth in a vertical direction (distance N to B) and an increase of the dental height (distance A to B) may contribute to changes in angle ANB. For a Class I relation (Wits = 0 mm), a mathematical formula has been developed which enables the authors to study the geometric influence of angle ANB caused by the following four effects: (1) rotation of the jaws and/or occlusal plane relative to the anterior cranial base; (2) anteroposterior position of N relative to point B, (3) vertical growth (distance N to B); (4) increase in dental height (distance A to B). It was observed that, contrary to the common belief that an ANB angle of 2 +/- 3.0 degrees is considered normal for a skeletal Class I relation, the calculated values of angle ANB will vary widely with changes in these four controlling factors under the same skeletal Class I conditions (Wits = 0 mm). Therefore, in a case under consideration, angle ANB must be corrected for these geometric effects in order to get a proper perspective of the skeletal discrepancy. This is facilitated by comparing the measured ANB angle with the corresponding ANB angle calculated by a formula for a Class I relationship. The corresponding calculated angle ANB can be taken from the tables which are based upon the formula using the same values for SNB, omega (angle between occlusal plane and anterior cranial base), b (which is distance N to B) and a (dental height measured as perpendicular

  8. Moderating effects of music on resting state networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Benjamin P.; Meng, Xiangxiang; DiFrancesco, Mark; Holland, Scott K.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.

    2012-01-01

    Resting state networks (RSNs) are spontaneous, synchronous, low-frequency oscillations observed in the brains of subjects who are awake but at rest. A particular RSN called the default mode network (DMN) has been shown to exhibit changes associated with neurological disorders such as temporal lobe epilepsy or Alzheimer’s disease. Previous studies have also found that differing experimental conditions such as eyes-open versus eyes-closed can produce measurable changes in the DMN. These condition-associated changes have the potential of confounding the measurements of changes in RSNs related to or caused by disease state(s). In this study, we use fMRI measurements of resting-state connectivity paired with EEG measurements of alpha rhythm and employ independent component analysis, undirected graphs of partial spectral coherence, and spatiotemporal regression to investigate the effect of music-listening on RSNs and the DMN in particular. We observed similar patterns of DMN connectivity in subjects who were listening to music compared with those who were not, with a trend towards a more introspective pattern of resting-state connectivity during music-listening. We conclude that music-listening is a valid condition under which the DMN can be studied. PMID:22365746

  9. CHRONOS's Examples of Application of Standards to REST Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervato, C.; Fils, D.; Diver, P.

    2007-12-01

    We will present the approach that CHRONOS is using to exchange data with third party web sites and applications based on Representational State Transfer (REST) services. REST allows for the simple creation of services by associating documents with URL's in a manner similar to traditional web sites, where user- generated requests return data usually encoded in HTML. We will show the use of the Web Application Description Language (WADL) to address issues of REST service description. Then, by combining these REST services with XML documents and Microformats, we provide a standards-based approach to the delivery of services and data. These REST-style services facilitate external use thanks to the use of traditional web-style request/response structure. We will present an example of an application that delivers age models from ODP's Janus database to both web-based and stand-alone client applications (e.g., GeoMapApp). The network-accessible CHRONOS infrastructure is designed around a Services-Oriented Architecture (SOA), in which all of the functionality is exposed as discrete services. These services can be combined to create new services and consumed both internally, by tools in the toolkit and portal interfaces, and externally by other groups for their own efforts and tasks. This service-based approach has reduced the time it takes the CHRONOS IT team to turn a feature request from the community into a production-caliber tool or portal interface. A common theme throughout the CHRONOS architecture is the use of XML for describing services, data, and metadata. XML is a simple, standard text format that enjoys widespread adoption and support across all platforms, making it a natural choice in an open architecture. CHRONOS employs several community-developed and supported XML schemas for representing time scale, GIS, and other data. The presentation will emphasize the added importance of the utilization of XML because of the free-form nature of REST services, and the

  10. 78 FR 14166 - Clarification of Flight, Duty, and Rest Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... published a final rule entitled, ] ``Flightcrew Member Duty and Rest Requirements'' (77 FR 330). In that... safely perform his or her assigned duties. \\11\\ See 77 FR at 379. iii Flight Duty Period (FDP) 1. Type of... for the pertinent FDP. \\26\\ 77 FR at 358. If long-call reserve is used to change the FDP start...

  11. Fuel utilization during exercise after 7 days of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Moore, Alan D.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Energy yield from carbohydrate, fat, and protein during physical activity is partially dependent on an individual's fitness level. Prolonged exposure to microgravity causes musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning; these adaptations may alter fuel utilization during space flight. Carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise were analyzed before and after 7 days of horizontal bed rest.

  12. A lattice determination of gA and left angle x right angle from overlap fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results for the nucleon's axial charge gA and the first moment left angle x right angle of the unpolarized parton distribution function from a simulation of quenched overlap fermions. (orig.)

  13. BIOSORPTION OF CR (VI BY RESTING CELLS OF ASPERGILLUS SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sen , M. Ghosh Dastidar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption of Cr(VI from aqueous solution was studied in a batch bioreactor using the resting cells of filamentous fungal biomass (Aspergillus sp. isolated from industrial wastewaters. The specific Cr(VI removal (mg/g of dried biomass decreased with increase in pH and increased with increase in initial Cr(VI concentration, upto 500 mg/L. By increasing biomass concentration from 2.4 to 5.2 g/L, the specific metal removal remained almost constant. The studies carried out by using the resting cells from various stages of growth indicated maximum Cr(VI removal of 34.8 mg/g using the biomass from the beginning of the stationary phase. The adsorption equilibrium constants Qº (42.9 mg/g and b (0.0091/mg were obtained from the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model.

  14. Nonadiabatic Hannay's Angle of Spin One Half in Grassmannian Version and Invariant Angle Coherent States

    OpenAIRE

    Cherbal, Omar; Maamache, Mustapha; Drir, Mahrez

    2003-01-01

    We propose to determinate the nonadiabatic Hannay’s angle of spin one half in a varying external magnetic field, by using an averaged version of the variational principal. We also show how the evolution and this nonadiabatic Hannay’s angle is associated with the evolution of Grassmannian invariant-angle coherent states.

  15. EMERGENCE ANGLE OF FLOW OVER AN AERATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aerator is an important device for release works of hydraulic structures with high-speed flow in order to protect them from cavitation damage. This kind of protecting effect is related closely to cavity length below the aerator, while the cavity length is dominated by the emergence angle over the aerator. Therefore it is crucial to determine this angle accurately. In the present paper the affecting intensities of flow depth and the fluctuating velocity on this angle were analyzed through two introduced parameters. Furthermore, the improved expressions of emergence angle estimation, for both ramp-type and step-type aerators, were presented by means of 68 sets of experimental data from 6 projects based on error theory. The results showed that the present method has higher accuracy than the previously reported methods.

  16. Decreased Expression of CoREST1 and CoREST2 Together with LSD1 and HDAC1/2 during Neuronal Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Esteban Sáez

    Full Text Available CoREST (CoREST1, rcor1 transcriptional corepressor together with the histone demethylase LSD1 (KDM1A and the histone deacetylases HDAC1/2 form LSD1-CoREST-HDAC (LCH transcriptional complexes to regulate gene expression. CoREST1 belong to a family that also comprises CoREST2 (rcor2 and CoREST3 (rcor3. CoREST1 represses the expression of neuronal genes during neuronal differentiation. However, the role of paralogs CoREST2 and CoREST3 in this process is just starting to emerge. Here, we report the expression of all CoRESTs and partners LSD1 and HDAC1/2 in two models of neuronal differentiation: Nerve-Growth-Factor (NGF-induced neuronal phenotype of PC12 cells, and in vitro maturation of embryonic rat cortical neurons. In both models, a concomitant and gradual decrease of LSD1, HDAC1, HDAC2, CoREST1, and CoREST2, but not CoREST3 was observed. As required by the study, full-length rat rcor1 gene was identified using in silico analysis of available rat genome. The work was also complemented by the analysis of rat RNA-seq databases. The analysis showed that all CoRESTs, including the identified four splicing variants of rat CoREST3, display a wide expression in adult tissues. Moreover, the analysis of RNA-seq databases showed that CoREST2 displays a higher expression than CoREST1 and CoREST3 in the mature brain. Immunofluorescent assays and immunoblots of adult rat brain showed that all CoRESTs are present in both glia and neurons. Regarding functional partnership, CoREST2 and CoREST3 interact with all LSD1 splicing variants. In conclusion, neuronal differentiation is accompanied by decreased expression of all core components of LCH complexes, but not CoREST3. The combination of the differential transcriptional repressor capacity of LCH complexes and variable protein levels of its different components should result in a finely tuned gene expression during neuronal differentiation and in the adult brain.

  17. Resting and Energy Reserves of Aedes albopictus Collected in Common Landscaping Vegetation in St. Augustine, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, Dayana M.; Qualls, Whitney A.; Roque, Deborah; Naranjo, Diana P.; Alimi, Temitope; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Müller, Günter C; Beier, John C.; Xue, Rui-De

    2013-01-01

    The resting behavior of Aedes albopictus was evaluated by aspirating diurnal resting mosquitoes from common landscape vegetation in residential communities in St. Augustine, FL. Energy reserves of the resting mosquitoes were analyzed to determine if there was a correlation between mosquito resting habitat and energy accumulation. Six species of plants were selected and 9 collections of resting mosquitoes were aspirated from each plant using a modified John W. Hock backpack aspirator during Ju...

  18. Winding angles of long lattice walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Yosi; Kantor, Yacov

    2016-07-01

    We study the winding angles of random and self-avoiding walks (SAWs) on square and cubic lattices with number of steps N ranging up to 107. We show that the mean square winding angle of random walks converges to the theoretical form when N → ∞. For self-avoiding walks on the square lattice, we show that the ratio /2 converges slowly to the Gaussian value 3. For self-avoiding walks on the cubic lattice, we find that the ratio /2 exhibits non-monotonic dependence on N and reaches a maximum of 3.73(1) for N ≈ 104. We show that to a good approximation, the square winding angle of a self-avoiding walk on the cubic lattice can be obtained from the summation of the square change in the winding angles of lnN independent segments of the walk, where the ith segment contains 2i steps. We find that the square winding angle of the ith segment increases approximately as i0.5, which leads to an increase of the total square winding angle proportional to (lnN)1.5.

  19. Development of a restful API : hateoas & driven API

    OpenAIRE

    Somoza Alonso, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    With the imminent future of the Internet of the Things which implies that everyday objects are connected between them and to the Internet, the need for the development of a software capable of managing communication devices arises. The goal of this thesis was to create a prototype of an Application Programming Interface in the Java language and implement a REST architectural style, capable of managing and authenticating different kinds of information, such as devices and users, as well as...

  20. Predictive value of casual ECG-based resting heart rate compared with resting heart rate obtained from Holter recording

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Nicholas; Dixen, Ulrik; Marott, Jacob L;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Assessment of heart rate (HR) from Holter recording may afford a more precise estimate of the effect of RHR on cardiovascular risk, as compared to casual RHR. Comparative analysis was carried ...

  1. Resting-state neuronal oscillatory correlates of working memory performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Heister

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Working memory (WM represents the brain's ability to maintain information in a readily available state for short periods of time. This study examines the resting-state cortical activity patterns that are most associated with performance on a difficult working-memory task. METHODS: Magnetoencephalographic (MEG band-passed (delta/theta (1-7 Hz, alpha (8-13 Hz, beta (14-30 Hz and sensor based regional power was collected in a population of adult men (18-28 yrs, n = 24 in both an eyes-closed and eyes-open resting state. The normalized power within each resting state condition as well as the normalized change in power between eyes closed and open (zECO were correlated with performance on a WM task. The regional and band-limited measures that were most associated with performance were then combined using singular value decomposition (SVD to determine the degree to which zECO power was associated with performance on the three-back verbal WM task. RESULTS: Changes in power from eyes closed to open revealed a significant decrease in power in all band-widths that was most pronounced in the posterior brain regions (delta/theta band. zECO right posterior frontal and parietal cortex delta/theta power were found to be inversely correlated with three-back working memory performance. The SVD evaluation of the most correlated zECO metrics then provided a singular measure that was highly correlated with three-back performance (r = -0.73, p<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that there is an association between WM performance and changes in resting-state power (right posterior frontal and parietal delta/theta power. Moreover, an SVD of the most associated zECO measures produces a composite resting-state metric of regional neural oscillatory power that has an improved association with WM performance. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation that has found that changes in resting state electromagnetic neural patterns are highly

  2. The neural basis of unwanted thoughts during resting state

    OpenAIRE

    Kühn, Simone; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; Raedt, Rudi; Gallinar, J

    2013-01-01

    Human beings are constantly engaged in thought. Sometimes thoughts occur repetitively and can become distressing. Up to now the neural bases of these intrusive or unwanted thoughts is largely unexplored. To study the neural correlates of unwanted thoughts, we acquired resting-state fMRI data of 41 female healthy subjects and assessed the self-reported amount of unwanted thoughts during measurement. We analyzed local connectivity by means of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectiv...

  3. Specific Circuit Training in Young Judokas: Effects of Rest Duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, Stephane; Roux, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Ten adolescent judokas performed circuit training consisting of six 40-s periods of judo exercises separated by 40 s (CT1:1), 120 s (CT1:3), or 200 s (CT1:5) of rest. Heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and the number of repetitions were recorded. Heart rate reached [approximately]180 beats[middle dot]min-1 at the end of work periods, with…

  4. Effect of sedentary activities on resting metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, W H; Bandini, L G; Morelli, J A; Peers, K F; Ching, P L

    1994-03-01

    We examined the effect of television viewing on resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a cohort of 9 obese and 18 nonobese girls aged 10.4 +/- 1.1 y. RMR was measured while girls watched television, read, or sat quietly for 15 min. Movement was assessed by using activity monitors and a manual count of movements observed on a videotape. Absolute RMR was greater for the obese girls, but no significant treatment effect existed for absolute RMR within either group. Although measured activity did not differ, observed movements were greater when the girls were sitting quietly. Total observed and measured movements were significantly correlated with the CV of the minute-by-minute RMR. These results suggest that television viewing does not alter RMR. Although children appear to fidget more when sitting quietly than when they read or watch television, fidgeting appears to affect the minute-to-minute variation of RMR rather than the level of resting energy expenditure.

  5. Regional Patterns of Cortical Phase Synchrony in the Resting State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casimo, Kaitlyn; Darvas, Felix; Wander, Jeremiah; Ko, Andrew; Grabowski, Thomas J; Novotny, Edward; Poliakov, Andrew; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Weaver, Kurt E

    2016-07-01

    Synchronized phase estimates between oscillating neuronal signals at the macroscale level reflect coordinated activities between neuronal assemblies. Recent electrophysiological evidence suggests the presence of significant spontaneous phase synchrony within the resting state. The purpose of this study was to investigate phase synchrony, including directional interactions, in resting state subdural electrocorticographic recordings to better characterize patterns of regional phase interactions across the lateral cortical surface during the resting state. We estimated spontaneous phase locking value (PLV) as a measure of functional connectivity, and phase slope index (PSI) as a measure of pseudo-causal phase interactions, across a broad range of canonical frequency bands and the modulation of the amplitude envelope of high gamma (amHG), a band that is believed to best reflect the physiological processes giving rise to the functional magnetic resonance imaging BOLD signal. Long-distance interactions had higher PLVs in slower frequencies (≤theta) than in higher ones (≥beta) with amHG behaving more like slow frequencies, and a general trend of increasing frequency band of significant PLVs when moving across the lateral surface along an anterior-posterior axis. Moreover, there was a strong trend of frontal-to-parietal directional phase synchronization, measured by PSI across multiple frequencies. These findings, which are likely indicative of coordinated and structured spontaneous cortical interactions, are important in the study of time scales and directional nature of resting state functional connectivity, and may ultimately contribute to a better understanding of how spontaneous synchrony is linked to variation in regional architecture across the lateral cortical surface. PMID:27019319

  6. Soundscape Ecology of Hawaiian Spinner Dolphin Resting Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenehan, Heather Leigh

    Sound is a key sensory modality for Hawaiian spinner dolphins. Like many other marine animals, these dolphins rely on sound and their acoustic environment for many aspects of their daily lives, making it is essential to understand soundscape in areas that are critical to their survival. Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest during the day in shallow coastal areas and forage offshore at night. In my dissertation I focus on the soundscape of the bays where Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest taking a soundscape ecology approach. I primarily relied on passive acoustic monitoring using four DSG-Ocean acoustic loggers in four Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting bays on the Kona Coast of Hawai'i Island. 30-second recordings were made every four minutes in each of the bays for 20 to 27 months between January 8, 2011 and March 30, 2013. I also utilized concomitant vessel-based visual surveys in the four bays to provide context for these recordings. In my first chapter I used the contributions of the dolphins to the soundscape to monitor presence in the bays and found the degree of presence varied greatly from less than 40% to nearly 90% of days monitored with dolphins present. Having established these bays as important to the animals, in my second chapter I explored the many components of their resting bay soundscape and evaluated the influence of natural and human events on the soundscape. I characterized the overall soundscape in each of the four bays, used the tsunami event of March 2011 to approximate a natural soundscape and identified all loud daytime outliers. Overall, sound levels were consistently louder at night and quieter during the daytime due to the sounds from snapping shrimp. In fact, peak Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting time co-occurs with the quietest part of the day. However, I also found that humans drastically alter this daytime soundscape with sound from offshore aquaculture, vessel sound and military mid-frequency active sonar. During one recorded mid

  7. Resting Behaviour of Broilers in Three Different Rearing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zupan, M.; Berk, J.; Ellendorff, F.; M. Wolf-reuter; Čop, D.; Holcman, A.; Štuhec, I.

    2003-01-01

    The highest number of broilers is reared in the intensive fattening system on the floor with litter. Besides the intensive systems some sustainable rearing ways are also brought forward (ecological, biologic-dynamic, organic, etc.). The aim of this study was to establish the possible differences in resting behaviour of broilers in three rearing systems: intensive on the floor, free range, and organic system. The results showed great varieties between intensive and less intensive systems. In t...

  8. Multi-angle deformation analysis of Hoffa's fat pad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin; Schweitzer, Mark; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    2006-03-01

    Recent advances in medical research hypothesize that certain body fat, in addition to having a classical role of energy storage, may also have mechanical function. In particular, we analyzed the infrapatellar fat pad of Hoffa using 3D CT images of the knee at multiple angles to determine how the fat pad changes shape as the knee bends and whether the fat pad provides cushioning in the knee joint. The images were initially processed using a median filter then segmented using a region growing technique to isolate the fat pad from the rest of the knee. Next, rigid registration was performed to align the series of images to match the reference image. Finally, multi-resolution FEM registration was completed between the aligned images. The resulting displacements fields were used to determine the local volume change of the fat pad as the knee bends from extension to flexion through different angles. This multi-angle analysis provides a finer description of the intermediate deformations compared to earlier work, where only a pair of images (full extension and flexion) was analyzed.

  9. Gender Differences in Bed Rest: Preliminary Analysis of Vascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Martin, David S.; Freeman-Perez, Sondra A.; Phillips, Tiffany; Ribeiro, L. Christine

    2008-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is a recognized consequence of spaceflight. Numerous studies have shown that women are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight as well as bed rest, the most commonly used ground-based analog for spaceflight. One of the possible mechanisms proposed to account for this is a difference in vascular responsiveness between genders. We hypothesized that women and men would have differing vascular responses to 90 days of 6-degree head down tilt bed rest. Additionally, we hypothesized that vessels in the upper and lower body would respond differently, as has been shown in the animal literature. Thirteen subjects were placed in bedrest for 90 days (8 men, 5 women) at the Flight Analogs Unit, UTMB. Direct arterial and venous measurements were made with ultrasound to evaluate changes in vascular structure and function. Arterial function was assessed, in the arm and leg, during a reactive hyperemia protocol and during sublingual nitroglycerin administration to gauge the contributions of endothelial dependent and independent dilator function respectively. Venous function was assessed in dorsal hand and foot veins during the administration of pharmaceuticals to assess constrictor and dilator function. Both gender and day effects are seen in arterial dilator function to reactive hyperemia, but none are seen with nitroglycerin. There are also differences in the wall thickness in the arm vs the leg during bed rest, which return toward pre-bed rest levels by day 90. More subjects are required, especially females as there is not sufficient power to properly analyze venous function. Day 90 data are most underpowered.

  10. Stretch Reflex as a Simple Measure to Evaluate the Efficacy of Potential Flight Countermeasures Using the Bed Rest Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerisano, J. M.; Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Fisher, E. A.; Harm, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spaceflight is acknowledged to have significant effects on the major postural muscles. However, it has been difficult to separate the effects of ascending somatosensory changes caused by the unloading of these muscles during flight from changes in sensorimotor function caused by a descending vestibulo-cerebellar response to microgravity. It is hypothesized that bed rest is an adequate model to investigate postural muscle unloading given that spaceflight and bed rest may produce similar results in both nerve axon and muscle tissue. METHODS: To investigate this hypothesis, stretch reflexes were measured on 18 subjects who spent 60 to 90 days in continuous 6 head-down bed rest. Using a motorized system capable of rotating the foot around the ankle joint (dorsiflexion) through an angle of 10 deg at a peak velocity of approximately 250 deg/sec, a stretch reflex was recorded from the subject's left triceps surae muscle group. Using surface electromyography, about 300 reflex responses were obtained and ensemble-averaged on 3 separate days before bed rest, 3 to 4 times in bed, and 3 times after bed rest. The averaged responses for each test day were examined for reflex latency and conduction velocity (CV) across gender and compared with spaceflight data. RESULTS: Although no gender differences were found, bed rest induced changes in reflex latency and CV similar to the ones observed during spaceflight. Also, a relationship between CV and loss of muscle strength in the lower leg was observed for most bed rest subjects. CONCLUSION: Even though bed rest (limb unloading) alone may not mimic all of the synaptic and muscle tissue loss that is observed as a result of spaceflight, it can serve as a working analog of flight for the evaluation of potential countermeasures that may be beneficial in mitigating unwanted changes in the major postural muscles that are observed post flight.

  11. Flocking and invariance of velocity angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Le; Huang, Lihong; Wu, Jianhong

    2016-04-01

    Motsch and Tadmor considered an extended Cucker-Smale model to investigate the flocking behavior of self-organized systems of interacting species. In this extended model, a cone of the vision was introduced so that outside the cone the influence of one agent on the other is lost and hence the corresponding influence function takes the value zero. This creates a problem to apply the Motsch-Tadmor and Cucker-Smale method to prove the flocking property of the system. Here, we examine the variation of the velocity angles between two arbitrary agents, and obtain a monotonicity property for the maximum cone of velocity angles. This monotonicity permits us to utilize existing arguments to show the flocking property of the system under consideration, when the initial velocity angles satisfy some minor technical constraints. PMID:27105986

  12. Precision measurements of the CKM angle gamma

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The level of CP-violation permitted within the Standard Model cannot account for the matter dominated universe in which we live. Within the Standard Model the CKM matrix, which describes the quark couplings, is expected to be unitary. By making precise measurements of the CKM matrix parameters new physics models can be constrained, or with sufficient precision the effects of physics beyond the standard model might become apparent. The CKM angle gamma is the least well known angle of the unitarity triangle. It is the only angle easily accessible at tree-level, and furthermore has almost no theoretical uncertainties. Therefore it provides an invaluable Standard Model benchmark against which other new physics sensitive tests of the CP-violation can be made. I will discuss recent measurements of gamma using the the Run 1 LHCb dataset, which improve our knowledge of this key parameter.

  13. Radon - an angle of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from its radiation effects on living organism, radon induces the formation of atmospheric ions which are beneficial to man: some asthmatics can breathe more easily in an environment with elevated ion levels, the blood pH increases, the fraction of albumins is higher while the serotonin level is lower, sedimentation decreases and the leukocyte counts in peripherals diminish. The blood pressure, particularly in people suffering from hypertension, drops appreciably. The production of pituitary hormones as well as the overall sexual activity is stimulated by ions in air. Exposure to negative ions affects circulation through the skin, reduces skin temperature and improves overall resistance of the organism to infection. Negative ions also have a stimulating effect on mental activity and help against insomnia. Sites where radon is present in not too high concentrations are often famous as climatic spas. So, antiradon provisions, if exercised too thoroughly, may have adverse rather than positive consequences. All pros and cons should always be taken into account when deciding on antiradon steps. (P.A.)

  14. Scaling of misorientation angle distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, D.A.; Chrzan, D.C.; Liu, Q.;

    1998-01-01

    for the small to large strain regimes for aluminum, 304L stainless steel, nickel, and copper (taken from the literature )appear to be identical. Hence the distributions may be "universal." These results have significant implications for the development of dislocation based deformation models. [S0031...

  15. Longitudinal Changes of Angle Configuration in Primary Angle-Closure Suspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuzhen; Chang, Dolly S.; Zhu, Haogang; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Aung, Tin; Huang, Shengsong; Chen, Qianyun; Munoz, Beatriz; Grossi, Carlota M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine longitudinal changes in angle configuration in the eyes of primary angle-closure suspects (PACS) treated by laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) and in untreated fellow eyes. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Participants Primary angle-closure suspects aged 50 to 70 years were enrolled in a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Methods Each participant was treated by LPI in 1 randomly selected eye, with the fellow eye serving as a control. Angle width was assessed in a masked fashion using gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) before and at 2 weeks, 6 months, and 18 months after LPI. Main Outcome Measures Angle width in degrees was calculated from Shaffer grades assessed under static gonioscopy. Angle configuration was also evaluated using angle opening distance (AOD250, AOD500, AOD750), trabecular-iris space area (TISA500, TISA750), and angle recess area (ARA) measured in AS-OCT images. Results No significant difference was found in baseline measures of angle configuration between treated and untreated eyes. At 2 weeks after LPI, the drainage angle on gonioscopy widened from a mean of 13.5° at baseline to a mean of 25.7° in treated eyes, which was also confirmed by significant increases in all AS-OCT angle width measures (P<0.001 for all variables). Between 2 weeks and 18 months after LPI, a significant decrease in angle width was observed over time in treated eyes (P<0.001 for all variables), although the change over the first 5.5 months was not statistically significant for angle width measured under gonioscopy (P = 0.18), AOD250 (P = 0.167) and ARA (P = 0.83). In untreated eyes, angle width consistently decreased across all follow-up visits after LPI, with a more rapid longitudinal decrease compared with treated eyes (P values for all variables ≤0.003). The annual rate of change in angle width was equivalent to 1.2°/year (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8–1.6) in treated eyes and 1.6°/year (95% CI, 1

  16. The Role of the CoREST/REST Repressor Complex in Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Productive Infection and in Latency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Roizman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available REST is a key component of the HDAC1 or 2, CoREST, LSD1, REST (HCLR repressor complex. The primary function of the HCLR complex is to silence neuronal genes in non-neuronal cells. HCLR plays a role in regulating the expression of viral genes in productive infections as a donor of LDS1 for expression of α genes and as a repressor of genes expressed later in infection. In sensory neurons the HCLR complex is involved in the silencing of viral genome in the course of establishment of latency. The thesis of this article is that (a sensory neurons evolved a mechanism to respond to the presence and suppress the transmission of infectious agents from the periphery to the CNS and (b HSV evolved subservience to the HCLR with at least two objectives: to maintain a level of replication consistent with maximal person-to-person spread and to enable it to take advantage of neuronal innate immune responses to survive and be available for reactivation shielded from adaptive immune responses of the host.

  17. REST based mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambow, Mark; Preuss, Thomas; Berdux, Jörg; Conrad, Marc

    2008-02-01

    Simplicity is the major advantage of REST based webservices. Whereas SOAP is widespread in complex, security sensitive business-to-business aplications, REST is widely used for mashups and end-user centric applicatons. In that context we give an overview of REST and compare it to SOAP. Furthermore we apply the GeoDrawing application as an example for REST based mobile applications and emphasize on pros and cons for the use of REST in mobile application scenarios.

  18. Energy landscapes of resting-state brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamitsu eWatanabe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During rest, the human brain performs essential functions such as memory maintenance, which are associated with resting-state brain networks (RSNs including the default-mode network (DMN and frontoparietal network (FPN. Previous studies based on spiking-neuron network models and their reduced models, as well as those based on imaging data, suggest that resting-state network activity can be captured as attractor dynamics, i.e., dynamics of the brain state toward an attractive state and transitions between different attractors. Here, we analyze the energy landscapes of the RSNs by applying the maximum entropy model, or equivalently the Ising spin model, to human RSN data. We use the previously estimated parameter values to define the energy landscape, and the disconnectivity graph method to estimate the number of local energy minima (equivalent to attractors in attractor dynamics, the basin size, and hierarchical relationships among the different local minima. In both of the DMN and FPN, low-energy local minima tended to have large basins. A majority of the network states belonged to a basin of one of a few local minima. Therefore, a small number of local minima constituted the backbone of each RSN. In the DMN, the energy landscape consisted of two groups of low-energy local minima that are separated by a relatively high energy barrier. Within each group, the activity patterns of the local minima were similar, and different minima were connected by relatively low energy barriers. In the FPN, all dominant energy were separated by relatively low energy barriers such that they formed a single coarse-grained global minimum. Our results indicate that multistable attractor dynamics may underlie the DMN, but not the FPN, and assist memory maintenance with different memory states.

  19. Spin-Curvature Interaction for Particles of Rest Mass Zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordwell, William Robert

    Using a W.K.B. approximation, equations of motion are derived for integral spin particles of zero rest mass. The equations are similar to Papapetrou's equations. A modified, extended W.K.B. approximation is used to derive the equations for half-integral spin particles. The equations are applied to particles travelling down the axis of a spinning black hole, and to particles in a stationary, weak field spacetime. The results agree with frequency cut-offs and linear polarization rotation results found by various other methods. Some previously known polarization results for electromagnetic waves are extended to other spins.

  20. Spin-curvature interaction for particles of rest mass zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordwell, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Using a WKB approximation, equations of motion are derived for integral spin particles of zero rest mass. The equations are similar to Papapetrou's equations. A modified, extended WKB approximation is used to derive the equations for half-integral spin particles. The equations are applied to particles travelling down the axis of a spinning black hole, and to particles in a stationary, weak-field spacetime. The results agree with frequency cut-offs and linear polarization rotation results found by various other methods. Some previously known polarization results for electromagnetic waves are extended to other spins.

  1. Status of the CDF small angle spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1987 Tevatron collider period the CDF small angle spectrometer system was partially installed and elastic scattering events were recorded in a special high-β run. The design and physics goals of this system are described and results from an analysis of the elastic scattering data are discussed

  2. Experimental Validation of the Invariance of Electrowetting Contact Angle Saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevalliot, S.; Dhindsa, M.; Kuiper, S.; Heikenfeld, J.

    2011-01-01

    Basic electrowetting theory predicts that a continued increase in applied voltage will allow contact angle modulation to zero degrees. In practice, the effect of contact angle saturation has always been observed to limit the contact angle modulation, often only down to a contact angle of 60 to 70°.

  3. A fringe shadow method for measuring flapping angle and torsional angle of a dragonfly wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lijiang; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Kawachi, Keiji

    1996-05-01

    A fringe shadow (FS) method was developed for measuring the flapping angle and torsional angle of a dragonfly wing during beating motion. This new method involves two sets of fringe patterns projected onto the wing from orthogonal directions. The torsional angle is determined using the length of the shadow of the wing chord that is cast by the two sets of fringe patterns. The flapping angle is determined using the shadowgraph of the wing projected by a laser. The advantages of the FS method are its capability (i) to measure the flapping angle and torsional angle of a dragonfly wing simultaneously using only one high-speed camera and (ii) to recognize the spanwise position of a section from the number of fringes, without having to use diffuse marks that are common in current methods. The resolution of the FS method can be changed easily by adjusting the fringe spacing. The measurement results for the torsional angle and flapping angle of a dragonfly wing prove the effectiveness of the FS method in studying the flight performance of dragonflies.

  4. The routine use of sublingual GTN with resting 99Tcm-tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, P J; Sheard, K L; Wright, D J; Sivananthan, U M

    1998-10-01

    Nitrates can be used to improve resting myocardial blood flow in patients with severe coronary artery disease. This may enhance tracer uptake during rest myocardial perfusion imaging. Recent studies using nitrates at rest have shown increased detection of reversible ischaemia in this patient group with the 201Tl and 99Tcm perfusion tracers MIBI and tetrofosmin. However, it is not always possible to assess the severity of coronary artery disease before the rest injection and therefore whether a patient would benefit from nitrate administration. To improve the sensitivity for the detection of reversible ischaemia and to avoid a repeat study with nitrates (especially in patients with 'fixed' defects), a protocol in which all patients routinely receive nitrates prior to the rest injection is required. This prospective study evaluated the effect of nitrate administration prior to rest imaging in a randomly selected group of patients. Thirty patients selected at random from routine referrals had stress, rest and rest + GTN tetrofosmin imaging on three separate days. Changes in reversibility between the rest and rest + GTN images were assessed both visually and using semi-quantitative analysis. Defects at stress were seen in 43 coronary artery territories, 33 of which were reversible at rest and 37 reversible at rest + GTN. Of these 43 defects, 82% demonstrated either increased or the same degree of reversibility at rest + GTN imaging compared to standard rest imaging. All defects with reduced reversibility at rest + GTN imaging (i.e. the remaining 18%) were, however, still reversible compared to the stress images. Some of this reduced reversibility may be due to attenuation artefacts. We conclude that the routine use of GTN with rest tetrofosmin imaging will result in increased detection of ischaemic areas with no loss of sensitivity or specificity.

  5. A baseline for the multivariate comparison of resting state networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A Allen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available As the size of functional and structural MRI datasets expands, it becomes increasingly important to establish a baseline from which diagnostic relevance may be determined, a processing strategy that efficiently prepares data for analysis, and a statistical approach that identifies important effects in a manner that is both robust and reproducible. In this paper, we introduce a multivariate analytic approach that optimizes sensitivity and reduces unnecessary testing. We demonstrate the utility of this mega-analytic approach by identifying the effects of age and gender on the resting state networks of 603 healthy adolescents and adults (mean age: 23.4 years, range: 12 to 71 years. Data were collected on the same scanner, preprocessed using an automated analysis pipeline based in SPM, and studied using group independent component analysis. Resting state networks were identified and evaluated in terms of three primary outcome measures: time course spectral power, spatial map intensity, and functional network connectivity. Results revealed robust effects of age on all three outcome measures, largely indicating decreases in network coherence and connectivity with increasing age. Gender effects were of smaller magnitude but suggested stronger intra-network connectivity in females and more inter-network connectivity in males, particularly with regard to sensorimotor networks. These findings, along with the analysis approach and statistical framework described here, provide a useful baseline for future investigations of brain networks in health and disease.

  6. An experimental test of the ability of Daphnia galeata resting egg production in Lake Biwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narumi K. Tsugeki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Daphnia galeata population in Lake Biwa (Japan had almost ceased producing resting eggs by the 1980s. To examine whether D. galeata had lost the ability to produce resting eggs, or if chemical contamination was inhibiting resting egg production, individuals collected in fall (November and late winter (March, were reared in the laboratory. More than 50% of these D. galeata individuals produced resting eggs irrespective of the month of collection, when reared with food supplied at a level lower than that available during the maternal generation. The results reflect that D. galeata in Lake Biwa have a high ability to produce resting eggs when appropriate stimuli are provided. As chemical substances, such as endocrine disrupters, are known to inhibit resting egg production in Daphnia and these accumulate in lake sediments, we tested whether Daphnia individuals produce resting eggs when reared in sediment-conditioned lake water. In sediment-conditioned lake water, only a few Daphnia that were collected in March produced resting eggs, while 50% of the individuals collected in November produced resting eggs. Thus, D. galeata collected from Lake Biwa are able to produce resting eggs, but genetic variation likely leads to variation in resting egg production in the presence of chemical contaminants. These results suggest that the recent decrease in the resting egg production of Daphnia populations in lake Biwa is mainly due to a decrease in the strength of the environmental queue that stimulates resting egg production rather than a genetic shift to strains that have a lower ability to produce resting eggs; yet, we cannot rule out the possibility that a chemical contamination plays a role in the decrease of resting egg production.

  7. Changes of resting cerebral activities in subacute ischemic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to detect the difference in resting cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants, define the abnormal site, and provide new evidence for pathological mechanisms, clinical diagnosis, prognosis prediction and efficacy evaluation of ischemic stroke. At present, the majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies focus on the motor dysfunction and the acute stage of ischemic stroke. This study recruited 15 right-handed ischemic stroke patients at subacute stage (15 days to 11.5 weeks and 15 age-matched healthy participants. A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed on each subject to detect cerebral activity. Regional homogeneity analysis was used to investigate the difference in cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants. The results showed that the ischemic stroke patients had lower regional homogeneity in anterior cingulate and left cerebrum and higher regional homogeneity in cerebellum, left precuneus and left frontal lobe, compared with healthy participants. The experimental findings demonstrate that the areas in which regional homogeneity was different between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants are in the cerebellum, left precuneus, left triangle inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate. These locations, related to the motor, sensory and emotion areas, are likely potential targets for the neural regeneration of subacute ischemic stroke patients.

  8. Changes of resting cerebral activities in subacute ischemic stroke patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Wu; Fang Zeng; Yong-xin Li; Bai-li Yu; Li-hua Qiu; Wei Qin; Ji Li; Yu-mei Zhou; Fan-rong Liang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the difference in resting cerebral activities between ischemic stroke pa-tients and healthy participants, deifne the abnormal site, and provide new evidence for pathological mechanisms, clinical diagnosis, prognosis prediction and efifcacy evaluation of ischemic stroke. At present, the majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies focus on the motor dysfunc-tion and the acute stage of ischemic stroke. This study recruited 15 right-handed ischemic stroke patients at subacute stage (15 days to 11.5 weeks) and 15 age-matched healthy participants. A rest-ing-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed on each subject to detect cerebral activity. Regional homogeneity analysis was used to investigate the difference in cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants. The results showed that the ischemic stroke patients had lower regional homogeneity in anterior cingulate and left cerebrum and higher regional homogeneity in cerebellum, left precuneus and left frontal lobe, compared with healthy participants. The experimental ifndings demonstrate that the areas in which regional homogeneity was different between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants are in the cerebellum, left precuneus, left triangle inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate. These locations, related to the motor, sensory and emotion areas, are likely po-tential targets for the neural regeneration of subacute ischemic stroke patients.

  9. The effect of space allowance on resting behaviour in eighteen months of age heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Acatincăi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to measure the main aspects that characterize the resting behavior of eighteen months old heifers using two different resting space allowances. During the experiments the following resting behaviour aspects were determined: number of resting periods, the length of one resting period and the total length of resting periods. Results showed that when a resting space of 4.5 m2 per heifer was used the total length of laying down periods was 262.8 minutes in the morning, 159.5 minutes in the afternoon and 450.5 minutes during the night. When the size of the resting space was increased to 5.0 m2 per heifer, the total length of resting periods decreased to 137.2 minutes during the morning, 142.7 minutes in the afternoon and 396.8 minutes in the night. There were significant differences (p<0.05 between the two resting spaces for the total length of resting periods during the morning, afternoon and for 24 hours.

  10. Expanded functional coupling of subcortical nuclei with the motor resting-state network in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Siebner, Hartwig R; Sørensen, Per Soelberg;

    2013-01-01

    controls underwent a 20-minute resting-state fMRI session at 3 Tesla. Independent component analysis was applied to the fMRI data to identify disease-related changes in motor resting-state connectivity. RESULTS: Patients with MS showed a spatial expansion of motor resting-state connectivity in deep...

  11. Cognitive models for the concept of angle

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, José Manuel Leonardo de

    1999-01-01

    The instructional models taught in class were similar to the students' models. The teachers addressed angle as a basic-level category, discussed its submodels, clarified the boundaries, and established cognitive reference points. They gradually increased the use of complex metaphors and of several models. The study enriched the characterization of the first two levels of van Hiele theory and demonstrated the value of categorization theory in understanding how our comprehension ...

  12. Measurements of Neutrino Oscillation Angle theta_13

    CERN Document Server

    Kuze, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Neutrinos exhibit an interesting phenomenon called 'neutrino oscillation', in which a neutrino changes its flavor after traveling some flight length. Many experiments measured the mixing angles and mass differences, but the angle $\\theta_{13}$ had been unmeasured due to its smallness compared to others. During 2011 and 2012, series of new-generation neutrino experiments reported positive results in $\\theta_{13}$ search, and its value has been determined to be just below the previous upper limit. The non-zero result of $\\theta_{13}$ is a very good news for future of neutrino physics, since it opens a possibility of measuring the CP violation phase in the lepton sector. An introduction to neutrino oscillation and latest experimental results are presented. A detail is put on Double Chooz reactor experiment, in which the author is involved.

  13. One of us: Stories from two New Zealand rest homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaye, Chrystal; Hale, Beatrice; Butler, Mary; McKechnie, Roz; Robertson, Linda; Simpson, Jean; Tordoff, June; Young, Jessica

    2015-12-01

    In this article we explore the ways in which two aged residential care facilities in New Zealand construct and present themselves through the stories told by those who live and work in them. Ethnographic field notes and interviews were analysed using an immersion/crystallization method consistent with a narrative gerontology framework. Woven into residents' stories about their lives in the facility were tales of earlier lives and identities, immigration, occupations, marriage, tragedies and medical emergencies. Care workers, nursing staff and managers talked about vocation, the ethos and values of the institution and the importance that both staff and residents felt a sense of belonging and 'being one of us.' These stories, 'talk into reality' the aged residential care facility as a particular kind of rest home, in which residents feel 'at home'. In addition, as researchers who brought our own stories to the project, we actively contributed to the construction of each institution as a certain kind of facility. PMID:26568223

  14. Perceptions of tilt angles of an agricultural tractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görücü, Serap; Cavallo, Eugenio; Murphy, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    A tractor stability simulator has been developed to help study tractor operators' perceptions of angles when the simulator is tilted to the side. The simulator is a trailer-mounted tractor cab equipped with hydraulic lift that can tilt the tractor cabin up to 30 degrees. This paper summarizes data from 82 participants who sat in the simulator while it was tilted. Demographic variables, estimates of tilt angles, and measured tilt angles were collected. The effects of age, gender, tractor driving experience, and frequency of operation on the estimated and measured tilt angles were analyzed. The results showed that about 50% of the participants reported estimations of side tilt angles within ±5 degrees of the actual angles, and nearly the same percentage overestimated the actual side tilt angles. Only a small percentage underestimated the angles. Older, more experienced, and male participants set higher limits on the actual angle at which they felt uncomfortable and would not drive. PMID:24417527

  15. Graph theoretical analysis of resting magnetoencephalographic functional connectivity networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay eRutter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex networks have been observed to comprise small-world properties, believed to represent an optimal organization of local specialization and global integration of information processing at reduced wiring cost. Here, we applied magnitude squared coherence to resting magnetoencephalographic time series in reconstructed source space, acquired from controls and patients with schizophrenia, and generated frequency-dependent adjacency matrices modeling functional connectivity between virtual channels. After configuring undirected binary and weighted graphs, we found that all human networks demonstrated highly localized clustering and short characteristic path lengths. The most conservatively thresholded networks showed efficient wiring, with topographical distance between connected vertices amounting to one-third as observed in surrogate randomized topologies. Nodal degrees of the human networks conformed to a heavy-tailed exponentially truncated power-law, compatible with the existence of hubs, which included theta and alpha bilateral cerebellar tonsil, beta and gamma bilateral posterior cingulate, and bilateral thalamus across all frequencies. We conclude that all networks showed small-worldness, minimal physical connection distance, and skewed degree distributions characteristic of physically-embedded networks, and that these calculations derived from graph theoretical mathematics did not quantifiably distinguish between subject populations, independent of bandwidth. However, post-hoc measurements of edge computations at the scale of the individual vertex revealed trends of reduced gamma connectivity across the posterior medial parietal cortex in patients, an observation consistent with our prior resting activation study that found significant reduction of synthetic aperture magnetometry gamma power across similar regions. The basis of these small differences remains unclear.

  16. Plasticity of resting state brain networks in recovery from stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Soares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress has been widely reported to have deleterious impact in multiple biological systems. Specifically, structural and functional remodelling of several brain regions following prolonged stress exposure have been described; importantly, some of these changes are eventually reversible. Recently, we showed the impact of stress on resting state networks (RSNs, but nothing is known about the plasticity of RSNs after recovery from stress. Herein, we examined the plasticity of RSNs, both at functional and structural levels, by comparing the same individuals before and after recovery from the exposure to chronic stress; results were also contrasted with a control group. Here we show that the stressed individuals after recovery displayed a decreased resting functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN, ventral attention network (VAN and sensorimotor network (SMN when compared to themselves immediately after stress; however, this functional plastic recovery was only partial as when compared with the control group, as there were still areas of increased connectivity in dorsal attention network (DAN, SMN and primary visual network (VN in participants recovered from stress. Data also shows that participants after recovery from stress displayed increased deactivations in DMN, SMN and auditory network (AN, to levels similar to those of controls, showing a normalization of the deactivation pattern in RSNs after recovery from stress. In contrast, structural changes (volumetry of the brain areas involving these networks are absent after the recovery period. These results reveal plastic phenomena in specific RSNs and a functional remodeling of the activation-deactivation pattern following recovery from chronic-stress, which is not accompanied by significant structural plasticity.

  17. Determinants of resting cerebral blood flow in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Adam M; Borzage, Matthew T; Choi, Soyoung; Václavů, Lena; Tamrazi, Benita; Nederveen, Aart J; Coates, Thomas D; Wood, John C

    2016-09-01

    Stroke is common in children with sickle cell disease and results from an imbalance in oxygen supply and demand. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is increased in patients with sickle cell disease to compensate for their anemia, but adequacy of their oxygen delivery has not been systematically demonstrated. This study examined the physiological determinants of CBF in 37 patients with sickle cell disease, 38 ethnicity matched control subjects and 16 patients with anemia of non-sickle origin. Cerebral blood flow was measured using phase contrast MRI of the carotid and vertebral arteries. CBF increased inversely to oxygen content (r(2)  = 0.69, P Brain oxygen delivery, the product of CBF and oxygen content, was normal in all groups. Brain composition, specifically the relative amounts of grey and white matter, was the next strongest CBF predictor, presumably by influencing cerebral metabolic rate. Grey matter/white matter ratio and CBF declined monotonically until the age of 25 in all subjects, consistent with known maturational changes in brain composition. Further CBF reductions were observed with age in subjects older than 35 years of age, likely reflecting microvascular aging. On multivariate regression, CBF was independent of disease state, hemoglobin S, hemoglobin F, reticulocyte count and cell free hemoglobin, suggesting that it is regulated similarly in patients and control subjects. In conclusion, sickle cell disease patients had sufficient oxygen delivery at rest, but accomplish this only by marked increases in their resting CBF, potentially limiting their ability to further augment flow in response to stress. Am. J. Hematol. 91:912-917, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27263497

  18. Biomarkers of Dose and Effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Human controlled exposure studies have generally focused on subjects exposed to ozone (O3) while exercising while exposures in rats have been done at rest. We exposed resting subjects to labeled O3 (18O3, 0.4 ppm, for 2 hr) and compared O3 dose and effects with our...

  19. Effects of Different Types of 3D Rest Frames on Reducing Cybersickness in a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KyungHun Han

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A virtual environment (VE presents several kinds of sensory stimuli for creating a virtual reality. Some sensory stimuli presented in the VE have been reported to provoke cybersickness, which is caused by conflicts between sensory stimuli, especially conflicts between visual and vestibular sensations. Application of a rest frame has been known to be effective on reducing cybersickness by alleviating sensory conflict. The form and the way rest frames are presented in 3D VEs have different effects on reducing cybersickness. In this study, two different types of 3D rest frames were created. For verifying the rest frames' effects in reducing cybersickness, twenty subjects were exposed to two different rest frame conditions and a non-rest frame condition after an interval of three days in 3D VE. We observed the characteristic changes in the physiology of cybersickness in terms of autonomic regulation. Psychophysiological signals including EEG, EGG, and HRV were recorded and a simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ was used for measuring the intensity of the sickness before and after the exposure to the different conditions. In the results, the SSQ was reduced significantly in the rest frame conditions. Psychophysiological responses changed significantly in the rest frame conditions compared to the non-rest frame condition. The results suggest that the rest frame conditions have condition-specific effects on reducing cybersickness by differentially alleviating aspects of visual and vestibular sensory conflicts in 3D VE.

  20. The constancy of the contact angle in viscous liquid motions with pinned contact lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N Shankar; R Kidambi

    2005-07-01

    Consider motion initiated in a viscous liquid in a smooth walled container. The liquid is initially at rest under uniform pressure from an inert gas of negligible inertia. We show that if the contact line is pinned and the interface is single valued, the contact angle has to remain constant throughout the motion. This is true even for motions of finite amplitude. Some implications of the result are discussed.

  1. Performance Evaluation of RESTful Web Services for Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Hatem Hamad; Motaz Saad; Ramzi Abed

    2010-01-01

    Smart Mobile devices and web services are becoming very popular. Mobile devices are physically constraineddevices; low processor speed, limited memory, limited battery, and slow intermit wireless connection. This implies to take inconsideration these factors when implementing web services for mobile devices. In this paper, we evaluate the RESTful webservice for mobile devices against conventional SOAP web services. The experimental results show that RESTful web servicesoutperform conventional...

  2. BPEL based asynchronous interaction and composition of RESTful Web service%基于BPEL的RESTful Web服务异步交互及组合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    铁威; 黄志球; 王进

    2013-01-01

    RESTful Web service has become a primary method to publish services in cloud computing, due to its lightweight and specific semantics. However, because RESTful Web service only support synchronous interaction, it is difficult of using synchronous composition to meet the requirement of the complex business process. Therefore, the paper proposed a callback based asynchronous interaction approach under REST style. The approach enables the composition of both synchronous and asynchronous RESTful Web services by extending the BPEL meta model. The architecture of the execution engine for the extended BPEL was designed and implemented as well.%RESTful Web服务由于其轻量级和明确语义等特性,已成为云计算环境下发布服务的首要方法.但是,由于RESTful Web服务仅支持同步的交互方式,面对复杂业务逻辑时,难以通过服务组合的方式来满足业务需求.针对这些问题,提出了一种基于回调的RESTful Web服务异步交互方式,通过扩展BPEL元模型,增加了BPEL对异步RESTful Web服务组合的支持,并设计实现了扩展后的BPEL执行引擎.

  3. Resting position of the head and malocclusion in a group of patients with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Mihi, Victoria; Silvestre, Francisco J.; Orellana, Lorena M.; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy are found as a result of these disorders, along with associated neuromuscular functional alterations that affect the resting position of the head. In this context, the resting position of the head could be responsible for several skeletal and dental occlusal disorders among patients with cerebral palsy. Objective: To assess the presence of malocclusions in patients with cerebral palsy, define the most frequent types of malocclusions, and evaluate how the resting position of the...

  4. Research on recognition of ramp angle based on transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao GU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the recognition of ramp angle, the relationship between the signal of vehicle transducer and real ramp angle is studied. The force change of vehicle on the ramp, and the relationship between the body tilt angle and front and rear suspension scale is discussed. According to the suspension and tire deformation, error angle of the ramp angle is deduced. A mathematical model is established with Matlab/Simulink and used for simulation to generate error curve of ramp angle. The results show that the error angle increases with the increasing of the ramp angle, and the limit value can reach 6.5%, while the identification method can effectively eliminate this error, and enhance the accuracy of ramp angle recognition.

  5. Resting position of the head and malocclusion in a group of patients with cerebral palsyn

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Mihi, Victoria; Silvestre Donat, Francisco Javier; Orellana, Lorena Mirtala; Silvestre Rangil, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy are found as a result of these disorders, along with associated neuromuscular functional alterations that affect the resting position of the head. In this context, the resting position of the head could be responsible for several skeletal and dental occlusal disorders among patients with cerebral palsy. Objective: To assess the presence of malocclusions in patients with cerebral palsy, define the most frequent types of malocclusions, and evaluate how the resting pos...

  6. Cancellous bone structure of iliac crest biopsies following 370 days of head-down bed rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Morukov, Boris V.; Vico, Laurence;

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Static bone histomorphometry was applied to existing iliac bone sections originating from a 370-d 5 degrees head-down bed rest experiment. This bed rest experiment is the longest ever to have been conducted. We hypothesized that bed rest would decrease cancellous bone volume fraction......)) for the entire study period. Five subjects underwent 120 d of bed rest without countermeasures followed by 250 d of bed rest with the exercise regimen. Transiliac bone biopsies were obtained either at baseline and day 366, or at baseline, day 116, and day 366 at alternating sides of the ileum. Static...... histomorphometry was performed using a computerized method. RESULTS: The 120 d of head-down bed rest without countermeasures resulted in decreased bone volume fraction BV/TV (-6.3%, p = 0.046) and trabecular number (Tb.N; -10.2%, p = 0.080) and increased trabecular separation (Tb.Sp; 14.7%, p = 0.020), whereas...

  7. Contact angles of liquid metals on quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetting with μm-sized Pb droplets on thin polycrystalline films of decagonal Al13Co4 is reported. The films were prepared under high vacuum conditions in order to have Pb droplets lying on a clean surface. The method used is sequential deposition and annealing of specific stackings of Al and Co layers of nanometric thicknesses. A 300 nm thick Pb slab was then deposited on top of the films and dewetting experiments were followed in situ in a scanning Auger microprobe. The contact angle between the Pb droplet and the surface of the film is measured to be 49 deg. ± 7 deg. Further investigation performed by cross section transmission electron microscopy allows us to better characterize the interface. Taking into account the rugosity of the film, it is concluded that there is partial wetting of the film, which corresponds to a smaller contact angle. The comparison with other results obtained either with pure metals or with a cubic AlCo compound leads to the conclusion that the wetting behaviour of Pb on the surface of a decagonal compound is close to that of a metal with a high melting point and not significantly different from that of a crystalline compound with a small unit cell

  8. I am resting but rest less well with you. The Moderating Effect of Anxious Attachment Style on Alpha Power during EEG Resting State in a Social Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem J.M.I. Verbeke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We took EEG recordings to measure task-free resting-state cortical brain activity in 35 participants under two conditions, alone (A or together (T. We also investigated whether psychological attachment styles shape human cortical activity differently in these two settings. The results indicate that social context matters and that participants’ cortical activity is moderated by the anxious, but not avoidant attachment style. We found enhanced alpha, beta and theta band activity in the T rather than the A resting-state condition, which was more pronounced in posterior brain regions. We further found a positive correlation between anxious attachment style and enhanced alpha power in the T versus A condition over frontal and parietal scalp regions. There was no significant correlation between the absolute powers registered in the other two frequency bands and the participants’ anxious attachment style.

  9. Influence of ROI selection on Resting Functional Connectivity: An Individualized Approach for Resting fMRI Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Seunghyun Sohn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The differences in how our brain is connected are often thought to reflect the differences in our individual personalities and cognitive abilities. Individual differences in brain connectivity has long been recognized in the neuroscience community however it has yet to manifest itself in the methodology of resting state analysis. This is evident as previous studies use the same region of interest (ROIs for all subjects. In this paper we demonstrate that the use of ROIs which are standardized across individuals leads to inaccurate calculations of functional connectivity. We also show that this problem can be addressed by taking an individualized approach by using subject-specific ROIs. Finally we show that ROI selection can affect the way we interpret our data by showing different changes in functional connectivity with ageing.

  10. The neural basis of unwanted thoughts during resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Raedt, Rudi; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    Human beings are constantly engaged in thought. Sometimes thoughts occur repetitively and can become distressing. Up to now the neural bases of these intrusive or unwanted thoughts is largely unexplored. To study the neural correlates of unwanted thoughts, we acquired resting-state fMRI data of 41 female healthy subjects and assessed the self-reported amount of unwanted thoughts during measurement. We analyzed local connectivity by means of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity of a seed region. More unwanted thoughts (state) were associated with lower ReHo in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and higher ReHo in left striatum (putamen). Additional seed-based analysis revealed higher functional connectivity of the left striatum with left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in participants reporting more unwanted thoughts. The state-dependent higher connectivty in left striatum was positively correlated with rumination assessed with a dedicated questionnaire focussing on trait aspects. Unwanted thoughts are associated with activity in the fronto-striatal brain circuitry. The reduction of local connectivity in DLPFC could reflect deficiencies in thought suppression processes, whereas the hightened activity in left striatum could imply an imbalance of gating mechanisms housed in basal ganglia. Its functional connectivity to left IFG is discussed as the result of thought-related speech processes. PMID:23929943

  11. Intensive reasoning training alters patterns of brain connectivity at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Allyson P; Miller Singley, Alison T; Bunge, Silvia A

    2013-03-13

    Patterns of correlated activity among brain regions reflect functionally relevant networks that are widely assumed to be stable over time. We hypothesized that if these correlations reflect the prior history of coactivation of brain regions, then a marked shift in cognition could alter the strength of coupling between these regions. We sought to test whether intensive reasoning training in humans would result in tighter coupling among regions in the lateral frontoparietal network, as measured with resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI). Rather than designing an artificial training program, we studied individuals who were preparing for a standardized test that places heavy demands on relational reasoning, the Law School Admissions Test (LSAT). LSAT questions require test takers to group or sequence items according to a set of complex rules. We recruited young adults who were enrolled in an LSAT course that offers 70 h of reasoning instruction (n = 25), and age- and IQ-matched controls intending to take the LSAT in the future (n = 24). rs-fMRI data were collected for all subjects during two scanning sessions separated by 90 d. An analysis of pairwise correlations between brain regions implicated in reasoning showed that fronto-parietal connections were strengthened, along with parietal-striatal connections. These findings provide strong evidence for neural plasticity at the level of large-scale networks supporting high-level cognition. PMID:23486950

  12. Combinations of resting RSA and RSA reactivity impact maladaptive mood repair and depression symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Bylsma, Lauren M.; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Kovacs, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether the combined indices of respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest (resting RSA) and in response to a sad film (RSA reactivity) predict effective and ineffective responses to reduce sadness (adaptive vs. maladaptive mood repair) in women with histories of juvenile-onset depression (n = 74) and no history of major mental disorders (n = 75). Structural equation models were used to estimate latent resting RSA, depression, and adaptive and maladaptive mood repair and to test the stu...

  13. Computerized two-lead resting ECG analysis for the detection of coronary artery stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Eberhard Grube, Andreas Bootsveld, Seyrani Yuecel, Joseph T. Shen, Michael Imhoff

    2007-01-01

    Background: Resting electrocardiogram (ECG) shows limited sensitivity and specificity for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD). Several methods exist to enhance sensitivity and specificity of resting ECG for diagnosis of CAD, but such methods are not better than a specialist's judgement. We compared a new computer-enhanced, resting ECG analysis device, 3DMP, to coronary angiography to evaluate the device's accuracy in detecting hemodynamically relevant CAD. Methods: A convenience sa...

  14. Rest-to-Rest Attitude Naneuvers and Residual Vibration Reduction of a Finite Element Model of Flexible Satellite by Using Input Shaper

    OpenAIRE

    Setyamartana Parman; Hideo Koguchi

    1999-01-01

    A three-dimensional rest-to-rest attitude maneuver of flexible spacecraft equipped by on-off reaction jets is studied. Equations of motion of the spacecraft is developed by employing a hybrid system of coordinates and Lagrangian formulation. The finite element method is used to examine discrete elastic deformations of a particular model of satellite carrying flexible solar panels by modelling the panels as flat plate structures in bending. Results indicate that, under an unshaped input, the m...

  15. Rapid Deployment of a RESTful Service for Oceanographic Research Cruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Linyun; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries, by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. R2R publishes information online as Linked Open Data, making it widely available using Semantic Web standards. Each vessel, sensor, cruise, dataset, person, organization, funding award, log, report, etc, has a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). Complex queries that federate results from other data providers are supported, using the SPARQL query language. To facilitate interoperability, R2R uses controlled vocabularies developed collaboratively by the science community (eg. SeaDataNet device categories) and published online by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS). In response to user feedback, we are developing a standard programming interface (API) and Web portal for R2R's Linked Open Data. The API provides a set of simple REST-type URLs that are translated on-the-fly into SPARQL queries, and supports common output formats (eg. JSON). We will demonstrate an implementation based on the Epimorphics Linked Data API (ELDA) open-source Java package. Our experience shows that constructing a simple portal with limited schema elements in this way can significantly reduce development time and maintenance complexity.

  16. Resting physiological arousal is associated with the experience of music-induced chills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    In the study of emotion and autonomic nervous system functioning, resting physiological arousal is usually considered a negative characteristic. The present study examined the relationship between resting physiological arousal and positive emotional experience linked to psychophysiological arousal. We assessed resting physiological arousal using markers as high skin conductance level and low respiratory sinus arrhythmia, measured just before participants listened to their favorite music. Participants reported the sensation of chills (goose bumps, shivers) by pressing a mouse button while listening. The results indicated that individuals with resting physiological arousal frequently experience music-induced chills, which evoked unambiguous pleasurable feelings and an increase in skin conductance response. The current results, and the previously demonstrated relationship between resting physiological arousal and negative emotionality linked to psychophysiological arousal (e.g., anxiety, panic), suggest that resting physiological arousal may reflect sensitivity to psychophysiological arousal with both intense positive and negative emotions.

  17. Distribution of angles in hyperbolic lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Morten Skarsholm; Truelsen, Jimi Lee

    2010-01-01

    We prove an effective equidistribution result about angles in a hyperbolic lattice. We use this to generalize a result from the study by Boca.......We prove an effective equidistribution result about angles in a hyperbolic lattice. We use this to generalize a result from the study by Boca....

  18. Distribution of Angles in Hyperbolic Lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Risager, Morten; L. Truelsen, Jimi

    2008-01-01

    We prove an effective equidistribution result about angles in a hyperbolic lattice. We use this to generalize a result due to F. P. Boca.......We prove an effective equidistribution result about angles in a hyperbolic lattice. We use this to generalize a result due to F. P. Boca....

  19. The effect of 8 days of strict bed rest on the incretin effect in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Harder-Lauridsen, Nina Majlund; Benatti, Fabiana Braga;

    2016-01-01

    in the levels of GLP-1 and Glucagon. Bed rest led to a mean loss of 2.4 kg of fat-free mass, and induced insulin resistance evaluated by the Matsuda index, but did not affect the incretin effect (P = 0.6). In conclusion, 8 days of bed rest induces insulin resistance, but we did not see evidence of an associated...

  20. Effects of Fourteen-Day Bed Rest on Trunk Stabilizing Functions in Aging Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejc Sarabon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bed rest has been shown to have detrimental effects on structural and functional characteristics of the trunk muscles, possibly affecting trunk and spinal stability. This is especially important in populations such as aging adults with often altered trunk stabilizing functions. This study examined the effects of a fourteen-day bed rest on anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex responses of the abdominal wall and back muscles in sixteen adult men. Postural activation of trunk muscles was measured using voluntary quick arm movement and sudden arm loading paradigm. Measurements were conducted prior to the bed rest, immediately after, and fourteen days after the bed rest. Immediately after the bed rest, latencies of anticipatory postural adjustments showed significant shortening, especially for the obliquus internus and externus muscles. After a fourteen-day recuperation period, anticipatory postural adjustments reached a near to complete recovery. On the contrary, reactive response latencies increased from pre-bed-rest to both post-bed-rest measurement sessions. Results indicate an important effect of bed rest on stabilizing functions of the trunk muscles in elderly adults. Moreover, there proved to be a significant deterioration of postural reactive responses that outlasted the 14-day post-bed-rest rehabilitation.

  1. Experimental evaluation of the influence of various rests on task performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with the result of the experiment that 8 subjects had executed adding task and search task. They executed each task in 80 minutes under 5 conditions: (1) with no rest, and with 4 kinds of 20 minutes rests, in which they (2) opened eyes, (3) closed eyes, (4) closed eyes with listening classic music and (5) closed eyes with feet massage, in the middle of the task. The results of analysis of variance with the task performance in the latter half, there were significant differences between each condition with every subject in adding task, and with 6 subjects in search task. However, the orders of the task performance with each condition were not the same by each subject. It was suggested that transition of the arousal levels under the rest was related to the effects of the rest rather than the subjects' taste in rests. In the rest, the percentage of α wave of electroencephalogram and the coefficient of variation of R-R interval (time interval of heart beats) were increased than in executing task. The mean Kendall's rank correlation of coefficient with the order of increase rate of α/β wave and the task performance in the latter half was slightly negative in adding task, but was about 0.4 in search task. From these results, about six requirements for 'an effective rest' were able to be mentioned, for example, 'the devices that raises the arousal levels is carried out just before a rest end'. (author)

  2. Focal Gray Matter Plasticity as a Function of Long Duration Head-down Tilt Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelmans, V.; DeDios, Y. E.; Wood, S. J.; Reuter-Lorenz, P. A.; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Koppelmans, V.

    2014-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight (i.e., > or = 22 days) has been associated with changes in sensorimotor systems, resulting in difficulties that astronauts experience with posture control, locomotion, and manual control. The microgravity environment is an important causal factor for spaceflight induced sensorimotor changes. Whether these sensorimotor changes may be related to structural and functional brain changes is yet unknown. However, experimental studies revealed changes in the gray matter (GM) of the brain after simulated microgravity. Thus, it is possible that spaceflight may affect brain structure and thereby cognitive functioning and motor behavior. Long duration head-down tilt bed rest has been suggested as an exclusionary analog to study microgravity effects on the sensorimotor system. Bed rest mimics microgravity in body unloading and bodily fluid shifts. In consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers both in- and post-flight, we are conducting a prospective longitudinal 70-day bed rest study as an analog to investigate the effects of microgravity on the brain. VBM analysis revealed a progressive decrease from pre- to in- bed rest in GM volume in bilateral areas including the frontal medial cortex, the insular cortex and the caudate. Over the same time period, there was a progressive increase in GM volume in the cerebellum, occipital-, and parietal cortex, including the precuneus. The majority of these changes did not fully recover during the post-bed rest period. Analysis of lobular GM volumes obtained with BRAINS showed significantly increased volume from pre-bed rest to in-bed rest in GM of the parietal lobe and the third ventricle. Temporal GM volume at 70 days in bed rest was smaller than that at the first pre-bed rest measurement. Trend analysis showed significant positive linear and negative quadratic relationships between parietal GM and time, a positive linear relationship between third ventricle volume and time, and a negative linear

  3. Computer simulation of dislocation core structure of metastable left angle 111 right angle dislocations in NiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Z.Y. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)); Vailhe, C. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)); Farkas, D. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States))

    1993-10-01

    The atomistic structure of dislocation cores of left angle 111 right angle dislocations in NiAl was simulated using embedded atom method potentials and molecular statics computer simulation. In agreement with previous simulation work and experimental observations, the complete left angle 111 right angle dislocation is stable with respect to the two superpartials of 1/2 left angle 111 right angle separated by an antiphase boundary. The structure of the latter configuration, though metastable, is of interest in the search for ways of improving ductility in this material. The structure of the complete dislocation and that of the metastable superpartials was studied using atomistic computer simulation. An improved visualization method was used for the representation of the resulting structures. The structure of the partials is different from that typical of 1/2 left angle 111 right angle dislocations in b.c.c. materials and that reported previously for the B2 structure using model pair potentials. (orig.)

  4. Recovery of resting brain connectivity ensuing mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Dawn Bharath

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brains reveal amplified plasticity as they recover from an injury. We aimed to define time dependent plasticity changes in patients recovering from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. 25 subjects with mild head injury were longitudinally evaluated within 36 hours, 3 and 6 months using resting state functional connectivity (RSFC. Region of interest (ROI based connectivity differences over time within the patient group and in comparison with a healthy control group were analyzed at p<0.005. We found 33 distinct ROI pairs that revealed significant changes in their connectivity strength with time. Within three months, the majority of the ROI pairs had decreased connectivity in mTBI population, which increased and became comparable to healthy controls at 6 months. Initial imaging within 36 hours of injury revealed hyper connectivity predominantly involving the salience network and default mode network, which reduced at 3 months when lingual, inferior frontal and fronto-parietal networks revealed hyper connectivity. At six months all the evaluated networks revealed hyper connectivity and became comparable to the healthy controls. Our findings in a fairly homogenous group of patients with mTBI evaluated during the 6 month window of recovery defines time varying brain connectivity changes as the brain recovers from an injury. A majority of these changes were seen in the frontal and parietal lobes between 3-6 months after injury. Hyper connectivity of several networks supported normal recovery in the first six months and it remains to be seen in future studies whether this can predict an early and efficient recovery of brain function.

  5. Frequency dependent topological patterns of resting-state brain networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Qian

    Full Text Available The topological organization underlying brain networks has been extensively investigated using resting-state fMRI, focusing on the low frequency band from 0.01 to 0.1 Hz. However, the frequency specificities regarding the corresponding brain networks remain largely unclear. In the current study, a data-driven method named complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD was introduced to separate the time series of each voxel into several intrinsic oscillation rhythms with distinct frequency bands. Our data indicated that the whole brain BOLD signals could be automatically divided into five specific frequency bands. After applying the CEEMD method, the topological patterns of these five temporally correlated networks were analyzed. The results showed that global topological properties, including the network weighted degree, network efficiency, mean characteristic path length and clustering coefficient, were observed to be most prominent in the ultra-low frequency bands from 0 to 0.015 Hz. Moreover, the saliency of small-world architecture demonstrated frequency-density dependency. Compared to the empirical mode decomposition method (EMD, CEEMD could effectively eliminate the mode-mixing effects. Additionally, the robustness of CEEMD was validated by the similar results derived from a split-half analysis and a conventional frequency division method using the rectangular window band-pass filter. Our findings suggest that CEEMD is a more effective method for extracting the intrinsic oscillation rhythms embedded in the BOLD signals than EMD. The application of CEEMD in fMRI data analysis will provide in-depth insight in investigations of frequency specific topological patterns of the dynamic brain networks.

  6. Recommendation System of Program Based on REST Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Jin Bao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the popularity of digital TV, TV programs have been on the increase no matter in both the number and species, which brought many choice to the users. Although the digital TV has increased largely in the selectivity, it has become a fussy process that users search for programs which they are interested in. So there is need to have an efficient program recommendation system to solve the problem that is “information overload” for users. It can not only help users to get the program which they require, but also bring convenience to people’s life. The program recommendation system named MyView is planned and designed, aimed to providing an efficient information platform. The system also involves intelligent recommendation. The information guide will trigger the recommendation engine after users registering information, the engine will accord to the data in the guide information to make the personalized program recommendation. The system was deployed in the Tomcat and Apache integration servers on my localhost, so it also belongs to the Web application based on J2EE platform. AJAX is used that can achieve a good user experience to develop web presentation layer on MyView PC browser with flexible interface performance. The background of business services uses the hierarchical form. MyView System uses the CXF framework and Hibernate to equip controller and data persistence layer in the Spring container. The overall framework of the system uses the REST style, in order to extend the performance and function later. Background service layer with uniform interface, marked by the URI resource. At the same time, HTTP requestion is submitted by the AJAX to obtain services provided by resources. Finally, we can analyze and summary the features of MyView System.

  7. Temperature Influence on Divergence Angles of Quartz Crystal Wollaston Prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a structural angle and main refractive indices as two key factors to understand the temperature influence on the divergence angles of the Wollaston prism. The temperature influence on the divergence angles of quartz crystal Wollaston prism is studied theoretically The results show that divergence angles decrease with increasing temperature, while the divergence angle of e-light decrease more quickly than that of o-light. The testing system is established to verify the above results, and the experimental results are in agreement well with the theoretical analysis. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  8. A comparison of the rest complex binding patterns in embryonic stem cells and epiblast stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Seki

    Full Text Available We detected and characterized the binding sites of the representative Rest complex components Rest, Sin3A, and Lsd1. We compared their binding patterns in mouse embryonic stem (ES cells and epiblast stem (EpiS cells. We found few Rest sites unique to the EpiS cells. The ES-unique site features were distinct from those of the common sites, namely, the signal intensities were weaker, and the characteristic gene function categories differed. Our analyses showed that the Rest binding sites do not always overlap with the Sin3A and Lsd1 binding sites. The Sin3A binding pattern differed remarkably between the ES and EpiS cells and was accompanied by significant changes in acetylated-histone patterns in the surrounding regions. A series of transcriptome analyses in the same cell types unexpectedly showed that the putative target gene transcript levels were not dramatically different despite dynamic changes in the Rest complex binding patterns and chromatin statuses, which suggests that Rest is not the sole determinant of repression at its targets. Nevertheless, we identified putative Rest targets with explicitly enhanced transcription upon Rest knock-down in 143 and 60 common and ES-unique Rest target genes, respectively. Among such sites, several genes are involved in ES cell proliferation. In addition, we also found that long, intergenic non-coding RNAs were apparent Rest targets and shared similar features with the protein-coding target genes. Interestingly, such non-coding target genes showed less conservation through evolution than protein-coding targets. As a result of differences in the components and targets of the Rest complex, its functional roles may differ in ES and EpiS cells.

  9. Dopamine modulates the rest period length without perturbation of its power law distribution in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Ueno

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effects of dopamine signaling on the temporal organization of rest and activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Locomotor behaviors were recorded using a video-monitoring system, and the amounts of movements were quantified by using an image processing program. We, first, confirmed that rest bout durations followed long-tailed (i.e., power-law distributions, whereas activity bout durations did not with a strict method described by Clauset et al. We also studied the effects of circadian rhythm and ambient temperature on rest bouts and activity bouts. The fraction of activity significantly increased during subjective day and at high temperature, but the power-law exponent of the rest bout distribution was not affected. The reduction in rest was realized by reduction in long rest bouts. The distribution of activity bouts did not change drastically under the above mentioned conditions. We then assessed the effects of dopamine. The distribution of rest bouts became less long-tailed and the time spent in activity significantly increased after the augmentation of dopamine signaling. Administration of a dopamine biosynthesis inhibitor yielded the opposite effects. However, the distribution of activity bouts did not contribute to the changes. These results suggest that the modulation of locomotor behavior by dopamine is predominantly controlled by changing the duration of rest bouts, rather than the duration of activity bouts.

  10. Impacts of tropical cyclone inflow angle on ocean surface waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; HONG Xin

    2011-01-01

    The inflow angle of tropical cyclones (TC) is generally neglected in numerical studies of ocean surface waves induced by TC. In this study, the impacts of TC inflow angle on ocean surface waves were investigated using a high-resolution wave model. Six numerical experiments were conducted to examine, in detail, the effects of inflow angle on mean wave parameters and the spectrum of wave directions. A comparison of the waves simulated in these experiments shows that inflow angle significantly modifies TC-induced ocean surface waves. As the inflow angle increases, the asymmetric axis of the significant wave height (SWH) field shifts 30° clockwise, and the maximum SWH moves from the front-right to the rear-right quadrant. Inflow angle also affects other mean wave parameters, especially in the rear-left quadrant, such as the mean wave direction, the mean wavelength, and the peak direction. Inflow angle is a key factor in wave models for the reproduction of double-peak or multi-peak patterns in the spectrum of wave directions. Sensitivity experiments also show that the simulation with a 40° inflow angle is the closest to that of the NOAA statistical SLOSH inflow angle. This suggests that 40° can be used as the inflow angle in future TC-induced ocean surface wave simulations when SLOSH or observed inflow angles are not available.

  11. Neuroendocrine and Behavioral Effects of Vasopressin in Resting and Mild Stress Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, B.; Nyakas, C.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Bohus, B.

    1993-01-01

    Neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of subcutaneously administered AVP (6 mug/kg b.wt.) were determined in resting conditions and after the mild stress of transportation to and placement in a novel environment. In resting conditions, systemic administration of AVP caused a rapid increase in blood

  12. Predictive modeling of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley H Thorne

    Full Text Available Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood.

  13. Effect of a Flared Renal Stent on the Performance of Fenestrated Stent-Grafts at Rest and Exercise Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandail, Harkamaljot; Hamady, Mohamad; Xu, Xiao Yun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the hemodynamic impact of a flared renal stent on the performance of fenestrated stent-grafts (FSGs) by analyzing flow patterns and wall shear stress–derived parameters in flared and nonflared FSGs in different physiologic scenarios. Methods: Hypothetical models of FSGs were created with and without flaring of the proximal portion of the renal stent. Flared FSGs with different dilation angles and protrusion lengths were examined, as well as a nonplanar flared FSG to account for lumbar curvature. Laminar and pulsatile blood flow was simulated by numerically solving Navier-Stokes equations. A physiologically realistic flow rate waveform was prescribed at the inlet, while downstream vasculature was modeled using a lumped parameter 3-element windkessel model. No slip boundary conditions were imposed at the FSG walls, which were assumed to be rigid. While resting simulations were performed on all the FSGs, exercise simulations were also performed on a flared FSG to quantify the effect of flaring in different physiologic scenarios. Results: For cycle-averaged inflow of 2.94 L/min (rest) and 4.63 L/min (exercise), 27% of blood flow was channeled into each renal branch at rest and 21% under exercise for all the flared FSGs examined. Although the renal flow waveform was not affected by flaring, flow within the flared FSGs was disturbed. This flow disturbance led to high endothelial cell activation potential (ECAP) values at the renal ostia for all the flared geometries. Reducing the dilation angle or protrusion length and exercise lowered the ECAP values for flared FSGs. Conclusion: Flaring of renal stents has a negligible effect on the time dependence of renal flow rate waveforms and can maintain sufficient renal perfusion at rest and exercise. Local flow patterns are, however, strongly dependent on renal flaring, which creates a local flow disturbance and may increase the thrombogenicity at the renal ostia. Smaller dilation angles, shorter

  14. Exercise-induced pyruvate dehydrogenase activation is not affected by 7 days of bed rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian; Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup;

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that physical inactivity impairs the exercise-induced modulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), 6 healthy normally physically active male subjects completed 7 days of bed rest. Before and immediately after the bed rest, the subjects completed an OGTT and a one-legged knee...

  15. The influence of low-grade glioma on resting state oscillatory brain activity: a magnetoencephalography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, I.; Stam, C.; Douw, L.; Bartolomei, F.; Heimans, J.; Dijk, van B.; Postma, T.; Klein, M.; Reijneveld, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In the present MEG-study, power spectral analysis of oscillatory brain activity was used to compare resting state brain activity in both low-grade glioma (LGG) patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that LGG patients show local as well as diffuse slowing of resting state brain activ

  16. Selection and spatial Arrangement of rest sites within Northern tamandua (Tamandua mexicana) home ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, D.D.; Montgomery, R.A.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Jansen, P.A.; Garzon-Lopez, C.X.; Kays, R.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of suitable rest sites is considered to be a key determinant of spatial patterns in animal activity. However, it is not immediately evident which landscape features satisfy rest site requirements or how these sites are configured within the home range. We used Global Positioning Sys

  17. The influence of low-grade glioma on resting state oscillatory brain activity : a magnetoencephalography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, I; Stam, C J; Douw, L; Bartolomei, F; Heimans, J J; van Dijk, B W; Postma, T J; Klein, M; Reijneveld, J C

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: In the present MEG-study, power spectral analysis of oscillatory brain activity was used to compare resting state brain activity in both low-grade glioma (LGG) patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that LGG patients show local as well as diffuse slowing of resting state brain activ

  18. In Vivo measurement of human body composition. [during continuous bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Price, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    Physiological changes in human beings were studied during a 21 day bed rest regime. Results of blood analyses indicated clearly that major metabolic adjustments occurred during prolonged bed rest. However, urinary metabolic analyses showed variances attributed to specimen collection inaccuracies and the small number of test subjects.

  19. Superwide-angle acoustic propagations above the critical angles of the Snell law in liquid—solid superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Xiao-Wei

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, superwide-angle acoustic propagations above the critical angles of the Snell law in liquid—solid superlattice are investigated. Incident waves above the critical angles of the Snell law usually inevitably induce total reflection. However, incident waves with big oblique angles through the liquid—solid superlattice will produce a superwide angle transmission in a certain frequency range so that total reflection does not occur. Together with the simulation by finite element analysis, theoretical analysis by using transfer matrix method suggests the Bragg scattering of the Lamb waves as the physical mechanism of acoustic wave super-propagation far beyond the critical angle. Incident angle, filling fraction, and material thickness have significant influences on propagation. Superwide-angle propagation phenomenon may have potential applications in nondestructive evaluation of layered structures and controlling of energy flux.

  20. Design Estimation of Aerodynamic Angles of High Speed Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debojyoti Mitra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of aerodynamic design of high-speed cars is mainly based on the wind-tunnel experiments and computational methods till date. In this particular study three car models of 100,200,300 pitch angles and 500,600,700 yaw angles are employed, and by wind-tunnel experiments we obtain pressure distributions over them. Now the correlations between drag-coefficient, lift-coefficient, pitch-angle and yaw-angle with Reynolds number are obtained by regression analysis of experimental data using MATLAB software. After plotting graphs it can be concluded that for minimum aerodynamic drag the optimized value of pitch and yaw angle should be 300 and 500. This type of study is expected to give a fair idea of aerodynamic angle design of high-speed cars.

  1. Note: A gel based imaging technique of the iridocorneal angle for evaluation of angle-closure glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoj, V. K.; Murukeshan, V. M.; Baskaran, M.; Aung, T.

    2014-06-01

    Noninvasive medical imaging techniques have high potential in the field of ocular imaging research. Angle closure glaucoma is a major disease causing blindness and a possible way of detection is the examination of the anterior chamber angle in eyes. Here, a simple optical method for the evaluation of angle-closure glaucoma is proposed and illustrated. The light propagation from the region associated with the iridocorneal angle to the exterior of eye is considered analytically. The design of the gel assisted probe prototype is carried out and the imaging of iridocorneal angle is performed on an eye model.

  2. Impact of wheat flour-associated endoxylanases on arabinoxylan in dough after mixing and resting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornez, Emmie; Gebruers, Kurt; Cuyvers, Sven; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2007-08-22

    The impact of varying levels of endoxylanase activity in wheat flour on arabinoxylan (AX) in mixed and rested dough was studied using eight industrially milled wheat flour fractions with varying endoxylanase activity levels. Analysis of the levels of reducing end xylose (RX) and solubilized AX (S-AX) formed during mixing and resting and their correlation with the endoxylanase activity in the flour milling fractions showed that solubilization of AX during the mixing phase is mainly due to mechanical forces, while solubilization of AX during resting is caused by endoxylanase activity. Moreover, solubilization of AX during the dough resting phase is more outspoken than that during the mixing phase. Besides endoxylanase activity, there were significant xylosidase and arabinofuranosidase activities during the dough resting phase. The results indicate that wheat flour-associated endoxylanases can alter part of the AX in dough, thereby changing their functionality in bread making and potentially affecting dough and end product properties. PMID:17661495

  3. Influence of verapamil therapy on left ventricular performance at rest and during exercise in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrath, P; Schlüter, M; Sonntag, F; Diemert, J; Bleifeld, W

    1983-09-01

    To determine the hemodynamic effect of verapamil at rest and during exercise, 18 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were studied before and after 7 weeks of treatment with oral verapamil (maximal dose, 720 mg/day). At rest and at peak exercise, verapamil produced a significant increase in left ventricular (LV) systolic performance in terms of stroke volume index (rest, from 43 +/- 11 to 53 +/- 11 ml/m2, p less than 0.001; exercise, from 46 +/- 11 to 51 +/- 10 ml/m2, p less than 0.01), whereas heart rate decreased (rest, from 81 +/- 14 to 70 +/- 11 min-1, p less than 0.001; exercise, from 150 +/- 21 to 141 +/- 18 min-1, p less than 0.01). Cardiac index at rest and during exercise remained unchanged. Systolic vascular resistance did not change at rest, but decreased significantly during exercise (974 +/- 243 to 874 +/- 174 dynes s cm-5; p less than 0.05). After verapamil administration, pulmonary artery pressures did not change at rest, but decreased significantly during exercise. This was probably due to a shift in the LV pressure-volume relation. The improvement in LV hemodynamics was associated with a significant increase in exercise capacity. The findings of this study indicate that in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, hemodynamic improvement at rest and during exercise can be achieved by chronic administration of verapamil.

  4. Strength of Default Mode Resting-State Connectivity Relates to White Matter Integrity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Evan M.; Lee, Philip S.; Maisog, Jose M.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer; Billington, Michael E.; VanMeter, John; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2011-01-01

    A default mode network of brain regions is known to demonstrate coordinated activity during the resting state. While the default mode network is well characterized in adults, few investigations have focused upon its development. We scanned 9-13-year-old children with diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.…

  5. The correlation of multi-angle thermal infrared data and the choice of optimal view angles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Wenjie; XU; Xiru

    2004-01-01

    Based on the matrix formula of thermal infrared radiant system, the components temperature can be retrieved by the inversive matrix. Around the stability problem of retrieved result, the research work we did was focused on (i) the correlation of (wk,j) which is the key to affect the retrieval accuracy, (ii) a general method which can help us find the number of retrievable parameters and evaluate the retrieval error before its performance, (iii) the choice of "optimal viewing angle group" based on the formula of absolute error propagation. The row winter wheat field was chosen as an example. The results can provide a theoretical basis for multi-angle thermal infrared remote sensing and components temperature retrieval.

  6. Wakeful rest promotes the integration of spatial memories into accurate cognitive maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael; Dewar, Michaela; Harris, Mathew A; Della Sala, Sergio; Wolbers, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Flexible spatial navigation, e.g. the ability to take novel shortcuts, is contingent upon accurate mental representations of environments-cognitive maps. These cognitive maps critically depend on hippocampal place cells. In rodents, place cells replay recently travelled routes, especially during periods of behavioural inactivity (sleep/wakeful rest). This neural replay is hypothesised to promote not only the consolidation of specific experiences, but also their wider integration, e.g. into accurate cognitive maps. In humans, rest promotes the consolidation of specific experiences, but the effect of rest on the wider integration of memories remained unknown. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that cognitive map formation is supported by rest-related integration of new spatial memories. We predicted that if wakeful rest supports cognitive map formation, then rest should enhance knowledge of overarching spatial relations that were never experienced directly during recent navigation. Forty young participants learned a route through a virtual environment before either resting wakefully or engaging in an unrelated perceptual task for 10 min. Participants in the wakeful rest condition performed more accurately in a delayed cognitive map test, requiring the pointing to landmarks from a range of locations. Importantly, the benefit of rest could not be explained by active rehearsal, but can be attributed to the promotion of consolidation-related activity. These findings (i) resonate with the demonstration of hippocampal replay in rodents, and (ii) provide the first evidence that wakeful rest can improve the integration of new spatial memories in humans, a function that has, hitherto, been associated with sleep.

  7. Wakeful rest promotes the integration of spatial memories into accurate cognitive maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael; Dewar, Michaela; Harris, Mathew A; Della Sala, Sergio; Wolbers, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Flexible spatial navigation, e.g. the ability to take novel shortcuts, is contingent upon accurate mental representations of environments-cognitive maps. These cognitive maps critically depend on hippocampal place cells. In rodents, place cells replay recently travelled routes, especially during periods of behavioural inactivity (sleep/wakeful rest). This neural replay is hypothesised to promote not only the consolidation of specific experiences, but also their wider integration, e.g. into accurate cognitive maps. In humans, rest promotes the consolidation of specific experiences, but the effect of rest on the wider integration of memories remained unknown. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that cognitive map formation is supported by rest-related integration of new spatial memories. We predicted that if wakeful rest supports cognitive map formation, then rest should enhance knowledge of overarching spatial relations that were never experienced directly during recent navigation. Forty young participants learned a route through a virtual environment before either resting wakefully or engaging in an unrelated perceptual task for 10 min. Participants in the wakeful rest condition performed more accurately in a delayed cognitive map test, requiring the pointing to landmarks from a range of locations. Importantly, the benefit of rest could not be explained by active rehearsal, but can be attributed to the promotion of consolidation-related activity. These findings (i) resonate with the demonstration of hippocampal replay in rodents, and (ii) provide the first evidence that wakeful rest can improve the integration of new spatial memories in humans, a function that has, hitherto, been associated with sleep. PMID:26235141

  8. Transcriptional activation of REST by Sp1 in Huntington's disease models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Ravache

    Full Text Available In Huntington's disease (HD, mutant huntingtin (mHtt disrupts the normal transcriptional program of disease neurons by altering the function of several gene expression regulators such as Sp1. REST (Repressor Element-1 Silencing Transcription Factor, a key regulator of neuronal differentiation, is also aberrantly activated in HD by a mechanism that remains unclear. Here, we show that the level of REST mRNA is increased in HD mice and in NG108 cells differentiated into neuronal-like cells and expressing a toxic mHtt fragment. Using luciferase reporter gene assay, we delimited the REST promoter regions essential for mHtt-mediated REST upregulation and found that they contain Sp factor binding sites. We provide evidence that Sp1 and Sp3 bind REST promoter and interplay to fine-tune REST transcription. In undifferentiated NG108 cells, Sp1 and Sp3 have antagonistic effect, Sp1 acting as an activator and Sp3 as a repressor. Upon neuronal differentiation, we show that the amount and ratio of Sp1/Sp3 proteins decline, as does REST expression, and that the transcriptional role of Sp3 shifts toward a weak activator. Therefore, our results provide new molecular information to the transcriptional regulation of REST during neuronal differentiation. Importantly, specific knockdown of Sp1 abolishes REST upregulation in NG108 neuronal-like cells expressing mHtt. Our data together with earlier reports suggest that mHtt triggers a pathogenic cascade involving Sp1 activation, which leads to REST upregulation and repression of neuronal genes.

  9. Impact Angle Control of Interplanetary Shock Geoeffectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, D M

    2015-01-01

    We use OpenGGCM global MHD simulations to study the nightside magnetospheric, magnetotail, and ionospheric responses to interplanetary (IP) fa st forward shocks. Three cases are presented in this study: two inclined oblique shocks, here after IOS-1 and IOS-2, where the latter has a Mach number twice stronger than the former. Both shocks have impact angles of 30$^o$ in relation to the Sun-Earth line. Lastly, we choose a frontal perpendicular shock, FPS, whose shock normal is along the Sun-Earth line, with the same Mach number as IOS-1. We find that, in the IOS-1 case, due to the north-south asymmetry, the magnetotail is deflected southward, leading to a mild compression. The geomagnetic activity observed in the nightside ionosphere is then weak. On the other hand, in the head-on case, the FPS compresses the magnetotail from both sides symmetrically. This compression triggers a substorm allowing a larger amount of stored energy in the magnetotail to be released to the nightside ionosphere, resulting in stronger...

  10. Mapping of low flip angles in magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balezeau, Fabien; Saint-Jalmes, Herve [LTSI, INSERM U642, Universite Rennes 1 (France); Eliat, Pierre-Antoine [PRISM, IFR 140, Universite Rennes 1 (France); Cayamo, Alejandro Bordelois, E-mail: fabien.balezeau@gmail.com [Centro De BiofIsika Medica, Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba)

    2011-10-21

    Errors in the flip angle have to be corrected in many magnetic resonance imaging applications, especially for T1 quantification. However, the existing methods of B1 mapping fail to measure lower values of the flip angle despite the fact that these are extensively used in dynamic acquisition and 3D imaging. In this study, the nonlinearity of the radiofrequency (RF) transmit chain, especially for very low flip angles, is investigated and a simple method is proposed to accurately determine both the gain of the RF transmitter and the B1 field map for low flip angles. The method makes use of the spoiled gradient echo sequence with long repetition time (TR), such as applied in the double-angle method. It uses an image acquired with a flip angle of 90{sup 0} as a reference image that is robust to B1 inhomogeneity. The ratio of the image at flip angle alpha to the image at a flip angle of 90{sup 0} enables us to calculate the actual value of alpha. This study was carried out at 1.5 and 4.7 T, showing that the linearity of the RF supply system is highly dependent on the hardware. The method proposed here allows us to measure the flip angle from 1{sup 0} to 60{sup 0} with a maximal uncertainty of 10% and to correct T1 maps based on the variable flip angle method.

  11. Numerical aperture characteristics of angle-ended plastic optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cheng; Farrell, Gerard

    2003-03-01

    With the increasing information rates demanded in consumer, automotive and aeronautical applications, a low cost and high performance physical transmission medium is required. Compared with Silica Optical Fiber, Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) offers an economic solution for a range of high-capacity, short-haul applications in industrial and military environments. Recently, a new type of POF, the perfluorinated graded-index plastic optical fiber (PF GI-POF), has been introduced that has low losses and high bandwidth at the communication wavelengths 850 nm and 1300nm. POF is normally terminated perpendicular to the fiber axis. We propose an angle-ended POF, which is terminated at non-perpendicular angles to the fiber axis. The aim of the research is to investigate the numerical aperture (NA) characteristics of angle-ended POF along the major axis of the elliptical endface. A theoretical model indicates that the NA of the angle-ended POF will increase nonlinearly with tilt-angle and the acceptance cone will be deflected with the angle of the deflection increasing nonlinearly with tilt-angle. We present results for the measured NA and the measured deflection angle using the far-field radiation method. Results are presented for 13 angle-ended SI-POF tilt-angles. We also present results for theoretical value of NA and deflection angle as a function of tilt-angle. The agreement between the measured and theoretical value is good up to tilt-angles of about 15 degrees, beyond which deviation occurs.

  12. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest on Brain Functional Connectivity and Sensorimotor Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, K.; Koppelmans, V.; De Dios, Y.; Stepanyan, V.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S.; Reuter-Lorenz, P.; Castenada, R. Riascos; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A; Seidler, R.

    2016-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight has been associated with detrimental alterations in human sensorimotor functioning. Prolonged exposure to a head-down tilt (HDT) position during long duration bed rest can resemble several effects of the microgravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The question of whether microgravity affects other central nervous system functions such as brain functional connectivity and its relationship with behavior is largely unknown, but of importance to the health and performance of astronauts both during and post-flight. In the present study, we investigate the effects of prolonged exposure to HDT bed rest on resting state brain functional connectivity and its association with behavioral changes in 17 male participants. To validate that our findings were not due to confounding factors such as time or task practice, we also acquired resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and behavioral measurements from 14 normative control participants at four time points. Bed rest participants remained in bed with their heads tilted down six degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Rs-fMRI and behavioral data were obtained at seven time points averaging around: 12 and 8 days prior to bed rest; 7, 50, and 70 days during bed rest; and 8 and 12 days after bed rest. 70 days of HDT bed rest resulted in significant increases in functional connectivity during bed rest followed by a reversal of changes in the post bed rest recovery period between motor cortical and somatosensory areas of the brain. In contrast, decreases in connectivity were observed between temporoparietal regions. Furthermore, post-hoc correlation analyses revealed a significant relationship between motor-somatosensory network connectivity and standing balance performance changes; participants that exhibited the greatest increases in connectivity strength showed the least deterioration in postural

  13. EVALUATION OF NECK SHAFT ANGLE OF FEMUR ON DRY BONES

    OpenAIRE

    Radha; Ravi Shankar; Naveen; Roopa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the neck shaft angle of femur helps to understand clinical relevance in bio mechanics of the hip joint. It helps for the better treatment of different pathological conditions of hip and femur and also to design prosthesis. Femoral neck shaft angle is important to convey the information regarding the race to ...

  14. EVALUATION OF NECK SHAFT ANGLE OF FEMUR ON DRY BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the neck shaft angle of femur helps to understand clinical relevance in bio mechanics of the hip joint. It helps for the better treatment of different pathological conditions of hip and femur and also to design prosthesis. Femoral neck shaft angle is important to convey the information regarding the race to which they belong. Hence the present study was under taken to determine the neck shaft angle of femur in humans. OBJECTIVE: 1. To correct the different types of deformity and to have a normal good walking Mechanism. 2. To know the recent methodology and attempt to evaluate the range of normal Angles of femora and their sex differences. METHODS: ANTHROPOMETRIC: 100 Adult dry bones were studied and analyzed . The neck shaft angle of femur was measured by tracing outlines of contours of all femora. RESULTS: The neck shaft angle of the femur have revealed that there is no much difference in between males and females. There was slightly higher 0.2° in females. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: There was no significant gender difference in neck shaft angle. The Knowledge of knowing the neck shaft angle helps to understand the Biomechanics of the hip joint and also for better treatment of pathological condition of hip and femur.

  15. A study of images of Projective Angles of pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jue [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhaoqi, Zhang [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)], E-mail: zhaoqi5000@vip.sohu.com; Yu Wei; Miao Cuilian; Yan Zixu; Zhao Yike [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15

    Aims: In images of magnetic resonance and computed tomography (CT) there are visible angles between pulmonary veins and the coronary, transversal or sagittal section of body. In this study these angles are measured and defined as Projective Angles of pulmonary veins. Several possible influential factors and characters of distribution are studied and analyzed for a better understanding of this imaging anatomic character of pulmonary veins. And it could be the anatomic base of adjusting correctly the angle of the central X-ray of the angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing the catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Method: Images of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) and contrast enhanced computer tomography (CECT) of the left atrium and pulmonary veins of 137 health objects and patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are processed with the technique of post-processing, and Projective Angles to the coronary and transversal sections are measured and analyzed statistically. Result: Project Angles of pulmonary veins are one of real and steady imaging anatomic characteristics of pulmonary veins. The statistical distribution of variables is relatively concentrated, with a fairly good representation of average value. It is possible to improve the angle of the central X-ray according to the average value in the selective angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing the catheter ablation of AF.

  16. Contact pressure distribution and support angle optimization of kiln tyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to the shearing force character and the deformation coordination condition of shell at the station of supports, the mathematical models to calculate contact angle and contact pressure distribution between tyre and shell were set up, the formulae of bending moment and bending stress of tyre were obtained. Taking the maximum of tyre fatigue life as the optimal objective, the optimization model of tyre support angle was built. The computational results show that when tyre support angle is 30°, tyre life is far less than that when tyre support angle is optimal, which is 35.6°, and it is unsuitable to stipulate tyre support angle to be 30° in traditional design. The larger the load, the less the nominal stress amplitude increment of tyre, the more favorable the tyre fatigue life when tyre support angle is optimal.

  17. Mechanism and Etiology of Primary Chronic Angle Closure Glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    The ocular anatomic features, pupil-blocking force, status of angle synechiae closure and positivity of provocative tests were compared between the primary chronic angle closure glaucoma (PCACG) and primary a-cute angle closure glaucoma (PAACG) by using ultrasonic biometry, computerized anterior ocular segment image processing technique, gonioscopy and provocative tests. The studies showed that the anterior chamber depth of PAACG was shallower than that of PCACG; the pupil-blocking force of PAACG was st...

  18. Perturbative estimates of lepton mixing angles in unified models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)], E-mail: antusch@mppmu.mpg.de; King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Malinsky, Michal [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) - AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-11

    Many unified models predict two large neutrino mixing angles, with the charged lepton mixing angles being small and quark-like, and the neutrino masses being hierarchical. Assuming this, we present simple approximate analytic formulae giving the lepton mixing angles in terms of the underlying high energy neutrino mixing angles together with small perturbations due to both charged lepton corrections and renormalisation group (RG) effects, including also the effects of third family canonical normalization (CN). We apply the perturbative formulae to the ubiquitous case of tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing at the unification scale, in order to predict the theoretical corrections to mixing angle predictions and sum rule relations, and give a general discussion of all limiting cases. We also discuss the implications for the sum rule relations of the measurement of a non-zero reactor angle, as hinted at by recent experimental measurements.

  19. Resting lateralized activity predicts the cortical response and appraisal of emotions: an fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Grippa, Elisabetta; Vanutelli, Maria Elide

    2015-12-01

    This study explored the effect of lateralized left-right resting brain activity on prefrontal cortical responsiveness to emotional cues and on the explicit appraisal (stimulus evaluation) of emotions based on their valence. Indeed subjective responses to different emotional stimuli should be predicted by brain resting activity and should be lateralized and valence-related (positive vs negative valence). A hemodynamic measure was considered (functional near-infrared spectroscopy). Indeed hemodynamic resting activity and brain response to emotional cues were registered when subjects (N = 19) viewed emotional positive vs negative stimuli (IAPS). Lateralized index response during resting state, LI (lateralized index) during emotional processing and self-assessment manikin rating were considered. Regression analysis showed the significant predictive effect of resting activity (more left or right lateralized) on both brain response and appraisal of emotional cues based on stimuli valence. Moreover, significant effects were found as a function of valence (more right response to negative stimuli; more left response to positive stimuli) during emotion processing. Therefore, resting state may be considered a predictive marker of the successive cortical responsiveness to emotions. The significance of resting condition for emotional behavior was discussed. PMID:25862673

  20. Stability of whole brain and regional network topology within and between resting and cognitive states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna K Rzucidlo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Graph-theory based analyses of resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI data have been used to map the network organization of the brain. While numerous analyses of resting state brain organization exist, many questions remain unexplored. The present study examines the stability of findings based on this approach over repeated resting state and working memory state sessions within the same individuals. This allows assessment of stability of network topology within the same state for both rest and working memory, and between rest and working memory as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: fMRI scans were performed on five participants while at rest and while performing the 2-back working memory task five times each, with task state alternating while they were in the scanner. Voxel-based whole brain network analyses were performed on the resulting data along with analyses of functional connectivity in regions associated with resting state and working memory. Network topology was fairly stable across repeated sessions of the same task, but varied significantly between rest and working memory. In the whole brain analysis, local efficiency, Eloc, differed significantly between rest and working memory. Analyses of network statistics for the precuneus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex revealed significant differences in degree as a function of task state for both regions and in local efficiency for the precuneus. Conversely, no significant differences were observed across repeated sessions of the same state. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that network topology is fairly stable within individuals across time for the same state, but also fluid between states. Whole brain voxel-based network analyses may prove to be a valuable tool for exploring how functional connectivity changes in response to task demands.

  1. Nuclear retention of multiply spliced HIV-1 RNA in resting CD4+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara G Lassen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 latency in resting CD4+ T cells represents a major barrier to virus eradication in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. We describe here a novel post-transcriptional block in HIV-1 gene expression in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART. This block involves the aberrant localization of multiply spliced (MS HIV-1 RNAs encoding the critical positive regulators Tat and Rev. Although these RNAs had no previously described export defect, we show that they exhibit strict nuclear localization in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART. Overexpression of the transcriptional activator Tat from non-HIV vectors allowed virus production in these cells. Thus, the nuclear retention of MS HIV-1 RNA interrupts a positive feedback loop and contributes to the non-productive nature of infection of resting CD4+ T cells. To define the mechanism of nuclear retention, proteomic analysis was used to identify proteins that bind MS HIV-1 RNA. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB was identified as an HIV-1 RNA-binding protein differentially expressed in resting and activated CD4+ T cells. Overexpression of PTB in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART allowed cytoplasmic accumulation of HIV-1 RNAs. PTB overexpression also induced virus production by resting CD4+ T cells. Virus culture experiments showed that overexpression of PTB in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART allowed release of replication-competent virus, while preserving a resting cellular phenotype. Whether through effects on RNA export or another mechanism, the ability of PTB to reverse latency without inducing cellular activation is a result with therapeutic implications.

  2. REST controls self-renewal and tumorigenic competence of human glioblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Conti

    Full Text Available The Repressor Element 1 Silencing Transcription factor (REST/NRSF is a master repressor of neuronal programs in non-neuronal lineages shown to function as a central regulator of developmental programs and stem cell physiology. Aberrant REST function has been associated with a number of pathological conditions. In cancer biology, REST has been shown to play a tumor suppressor activity in epithelial cancers but an oncogenic role in brain childhood malignancies such as neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma. Here we examined REST expression in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM specimens and its role in GBM cells carrying self-renewal and tumorigenic competence. We found REST to be expressed in GBM specimens, its presence being particularly enriched in tumor cells in the perivascular compartment. Significantly, REST is highly expressed in self-renewing tumorigenic-competent GBM cells and its knock down strongly reduces their self-renewal in vitro and tumor-initiating capacity in vivo and affects levels of miR-124 and its downstream targets. These results indicate that REST contributes to GBM maintenance by affecting its self-renewing and tumorigenic cellular component and that, hence, a better understanding of these circuitries in these cells might lead to new exploitable therapeutic targets.

  3. Plankton Resting Stages in the Marine Sediments of the Bay of Vlorë (Albania)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Rubino; Salvatore Moscatello; Manuela Belmonte; Gianmarco Ingrosso; Genuario Belmonte

    2013-01-01

    In the frame of the INTERREG III CISM project, sediment cores were collected at 2 stations in the Gulf of Vlorë to study the plankton resting stage assemblages. A total of 87 morphotypes were identified and produced by Dinophyta, Ciliophora, Rotifera, and Crustacea. In 22 cases, the cyst belonged to a species absent from the plankton of the same period. The most abundant resting stages were those produced by Scrippsiella species (Dinophyta). Some calcareous cysts were identified as fossil spe...

  4. Implicit theories about willpower predict the activation of a rest goal following self-control exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Veronika; Bernecker, Katharina; Miketta, Stefanie; Friese, Malte

    2015-10-01

    Past research indicates that peoples' implicit theories about the nature of willpower moderate the ego-depletion effect. Only people who believe or were led to believe that willpower is a limited resource (limited-resource theory) showed lower self-control performance after an initial demanding task. As of yet, the underlying processes explaining this moderating effect by theories about willpower remain unknown. Here, we propose that the exertion of self-control activates the goal to preserve and replenish mental resources (rest goal) in people with a limited-resource theory. Five studies tested this hypothesis. In Study 1, individual differences in implicit theories about willpower predicted increased accessibility of a rest goal after self-control exertion. Furthermore, measured (Study 2) and manipulated (Study 3) willpower theories predicted an increased preference for rest-conducive objects. Finally, Studies 4 and 5 provide evidence that theories about willpower predict actual resting behavior: In Study 4, participants who held a limited-resource theory took a longer break following self-control exertion than participants with a nonlimited-resource theory. Longer resting time predicted decreased rest goal accessibility afterward. In Study 5, participants with an induced limited-resource theory sat longer on chairs in an ostensible product-testing task when they had engaged in a task requiring self-control beforehand. This research provides consistent support for a motivational shift toward rest after self-control exertion in people holding a limited-resource theory about willpower. PMID:26075793

  5. Implicit theories about willpower predict the activation of a rest goal following self-control exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Veronika; Bernecker, Katharina; Miketta, Stefanie; Friese, Malte

    2015-10-01

    Past research indicates that peoples' implicit theories about the nature of willpower moderate the ego-depletion effect. Only people who believe or were led to believe that willpower is a limited resource (limited-resource theory) showed lower self-control performance after an initial demanding task. As of yet, the underlying processes explaining this moderating effect by theories about willpower remain unknown. Here, we propose that the exertion of self-control activates the goal to preserve and replenish mental resources (rest goal) in people with a limited-resource theory. Five studies tested this hypothesis. In Study 1, individual differences in implicit theories about willpower predicted increased accessibility of a rest goal after self-control exertion. Furthermore, measured (Study 2) and manipulated (Study 3) willpower theories predicted an increased preference for rest-conducive objects. Finally, Studies 4 and 5 provide evidence that theories about willpower predict actual resting behavior: In Study 4, participants who held a limited-resource theory took a longer break following self-control exertion than participants with a nonlimited-resource theory. Longer resting time predicted decreased rest goal accessibility afterward. In Study 5, participants with an induced limited-resource theory sat longer on chairs in an ostensible product-testing task when they had engaged in a task requiring self-control beforehand. This research provides consistent support for a motivational shift toward rest after self-control exertion in people holding a limited-resource theory about willpower.

  6. Rotational Angle Measurement of Bridge Support Using Image Processing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Soo Park; John Arbie Agbayani; Jong-Han Lee; Jong-Jae Lee

    2016-01-01

    Measuring a very small rotational angle accurately and dynamically is indeed a challenging issue, especially in the case of bridge support. Also, existing inclinometers do not have sufficient resolution and accuracy to measure a bridge’s rotational angle. In this study, a new measurement system was developed to provide a practical means for measuring dynamic rotational angle of a bridge support. It features high resolution and accuracy compared with the available systems on the market. By the...

  7. A magnetoencephalography analysis of resting state power spectrum of inpatients with major depressive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤浩

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the discrepancies of magne-toencephalography(MEG) spectral power between female patients with major depressive disorder and nondepressed subjects in resting state. Methods Whole head MEG recordings were obtained in 12 female patients with major

  8. The impact of "physiological correction" on functional connectivity analysis of pharmacological resting state fMRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalili-Mahani, N.; Chang, C.; Osch, M.J.; Veer, I.M.; Buchem, van M.A.; Dahan, A.; Beckmann, C.F.

    2013-01-01

    Growing interest in pharmacological resting state fMRI (RSfMRI) necessitates developing standardized and robust analytical approaches that are insensitive to spurious correlated physiological signals. However, in pharmacological experiments physiological variations constitute an important aspect of

  9. Lateral intermetatarsal angle: a useful measurement of metatarsus primus elevatus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, A; Mahoney, B; Tinley, P

    2001-05-01

    The lateral intermetatarsal angle, a measurement of the sagittal plane angular divergence between the dorsal cortices of the first and second metatarsals of lateral weightbearing foot radiographs, was compared in 30 normal and 30 hallux limitus feet. The results suggest that the angle may be measured reliably and that although the measured angles are relatively small, a significant difference exists between the normal and hallux limitus subjects studied. Accordingly, the lateral intermetatarsal angle may prove to be a useful radiographic measurement to assist the podiatric physician in the clinical assessment of hallux limitus. PMID:11359890

  10. Exercise Effects on the Course of Gray Matter Changes Over 70 Days of Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelmans, V.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.; DeDios, Y. E.; Wood, S. J.; Reuter-Lorenz, P. A.; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight affects posture control, locomotion, and manual control. The microgravity environment is an important causal factor for spaceflight induced sensorimotor changes through direct effects on peripheral changes that result from reduced vestibular stimulation and body unloading. Effects of microgravity on sensorimotor function have been investigated on earth using bed rest studies. Long duration bed rest serves as a space-flight analogue because it mimics microgravity in body unloading and bodily fluid shifts. It has been hypothesized that the cephalad fluid shift that has been observed in microgravity could potentially affect central nervous system function and structure, and thereby indirectly affect sensorimotor or cognitive functioning. Preliminary results of one of our ongoing studies indeed showed that 70 days of long duration head down-tilt bed rest results in focal changes in gray matter volume from pre-bed rest to various time points during bed rest. These gray matter changes that could reflect fluid shifts as well as neuroplasticity were related to decrements in motor skills such as maintenance of equilibrium. In consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers both inand post-flight we are currently conducting a study that investigates the potential preventive effects of exercise on gray matter and motor performance changes that we observed over the course of bed rest. Numerous studies have shown beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on brain structure and cognitive performance in healthy and demented subjects over a large age range. We therefore hypothesized that an exercise intervention in bed rest could potentially mitigate or prevent the effects of bed rest on the central nervous system. Here we present preliminary outcomes of our study.

  11. Proteome profiles of longissimus and biceps femoris porcine muscles related to exercise and resting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F.W.Te Pas, Marinus; Keuning, Els; Van der Wiel, Dick J.M.;

    2011-01-01

    Exercise affects muscle metabolism and composition in the untrained muscles. The proteome of muscle tissue will be affected by exercise and resting. This is of economic importance for pork quality where transportation relates to exercise of untrained muscles. Rest reverses exercise effects...... by rest for 0, 1, or 3 h; control pigs without exercise. Proteome profiles and biochemical traits measuring energy metabolism and meat quality traits expected to be related to exercise were determined in the Longissimus and the Biceps femoris of the pigs. The results indicated associations between protein...

  12. Effects of prestudy and poststudy rest on memory: Support for temporal interference accounts of forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Ullrich K H; Tay, Jia-Xin; Brown, Gordon D A

    2015-06-01

    According to interference-based theories of memory, including temporal-distinctiveness theory, both prestudy and poststudy rest should have beneficial impacts on memory performance. Specifically, higher temporal isolation of a memorandum should reduce proactive and/or retroactive interference, and thus should result in better recall. In the present study, we investigated the effects of prestudy and poststudy rest in a free recall paradigm. Participants studied three lists of words, separated by either a short or a long period of low mental activity (a tone-detection task). Recall targeted the second list; this list was studied in one of four conditions, defined by the fully crossed factors of prestudy and poststudy rest duration. Two experiments revealed a beneficial effect of prestudy rest (and, to a lesser extent, of poststudy rest) on list recall. This result is in line with interference-based theories of memory. By contrast, a beneficial effect of prestudy rest is not predicted by consolidation accounts of memory and forgetting; our results thus require additional assumptions and/or a better specification of the consolidation process and its time course in order to be reconciled with consolidation theory.

  13. Effects of prestudy and poststudy rest on memory: Support for temporal interference accounts of forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Ullrich K H; Tay, Jia-Xin; Brown, Gordon D A

    2015-06-01

    According to interference-based theories of memory, including temporal-distinctiveness theory, both prestudy and poststudy rest should have beneficial impacts on memory performance. Specifically, higher temporal isolation of a memorandum should reduce proactive and/or retroactive interference, and thus should result in better recall. In the present study, we investigated the effects of prestudy and poststudy rest in a free recall paradigm. Participants studied three lists of words, separated by either a short or a long period of low mental activity (a tone-detection task). Recall targeted the second list; this list was studied in one of four conditions, defined by the fully crossed factors of prestudy and poststudy rest duration. Two experiments revealed a beneficial effect of prestudy rest (and, to a lesser extent, of poststudy rest) on list recall. This result is in line with interference-based theories of memory. By contrast, a beneficial effect of prestudy rest is not predicted by consolidation accounts of memory and forgetting; our results thus require additional assumptions and/or a better specification of the consolidation process and its time course in order to be reconciled with consolidation theory. PMID:25257711

  14. Analysis of Arterial Mechanics During Head-Down-Tilt Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Morgan B.; Martin, David S.; Westby, Christian M.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Carotid, brachial, and tibial arteries reacted differently to HDTBR. Previous studies have not analyzed the mechanical properties of the human brachial or anterior tibial arteries. After slight variations during bed-rest, arterial mechanical properties and IMT returned to pre-bed rest values, with the exception of tibial stiffness and PSE, which continued to be reduced post-bed rest while the DC remained elevated. The tibial artery remodeling was probably due to decreased pressure and volume. Resulting implications for longer duration spaceflight are unclear. Arterial health may be affected by microgravity, as shown by increased thoracic aorta stiffness in other ground based simulations (Aubert).

  15. Influence of small forms of active rest on intellection of students of agrarian higher institutes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prysjazhnuk S.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Influence of facilities of active rest is considered on the increase of mental capacity of students. In research took part 105 students with the low level of physical preparedness. Progress of students is select the integral index of mental capacity. It is set that the most effective factors of diminishing of action of processes of fatigue and increase of mental capacity of students is the use of small forms of active rest during an educational day. It is suggested to utillize athletic pauses (minutes, micro pauses during the leadthrough of employments on theoretical disciplines. It is set that small forms of active rest in combination with a leadthrough independent health-improvement-trainings employments on physical self-perfection instrumental in the substantial improvement of the state of physical and mental capacity of student young people.

  16. Psycho-Physical Effects of Varied Rest Intervals Following Warm-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronchick, Joel; Burke, Edmund J.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the effects of rest intervals of varying lengths following a five minute warm-up revealed no significant differeence among them for perceived exertion, heart rate, and state anxiety. (MB)

  17. Myofibrils Bear Most of the Resting Tension in Frog Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magid, Alan; Law, Douglas J.

    1985-12-01

    The tension that develops when relaxed muscles are stretched is the resting (or passive) tension. It has recently been shown that the resting tension of intact skeletal muscle fibers is equivalent to that of mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibers. Laser diffraction measurements of sarcomere length have now been used to show that the exponential relation between resting tension and sarcomere length for whole frog semitendinosus muscle is similar to that of single fibers. Slack sarcomere lengths and the rates of stress relaxation in these muscles were similar to those in skinned fibers, and sarcomere length remained unchanged during stress relaxation, as in skinned fibers. Thus, in intact semitendinosus muscle of the frog up to a sarcomere length of about 3.8 micrometers, resting tension arises, not in the connective tissue as is commonly thought, but in the elastic resistance of the myofibrils.

  18. Profiling of REST-dependent microRNAs reveals dynamic modes of expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengliang eGao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs possess the ability to self-renew and differentiate into both neurons and glia. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying NSC fate decisions are not well understood. Recent work suggest that the interaction between cell-type specific transcription factors and microRNAs (miRNAs is important as resident neural stem/progenitor cells give rise to functionally mature neurons. Recently, we demonstrated that the transcriptional repressor REST (RE1-silencing transcription factor is essential to prevent precocious neuronal differentiation and maintain NSC self-renewal in the adult hippocampus. Here we show that REST is required for orchestrating the expression of distinct subsets of miRNAs in primary mouse NSC cultures, a physiologically relevant cell type. Using miRNA array profiling, we identified known REST-regulated miRNA genes, as well as previously uncharacterized REST-dependent miRNAs. Interestingly, REST-regulated miRNAs undergo dynamic expression changes under differentiation conditions over time, but not under proliferation conditions. These results suggest that REST functions in a context-dependent manner through its target miRNAs for mediating neuronal production.

  19. STUDY ON MIXIS POTENTIAL OF ROTIFER RESTING EGGS (BRACHIONUS PLICATILIS) WITH DIFFERENT COLLECTION TIMES AND DIFFERENT PRESERVATION PERIODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The present study investigated the possible changes in the mixis potential of rotifer resting eggs produced by a single stock of Brachionus plicatilis and collected and preserved annually from 1985-1998. Several clones derived from each batch of resting eggs were cultured under the same conditions for 21 days. The percentage of clones appearing resting eggs and the average yield of resting eggs produced from each clone were recorded and statistically analyzed to find the differences between the mixis potential of those resting egg batches. Results showed that different batches of resting eggs had different mictic levels among their descendent clones; but no regular relationship was found between the mixis potential of resting eggs and their collection times/preservation periods. Several internal and external factors that might affect the mixis potential of resting eggs were discussed.

  20. STUDY ON MIXIS POTENTIAL OF ROTIFER RESTING EGGS( BRACHIONUS PLICATILIS ) WITH DIFFERENT COLLECTION TIMES AND DIFFERENT PRESERVATION PERIODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利; 郑严; 相建海

    2001-01-01

    The present study investigated the possible changes in the mixis potential of rotifer resting eggs produced by a single stock of Brachionus plicatilis and collected and preserved annually from 1985 - 1998. Several clones derived from each batch of resting eggs were cultured under the same conditions for 21 days. The percentage of clones appearing resting eggs and the average yield of resting eggs produced from each clone were recorded and statistically analyzed to find the differences between the mixis potential of those resting egg batches. Results showed that different batches of resting eggs had different mictic levels among their descendent clones; but no regular relationship was found between the mixis potential of resting eggs and their collection times/preservation periods. Several internal and external factors that might affect the mixis potential of resting eggs were discussed.

  1. Progress in clinical research and application of resting state functional brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resting state functional brain imaging experimental design is free of stimulus task and offers various parametric maps through different data-driven post processing methods with endogenous BOLD signal changes as the source of imaging. Mechanism of resting state brain activities could be extensively studied with improved patient compliance and clinical application compared with task related functional brain imaging. Also resting state functional brain imaging can be used as a method of data acquisition, with implicit neuronal activity as a kind of experimental design, to reveal characteristic brain activities of epileptic patient. Even resting state functional brain imaging data processing method can be used to analyze task related functional MRI data, opening new horizons of task related functional MRI study. (authors)

  2. Topsoil as affected by dung deposition under resting places of red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Pouvelle, Sandrine; Feer, François; Ponge, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    The short-term influence of dung deposition and the further redistribution of dung by dung beetles were studied under a resting place of the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) living in tropical rainforests of South America. Monkey dung was experimentally clumped on the field in a place used by troops of howler monkeys for resting in the Nouragues Reserve Station, French Guiana. Dung-treated plots were sampled serially over three weeks and compared with controls located in their immediate...

  3. Angle dependence of Andreev scattering at semiconductor-superconductor interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1999-01-01

    and increase of the probability of normal reflection. We show that in the presence of a Fermi velocity mismatch between the semiconductor and the superconductor the angles of incidence and transmission are related according to the well-known Snell's law in optics. As a consequence there is a critical angle...

  4. Simulation of Canopy Leaf Inclination Angle in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-cui; LU Chuan-gen; HU Ning; YAO Ke-min; ZHANG Qi-jun; DAI Qi-gen

    2013-01-01

    A leaf inclination angle distribution model, which is applicable to simulate leaf inclination angle distribution in six heights of layered canopy at different growth stages, was established by component factors affecting plant type in rice. The accuracy of the simulation results was validated by measured values from a field experiment. The coefficient of determination (R2) and the root mean square error (RMSE) between the simulated and measured values were 0.9472 and 3.93%, respectively. The simulation results showed that the distribution of leaf inclination angles differed among the three plant types. The leaf inclination angles were larger in the compact variety Liangyoupeijiu with erect leaves than in the loose variety Shanyou 63 with droopy leaves and the intermediate variety Liangyou Y06. The leaf inclination angles were distributed in the lower range in Shanyou 63, which matched up with field measurements. The distribution of leaf inclination angles in the same variety changed throughout the seven growth stages. The leaf inclination angles enlarged gradually from transplanting to booting. During the post-booting period, the leaf inclination angle increased in Shanyou 63 and Liangyou Y06, but changed little in Liangyoupeijiu. At every growth stage of each variety, canopy leaf inclination angle distribution on the six heights of canopy layers was variable. As canopy height increased, the layered leaf area index (LAI) decreased in all the three plant types. However, while the leaf inclination angles showed little change in Liangyoupeijiu, they became larger in Shanyou 63 but smaller in Liangyou Y06. The simulation results used in the constructed model were very similar to the actual measurement values. The model provides a method for estimating canopy leaf inclination angle distribution in rice production.

  5. Role of Optical Coherence Tomography in Assessing Anterior Chamber Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochupurakal, Reema Thomas; Jha, Kirti Nath; Rajalakshmi, A.R.; Nagarajan, Swathi; Ezhumalai, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gonioscopy is the gold standard in assessing anterior chamber angles. However, interobserver variations are common and there is a need for reliable objective method of assessment. Aim To compare the anterior chamber angle by gonioscopy and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) in individuals with shallow anterior chamber. Materials and Methods This comparative observational study was conducted in a rural tertiary multi-speciality teaching hospital. A total of 101 eyes of 54 patients with shallow anterior chamber on slit lamp evaluation were included. Anterior chamber angle was graded by gonioscopy using the shaffer grading system. Angles were also assessed by SD-OCT with Trabecular Iris Angle (TIA) and Angle Opening Distance (AOD). Chi-square test, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value to find correlation between OCT parameters and gonioscopy grading. Results Females represented 72.7%. The mean age was 53.93 ±8.24 years and mean anterior chamber depth was 2.47 ± 0.152 mm. Shaffer grade ≤ 2 were identified in 95(94%) superior, 42(41.5%) inferior, 65(64.3%) nasal and 57(56.4%) temporal quadrants. Cut-off values of TIA ≤ 22° and AOD ≤ 290 μm were taken as narrow angles on SD-OCT. TIA of ≤ 22° were found in 88(92.6%) nasal and 87(87%) temporal angles. AOD of ≤ 290 μm was found in 73(76.8%) nasal and 83(83%) temporal quadrants. Sensitivity in detecting narrow angles was 90.7% and 82.2% for TIA and AOD, while specificity was 11.7% and 23.4%, respectively. Conclusion Individuals were found to have narrow angles more with SD-OCT. Sensitivity was high and specificity was low in detecting narrow angles compared to gonioscopy, making it an unreliable tool for screening. PMID:27190851

  6. Effects of proposed physical ballast tank treatments on aquatic invertebrate resting eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikow, David F; Reid, David F; Blatchley, Ernest R; Jacobs, Gregory; Landrum, Peter F

    2007-04-01

    Adaptations in aquatic invertebrate resting eggs that confer protection from natural catastrophic events also could confer protection from treatments applied to ballast water for biological invasion vector management. To evaluate the potential efficacy of physical ballast water treatment methods, the present study examined the acute toxicity of heat (flash and holding methods), ultraviolet (UV) radiation (254 nm), and deoxygenation (acute and chronic) on resting eggs of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia mendotae and the marine brine shrimp Artemia sp. Both D. mendotae and Artemia sp. were similarly sensitive to flash exposures of heat (100% mortality at 70 degrees C), but D. mendotae were much more sensitive to prolonged exposures. Exposure to 4,000 mJ/cm2 of UV radiation resulted in mortality rates of 59% in Artemia sp. and 91% in D. mendotae. Deoxygenation to an oxygen concentration of 1 mg/L was maximally toxic to both species. Deoxygenation suppressed hatching of D. mendotae resting eggs at oxygen concentrations of less than 5.5 mg/L and of Artemia sp. resting eggs at concentrations of less than 1 mg/L. Results suggest that UV radiation and deoxygenation are not viable treatment methods with respect to invertebrate resting eggs because of the impracticality of producing sufficient UV doses and the suppression of hatching at low oxygen concentrations. Results also suggest that the treatment temperatures required to kill resting eggs are much higher than those reported to be effective against other invertebrate life stages and species. The results, however, do not preclude the effectiveness of these treatments against other organisms or life stages. Nevertheless, if ballast tank treatment systems employing the tested methods are intended to include mitigation of viable resting eggs, then physical removal of large resting eggs and ephippia via filtration would be a necessary initial step. PMID:17447556

  7. The role of resting frontal EEG asymmetry in psychopathology: afferent or efferent filter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Jetha, Michelle K; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2014-01-01

    Resting EEG asymmetry evident early in life is thought to bias affective behaviors and contribute to the development of psychopathology. However, it remains unclear at what stage of information processing this bias occurs. Asymmetry may serve as an afferent filter, modulating emotional reactivity to incoming stimuli; or as an efferent filter, modulating behavioral response tendencies under emotional conditions. This study examines 209 kindergarten children (M = 6.03 years old) to test predictions put forth by the two models. Resting asymmetry was examined in conjunction with electrodermal and cardiac measures of physiological reactivity to four emotion-inducing film clips (fear, sad, happy, anger) and teacher ratings of psychopathology. Results confirm an association between increased right side cortical activation and internalizing symptom severity as well as left activation and externalizing symptom severity. Significant interactions between resting asymmetry and physiological reactivity to emotion indicate that physiological reactivity moderates the association between resting asymmetry and symptoms of psychopathology.

  8. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery, angles of inclination. 58.01-40 Section 58.01... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-40 Machinery, angles of inclination. (a) Propulsion machinery and all auxiliary machinery essential to the propulsion and safety of the vessel must...

  9. The Time Course of Task-Specific Memory Consolidation Effects in Resting State Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sami, Saber; Edwin M Robertson; Miall, R. Chris

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported functionally localized changes in resting-state brain activity following a short period of motor learning, but their relationship with memory consolidation and their dependence on the form of learning is unclear. We investigate these questions with implicit or explicit variants of the serial reaction time task (SRTT). fMRI resting-state functional connectivity was measured in human subjects before the tasks, and 0.1, 0.5, and 6 h after learning. There was signif...

  10. A technological evaluation of the Microsoft Kinect for automated behavioural mapping at bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Simon; McBride, Simon J; McClelland, Coen; Watson, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural mapping (BM) is a long established method of structured observational study used to understand where patients are and what they are doing within a hospital setting. BM is prominent in stroke rehabilitation research, where that research indicates patients spend most of their time at bed rest. We evaluate the technical feasibility of using the Microsoft Kinect to automate patient physical activity classification at bed rest.

  11. Engineering sidewall angles of silica-on-silicon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haiyan, Ou

    2004-01-01

    Burned photoresist is used as etch mask when producing silica-onsilicon waveguides. The sidewall angle of the optical glass waveguides is engineered by varying photoresist thickness and etch selectivity. The principle for the formation of the angles is introduced and very promising experimental...

  12. [Double measurement of the Böhler angle: prognostic value of radiological angles in posterior facet fractures of the calcaneus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, B; Zographos, S; Uthéza, G

    2001-11-01

    In 1931, Böhler proposed that measuring the radiological angle of the tuberosity could be useful in posterior facet fractures of the calcaneus to evaluate initial damage as well as reduction quality. In opposition to the 1998 SOFCOT symposium, certain authors considered that the Böhler angle has no prognostic value. Progress in pathological anatomy has helped to better understand posterior facet fractures, justifying the use of a "double measurement". The fundamental fracture line separates the posterior facet into a lowered medial fragment and a pivoted lateral fragment. The double contour of the posterior facet visualized radiographically allows measurement of a medial Böhler angle and a lateral Böhler angle. It is demonstrated that is the smaller the medial Böhler angle, the greater the subtalar degeneration. Surgical restoration of a satisfactory Böhler angle is a necessary prerequisite for a good outcome. "Double measurement" of the Böhler angle on the lateral view contributes to the prognostic value of this historical angle. PMID:11845075

  13. Resting state alpha frequency is associated with menstrual cycle phase, estradiol and use of oral contraceptives

    OpenAIRE

    Brötzner, Christina P.; Klimesch, Wolfgang; Doppelmayr, Michael; Zauner, Andrea; Kerschbaum, Hubert H.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing intrinsic brain activity in resting, but awake humans is dominated by alpha oscillations. In human, individual alpha frequency (IAF) is associated with cognitive performance. Noticeable, performance in cognitive and emotional tasks in women is associated with menstrual cycle phase and sex hormone levels, respectively. In the present study, we correlated frequency of alpha oscillation in resting women with menstrual cycle phase, sex hormone level, or use of oral contraceptives. Electro...

  14. The Influence of Roughness and Pyrethroid Formulations on Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L. Resting Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Hottel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two-choice tests were conducted to examine the effect of surface roughness on the resting preference of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., on copper, basswood, and acrylic materials. The influence of pyrethroid formulation applications on resting preferences was also evaluated. Bed bugs were given the choice of resting between two sanded halves of each material tested. One half was sanded with a P60 grit sandpaper and the other with a less rough P600 grit sandpaper. A significantly higher proportion of bed bugs chose to rest on the rougher P60 grit sanded half of all materials tested. Pyrethroid applications were made to either the P60 grit half or both halves of acrylic arenas and resting preferences were again assessed. Behavioral responses of bed bugs to pyrethroid formulation applications varied depending on the bed bug strain used and the formulation applied. Bed bugs would still rest on the P60 grit half when Suspend SC formulation (0.06% deltamethrin was applied; however, an avoidance response was observed from a bed bug strain susceptible to D-Force aerosol formulations (0.06% deltamethrin. The avoidance behavior is likely attributed to one, more than one, or even an interaction of multiple spray constituents and not the active ingredient.

  15. The Influence of Roughness and Pyrethroid Formulations on Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L.) Resting Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottel, Benjamin A; Pereira, Roberto M; Koehler, Philip G

    2015-01-01

    Two-choice tests were conducted to examine the effect of surface roughness on the resting preference of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., on copper, basswood, and acrylic materials. The influence of pyrethroid formulation applications on resting preferences was also evaluated. Bed bugs were given the choice of resting between two sanded halves of each material tested. One half was sanded with a P60 grit sandpaper and the other with a less rough P600 grit sandpaper. A significantly higher proportion of bed bugs chose to rest on the rougher P60 grit sanded half of all materials tested. Pyrethroid applications were made to either the P60 grit half or both halves of acrylic arenas and resting preferences were again assessed. Behavioral responses of bed bugs to pyrethroid formulation applications varied depending on the bed bug strain used and the formulation applied. Bed bugs would still rest on the P60 grit half when Suspend SC formulation (0.06% deltamethrin) was applied; however, an avoidance response was observed from a bed bug strain susceptible to D-Force aerosol formulations (0.06% deltamethrin). The avoidance behavior is likely attributed to one, more than one, or even an interaction of multiple spray constituents and not the active ingredient. PMID:26463196

  16. The effect of knee joint angle on torque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Voudrie, Stefani J; Ebersole, Kyle T

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the author's investigation was to examine the effect of knee joint angle on torque control of the quadriceps muscle group. In all, 12 healthy adults produced maximal voluntary contractions and submaximal torque (15, 30, and 45% MVC [maximal voluntary contraction]) at leg flexion angles of 15 degrees , 30 degrees , 60 degrees , and 90 degrees below the horizontal plane. As expected, MVC values changed with respect to joint angle with maximum torque output being greatest at 60 degrees and least at 15 degrees . During the submaximal tasks, participants appropriately scaled their torque output to the required targets. Absolute variability (i.e., standard deviation) of torque output was greatest at 60 degrees and 90 degrees knee flexion. However, relative variability as indexed by coefficient of variation (CV) decreased as joint angle increased, with the greatest CV occurring at 15 degrees . These results are congruent with the hypothesis that joint angle influences the control of torque.

  17. DPARSF: a MATLAB toolbox for pipeline data analysis of resting-state fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaogan Yan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has attracted more and more attention because of its effectiveness, simplicity and non-invasiveness in exploration of the intrinsic functional architecture of the human brain. However, user-friendly toolbox for pipeline data analysis of resting-state fMRI is still lacking. Based on some functions in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM and Resting-State fMRI Data Analysis Toolkit (REST, we have developed a MATLAB toolbox called Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI (DPARSF for pipeline data analysis of resting-state fMRI. After the user arranges the DICOM files and click a few buttons to set parameters, DPARSF will then give all the preprocessed (slice timing, realign, normalize, smooth data and results for functional connectivity (FC, regional homogeneity (ReHo, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF, and fractional ALFF (fALFF. DPARSF can also create a report for excluding subjects with excessive head motion and generate a set of pictures for easily checking the effect of normalization. In addition, users can also use DPARSF to extract time courses from regions of interest.

  18. EFFECT OF SWEEP ANGLE ON THE VORTICAL FLOW OVER DELTA WINGS AT AN ANGLE OF ATTACK OF 10°

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMES BRETT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CFD simulations have been used to analyse the vortical flows over sharp edged delta wings with differing sweep angles under subsonic conditions at an angle of attack of 10°. RANS simulations were validated against experimental data for a 65° sweep wing, with a flat cross-section, and the steadiness of the flow field was assessed by comparing the results against unsteady URANS and DES simulations. To assess the effect of sweep angle on the flow field, a range of sweep angles from 65° to 43° were simulated. For moderate sweep wings the primary vortex was observed to detach from the leading edge, undergoing vortex breakdown, and a weaker, replacement, "shadow" vortex was formed. The shadow vortex was observed for sweep angles of 50° and less, and resulted in reduced lift production near the wing tips loss of the stronger primary vortex.

  19. Dynamic and static contributions of the cerebrovasculature to the resting-state BOLD signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Sungho; Wang, Danny J J; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Yan, Lirong; Chen, J Jean

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state, particularly fMRI based on the blood-oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal, has been extensively used to measure functional connectivity in the brain. However, the mechanisms of vascular regulation that underlie the BOLD fluctuations during rest are still poorly understood. In this work, using dual-echo pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling and MR angiography (MRA), we assess the spatio-temporal contribution of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to the resting-state BOLD signals and explore how the coupling of these signals is associated with regional vasculature. Using a general linear model analysis, we found that statistically significant coupling between resting-state BOLD and CBF fluctuations is highly variable across the brain, but the coupling is strongest within the major nodes of established resting-state networks, including the default-mode, visual, and task-positive networks. Moreover, by exploiting MRA-derived large vessel (macrovascular) volume fraction, we found that the degree of BOLD-CBF coupling significantly decreased as the ratio of large vessels to tissue volume increased. These findings suggest that the portion of resting-state BOLD fluctuations at the sites of medium-to-small vessels (more proximal to local neuronal activity) is more closely regulated by dynamic regulations in CBF, and that this CBF regulation decreases closer to large veins, which are more distal to neuronal activity.

  20. Comparison of Ocular Outcomes in Two 14-Day Bed Rest Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.; Zanello, S. B.; Yarbough, P. O.; Tabbi, G.; Vizzeri, G.

    2012-01-01

    Reports of astronauts' visual changes have raised concern about ocular health during long-duration spaceflight. Some of these findings include globe flattening with hyperopic shifts, choroidal folds, optic disc edema, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickening, and cotton wool spots. While the etiology remains unknown, it is hypothesized that, in predisposed individuals, hypertension in the brain may follow cephalad fluid shifts during spaceflight. This possible mechanism of ocular changes may also apply to analogous cases of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) or pseudotumor cerebri on Earth patients. Head-down t ilt (HDT) bed rest is a spaceflight analog that induces cephalad fluid shifts. Previous studies of the HDT position demonstrated body fluid shifts associated with changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) but the conditions of bed rest varied among experiments, making it difficult to compare data and draw conclusions. For these reasons, vision evaluation of bed rest subjects was implemented for NASA bed rest studies since 2010, in an attempt to monitor vision health in subjects subjected to bed rest. Vision monitoring is thus currently performed in all NASA-conducted bed rest campaigns

  1. Dynamic aspects of contact angle measurements on adsorbed protein layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheer, van der At; Smolders, Cees A.

    1978-01-01

    Contact angle measurements using drops of paraffin oil have been performed on polystyrene (PS) substrates, coated with human serum albumin (HSA) or human fibrinogen (HFb), immersed in buffer solution. The contact angle appeared to be time dependent. The final value for HSA-coated substrates was 50°

  2. Visual Learning Alters the Spontaneous Activity of the Resting Human Brain: An fNIRS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Haijing Niu; Hao Li; Li Sun; Yongming Su; Jing Huang; Yan Song

    2014-01-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) has been widely used to investigate spontaneous brain activity that exhibits correlated fluctuations. RSFC has been found to be changed along the developmental course and after learning. Here, we investigated whether and how visual learning modified the resting oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) functional brain connectivity by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We demonstrate that after five days of training on an orientation discrimina...

  3. The influence of rest period instructions on the default mode network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher eBenjamin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The default mode network (DMN refers to regional brain activity that is greater during rest periods than during attention-demanding tasks and many studies have reported DMN alterations in patient populations. It has also been shown that the DMN is suppressed by scanner background noise (SBN, which is the noise produced by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. However, it is unclear whether different approaches to rest in the noisy MR environment can alter the DMN and constitute a confound in studies investigating the DMN in particular patient populations (e.g., individuals with schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease. We examined twenty-seven healthy adult volunteers who completed an fMRI experiment with 3 different instructions for rest: (1 relax and be still, (2 attend to SBN, or (3 ignore SBN. Region of interest (ROI analyses were performed to determine the influence of rest period instructions on core regions of the DMN and DMN regions previously reported to be altered in patients with or at risk for Alzheimer’s disease or schizophrenia. The dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC exhibited greater activity when specific resting instructions were given (i.e. attend to or ignore SBN compared to when non-specific resting instructions were given. Condition-related differences in connectivity were also observed between regions of the dmPFC and inferior parietal/posterior superior temporal cortex. We conclude that rest period instructions and SBN levels should be carefully considered for fMRI studies on the DMN, especially studies on clinical populations and groups that may have different approaches to rest, such as first-time research participants and children.

  4. Effects of a Resting Foot Splint in Early Brain Injury Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Eun Jung; Chun, Min Ho; Hong, Ja Young; Do, Kyung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of the resting foot splint to prevent ankle contracture. Methods We performed a randomized controlled trial in 33 patients with brain injury with ankle dorsiflexor weakness (muscle power ≤grade 2). Both groups continued conventional customized physical therapy, but the patients in the foot splint group were advised to wear a resting foot splint for more than 12 hours per day for 3 weeks. The data were assessed before and 3 weeks after the study. The prima...

  5. Predictive Modeling of Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Resting Habitat in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, Lesley H.; Johnston, David W; Dean L. Urban; Julian Tyne; Lars Bejder; Baird, Robin W; Suzanne Yin; Susan H Rickards; Deakos, Mark H.; Mobley, Joseph R.; Pack, Adam A; Marie Chapla Hill

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concer...

  6. Drop Size Dependence of the Contact Angle of Nanodroplets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hong-Kai; FANG Hai-Ping

    2005-01-01

    @@ The contact angle of nanosized non-polarized argon sessile droplets on a solid substrate is studied by using molecular dynamics simulations.It is found that the drop size dependence of the contact angle is sensitive to the interaction between the liquid molecules and solid molecules.The contact angle decreases with the decreasing drop size for larger interaction between the liquid molecules and the solid substrate, and vice versa.This observation is consistent with most of the previous theoretical and experimental results.

  7. Local synchronization of resting-state dynamics encodes Gray's trait Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Tim; Dresler, Thomas; Pyka, Martin; Notebaert, Karolien; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2013-01-01

    The Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) as defined within the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) modulates reactions to stimuli indicating aversive events. Gray's trait Anxiety determines the extent to which stimuli activate the BIS. While studies have identified the amygdala-septo-hippocampal circuit as the key-neural substrate of this system in recent years and measures of resting-state dynamics such as randomness and local synchronization of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations have recently been linked to personality traits, the relation between resting-state dynamics and the BIS remains unexplored. In the present study, we thus examined the local synchronization of spontaneous fMRI BOLD fluctuations as measured by Regional Homogeneity (ReHo) in the hippocampus and the amygdala in twenty-seven healthy subjects. Correlation analyses showed that Gray's trait Anxiety was significantly associated with mean ReHo in both the amygdala and the hippocampus. Specifically, Gray's trait Anxiety explained 23% and 17% of resting-state ReHo variance in the left amygdala and the left hippocampus, respectively. In summary, we found individual differences in Gray's trait Anxiety to be associated with ReHo in areas previously associated with BIS functioning. Specifically, higher ReHo in resting-state neural dynamics corresponded to lower sensitivity to punishment scores both in the amygdala and the hippocampus. These findings corroborate and extend recent findings relating resting-state dynamics and personality while providing first evidence linking properties of resting-state fluctuations to Gray's BIS. PMID:23520499

  8. Local synchronization of resting-state dynamics encodes Gray's trait Anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hahn

    Full Text Available The Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS as defined within the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST modulates reactions to stimuli indicating aversive events. Gray's trait Anxiety determines the extent to which stimuli activate the BIS. While studies have identified the amygdala-septo-hippocampal circuit as the key-neural substrate of this system in recent years and measures of resting-state dynamics such as randomness and local synchronization of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations have recently been linked to personality traits, the relation between resting-state dynamics and the BIS remains unexplored. In the present study, we thus examined the local synchronization of spontaneous fMRI BOLD fluctuations as measured by Regional Homogeneity (ReHo in the hippocampus and the amygdala in twenty-seven healthy subjects. Correlation analyses showed that Gray's trait Anxiety was significantly associated with mean ReHo in both the amygdala and the hippocampus. Specifically, Gray's trait Anxiety explained 23% and 17% of resting-state ReHo variance in the left amygdala and the left hippocampus, respectively. In summary, we found individual differences in Gray's trait Anxiety to be associated with ReHo in areas previously associated with BIS functioning. Specifically, higher ReHo in resting-state neural dynamics corresponded to lower sensitivity to punishment scores both in the amygdala and the hippocampus. These findings corroborate and extend recent findings relating resting-state dynamics and personality while providing first evidence linking properties of resting-state fluctuations to Gray's BIS.

  9. Stable divergence angles of a magnetic dipole spiral array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, X.D.; Bursill, L.A.

    1996-03-01

    An analytical model is introduced for Douady and Couder`s [1992] experiment, where phyllotactic patterns appear as a dynamical result of the interaction between magnetic dipoles. The difference equation for the divergence angle (i.e. the angle between successive radial vectors) is obtained by solving the equations of motion with a second nearest neighbour (SNN) approximation. A one dimensional map analysis as well as a comprehensive analytical proof shows that the divergence angle always converges to a single attractor regardless of the initial conditions. This attractor is approximately the Fibonacci angle ({approx} 138 deg) within variations due to a growth factor {mu} of the pattern. The system is proved to be stable with the SNN approximation. Further analysis with a third nearest neighbour approximation (TNN) shows extra linearly stable attractors may appear around the Lucas angle at {approx} 99.5 deg. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  10. REST-mediated recruitment of polycomb repressor complexes in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Nikolaj; Lerdrup, Mads; Landt, Eskild;

    2012-01-01

    , and increased gene expression. Genome-wide analysis of Polycomb binding in Rest¿/¿ and Eed¿/¿ mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells showed that Rest was required for PRC1 recruitment to a subset of Polycomb regulated neuronal genes. Furthermore, we found that PRC1 can be recruited to Rest binding sites independently......, and PRC2 and show that RNF2 and REST co-regulate a number of neuronal genes in human teratocarcinoma cells (NT2-D1). Using NT2-D1 cells as a model of neuronal differentiation, we furthermore showed that retinoic-acid stimulation led to displacement of PRC1 at REST binding sites, reduced H3K27Me3......Polycomb Repressive Complex (PRC) 1 and PRC2 regulate genes involved in differentiation and development. However, the mechanism for how PRC1 and PRC2 are recruited to genes in mammalian cells is unclear. Here we present evidence for an interaction between the transcription factor REST, PRC1...

  11. Contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Q; Kang, Q J; Chen, Q

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to investigate the implementation of contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting at a large density ratio. The pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model [X. Shan and H. Chen, Phys. Rev. E 49, 2941 (1994)] is a popular mesoscopic model for simulating multiphase flows and interfacial dynamics. In this model, the contact angle is usually realized by a fluid-solid interaction. Two widely used fluid-solid interactions: the density-based interaction and the pseudopotential-based interaction, as well as a modified pseudopotential-based interaction formulated in the present paper, are numerically investigated and compared in terms of the achievable contact angles, the maximum and the minimum densities, and the spurious currents. It is found that the pseudopotential-based interaction works well for simulating small static (liquid) contact angles, however, is unable to reproduce static contact angles close to 180 degrees. Meanwhile, it is found that the proposed modif...

  12. Comparison of Ocular Outcomes in Two 14-Day Bed Rest Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, R. L.; Zanello, S. B.; Yarbough, P. O.; Taibbi, G.; Vizzeri, G.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of astronauts visual changes raised concern about ocular health during long-duration spaceflight. Some of these findings included hyperopic shifts, choroidal folds, optic disc edema, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickening, and cotton wool spots. While the etiology remains unknown, hypotheses speculate that hypertension in the brain caused by cephalad fluid shifts during spaceflight is a possible mechanism for these ocular changes. Head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest is a spaceflight analog that induces cephalad fluid shifts. In addition, previous studies of the HDT position demonstrated body fluid shifts associated with changes in intraocular pressure (IOP). For these reasons, vision monitoring of HDT bed rest subjects was implemented for NASA bed rest studies. Subjects selected for these studies were healthy adults (14 males and 5 females). Average age was 37.5 plus or minus 9.1 years, weight was 77.4 plus or minus 11.3 Kg, and height was 173.4 plus or minus 7.2 14 cm. Controlled conditions followed for all NASA bed rest studies were implemented. These conditions included factors such as eating a standardized diet, maintaining a strict sleep wake cycle, and remaining in bed for 24 hours each day. In one study, subjects maintained a horizontal (0 degree) position while in bed and were exercised six days per week with an integrated resistance and aerobic training (iRAT) program. In the other study, subjects were placed at 6 degrees HDT while in bed and did not engage in exercise. All subjects underwent pre- and post bed rest vision testing. While the battery of vision tests for each study was not identical, measures common to both studies will be presented. These measures included IOP and measures that provided an indication of optic disc swelling as derived from optical coherence tomography (OCT) testing: average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness (millimeters), disc area (square millimeters), rim area (square millimters), and average cup to disc (C

  13. The range of options for handling plane angle and solid angle within a system of units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quincey, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The radian and steradian are unusual units within the SI, originally belonging to their own category of ‘supplementary units’, with this status being changed to dimensionless ‘derived units’ in 1995. Recent papers have suggested that angles could be handled in two different ways within the SI, both differing from the present system. The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for putting such suggestions into context, outlining the range of options that is available, together with the advantages and disadvantages of these options. Although less rigorously logical than some alternatives, the present SI approach is generally supported, but with some changes to the SI brochure to make the position clearer, in particular with regard to the designation of the radian and steradian as derived units.

  14. Measurement of the angle of superficial tension by images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez M., Javier; Alonso R., Sergio

    2006-02-01

    When a liquid is deposited on a surface, this one form a certain angle with respect to the surface, where depending on its value, it will conclude that so hard it is his adhesion with the surface. By means of the analysis of images we looked for to measure this angle of superficial tension. In order to make this measurement, we propose a technique by means of projective transformations and one method of regression to estimation parameters to conic fitting.

  15. Resting position of the head and malocclusion in a group of patients with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Mihi, Victoria; Orellana, Lorena M.; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy are found as a result of these disorders, along with associated neuromuscular functional alterations that affect the resting position of the head. In this context, the resting position of the head could be responsible for several skeletal and dental occlusal disorders among patients with cerebral palsy. Objective: To assess the presence of malocclusions in patients with cerebral palsy, define the most frequent types of malocclusions, and evaluate how the resting position of the head may be implicated in the development of such malocclusions. Study design: Forty-four patients aged between 12-55 years (18 males and 26 females) were studied. Occlusal conditions, the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), changes in the resting position of the head, and breathing and swallowing functions were assessed. Results: Orthodontic treatment was required by 70.8% of the patients, the most frequent malocclusions being molar class II, open bite and high overjet. These individuals showed altered breathing and swallowing functions, as well as habit and postural disorders. The resting position of the head, especially the hyperextended presentation, was significantly correlated to high DAI scores. Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that patients with cerebral palsy are more susceptible to present malocclusions, particularly molar class II malocclusion, increased open bite, and high overjet. Such alterations in turn are more common in patients with a hyperextended position of the head. Key words:Cerebral palsy, malocclusion, head position, disabled patients. PMID:24596627

  16. Spectral data of specular reflectance, narrow-angle transmittance and angle-resolved surface scattering of materials for solar concentrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Good

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectral specular reflectance of conventional and novel reflective materials for solar concentrators is measured with an acceptance angle of 17.5 mrad over the wavelength range 300−2500 nm at incidence angles 15–60° using a spectroscopic goniometry system. The same experimental setup is used to determine the spectral narrow-angle transmittance of semi-transparent materials for solar collector covers at incidence angles 0–60°. In addition, the angle-resolved surface scattering of reflective materials is recorded by an area-scan CCD detector over the spectral range 350–1050 nm. A comprehensive summary, discussion, and interpretation of the results are included in the associated research article “Spectral reflectance, transmittance, and angular scattering of materials for solar concentrators” in Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells.

  17. Spectral data of specular reflectance, narrow-angle transmittance and angle-resolved surface scattering of materials for solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Philipp; Cooper, Thomas; Querci, Marco; Wiik, Nicolay; Ambrosetti, Gianluca; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2016-03-01

    The spectral specular reflectance of conventional and novel reflective materials for solar concentrators is measured with an acceptance angle of 17.5 mrad over the wavelength range 300-2500 nm at incidence angles 15-60° using a spectroscopic goniometry system. The same experimental setup is used to determine the spectral narrow-angle transmittance of semi-transparent materials for solar collector covers at incidence angles 0-60°. In addition, the angle-resolved surface scattering of reflective materials is recorded by an area-scan CCD detector over the spectral range 350-1050 nm. A comprehensive summary, discussion, and interpretation of the results are included in the associated research article "Spectral reflectance, transmittance, and angular scattering of materials for solar concentrators" in Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells.

  18. Research of the Pressure Angle for Whole Cycloidal Gears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ling-tao; WANG Jian-hua

    2011-01-01

    The working profile of whole cycloidal gear is made up of epicycloid and hypocycloid entirely, according to the theory of meshing of gears and the properties of the cycloid, deals with the derivation of the pressure angle formula for the whole cycloidal gear in theory, and reveals changes of the pressure angle of whole cycloidal gear through examples, finds the application relationships between the pressure angle and other design parameters of the whole cycloidal gear, proves the possibility that the whole cycloidal gear can be used in internal parallel move gear mechanism, also provides theoretic fundament for designing internal parallel move whole cycloidal gear correctly.

  19. Measurement of critical contact angle in a microgravity space experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

    1999-06-01

    Mathematical theory predicts that small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. This phenomenon was investigated in the Interface Configuration Experiment on board the NASA USML-2 Space Shuttle flight. The experiment's double proboscis containers were designed to strike a balance between conflicting requirements of sizable volume of liquid shift (for ease of observation) and abruptness of the shift (for accurate determination of critical contact angle). The experimental results support the classical concept of macroscopic contact angle and demonstrate the role of hysteresis in impeding orientation toward equilibrium.

  20. Measurement of critical contact angle in a microgravity space experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concus, P. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.; Finn, R. [Department of Mathematics, Stanford University, CA (United States); Weislogel, M. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Mathematical theory predicts that small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. This phenomenon was investigated in the interface configuration experiment on board the NASA USML-2 Space Shuttle flight. The experiment's ''double proboscis'' containers were designed to strike a balance between conflicting requirements of sizable volume of liquid shift (for ease of observation) and abruptness of the shift (for accurate determination of critical contact angle). The experimental results support the classical concept of macroscopic contact angle and demonstrate the role of hysteresis in impeding orientation toward equilibrium. (orig.)

  1. Control of Angular Intervals for Angle-Multiplexed Holographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Nobuhiro; Muroi, Tetsuhiko; Ishii, Norihiko; Kamijo, Koji; Shimidzu, Naoki

    2009-03-01

    In angle-multiplexed holographic memory, the full width at half maximum of the Bragg selectivity curves is dependent on the angle formed between the medium and incident laser beams. This indicates the possibility of high density and high multiplexing number by varying the angular intervals between adjacent holograms. We propose an angular interval scheduling for closely stacking holograms into medium even when the angle range is limited. We obtained bit error rates of the order of 10-4 under the following conditions: medium thickness of 1 mm, laser beam wavelength of 532 nm, and angular multiplexing number of 300.

  2. Biophysical optimality of the golden angle in phyllotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Takuya

    2015-10-01

    Plant leaves are arranged around a stem axis in a regular pattern characterized by common fractions, a phenomenon known as phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy. As plants grow, these fractions often transition according to simple rules related to Fibonacci sequences. This mathematical regularity originates from leaf primordia at the shoot tip (shoot apical meristem), which successively arise at fixed intervals of a divergence angle, typically the golden angle of 137.5°. Algebraic and numerical interpretations have been proposed to explain the golden angle observed in phyllotaxis. However, it remains unknown whether phyllotaxis has adaptive value, even though two centuries have passed since the phenomenon was discovered. Here, I propose a new adaptive mechanism explaining the presence of the golden angle. This angle is the optimal solution to minimize the energy cost of phyllotaxis transition. This model accounts for not only the high precision of the golden angle but also the occurrences of other angles observed in nature. The model also effectively explains the observed diversity of rational and irrational numbers in phyllotaxis.

  3. RESEARCH OF BASIFACIAL CONTOURING SCULPTURE BY MANDIBULAR ANGLE OSTECTOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jian-lin; DAI Chuan-chang; ZHU Guo-xian; ZHANG Ying; JIN Yu-qing; WANG Wei; QI Chuan-liang

    2006-01-01

    Objective Mandibular angle ostectomy is usually applied to the facial contouring sculpture.We evaluated the various techniques in order to enhance the precision and avoid unnecessary damage. Methods Before operation the area and quantity resected bone were designed according to facial measurement, mandible pantomography and orthophoria and lateral localized radiograph of skull. The Incises of mandibular angle ostectomy included intraoral, retroauricular or intraoral associated with retroauricular. Howerer, the sagittal resection of mandible outer table was necessary in all intraoral incise. Results Single mandibular angle ostectomy was not satisfactory for the patients having mandible hypertrophy with over-width basifacial contouring. Mandibular angle ostectomy combined with the sagittal resection of outer table of mandibular angle were required. Good symmetry and ap pearance were gained in 206 cases. One case had facial paralysis. Two patients occured mandibular fracture during the operation. Three cases complicated angled deformity at mandible body. Conclusion Reduction mandibuloplasty should be selected depends on varied types of mandibular angle hypertrophy before operation.

  4. Is functional integration of resting state brain networks an unspecific biomarker for working memory performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavash, Mohsen; Doebler, Philipp; Holling, Heinz; Thiel, Christiane M; Gießing, Carsten

    2015-03-01

    Is there one optimal topology of functional brain networks at rest from which our cognitive performance would profit? Previous studies suggest that functional integration of resting state brain networks is an important biomarker for cognitive performance. However, it is still unknown whether higher network integration is an unspecific predictor for good cognitive performance or, alternatively, whether specific network organization during rest predicts only specific cognitive abilities. Here, we investigated the relationship between network integration at rest and cognitive performance using two tasks that measured different aspects of working memory; one task assessed visual-spatial and the other numerical working memory. Network clustering, modularity and efficiency were computed to capture network integration on different levels of network organization, and to statistically compare their correlations with the performance in each working memory test. The results revealed that each working memory aspect profits from a different resting state topology, and the tests showed significantly different correlations with each of the measures of network integration. While higher global network integration and modularity predicted significantly better performance in visual-spatial working memory, both measures showed no significant correlation with numerical working memory performance. In contrast, numerical working memory was superior in subjects with highly clustered brain networks, predominantly in the intraparietal sulcus, a core brain region of the working memory network. Our findings suggest that a specific balance between local and global functional integration of resting state brain networks facilitates special aspects of cognitive performance. In the context of working memory, while visual-spatial performance is facilitated by globally integrated functional resting state brain networks, numerical working memory profits from increased capacities for local processing

  5. Splint: the efficacy of orthotic management in rest to prevent equinus in children with cerebral palsy, a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maas Josina C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Range of motion deficits of the lower extremity occur in about the half of the children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP. Over time, these impairments can cause joint deformities and deviations in the children's gait pattern, leading to limitations in moblity. Preventing a loss of range of motion is important in order to reduce secondary activity limitations and joint deformities. Sustained muscle stretch, imposed by orthotic management in rest, might be an effective method of preventing a decrease in range of motion. However, no controlled study has been performed. Methods A single blind randomised controlled trial will be performed in 66 children with spastic CP, divided over three groups with each 22 participants. Two groups will be treated for 1 year with orthoses to prevent a decrease in range of motion in the ankle (either with static or dynamic knee-ankle-foot-orthoses and a third group will be included as a control group and will receive usual care (physical therapy, manual stretching. Measurements will be performed at baseline and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure will be ankle dorsiflexion at full knee extension, measured with a custom designed hand held dynamometer. Secondary outcome measures will be i ankle and knee flexion during gait and ii gross motor function. Furthermore, to gain more insight in the working mechanism of the orthotic management in rest, morphological parameters like achilles tendon length, muscle belly length, muscle fascicle length, muscle physiological cross sectional area length and fascicle pennation angle will be measured in a subgroup of 18 participants using a 3D imaging technique. Discussion This randomised controlled trial will provide more insight into the efficacy of orthotic management in rest and the working mechanisms behind this treatment. The results of this study could lead to improved treatments. Trial Registration Number

  6. RESTful Web Services Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Allamaraju, Subbu

    2010-01-01

    While the REST design philosophy has captured the imagination of web and enterprise developers alike, using this approach to develop real web services is no picnic. This cookbook includes more than 100 recipes to help you take advantage of REST, HTTP, and the infrastructure of the Web. You'll learn ways to design RESTful web services for client and server applications that meet performance, scalability, reliability, and security goals, no matter what programming language and development framework you use. Each recipe includes one or two problem statements, with easy-to-follow, step-by-step i

  7. Determination of basic friction angle using various laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bo-An

    2016-04-01

    The basic friction angle of rock is an important factor of joint shear strength and is included within most shear strength criteria. It can be measured by direct shear test, triaxial compression test and tilt test. Tilt test is mostly used because it is the simplest method. However, basic friction angles measured using tilt test for same rock type or for one sample are widely distributed and often do not show normal distribution. In this research, the basic friction angles for the Hangdeung granite form Korea and Berea sandstone from USA are measured accurately using direct shear test and triaxial compression test. Then basic friction angles are again measured using tilt tests with various conditions and are compared with those measured using direct shear test and triaxial compression test to determine the optimum condition of tilt test. Three types of sliding planes, such as planes cut by saw and planes polished by #100 and #600 grinding powders, are prepared. When planes are polished by #100 grinding powder, the basic friction angles measured using direct shear test and triaxial compression test are very consistent and show narrow ranges. However, basic friction angles show wide ranges when planes are cut by saw and are polished by #600 grinding powder. The basic friction angle measured using tilt test are very close to those measured using direct shear test and triaxial compression test when plane is polished by #100 grinding powder. When planes are cut by saw and are polished by #600 grinding powder, basic friction angles measured using tilt test are slightly different. This indicates that tilt test with plane polished by #100 grinding powder can yield an accurate basic friction angle. In addition, the accurate values are obtained not only when planes are polished again after 10 times of tilt test, but values are averaged by more 30 times of tests.

  8. Evaluation of the nasolabial angle in the Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Dua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasolabial angle has become the angle depicting the esthetics so has attained the prime importance in the treatment planning. Dr Jay P. Fitzgerland and Dr. Ram S. Nanda. In 1992 gave norms for Caucasian population. A radiographic cephalometric study was undertaken with 45 subjects of Indian origin to evaluate and compare with their result. The method of evaluation was according to the criteria given by Dr. Jay P Fitzergerald in AJODO 1992; 102:328-34. Significant decrease in nasolabial angle values was found in case of Indian population as compared to white adults.

  9. Increasing efficacy of graminicides with a forward angled spray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kryger

    2012-01-01

    Control of annual grass species with vertically oriented leaves in agricultural crops by application of foliar acting herbicides with conventional hydraulic sprayers can be increased using forward angled nozzles. Changing the spray angle from the normally predominantly vertical spray towards...... efficacy on L. perenne at early growth stages using nozzles with different spray quality, at different driving speeds and in different wind conditions. Similarly graminicide efficacy was increased when nozzles were angled 60° forward controlling A. myosuroides. Experiments investigating control of the two...

  10. Task-Rest Modulation of Basal Ganglia Connectivity in Mild to Moderate Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M.; Sullivan, Edith V.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Huang, Neng C.; Poston, Kathleen L.; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M.; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with abnormal synchronization in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. We tested whether early PD patients without demonstrable cognitive impairment exhibit abnormal modulation of functional connectivity at rest, while engaged in a task, or both. PD and healthy controls underwent two functional MRI scans: a resting-state scan and a Stroop Match-to-Sample task scan. Rest-task modulation of basal ganglia (BG) connectivity was tested using seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis with task and rest time series as conditions. Despite substantial overlap of BG–cortical connectivity patterns in both groups, connectivity differences between groups had clinical and behavioral correlates. During rest, stronger putamen–medial parietal and pallidum–occipital connectivity in PD than controls was associated with worse task performance and more severe PD symptoms suggesting that abnormalities in resting-state connectivity denote neural network dedifferentiation. During the executive task, PD patients showed weaker BG-cortical connectivity than controls, i.e., between caudate–supramarginal gyrus and pallidum–inferior prefrontal regions, that was related to more severe PD symptoms and worse task performance. Yet, task processing also evoked stronger striatal–cortical connectivity, specifically between caudate–prefrontal, caudate–precuneus, and putamen–motor/premotor regions in PD relative to controls, which was related to less severe PD symptoms and better performance on the Stroop task. Thus, stronger task-evoked striatal connectivity in PD demonstrated compensatory neural network enhancement to meet task demands and improve performance levels. fMRI-based network analysis revealed that despite resting-state BG network compromise in PD, BG connectivity to prefrontal, premotor, and precuneus regions can be adequately invoked during executive control demands enabling near normal task performance. PMID:25280970

  11. Functional connectivity dynamics: modeling the switching behavior of the resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Enrique C A; Battaglia, Demian; Spiegler, Andreas; Deco, Gustavo; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2015-01-15

    Functional connectivity (FC) sheds light on the interactions between different brain regions. Besides basic research, it is clinically relevant for applications in Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, presurgical planning, epilepsy, and traumatic brain injury. Simulations of whole-brain mean-field computational models with realistic connectivity determined by tractography studies enable us to reproduce with accuracy aspects of average FC in the resting state. Most computational studies, however, did not address the prominent non-stationarity in resting state FC, which may result in large intra- and inter-subject variability and thus preclude an accurate individual predictability. Here we show that this non-stationarity reveals a rich structure, characterized by rapid transitions switching between a few discrete FC states. We also show that computational models optimized to fit time-averaged FC do not reproduce these spontaneous state transitions and, thus, are not qualitatively superior to simplified linear stochastic models, which account for the effects of structure alone. We then demonstrate that a slight enhancement of the non-linearity of the network nodes is sufficient to broaden the repertoire of possible network behaviors, leading to modes of fluctuations, reminiscent of some of the most frequently observed Resting State Networks. Because of the noise-driven exploration of this repertoire, the dynamics of FC qualitatively change now and display non-stationary switching similar to empirical resting state recordings (Functional Connectivity Dynamics (FCD)). Thus FCD bear promise to serve as a better biomarker of resting state neural activity and of its pathologic alterations. PMID:25462790

  12. Systematic reviews of bed rest and advice to stay active for acute low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, G; Feder, G; Lewis, M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the United Kingdom (UK), 9% of adults consult their doctor annually with back pain. The treatment recommendations are based on orthopaedic teaching, but the current management is causing increasing dissatisfaction. Many general practitioners (GPs) are confused about what constitutes effective advice. AIM: To review all randomized controlled trials of bed rest and of medical advice to stay active for acute back pain. METHOD: A systematic review based on a search of MEDLINE and EMBASE from 1966 to April 1996 with complete citation tracking for randomized controlled trials of bed rest or medical advice to stay active and continue ordinary daily activities. The inclusion criteria were: primary care setting, patients with low back pain of up to 3 months duration, and patient-centred outcomes (rate of recovery from the acute attack, relief of pain, restoration of function, satisfaction with treatment, days off work and return to work, development of chronic pain and disability, recurrent attacks, and further health care use). RESULTS: Ten trials of bed rest and eight trials of advice to stay active were identified. Consistent findings showed that bed rest is not an effective treatment for acute low back pain but may delay recovery. Advice to stay active and to continue ordinary activities results in a faster return to work, less chronic disability, and fewer recurrent problems. CONCLUSION: A simple but fundamental change from the traditional prescription of bed rest to positive advice about staying active could improve clinical outcomes and reduce the personal and social impact of back pain. PMID:9474831

  13. An overview of the issues: physiological effects of bed rest and restricted physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Bloomfield, S. A.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    Reduction of exercise capacity with confinement to bed rest is well recognized. Underlying physiological mechanisms include dramatic reductions in maximal stroke volume, cardiac output, and oxygen uptake. However, bed rest by itself does not appear to contribute to cardiac dysfunction. Increased muscle fatigue is associated with reduced muscle blood flow, red cell volume, capillarization and oxidative enzymes. Loss of muscle mass and bone density may be reflected by reduced muscle strength and higher risk for injury to bones and joints. The resultant deconditioning caused by bed rest can be independent of the primary disease and physically debilitating in patients who attempt to reambulate to normal active living and working. A challenge to clinicians and health care specialists has been the identification of appropriate and effective methods to restore physical capacity of patients during or after restricted physical activity associated with prolonged bed rest. The examination of physiological responses to bed rest deconditioning and exercise training in healthy subjects has provided significant information to develop effective rehabilitation treatments. The successful application of acute exercise to enhance orthostatic stability, daily endurance exercise to maintain aerobic capacity, or specific resistance exercises to maintain musculoskeletal integrity rather than the use of surgical, pharmacological, and other medical treatments for clinical conditions has been enhanced by investigation and understanding of underlying mechanisms that distinguish physical deconditioning from the disease. This symposium presents an overview of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning associated with reduced physical work capacity following prolonged bed rest and exercise training regimens that have proven successful in ameliorating or reversing these adverse effects.

  14. Identification of resting and active state EEG features of Alzheimer's disease using discrete wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanian, Parham; Devilbiss, David M; Verma, Ajay; Bernstein, Allan; Hess, Terry; Simon, Adam J; Ashrafiuon, Hashem

    2013-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with deficits in a number of cognitive processes and executive functions. Moreover, abnormalities in the electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectrum develop with the progression of AD. These features have been traditionally characterized with montage recordings and conventional spectral analysis during resting eyes-closed and resting eyes-open (EO) conditions. In this study, we introduce a single lead dry electrode EEG device which was employed on AD and control subjects during resting and activated battery of cognitive and sensory tasks such as Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and auditory stimulations. EEG signals were recorded over the left prefrontal cortex (Fp1) from each subject. EEG signals were decomposed into sub-bands approximately corresponding to the major brain frequency bands using several different discrete wavelet transforms and developed statistical features for each band. Decision tree algorithms along with univariate and multivariate statistical analysis were used to identify the most predictive features across resting and active states, separately and collectively. During resting state recordings, we found that the AD patients exhibited elevated D4 (~4-8 Hz) mean power in EO state as their most distinctive feature. During the active states, however, the majority of AD patients exhibited larger minimum D3 (~8-12 Hz) values during auditory stimulation (18 Hz) combined with increased kurtosis of D5 (~2-4 Hz) during PASAT with 2 s interval. When analyzed using EEG recording data across all tasks, the most predictive AD patient features were a combination of the first two feature sets. However, the dominant discriminating feature for the majority of AD patients were still the same features as the active state analysis. The results from this small sample size pilot study indicate that although EEG recordings during resting conditions are able to differentiate AD from control subjects, EEG activity

  15. Effects of capsinoid ingestion on energy expenditure and lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staples Aaron W

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The thermogenic and metabolic properties of capsinoids appear to mimic those of the more pungent sister compound capsaicin. However, few data exist on how capsinoid ingestion affects energy expenditure in humans and no data exist on its interaction with exercise. We aimed to determine how ingestion of capsinoids affected energy expenditure, lipid oxidation and blood metabolites at rest and during moderate intensity exercise. Methods Twelve healthy young men (age = 24.3 ± 3 yr, BMI = 25.5 ± 1.7 kg·m-2 were studied on two occasions in a double-blind design following ingestion of either placebo or 10 mg of purified capsinoids at rest, after 90 min of cycling at 55% VO2 peak, and for 30 min into recovery. Subjects ingested the capsules 30 min prior to exercise. Results At rest, following ingestion of capsinoids, we observed increases in VO2 and plasma norepinephrine levels, and decreases in concentrations of serum free fatty acids, plasma glycerol and the respiratory exchange ratio (all P Conclusion The ingestion of 10 mg of capsinoids increased adrenergic activity, energy expenditure, and resulted in a shift in substrate utilization toward lipid at rest but had little effect during exercise or recovery. The changes we observed confirm previous data on the thermogenic and metabolic effects of capsinoids at rest and further promote its potential role as an adjunct weight loss aid, in addition to diet and exercise.

  16. Shrinkage and trajectory of the flat jet with inclination angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shufeng Ye; Yusheng Xie; Hongzhi Guo; Ye Huang; Shantong Jin

    2003-01-01

    The performance of the flat jet with an inclination angle was investigated by a water model. A mathematical model for theshrinkage and the trajectory of the flat jet with an inclination angle was derived theoretically and verified by experimental data of thewater model. The experimental results indicate that the inclination angle (α) has no influence on the shrinkage of the flat jet, theshrinkage of the flat jet along the width direction decreases with the increasing of the initial velocity at the exit (u0) and the initialthickness of the flat jet (t0). Enough bigger initial exit velocity (u0) and initial thickness can suppress the shrinkage of the flat jetalong the width direction and keep the flat jet stabilized. In addition, the trajectory of the flat jet with an inclination angle is parabolicand must be taking into consideration when to determine the striking distance.

  17. Automatic classification of schizophrenia using resting-state functional language network via an adaptive learning algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Maohu; Jie, Nanfeng; Jiang, Tianzi

    2014-03-01

    A reliable and precise classification of schizophrenia is significant for its diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a novel tool increasingly used in schizophrenia research. Recent advances in statistical learning theory have led to applying pattern classification algorithms to access the diagnostic value of functional brain networks, discovered from resting state fMRI data. The aim of this study was to propose an adaptive learning algorithm to distinguish schizophrenia patients from normal controls using resting-state functional language network. Furthermore, here the classification of schizophrenia was regarded as a sample selection problem where a sparse subset of samples was chosen from the labeled training set. Using these selected samples, which we call informative vectors, a classifier for the clinic diagnosis of schizophrenia was established. We experimentally demonstrated that the proposed algorithm incorporating resting-state functional language network achieved 83.6% leaveone- out accuracy on resting-state fMRI data of 27 schizophrenia patients and 28 normal controls. In contrast with KNearest- Neighbor (KNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and l1-norm, our method yielded better classification performance. Moreover, our results suggested that a dysfunction of resting-state functional language network plays an important role in the clinic diagnosis of schizophrenia.

  18. Does 48 hours' bed rest influence the outcome of acute low back pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M J

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Bed rest is a traditional treatment for back pain, yet only in recent years has the therapeutic benefit of this been questioned. AIM. The aim of this pilot study was to ascertain whether or not 48 hours' bed rest had an effect on the outcome of acute low back pain. METHOD. The study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial to compare a prescription of 48 hours' strict bed rest with controls; the control subjects were encouraged to remain mobile and to have no daytime rest. Nine general practitioners from practices in the West Midlands recruited patients in the age range 16-60 years who presented with low back pain of less than seven days' duration, with or without pain radiation. The outcome measures assessed were: change in straight leg raise and lumbar flexion after seven days, Oswestry and Roland-Morris disability scores after seven days and 28 days, and time taken from work. RESULTS. Forty two patients were recruited: 20 were allocated to bed rest and 22 as controls. Compared with the bed rest group the control group had statistically better Roland-Morris scores at day seven (P < 0.05) but not at day 28. At day seven, there were no statistically significant differences between groups in straight leg raise or lumbar flexion measurements although the control group had a better mean lumbar flexion than the bed rest group. The improvement in disability scores at day seven compared with day one was similar for the two groups but more of the control group had fully recovered (defined as scores of one or zero on the Roland-Morris disability scale and five or less on the Oswestry disability scale) by day seven. Remaining mobile did not appear to cause any adverse effects. The number of days lost from work in both groups was equal. A large number of self-remedies and physical therapies were recorded by subjects from both groups. CONCLUSION. The results of this pilot study did not indicate whether bed rest or remaining mobile was superior for the

  19. On Ruby's solid angle formula and some of its generalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Friot, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Using the Mellin-Barnes representation, we show that Ruby's solid angle formula and some of its generalizations may be expressed in a compact way in terms of the Appell F4 and Lauricella Fc functions.

  20. On Ruby's solid angle formula and some of its generalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friot, Samuel

    2015-02-01

    Using the Mellin-Barnes representation, we show that Ruby's solid angle formula and some of its generalizations may be expressed in a compact way in terms of the Appell F4 and Lauricella FC functions.

  1. Setting of angles on machine tools speeded by magnetic protractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, L. B.

    1964-01-01

    An adjustable protractor facilitates transference of angles to remote machine tools. It has a magnetic base incorporating a beam which can be adjusted until its shadow coincides with an image on the screen of a projector.

  2. Physical active rest in education of active personality of students

    OpenAIRE

    Zaycev V.P.; Manucharyan S.V.; Kramskoy S.I.

    2010-01-01

    Meaningfulness of physical recreation is rotined in education of active personality of students. Research material is literary sources on this issue. Factors which influence on an educate function of personality of students are considered. Application of physical recreation is grounded for education of active personality of students. It is marked that physical recreation in pedagogical process decides educate, educational, health and social tasks. It positively influences on education of acti...

  3. Determination of rest mass energy of the electron-an undergraduate laboratory experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple Compton scattering experiment to determine the rest mass energy of the electron which is unique for graduate and undergraduate laboratories. In the present experiment, we have measured the energies of the backscattered gamma photons with an NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer coupled to a 1 K multichannel analyser. In order to enhance the backscattered gamma photons, a thick aluminium target is placed over the radioactive gamma source. The rest mass energy of the electron is determined by using 203Hg, 137Cs, 54Mn and 60Co radioactive gamma sources. The measured values are found to agree with the standard value

  4. Determination of rest mass energy of the electron-an undergraduate laboratory experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosur, S B; Badiger, N M [Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003, Karnataka (India)

    2007-11-15

    We present a simple Compton scattering experiment to determine the rest mass energy of the electron which is unique for graduate and undergraduate laboratories. In the present experiment, we have measured the energies of the backscattered gamma photons with an NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer coupled to a 1 K multichannel analyser. In order to enhance the backscattered gamma photons, a thick aluminium target is placed over the radioactive gamma source. The rest mass energy of the electron is determined by using {sup 203}Hg, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 60}Co radioactive gamma sources. The measured values are found to agree with the standard value.

  5. [Functional connectivity analysis of the brain network using resting-state FMRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshihiro

    2011-12-01

    Spatial patterns of spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals reflect the underlying neural architecture. The study of the brain network based on these self-organized patterns is termed resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). This review article aims at briefly reviewing a basic concept of this technology and discussing its implications for neuropsychological studies. First, the technical aspects of resting-state fMRI, including signal sources, physiological artifacts, image acquisition, and analytical methods such as seed-based correlation analysis and independent component analysis, are explained, followed by a discussion on the major resting-state networks, including the default mode network. In addition, the structure-function correlation studied using diffuse tensor imaging and resting-state fMRI is briefly discussed. Second, I have discussed the reservations and potential pitfalls of 2 major imaging methods: voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and task fMRI. Problems encountered with voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping can be overcome by using resting-state fMRI and evaluating undamaged brain networks in patients. Regarding task fMRI in patients, I have also emphasized the importance of evaluating the baseline brain activity because the amplitude of activation in BOLD fMRI is hard to interpret as the same baseline cannot be assumed for both patient and normal groups. PMID:22147450

  6. Attenuation of the protein wasting associated with bed rest by branched-chain amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.; Leskiw, M. J.; Boden, G.

    1999-01-01

    Bed rest is generally accepted as being an appropriate ground-based model for human spaceflight. The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that increasing the amount of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in the diet could attenuate the protein loss associated with bed rest. Nineteen healthy subjects were randomized into two groups according to diet. During the 6 d of bed rest, the diets were supplemented with either 30 mmol/d each of three non-essential amino acids, glycine, serine, and alanine (control group), or with 30 mmol/d each of the BCAAs, leucine, isoleucine, and valine (BCAA group). Nutrition was supplied as a commercially available defined formula diet at a rate of 1.3 x REE. Nitrogen (N) balance and urinary 3-MeH excretion were determined for the 6 d. In our results, the urine-based estimate of N balance was 22.2 +/- 14.4 (n = 9) mg N.kg-1.d-1 and 60.5 +/- 10.1 mg (n = 8) N.kg-1.d-1 for the control and BCAA-supplemented groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Urinary 3-MeH excretion was unchanged in both groups with bed rest. We conclude that BCAA supplementation attenuates the N loss during short-term bed rest.

  7. Functional connectivity analysis of the brain network using resting-state fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatial patterns of spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals reflect the underlying neural architecture. The study of the brain network based on these self-organized patterns is termed resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). This review article aims at briefly reviewing a basic concept of this technology and discussing its implications for neuropsychological studies. First, the technical aspects of resting-state fMRI, including signal sources, physiological artifacts, image acquisition, and analytical methods such as seed-based correlation analysis and independent component analysis, are explained, followed by a discussion on the major resting-state networks, including the default mode network. In addition, the structure-function correlation studied using diffuse tensor imaging and resting-state fMRI is briefly discussed. Second, I have discussed the reservations and potential pitfalls of 2 major imaging methods: voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and task fMRI. Problems encountered with voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping can be overcome by using resting-state fMRI and evaluating undamaged brain networks in patients. Regarding task fMRI in patients, I have also emphasized the importance of evaluating the baseline brain activity because the amplitude of activation in BOLD fMRI is hard to interpret as the same baseline cannot be assumed for both patient and normal groups. (author)

  8. Specific silencing of the REST target genes in insulin-secreting cells uncovers their participation in beta cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David; Allagnat, Florent; Gesina, Emilie; Caille, Dorothee; Gjinovci, Asllan; Waeber, Gerard; Meda, Paolo; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine

    2012-01-01

    The absence of the transcriptional repressor RE-1 Silencing Transcription Factor (REST) in insulin-secreting beta cells is a major cue for the specific expression of a large number of genes. These REST target genes were largely ascribed to a function of neurotransmission in a neuronal context, whereas their role in pancreatic beta cells has been poorly explored. To identify their functional significance, we have generated transgenic mice expressing REST in beta cells (RIP-REST mice), and previously discovered that REST target genes are essential to insulin exocytosis. Herein we characterized a novel line of RIP-REST mice featuring diabetes. In diabetic RIP-REST mice, high levels of REST were associated with postnatal beta cell apoptosis, which resulted in gradual beta cell loss and sustained hyperglycemia in adults. Moreover, adenoviral REST transduction in INS-1E cells led to increased cell death under control conditions, and sensitized cells to death induced by cytokines. Screening for REST target genes identified several anti-apoptotic genes bearing the binding motif RE-1 that were downregulated upon REST expression in INS-1E cells, including Gjd2, Mapk8ip1, Irs2, Ptprn, and Cdk5r2. Decreased levels of Cdk5r2 in beta cells of RIP-REST mice further confirmed that it is controlled by REST, in vivo. Using siRNA-mediated knock-down in INS-1E cells, we showed that Cdk5r2 protects beta cells against cytokines and palmitate-induced apoptosis. Together, these data document that a set of REST target genes, including Cdk5r2, is important for beta cell survival. PMID:23029270

  9. Specific silencing of the REST target genes in insulin-secreting cells uncovers their participation in beta cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Martin

    Full Text Available The absence of the transcriptional repressor RE-1 Silencing Transcription Factor (REST in insulin-secreting beta cells is a major cue for the specific expression of a large number of genes. These REST target genes were largely ascribed to a function of neurotransmission in a neuronal context, whereas their role in pancreatic beta cells has been poorly explored. To identify their functional significance, we have generated transgenic mice expressing REST in beta cells (RIP-REST mice, and previously discovered that REST target genes are essential to insulin exocytosis. Herein we characterized a novel line of RIP-REST mice featuring diabetes. In diabetic RIP-REST mice, high levels of REST were associated with postnatal beta cell apoptosis, which resulted in gradual beta cell loss and sustained hyperglycemia in adults. Moreover, adenoviral REST transduction in INS-1E cells led to increased cell death under control conditions, and sensitized cells to death induced by cytokines. Screening for REST target genes identified several anti-apoptotic genes bearing the binding motif RE-1 that were downregulated upon REST expression in INS-1E cells, including Gjd2, Mapk8ip1, Irs2, Ptprn, and Cdk5r2. Decreased levels of Cdk5r2 in beta cells of RIP-REST mice further confirmed that it is controlled by REST, in vivo. Using siRNA-mediated knock-down in INS-1E cells, we showed that Cdk5r2 protects beta cells against cytokines and palmitate-induced apoptosis. Together, these data document that a set of REST target genes, including Cdk5r2, is important for beta cell survival.

  10. Physical recreation in a structure of active rest of students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytzev V.P.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Experience of authors is generalized on issue «Physical recreation»: concept, facilities, forms and methods of physical culture that is used in physical recreation and offered for the students some recommendation on their realization. In the process of forming motive activity it is necessary to take into account both favourable and unfavorable social factors, and during practical work - such directions: hygienic, health-improving recreation, general preparatory and medical. It is presented bases of physical recreation of students: construction of the complex program, development of valeological and recreation measures; joint creative activity of teachers and students and at the same time use of modern methods of health forming technologies.

  11. First statistics of the isopistonic angle for long baseline interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziad, A.; Elhalkouj, T.; Petrov, R. G.; Borgnino, J.; Lazrek, M.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Martin, F.; Elazhari, Y.

    2016-06-01

    To reach a suitable limiting magnitude with a multi-aperture interferometer, we need to cophase the different telescopes using a reference source. The latter should be located in the same isopistonic domain as the science source. We developed a direct analytical expression of deducing the isopistonic angle from atmospheric optical parameters as seeing, isoplanatic angle and outer scale. All of these atmospheric turbulence parameters are measured by the Generalized Seeing Monitor (GSM). The first statistics of the isopistonic angle obtained from the GSM data are presented and comparison between the major sites over the world are discussed (La Silla, Cerro Pachon, Paranal, San Pedro, Mt Palomar, Mauna Kea, La Palma, Oukaïmeden, Maydanak, Dome C). Implications of these isopistonic angle statistics on large interferometers cophasing in terms of sky coverage and limiting magnitude are discussed.

  12. Parameterization of ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Barney L.

    2016-03-01

    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different power functions of the arguments. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles, minimum yields, effects on half-angles and minimum yields of amorphous overlayers. The program can calculate these half-angles and minimum yields for axes and [h k l] planes up to (5 5 5). The program is open source and available at

  13. Comparison of different passive knee extension torque-angle assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have used isokinetic dynamometry to assess joint torques and angles during passive extension of the knee, often without reporting upon methodological errors and reliability outcomes. In addition, the reliability of the techniques used to measure passive knee extension torque-angle and the extent to which reliability may be affected by the position of the subjects is also unclear. Therefore, we conducted an analysis of the intra- and inter-session reliability of two methods of assessing passive knee extension: (A) a 2D kinematic analysis coupled to a custom-made device that enabled the direct measurement of resistance to stretch and (B) an isokinetic dynamometer used in two testing positions (with the non-tested thigh either flexed at 45° or in the neutral position). The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) of torque, the slope of the torque-angle curve, and the parameters of the mathematical model that were fit to the torque-angle data for the above conditions were measured in sixteen healthy male subjects (age: 21.4 ± 2.1 yr; BMI: 22.6 ± 3.3 kg m−2; tibial length: 37.4 ± 3.4 cm). The results found were: (1) methods A and B led to distinctly different torque-angle responses; (2) passive torque-angle relationship and stretch tolerance were influenced by the position of the non-tested thigh; and (3) ICCs obtained for torque were higher than for the slope and for the mathematical parameters that were fit to the torque-angle curve. In conclusion, the measurement method that is used and the positioning of subjects can influence the passive knee extension torque-angle outcome. (paper)

  14. Pitch angle scattering of energetic particles by oblique whistler waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    First order cyclotron or Landau resonant pitch angle scattering of electrons by oblique whistler waves propagating at large angles to the ambient field are found to be at least as large as that due to parallel propagating waves. Commonly observed precipitation of more than 40 keV electrons in association with ducted whistlers may thus be accompanied by substantial fluxes of lower energy (10 eV-40 keV) electrons precipitated by the nonducted components.

  15. Comparison of different passive knee extension torque-angle assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Sandro R; Vaz, João R; Bruno, Paula M; Valamatos, Maria J; Mil-Homens, Pedro

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have used isokinetic dynamometry to assess joint torques and angles during passive extension of the knee, often without reporting upon methodological errors and reliability outcomes. In addition, the reliability of the techniques used to measure passive knee extension torque-angle and the extent to which reliability may be affected by the position of the subjects is also unclear. Therefore, we conducted an analysis of the intra- and inter-session reliability of two methods of assessing passive knee extension: (A) a 2D kinematic analysis coupled to a custom-made device that enabled the direct measurement of resistance to stretch and (B) an isokinetic dynamometer used in two testing positions (with the non-tested thigh either flexed at 45° or in the neutral position). The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) of torque, the slope of the torque-angle curve, and the parameters of the mathematical model that were fit to the torque-angle data for the above conditions were measured in sixteen healthy male subjects (age: 21.4 ± 2.1 yr; BMI: 22.6 ± 3.3 kg m(-2); tibial length: 37.4 ± 3.4 cm). The results found were: (1) methods A and B led to distinctly different torque-angle responses; (2) passive torque-angle relationship and stretch tolerance were influenced by the position of the non-tested thigh; and (3) ICCs obtained for torque were higher than for the slope and for the mathematical parameters that were fit to the torque-angle curve. In conclusion, the measurement method that is used and the positioning of subjects can influence the passive knee extension torque-angle outcome.

  16. Rest mass or inertial mass?

    OpenAIRE

    Khrapko, R. I.

    2001-01-01

    Rest mass takes the place of inertial mass in modern physics textbooks. It seems to be wrong. But this phenomenon is hidden away by the facts that rest mass adherents busily call rest mass "mass", not rest mass, and the word "mass" is associated with a measure of inertia. This topic has been considered by the author in the article "What is mass?" [1, 2, 3]. Additional arguments to a confirmation of such a thesis are presented here.

  17. Determination of refractive index of various materials on Brewster angle

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhonov, Eugene A

    2015-01-01

    Studied experimentally the origin of the non-zero reflection of p-polarized radiation (TM) of Brewster's angle. The results have shown the residual reflected light in the vicinity of Brewster angle occurs due to inaccessibility 100% polarization degree the incident linearly-polarized radiation and installation of the zero azimuthal angle. These factors create the s-component of the radiation reflected from the examined surface indeed. A smooth change of reflected light polarization in the vicinity of Brewster angle in the sequence p-s-p appears due to the changing power proportion of reflected p-, and s-components but not is the result of the atomically thin transitional layer at the border of the material/environment according to Drude model. Metrological aspects of refractive index measurement by Brewster angle are investigated: due to the above-mentioned factors, as well as due to the contribution of the reflected scattered light caused by on residual roughness of the optical surface. Advantages of Brewste...

  18. Orientation angle rotatability of planar serial n-link manipulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new method of analyzing the orientation angle rotatability of a planar serial n-link manipulator by examining the rotatability of its virtual equivalent mechanism.Workspace orientation boundary region decomposition is proposed based on the polynomial discriminant derived from a serial three-link manipulator.Orientation angle workspace indicates a set of angle ranges by which the end-effector can reach with certain orientation for every point in the reachable position workspace.By introducing a virtual equivalent mechanism,the open-chain kinematic problem is converted into a close-chain mechanism,and the Grashof-type condition is used to examine the rotatability of the end-effector link.The reachable position workspace can be divided into several Grashof intervals and non-Grashof intervals based on the extreme positions and singular configurations of a manipulator.The derived equations in this paper can be used to calculate the variation rule of the orientation angle workspace of any given planar serial n-link manipulator on the basis of its link parameters.The orientation angle rotatability of a seven-link serial manipulator is solved by the proposed method and graphical representations of the orientation angle workspaces are mapped onto a three-dimensional coordinate system.The theoretical approach has practical significance for the design of a highly dexterous serial n-link manipulator with proposed link relations.

  19. Effects of eugenol on resting tension of rat atria

    OpenAIRE

    R.R. Olivoto; C.E.N. Damiani; I. Kassouf Silva; Lofrano-Alves, M.S.; M. A. Oliveira; Fogaça, R.T.H.

    2014-01-01

    In cardiac and skeletal muscle, eugenol (μM range) blocks excitation-contraction coupling. In skeletal muscle, however, larger doses of eugenol (mM range) induce calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The effects of eugenol are therefore dependent on its concentration. In this study, we evaluated the effects of eugenol on the contractility of isolated, quiescent atrial trabeculae from male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=131) and measured atrial ATP content. Eugenol (1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 mM...

  20. Determination of the Contact Angle Based on the Casimir Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    In several crystal growth processed based on capillarity, a melt comes into contact with a crucible wall at an angle defined as the contact angle. For molten metals and semiconductors, this contact angle is dependent upon both the crucible and melt material and typical values fall in the range 80-170deg. However, on a microscopic scale, there does not exist a precise and sharp contact angle but rather the melt and solid surfaces merge smoothly and continuously over a distance of up to several micrometers. Accurate modeling requires a more advanced treatment of this interaction. The interaction between the melt and solid surfaces can be calculated by considering two forces: a short-range repulsive force and a longer range (up to a few micrometers) Casimir force. The Casimir force between the two bodies of complex geometry is calculated using a retarded temperature Green's function (Matsubara type) for the photon in the medium. The governing equations are cast in the form of a set of boundary integral equations which are then solved numerically for the case of molten Ge on SiO2. The shape of the molten surface approaching the flat solid body is determined, and the contact angle is defined as the angle between the two surfaces at the microscopically asymptotic distance of 1-2 micrometers. The formulation of this model and the results of the numerical calculations will be presented and discussed.

  1. Combined effects of the in-plane orientation angle and the loading angle on the dynamic enhancement of honeycombs under mixed shear-compression loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounsi, R.; Markiewicz, E.; Haugou, G.; Chaari, F.; Zouari, B.

    2016-05-01

    The combined effect of the loading angle (ψ) and the in-plane orientation angle (β) on the dynamic enhancement of aluminium alloy honeycombs is investigated. Experimental results are analysed on the crushing surfaces (initial peak and average crushing forces). A significant effect of the loading angle is reported. The dynamic enhancement rate depends on the loading angle until a critical loading angle (ψcritical). Beyond, a negative dynamic enhancement rate is observed. Concerning the in-plane orientation angle β effect, it depends on the loading angle ψ under quasi-static conditions. Under dynamic conditions, a significant effect is reported independently of the loading angle ψ. Therefore, the dynamic enhancement rate depends on the combined effects of ψ and β angles. A global analysis of the buckling mechanisms allowed us to explain the combined effect of ψ and β angles on the initial peak force. The collapse mechanisms analysis explain the negative dynamic enhancement rate for large loading angles.

  2. Forced Response of Polar Orthotropic Tapered Circular Plates Resting on Elastic Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Ansari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forced axisymmetric response of polar orthotropic circular plates of linearly varying thickness resting on Winkler type of elastic foundation has been studied on the basis of classical plate theory. An approximate solution of problem has been obtained by Rayleigh Ritz method, which employs functions based upon the static deflection of polar orthotropic circular plates. The effect of transverse loadings has been studied for orthotropic circular plate resting on elastic foundation. The transverse deflections and bending moments are presented for various values of taper parameter, rigidity ratio, foundation parameter, and flexibility parameter under different types of loadings. A comparison of results with those available in literature shows an excellent agreement.

  3. Reduction of blade passage tone by angle modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiagbedzi, Y. A.

    1982-05-01

    Blade staggering has been used in both centrifugal and axial flow fans to reduce discrete tones. Impeller hub resilience, causing fan torsional oscillations, appears to be equivalent to blade staggering in that both lead to angle modulation of the blade passage sound. By using Jacobi-Anger expansions, the sound reductions resulting from the angle modulation effects of these two equivalent techniques are predicted. Excellent agreement is found with published data.

  4. Measurement of Strabismic Angle Using the Distance Krimsky Test

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Kwang Sic; Koo, Hyun; Moon, Nam Ju

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the correlation of the distance Krimsky test and the alternate prism cover test (APCT) for the distance deviation in patients with horizontal strabismus. Methods Forty patients with horizontal strabismus (20 esotropia and 20 exotropia) were included in this study. Patients with a variable angle of deviation, vertical angle over 5 prism diopters, impaired binocular vision, or poor cooperation were excluded. We instructed the patient to look a target 6 meters away, and appli...

  5. VO2 kinetics of constant-load exercise following bed-rest-induced deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Goldwater, D. J.; Sandler, H.

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise and recovery may be changed by alterations in work intensity, prior exercise, muscle group involvement, ambient conditions, posture, disease state, and level of physical conditioning. However, the effects of detraining on oxygen uptake kinetics have not been determined. The present investigation has the objective to determine the effects of deconditioning following seven days of continuous head-down bed rest on changes in steady-state oxygen uptake, O2 deficit, and recovery oxygen uptake during the performance of constant-load exercise. The obtained results may provide support for previous proposals that submaximal oxygen uptake was significantly reduced following bed rest. The major finding was that bed-rest deconditioning resulted in a reduction of total O2 transport/utilization capacity during the transient phase of upright but not supine exercise.

  6. Static and Dynamic Contact Angles of Immersed Ferrofluid Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Souvick; Bhowmik, Dipanwita; Mukhopadhyay, Achintya; Ganguly, Ranjan

    2013-11-01

    Ferrofluid plug driven micro-pumps are useful for manipulating micro-volume of liquids by providing remote actuation using a localized magnetic field gradient. Inside a microchannel, the ferrofluid experiences combined actions of different relevant body forces. While the pressure, viscous and magnetic forces can be estimated using established techniques, the surface tension force requires information about the contact angle between the ferrofluid and glass capillary wall. We address this phenomenon through experimental characterization of static and dynamic contact angles of oil based ferrofluid (EFH3) droplets on glass surface immersed in pure or surfacted distilled water. The equilibrium static contact angle is found to significantly reduce in presence of a magnetic field. Dynamic contact angles are measured through high-speed imaging as the ferrofluid droplets slide along an inclined glass surface. Variation of contact angle hysteresis, which falls outside the Hoffmann Tanner equation for this case, is also investigated as a function of contact line velocity. A strong dependence is found between the contact angle hysteresis and the wetting time. Findings of the work is useful for designing ferrofluid plug-driven microfluidic plugs for different lab-on-a-chip applications.

  7. Predicting bed form roughness: the influence of lee side angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Alice; Winter, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Flow transverse bedforms (ripples and dunes) are ubiquitous in rivers and coastal seas. Local hydrodynamics and transport conditions depend on the size and geometry of these bedforms, as they constitute roughness elements at the bed. Bedform influence on flow energy must be considered for the understanding of flow dynamics, and in the development and application of numerical models. Common estimations or predictors of form roughness (friction factors) are based mostly on data of steep bedforms (with angle-of-repose lee slopes), and described by highly simplified bedform dimensions (heights and lengths). However, natural bedforms often are not steep, and differ in form and hydraulic effect relative to idealised bedforms. Based on systematic numerical model experiments, this study shows how the hydraulic effect of bedforms depends on the flow structure behind bedforms, which is determined by the bedform lee side angle, aspect ratio and relative height. Simulations reveal that flow separation behind bedform crests and, thus, a hydraulic effect is induced at lee side angles steeper than 11 to 18° depending on relative height, and that a fully developed flow separation zone exists only over bedforms with a lee side angle steeper than 24°. Furthermore, the hydraulic effect of bedforms with varying lee side angle is evaluated and a reduction function to common friction factors is proposed. A function is also developed for the Nikuradse roughness (k s), and a new equation is proposed which directly relates k s to bedform relative height, aspect ratio and lee side angle.

  8. Jet opening angles and gamma-ray brightness of AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Pushkarev, A B; Lister, M L; Savolainen, T

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the differences in apparent opening angles between the parsec-scale jets of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) during its first three months of operations and those of non-LAT-detected AGN. We used 15.4 GHz VLBA observations of sources from the 2 cm VLBA MOJAVE program, a subset of which comprise the statistically complete flux density limited MOJAVE sample. We determined the apparent opening angles by analyzing transverse jet profiles from the data in the image plane and by applying a model fitting technique to the data in the (u,v) plane. Both methods provided comparable opening angle estimates. The apparent opening angles of gamma-ray bright blazars are preferentially larger than those of gamma-ray weak sources. At the same time, we have found the two groups to have similar intrinsic opening angle distributions. This suggests that the jets in gamma-ray bright AGN are oriented at preferentially smaller angles to the line of sight resulting ...

  9. Bed rest and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Aviles, Hernan; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.; Niesel, David; Pandya, Utpal; Allen, Christopher; Ochs, Hans D.; Blancher, Antoine; Abbal, Michel

    2007-02-01

    Space flight has been shown to result in altered immune responses. The current study was designed to investigate this possibility by using the bed rest model of some space flight conditions. A large number of women are included as subjects in the study. The hypothesis being tested is: 60 days head-down tilt bed rest of humans will affect the immune system and resistance to infection. Blood, urine and saliva samples will be obtained from bed rest subjects prior to, at intervals during, and after completion of 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest. Leukocyte blastogenesis, cytokine production and virus reactivation will be assessed. The ability of the subjects to respond appropriately to immunization with the neoantigen bacteriophage φX-174 will also be determined. Bed rest is being carried out at MEDES, Toulouse France, and the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. The studies to be carried out in France will also allow assessment of the effects of muscle/bone exercise and nutritional countermeasures on the immune system in addition to the effects of bed rest.

  10. Resting brain metabolic correlates of neuroticism and extraversion in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hee; Hwang, Ji Hee; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2008-05-28

    Neuroticism and extraversion are two core dimensions of personality and are considered to be associated with emotional disorders. We investigated resting state brain metabolic correlates of neuroticism and extraversion using a positron emission tomography. Twenty healthy young men completed an F-flurodeoxyglucose-PET scan at rest and the Korean version of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Neuroticism was negatively correlated with regional glucose metabolism in prefrontal regions including the medial prefrontal cortex. Extraversion was positively correlated with metabolism in the right putamen. These results suggest close associations between resting state brain activity in the prefrontal and striatal regions and specific personality traits and thus contribute to the understanding of the neurobiological bases of predisposition to psychiatric disorders.

  11. The influence of mosquito resting behaviour and associated microclimate for malaria risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Matthew B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of the mosquito and parasite life-history traits that combine to determine malaria transmission intensity are temperature sensitive. In most cases, the process-based models used to estimate malaria risk and inform control and prevention strategies utilize measures of mean outdoor temperature. Evidence suggests, however, that certain malaria vectors can spend large parts of their adult life resting indoors. Presentation of hypothesis If significant proportions of mosquitoes are resting indoors and indoor conditions differ markedly from ambient conditions, simple use of outdoor temperatures will not provide reliable estimates of malaria transmission intensity. To date, few studies have quantified the differential effects of indoor vs outdoor temperatures explicitly, reflecting a lack of proper understanding of mosquito resting behaviour and associated microclimate. Testing the hypothesis Published records from 8 village sites in East Africa revealed temperatures to be warmer indoors than outdoors and to generally show less daily variation. Exploring the effects of these temperatures on malaria parasite development rate suggested indoor-resting mosquitoes could transmit malaria between 0.3 and 22.5 days earlier than outdoor-resting mosquitoes. These differences translate to increases in transmission risk ranging from 5 to approaching 3,000%, relative to predictions based on outdoor temperatures. The pattern appears robust for low- and highland areas, with differences increasing with altitude. Implications of the hypothesis Differences in indoor vs outdoor environments lead to large differences in the limits and the intensity of malaria transmission. This finding highlights a need to better understand mosquito resting behaviour and the associated microclimate, and to broaden assessments of transmission ecology and risk to consider the potentially important role of endophily.

  12. Infinite Relational Modeling of Functional Connectivity in Resting State fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Madsen, Kristoffer H.; Dogonowski, Anne Marie;

    2010-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be applied to study the functional connectivity of the neural elements which form complex network at a whole brain level. Most analyses of functional resting state networks (RSN) have been based on the analysis of correlation between the temporal...... dynamics of various regions of the brain. While these models can identify coherently behaving groups in terms of correlation they give little insight into how these groups interact. In this paper we take a different view on the analysis of functional resting state networks. Starting from the definition...

  13. Disrutpted resting-state functional architecture of the brain after 45-day simulated microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan eZhou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term spaceflight induces both physiological and psychological changes in astronauts. To understand the neural mechanisms underlying these physiological and psychological changes, it is critical to investigate the effects of microgravity on the functional architecture of the brain. In this study, we used resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI to study whether the functional architecture of the brain is altered after 45 days of -6° head-down tilt (HDT bed rest, which is a reliable model for the simulation of microgravity. Sixteen healthy male volunteers underwent rs-fMRI scans before and after 45 days of -6° HDT bed rest. Specifically, we used a commonly employed graph-based measure of network organization, i.e., degree centrality (DC, to perform a full-brain exploration of the regions that were influenced by simulated microgravity. We subsequently examined the functional connectivities of these regions using a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC analysis. We found decreased DC in two regions, the left anterior insula (aINS and the anterior part of the middle cingulate cortex (MCC; also called the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in many studies, in the male volunteers after 45 days of -6° HDT bed rest. Furthermore, seed-based RSFC analyses revealed that a functional network anchored in the aINS and MCC was particularly influenced by simulated microgravity. These results provide evidence that simulated microgravity alters the resting-state functional architecture of the brains of males and suggest that the processing of salience information, which is primarily subserved by the aINS–MCC functional network, is particularly influenced by spaceflight. The current findings provide a new perspective for understanding the relationships between microgravity, cognitive function, autonomic neural function and central neural activity.

  14. Evolution of the jet opening angle distribution in holographic plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, Krishna; van der Schee, Wilke

    2016-01-01

    We use holography to analyze the evolution of an ensemble of jets, with an initial probability distribution for their energy and opening angle as %for jets in proton-proton (pp) collisions, as they propagate through an expanding cooling droplet of strongly coupled plasma as in heavy ion collisions. We identify two competing effects: (i) each individual jet widens as it propagates; (ii) the opening angle distribution for jets emerging from the plasma within any specified range of energies has been pushed toward smaller angles, comparing to pp jets with the same energies. The second effect arises because small-angle jets suffer less energy loss and because jets with a higher initial energy are less probable in the ensemble. We illustrate both effects in a simple two-parameter model, and find that their consequence in sum is that the opening angle distribution for jets in any range of energies contains fewer narrow and wide jets. Either effect can dominate in the mean opening angle, for not unreasonable values o...

  15. Use of resting myocardial scintigraphy during chest pain to exclude diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbirato, Gustavo Borges; Azevedo, Jader Cunha de; Felix, Renata Christian Martins; Correa, Patricia Lavatori; Volschan, Andre; Viegas, Monica; Pimenta, Lucia; Dohmann, Hans Fernando Rocha; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco [Centro de Estudos do Hospital Pro-Cardiaco (Procep), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    Background: Images of myocardial perfusion taken during an episode of chest pain have been used for patients in the emergency department. Objective: To evaluate the operating characteristics of {sup 99m}Tc-Tetrofosmin scintigraphy during an episode of chest pain to exclude the diagnosis of cute myocardial infarction. Methods: One hundred and eight patients admitted with chest pain, or up to four hours after the end of symptoms and non diagnostic electrocardiogram, underwent resting scintigraphy and measurement of troponin I concentrations. Patients with a history of myocardial infarction (MI) were not excluded (24 patients). Troponin I concentrations were determined at admission and 6 hours later. Nuclear physicians performed a blind analysis of the images, and myocardial infarction was confirmed whenever troponin I level increase was three times that of the control. Results: Resting perfusion image was abnormal in all 6 patients with MI. Only 1 patient had a normal image and increased troponin levels. Fifty-five patients had positive images without MI, and 46 patients had normal images and troponin levels. The prevalence of the disease was 6.5%. The sensitivity and specificity of the resting images during an episode of chest pain to diagnose MI was 85.7% and 45.5%, respectively. The negative predictive value was 97.7%. Conclusion: Patients undergoing chest pain protocol with SPECT showed an excellent negative predictive value to exclude diagnosis of myocardial infarction. These results suggest that resting perfusion image is an important tool at the chest pain unit. (author)

  16. Sexual dimorphism in the effects of exercise on metabolism of lipids to support resting metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C Henderson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training is generally a healthful activity and an effective intervention for reducing the risk of numerous chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This is likely both a result of prevention of weight gain over time as well as direct effects of exercise on metabolism of lipids and the other macronutrient classes. Importantly, a single bout of exercise can alter lipid metabolism and metabolic rate for hours and even into the day following exercise, so individuals who regularly exercise, even if not performed every single day, overall could experience a substantial change in their resting metabolism that would reduce risk for metabolic diseases. However, resting metabolism does not respond similarly in all individuals to exercise participation, and indeed gender or sex is a major determinant of the response of resting lipid metabolism to prior exercise. In order to fully appreciate the metabolic effects and health benefits of exercise, the differences between men and women must be considered. In this article, the differences in the effects of exercise on resting metabolic rate, fuel selection after exercise, as well as the shuttling of triglyceride and fatty acids between tissues are discussed. Furthermore, concepts related to sex differences in the precision of homeostatic control and sex differences in the integration of metabolism between various organs are considered.

  17. Functional connectivity of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei at rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliveau, Vincent; Svarer, Claus; Frokjaer, Vibe G;

    2015-01-01

    knowledge on the contribution of 5-HT to intrinsic brain activity. The dorsal raphe (DR) and median raphe (MR) nuclei are the source of most serotonergic neurons projecting throughout the brain and thus provide a compelling target for a seed-based probe of resting-state activity related to 5-HT. Here we...... with structural MRI from 49 healthy volunteers, we delineated DR and MR and performed a seed-based resting-state FC analysis. The DR and MR seeds produced largely similar FC maps: significant positive FC with brain regions involved in cognitive and emotion processing including anterior cingulate, amygdala, insula......, hippocampus, thalamus, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Significant negative FC was observed within pre- and postcentral gyri for the DR but not for the MR seed. We observed a significant association between DR and MR FC and regional 5-HTT binding. Our results provide evidence for a resting-state network related...

  18. The Metabolic Cost of a High Intensity Exercise Program During Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Kyle; Everett, Meghan; Guined, Jamie; Cunningham, Daid

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given that disuse-related skeletal muscle atrophy may be exacerbated by an imbalance between energy intake and output, the amount of energy required to complete exercise countermeasures is an important consideration in the well being of subject health during bed rest and spaceflight. Objective: To evaluate the energy cost of a high intensity exercise program performed during short duration bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest and exercise countermeasures. Exercise energy expenditure and excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) were collected once in each of 5 different exercise protocols (30 second, 2 minute and 4 minute intervals, continuous aerobic and a variety of resistance exercises) during bed rest. Body mass, basal metabolic rate (BMR), upper and lower leg muscle, subcutaneous, and intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) volumes were assessed before and at the end of bed rest. Results: There were no significant differences in body mass (pre: 75.1 +/- 10.5 kg; post: 75.2 +/- 10.1 kg), BMR (pre: 1649 +/- 216 kcal; post: 1657 +/- 177 kcal), muscle subcutaneous, or IMAT volumes (Table 2) after 14 days of bed rest and exercise. Body mass was maintained with an average daily intake of 2710 +/- 262 kcal (36.2 +/- 2.1 kcal/kg/day), while average daily energy expenditure was 2579 +/-311 kcal (34.5 +/- 3.6 kcal/kg/day). Exercise energy expenditure was significantly greater as a result of continuous aerobic exercise than all other exercise protocols.

  19. Reduction of hydrocarbon contamination on viability of Acartia pacifica benthic resting eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiaodong; WANG Guizhong; LIN Qiongwu

    2008-01-01

    The potential effect of hydrocarbon contamination on the hatching success of benthic resting eggs of Acartia pacifica in Xiamen Bay was investigated experimentally.The number of nauplii emerging from the sediment samples decreased with increasing Fuel Oil #0 concentration.The estimated rate of mortality increased markedly with the increase of Fuel Oil #0 concentration.Successive fuel Oil #0 concentrations from 50 mg/kg to 5000 mg/kg reduced the number of hatched nauplii by 3.8%-100%.The mortality of A.pacifica resting eggs due to Fuel Oil #0 contamination did not significantly increase as time progressed at each concentration level.The LC50 values of resting eggs,changing from 237.12 to 279.59 mg/kg,remained at an almost stable level in two months.The number of A.pacifica nauplii that hatched from the sediment at 10℃ was higher than those from the sediment at 30℃,which indicates that the toxicity of Fuel Oil #0 on A.pacifica resting eggs increases with increasing temperature.

  20. Isolation by sugar flotation has no direct effect on the hatching success of zooplankton resting eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Lukic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton in temporary waters produces resting stages to survive recurrent dry periods. Branchiopod crustaceans (i.e., cladocerans, large branchiopods overcome these periods in the form of resting eggs buried in the sediment. Examining the diversity in the resting egg banks allows for a more accurate estimation of biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems than looking only at the active communities. The isolation of resting eggs from the sediment may be achieved by the sugar flotation method, which usually results in higher density and diversity than untreated samples (i.e., incubated in the sediment. We tested the effect of sugar isolation and centrifugation on the hatching success of resting eggs already isolated from sediment in order to reveal any direct effects on hatching success. We used four different branchiopod species, Daphnia magna, Moina brachiata, Branchinecta orientalis, and Triops cancriformis. Although we hypothesised that osmotic stress caused by sugar and centrifuging influence the hatching success either positively (e.g., faster activation as a response to osmotic changes or negatively (destroyed by centrifugation, we found no significant difference either in the timing or rate of hatching between centrifuged and non-centrifuged eggs. Once the eggs are exposed to light and/or oxygen availability by being removed from the sediment, the centrifugation process does not have any additional effect on their hatching. Regardless of treatment, we found a significant difference in the hatching timing in the two major groups, with large branchiopods hatching earlier than cladocerans. We found that the sugar flotation method itself does not influence the hatching fraction of branchiopod resting eggs (implying no adverse effect on their viability and its success in enhancing hatching can be attributed to its efficiency in removing eggs from the sediment.

  1. Angle-Resolved Plasmonic Properties of Single Gold Nanorod Dimers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wu; Xuxing Lu; Qiannan Zhu; Junwei Zhao; Qishun Shen; Li Zhan; Weihai Ni

    2014-01-01

    Through wet-chemical assembly methods, gold nanorods were placed close to each other and formed a dimer with a gap distance*1 nm, and hence degenerated plasmonic dipole modes of individual nanorods coupled together to produce hybridized bonding and antibonding resonance modes. Previous studies using a condenser for illumination result in averaged signals over all excitation angles. By exciting an individual dimer obliquely at different angles, we demonstrate that these two new resonance modes are highly tunable and sensitive to the angle between the excitation polarization and the dimer orientation, which follows cos2u dependence. Moreover, for dimer structures with various structure angles, the resonance wavelengths as well as the refractive index sensitivities were found independent of the structure angle. Cal-culated angle-resolved plasmonic properties are in good agreement with the measurements. The assembled nanostructures investigated here are important for fundamental researches as well as potential applications when they are used as building blocks in plasmon-based optical and optoelectronic devices.

  2. Effects of Rest Grazing on Organic Carbon Storage in Stipa grandis Steppe in Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-jie; ZHU Yan; ZHAO Jian-ning; LI Gang; WANG Hui; LAI Xin; YANG Dian-lin

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the potential effects of rest grazing on organic carbon storage in Stipa grandis steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. Using potassium dichromate heating method, we analyzed the organic carbon storage of plant and soil in Stipa grandis steppe after rest grazing for 3, 6, and 9 yr. The results indicated that as the rest grazing ages prolonged, the biomass of aboveground parts, litter and belowground plant parts (roots) of the plant communities all increased, meanwhile the C content of the biomass increased with the rest grazing ages prolonging. For RG0, RG3a, RG6a, and RG9a, C storage in aboveground vegetation were 60.7, 76.9, 82.8 and 122.2 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage of litter were 5.1, 5.8, 20.4 and 25.5 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage of belowground roots (0-100 cm) were 475.2, 663.0, 1 115.0 and 1 867.3 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage in 0-100 cm soil were 13.97, 15.76, 18.60 and 32.41 kg Cm-2, respectively. As the rest grazing ages prolonged, the organic C storage in plant communities and soil increased. The C storage of belowground roots and soil organic C was mainly concentrated in 0-40 cm soil body. The increased soil organic C for RG3a accounted for 89.8% of the increased carbon in vegetation-soil system, 87.2%for RG6a, and 92.6%for RG9a. From the perspective of C sequestration cost, total cost for RG3a, RG6a, and RG9a were 2 903.4, 5 806.8 and 8 710.2 CNY ha-1, respectively. The cost reduced with the extension of rest grazing ages, 0.15 CNY kg-1 C for RG3a, 0.11 CNY kg-1 C for RG6a and 0.04 CNY kg-1 C for RG9a. From the growth characteristics of grassland plants, the spring was one of the two avoided grazing periods, timely rest grazing could effectively restore and update grassland vegetation, and was beneifcial to the sustainable use of grassland. Organic C storage for RG9a was the highest, while the cost of C sequestration was the lowest. Therefore, spring rest grazing should be encouraged because it was proved to be a very

  3. Consequences of manganese intoxication on the circadian rest-activity rhythms in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouabid, Safa; Fifel, Karim; Benazzouz, Abdelhamid; Lakhdar-Ghazal, Nouria

    2016-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) intoxication is associated with neurological dysfunctions collectively known as Parkinsonism or Manganism. Like in Parkinson's disease, Manganism is associated with motor disturbances, together with non-motor symptoms including cognitive and neuropsychiatric deficits. Although sleep dysfunctions are commonly reported among workers exposed to Mn, their underlying pathophysiology remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the rest-activity rhythms in rats treated daily with MnCl2 (10mg/kg, i.p) for 5weeks. Locomotor activity was assessed under a light-dark (LD) cycle, constant darkness (DD) and during adjustment to 6h shifts of the LD cycle. In LD conditions, Mn-treated rats exhibited a more fragmented and less stable rest-activity rhythm in addition to a reduction in the total 24-h amount of locomotor activity as well as in the activity confined to the active dark phase of the LD. Consequently, a significant decrease in the amplitude of the rest-activity rhythm was observed. These disturbances were displayed during and after Mn treatment. Furthermore, after the 6-h phase advance of the LD cycle, Mn-treated rats failed to re-adjust accurately their behavioral activity to the new shifted LD cycle. Upon release from LD into DD, Mn-treated rats expressed a normal and stable free-running period of their rest-activity rhythm (23.92±0.07h in Mn group vs. 24.01±0.04h in control rats). However, their rest-activity rhythm remained highly fragmented and less stable. Our results provide the first evidence that chronic Mn intoxication leads to impairment of rest-activity rhythms in addition to the motor and non-motor disturbances reported in Manganism. PMID:27316552

  4. Spatially distributed effects of mental exhaustion on resting-state FMRI networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Esposito

    Full Text Available Brain activity during rest is spatially coherent over functional connectivity networks called resting-state networks. In resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, independent component analysis yields spatially distributed network representations reflecting distinct mental processes, such as intrinsic (default or extrinsic (executive attention, and sensory inhibition or excitation. These aspects can be related to different treatments or subjective experiences. Among these, exhaustion is a common psychological state induced by prolonged mental performance. Using repeated functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions and spatial independent component analysis, we explored the effect of several hours of sustained cognitive performances on the resting human brain. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on the same healthy volunteers in two days, with and without, and before, during and after, an intensive psychological treatment (skill training and sustained practice with a flight simulator. After each scan, subjects rated their level of exhaustion and performed an N-back task to evaluate eventual decrease in cognitive performance. Spatial maps of selected resting-state network components were statistically evaluated across time points to detect possible changes induced by the sustained mental performance. The intensive treatment had a significant effect on exhaustion and effort ratings, but no effects on N-back performances. Significant changes in the most exhausted state were observed in the early visual processing and the anterior default mode networks (enhancement and in the fronto-parietal executive networks (suppression, suggesting that mental exhaustion is associated with a more idling brain state and that internal attention processes are facilitated to the detriment of more extrinsic processes. The described application may inspire future indicators of the level of fatigue in the neural attention system.

  5. Can different conditioning activities and rest intervals affect the acute performance of taekwondo turning kick?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jonatas F da Silva; Valenzuela, Tomás H; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-06-01

    This study compared the acute effect of strength, plyometric, and complex exercises (combined strength and plyometric exercise) in the countermovement jump (CMJ) and frequency speed of kick test (FSKT) and attempted to establish the best rest interval to maximize performance in the CMJ, number of kicks, and impact generated during FSKT. Eleven taekwondo athletes (mean ± SD; age: 20.3 ± 5.2 years; body mass: 71.8 ± 15.3 kg; height: 177 ± 7.2 cm) participated. One control and 9 experimental conditions were randomly applied. Each condition was composed of warm-up, conditioning activity (half-squat: 3 × 1 at 95% 1RM; jumps: 3 × 10 vertical jumps above 40-cm barrier; or complex exercise: half-squat 3 × 2 at 95% 1RM + 4 vertical jumps above 40-cm barrier), followed by different rest intervals (5-, 10-minute, and self-selected) before CMJ and FSKT. The conditions were compared using an analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. The alpha level was set at 5%. Significant difference was found in the number of kicks (F9,90 = 1.32; p = 0.239; and η2 = 0.116 [small]). The complex method with a 10-minute rest interval (23 ± 5 repetitions) was superior (p = 0.026) to the control (19 ± 3 repetitions), maximum strength with a self-selected rest interval (328 ± 139 seconds; 18 ± 2 repetitions) (p = 0.015), and plyometric with a 5-minute rest interval (18 ± 3 repetitions) (p taekwondo athletes increased the number of kicks in a specific test by using the complex method when 10-minute rest interval was used.

  6. Determination of rice panicle numbers during heading by multi-angle imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingfeng Duan; Chenglong Huang; Guoxing Chen; Lizhong Xiong; Qian Liu; Wanneng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Plant phenomics has the potential to accelerate progress in understanding gene functions and environmental responses. Progress has been made in automating high-throughput plant phenotyping. However, few studies have investigated automated rice panicle counting. This paper describes a novel method for automatically and nonintrusively determining rice panicle numbers during the full heading stage by analyzing color images of rice plants taken from multiple angles. Pot-grown rice plants were transferred via an industrial conveyer to an imaging chamber. Color images from different angles were automatically acquired as a turntable rotated the plant. The images were then analyzed and the panicle number of each plant was determined. The image analysis pipeline consisted of extracting the i2 plane from the original color image, segmenting the image, discriminating the panicles from the rest of the plant using an artificial neural network, and calculating the panicle number in the current image. The panicle number of the plant was taken as the maximum of the panicle numbers extracted from all 12 multi-angle images. A total of 105 rice plants during the full heading stage were examined to test the performance of the method. The mean absolute error of the manual and automatic count was 0.5, with 95.3%of the plants yielding absolute errors within ± 1. The method will be useful for evaluating rice panicles and will serve as an important supplementary method for high-throughput rice phenotyping.

  7. Determination of rice panicle numbers during heading by multi-angle imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingfeng; Duan; Chenglong; Huang; Guoxing; Chen; Lizhong; Xiong; Qian; Liu; Wanneng; Yang

    2015-01-01

    Plant phenomics has the potential to accelerate progress in understanding gene functions and environmental responses. Progress has been made in automating high-throughput plant phenotyping. However, few studies have investigated automated rice panicle counting. This paper describes a novel method for automatically and nonintrusively determining rice panicle numbers during the full heading stage by analyzing color images of rice plants taken from multiple angles. Pot-grown rice plants were transferred via an industrial conveyer to an imaging chamber. Color images from different angles were automatically acquired as a turntable rotated the plant. The images were then analyzed and the panicle number of each plant was determined. The image analysis pipeline consisted of extracting the i2 plane from the original color image, segmenting the image, discriminating the panicles from the rest of the plant using an artificial neural network, and calculating the panicle number in the current image. The panicle number of the plant was taken as the maximum of the panicle numbers extracted from all 12 multi-angle images. A total of 105 rice plants during the full heading stage were examined to test the performance of the method. The mean absolute error of the manual and automatic count was 0.5, with 95.3% of the plants yielding absolute errors within ± 1. The method will be useful for evaluating rice panicles and will serve as an important supplementary method for high-throughput rice phenotyping.

  8. Determination of Rest Mass Energy of the Electron by a Compton Scattering Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasannakumar, S.; Krishnaveni, S.; Umesh, T. K.

    2012-01-01

    We report here a simple Compton scattering experiment which may be carried out in graduate and undergraduate laboratories to determine the rest mass energy of the electron. In the present experiment, we have measured the energies of the Compton scattered gamma rays with a NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer coupled to a 1 K multichannel analyzer at…

  9. Production of vanillic acid from vanillin by resting cells of Serratia marcescens.

    OpenAIRE

    Perestelo, F.; Dalcón, M A; de la Fuente, G

    1989-01-01

    Resting-cell suspensions of Serratia marcescens were able to convert, quantitatively, 0.3% vanillin to vanillic acid. The vanillic acid-producing activity reached a maximum after 28 h of incubation with 0.01% vanillin as an inducer.

  10. Unexpected increases in rotifer resting egg abundances during the period of contamination of Lake Orta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Piscia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite their ecological importance and rapid response to environmental changes, rotifers are rarely included in palaeolimnological studies. Here, we describe changes in abundance (ABD and morphotype (MTs diversity of rotifer resting eggs in the sediments of deep subalpine Lake Orta, Italy, covering a period prior to (pre- 1926, during long-term ammonia and metal pollution from a rayon factory, and subsequent recovery of water quality. Following the pollution and bacterial oxidation of the ammonia, Lake Orta became the largest and deepest acid lake in Europe. Recovery of water quality followed both a ban on the discharge of industrial wastes, and a liming intervention in 1989 and 1990. We sectioned a sediment core collected from the deepest part of the lake (ORTA 07/2A to provide a high  time resolution, given the ca. 3-4 y cm-1 of sediment accumulation. Rotifer resting egg (RRE abundance and morphotypes were examined from the sediments and compared to limnological variables indicating the pollution. Rotifer resting egg abundance significantly increased with lake contamination (r=0.609 and -0.624 for copper and pH, respectively; P<0.001; n=27. A lake-water copper concentration threshold of ca. 40 µg L-1discriminated among pre-, during-, and post- pollution compositions of the rotifer morphotype assemblages. Diversity and morphotype richness increased during the recovery from copper pollution and with complete restoration from acidity, while abundance increased during pollution. The persistence of presumably viable Brachionus resting eggs and of hatched egg cases during the heavy pollution phase suggests that, unlike most other organisms, which were extirpated by the pollution of the lake, rotifers survived producing resting eggs, which secured future generations.

  11. On humanoids, avatars and the rest of us

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    The paper discuss the challenges and potentials that not only a post-positivist but also a post-humanist understanding of the formation of subjectivity, of sex/gender and of gendered positioning encounters when considering the intra-action of attempted technological imitations of the human...

  12. Propagation of photons in resting and moving media

    CERN Document Server

    Zalesny, J

    2001-01-01

    The propagation of photon in a dielectric may be described with the help of the scalar and vector potentials of the medium. The main novelty of the paper is that the concept of the vector potential (which is connected with the velocity of the medium) can be extended to relativistic velocities of the medium. The position-dependent photon wave function was used to describe the propagation of the photon. The new concepts of the velocity of photon as particle and the photon mass in the dielectric medium were proposed.

  13. Spatially distributed effects of mental exhaustion on resting-state FMRI networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, Fabrizio; Otto, Tobias; Zijlstra, Fred R H; Goebel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brain activity during rest is spatially coherent over functional connectivity networks called resting-state networks. In resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, independent component analysis yields spatially distributed network representations reflecting distinct mental processes, such

  14. Reliability of the ATD Angle in Dermatoglyphic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunson, Emily K; Hohnan, Darryl J; Giovas, Christina M

    2015-09-01

    The "ATD" angle is a dermatoglyphic trait formed by drawing lines between the triradii below the first and last digits and the most proximal triradius on the hypothenar region of the palm. This trait has been widely used in dermatoglyphic studies, but several researchers have questioned its utility, specifically whether or not it can be measured reliably. The purpose of this research was to examine the measurement reliability of this trait. Finger and palm prints were taken using the carbon paper and tape method from the right and left hands of 100 individuals. Each "ATD" angle was read twice, at different times, by Reader A, using a goniometer and a magnifying glass, and three times by a Reader B, using Adobe Photoshop. Inter-class correlation coefficients were estimated for the intra- and inter-reader measurements of the "ATD" angles. Reader A was able to quantify ATD angles on 149 out of 200 prints (74.5%), and Reader B on 179 out of 200 prints (89.5%). Both readers agreed on whether an angle existed on a print 89.8% of the time for the right hand and 78.0% for the left. Intra-reader correlations were 0.97 or greater for both readers. Inter-reader correlations for "ATD" angles measured by both readers ranged from 0.92 to 0.96. These results suggest that the "ATD" angle can be measured reliably, and further imply that measurement using a software program may provide an advantage over other methods.

  15. The Rest of the Story: Finding Meaning in Stylistic Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argamon, Shlomo; Koppel, Moshe

    The computational analysis of the style of natural language texts, computational stylistics, seeks to develop automated methods to (1) effectively distinguish texts with one stylistic character from those of another, and (2) give a meaningful representation of the differences between textual styles. Such methods have many potential applications in areas including criminal and national security forensics, customer relations management, spam/scam filtering, and scholarly research. In this chapter, we propose a framework for research in computational stylistics, based on a functional model of the communicative act. We illustrate the utility of this framework via several case studies.

  16. Intensive reasoning training alters patterns of brain connectivity at rest

    OpenAIRE

    Mackey, AP; Singley, ATM; Bunge, SA

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of correlated activity among brain regions reflect functionally relevant networks that are widely assumed to be stable over time. We hypothesized that if these correlations reflect the prior history of coactivation of brain regions, then a marked shift in cognition could alter the strength of coupling between these regions. We sought to test whether intensive reasoning training in humans would result in tighter coupling among regions in the lateral frontoparietal network, as measured...

  17. The Rest of the Elephant: Perspectives on the Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, John D.; Porter, William E.

    This book presents an analytical introduction to the study of the mass media. Aspects of media that have received little attention--audiences, economics, working processes and ethics--are treated in the four sections of the book. Section one covers symbiosis between the medium and the audience. Section two discusses the way in which business and…

  18. Winning Facebook - and the Rest of the World?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam; Hansen, Kasper Møller; Schwartz, Sander Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of nine leading candidates’ communication on Facebook during the parliament election campaign in Denmark in fall 2011. It relates their communication to the historical use of social media in Denmark by politicians, to Danish candidate campaign communication in general...... conclude that certain types of content may win Facebook, but the election itself is still largely won through TV....

  19. Massless particles plus matter in the rest-frame instant form of dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After introducing the parametrized Minkowski theory describing a positive-energy scalar massless particle, we study the rest-frame instant form of dynamics of such a particle in the presence of another massive one (to avoid the front form of dynamics). Then we describe massless particles with Grassmann-valued helicity and their quantization.

  20. Restful Implementation of Catalogue Service for Geospatial Data Provenance

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, L. C.; Yue, P.; Lu, X. C.

    2013-01-01

    Provenance, also known as lineage, is important in understanding the derivation history of data products. Geospatial data provenance helps data consumers to evaluate the quality and reliability of geospatial data. In a service-oriented environment, where data are often consumed or produced by distributed services, provenance could be managed by following the same service-oriented paradigm. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) is used for the regist...

  1. Numerical study of hub taper angle on podded propeller performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently, the majority of podded propulsion systems are of the pulling type, because this type provides better hydrodynamic efficiency than the pushing type. There are several possible explanations for the better overall performance of a puller type podded propulsor. One is related to the difference in hub shape. Puller and pusher propellers have opposite hub taper angles, hence different hub and blade root shape. These differences cause changes in the flow condition and possibly influence the overall performance. The current study focuses on the variation in performance of pusher and puller propellers with the same blade sections, but different hub taper angles. A hyperboloidal low order source doublet steady/unsteady time domain panel method code was modified and used to evaluate effects of hub taper angle on the open water propulsive performance of some fixed pitch screw propellers used in podded propulsion systems. The modified code was first validated against measurements of two model propellers in terms of average propulsive performance and good agreement was found. Major findings include significant effects of hub taper angle on propulsive performance of tapered hub propellers and noticeable effects of hub taper angle on sectional pressure distributions of tapered hub propeller blades. (author)

  2. Numerical study of hub taper angle on podded propeller performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.F.; Veitch, B.; Bose, N. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)]. E-mail: Mohammed.Islam@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca; Liu, P. [National Research Council of Canada, Inst. for Ocean Technology (IOT), St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Presently, the majority of podded propulsion systems are of the pulling type, because this type provides better hydrodynamic efficiency than the pushing type. There are several possible explanations for the better overall performance of a puller type podded propulsor. One is related to the difference in hub shape. Puller and pusher propellers have opposite hub taper angles, hence different hub and blade root shape. These differences cause changes in the flow condition and possibly influence the overall performance. The current study focuses on the variation in performance of pusher and puller propellers with the same blade sections, but different hub taper angles. A hyperboloidal low order source doublet steady/unsteady time domain panel method code was modified and used to evaluate effects of hub taper angle on the open water propulsive performance of some fixed pitch screw propellers used in podded propulsion systems. The modified code was first validated against measurements of two model propellers in terms of average propulsive performance and good agreement was found. Major findings include significant effects of hub taper angle on propulsive performance of tapered hub propellers and noticeable effects of hub taper angle on sectional pressure distributions of tapered hub propeller blades. (author)

  3. Multimodal analysis of cortical chemoarchitecture and macroscale fMRI resting-state functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Scholtens, Lianne H; Turk, Elise; Mantini, Dante; Vanduffel, Wim; Feldman Barrett, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    The cerebral cortex is well known to display a large variation in excitatory and inhibitory chemoarchitecture, but the effect of this variation on global scale functional neural communication and synchronization patterns remains less well understood. Here, we provide evidence of the chemoarchitecture of cortical regions to be associated with large-scale region-to-region resting-state functional connectivity. We assessed the excitatory versus inhibitory chemoarchitecture of cortical areas as an ExIn ratio between receptor density mappings of excitatory (AMPA, M1 ) and inhibitory (GABAA , M2 ) receptors, computed on the basis of data collated from pioneering studies of autoradiography mappings as present in literature of the human (2 datasets) and macaque (1 dataset) cortex. Cortical variation in ExIn ratio significantly correlated with total level of functional connectivity as derived from resting-state functional connectivity recordings of cortical areas across all three datasets (human I: P = 0.0004; human II: P = 0.0008; macaque: P = 0.0007), suggesting cortical areas with an overall more excitatory character to show higher levels of intrinsic functional connectivity during resting-state. Our findings are indicative of the microscale chemoarchitecture of cortical regions to be related to resting-state fMRI connectivity patterns at the global system's level of connectome organization. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3103-3113, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27207489

  4. Multi angle view of lung using optical coherence tomography (OCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabchi, Ali; DiMarzio, Charles A.; Gouldstone, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    Lung imaging, visualization and measurement of alveolar volume has great importance in determining lung health. However, the heterogeneity of lung tissue complicates this task. In this paper multi angle Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is used to overcome this problem. One of the limitations of utilizing OCT in lung is the speckle noise and artifacts that originate from the refraction at the tissue-air interface inside the lung. Multi angle view of lung using OCT is incoherent summation of multiple angle-diverse images. Utilizing image registration of multi angle OCT scans of the lung helps reduce the speckle noise and refraction artifacts. This technique helps extract more information from the images which improves visualization and the ability to measure the geometry of alveoli. The other diculty of utilizing OCT is interpreting the images due to the low numerical aperture (NA) on the OCT. The multi angle view of the lung increases NA, which increase the imaging resolution through synthetic aperture imaging. In this paper in ated excised lung tissue and lung phantom are presented.

  5. Change Creation: The Rest of the Planning Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lick, Dale W.; Kaufman, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a new, comprehensive planning and change concept for universities, "change creation," that encompasses both strategic planning and a transition process for the organization from "what is" to "what should be." After exploring change, why it often fails, and the tenets of change creation, presents its steps. A few are: leadership team…

  6. Influence of heart rate at rest for predicting the metabolic syndrome in older Chinese adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. ó Hartaigh; C.Q. Jiang; J.A. Bosch; W.S. Zhang; K.K. Cheng; T.H. Lam; G.N. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between seated resting heart rate and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among older residents of Guangzhou, South China. A total of 30,519 older participants (≥50 years) from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study were stratified into quartiles based on

  7. Increased power of resting-state gamma oscillations in autism spectrum disorder detected by routine electroencephalography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diessen, Eric; Senders, Joeky; Jansen, Floor E.; Boersma, Maria; Bruining, Hilgo

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies suggest that increased resting-state power of gamma oscillations is associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To extend the clinical applicability of this finding, we retrospectively investigated routine electroencephalography (EEG) recordings of 19 patients with ASD and 1

  8. Effect of prior immobilization on muscular glucose clearance in resting and running rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, J; Ohkuwa, T; Ploug, Thorkil;

    1988-01-01

    In vitro studies have shown that prior disuse impairs the glucose clearance of red skeletal muscle because of a developed insensitivity to insulin. We studied whether an impaired glucose clearance is present in vivo in 42-h immobilized muscles of resting rats and, furthermore, whether the exercis...

  9. Scattering-angle based filtering of the waveform inversion gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-11-22

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach to maneuver the complex non-linearity associated with the problem of velocity update. In anisotropic media, the non-linearity becomes far more complex with the potential trade-off between the multiparameter description of the model. A gradient filter helps us in accessing the parts of the gradient that are suitable to combat the potential non-linearity and parameter trade-off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which the low scattering angle of the gradient update is initially muted out in the FWI implementation, in what we may refer to as a scattering angle continuation process. The result is a low wavelength update dominated by the transmission part of the update gradient. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce vertically near-zero wavenumber updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Relaxing the filtering at a later stage in the FWI implementation allows for smaller scattering angles to contribute higher-resolution information to the model. The benefits of the extended domain based filtering of the gradient is not only it\\'s ability in providing low wavenumber gradients guided by the scattering angle, but also in its potential to provide gradients free of unphysical energy that may correspond to unrealistic scattering angles.

  10. Organization of the safe working conditions and rest of citizens on the factors of noise pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Sankov, P.

    2016-01-01

    Goal. Scientific studies and analysis capabilities of enhance life safety in residential and industrial areas of modern cities using mobile systems gardening. Methods. Using a systematic approach in analytical studies, literature, modern urban planning development  specialists ecology  and life for the purpose of safe working conditions and rest of citizens on noise pollution factor using landscaping reconstruction of modern cities. Results. In this work, the technique of safe working conditi...

  11. Estimation of crank angle for cycling with a powered prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, B E; Shultz, A; Ledoux, E; Goldfarb, M

    2014-01-01

    In order for a prosthesis to restore power generation during cycling, it must supply torque in a manner that is coordinated with the motion of the bicycle crank. This paper outlines an algorithm for the real time estimation of the angular position of a bicycle crankshaft using only measurements internal to an intelligent knee and ankle prosthesis. The algorithm assumes that the rider/prosthesis/bicycle system can be modeled as a four-bar mechanism. Assuming that a prosthesis can generate two independent angular measurements of the mechanism (in this case the knee angle and the absolute orientation of the shank), Freudenstein's equation can be used to synthesize the mechanism continuously. A recursive least-squares algorithm is implemented to estimate the Freudenstein coefficients, and the resulting link lengths are used to reformulate the equation in terms of input-output relationships mapping both measured angles to the crank angle. Using two independent measurements allows the algorithm to uniquely determine the crank angle from multi-valued functions. In order to validate the algorithm, a bicycle was mounted on a trainer and configured with the prosthesis using an artificial hip joint attached to the seat post. Motion capture was used to monitor the mechanism for forward and backward pedaling and the results are compared to the output of the presented algorithm. Once the parameters have converged, the algorithm is shown to predict the crank angle within 15° of the externally measured value throughout the entire crank cycle during forward rotation.

  12. Automated measurement of diagnostic angles for hip dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Raedt, Sepp; Mechlenburg, Inger; Stilling, Maiken; Rømer, Lone; Søballe, Kjeld; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2013-03-01

    A fully automatic method for measuring diagnostic angles of hip dysplasia is presented. The method consists of the automatic segmentation of CT images and detection of anatomical landmarks on the femur and acetabulum. The standard angles used in the diagnosis of hip dysplasia are subsequently automatically calculated. Previous work in automating the measuring of angles required the manual segmentation or delineation of the articular joint surface. In the current work automatic segmentation is established using graph-cuts with a cost function based on a sheetness score to detect the sheet-like structure of the bone. Anatomical landmarks are subsequently detected using heuristics based on ray-tracing and the distance to the approximated acetabulur joint surface. Standard diagnositic angles are finally calculated and presented for interpretation. Experiments using 26 patients, showed a good agreement with gold standard manual measurements by an expert radiologist as performed in daily practice. The mean difference for the five angles was between -1:1 and 2:0 degrees with a concordance correlation coefficient between 0:87 and 0:93. The standard deviation varied between 2:3 and 4:1 degrees. These values correspond to values found in evaluating interobserver and intraobserver variation for manual measurements. The method can be used in clinical practice to replace the current manual measurements performed by radiologists. In the future, the method will be integrated into an intraoperative surgical guidance system.

  13. Ethnic differences in thermoregulatory responses during resting, passive and active heating: application of Werner's adaptation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Saat, Mohamed; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2011-12-01

    For the coherent understanding of heat acclimatization in tropical natives, we compared ethnic differences between tropical and temperate natives during resting, passive and active heating conditions. Experimental protocols included: (1) a resting condition (an air temperature of 28°C with 50% RH), (2) a passive heating condition (28°C with 50% RH; leg immersion in a hot tub at a water temperature of 42°C), and (3) an active heating condition (32°C with 70% RH; a bicycle exercise). Morphologically and physically matched tropical natives (ten Malaysian males, MY) and temperate natives (ten Japanese males, JP) participated in all three trials. The results saw that: tropical natives had a higher resting rectal temperature and lower hand and foot temperatures at rest, smaller rise of rectal temperature and greater temperature rise in bodily extremities, and a lower sensation of thirst during passive and active heating than the matched temperate natives. It is suggested that tropical natives' homeostasis during heating is effectively controlled with the improved stability in internal body temperature and the increased capability of vascular circulation in extremities, with a lower thirst sensation. The enhanced stability of internal body temperature and the extended thermoregulatory capability of vascular circulation in the extremities of tropical natives can be interpreted as an interactive change to accomplish a thermal dynamic equilibrium in hot environments. These heat adaptive traits were explained by Wilder's law of initial value and Werner's process and controller adaptation model.

  14. Communicability Angle and the Spatial Efficiency of Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the concept of communicability angle between a pair of nodes in a graph. We provide strong analytical and empirical evidence that the average communicability angle for a given network accounts for its spatial efficiency on the basis of the communications among the nodes in a network. We determine characteristics of the spatial efficiency of more than a hundred real-world complex networks that represent complex systems arising in a diverse set of scenarios. In particular, we find that the communicability angle correlates very well with the experimentally measured the relative packing efficiency of proteins that are represented as residue networks. We finally show how we can modulate the spatial efficiency of a network by tuning the weights of the edges of the networks. This allows us to predict effects of external stresses on the spatial efficiency of a network as well as to design strategies to improve important parameters in real-world complex systems.

  15. Computerized two-lead resting ECG analysis for the detection of coronary artery stenosis after coronary revascularization

    OpenAIRE

    Grube, Eberhard; Bootsveld, Andreas; Buellesfeld, Lutz; Yuecel, Seyrani; Shen, Joseph T; Imhoff, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: Resting electrocardiogram (ECG) shows limited sensitivity and specificity for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD), where patients with a history of coronary revascularization may pose special challenges. Several methods exist to enhance sensitivity and specificity of resting ECG for diagnosis of CAD, but such methods are not better than a specialist's judgement. We compared a new computer-enhanced, resting ECG analysis device, 3DMP, to coronary angiography to evaluate t...

  16. Bed rest for preventing complications after transfemoral cardiac catheterisation: a protocol of systematic review and network meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dal Molin, Alberto; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Bertoncini, Fabio; Buratti, Giulia; Busca, Erica; Casarotto, Roberta; Gaboardi, Samanta; Allara, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Background Transfemoral cardiac catheterisation is an invasive medical procedure used for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes. Postoperative bed rest can prevent a number of complications such as bleeding and haematoma formation and can result in side effects such as back pain and urinary discomfort. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the optimal length of bed rest. Our objective is to assess the effects of post-catheterisation length of bed rest on bleeding and haematoma, other vascul...

  17. Investigating the impact of optical selection effects on observed rest frame prompt GRB properties

    CERN Document Server

    Turpin, Damien; Dezalay, Jean-Pascal; Atteia, Jean-Luc; Klotz, Alain; Dornic, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Measuring gamma-ray burst (GRB) properties in their rest-frame is crucial to understand the physics at work in gamma-ray bursts. This can only be done for GRBs with known redshift. Since redshifts are usually measured from the optical spectrum of the afterglow, correlations between prompt and afterglow emissions may introduce biases in the distribution of rest-frame properties of the prompt emission. Our analysis is based on a sample of 90 GRBs with good optical follow-up and well measured prompt emission. 76 of them have a measure of redshift and 14 have no redshift. We estimate their optical brightness with their R magnitude measured two hours after the trigger and compare the rest frame prompt properties of different classes of GRB afterglow brightness. We find that the optical brightness of GRBs in our sample is mainly driven by their intrinsic afterglow luminosity. We show that GRBs with low and high afterglow optical fluxes have similar Epi , Eiso , Liso , indicating that the rest-frame distributions co...

  18. Angle-independent structural colors of silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Weirich, Johannes; Nørregaard, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    one-layer surface textures of silicon.We explored four patterns of square structures in a square lattice with periods of 500, 400, 300, and 200 nm. The reflectivity and daylight-colors were measured and compared with simulations based on rigorously coupledwave analysis with excellent agreement. Based...... of silicon-based textures for a wide range of structural parameters....

  19. Evaluation of occlusal rest seats with 3D technology in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio-Fernandes, Manuel António Ferreira; Sampaio-Fernandes, Maria M; Fonseca, Patrícia A; Almeida, Paulo R; Reis-Campos, José C; Figueiral, Maria H

    2015-02-01

    The preparation of rest seats must comply with specific sizes and shapes. Various technological systems such as Kavo PrepAssistant have been used as an auxiliary method to evaluate preclinical preparations more objectively. The aims of this study were to establish an alternative system for evaluating occlusal rest seats and to compare different types of assessment. Seventy-six undergraduate students at Oporto University Faculty of Dental Medicine in Portugal were selected as a convenience sample to prepare two occlusal rest seats in Kavo teeth #45 and #46 (FDI World Dental Federation ISO-3950) and were randomly assigned to two groups. Bearing in mind the ideal characteristics of rest seats, the investigators defined ten assessment parameters, and their evaluation weights were independently estimated by three evaluators. Four of these parameters were measured in Kavo PrepAssistant. The results of the different evaluation methods and evaluators varied considerably. The classical evaluation presented final results worse than those of the evaluations using parameters. In this study, carrying out the assessment with Kavo PrepAssistant helped to achieve a more objective and less evaluator-dependent final evaluation.

  20. INFLUENCE OF CAFFEINE ON SELECTIVE ATTENTION IN WELL-RESTED AND FATIGUED SUBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LORIST, MM; SNEL, J; KOK, A; MULDER, G

    1994-01-01

    Effects of caffeine were studied in a visual focused selective search task in well-rested and fatigued subjects. A dose of 200 + 50 mg caffeine or placebo, dissolved in decaffeinated coffee, was administered in a double-blind and deceptive fashion. The task was to detect a target letter on one diago

  1. Influence of caffeine on information processing stages in well rested and fatigued subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Lorist; J. Snel; A. Kok

    1994-01-01

    Examined the effects of caffeine on different information processing stages using choice reaction time (RT) tasks. A 200-mg dose at the beginning and a maintenance dose of 50 mg caffeine or lactose half-way through the session were administered to 15 well-rested and 15 fatigued university students (

  2. REST mediates androgen receptor actions on gene repression and predicts early recurrence of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Charlotte; Ceder, Jens; Iglesias Gato, Diego;

    2014-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a key regulator of prostate tumorgenesis through actions that are not fully understood. We identified the repressor element (RE)-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) as a mediator of AR actions on gene repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that AR binds...

  3. Resting-state, functional MRI on regional homogeneity changes of brain in the heavy smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the mechanism of self-awareness in the heavy smokers (HS) by using regional homogeneity (ReHo) combined with resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). Methods: Thirty HS and 31 healthy non-smokers (NS) matched for age and sex underwent a 3.0 T resting-state fMRI. The data were post-processed by SPM 5 and then the ReHo values were calculated by REST software. The ReHo values between the two groups were compared by two-sample t-test. The brain map with significant difference of ReHo value was obtained. Results: Compared with that in NS group, the regions with decreased ReHo value included the bilateral precuneus, superior frontal gyrus,medial prefrontal cortex, right angular gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior occipital gyrus, cerebellum, and left middle frontal gyrus in HS group. The regions of increased ReHo value included the bilateral insula, parahippocampal gyrus, white matter of parietal lobe, pons, left inferior parietal lobule, lingual gyrus, thalamus, inferior orbital gyrus, white matter of temporal-frontal lobe, and cerebellum. The difference was more obvious in the left hemisphere. Conclusions: In HS, abnormal ReHo on a resting state which reflects network of smoking addiction. This method may be helpful in understanding the mechanism of self-awareness in HS. (authors)

  4. Resting-State Retinotopic Organization in the Absence of Retinal Input and Visual Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Andrew S; Binda, Paola; Benson, Noah C; Bridge, Holly; Watkins, Kate E; Fine, Ione

    2015-09-01

    Early visual areas have neuronal receptive fields that form a sampling mosaic of visual space, resulting in a series of retinotopic maps in which the same region of space is represented in multiple visual areas. It is not clear to what extent the development and maintenance of this retinotopic organization in humans depend on retinal waves and/or visual experience. We examined the corticocortical receptive field organization of resting-state BOLD data in normally sighted, early blind, and anophthalmic (in which both eyes fail to develop) individuals and found that resting-state correlations between V1 and V2/V3 were retinotopically organized for all subject groups. These results show that the gross retinotopic pattern of resting-state connectivity across V1-V3 requires neither retinal waves nor visual experience to develop and persist into adulthood. Significance statement: Evidence from resting-state BOLD data suggests that the connections between early visual areas develop and are maintained even in the absence of retinal waves and visual experience. PMID:26354906

  5. Optical and X-ray Rest-frame Light Curves of the BAT6 sample

    CERN Document Server

    Melandri, A; Rogantini, D; Salvaterra, R; Sbarufatti, B; Bernardini, M G; Campana, S; D'Avanzo, P; D'Elia, V; Fugazza, D; Ghirlanda, G; Ghisellini, G; Nava, L; Vergani, S D; Tagliaferri, G

    2014-01-01

    We present the rest-frame light curves in the optical and X-ray bands of an unbiased and complete sample of Swift long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), namely the BAT6 sample. The unbiased BAT6 sample (consisting of 58 events) has the highest level of completeness in redshift ($\\sim$ 95%), allowing us to compute the rest-frame X-ray and optical light curves for 55 and 47 objects, respectively. We compute the X-ray and optical luminosities accounting for any possible source of absorption (Galactic and intrinsic) that could affect the observed fluxes in these two bands. We compare the behaviour observed in the X-ray and in the optical bands to assess the relative contribution of the emission during the prompt and afterglow phases. We unarguably demonstrate that the GRBs rest-frame optical luminosity distribution is not bimodal, being rather clustered around the mean value Log(L$_{R}$) = 29.9 $\\pm$ 0.8 when estimated at a rest frame time of 12 hr. This is in contrast with what found in previous works and confirms that t...

  6. Oscillations of Relative Inclination Angles in Compact Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Juliette C

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Mission has detected dozens of compact planetary systems with more than four transiting planets. This sample provides a collection of close-packed planetary systems with relatively little spread in the inclination angles of the inferred orbits. A large fraction of the observational sample contains limited multiplicity, begging the question whether there is a true diversity of multi transiting systems, or if some systems merely possess high mutual inclinations, allowing them to appear as single-transiting systems in a transit-based survey. This paper begins an exploration of the effectiveness of dynamical mechanisms in exciting orbital inclination within exoplanetary systems of this class. For these tightly packed systems, we determine that the orbital inclination angles are not spread out appreciably through self-excitation. In contrast, the two Kepler multi-planet systems with additional non-transiting planets are susceptible to oscillations of their inclination angles, which means their currently...

  7. Rotational Angle Measurement of Bridge Support Using Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Soo Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring a very small rotational angle accurately and dynamically is indeed a challenging issue, especially in the case of bridge support. Also, existing inclinometers do not have sufficient resolution and accuracy to measure a bridge’s rotational angle. In this study, a new measurement system was developed to provide a practical means for measuring dynamic rotational angle of a bridge support. It features high resolution and accuracy compared with the available systems on the market. By the combinational use of a laser pointer and a vision-based displacement measurement system, the measurement accuracy was significantly increased. The accuracy and applicability were investigated through laboratory tests. From the laboratory tests, it has been found that the developed system can be applicable to bridge support with very small rotational angle. The effectiveness of the developed system was verified through field tests on real bridges. From the full-scale implementation on two PSC girder bridges, it is observed that the proposed system can measure the rotational angle with a high accuracy and reliability.

  8. Angle of Arrival Detection with Fifth Order Phase Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Khmou, Youssef

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a fifth order propagator operators are proposed for estimating the Angles Of Arrival (AOA) of narrowband electromagnetic waves impinging on antenna array when its number of sensors is larger than the number of radiating sources. The array response matrix is partitioned into five linearly dependent phases to construct the noise projector using five different propagators from non diagonal blocks of the spectral matrice of the received data; hence, five different estimators are proposed to estimate the angles of the sources. The simulation results proved the performance of the proposed estimators in the presence of white noise comparatively to high resolution eigen based spectra.

  9. Effect of scanner acoustic background noise on strict resting-state fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rondinoni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI (fMRI resting-state experiments are aimed at identifying brain networks that support basal brain function. Although most investigators consider a ‘resting-state' fMRI experiment with no specific external stimulation, subjects are unavoidably under heavy acoustic noise produced by the equipment. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of auditory input on the resting-state networks (RSNs. Twenty-two healthy subjects were scanned using two similar echo-planar imaging sequences in the same 3T MRI scanner: a default pulse sequence and a reduced “silent” pulse sequence. Experimental sessions consisted of two consecutive 7-min runs with noise conditions (default or silent counterbalanced across subjects. A self-organizing group independent component analysis was applied to fMRI data in order to recognize the RSNs. The insula, left middle frontal gyrus and right precentral and left inferior parietal lobules showed significant differences in the voxel-wise comparison between RSNs depending on noise condition. In the presence of low-level noise, these areas Granger-cause oscillations in RSNs with cognitive implications (dorsal attention and entorhinal, while during high noise acquisition, these connectivities are reduced or inverted. Applying low noise MR acquisitions in research may allow the detection of subtle differences of the RSNs, with implications in experimental planning for resting-state studies, data analysis, and ergonomic factors.

  10. Effect of scanner acoustic background noise on strict resting-state fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rondinoni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI (fMRI resting-state experiments are aimed at identifying brain networks that support basal brain function. Although most investigators consider a ‘resting-state' fMRI experiment with no specific external stimulation, subjects are unavoidably under heavy acoustic noise produced by the equipment. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of auditory input on the resting-state networks (RSNs. Twenty-two healthy subjects were scanned using two similar echo-planar imaging sequences in the same 3T MRI scanner: a default pulse sequence and a reduced “silent” pulse sequence. Experimental sessions consisted of two consecutive 7-min runs with noise conditions (default or silent counterbalanced across subjects. A self-organizing group independent component analysis was applied to fMRI data in order to recognize the RSNs. The insula, left middle frontal gyrus and right precentral and left inferior parietal lobules showed significant differences in the voxel-wise comparison between RSNs depending on noise condition. In the presence of low-level noise, these areas Granger-cause oscillations in RSNs with cognitive implications (dorsal attention and entorhinal, while during high noise acquisition, these connectivities are reduced or inverted. Applying low noise MR acquisitions in research may allow the detection of subtle differences of the RSNs, with implications in experimental planning for resting-state studies, data analysis, and ergonomic factors.

  11. Water contact angles and hysteresis of polyamide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrand, C W

    2002-04-01

    The wetting behavior of a series of aliphatic polyamides (PAs) has been examined. PAs with varying amide content and polyethylene (PE) were molded against glass to produce surfaces with similar roughness. After cleaning, chemical composition of the surfaces was verified with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Advancing and receding contact angles were measured from small sessile water drops. Contact angles decreased with amide content while hysteresis increased. Hysteresis arose primarily from molecular interactions between the contact liquid and the solid substrates, rather than moisture absorption, variations in crystallinity, surface deformation, roughness, reorientation of amide groups, or surface contamination. Free energies of hysteresis were calculated from contact angles. For PE, which is composed entirely of nonpolar methylene groups, free energies were equivalent to the strength of dispersive van der Waals bonds. For PAs, free energies corresponded to fractional contributions from the dispersive methylene groups and polar amide groups.

  12. Automated measurement of diagnostic angles for hip dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Raedt, Sepp; Mechlenburg, Inger Buur; Stilling, Maiken;

    2013-01-01

    A fully automatic method for measuring diagnostic angles of hip dysplasia is presented. The method consists of the automatic segmentation of CT images and detection of anatomical landmarks on the femur and acetabulum. The standard angles used in the diagnosis of hip dysplasia are subsequently....... These values correspond to values found in evaluating interobserver and intraobserver variation for manual measurements. The method can be used in clinical practice to replace the current manual measurements performed by radiologists. In the future, the method will be integrated into an intraoperative surgical...... automatically calculated. Previous work in automating the measuring of angles required the manual segmentation or delineation of the articular joint surface. In the current work automatic segmentation is established using graph-cuts with a cost function based on a sheetness score to detect the sheet...

  13. Optical Enhancement of Exoskeleton-Based Estimation of Glenohumeral Angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Camilo; Unzueta, Luis; de Los Reyes-Guzmán, Ana; Ruiz, Oscar E; Flórez, Julián

    2016-01-01

    In Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation (RAR) the accurate estimation of the patient limb joint angles is critical for assessing therapy efficacy. In RAR, the use of classic motion capture systems (MOCAPs) (e.g., optical and electromagnetic) to estimate the Glenohumeral (GH) joint angles is hindered by the exoskeleton body, which causes occlusions and magnetic disturbances. Moreover, the exoskeleton posture does not accurately reflect limb posture, as their kinematic models differ. To address the said limitations in posture estimation, we propose installing the cameras of an optical marker-based MOCAP in the rehabilitation exoskeleton. Then, the GH joint angles are estimated by combining the estimated marker poses and exoskeleton Forward Kinematics. Such hybrid system prevents problems related to marker occlusions, reduced camera detection volume, and imprecise joint angle estimation due to the kinematic mismatch of the patient and exoskeleton models. This paper presents the formulation, simulation, and accuracy quantification of the proposed method with simulated human movements. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of the method accuracy to marker position estimation errors, due to system calibration errors and marker drifts, has been carried out. The results show that, even with significant errors in the marker position estimation, method accuracy is adequate for RAR. PMID:27403044

  14. Effect of attack angle on flow characteristic of centrifugal fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Dou, H. S.; Wei, Y. K.; Chen, X. P.; Chen, Y. N.; Cao, W. B.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, numerical simulation is performed for the performance and internal flow of a centrifugal fan with different operating conditions using steady three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the RNG k-e turbulent model. The performance curves, the contours of static pressure, total pressure, radial velocity, relative streamlines and turbulence intensity at different attack angles are obtained. The distributions of static pressure and velocity on suction surface and pressure surface in the same impeller channel are compared for various attack angles. The research shows that the efficiency of the centrifugal fan is the highest when the attack angle is 8 degree. The main reason is that the vortex flow in the impeller is reduced, and the jet-wake pattern is weakened at the impeller outlet. The pressure difference between pressure side and suction side is smooth and the amplitude of the total pressure fluctuation is low along the circumferential direction. These phenomena may cause the loss reduced for the attack angle of about 8 degree.

  15. The effect of salinity on resting metabolism in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviathlis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ern, R.; Cong, N.; Houng, D.;

    2008-01-01

    to properly maintain ion balance even with minor increases in the environmental salinity. The elevated resting VO2 in 10 ppt is equivalent to an increased energy consumption of 975 extra calories per day, and since food intake was unaffected, it is reasonable to assume that the reduced growth seen...

  16. Validity of predictive equations for resting energy expenditure in Belgian normal weight to morbid obese women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, J.M. Peter; Vansant, A.A.M. Greet

    2010-01-01

    Background & aims: Individual energy requirements of overweight and obese adults can often not be measured by indirect calorimetry, mainly due to the time-consuming procedure and the high costs. To analyze which resting energy expenditure(REE)predictive equation is the best alternative for indirect

  17. Graph analytic characterization of resting state networks in post-stroke aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi Kiran

    2014-04-01

    Relative to controls, these results indicate inefficiencies in the post-stroke resting-state network, with greater shifts in network hubs in PWA dependent on the site and size of lesion. Such graph analytic results may prove informative in advancing individual-specific therapies.

  18. Response of adult mosquitoes to light emitting diodes placed in resting boxes and in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resting boxes are passive devices used to attract and capture mosquitoes seeking shelter. Increasing the attractiveness of these devices could improve their effectiveness. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) can be attractive to mosquitoes when used together with other trapping devices. Therefore restin...

  19. Utility of resting fMRI and connectivity in patients with brain tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Manglore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resting state (task independent Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI has opened a new avenue in cognitive studies and has found practical clinical applications. Materials and Methods: Resting fMRI analysis was performed in six patients with brain tumor in the motor cortex. For comparison, task-related mapping of the motor cortex was done. Connectivity analysis to study the connections and strength of the connections between the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, and primary somatosensory cortex on the affected side was also performed and compared with the contralateral normal side and the controls. Results: Resting fMRI in patients with brain tumor in the motor cortex mapped the motor cortex in a task-free state and the results were comparable to the motor task paradigm. Decreased connectivity on the tumor-affected side was observed, as compared to the unaffected side. Conclusion: Resting fMRI and connectivity analysis are useful in the presurgical evaluation of patients with brain tumors and may help in uncooperative or pediatric patients. They can also prognosticate the postoperative outcome. This method also has significant applications due to the ease of image acquisition.

  20. The rest-frame optical colours of 99 000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolcic, V.; Ivezic, Z.; Gacesa, M.; Rakos, K.; Pavlovski, K.; Ilijic, S.; Obric, M.; Lupton, R. H.; Schlegel, D.; Kauffmann, G.; Tremonti, C.; Brinchmann, J.; Charlot, S.; Heckman, T. M.; Knapp, G. R.; Gunn, J. E.; Brinkmann, J.; Csabai, I.; Fukugita, M.; Loveday, J.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the colours of 99 088 galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 1 'main' spectroscopic sample (a flux-limited sample, r(Pet) <17.77, for 1360 deg(2)) in the rest-frame Stromgren system (uz, vz, bz, yz). This narrow-band (similar to 200 angstrom) photometric s

  1. A longitudinal study in youth of heart rate variability at rest and in response to stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Zhibin; Snieder, Harold; Su, Shaoyong; Ding, Xiuhua; Thayer, Julian F.; Treiber, Frank A.; Wang, Xiaoling

    2009-01-01

    Background: Few longitudinal studies have examined ethnic and sex differences, predictors and tracking stabilities of heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and in response to stress in youths and young adults. Methods: Two evaluations were performed approximately 1.5 years apart on 399 youths and you

  2. Consistency of network modules in resting-state FMRI connectome data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaak N Moussa

    Full Text Available At rest, spontaneous brain activity measured by fMRI is summarized by a number of distinct resting state networks (RSNs following similar temporal time courses. Such networks have been consistently identified across subjects using spatial ICA (independent component analysis. Moreover, graph theory-based network analyses have also been applied to resting-state fMRI data, identifying similar RSNs, although typically at a coarser spatial resolution. In this work, we examined resting-state fMRI networks from 194 subjects at a voxel-level resolution, and examined the consistency of RSNs across subjects using a metric called scaled inclusivity (SI, which summarizes consistency of modular partitions across networks. Our SI analyses indicated that some RSNs are robust across subjects, comparable to the corresponding RSNs identified by ICA. We also found that some commonly reported RSNs are less consistent across subjects. This is the first direct comparison of RSNs between ICAs and graph-based network analyses at a comparable resolution.

  3. Experimental investigation of synthetic aperture flow angle estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Niels; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2005-01-01

    Currently synthetic aperture flow methods can find the correct velocity magnitude, when the flow direction is known. To make a fully automatic system, the direction should also be estimated. Such an approach has been suggested by Jensen (2004) based on a search of the highest cross-correlation as......Currently synthetic aperture flow methods can find the correct velocity magnitude, when the flow direction is known. To make a fully automatic system, the direction should also be estimated. Such an approach has been suggested by Jensen (2004) based on a search of the highest cross......-correlation as a function of velocity and angle. This paper presents an experimental investigation of this velocity angle estimation method based on a set of synthetic aperture flow data measured using our RASMUS experimental ultrasound system. The measurements are performed for flow angles of 60, 75, and 90 deg...

  4. Analysis of a Low-Angle Annular Expander Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyll Schomberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical analysis of a low-angle annular expander nozzle is presented to observe the variance in shock structure within the flow field. A RANS-based axisymmetric numerical model was used to evaluate flow characteristics and the model validated using experimental pressure readings and schlieren images. Results were compared with an equivalent converging-diverging nozzle to determine the capability of the wake region in varying the effective area of a low-angle design. Comparison of schlieren images confirmed that shock closure occurred in the expander nozzle, prohibiting the wake region from affecting the area ratio. The findings show that a low angle of deflection is inherently unable to influence the effective area of an annular supersonic nozzle design.

  5. A generic implementation of replica exchange with solute tempering (REST2) algorithm in NAMD for complex biophysical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sunhwan; Jiang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Replica Exchange with Solute Tempering (REST2) is a powerful sampling enhancement algorithm of molecular dynamics (MD) in that it needs significantly smaller number of replicas but achieves higher sampling efficiency relative to standard temperature exchange algorithm. In this paper, we extend the applicability of REST2 for quantitative biophysical simulations through a robust and generic implementation in greatly scalable MD software NAMD. The rescaling procedure of force field parameters controlling REST2 "hot region" is implemented into NAMD at the source code level. A user can conveniently select hot region through VMD and write the selection information into a PDB file. The rescaling keyword/parameter is written in NAMD Tcl script interface that enables an on-the-fly simulation parameter change. Our implementation of REST2 is within communication-enabled Tcl script built on top of Charm++, thus communication overhead of an exchange attempt is vanishingly small. Such a generic implementation facilitates seamless cooperation between REST2 and other modules of NAMD to provide enhanced sampling for complex biomolecular simulations. Three challenging applications including native REST2 simulation for peptide folding-unfolding transition, free energy perturbation/REST2 for absolute binding affinity of protein-ligand complex and umbrella sampling/REST2 Hamiltonian exchange for free energy landscape calculation were carried out on IBM Blue Gene/Q supercomputer to demonstrate efficacy of REST2 based on the present implementation.

  6. Recognizing mild cognitive impairment based on network connectivity analysis of resting EEG with zero reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is very helpful for early therapeutic interventions of Alzheimer's disease (AD). MCI has been proven to be correlated with disorders in multiple brain areas. In this paper, we used information from resting brain networks at different EEG frequency bands to reliably recognize MCI. Because EEG network analysis is influenced by the reference that is used, we also evaluate the effect of the reference choices on the resting scalp EEG network-based MCI differentiation. The conducted study reveals two aspects: (1) the network-based MCI differentiation is superior to the previously reported classification that uses coherence in the EEG; and (2) the used EEG reference influences the differentiation performance, and the zero approximation technique (reference electrode standardization technique, REST) can construct a more accurate scalp EEG network, which results in a higher differentiation accuracy for MCI. This study indicates that the resting scalp EEG-based network analysis could be valuable for MCI recognition in the future. (paper)

  7. Tendon vibration attenuates superficial venous vessel response of the resting limb during static arm exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooue Anna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superficial vein of the resting limb constricts sympathetically during exercise. Central command is the one of the neural mechanisms that controls the cardiovascular response to exercise. However, it is not clear whether central command contributes to venous vessel response during exercise. Tendon vibration during static elbow flexion causes primary muscle spindle afferents, such that a lower central command is required to achieve a given force without altering muscle force. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate whether a reduction in central command during static exercise with tendon vibration influences the superficial venous vessel response in the resting limb. Methods Eleven subjects performed static elbow flexion at 35% of maximal voluntary contraction with (EX + VIB and without (EX vibration of the biceps brachii tendon. The heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE in overall and exercising muscle were measured. The cross-sectional area (CSAvein and blood velocity of the basilic vein in the resting upper arm were assessed by ultrasound, and blood flow (BFvein was calculated using both variables. Results Muscle tension during exercise was similar between EX and EX + VIB. However, RPEs at EX + VIB were lower than those at EX (P P vein in the resting limb at EX decreased during exercise from baseline (P vein at EX + VIB did not change during exercise. CSAvein during exercise at EX was smaller than that at EX + VIB (P vein did not change during the protocol under either condition. The decreases in circulatory response and RPEs during EX + VIB, despite identical muscle tension, showed that activation of central command was less during EX + VIB than during EX. Abolishment of the decrease in CSAvein during exercise at EX + VIB may thus have been caused by a lower level of central command at EX + VIB rather than EX. Conclusion Diminished central command induced by tendon

  8. Determination of the mixing angle between new charmonium states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, T.M. [Middle East Technical University, Physics Department, Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Physics, Baku (Azerbaijan); Savci, M. [Middle East Technical University, Physics Department, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-04-01

    Using the pictures for X(3872) as a mixture of charmonium and molecular D{sup *0}D{sup 0} states; Y(3940) as a mixture of χ{sub c0} and D{sup *}D{sup '*} states, and Y(4260) as a mixture of the tetra-quark state with charmonium states, the corresponding mixing angles are estimated within the QCD sum rules. We find that our predictions for the mixing angles of the X(3872), Y(4260), and Y(3940) states are considerably smaller compared to work in which the mixing angles are estimated from the condition in reproducing the mass of these states. Our conclusion is that the considered pictures for the X(3872), Y(4260), and Y(3940) states are not successful in describing these states. (orig.)

  9. Determination of the mixing angle between new charmonium states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, T. M., E-mail: taliev@metu.edu.tr [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University, 06800, Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Physics, Baku (Azerbaijan); Savcı, M., E-mail: savci@metu.edu.tr [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University, 06800, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-04-28

    Using the pictures for X(3872) as a mixture of charmonium and molecular D{sup ∗0}D{sup 0} states; Y(3940) as a mixture of χ{sub c0} and D{sup ∗}D{sup ′∗} states, and Y(4260) as a mixture of the tetra-quark state with charmonium states, the corresponding mixing angles are estimated within the QCD sum rules. We find that our predictions for the mixing angles of the X(3872), Y(4260), and Y(3940) states are considerably smaller compared to work in which the mixing angles are estimated from the condition in reproducing the mass of these states. Our conclusion is that the considered pictures for the X(3872), Y(4260), and Y(3940) states are not successful in describing these states.

  10. Determination of the mixing angle between new charmonium states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the pictures for X(3872) as a mixture of charmonium and molecular D∗0D0 states; Y(3940) as a mixture of χc0 and D∗D′∗ states, and Y(4260) as a mixture of the tetra-quark state with charmonium states, the corresponding mixing angles are estimated within the QCD sum rules. We find that our predictions for the mixing angles of the X(3872), Y(4260), and Y(3940) states are considerably smaller compared to work in which the mixing angles are estimated from the condition in reproducing the mass of these states. Our conclusion is that the considered pictures for the X(3872), Y(4260), and Y(3940) states are not successful in describing these states

  11. Determination of the mixing angle between new charmonium states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the pictures for X(3872) as a mixture of charmonium and molecular D*0D0 states; Y(3940) as a mixture of χc0 and D*D'* states, and Y(4260) as a mixture of the tetra-quark state with charmonium states, the corresponding mixing angles are estimated within the QCD sum rules. We find that our predictions for the mixing angles of the X(3872), Y(4260), and Y(3940) states are considerably smaller compared to work in which the mixing angles are estimated from the condition in reproducing the mass of these states. Our conclusion is that the considered pictures for the X(3872), Y(4260), and Y(3940) states are not successful in describing these states. (orig.)

  12. Time course based artifact identification for independent components of resting state fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eRummel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI coherent oscillations of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal can be detected. These arise when brain regions respond to external stimuli or are activated by tasks. The same networks have been characterized during wakeful rest when functional connectivity of the human brain is organized in generic resting state networks (RSN. Alterations of RSN emerge as neurobiological markers of pathological conditions such as altered mental state. In single-subject fMRI data the coherent components can be identified by blind source separation of the pre-processed BOLD data using spatial independent component analysis (ICA and related approaches. The resulting maps may represent physiological RSNs or may be due to various artifacts. In this methodological study, we propose a conceptually simple and fully automatic time course based filtering procedure to detect obvious artifacts in the ICA output for resting state fMRI. The filter is trained on six and tested on 29 healthy subjects, yielding mean filter accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 0.80, 0.82 and 0.75 in out-of-sample tests. To estimate the impact of clearly artifactual single-subject components on group resting state studies we analyze unfiltered and filtered output with a second level ICA procedure. Although the automated filter does not reach performance values of visual analysis by human raters, we propose that resting state compatible analysis of ICA time courses could be very useful to complement the existing map or task/event oriented artifact classification algorithms.

  13. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SIZE OF PONTOCEREBELLAR ANGLE TUMOR AND AUDIOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the size ofpontocerebellar angle tumor and audiology.Methods: Retrospective analysis of accoustically evoked brainstem response (ABR) waveforms and pure tone threshold in 27 subjects with tumor of pontocerebellar angle.Results: ABR wave forms and pure tone threshold were significantly affected statistically by the size of tumors,especially those tumor larger than 3 cm in diameter.Conclusion: The primary symptom of the patient was unilateral hearing loss.Early discovery of the lesion is important and ABR is a sensitive tool for early diagnose of the tumor.

  14. Structure and Inclination Angle of the Spiral Galaxy M31

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun

    2001-01-01

    The mathematical form, the symmetry of the spiral structure, and the projection of the galactic disc on the image of the spiral galaxy M31 have been directly studied. It is found that M31 has two symmetric arms, i.e. the pitch angles of the two arms are nearly equal; these are 7.7° and 8.0°, respectively. Using the method proposed in this letter, the inclination angle of the galactic disc ofM31 is also obtained, which is 77.5° and is in good agreement with previously published results.

  15. Analysis and design of wide-angle foveated optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatu, George

    2009-12-01

    The development of compact imaging systems capable of transmitting high-resolution images in real-time while covering a wide field-of-view (FOV) is critical in a variety of military and civilian applications: surveillance, threat detection, target acquisition, tracking, remote operation of unmanned vehicles, etc. Recently, optical foveated imaging using liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulators (SLM) has received considerable attention as a potential approach to reducing size and complexity in fast wide-angle lenses. The fundamental concept behind optical foveated imaging is reducing the number of elements in a fast wide-angle lens by placing a phase SLM at the pupil stop to dynamically compensate aberrations left uncorrected by the optical design. In the recent years, considerable research and development has been conducted in the field of optical foveated imaging based on the LC SLM technology, and several foveated optical systems (FOS) prototypes have been built. However, most research has been focused so far on the experimental demonstration of the basic concept using off-the-shelf components, without much concern for the practicality or the optical performance of the systems. Published results quantify only the aberration correction capabilities of the FOS, often claiming diffraction-limited performance at the region of interest (ROI). However, these results have continually overlooked diffraction effects on the zero-order efficiency and the image quality. The research work presented in this dissertation covers the methods and results of a detailed theoretical research study on the diffraction analysis, image quality, design, and optimization of fast wide-angle FOSs based on the current transmissive LC SLM technology. The amplitude and phase diffraction effects caused by the pixelated aperture of the SLM are explained and quantified, revealing fundamental limitations imposed by the current transmissive LC SLM technology. As a part of this study, five

  16. Computerized two-lead resting ECG analysis for the detection of coronary artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Grube, Andreas Bootsveld, Seyrani Yuecel, Joseph T. Shen, Michael Imhoff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resting electrocardiogram (ECG shows limited sensitivity and specificity for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD. Several methods exist to enhance sensitivity and specificity of resting ECG for diagnosis of CAD, but such methods are not better than a specialist's judgement. We compared a new computer-enhanced, resting ECG analysis device, 3DMP, to coronary angiography to evaluate the device's accuracy in detecting hemodynamically relevant CAD. Methods: A convenience sample of 423 patients without prior coronary revascularization was evaluated with 3DMP before coronary angiography. 3DMP's sensitivity and specificity in detecting hemodynamically relevant coronary stenosis as diagnosed with coronary angiography were calculated as well as odds ratios for the 3DMP severity score and coronary artery disease risk factors. Results: 3DMP identified 179 of 201 patients with hemodynamically relevant stenosis (sensitivity 89.1%, specificity 81.1%. The positive and negative predictive values for identification of coronary stenosis as diagnosed in coronary angiograms were 79% and 90% respectively. CAD risk factors in a logistic regression model had markedly lower predictive power for the presence of coronary stenosis in patients than did 3DMP severity score (odds ratio 3.35 [2.24-5.01] vs. 34.87 [20.00-60.79]. Logistic regression combining severity score with risk factors did not add significantly to the prediction quality (odds ratio 36.73 [20.92-64.51]. Conclusions: 3DMP's computer-based, mathematically derived analysis of resting two-lead ECG data provides detection of hemodynamically relevant CAD with high sensitivity and specificity that appears to be at least as good as those reported for other resting and/or stress ECG methods currently used in clinical practice.

  17. Evolution of the Jet Opening Angle Distribution in Holographic Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Krishna; Sadofyev, Andrey V; van der Schee, Wilke

    2016-05-27

    We use holography to analyze the evolution of an ensemble of jets, with an initial probability distribution for their energy and opening angle as in proton-proton (pp) collisions, as they propagate through an expanding cooling droplet of strongly coupled plasma as in heavy ion collisions. We identify two competing effects: (i) each individual jet widens as it propagates and (ii) because wide-angle jets lose more energy, energy loss combined with the steeply falling perturbative spectrum serves to filter wide jets out of the ensemble at any given energy. Even though every jet widens, jets with a given energy can have a smaller mean opening angle after passage through the plasma than jets with that energy would have had in vacuum, as experimental data may indicate. PMID:27284647

  18. Effects of rest time on discharge response and equivalent circuit model for a lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarakonda, Lalitha; Hu, Tingshu

    2015-05-01

    This work carries out a detailed investigation on the effects of rest time on the discharge response and the parameters of the Thevenin's equivalent circuit model for a lead acid battery. Traditional methods for battery modeling require a long rest time before a discharging test so that a steady state is reached for the open circuit voltage. In a recent work, we developed an algebraic method for parameter identification of circuit models for batteries by applying discharging tests after variable and possibly very short rest time. This new method opens a door to the understanding of the effects of rest time on battery behavior, which may be used for better simulation, analysis and design of battery powered systems for improved battery efficiency and state of health. As we used the new method to extract circuit parameters after different rest times, we observed some unexpected results on the relationship between the rest time and circuit parameters. The initial voltages on the capacitors can be negative and becomes more negative as the rest time is increased. We also observed that the time constants increase with rest time. Relationships between rest time and other parameters are also reported in this paper.

  19. Measurement of the CKM angle $\\gamma$ at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Gersabeck, M

    2009-01-01

    The precise measurement of the CKM unitarity triangle angle $\\gamma$ is a key goal of the LHCb physics programme. The uncertainty on $\\gamma$, the currently least-well known of the three angles, will be reduced dramatically. Complementary measurements will be made in tree-level processes, and modes where loop diagrams play an important role. The tree-level measurements will cover time-integrated as well as time- dependent measurements in both the $B^0_d$ and the $B^0_s$ sectors. The ensemble of these measurements will provide a powerful test of whether new physics phases contribute to heavy-flavour transitions.

  20. Peripheral chemoreceptor control of cardiovascular function at rest and during exercise in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgell, Heather; McMurtry, M Sean; Haykowsky, Mark J; Paterson, Ian; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Dyck, Jason R B; Stickland, Michael K

    2015-04-01

    Peripheral chemoreceptor activity/sensitivity is enhanced in chronic heart failure (HF), and sensitivity is linked to greater mortality. This study aimed to determine the role of the peripheral chemoreceptor in cardiovascular control at rest and during exercise in HF patients and controls. Clinically stable HF patients (n = 11; ejection fraction: 39 ± 5%) and risk-matched controls (n = 10; ejection fraction: 65 ± 2%) performed randomized trials with or without dopamine infusion (2 μg·min(-1)·kg(-1)) at rest and during 40% maximal voluntary contraction handgrip (HG) exercise, and a resting trial of 2 min of inspired 100% oxygen. Both dopamine and hyperoxia were used to inhibit the peripheral chemoreceptor. At rest in HF patients, dopamine decreased ventilation (P = 0.02), decreased total peripheral resistance index (P = 0.003), and increased cardiac and stroke indexes (P ≤ 0.01), yet there was no effect of dopamine on these variables in controls (P ≥ 0.7). Hyperoxia lowered ventilation in HF (P = 0.01), but not in controls (P = 0.9), indicating suppression of the peripheral chemoreceptors in HF. However, no decrease of total peripheral resistance index was observed in HF. As expected, HG increased heart rate, ventilation, and brachial conductance of the nonexercising arm in controls and HF patients. During dopamine infusion, there were no changes in mean arterial pressure, heart rate, or ventilation responses to HG in either group (P ≥ 0.26); however, brachial conductance increased with dopamine in the control group (P = 0.004), but decreased in HF (P = 0.02). Our findings indicate that the peripheral chemoreceptor contributes to cardiovascular control at rest in HF patients and during exercise in risk-matched controls.

  1. Loss of resting bradycardia with detraining is associated with intrinsic heart rate changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelista F.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the loss of resting bradycardia with detraining were studied in rats. The relative contribution of autonomic and non-autonomic mechanisms was studied in 26 male Wistar rats (180-220 g randomly assigned to four groups: sedentary (S, N = 6, trained (T, N = 8, detrained for 1 week (D1, N = 6, and detrained for 2 weeks (D2, N = 6. T, D1 and D2 were treadmill trained 5 days/week for 60 min with a gradual increase towards 50% peak VO2. After the last training session, D1 and D2 were detrained for 1 and 2 weeks, respectively. The effect of the autonomic nervous system in causing training-induced resting bradycardia and in restoring heart rate (HR to pre-exercise training level (PET with detraining was examined indirectly after cardiac muscarinic and adrenergic receptor blockade. T rats significantly increased peak VO2 by 15 or 23.5% when compared to PET and S rats, respectively. Detraining reduced peak VO2 in both D1 and D2 rats by 22% compared to T rats, indicating loss of aerobic capacity. Resting HR was significantly lower in T and D1 rats than in S rats (313 ± 6.67 and 321 ± 6.01 vs 342 ± 12.2 bpm and was associated with a significantly decreased intrinsic HR (368 ± 6.1 and 362 ± 7.3 vs 390 ± 8 bpm. Two weeks of detraining reversed the resting HR near PET (335 ± 6.01 bpm due to an increased intrinsic HR in D2 rats compared with T and D1 rats (376 ± 8.8 bpm. The present study provides the first evidence of intrinsic HR-mediated loss of resting bradycardia with detraining in rats.

  2. Contact Angles and Surface Tension of Germanium-Silicon Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croell, A.; Kaiser, N.; Cobb, S.; Szofran, F. R.; Volz, M.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Precise knowledge of material parameters is more and more important for improving crystal growth processes. Two important parameters are the contact (wetting) angle and the surface tension, determining meniscus shapes and surface-tension driven flows in a variety of methods (Czochralski, EFG, floating-zone, detached Bridgman growth). The sessile drop technique allows the measurement of both parameters simultaneously and has been used to measure the contact angles and the surface tension of Ge(1-x)Si(x) (0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1.3) alloys on various substrate materials. Fused quartz, Sapphire, glassy carbon, graphite, SiC, carbon-based aerogel, pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN), AIN, Si3N4, and polycrystalline CVD diamond were used as substrate materials. In addition, the effect of different cleaning procedures and surface treatments on the wetting behavior were investigated. Measurements were performed both under dynamic vacuum and gas atmospheres (argon or forming gas), with temperatures up to 1100 C. In some experiments, the sample was processed for longer times, up to a week, to investigate any changes of the contact angle and/or surface tension due to slow reactions with the substrate. For pure Ge, stable contact angles were found for carbon-based substrates and for pBN, for Ge(1-x)Si(x) only for pBN. The highest wetting angles were found for pBN substrates with angles around 170deg. For the surface tension of Ge, the most reliable values resulted in gamma(T) = (591- 0.077 (T-T(sub m)) 10(exp -3)N/m. The temperature dependence of the surface tension showed similar values for Ge(1-x)Si(x), around -0.08 x 10(exp -3)N/m K, and a compositional dependence of 2.2 x 10(exp -3)N/m at%Si.

  3. Effects of Atorvastatin on Resting and Peak Exercise Blood Pressure among Normotensive Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Zaleski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins are the most widely prescribed and effective medication for reducing low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Statins may also lower resting blood pressure (BP; however, results are inconsistent. We sought to determine if the maximum dose of atorvastatin reduces resting BP and the peak systolic BP (SBP achieved on a graded exercise stress test (GEST among a large sample of 419 healthy men (48% and women (52%. Subjects (419, 44.1±0.8 yr were double-blinded and randomized to 80 mg·d−1 of atorvastatin (n=202 or placebo (n=217 for 6 mo. Among the total sample, there were no differences in resting BP (SBP, P=0.30; diastolic BP [DBP], P=0.69; mean arterial pressure (P=0.76; or peak SBP on a GEST (P=0.99 over 6 mo, regardless of drug treatment group. However, among women on atorvastatin, resting SBP/DBP (3.7±1.5 mmHg, P=0.01/3.2±0.9 mmHg, P=0.02 and peak SBP on a GEST (6.5±1.5 mmHg, P=0.04 were lower versus men. Atorvastatin lowered resting BP 3-4 mmHg and peak SBP on a GEST ~7 mmHg more among women than men over 6 mo of treatment. The inconsistent findings regarding the antihypertensive effects of statins may be partially explained by not accounting for sex effects.

  4. Optimization of sharp and viewing-angle-independent structural color

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Johnson, Steven G; Soljačić, Marin

    2014-01-01

    Structural coloration produces some of the most brilliant colors in nature and has many applications. However, sharp color (narrow frequency response) and wide viewing angle (broad angular response) are competing properties and have not been achieved simultaneously in previous studies. Here, we use numerical optimization to discover geometries where the structural color is sharp, yet the hue, saturation, and brightness all remain the same over broad viewing angles (0-90$^\\circ$) under directional illumination. Our model system consists of dipole scatterers arranged into several rings; interference among the scattered waves is optimized to yield the wavelength-selective and angle-insensitive response. Such designs can be useful for display, painting, and biosensing applications.

  5. Patterns and perceptions of migration, is Scotland distinct from the rest of the UK?

    OpenAIRE

    McCollum, David; Findlay, Allan; Bell, David; Bijak, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    The forthcoming referendum on the constitutional future of Scotland has inevitably been the focus of considerable public debate. The issue of migration has not featured strongly in these discussions. However there are grounds for believing that Scotland is ‘different’ from the rest of the UK in terms of migration patterns and in relation to public attitudes towards immigration. This briefing introduces some of the issues that are being addressed by an ESRC Centre for Population Change study i...

  6. Light-dependent transcriptional events during resting egg hatching of the rotifer Brachionus manjavacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Jin; Suga, Koushirou; Kim, Bo-Mi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong; Hagiwara, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    Rotifer resting eggs often have to endure harsh environmental conditions during the diapause phase. They are stimulated by light to hatch. In order to study the hatching mechanism, we observed resting eggs and measured their transcriptional expression under different light exposure periods (total darkness, and after 30 min, and 4h light). By using differential-display reverse transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR), we isolated 80 genes that displayed different expression patterns in response to the three light treatments: 20 genes were expressed in total darkness, 40 different genes were differentially expressed under 30 min light, and 20 further genes were expressed after 4h of light. The resting eggs showed no phenotypic differences in embryonic development during the 4h illumination period. In general, the expression patterns of the analyzed genes in resting eggs were differentially modulated by light exposure time. In total darkness, resting eggs mainly expressed genes encoding cell defense and homeostasis functions. In the 30 min illumination group, we found enriched expression of genes encoding fatty acid metabolism-related components, including Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD). Genes encoding cellular and embryonic developmental functions were highly observed in the 30 min-illuminated group but were not observed in the 4h-illuminated group. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that several transcripts such as encoding V-type H(+)-translocating pyrophosphatase (V-PPase) and Meckelin had prolonged expression levels when exposed to light for 4h. In the 4h illuminated group, the RecQ protein-like 5 (RECQL5) gene was enriched. This RECQL5 gene may be expressed to protect the developing embryo from continuous light exposure. The data presented in this study indicate that DDRT-PCR-aided gene screening can be helpful to isolate candidate genes involved in the hatching process. PMID:25703093

  7. Effect of temperature on body temperature and resting metabolic rate in pups of Eothenomys miletus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Wan-long; Mu, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Zheng-Kun

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the ability of ambient temperature and thermoregulation in Eothenomys miletus, body temperature and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured during postnatal development (1-49 day) when E. miletus exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in E. miletus increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in low tem...

  8. Metrology concept design of the GAIA basic angle monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veggel, M. van; Vink, R.; Rosielle, N.; Nijmeijer, H.; Wielders, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    The GAIA satellite, scheduled for launch in 2010, will make a highly accurate map of our Galaxy. It will measure the position of stars with an accuracy of 50 prad using two telescopes, which are positioned under a 'basic' angle between the the lines-of-sight of the telescopes of 106°. With a Basic A

  9. Small angle elastic scattering of electrons by noble gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, measurements are carried out to obtain small angle elastic differential cross sections in order to check the validity of Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations for electrons scattered by noble gas atoms. First, total cross sections are obtained for argon, krypton and xenon. Next, a parallel plate electrostatic energy analyser for the simultaneous measurement of doubly differential cross section for small angle electron scattering is described. Also absolute differential cross sections are reported. Finally the forward dispersion relation for electron-helium collisions is dealt with. (Auth.)

  10. Investigation of Brazed Plate Heat Exchangers With Variable Chevron Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Muthuraman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available - Experiments to measure the condensation heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop in brazed plate heat exchangers (BPHEs were performed with the refrigerants R410A and R22. Brazed plate heat exchangers with different chevron angles of 45°, 35°, and 20° were used. Varying the mass flux, the condensation temperature, and the vapor quality of the refrigerant, we measured the condensation heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drops. Both the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop increased proportionally with the mass flux and the vapor quality and inversely with the condensation temperature and the chevron angle.

  11. Precise predictions of neutrino mixing angles and $CP$ phase

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Gauhar

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino mixing parameters are studied using renormalization-group evolution of Dirac neutrinos with recently proposed parameterization of the neutrino mixing angles referred as `high-scale mixing relations'. The correlations among all neutrino mixing and $CP$ violating parameters are investigated. The predictions for the neutrino mixing angles and the $CP$ phase are precise and could be easily tested by ongoing and future experiments. We observe that the high scale mixing unification hypothesis is incompatible with Dirac neutrinos due to updated experimental data.

  12. Unexpected increases in rotifer resting egg abundances during the period of contamination of Lake Orta

    OpenAIRE

    Piscia, Roberta; Tabozzi, Simone; Roberta BETTINETTI; Liisa NEVALAINEN; Manca, Marina M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their ecological importance and rapid response to environmental changes, rotifers are rarely included in palaeolimnological studies. Here, we describe changes in abundance (ABD) and morphotype (MTs) diversity of rotifer resting eggs in the sediments of deep subalpine Lake Orta, Italy, covering a period prior to (pre-) 1926, during long-term ammonia and metal pollution from a rayon factory, and subsequent recovery of water quality. Following the pollution and bacterial oxidation of the...

  13. Activation of resting human T cells requires prolonged stimulation of protein kinase C.

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, N; Ase, K; Kishimoto, A.; Nishizuka, Y

    1990-01-01

    Purified resting human T cells can be induced to express the alpha subunit of the interleukin 2 receptor and to proliferate by treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate plus ionomycin but not with 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol plus ionomycin. Determination of the translocation of protein kinase C showed that 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate plus ionomycin caused a prolonged membrane association of the enzyme for more than 4 hr, whereas 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol plus ionomycin induced a tr...

  14. Rest-frame UV versus optical morphologies of galaxies using Sersic profile fitting: the importance of morphological K-correction

    CERN Document Server

    Rawat, Abhishek; De Mello, Duilia

    2009-01-01

    We show a comparison of the rest-frame UV morphologies of a sample of 162 intermediate redshift (median redshift 1.02) galaxies with their rest-frame optical morphologies. We select our sample from the deepest near-UV image obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) using the WFPC2 (F300W) as part of the parallel observations of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field campaign overlapping with the HST/ACS GOODS dataset. We perform single component Sersic fits in both WFPC2/F300W (rest-frame UV) and ACS/F850LP (rest-frame optical) bands and deduce that the Sersic index $n$ is estimated to be smaller in the rest-frame UV compared to the rest-frame optical, leading to an overestimation of the number of merger candidates by ~40-100% compared to the rest-frame optical depending upon the cutoff in $n$ employed for identifying merger candidates. This effect seems to be dominated by galaxies with low values of n(F300W) = 0.8) objects are higher by a factor of ~2.8 compared to the rest-fram e optical. This indicates that the ...

  15. Plankton Resting Stages in the Marine Sediments of the Bay of Vlorë (Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rubino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the INTERREG III CISM project, sediment cores were collected at 2 stations in the Gulf of Vlorë to study the plankton resting stage assemblages. A total of 87 morphotypes were identified and produced by Dinophyta, Ciliophora, Rotifera, and Crustacea. In 22 cases, the cyst belonged to a species absent from the plankton of the same period. The most abundant resting stages were those produced by Scrippsiella species (Dinophyta. Some calcareous cysts were identified as fossil species associated with Pleistocene to Pliocene sediment, although they were also found in surface sediments and some of them successfully germinated, thus proving their modern status. Total abundance generally decreased with sediment depth at station 40, while station 45 showed distinct maxima at 3 and 8 cm below the sediment surface. The depth of peak abundance in the sediment varied with species. This paper presents the first study of the plankton resting stages in the Bay of Vlorë. The study confirmed the utility of this type of investigation for a more correct evaluation of species diversity. In addition, the varying distribution with sediment depth suggests that this field could be of some importance in determining the history of species assemblages.

  16. Effect of 21 days of horizontal bed rest on behavioural thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev, Daniel; Eiken, Ola; Pisot, Rado; Biolo, Gianni; di Prampero, Pietro; Narici, Marco; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of 21 days of horizontal bed rest on cutaneous cold and warm sensitivity, and on behavioural temperature regulation. Healthy male subjects (N = 10) were accommodated in a hospital ward for the duration of the study and were under 24-h medical care. All activities (eating, drinking, hygiene, etc.) were conducted in the horizontal position. On the 1st and 22nd day of bed rest, cutaneous temperature sensitivity was tested by applying cold and warm stimuli of different magnitudes to the volar region of the forearm via a Peltier element thermode. Behavioural thermoregulation was assessed by having the subjects regulate the temperature of the water within a water-perfused suit (T (wps)) they were wearing. A control unit established a sinusoidal change in T (wps), such that it varied from 27 to 42 degrees C. The subjects could alter the direction of the change of T (wps), when they perceived it as thermally uncomfortable. The magnitude of the oscillations towards the end of the trial was assumed to represent the upper and lower boundaries of the thermal comfort zone. The cutaneous threshold for detecting cold stimulus decreased (P wps). We conclude that although cold sensitivity increased after bed rest, it was not of sufficient magnitude to cause any alteration in behavioural thermoregulatory responses.

  17. Test-retest reliability of graph metrics of resting state MRI functional brain networks: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andellini, Martina; Cannatà, Vittorio; Gazzellini, Simone; Bernardi, Bruno; Napolitano, Antonio

    2015-09-30

    The employment of graph theory to analyze spontaneous fluctuations in resting state BOLD fMRI data has become a dominant theme in brain imaging studies and neuroscience. Analysis of resting state functional brain networks based on graph theory has proven to be a powerful tool to quantitatively characterize functional architecture of the brain and it has provided a new platform to explore the overall structure of local and global functional connectivity in the brain. Due to its increased use and possible expansion to clinical use, it is essential that the reliability of such a technique is very strongly assessed. In this review, we explore the outcome of recent studies in network reliability which apply graph theory to analyze connectome resting state networks. Therefore, we investigate which preprocessing steps may affect reproducibility the most. In order to investigate network reliability, we compared the test-retest (TRT) reliability of functional data of published neuroimaging studies with different preprocessing steps. In particular we tested influence of global signal regression, correlation metric choice, binary versus weighted link definition, frequency band selection and length of time-series. Statistical analysis shows that only frequency band selection and length of time-series seem to affect TRT reliability. Our results highlight the importance of the choice of the preprocessing steps to achieve more reproducible measurements. PMID:26072249

  18. Effects of polygamy on the activity/rest rhythm of male fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Vivek Rohidas; Varma, Vishwanath; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Although polygamy is common in insects, its extent varies enormously among natural populations. Mating systems influence the evolution of reproductive traits and the difference in extent of polygamy between males and females may be a key factor in determining traits which come under the influence of sexual selection. Fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster are promiscuous as both males and females mate with multiple partners. Mating has severe consequences on the physiology and behaviour of flies, and it affects their activity/rest rhythm in a sex-specific manner. In this study, we attempted to discern the effects of mating with multiple partners as opposed to a single partner, or of remaining unmated, on the activity/rest rhythm of flies under cyclic semi-natural (SN) and constant dark (DD) conditions. The results revealed that while evening activity of mated flies was significantly reduced compared to virgins, polygamous males showed a more severe reduction compared to monogamous males. In contrast, though mated females showed reduction in evening activity compared to virgins, activity levels were not different between polygamous and monogamous females. Although there was no detectable effect of mating on clock period, power of the activity/rest rhythm was significantly reduced in mated females with no difference seen between polygamous and monogamous individuals. These results suggest that courtship motivation, represented by evening activity, is successively reduced in males due to mating with one or more partners, while in females, it does not depend on the number of mating partners. Based on these results we conclude that polygamy affects the activity/rest rhythm of fruit flies D. melanogaster in a sex-dependent manner.

  19. Effects of polygamy on the activity/rest rhythm of male fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Vivek Rohidas; Varma, Vishwanath; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Although polygamy is common in insects, its extent varies enormously among natural populations. Mating systems influence the evolution of reproductive traits and the difference in extent of polygamy between males and females may be a key factor in determining traits which come under the influence of sexual selection. Fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster are promiscuous as both males and females mate with multiple partners. Mating has severe consequences on the physiology and behaviour of flies, and it affects their activity/rest rhythm in a sex-specific manner. In this study, we attempted to discern the effects of mating with multiple partners as opposed to a single partner, or of remaining unmated, on the activity/rest rhythm of flies under cyclic semi-natural (SN) and constant dark (DD) conditions. The results revealed that while evening activity of mated flies was significantly reduced compared to virgins, polygamous males showed a more severe reduction compared to monogamous males. In contrast, though mated females showed reduction in evening activity compared to virgins, activity levels were not different between polygamous and monogamous females. Although there was no detectable effect of mating on clock period, power of the activity/rest rhythm was significantly reduced in mated females with no difference seen between polygamous and monogamous individuals. These results suggest that courtship motivation, represented by evening activity, is successively reduced in males due to mating with one or more partners, while in females, it does not depend on the number of mating partners. Based on these results we conclude that polygamy affects the activity/rest rhythm of fruit flies D. melanogaster in a sex-dependent manner.

  20. Method on camouflaged target recognition using the angle of ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuansun, Xiao-bo; Wu, Wen-Yuan; Huang, Yan-hua; Li, Zhao-zhao

    2015-10-01

    Using polarimetric information of the camouflaged target surface to identify camouflage has been a hot research area in camouflage detecting. The main method is to use the difference in the degree of polarization(DOP) between background and target to add the contrast ratio of them. The measurement of the DOP has some requirements on the intensity of reflected radiation. In case of low reflected radiation intensity, the difference in the DOP for different materials is not so distinguishable. In addition, the linear degree of polarization is largely under the effects of detection angle and surface roughness, so it is hard to differentiate the degree of polarization when the targets with similar surface roughness are detected at the same detection angle. By analyzing the elements affecting the reflected electromagnetic radiation amplitudes and phase on the camouflaged target surface, this article makes a research on the polarization character of reflected radiation A method on camouflaged target recognition directly or indirectly by taking the angle of ellipsometry (AOE) imaging under the linear polarized light. The function model of the angle of incidence, complex refractive index and AOE was modeled, then the model was simulated by MATLAB and the results showed it can describe the distribution properties of AOE. A new thought for the approach of identifying camouflaged target recognition by detecting polarimetric information was proposed, and it has a deep theoretical and practical significance in camouflaged target recognition.

  1. Combined surgical management of mandibular angle prominence and microgenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin play a very important role in facial aesthetics. Different deformities of volume and of position may occur at this level and it is the microgenia one of the more frequent. Treatment options include the use of silicone, alloplasty materials and autologous bone graft. Authors report the use of the bone removed from mandibular angle to increase the chin. This is the case of a white female patient aged 18 seen by the Orthognathics Multidisciplinary Staff of 'V. I. Lenin' Hospital due to its uncommon face width. The corresponding physical examination as well as the complementary ones diagnosed a bilateral prominence of mandibular angle associated with a microgenia. Surgery carried out was of remodeling type of both mandibular angles and genioplasty of height increase and a discrete advancement using the bone removed from the gonion. There were satisfactory aesthetic results without evidence of bone reabsorption. We conclude that use of autologous graft of mandibular angle is an effective treatment alternative for correction of microgenia. (author)

  2. Resting cysts of freshwater dinoflagellates in southeastern Georgian Bay (Lake Huron) as proxies of cultural eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Francine M.G.; Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Ellegaard, Marianne;

    2011-01-01

    Resting cysts attributed to the freshwater dinoflagellate genus Peridinium were found in surface sediments from Severn Sound, southeastern Georgian Bay (Lake Huron, Laurentian Great Lakes of North America). Two distinct cyst morphotypes were present and they were assigned to Peridinium wisconsine......Resting cysts attributed to the freshwater dinoflagellate genus Peridinium were found in surface sediments from Severn Sound, southeastern Georgian Bay (Lake Huron, Laurentian Great Lakes of North America). Two distinct cyst morphotypes were present and they were assigned to Peridinium...... contained between ~ 750 and 8500 cysts/cm3. However, winnowing by bottom currents and high concentrations of dissolved oxygen adversely impact the dinoflagellate cyst record on the lakebed, and cyst concentrations in easily remobilized muds on bathymetric highs were

  3. Reduction of recruitment of Acartia pacifica nauplii from benthic resting eggs due to organochlorine pesticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiao-dong; WANG Gui-zhong; LI Shao-jing

    2006-01-01

    Many estuarine and coastal planktonic copepods depend on the hatching of benthic resting eggs for recruitment of nauplii to the water column population. The potential effects of two organochlorine pesticides, hexchloriobinzene (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), on the recruitment of Acartia pacifica nauplii from benthic resting eggs in the seabed of Xiamen Bay were experimentally investigated. The abundance of A. pacifica nauplii hatched from the sediment significantly decreased with the increase of pesticide concentration. Trimmed Spearman-Karber analysis gave sediment 96-h LC50 values were84.81 ng/g for HCH, and 157.94 ng/g for DDT. The median AI (AI50) was -0.77, which suggested that the combined effect of HCH and DDT showed a weak effect than individual effects. There was a positive relationship between mortality and exposure time in DDT treatment, while the relationship was not significant in HCH treatment. The results suggest that organochlorine pesticides can reduce recruitment ofA. pacifica nauplii from benthic resting eggs to planktonic population.

  4. Oscillations of relative inclination angles in compact extrasolar planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Juliette C.; Adams, Fred C.

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler mission has detected dozens of compact planetary systems with more than four transiting planets. This sample provides a collection of close-packed planetary systems with relatively little spread in the inclination angles of the inferred orbits. A large fraction of the observational sample contains limited multiplicity, begging the question whether there is a true diversity of multitransiting systems, or if some systems merely possess high mutual inclinations, allowing them to appear as single-transiting systems in a transit-based survey. This paper begins an exploration of the effectiveness of dynamical mechanisms in exciting orbital inclination within exoplanetary systems of this class. For these tightly packed systems, we determine that the orbital inclination angles are not spread out appreciably through self-excitation. In contrast, the two Kepler multiplanet systems with additional non-transiting planets are susceptible to oscillations of their inclination angles, which means their currently observed configurations could be due to planet-planet interactions alone. We also provide constraints and predictions for the expected transit duration variations for each planet. In these multiplanet compact Kepler systems, oscillations of their inclination angles are remarkably hard to excite; as a result, they tend to remain continually mutually transiting (CMT-stable). We study this issue further by augmenting the planet masses and determining the enhancement factor required for oscillations to move the systems out of transit. The oscillations of inclination found here inform the recently suggested dichotomy in the sample of Solar systems observed by Kepler.

  5. Non-linear Flight Dynamics at High Angles of Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granasy, P.; Sørensen, C.B.; Mosekilde, Erik;

    1998-01-01

    The methods of nonlinear dynamics are applied to the longitudinal motion of a vectored thrust aircraft, in particular the behavior at high angles of attack. Our model contains analytic nonlinear aerodynamical coefficients based on NASA windtunnel experiments on the F-18 high-alpha research vehicl...

  6. An Analysis of the Morris Loe Angle Trisection Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Farhad,; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents the Morris Loe Angle Trisection Approximation Method to introduce students to areas of mathematics where approximations are used when exact answers are difficult or impossible to obtain. Examines the accuracy of the method using the laws of sines and cosines and a BASIC computer program that is provided. (MDH)

  7. Progress Report of Small Angle Neutron Scattering on CARR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The project of small angle neutron scattering spectrometer (SANS) belongs to "building up the center for neutron scattering". It's one of the project "national science & technology infrastructure center". The building parts are already done in 2010. By the proposal one of

  8. CoREST1 promotes tumor formation and tumor stroma interactions in a mouse model of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohini Mazumdar

    Full Text Available Regulators of chromatin structure and gene expression contribute to tumor formation and progression. The co-repressor CoREST1 regulates the localization and activity of associated histone modifying enzymes including lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1 and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1. Although several CoREST1 associated proteins have been reported to enhance breast cancer progression, the role of CoREST1 in breast cancer is currently unclear. Here we report that knockdown of CoREST1 in the basal-type breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, led to significantly reduced incidence and diminished size of tumors compared to controls in mouse xenograft studies. Notably, CoREST1-depleted cells gave rise to tumors with a marked decrease in angiogenesis. CoREST1 knockdown led to a decrease in secreted angiogenic and inflammatory factors, and mRNA analysis suggests that CoREST1 promotes expression of genes related to angiogenesis and inflammation including VEGF-A and CCL2. CoREST1 knockdown decreased the ability of MDA-MB-231 conditioned media to promote endothelial cell tube formation and migration. Further, tumors derived from CoREST1-depleted cells had reduced macrophage infiltration and the secretome of CoREST1 knockdown cells was deficient in promoting macrophage migration and macrophage-mediated angiogenesis. Taken together, these findings reveal that the epigenetic regulator CoREST1 promotes tumorigenesis in a breast cancer model at least in part through regulation of gene expression patterns in tumor cells that have profound non-cell autonomous effects on endothelial and inflammatory cells in the tumor microenvironment.

  9. Ultrasound follow up of testicular adrenal rest tumors with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Report of three cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Dong Won; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Nam, Kyung Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Dong-A University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    While testicular adrenal rest tumor is generally a rare intratesticular tumor, it is frequent in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The tumors are diagnosed and followed up by ultrasound examination because these tumors are non-palpable and symptomless in most cases and always benign. Ultrasound imaging features change depending on how congenital adrenal hyperplasia is controlled. We herein report three cases of testicular adrenal rest tumors with different usual and unusual imaging findings and follow-up imaging. Patient 1 was a 14-year-old boy who presented with poor compliance to medication. Patient 2 and 3 were a 10-year-old and 13-year-old boy who presented with precocious puberty and short stature, respectively. Ultrasound examinations demonstrated oval hypoechoic masses and irregular speculated hyperechoic masses in the testes and different serial imaging findings.

  10. Controlled trial of bowel rest and nutritional support in the management of Crohn's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, G R; Fleming, C R; Jeejeebhoy, K N; Rosenberg, I H; Sales, D; Tremaine, W J

    1988-01-01

    To define the role of bowel rest as an independent variable from nutritional support a prospective, randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 51 patients with active Crohn's disease unresponsive to other medical management. Nutritional support for 21 days was randomised to total parenteral nutrition and nil by mouth (n = 17), defined formula diet administered through a nasogastric tube (n = 19), or partial parenteral nutrition and oral food (n = 15). Nutrient input in the first two groups...

  11. Installation of NA62 Large Angle Veto detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    In May 2012, the NA62 collaboration has installed the first eight (out of 12) Large Angle Veto detectors for the accurate identification of photons. These subdetectors will re-use 3000 lead glass crystals with attached photomultipliers from the OPAL experiment at LEP – CERN’s former accelerator.

  12. Evaluation of Three Different Osteosynthesis Methods for Mandibular Angle Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira-Filho, Valfrido Antonio; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de Gorla; Reis, José Maurício Dos Santos Nunes;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of different rigid fixation methods in mandible angle fractures. Three different plates were tested: one 4-hole grid miniplate, one 8-hole curved grid miniplate, and one 4-hole straight miniplate.For the loading tests, 30 polyurethane ...

  13. Hausdorff dimension of biaccessible angles for quadratic polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Bruin, Henk

    2012-01-01

    A point $z$ in the Julia set of a polynomial $p$ is called biaccessible if two dynamic rays land at $z$; a point $z$ in the Mandelbrot set is called biaccessible if two parameter rays land at $z$. In both cases, we say that the external angles of these two rays are biaccessible as well. In this paper we give upper and lower bounds for the Hausdorff dimension of biaccessible external angles of quadratic polynomials, both in the dynamical and parameter space. We explicitly describe those quadratic polynomials where this dimension equals 1 (if and only if the Julia set is an interval), and when it equals 0, namely, at finite direct bifurcations from the polynomial $z^2$, as well as limit points thereof. We also show that the Hausdorff dimension of biaccessible dynamical angles depends in a H\\"older sense on the parameter angle, and that this dimension, up to a factor $\\log 2$, equals the {\\em core entropy}, i.e. the topological entropy of the dynamics of the Hubbard tree.

  14. Reflectivity Model of Low Grazing Angle Radar Sea Clutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Sheng; CHEN Jie; CAI Tao; TU Xu-yan

    2005-01-01

    The commonly used reflectivity models of radar sea clutter are summarized. Among these models, the adjusted Barton model and the adjusted Morchin model are compared. From the analysis result, the γ-p reflectivity model is presented for low grazing angle radar sea clutter by the adjustment of the original Barton reflectivity model. The model takes into account radar frequency, grazing angle, sea condition, and polarization property. The influences of these factors on the proposed model are analyzed. The model absorbs the merits from commonly used reflectivity models for sea clutter. It introduces several researchers' opinions, and extends them. And it accounts for the reflectivity at arbitrary radar frequency from VHF to X-band, arbitrary low grazing angle, arbitrary sea condition and different polarization property. One of the main results is the proposed γ-p reflectivity model can reflect the influence of polarization on sea clutter reflectivity to some extent. The proposed γ-p reflectivity model of low-angle radar-sea clutter is validated by comparing the simulated and statistically experimental data.

  15. Characterization of treated porcelain surfaces via dynamic contact angle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, R D; Shen, C

    1995-01-01

    Successful porcelain repair requires conditioning of porcelain surfaces. Conditioning is intended to facilitate wetting by repair materials and improve interfacial bonding. The objective of this investigation was to determine the effects of selected surface treatments upon the wettability of a representative feldspathic porcelain. Dynamic contact angle analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the effects of such treatments. Standardized porcelain specimens were subjected to the following five treatment regimens: (1) control (no treatment); (2) airborne particle abrasion using 50 microns aluminum oxide; (3) etching with ammonium bifluoride gel; (4) etching with acidulated phosphate fluoride gel; and (5) etching with hydrofluoric acid gel. Following treatment, specimens were cleansed and dried. Advancing contact angles were quantified using dynamic contact angle analysis. Mean values and 95% confidence intervals were (in degrees): control, 63.8 +/- 2.7; ammonium bifluoride, 39.4 +/- 2.0; airborne particle abrading, 29.1 +/- 2.9; acidulated phosphate fluoride, 24.9 +/- 1.7; and hydrofluoric acid, 16.5 +/- 1.2. Significant differences were found between all treatment groups (P = .05). Subsequent scanning electron microscopy examination of treated surfaces indicated lesser contact angles were associated with surfaces displaying deeper and wider grooves. Apparently, the resultant increase in surface area produces increased wettability. It is inferred that an increase in surface area may correspond to enhanced resin-porcelain bonding.

  16. Topsoil as Affected by Dung Deposition Under Resting Places of Red Howler Monkey (Alouatta seniculus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. POUVELLE; F. FEER; J. F. PONGE

    2008-01-01

    The short-term influence of dung deposition and the further redistribution of dung by dung beetles were studied under a resting place of the red howler monkey (Alouatta senieulus) living in tropical rainforests of South America. Monkey dung was experimentally clumped on the field in a place used by troops of howler monkeys for resting in the Nouragues Reserve Station, French Guiana. Dung-treated plots were sampled serially over three weeks and compared with controls located in their immediate vicinity. The composition of the soil matrix (top 10 cm) was studied in successive microlayers using an optical method. Under the influence of dung beetle activity, the topsoil became more homogeneous by losing its litter, its content in earthworm aeces increased in the course of time, and surface mineral deposits were penetrated by roots. The results were interpreted in the light of present knowledge on the effects of soil animal activity on plant growth and survival of seedlings.

  17. Multiple small-angle neutron scattering studies of anisotropic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, A J; Long, G G; Ilavsky, J

    2002-01-01

    Building on previous work that considered spherical scatterers and randomly oriented spheroidal scatterers, we describe a multiple small-angle neutron scattering (MSANS) analysis for nonrandomly oriented spheroids. We illustrate this with studies of the multi-component void morphologies found in plasma-spray thermal barrier coatings. (orig.)

  18. Abnormal cerebral functional connectivity in esophageal cancer patients with theory of mind deficits in resting state

    OpenAIRE

    Yin Cao; JianBo Xiang; Nong Qian; SuPing Sun; LiJun Hu; YongGui Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the function of the default mode network (DMN) in the psychopathological mechanisms of theory of mind deficits in patients with an esophageal cancer concomitant with depression in resting the state. Subjects and Methods: Twenty-five cases of esophageal cancer with theory of mind deficits (test group) that meet the diagnostic criteria of esophageal cancer and neuropsychological tests, including Beck depression inventory, reading the mind in the eyes, and Faux pas, were...

  19. The Application of Restful Web Services in the Campus Information Integration%Restful Web Services在校园信息集成中的应用*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟; 郝爱语; 张伟华

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of information integration, the author provides an integration solution of Campus heterogeneous information systems based on Restful Web Services. According to the REST design principles, the author provides a lightweight way to achieve the integration of heterogeneous information in campus network. Experimental results show that this new solution has a simple-to-use, scalability, strong advantage and has good application prospects compared to traditional SOAP-based Web Services.%针对目前校园网中异构信息集成过于复杂的问题,本文提出基于REST架构的Web Services的校园异构信息系统集成方案。该方法根据REST设计原则,采用轻量的方式实现校园网异构信息的集成。实验结果表明,该方案相对于传统基于SOAP的Web Services,具有简单易用、伸缩性强的优势,具有良好的应用前景。

  20. Changes in distribution of lung perfusion and ventilation at rest and during maximal exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for evaluation of changes in the distribution of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation during exercise was applied to normal male volunteers. Ventilation and perfusion scans were done with the subjects seated on a bicycle ergometer. The resting studies utilized krypton 81 (/sup 81m/Kr) for ventilation and technetium /sup 99m/ (/sup 99m/Tc) macroaggregate albumin intravenously for perfusion. Exercise studies were done when 80 percent of maximum predicted heart rate was maintained for five minutes and utilized /sup 81m/Kr for ventilation and a tenfold dose of /sup 99m/Tc for perfusion. Higher dose of /sup 99m/Tc would minimize the effect of radioactivity left over from the resting study. This method allowed us to assess changes in ventilation and perfusion in normal subjects induced by exercise, but may also be applicable in a variety of cardiopulmonary conditions that affect pulmonary ventilation and perfusion or both

  1. Effects of prolonged bed rest on the total peripheral resistance baroreflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X.; Mukkamala, R.; Sheynberg, N.; Williams, G. H.; Cohen, R. J.; Mark, R. G. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance following prolonged exposure to microgravity continues to be a primary concern of the human space program. Reduced autonomic tone has been demonstrated to contribute to this phenomenon, and the heart rate baroreflex, in particular, has been repeatedly shown to be impaired. However, only the works of Yelle et al. have attempted to address the role of the total peripheral resistance (TPR) baroreflex, a potentially more significant contributor to blood pressure regulation. We applied a previously developed method for estimating the static gains of both the arterial and cardiopulmonary TPR baroreflexes to data obtained before and after 16-day bed rest. Reductions in the estimated static gains of the arterial (statistically significant) and cardiopulmonary TPR baroreflexes were found after bed rest. This study supports the works of Yelle et al, which imply that the TPR baroreflex is reduced after spaceflight.

  2. Resting-state qEEG predicts rate of second language learning in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Chantel S; Yamasaki, Brianna L; Kluender, Reina A; Stocco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the neurobiological basis of individual differences in second language acquisition (SLA) is important for research on bilingualism, learning, and neural plasticity. The current study used quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) to predict SLA in college-aged individuals. Baseline, eyes-closed resting-state qEEG was used to predict language learning rate during eight weeks of French exposure using an immersive, virtual scenario software. Individual qEEG indices predicted up to 60% of the variability in SLA, whereas behavioral indices of fluid intelligence, executive functioning, and working-memory capacity were not correlated with learning rate. Specifically, power in beta and low-gamma frequency ranges over right temporoparietal regions were strongly positively correlated with SLA. These results highlight the utility of resting-state EEG for studying the neurobiological basis of SLA in a relatively construct-free, paradigm-independent manner. PMID:27164483

  3. Disruption of ripple-associated hippocampal activity during rest impairs spatial learning in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ego-Stengel, Valérie; Wilson, Matthew A

    2010-01-01

    The hippocampus plays a key role in the acquisition of new memories for places and events. Evidence suggests that the consolidation of these memories is enhanced during sleep. At the neuronal level, reactivation of awake experience in the hippocampus during sharp-wave ripple events, characteristic of slow-wave sleep, has been proposed as a neural mechanism for sleep-dependent memory consolidation. However, a causal relation between sleep reactivation and memory consolidation has not been established. Here we show that disrupting neuronal activity during ripple events impairs spatial learning. We trained rats daily in two identical spatial navigation tasks followed each by a 1-hour rest period. After one of the tasks, stimulation of hippocampal afferents selectively disrupted neuronal activity associated with ripple events without changing the sleep-wake structure. Rats learned the control task significantly faster than the task followed by rest stimulation, indicating that interfering with hippocampal processing during sleep led to decreased learning.

  4. Discrimination and characterization of Parkinsonian rest tremors by analyzing long-term correlations and multifractal signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Livi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze 48 signals of rest tremor velocity related to 12 distinct subjects affected by Parkinson's disease. The subjects belong to two different groups, formed by four and eight subjects with, respectively, high- and low-amplitude rest tremors. Each subject is tested in four settings, given by combining the use of deep brain stimulation and L-DOPA medication. We develop two main feature-based representations of such signals, which are obtained by considering (i) the long-term correlations and multifractal properties, and (ii) the power spectra. The feature-based representations are initially utilized for the purpose of characterizing the subjects under different settings. In agreement with previous studies, we show that deep brain stimulation does not significantly characterize neither of the two groups, regardless of the adopted representation. On the other hand, the medication effect yields statistically significant differences in both high- and low-amplitude tremor groups. We successively...

  5. Alterations of Resting State Functional Connectivity in the Default Network in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Shih-Jen; Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Peltier, Scott J.; Carrasco, Melisa; Risi, Susan; Lord, Catherine; Monk, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with disturbances of neural connectivity. Functional connectivity between neural structures is typically examined within the context of a cognitive task, but also exists in the absence of a task (i.e., “rest”). Connectivity during rest is particularly active in a set of structures called the default network, which includes the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), retrosplenial cortex, lateral parietal cortex/angular gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex, ...

  6. Systematic reviews of bed rest and advice to stay active for acute low back pain.

    OpenAIRE

    Waddell, G.; Feder, G.; Lewis, M.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the United Kingdom (UK), 9% of adults consult their doctor annually with back pain. The treatment recommendations are based on orthopaedic teaching, but the current management is causing increasing dissatisfaction. Many general practitioners (GPs) are confused about what constitutes effective advice. AIM: To review all randomized controlled trials of bed rest and of medical advice to stay active for acute back pain. METHOD: A systematic review based on a search of MEDLINE and E...

  7. Exercise training reduces resting heart rate via downregulation of the funny channel HCN4

    OpenAIRE

    D'Sousa, Alicia; Bucchi, Annalisa; Johnsen, Anne Berit; Logantha, Sunil; Monfredi, Oliver; Yanni, Joseph; Prehar, Sukhal; Hart, George; Cartwright, Elisabeth; Wisløff, Ulrik; Dobryznski, Halina; DiFrancesco, Dario; Morris, Gwilym; Boyett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Endurance athletes exhibit sinus bradycardia, that is a slow resting heart rate, associated with a higher incidence of sinus node (pacemaker) disease and electronic pacemaker implantation. Here we show that training-induced bradycardia is not a consequence of changes in the activity of the autonomic nervous system but is caused by intrinsic electrophysiological changes in the sinus node. We demonstrate that training-induced bradycardia persists after blockade of the autonomous nervous system ...

  8. Optimization of work and rest hours for navigation officers on the ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simkuva H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the research as a whole is dedicated to studies of the work load of navigation officers and, consequently, is related to the current international research on the quality of working life. Issues of seafarers' working time are very topical because in recent years the load of navigation officers has significantly increased, either due to increase in shipping intensity, or in the context of the new international maritime law, for example, compliance with the requirements of the ISM CODE (International Management safety Code, THE ISPS (The International Ship and Port Facility Security Code. Irregularities are observed in practice of the seafarers' working hours and rest hours, and even the mismatch, as presented in the port of inspection materials. This article is intended to assess the 2nd and 3rd Officer's load compliance with the regulatory enactments for the work and rest regime to develop proposals to load optimization. Load analysis of Navigation officers is based on international maritime regulations that determine the work and rest regime on ships STCW (The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, MLC (Maritime Labour Convention. In the article, concrete data is used from the research, which was conducted 18 months on the Handy type of tanker from July, 2012 till December, 2013 in the real time mode. In the article is also concrete data used from 340 survey respondents, which reflects the views of the navigation officers on violations of the work and rest regime on the ship and the fatigue issue.

  9. SLEEPING AND RESTING BEHAVIOR, FACTORS AND IMPLICATIONS IN BREEDING TECHNOLOGY OF CHINCHILLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BOTHA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fallowing many papers, related to different breeding systems of the Chinchilla l., wirenetting floor and bedding cage, which results that there are no significant differencesoverview the growth indices and implicit the forage intake, we where studied thebreed’s behavior to explain all these. Adopting one of the breeding systems involvessmaller or bigger investment, this being the principal aim of this paper. Knowing thatChinchilla has an inactive period of 71,02% from 24 h, they are resting 54,05% and16,97% so-called sleeping in 24 h. From our studies results that most of inactive time(rest and sleeping they are sitting on the dust bath tray, no matter the floor type. Thatexplains there are no significant differences in outputs depending on the adoptedtechnology.

  10. Regulation of PDH in human arm and leg muscles at rest and during intense exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Damsgaard, Rasmus;

    2008-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is differentially regulated in specific human muscles, regulation of PDH was examined in triceps, deltoid, and vastus lateralis at rest and during intense exercise. To elicit considerable glycogen use, subjects performed 30 min of exhaustive...... arm cycling on two occasions and leg cycling exercise on a third day. Muscle biopsies were obtained from deltoid or triceps on the arm exercise days and from vastus lateralis on the leg cycling day. Resting PDH protein content and phosphorylation on PDH-E1 alpha sites 1 and 2 were higher (P < or = 0...... activity of the active form of PDH (PDHa) after 10 min of exercise was more marked in vastus lateralis ( approximately 246%) than in triceps ( approximately 160%), but when it was related to total PDH-E1 alpha protein content, no difference was evident. In conclusion, PDH protein content seems to be...

  11. Bending of orthotropic plates resting on Pasternak's foundations using mixed shear deformation theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.M. Zenkour

    2011-01-01

    The mixed first-order shear deformation plate theory (MFPT) is employed to study the bending response of simply-supported orthotropic plates.The present plate is subjected to a mechanical load and resting on Pasternak's model or Winkler's model of elastic foundation or without any elastic foundation.Several examples are presented to verify the accuracy of the present theory.Numerical results for deflection and stresses are presented.The proposed MFPT is shown simplely to implement and capable of giving satisfactory results for shear deformable plates under static loads and resting on two-parameter elastic foundation.The results presented here show that the characteristics of deflection and stresses are significantly influenced by the elastic foundation stiffness,plate aspect ratio and side-to-thickness ratio.

  12. Long-term survival of hydrated resting eggs from Brachionus plicatilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody S Clark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several organisms display dormancy and developmental arrest at embryonic stages. Long-term survival in the dormant form is usually associated with desiccation, orthodox plant seeds and Artemia cysts being well documented examples. Several aquatic invertebrates display dormancy during embryonic development and survive for tens or even hundreds of years in a hydrated form, raising the question of whether survival in the non-desiccated form of embryonic development depends on pathways similar to those occurring in desiccation tolerant forms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address this question, Illumina short read sequencing was used to generate transcription profiles from the resting and amictic eggs of an aquatic invertebrate, the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis. These two types of egg have very different life histories, with the dormant or diapausing resting eggs, the result of the sexual cycle and amictic eggs, the non-dormant products of the asexual cycle. Significant transcriptional differences were found between the two types of egg, with amictic eggs rich in genes involved in the morphological development into a juvenile rotifer. In contrast, representatives of classical "stress" proteins: a small heat shock protein, ferritin and Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins were identified in resting eggs. More importantly however, was the identification of transcripts for messenger ribonucleoprotein particles which stabilise RNA. These inhibit translation and provide a valuable source of useful RNAs which can be rapidly activated on the exit from dormancy. Apoptotic genes were also present. Although apoptosis is inconsistent with maintenance of prolonged dormancy, an altered apoptotic pathway has been proposed for Artemia, and this may be the case with the rotifer. CONCLUSIONS: These data represent the first transcriptional profiling of molecular processes associated with dormancy in a non-desiccated form and indicate important

  13. Small angle neutron scattering and small angle X-ray scattering studies of platinum-loaded carbon foams

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P U Sastry; V K Aswal; A G Wagh

    2008-11-01

    The morphology of carbon nanofoam samples comprising platinum nanoparticles dispersed in the matrix was characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results show that the structure of pores of carbon matrix exhibits a mass (pore) fractal nature and the average radius of the platinum particles is about 2.5 nm. The fractal dimension as well as the size distribution parameters of platinum particles varies markedly with the platinum content and annealing temperature. Transmission electron micrographs of the samples corroborate the SANS and SAXS results.

  14. An automated method for identifying artifact in ICA of resting-state fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik eBhaganagarapu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An enduring issue with data-driven analysis and filtering methods is the interpretation of results. To assist, we present an automatic method for identifaction of artifact in independent components (ICs derived from functional MRI (fMRI. The method was designed with the following features: Does not require temporal information about an fMRI paradigm; Does not require the user to train the algorithm; Requires only the fMRI images (additional acquisition of anatomical imaging not required; Is able to identify a high proportion of artifact-related ICs without removing components that are likely to be of neuronal origin; Can be applied to resting-state fMRI; Is automated, requiring minimal or no human intervention.We applied the method to a MELODIC probabilistic ICA of resting-state functional connectivity data acquired in 50 healthy control subjects, and compared the results to a blinded expert manual classification. The method identified between 26% and 72% of the components as artifact (mean 55%. 0.3% of components identified as artifact were discordant with the manual classification; retrospective examination of these ICs suggested the automated method had correctly identified these as artifact.We have developed an effective automated method which removes a substantial number of unwanted noisy components in ICA analyses of resting-state fMRI data. Source code of our implementation of the method is available.

  15. Effects of capsinoid ingestion on energy expenditure and lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Staples Aaron W; Andrews Richard; Holwerda Andrew M; Sherriffs Scott S; Josse Andrea R; Phillips Stuart M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The thermogenic and metabolic properties of capsinoids appear to mimic those of the more pungent sister compound capsaicin. However, few data exist on how capsinoid ingestion affects energy expenditure in humans and no data exist on its interaction with exercise. We aimed to determine how ingestion of capsinoids affected energy expenditure, lipid oxidation and blood metabolites at rest and during moderate intensity exercise. Methods Twelve healthy young men (age = 24.3 ± 3...

  16. Intensity of Resistance Exercise Determines Adipokine and Resting Energy Expenditure Responses in Overweight Elderly Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Fatouros, Ioannis G.; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Tournis, Symeon; Michalis G. Nikolaidis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Douroudos, Ioannis I.; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Thomakos, Petros M.; Taxildaris, Kyriakos; Mastorakos, George; Mitrakou, Asimina

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the time course of leptin, adiponectin, and resting energy expenditure (REE) responses in overweight elderly males after acute resistance exercise protocols of various intensity configurations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Forty inactive men (65–82 years) were randomly assigned to one of four groups (n = 10/group): control, low-intensity resistance exercise, moderate-intensity resistance exercise, and high-intensity resistance exercise. Exercise energy cost, REE, leptin, ...

  17. Physiological effects of bioceramic material: harvard step, resting metabolic rate and treadmill running assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ting-Kai; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Lee, Chi-Ming; Kan, Nai-Wen; Hou, Chien-Wen

    2013-12-31

    Previous biomolecular and animal studies have shown that a room-temperature far-infrared-rayemitting ceramic material (bioceramic) demonstrates physical-biological effects, including the normalization of psychologically induced stress-conditioned elevated heart rate in animals. In this clinical study, the Harvard step test, the resting metabolic rate (RMR) assessment and the treadmill running test were conducted to evaluate possible physiological effects of the bioceramic material in human patients. The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) during the Harvard step test indicated that the bioceramic material significantly increased the high-frequency (HF) power spectrum. In addition, the results of RMR analysis suggest that the bioceramic material reduced oxygen consumption (VO2). Our results demonstrate that the bioceramic material has the tendency to stimulate parasympathetic responses, which may reduce resting energy expenditure and improve cardiorespiratory recovery following exercise.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF POWDER FLOWABILITY USING MEASUREMENT OF ANGLE OF REPOSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.; Geldart; E.; C.; Abdullah; A.; Hassanpour; L.; C.; Nwoke; I.; Wouters

    2006-01-01

    In response to the need in industry for a quick and reproducible method of measuring the flowability of powders in processes involving transport and storage, the apparently simple idea of measuring angle of repose has been revived. The simple tester first used has evolved over a number of years into the present version which is shown to be capable of handling quite small samples of powders that are even slightly cohesive. Experimental data are presented and results shown to compare consistently with the better known Hausner ratio.

  19. Effect of prior immobilization on muscular glucose clearance in resting and running rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro studies have shown that prior disuse impairs the glucose clearance of red skeletal muscle because of a developed insensitivity to insulin. We studied whether an impaired glucose clearance is present in vivo in 42-h immobilized muscles of resting rats and, furthermore, whether the exercise-induced increase in glucose clearance of red muscles is affected by prior immobilization. The 2-[3H]deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) bolus injection method was used to determine glucose clearance of individual muscles. At rest, glucose clearance was markedly impaired in rats with previously immobilized red muscles compared with nonimmobilized control rats. During running, glucose clearance did not differ between muscles in previously immobilized and control rats. Insulin levels were always similar in the two groups and decreased during exercise. Intracellular nonphosphorylated 2DG was present in tissues with high glucose clearances. In conclusion, 42 h of immobilization markedly impairs glucose clearance of resting red muscle fibers in vivo. Apparently, physical inactivity in particular affects steps involved in insulin-mediated action that are not part of contraction-induced glucose uptake and metabolism. Presence of intracellular 2DG shows that separate determination of phosphorylated 2DG is necessary for accurate estimates of glucose metabolism and that accumulation of phosphorylated 2DG does not accurately reflect glucose transport

  20. Automatic selection of resting-state networks with functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Francesca eStorti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during a resting-state condition can reveal the co-activation of specific brain regions in distributed networks, called resting-state networks, which are selected by independent component analysis (ICA of the fMRI data. One of the major difficulties with component analysis is the automatic selection of the ICA features related to brain activity. In this study we describe a method designed to automatically select networks of potential functional relevance, specifically, those regions known to be involved in motor function, visual processing, executive functioning, auditory processing, memory, and the default-mode network. To do this, image analysis was based on probabilistic ICA as implemented in FSL software. After decomposition, the optimal number of components was selected by applying a novel algorithm which takes into account, for each component, Pearson's median coefficient of skewness of the spatial maps generated by FSL, followed by clustering, segmentation, and spectral analysis. To evaluate the performance of the approach, we investigated the resting-state networks in 25 subjects. For each subject, three resting-state scans were obtained with a Siemens Allegra 3 T scanner (NYU data set. Comparison of the visually and the automatically identified neuronal networks showed that the algorithm had high accuracy (first scan: 95%, second scan: 95%, third scan: 93% and precision (90%, 90%, 84%. The reproducibility of the networks for visual and automatic selection was very close: it was highly consistent in each subject for the default-mode network (≥ 92% and the occipital network, which includes the medial visual cortical areas (≥ 94%, and consistent for the attention network (≥ 80%, the right and/or left lateralized frontoparietal attention networks, and the temporal-motor network (≥ 80%. The automatic selection method may be used to detect neural networks and reduce subjectivity in ICA

  1. Circadian rhythm of rest activity and autonomic nervous system activity at different stages in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Fumitoshi; Kuriyama, Nagato; Nakagawa, Masanori; Imanishi, Jiro

    2011-12-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often suffer from non-motor symptoms, including sleep and autonomic dysfunctions, controlled by circadian regulation. To evaluate the alteration of circadian rhythm in PD patients, we investigated both rest activities and autonomic functions. Twenty-seven patients with idiopathic PD and 30 age-matched control subjects were recruited. Group comparisons of controls (mean age: 68.93 years), early-PD patients classified as Hoehn-Yahr (HY) stage 1&2 (mean age: 70.78 years), and advanced-PD as HY 3&4 (mean age: 68.61 years) were conducted. Measurement of rest activities was performed using Actigraph for 7 continuous days, and included measuring rhythm patterns (activity patterns recorded in or out of bed) and circadian rhythm amplitudes (power of the cycle being closest to 24h). A power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) using 24-hour ambulatory ECG was also performed. The actigraphic measurements indicated that statistically PD patients have lower activity levels when out of bed and higher activity levels when in bed, and that, the circadian rest-activity rhythm in PD decreases with disease severity. The HRV analysis showed that the total frequency component and low frequency/high frequency ratio were low in PD patients, suggesting that autonomic activities and the circadian rhythm of the sympathetic nervous system are attenuated in PD. This study elucidated the disorganization in the rest activities and HRV of PD patients as well as the gradual alterations in the circadian rhythm. The circadian rhythm disturbances are important to consider the mechanism of non-motor symptoms that occur from early stage of PD.

  2. Bed Rest is an Analog to Study the Physiological Changes of Spaceflight and to Evaluate Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannenstiel, P.; Ottenbacher, M.; Inniss, A.; Ware, D.; Anderson, K.; Stranges, S.; Keith, K.; Cromwell, R.; Neigut. J.; Powell, D.

    2012-01-01

    The UTMB/NASA Flight Analog Research Unit is an inpatient unit with a bionutrition kitchen and unique testing areas for studying subjects subjected to 6 degree head-down complete bed rest for prolonged periods as an analog for zero gravity. Bed rest allows study of physiological changes and performance of functional tasks representative of critical interplanetary mission operations and measures of the efficacy of countermeasures designed to protect against the resulting deleterious effects. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Subjects are healthy adults 24-55 years old; 60 75 in tall; body mass index 18.5-30; and bone mineral density normal by DXA scan. Over 100 subjects have been studied in 7 campaigns since 2004. The iRAT countermeasure combines high intensity interval aerobic exercises on alternating days with continuous aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise is performed 3 days per week. Subjects are tested on an integrated suite of functional and interdisciplinary physiological tests before and after 70 days of total bed rest. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: It is anticipated that post-bed rest functional performance will be predicted by a weighted combination of sensorimotor, cardiovascular and muscle physiological factors. Control subjects who do not participate in the exercise countermeasure will have significantly greater decreases in these parameters. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity, leading to disruption in the ability to perform functional tasks after reintroduction to a gravitational environment. Current flight exercise countermeasures are not fully protective of cardiovascular, muscle and bone health. There is a need to refine and optimize countermeasures to mitigate health risks associated with long-term space missions.

  3. Machine learning classification of resting state functional connectivity predicts smoking status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani ePariyadath

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning-based approaches are now able to examine functional magnetic resonance imaging data in a multivariate manner and extract features predictive of group membership. We applied support vector machine-based classification to resting state functional connectivity data from nicotine-dependent smokers and healthy controls to identify brain-based features predictive of nicotine dependence. By employing a network-centered approach, we observed that within-network functional connectivity measures offered maximal information for predicting smoking status, as opposed to between-network connectivity, or the representativeness of each individual node with respect to its parent network. Further, our analysis suggests that connectivity measures within the executive control and frontoparietal networks are particularly informative in predicting smoking status. Our findings suggest that machine learning-based approaches to classifying resting state functional connectivity data offer a valuable alternative technique to understanding large-scale differences in addiction-related neurobiology.

  4. Earth Pressure at rest of Søvind Marl – a highly overconsolidated Eocene clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, Gitte Lyng; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2016-01-01

    with a constant rate of strain were conducted on Søvind Marl in the Danish Continuous Loading Oedometer Apparatus, which enables test water to be applied at 200 kPa, and measures the horizontal stresses via pressure gauges placed in a stiff oedometer ring. The horizontal and vertical stresses were measured from......The present study evaluated earth pressure at rest, K0, in highly overconsolidated Eocene clay called Søvind Marl, which exhibits extremely high plasticity indices of up to 300%, a highly fissured structure, and preconsolidation stresses up to 6,800 kPa. Continuous Loading Oedometer (CLO) tests...... in situ stresses to various stress levels to estimate continuous K0 development in this highly overconsolidated clay. The normally consolidated earth pressure at rest was found for two different sample ages of Søvind Marl to be between 0.42 and 0.68. Results indicated the overconsolidated K0 reached...

  5. Effects of Physical Exercise on Individual Resting State EEG Alpha Peak Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Gutmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that both acute and chronic physical exercises can induce positive effects on brain function and this is associated with improvements in cognitive performance. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise on cognitive processing are not well understood. This study examined the effects of an acute bout of physical exercise as well as four weeks of exercise training on the individual resting state electroencephalographic (EEG alpha peak frequency (iAPF, a neurophysiological marker of the individual’s state of arousal and attention, in healthy young adults. The subjects completed a steady state exercise (SSE protocol or an exhaustive exercise (EE protocol, respectively, on two separate days. EEG activity was recorded for 2 min before exercise, immediately after exercise, and after 10 min of rest. All assessments were repeated following four weeks of exercise training to investigate whether an improvement in physical fitness modulates the resting state iAPF and/or the iAPF response to an acute bout of SSE and EE. The iAPF was significantly increased following EE (P=0.012 but not following SSE. It is concluded that the iAPF is increased following intense exercise, indicating a higher level of arousal and preparedness for external input.

  6. Case of angina pectoris at rest and during effort due to coronary spasm and myocardial bridging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroki; Teragawa; Yuichi; Fujii; Tomohiro; Ueda; Daiki; Murata; Shuichi; Nomura

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 71-year-old male who hadchest symptoms at rest and during effort. He had felt chest oppression during effort for 1 year,and his chest symptoms had recently worsened. One month before admission he felt chest squeezing at rest in the early morning. He presented at our institution to evaluate his chest symptoms. Electrocardiography and echocardiography failed to show any specific changes. Because of the possibility that his chest symptoms were due to myocardial ischemia,he was admitted to our institution for coronary angiography(CAG). An initial CAG showed mild atherosclerotic changes in the proximal segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery(LAD) and mid-segment of the left circumflex coronary artery. Subsequent spasm provocation testing using acetylcholine revealed a bilateral coronary vasospasm,which was relieved after the intracoronary infusion of nitroglycerin. Finally,a CAG showed myocardial bridging(MB) of the mid-distal segments of the LAD. Fractional flow reserve using the intravenous administration of adenosine triphosphate was positive at 0.77,which jumped up to 0.90 through the myocardial bridging segments when the pressure wire was pulled back. Thus,coronary vasospasm and MB might have contributed to his chest symptoms at rest and during effort. Interventional cardiologists should consider the presence of MB as a potential cause of myocardial ischemia.

  7. Effect of prolonged LBNP and saline ingestion on plasma volume and orthostatic responses during bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Dussack, Larry; Rehbein, Tracy; Wood, Margie; Steinmann, Laura

    1991-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance remains a significant problem following space flight despite frequent use of the saline fluid-loading countermeasure and volitional use of an anti-gravity suite during reentry and landing. The purpose of this project is to examine the plasma volume (PV), endocrine, and orthostatic responses of bedrested subjects following 2-hr and 4-hr treatments of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and saline ingestion. Ten healthy men were randomly assigned into 2 groups. Group A underwent a 4-hr LBNP/saline treatment on best rest day 5 and the 2-hr treatment on day 11. Group B underwent the 2-hr treatment on day 6 and the 4-hr treatment on day 10. Blood volume was determined before and after bed rest using radiolabelling. Changes in PV between measurements were calculated from changes in hematocrit and estimated red cell volume. Urinary excretion of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone (ALD) were measured each day during the study. Orthostatic responses were measured using a ramp LBNP protocol before bed rest, before each treatment, and 24 hours after each treatment. Both 2-hr and 4-hr treatments resulted in a restoration of PV to pre-bed rest levels which persisted at least 24 hours. This increase in PV was associated with significant increases in urinary excretion of ADH and ALD. Twenty-four hours after the 4-hr treatment, the heart rate and pulse pressure response to LBNP were significantly lower and stroke volumes during LBNP were increased. Twenty-four hours after the 2-hr treatment, there was no evidence of improvement in orthostatic responses. These results suggest that a countermeasure which simply restores PV during space flight may not be sufficient for restoring orthostatic responses.

  8. The Effect of Aging on Resting-State Brain Function: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Batouli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Healthy aging may be accompanied by some types of cognitive impairment; moreover, normal aging may cause natural atrophy in the healthy human brain. The hypothesis of the healthy aging brain is the structural changes together with the functional impairment happening. The brain struggles to over-compensate for those functional age-related impairments to continue as a healthy brain in its functions. Our goal in this study was to evaluate the effects of aging on the resting-state activation network of the brain using the multi-session probabilistic independent component analysis algorithm (PICA. "nPatients and Methods: We compared the resting-state brain activities between two groups of healthy aged and young subjects, so we examined 30 right-handed subjects and finally 12 healthy aging and 11 controls were enrolled in the study. "nResults: Our results showed that during the resting-state, older brains benefit from larger areas of activation, while in young competent brains, higher activation occurs in terms of greater intensity. These results were obtained in prefrontal areas as regions with regard to memory function as well as the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC as parts of the default mode network. Meanwhile, we reached the same results after normalization of activation size with total brain volume. "nConclusion: The difference in activation patterns between the two groups shows the brain's endeavor to compensate the functional impairment.

  9. EEG Resting-State Brain Topological Reorganization as a Function of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Petti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resting state connectivity has been increasingly studied to investigate the effects of aging on the brain. A reduced organization in the communication between brain areas was demonstrated by combining a variety of different imaging technologies (fMRI, EEG, and MEG and graph theory. In this paper, we propose a methodology to get new insights into resting state connectivity and its variations with age, by combining advanced techniques of effective connectivity estimation, graph theoretical approach, and classification by SVM method. We analyzed high density EEG signals recorded at rest from 71 healthy subjects (age: 20–63 years. Weighted and directed connectivity was computed by means of Partial Directed Coherence based on a General Linear Kalman filter approach. To keep the information collected by the estimator, weighted and directed graph indices were extracted from the resulting networks. A relation between brain network properties and age of the subject was found, indicating a tendency of the network to randomly organize increasing with age. This result is also confirmed dividing the whole population into two subgroups according to the age (young and middle-aged adults: significant differences exist in terms of network organization measures. Classification of the subjects by means of such indices returns an accuracy greater than 80%.

  10. Tendon vibration attenuates superficial venous vessel response of the resting limb during static arm exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Ooue Anna; Sato Kohei; Hirasawa Ai; Sadamoto Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The superficial vein of the resting limb constricts sympathetically during exercise. Central command is the one of the neural mechanisms that controls the cardiovascular response to exercise. However, it is not clear whether central command contributes to venous vessel response during exercise. Tendon vibration during static elbow flexion causes primary muscle spindle afferents, such that a lower central command is required to achieve a given force without altering muscle ...

  11. Testing a dual-systems model of adolescent brain development using resting-state connectivity analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijvenvoorde, A C K; Achterberg, M; Braams, B R; Peters, S; Crone, E A

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to test a dual-systems model of adolescent brain development by studying changes in intrinsic functional connectivity within and across networks typically associated with cognitive-control and affective-motivational processes. To this end, resting-state and task-related fMRI data were collected of 269 participants (ages 8-25). Resting-state analyses focused on seeds derived from task-related neural activation in the same participants: the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) from a cognitive rule-learning paradigm and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) from a reward-paradigm. Whole-brain seed-based resting-state analyses showed an age-related increase in dlPFC connectivity with the caudate and thalamus, and an age-related decrease in connectivity with the (pre)motor cortex. nAcc connectivity showed a strengthening of connectivity with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and subcortical structures such as the hippocampus, and a specific age-related decrease in connectivity with the ventral medial PFC (vmPFC). Behavioral measures from both functional paradigms correlated with resting-state connectivity strength with their respective seed. That is, age-related change in learning performance was mediated by connectivity between the dlPFC and thalamus, and age-related change in winning pleasure was mediated by connectivity between the nAcc and vmPFC. These patterns indicate (i) strengthening of connectivity between regions that support control and learning, (ii) more independent functioning of regions that support motor and control networks, and (iii) more independent functioning of regions that support motivation and valuation networks with age. These results are interpreted vis-à-vis a dual-systems model of adolescent brain development. PMID:25969399

  12. Testing a dual-systems model of adolescent brain development using resting-state connectivity analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijvenvoorde, A C K; Achterberg, M; Braams, B R; Peters, S; Crone, E A

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to test a dual-systems model of adolescent brain development by studying changes in intrinsic functional connectivity within and across networks typically associated with cognitive-control and affective-motivational processes. To this end, resting-state and task-related fMRI data were collected of 269 participants (ages 8-25). Resting-state analyses focused on seeds derived from task-related neural activation in the same participants: the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) from a cognitive rule-learning paradigm and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) from a reward-paradigm. Whole-brain seed-based resting-state analyses showed an age-related increase in dlPFC connectivity with the caudate and thalamus, and an age-related decrease in connectivity with the (pre)motor cortex. nAcc connectivity showed a strengthening of connectivity with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and subcortical structures such as the hippocampus, and a specific age-related decrease in connectivity with the ventral medial PFC (vmPFC). Behavioral measures from both functional paradigms correlated with resting-state connectivity strength with their respective seed. That is, age-related change in learning performance was mediated by connectivity between the dlPFC and thalamus, and age-related change in winning pleasure was mediated by connectivity between the nAcc and vmPFC. These patterns indicate (i) strengthening of connectivity between regions that support control and learning, (ii) more independent functioning of regions that support motor and control networks, and (iii) more independent functioning of regions that support motivation and valuation networks with age. These results are interpreted vis-à-vis a dual-systems model of adolescent brain development.

  13. Changes of concave and convex rib-vertebral angle, angle difference and angle ratio in patients with right thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavese, Federico; Turcot, Katia; Holveck, Jerôme; Farhoumand, Agnés Dahl; Kaelin, André

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the radiological changes in rib-vertebral angles (RVAs), rib-vertebral angle differences (RVADs), and rib-vertebral angle ratios (RVARas) in patients with untreated right thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and to compare with the normal subjects. The concave and convex RVA from T1 to T12, the RVADs and the RVARas were measured on AP digital radiographs of 44 female patients with right convex idiopathic scoliosis and 14 normal females. Patients were divided into three groups: normal subjects (group 1), scoliotic patients with Cobb's angle equal or <30° (group 2) and scoliotic patients with Cobb's angle over 30° (group 3). Overall values (mean ± SD) of the RVAs on the concave side were 90.5° ± 17° in group 1, 90.3° ± 15.8° in group 2 and 88.8° ± 15.4° in group 3. On the convex side, values were 90.0° ± 17.3° in group 1, 86.3° ± 13.7° in group 2 and 80.7° ± 14.4° in group 3. Overall values (mean ± SD) of the RVADs at all levels were 0.5° ± 0.7° in group 1, 4.0° ± 4.8° in group 2 and 8.0° ± 4.0° in group 3. The RVARa values (mean ± SD) at all levels was 1.008° ± 0.012° in group 1, 1.041° ± 0.061° in group 2 and 1.102° ± 0.151° in group 3. RVAD and RVARa values in the scoliotic segment were greater in patients with untreated scoliosis over 30° than in patients with an untreated deformity of <30° or normal subjects. A significant effect between groups was observed for the RVA, RVAD and RVARa variables. Measurement of RVA, RVAD and RVARa should not only be performed at and around the apex of a thoracic spinal deformity, but also extended to the whole thoracic spine. PMID:20811755

  14. Physical inactivity as the culprit of metabolic inflexibility: evidence from bed-rest studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Rudwill, Floriane; Simon, Chantal; Blanc, Stéphane

    2011-10-01

    Although it is no longer debatable that sedentary behaviors are an actual cause of many metabolic diseases, the physiology of physical inactivity has been poorly investigated for this purpose. Along with microgravity, the physiological adaptations to spaceflights require metabolic adaptations to physical inactivity, and that is exceedingly well-simulated during the ground-based microgravity bed-rest analogs. Bed rest thus represents a unique model to investigate the mechanisms by which physical inactivity leads to the development of current societal chronic diseases. For decades, however, clinicians and physiologists working in space research have worked separately without taking full awareness of potential strong mutual questioning. This review summarizes the data collected over the last 60 years on metabolic adaptations to bed rest in healthy subjects. Our aim is to provide evidence that supports the hypothesis that physical inactivity per se is one of the primary causes in the development of metabolic inflexibility. This evidence will focus on four main tenants of metabolic inflexiblity: 1) insulin resistance, 2) impaired lipid trafficking and hyperlipidemia, 3) a shift in substrate use toward glucose, and 4) a shift in muscle fiber type and ectopic fat storage. Altogether, this hypothesis places sedentary behaviors upstream on the list of factors involved in metabolic inflexibility, which is considered to be a primary impairment in several metabolic disorders such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:21836047

  15. Effect of treadmill training on peak expiratory flow rate and resting pulse rate among young adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUKANYA BARDHAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present was designed to find out the effect of treadmill training on peak expiratory flow rate and resting pulse rate among young adult boys. The random group design was adopted for this study. Participants were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. For this purpose, Ten (N = 10 male students of B.A., B.C.A and B.Com from Post Graduate Government College, Sector-11, Chandigarh aged 19-25 years participate in the study. The subjects were being randomly divided into two groups: A (N = 05; Experimental and B (N = 05; Control. Paired "t" test was employed to identify significant differences between the pretest and post-test mean of the two groups through Medical Calculation Version 12.5. To test the hypotheses, the level of significance was set at 0.05. It is concluded that insignificant difference has been found between pre-test and post test (Experimental Group scores of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR among young adult boys. No significant difference has been found between the pre-test and post-test(Control Group scores of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR among young adult boys. No significant difference has been found between the pre-test and post-test (Experimental Group scores of Resting Pulse Rate among young adult boys. No significant difference has been found between the pre-test and post-test (Control Group scores of Resting Pulse Rate among young adult boys.

  16. Effect of smoking on the central circulation at rest and during exercise as studied by radiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulmonary vessels are the first target of tobacco smoke in the circulatory system, but the functional changes occuring in the pulmonary circulation are poorly understood. Hence 46 volunteers were studied by radiocardiography under the following conditions: 1. At rest before and after smoking 2 cigarettes (15 men); 2. After repeated ergometer exercise (5 min. 100 W) with and without smoking (13 men); and 3. Control experiments under the corresponding conditions without smoking (18 subjects). A significant increase occured in heart rate, cardiac output and systolic arterial blood pressure after smoking when at rest, but an almost significant decrease in pulmonary dispersion volume, whereas the heart rate and pulmonary capillary pressure attained significantly higher values after than before smoking in the exercise tests, with a significant decrease observed in stroke volume, pulmonary blood volume and pulmonary dispersion volume. It is concluded that smoking impairs physical performance increases pulmonary capillary pressure and reduces pulmonary blood volume and probably the number of open capillaries. (orig.)

  17. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of regional homogeneity changes in parkinsonian resting tremor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Liu; Bo Liu; Jun Chen; Zhiguang Chen

    2011-01-01

    Regional homogeneity analysis of low-frequency blood oxygenation level-dependent signals from neighboring voxels enables the analysis of local neuronal synchrony. Both structural magnetic resonance imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were collected from nine Parkinson's disease patients with right resting tremor, and from eight age-matched normal controls. Regional homogeneity was compared between Parkinson's disease patients and controls. The results revealed that regional homogeneity was increased in several brain regions, including the right precuneus, right superior parietal gyrus, left anterior cingulate cortex, right middle frontal gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus. Conversely, regional homogeneity was decreased in the cerebellar vermis in Parkinson's disease patients compared with healthy controls.

  18. Comparing the Effects of Rest and Massage on Return to Homeostasis Following Submaximal Aerobic Exercise: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Portia B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Postexercise massage can be used to help promote recovery from exercise on the cellular level, as well as systemically by increasing parasympathetic activity. No studies to date have been done to assess the effects of massage on postexercise metabolic changes, including excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of massage recovery and resting recovery on a subject’s heart rate variability and selected metabolic effects following a submaximal treadmill exercise session. Methods One healthy 24-year-old female subject performed 30 minutes of submaximal treadmill exercise prior to resting or massage recovery sessions. Metabolic data were collected throughout the exercise sessions and at three 10 minute intervals postexercise. Heart rate variability was evaluated for 10 minutes after each of two 30-minute recovery sessions, either resting or massage. Results Heart rate returned to below resting levels (73 bpm) with 30 and 60 minutes of massage recovery (72 bpm and 63 bpm, respectively) compared to 30 and 60 minutes of resting recovery (77 bpm and 74 bpm, respectively). Heart rate variability data showed a more immediate shift to the parasympathetic state following 30 minutes of massage (1.152 LF/HF ratio) versus the 30-minute resting recovery (6.91 LF/HF ratio). It took 60 minutes of resting recovery to reach similar heart rate variability levels (1.216 LF/HF) found after 30 minutes of massage. Ventilations after 30 minutes of massage recovery averaged 7.1 bpm compared to 17.9 bpm after 30 minutes of resting recovery. Conclusions No differences in EPOC were observed through either the resting or massage recovery based on the metabolic data collected. Massage was used to help the subject shift into parasympathetic activity more quickly than rest alone following a submaximal exercise session. PMID:26977215

  19. Altered resting-state amygdala functional connectivity after 36 hours of total sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongcong Shao

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have identified a potentially critical role of the amygdala in disrupted emotion neurocircuitry in individuals after total sleep deprivation (TSD. However, connectivity between the amygdala and cerebral cortex due to TSD remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used resting-state functional MRI (fMRI to investigate the functional connectivity changes of the basolateral amygdala (BLA and centromedial amygdala (CMA in the brain after 36 h of TSD.Fourteen healthy adult men aged 25.9 ± 2.3 years (range, 18-28 years were enrolled in a within-subject crossover study. Using the BLA and CMA as separate seed regions, we examined resting-state functional connectivity with fMRI during rested wakefulness (RW and after 36 h of TSD.TSD resulted in a significant decrease in the functional connectivity between the BLA and several executive control regions (left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [DLPFC], right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex [ACC], right inferior frontal gyrus [IFG]. Increased functional connectivity was found between the BLA and areas including the left posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PrCu and right parahippocampal gyrus. With regard to CMA, increased functional connectivity was observed with the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC and right precentral gyrus.These findings demonstrate that disturbance in amygdala related circuits may contribute to TSD psychophysiology and suggest that functional connectivity studies of the amygdala during the resting state may be used to discern aberrant patterns of coupling within these circuits after TSD.

  20. The effect of pregnancy on metabolic responses during rest, immersion, and aerobic exercise in the water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, R G; Katz, V L; Berry, M J; Cefalo, R C

    1988-03-01

    To examine the effects of advancing pregnancy on metabolic responses, 12 women, who were recruited early in pregnancy, were studied during 20 minutes of immersion in 30 degrees C water, followed by 20 minutes of exercise in the water (60% of predicted maximal capacity) and 20 minutes of lateral supine recovery. Each subject completed the trials during the fifteenth, twenty-fifth, and thirty-fifth weeks of pregnancy, as well as a control period 8 to 10 weeks post partum. Resting oxygen uptake increased with advancing pregnancy. Resting oxygen uptake was higher in the water than on land but was not altered by pregnancy. Exercise oxygen uptakes were similar for all trials, but the work load required to elicit the VO2 decreased during the thirty-fifth week of pregnancy. Exercise heart rates followed the same pattern as oxygen uptake. Lactate concentrations declined with advancing pregnancy after exercise. Blood glucose levels were normal for pregnancy but declined slightly during exercise. Blood triglyceride levels were elevated with exercise, with a tendency to increase with advancing pregnancy. Resting plasma cortisol concentrations increased with pregnancy but remained lower during immersion and exercise. These results suggest that pregnancy significantly alters metabolic responses to exercise in the water.

  1. Resting-state functional connectivity of the default mode network associated with happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yangmei; Kong, Feng; Qi, Senqing; You, Xuqun; Huang, Xiting

    2016-03-01

    Happiness refers to people's cognitive and affective evaluation of their life. Why are some people happier than others? One reason might be that unhappy people are prone to ruminate more than happy people. The default mode network (DMN) is normally active during rest and is implicated in rumination. We hypothesized that unhappiness may be associated with increased default-mode functional connectivity during rest, including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). The hyperconnectivity of these areas may be associated with higher levels of rumination. One hundred forty-eight healthy participants underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. A group-independent component analysis identified the DMNs. Results indicated increased functional connectivity in the DMN was associated with lower levels of happiness. Specifically, relative to happy people, unhappy people exhibited greater functional connectivity in the anterior medial cortex (bilateral MPFC), posterior medial cortex regions (bilateral PCC) and posterior parietal cortex (left IPL). Moreover, the increased functional connectivity of the MPFC, PCC and IPL, correlated positively with the inclination to ruminate. These results highlight the important role of the DMN in the neural correlates of happiness, and suggest that rumination may play an important role in people's perceived happiness.

  2. Decreased thalamocortical functional connectivity after 36 hours of total sleep deprivation: evidence from resting state FMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongcong Shao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The thalamus and cerebral cortex are connected via topographically organized, reciprocal connections, which hold a key function in segregating internally and externally directed awareness information. Previous task-related studies have revealed altered activities of the thalamus after total sleep deprivation (TSD. However, it is still unclear how TSD impacts on the communication between the thalamus and cerebral cortex. In this study, we examined changes of thalamocortical functional connectivity after 36 hours of total sleep deprivation by using resting state function MRI (fMRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen healthy volunteers were recruited and performed fMRI scans before and after 36 hours of TSD. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis was employed and differences of thalamocortical functional connectivity were tested between the rested wakefulness (RW and TSD conditions. RESULTS: We found that the right thalamus showed decreased functional connectivity with the right parahippocampal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus in the resting brain after TSD when compared with that after normal sleep. As to the left thalamus, decreased connectivity was found with the right medial frontal gyrus, bilateral middle temporal gyri and left superior frontal gyrus. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest disruptive changes of the thalamocortical functional connectivity after TSD, which may lead to the decline of the arousal level and information integration, and subsequently, influence the human cognitive functions.

  3. Effects of Heliox in Stable COPD Patients at Rest and during Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pecchiari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heliox has been administered to stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients at rest and during exercise on the assumption that this low density mixture would have reduced work of breathing, dynamic hyperinflation, and, consequently, dyspnea sensation. Contrary to these expectations, beneficial effects of heliox in these patients at rest have been reported only sporadically, and the majority of the studies performed until now suggests that heliox is not a therapeutic option in spontaneously breathing resting COPD patients. On the other hand, when it is administered to COPD patients exercising at a constant work rate, heliox systematically decreases dyspnea sensation, and, often but not always, increases exercise tolerance. For these reasons, heliox has been evaluated as a non pharmacological tool to power rehabilitation programs. The conflicting results provided by the published trials probably point at a substantial heterogeneity of the COPD patients population in terms of respiratory mechanics and gas exchange. Therefore, further studies, aimed to the identification of mechanisms conditioning the response of exercising COPD patients to heliox, are warranted, before heliox administration, which is costly and cumbersome, can be routinely used in rehabilitation programs.

  4. An Exploratory Investigation of e-REST: Teletherapy for Chronically Agrammatic Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina B. Ruiter

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Delivering aphasia therapy via telecommunication may provide a means to deliver intensive therapy in a cost-effective way. Teletherapy, remotely-administered (language treatment, may support the repetitive drill practices that people with chronic aphasia need to perform when learning to compensate for their lasting language difficulties. The use of teletherapy may allow speech and language pathologists (SLPs to focus in-person sessions more strongly on the generalisation of therapy effects to daily life. This single subject study is an investigation whether a teletherapy application called e-REST meets the criteria of accessibility, user-friendliness, as well as effectiveness. e-REST, the teletherapy version of the Dutch and adapted Reduced Syntax Therapy, teaches chronically aphasic speakers of Dutch who experience difficulties in sentence production to convey their messages in a kind of telegraphic style. The results obtained suggest that it is reasonable to conduct a larger study into the user-friendliness, accessibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of e-REST.

  5. Classification of schizophrenia patients based on resting-state functional network connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Arbabshirani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in automatic classification of mental disorders based on neuroimaging data. Small training data sets (subjects and very large amount of high dimensional data make it a challenging task to design robust and accurate classifiers for heterogeneous disorders such as schizophrenia. Most previous studies considered structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging and task-based fMRI for this purpose. However, resting-state data has been rarely used in discrimination of schizophrenia patients from healthy controls. Resting data are of great interest, since they are relatively easy to collect, and not confounded by behavioral performance on a task. Several linear and non-linear classification methods were trained using a training dataset and evaluate with a separate testing dataset. Results show that classification with high accuracy is achievable using simple non-linear discriminative methods such as k-nearest neighbors which is very promising. We compare and report detailed results of each classifier as well as statistical analysis and evaluation of each single feature. To our knowledge our effects represent the first use of resting-state functional network connectivity features to classify schizophrenia.

  6. Pharmacological exploration of the resting membrane potential reserve: Impact on atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heyden, Marcel A G; Jespersen, Thomas

    2016-01-15

    The cardiac action potential arises and spreads throughout the myocardium as a consequence of highly organized spatial and temporal expression of ion channels conducting Na(+), Ca(2+) or K(+) currents. The cardiac Na(+) current is responsible for the initiation and progression of the action potential. Altered Na(+) current has been found implicated in a number of different arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation. In the atrium, the resting membrane potential is more depolarized than in the ventricles, and as cardiac Na(+) channels undergo voltage-dependent inactivation close to this potential, minor changes in the membrane potential have a relatively large impact on the atrial Na(+) current. The atrial resting membrane potential is established following ionic currents through the inwardly rectifying K(+) currents IK1, IK,ACh and IK,Ca and to a lesser extent by other ion channels as well as by exchangers and pumps. This review will focus on the relative and regulated contribution of IK1, IK,ACh and IK,Ca, and on pharmacological modification of the channels underlying these currents in respect to the resting membrane potential, Na(+) channel availability and atrial electrophysiology in health and disease. PMID:26601803

  7. Effects of Commercially Available Dietary Supplements on Resting Energy Expenditure: A Brief Report

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, Roger A; Conn, Carole A.; Mermier, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredi...

  8. Form pressure generated by self-compacting concrete : influence of thixotropy and structural behaviour at rest

    OpenAIRE

    Billberg, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Self-compacting concrete (SCC) offers rational and fast casting process since it merely has to be poured, or pumped, into the formwork without any compaction work needed. But this can be at the cost of high form pressure. However, reported results show that SCC can act thixotropically, i.e., build up a structure at rest, and this can reduce the form pressure considerably. Thus, in order to utilise the favourable possibilities to increase effectiveness without risking form collapses, the need ...

  9. A Cross-sectional Study of Resting Cardio-respiratory and Metabolic Changes in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjimaporn, Amornpan; Somprasit, Charintip; Chaunchaiyakul, Rungchai

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] We examined cardiorespiratory and metabolic changes across the 1st (G1), 2nd (G2) and 3rd (G3) trimesters in pregnant women. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-two healthy, active, non-smoking, pregnant women participated in this study. They were divided into G1, G2 and G3 groups depending on their mean gestational ages at the time of testing which were 10.5 ±2.9, 19.2 ±3.4, and 33.3 ±2.4 weeks of gestation, respectively. Cardio-respiratory and metabolic variables, VO2 (oxygen consumption), VCO2 (carbon dioxide production), and VE (minute ventilation), were measured using indirect calorimetry (IC, gas analyser) to estimate ventilatory equivalents of oxygen (VE/VO2) and carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2), RER (respiratory exchange ratio) and REE (resting energy expenditure). [Results] Women in the late pregnancy period had higher resting VCO2 and RER, whereas the VE/VCO2 ratio was significantly lower than in G1 and in G2. Even though the values of VO2 and REE increased throughout the course of pregnancy, no significant differences were found. [Conclusion] In pregnant women, resting cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables continuously changed throughout the 3 trimesters. Changes in VE/VCO2 and RER indicate shifting metabolic energy substrates. In addition, changes in cardiorespiratory variables, in parallel with gas exchange, indicate a better gas exchange process.

  10. Towards an extension of 1905 relativistic dynamics with a variable rest mass measuring potential energy

    CERN Document Server

    Hidalgo-Gato, Rafael A Valls

    2012-01-01

    From a rigorous historic analysis of 1686 I. Newton and 1905 A. Einstein works where the last derived the universal mass-energy relationship, it is concluded that rest mass measures potential energy. From the same formula used to obtain that relation, it is derived the ratio Total Energy/Potential Energy is equal to the gamma relativistic factor. It is derived a formula for the variation of a body rest mass with its position in a gravity field, explaining with it the behavior of an atomic clock. It is revised the bodies free fall in a gravitational field, finding that a constant total mass is equal to the gravitational mass, while the variable rest mass is equal to the inertial mass, maintaining all an identical behavior independent of their masses. A revision of the E\\"otv\\"os experiment concludes that it is unable to detect the found difference between inertial and gravitational mass. Applying the extended 1905 relativistic dynamics to Mercury, its perihelion shift is determined; it is concluded with the co...

  11. Effects of white matter injury on resting state fMRI measures in prematurely born infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Smyser

    Full Text Available The cerebral white matter is vulnerable to injury in very preterm infants (born prior to 30 weeks gestation, resulting in a spectrum of lesions. These range from severe forms, including cystic periventricular leukomalacia and periventricular hemorrhagic infarction, to minor focal punctate lesions. Moderate to severe white matter injury in preterm infants has been shown to predict later neurodevelopmental disability, although outcomes can vary widely in infants with qualitatively comparable lesions. Resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging has been increasingly utilized in neurodevelopmental investigations and may provide complementary information regarding the impact of white matter injury on the developing brain. We performed resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging at term equivalent postmenstrual age in fourteen preterm infants with moderate to severe white matter injury secondary to periventricular hemorrhagic infarction. In these subjects, resting state networks were identifiable throughout the brain. Patterns of aberrant functional connectivity were observed and depended upon injury severity. Comparisons were performed against data obtained from prematurely-born infants with mild white matter injury and healthy, term-born infants and demonstrated group differences. These results reveal structural-functional correlates of preterm white matter injury and carry implications for future investigations of neurodevelopmental disability.

  12. Neural encoding of objects relevant for navigation and resting state correlations with navigational ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegman, Joost; Janzen, Gabriele

    2011-12-01

    Objects along a route can help us to successfully navigate through our surroundings. Previous neuroimaging research has shown that the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) distinguishes between objects that were previously encountered at navigationally relevant locations (decision points) and irrelevant locations (nondecision points) during simple object recognition. This study aimed at unraveling how this neural marking of objects relevant for navigation is established during learning and postlearning rest. Twenty-four participants were scanned using fMRI while they were viewing a route through a virtual environment. Eye movements were measured, and brain responses were time-locked to viewing each object. The PHG showed increased responses to decision point objects compared with nondecision point objects during route learning. We compared functional connectivity between the PHG and the rest of the brain in a resting state scan postlearning with such a scan prelearning. Results show that functional connectivity between the PHG and the hippocampus is positively related to participants' self-reported navigational ability. On the other hand, connectivity with the caudate nucleus correlated negatively with navigational ability. These results are in line with a distinction between egocentric and allocentric spatial representations in the caudate nucleus and the hippocampus, respectively. Our results thus suggest a relation between navigational ability and a neural preference for a specific type of spatial representation. Together, these results show that the PHG is immediately involved in the encoding of navigationally relevant object information. Furthermore, they provide insight into the neural correlates of individual differences in spatial ability. PMID:21671733

  13. Mandibular Angle Fractures: Comparison of One Miniplate vs. Two Miniplates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Hajmohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monocortical miniplate fixation is an accepted and reliable method for internal fixation of mandibular angle fractures. Although placement of a second miniplate may theoretically provide more stability; however, the clinical importance of this issue remains controversial.Objectives: The present study assessed the postoperative complications and outcomes associated with the fixation of mandibular angle fractures using 1 and 2 miniplates in patients with favorable mandibular angle fractures.Patients and Methods: A prospective study of 87 patients (73 males, 14 females with favorable mandibular angle fractures was done. In the first group, a 4-hole miniplate was placed at the superior border through an intraoral approach. In group 2, patients were treated with 2 miniplates, one placed at the superior border (similar to group 1 and the other on the lateral aspect of the angle at the inferior border through an intraoral and transcutaneous approach using a trocar. Postoperative complications including malocclusion, malunion and sensory disturbances associated with surgery, additional maxillomandibular fixation (MMF by means of an arch bar and wires for a longer period (for delayed union and infection were assessed in patients of both groups up to 12 months postoperatively. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test.Results: In the single miniplate group, 25 patients showed lip numbness associated with surgery (55.6%, 22 patients required additional use of MMF (48.9% and 3 patients developed infections (6.7%. In the double miniplate group 20 patients showed lip numbness associated with surgery (47.6%, 18 patients required additional use of MMF (42.9% and 1 patient developed infection (2.4%. None of the patients in either group showed malocclusion or malunion. No significant difference was observed between the groups regarding overall complication rate.Conclusions: In this study, use of one miniplate or two miniplates for treatment of

  14. Comparison of Structural and Functional Ocular Outcomes Between 14- and 70 Day Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, R. L.; Taibbi, G.; Zanello, S. B.; Yarbough, P. O.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Vizzeri, G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare structural and functional ocular outcomes in healthy human subjects undergoing 14- and/or 70-day head-down-tilt bed rest (HDTBR). We hypothesized the amount of HDTBR-induced ocular changes be affected by the HDTBR duration. Methods: The studies were conducted at the NASA Flight Analogs Research Unit, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX. Participants were selected using NASA standard screening procedures. Standardized NASA screening procedures and bed rest conditions (e.g., strict sleep-wake cycle, standardized diet, continuous video monitoring) were implemented in both studies. Participants maintained a 6deg HDTBR position for 14 and/or 70 consecutive days and did not engage in exercise. Weekly ophthalmological examinations were conducted in the sitting (pre/post-bed rest only) and HDT positions. Ocular outcomes of interest included: near best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA); spherical equivalent, as determined by cycloplegic autorefraction; Goldmann applanation tonometry and iCare (Icare Finland Oy, Espoo, Finland) intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement; color vision; red dot test; modified Amsler grid test; confrontational visual field; stereoscopic color fundus photography; Spectralis OCT (Heidelberg Engineering, GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), peripapillary and macular retinal thicknesses. Mixed-effects linear models were used to compare pre- and post-HDTBR observations between 14- and 70-day HDTBR for our continuously scaled outcomes.

  15. Decreased connectivity of the default mode network in pathological gambling: a resting state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung Hun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Shin, Young-Chul; Jung, Wi Hoon; Jang, Joon Hwan; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kang, Do-Hyung; Yi, Jung-Seo; Choi, Chi-Hoon; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2014-11-01

    The default mode network (DMN) represents neuronal activity that is intrinsically generated during a resting state. The present study used resting-state fMRI to investigate whether functional connectivity is altered in pathological gambling (PG). Fifteen drug-naive male patients with PG and 15 age-matched male control subjects participated in the present study. The pathological gambling modification of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (PG-YBOCS), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory were used to determine symptom severity in all participants. Participants were instructed to keep their eyes closed and not to focus on any particular thoughts during the 4.68-min resting-state functional scan. The patients with PG displayed decreased default mode connectivity in the left superior frontal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, and precuneus compared with healthy controls. The severity of PG symptoms in patients with PG was negatively associated with connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex seed region and the precuneus (r=-0.599, p=0.018). Decreased functional connectivity within DMN suggests that PG may share similar neurobiological abnormalities with other addictive disorders. Moreover, the severity of PG symptoms was correlated with decreased connectivity in the precuneus, which may be important in the response to treatment in patients with PG.

  16. Variation of the anal resting pressure induced by postexpiratory apnea effort in patients with constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Helena Benetti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Intestinal constipation - a common symptom among the general population - is more frequent in women. It may be secondary to an improper diet or organic or functional disturbances, such as dyskinesia of the pelvic floor. This is basically characterized by the absence of relaxation or paradoxical contraction of the pelvic floor and anal sphincter during evacuation. OBJECTIVE: To analyze, by manometric data, the anal pressure variation at rest, during evacuation effort by using the Valsalva maneuver and forced post-expiratory apnea in subjects with secondary constipation. METHODS: Twenty-one patients (19 females - 90.4% with a mean age of 47.5 years old (23-72 were studied. The diagnosis was performed using anorectal manometry, with a catheter containing eight channels disposed at the axial axis, measuring the proximal (1 and distal (2 portions of the anal orifice. The elevation of the pressure values in relation to the resting with the evacuation effort was present in all patients. The Agachan score was used for clinical evaluation of constipation. The variables studied were: mean anal pressure of the anal orifice for 20 seconds at rest, the effort of evacuation using Valsalva maneuver and the effort of evacuation during apnea after forced expiration, as well as the area under the curve of the manometric tracing at moments Valsalva and apnea. RESULTS: The analysis of the mean values of the anal pressure variation at rest evidenced difference between proximal and distal channels (P = 0.007, independent of the moment and tendency to differ during moments Valsalva and apnea (P = 0.06. The mean of values of the area under the manometric tracing curve showed differences between moments Valsalva and apnea (P = 0.0008, either at the proximal portion or at the distal portion of the anal orifice. CONCLUSION: The effort of evacuation associated with postexpiratory apnea, when compared with the effort associated with the Valsalva maneuver, provides

  17. Quantification of projection angle in fragment generator warhead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.D.DHOTE; K.P.S.MURTHY; K.M.RAJAN; M.M.SUCHEENDRAN

    2014-01-01

    Tactical Ballistic Missile (TBM) class target neutralization by the fragment spray of a Fragment Generator Warhead (FGW) calls for quantification of fragment projection angle scatter to finalize the end game engagement logic. For conventional axi-symmetric warhead, dispersion is assumed to be normal with a standard deviation of 30. However, such information is not available in case of FGW. Hence, a set of experiments are conducted to determine the dispersion of fragments. The experiments are conducted with a specific configuration of FGW in an identical arena to quantify the scatter and then verified its applicability to other configurations having a range of L/D and C/M ratios, and contoured fragmenting discs. From the experimental study, it is concluded that the scatter in projection angle follows normal distribution with a standard deviation of 0.75? at Chi-square significance level of 0.01(c20.99).

  18. The effect of γ-radiation on resting eggs and life cycle of cladoceran Moina macrocopa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadereev, E S; Lopatina, T S; Zotina, T A; Oskina, N A; Dementyev, D V; Petrichenkov, M V

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of γ-irradiation on the survival of resting eggs of the cladoceran Moina macrocopa and on the parameters of the life cycle of neonates hatched from the irradiated eggs. It was shown that γ-irradiation in a wide range of doses (from the background level to 100 Gy) had no effect on survival of eggs and mortality of neonates hatched from the irradiated eggs. However, exceeding the absorbed dose of 40 Gy sharply decreased the reproductive potential of the neonates hatched from irradiated eggs. PMID:27025490

  19. Resting vagal control and resilience as predictors of cardiovascular allostasis in peacekeepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal; Magalhães, Ludmila Naves; Cruz, Thiago Amorim Ribeiro Da; Mendonça-De-Souza, Ana Carolina Ferraz; Duarte, Antônio Fernando A; Fischer, Nastassja L; Souza, Wanderson F; Coutinho, Evandro Da Silva F; Vila, Jaime; Gleiser, Sonia; Figueira, Ivan; Volchan, Eliane

    2013-07-01

    The body's adaptive reaction to a stressful event, an allostatic response, involves vigorous physiological engagement with and efficient recovery from stress. Our aim was to investigate the influence of individual predispositions on cardiac responses to and recovery from a standardized psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Task) in peacekeepers. We hypothesized that those individuals with higher trait resilience and those with higher resting vagal control would be more likely to present an allostatic response: a vigorous cardiac response to stress (i.e., reduction in interbeat intervals and heart rate variability (HRV)) coupled with a significant cardiac recovery in the aftermath. Fifty male military personnel with a mean age of 25.4 years (SD ± 5.99) were evaluated after returning from a peacekeeping mission. Electrocardiogram recordings were made throughout the experimental session, which consisted five conditions: basal, speech preparation, speech delivery, arithmetic task, and recovery. Mean interbeat intervals and HRV were calculated for each condition. An Ego-Resilience Scale and resting vagal control assessed individual predispositions. Stress tasks reduced interbeat intervals (tachycardia) and HRV in comparison with basal, with return to basal in the aftermath (p peacekeepers showing higher trait resilience and those with higher resting vagal control presented a more adaptive allostatic reaction characterized by vigorous cardiac response to stress (i.e., tachycardia and vagal withdrawal) and efficient cardiac recovery after stress cessation. PMID:23327672

  20. The effects of muscle exercise and bed rest on [18F]methylcholine PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the impact of limited and strenuous physical exercise on [18F]methylcholine uptake in muscle. Ten consecutive patients participated, three of whom had strict bed rest, three were allowed to walk around and four performed strenuous single arm exercise by lifting a 7.5-kg weight. [18F]Methylcholine uptake was measured in the biceps and gluteus muscles on both sides. Strenuous exercise resulted in a 202% increase in [18F]methylcholine uptake in the activated biceps muscle as well as a 112% increase in muscle groups used to retain body position. This resulted in asymmetrical images that were visually less easy to interpret. In walking patients there was a more limited increase in biceps (45%) and gluteus (74%) muscle uptake, without visually recognizable differences. Strenuous exercise may result in a considerable increase in [18F]methylcholine uptake in muscle and should be avoided prior to imaging. Strict bed rest does not seem to be required. Tracer injection while resting on the scanner remains a safe approach. (orig.)

  1. The Semantic Network at Work and Rest: Differential Connectivity of Anterior Temporal Lobe Subregions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Rebecca L.; Hoffman, Paul; Pobric, Gorana

    2016-01-01

    The anterior temporal lobe (ATL) makes a critical contribution to semantic cognition. However, the functional connectivity of the ATL and the functional network underlying semantic cognition has not been elucidated. In addition, subregions of the ATL have distinct functional properties and thus the potential differential connectivity between these subregions requires investigation. We explored these aims using both resting-state and active semantic task data in humans in combination with a dual-echo gradient echo planar imaging (EPI) paradigm designed to ensure signal throughout the ATL. In the resting-state analysis, the ventral ATL (vATL) and anterior middle temporal gyrus (MTG) were shown to connect to areas responsible for multimodal semantic cognition, including bilateral ATL, inferior frontal gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex, angular gyrus, posterior MTG, and medial temporal lobes. In contrast, the anterior superior temporal gyrus (STG)/superior temporal sulcus was connected to a distinct set of auditory and language-related areas, including bilateral STG, precentral and postcentral gyri, supplementary motor area, supramarginal gyrus, posterior temporal cortex, and inferior and middle frontal gyri. Complementary analyses of functional connectivity during an active semantic task were performed using a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis. The PPI analysis highlighted the same semantic regions suggesting a core semantic network active during rest and task states. This supports the necessity for semantic cognition in internal processes occurring during rest. The PPI analysis showed additional connectivity of the vATL to regions of occipital and frontal cortex. These areas strongly overlap with regions found to be sensitive to executively demanding, controlled semantic processing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Previous studies have shown that semantic cognition depends on subregions of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL). However, the network of regions

  2. The Spectral Sharpness Angle of Gamma-ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hoi-Fung; Greiner, Jochen; Sari, Re'em; Bhat, P Narayana; von Kienlin, Andreas; Paciesas, William S; Preece, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    We explain the results of Yu et al. (2015b) of the novel sharpness angle measurement to a large number of spectra obtained from the Fermi gamma-ray burst monitor. The sharpness angle is compared to the values obtained from various representative emission models: blackbody, single-electron synchrotron, synchrotron emission from a Maxwellian or power-law electron distribution. It is found that more than 91% of the high temporally and spectrally resolved spectra are inconsistent with any kind of optically thin synchrotron emission model alone. It is also found that the limiting case, a single temperature Maxwellian synchrotron function, can only contribute up to 58+23 -18% of the peak flux. These results show that even the sharpest but non-realistic case, the single-electron synchrotron function, cannot explain a large fraction of the observed spectra. Since any combination of physically possible synchrotron spectra added together will always further broaden the spectrum, emission mechanisms other than optically...

  3. Refractivity estimations from an angle-of-arrival spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xiao-Feng; Huang Si-Xun

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the probability of atmospheric refractivity estimation by using field measurements at an array of radio receivers in terms of angle-of-arrival spectrum. Angle-of-arrival spectrum information is simulated by the ray optics model and refractivity is expressed in the presence of an ideal tri-linear profile. The estimation of the refractivity is organized as an optimization problem and a genetic algorithm is used to search for the optimal solution from various trial refractivity profiles. Theoretical analysis demonstrates the feasibility of this method to retrieve the refractivity parameters. Simulation results indicate that this approach has a fair anti-noise ability and its accuracy performance is mainly dependent on the antenna aperture size and its positions.

  4. Aerodynamic performance of wind turbine under different yaw angles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Yali; Zuo, Hongmei; Yang, Hua;

    2015-01-01

    models, based on the experiment about MEXICO (model experiments in controlled conditions) rotor in 2006, are established by three-dimensional software called Pro/E. under different yaw conditions, i.e. yaw angle of 0, 15, 30 and 45 degree. ICEM CFD (integrated computer engineering and manufacturing code...... for computational fluid dynamics) is applied to grid division. The rotating domain containing rotor part is meshed into hexahedral grids, and the static domain containing part of wheel hub, tower and outflow field is meshed into tetrahedral grids. When the grid size of the first layer of blade surface is set as 5....... With the increasing of yaw angle, the pressure coefficients of the suction side are increasing and the location of minimum pressure coefficient moves to airfoil trailing edge slightly. For the pressure side, the pressure coefficients increase at first and then decrease, and the location of maximum pressure...

  5. Incoherent photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons off nuclei at forward angles

    CERN Document Server

    Gevorkyan, S; Gan, L; Larin, I; Khandaker, M

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in the photon tagging facilities together with the novel, high resolution fast calorimetry made possible to perform photoproduction cross section measurements of pseudoscalar mesons on nuclei with a percent level accuracy. The extraction of the radiative decay widths, needed for testing the symmetry breaking effects in QCD, from these measurements at small angles is done by the Primakoff method. This method requires theoretical treatment of all processes participating in these reactions at the same percent level. The most updated description of general processes, including the nuclear coherent amplitude, is done in our previous paper. In this work, based on the framework of Glauber multiple scattering theory, we obtain analytical expressions for the incoherent cross section of the photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons off nuclei accounting for the mesons absorption in nuclei and Pauli suppression at forward production angles. As illustrations of the obtained formulas, we calculate the incoher...

  6. Brownian Motion on a Sphere: Distribution of Solid Angles

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna, M. M. G.; Samuel, Joseph; Sinha, Supurna

    2000-01-01

    We study the diffusion of Brownian particles on the surface of a sphere and compute the distribution of solid angles enclosed by the diffusing particles. This function describes the distribution of geometric phases in two state quantum systems (or polarised light) undergoing random evolution. Our results are also relevant to recent experiments which observe the Brownian motion of molecules on curved surfaces like micelles and biological membranes. Our theoretical analysis agrees well with the...

  7. Pitch Angle Control of Variable Speed Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Yousif El-Tous

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to design a simple controller to maximize the extracted energy of wind turbines. In this study the pitch angle control of variable speed wind turbine is investigated. In particular, it concentrates on the extraction of maximum available energy, reduction of torque and output power variations, which gives stresses in the gearbox and mechanical structure. The control concentrates on separate wind speed internals as well as on whole wind speed region. It is found that th...

  8. What is the contact angle of water on graphene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherian, Fereshte; Marcon, Valentina; van der Vegt, Nico F A; Leroy, Frédéric

    2013-02-01

    Although experimental and theoretical studies have addressed the question of the wetting properties of graphene, the actual value of the contact angle of water on an isolated graphene monolayer remains unknown. While recent experimental literature indicates that the contact angle of water on graphite is in the range 90-95°, it has been suggested that the contact angle on graphene may either be as high as 127° or moderately enhanced in comparison with graphite. With the support of classical molecular dynamics simulations using empirical force-fields, we develop an argumentation to show that the value of 127° is an unrealistic estimate and that a value of the order of 95-100° should be expected. Our study establishes a connection between the variation of the work of adhesion of water on graphene-based surfaces and the interaction potential between individual water molecules and these surfaces. We show that a variation of the contact angle from 90° on graphite to 127° on graphene would imply that both of the first two carbon layers of graphite contribute approximately the same interaction energy with water. Such a situation is incompatible with the short-range nature of the interaction between water and this substrate. We also show that the interaction potential energy between water and the graphene-based substrates is the main contribution to the work of adhesion of water with a relative magnitude that is independent of the number of graphene layers. We introduce the idea that the remaining contribution is entropic in nature and is connected to the fluctuations in the water-substrate interaction energy.

  9. REST based service composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grönvall, Erik; Ingstrup, Mads; Pløger, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an ongoing work developing and testing a Service Composition framework based upon the REST architecture named SECREST. A minimalistic approach have been favored instead of a creating a complete infrastructure. One focus has been on the system's interaction model. Indeed, an ai...

  10. Simultaneous Multi-angle Measurements of Plasma Turbulence at HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naomi; Golkowski, Mark; Sheerin, James; University of Colorado Denver Team

    2013-10-01

    We report the results from a recent series of experiments employing the HAARP HF transmitter to generate and study strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma. Diagnostics included the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) located at HAARP, the Super DARN-Kodiak HF radar, and HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE). Short pulse, low duty cycle experiments demonstrate control and suppression of artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI). This allows the isolation of ponderomotive plasma turbulence effects. For the first time, plasma line spectra measured simultaneously in different spots of the interaction region displayed marked but contemporaneous differences dependent on the aspect angle of the HF pump beam and the pointing angle of the MUIR diagnostic radar. Outshifted Plasma Line (OPL) spectra, rarely observed in past experiments, occurred with sufficient regularity for experimentation. Experimental results are compared to previous high latitude experiments and predictions from recent modeling efforts.

  11. Inspiratory loading and limb blood flow in COPD: The modulating effects of resting lung hyperinflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Danilo C; de Castro, Marina A; Merola, Pietro; Benedetto, Igor; Castilho, Mariah; Vieira, Paulo J C; Knorst, Marli M; Neder, J Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Inspiratory resistive loading (IRL) may have deleterious cardiocirculatory effects leading to poor peripheral perfusion in severely-hyperinflated patients with COPD. Nineteen patients (13 severely-hyperinflated with inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity ratio≤0.28) underwent calf blood flow (CBF) measurements by venous occlusion plethysmography at rest and during IRL at 60% maximal inspiratory pressure. Severely-hyperinflated patients had lower resting CBF and greater calf vascular resistance (CVR) than moderately-hyperinflated patients (phyperinflated patients had markedly reduced CBF (p=0.01). Opposite to our main hypothesis, however, IRL did not further reduce CBF in these patients (p>0.05). Conversely, it significantly decreased CBF and increased CVR in moderately-hyperinflated patients; in fact, end-trial CBF and CVR did not differ between the groups (p>0.05). In conclusion, marked impairments in resting appendicular blood flow in severely-hyperinflated patients with COPD were seen only after acute IRL in less hyperinflated patients. These findings set the stage for studies investigating the effects of lung deflation on peripheral hemodynamics in patients with severe hyperinflation.

  12. Inspiratory loading and limb blood flow in COPD: The modulating effects of resting lung hyperinflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Danilo C; de Castro, Marina A; Merola, Pietro; Benedetto, Igor; Castilho, Mariah; Vieira, Paulo J C; Knorst, Marli M; Neder, J Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Inspiratory resistive loading (IRL) may have deleterious cardiocirculatory effects leading to poor peripheral perfusion in severely-hyperinflated patients with COPD. Nineteen patients (13 severely-hyperinflated with inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity ratio≤0.28) underwent calf blood flow (CBF) measurements by venous occlusion plethysmography at rest and during IRL at 60% maximal inspiratory pressure. Severely-hyperinflated patients had lower resting CBF and greater calf vascular resistance (CVR) than moderately-hyperinflated patients (phyperinflated patients had markedly reduced CBF (p=0.01). Opposite to our main hypothesis, however, IRL did not further reduce CBF in these patients (p>0.05). Conversely, it significantly decreased CBF and increased CVR in moderately-hyperinflated patients; in fact, end-trial CBF and CVR did not differ between the groups (p>0.05). In conclusion, marked impairments in resting appendicular blood flow in severely-hyperinflated patients with COPD were seen only after acute IRL in less hyperinflated patients. These findings set the stage for studies investigating the effects of lung deflation on peripheral hemodynamics in patients with severe hyperinflation. PMID:26965088

  13. Effect of altitude relocations upon AaDo2 at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, J C; Hartley, L H; Vogel, J A

    1975-09-01

    The supine pulmonary venous admixture (shunt) has been measured at Cerro de Pasco, 4,350 m altitude in eight subjects native to high altitude (HAN) under resting condition. Alveolar-arterial O2 tension difference (AaDO2) was also determined at rest and during exercise. The same subjects were studied again after 10 days' sojourn at sea level in Lima at 150 m altitude. They were compared with four subjects from sea level (SLN) who were studied first at Lima and after 2 and 10 days at Cerro de Pasco. At altitude, AaDO2 was smaller in HAN than SLN both at rest and during exercise. Shunt was the same in both groups. It is concluded that HAN show more even ventilation/perfusion relationship (VA/Q) at altitude, probably due to their high pulmonary artery pressure. On the contrary, SLN show less even VA/Q on altitude exposure, since their shunt decreased 37%. At sea level, HAN increased their AaDO2 due partially to an increase of 110% in their shunt, and in part due to less even VA/Q as shown by augmented VD/VT ratios. Each group tended to have a more effective gas exchange in its own environment.

  14. Rel Is Required for Morphogenesis of Resting Cells in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mu-Lu; Chan, Chuu Ling; Dick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Recently we showed that upon transfer of growing Mycobacterium smegmatis into saline, the bacilli exited the canonical cell division cycle and formed septated multi-nucleoided cells. Under shock starvation (i.e., in saline without any carbon source), differentiation terminated at this stage with internally remodeled Large Resting Cells (LARCs). Whereas under gentle starvation (i.e., in saline with trace amounts of a carbon source), the septated multi-nucleoided bacilli completed cell division and separated into mono-nucleoided Small Resting Cells (SMRCs). This demonstrated that the non-sporulating mycobacteria are in fact capable of forming morphologically differentiated resting cells when exposed to starvation. Depending on the specific starvation conditions they can form two different resting cell types, LARCs or SMRCs, which share a common cellular differentiation pathway. The mRNA encoding the (p)ppGpp synthetase Rel was found to be transiently upregulated immediately upon starvation under both conditions, suggesting a role for the stringent response factor in both LARC and SMRC development. Here, we disrupted Rel function by generating two types of mutant M. smegmatis strains: a rel nonsense mutant (relE4TAG) in which translation is prematurely terminated at codon 4, and a rel deletion mutant (Δrel) in which the entire coding sequence was deleted. Both mutants showed identical phenotypes: sparse septum formation, less DNA compaction, and failure in formation of both the septated multi-nucleoided LARCs and the small-cell morphotype SMRC under starvation conditions. All phenotypes were rescued through the introduction of a wild-type copy of rel. Therefore, we conclude that loss-of-function mutations in rel block the development of both LARCs and SMRCs by preventing the first morphogenetic step in mycobacterial resting cell development, the formation of septated multi-nucleoided cells. Interestingly, in contrast to Rel’s role in most other bacteria, starvation

  15. Rel is required for morphogenesis of resting cells in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Lu Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently we showed that upon transfer of growing Mycobacterium smegmatis into saline, the bacilli exited the canonical cell division cycle and formed septated multi-nucleoided cells. Under shock starvation (i.e. in saline without any carbon source, differentiation terminated at this stage with internally remodeled Large Resting Cells, LARCs. Whereas under gentle starvation (i.e. in saline with trace amounts of a carbon source, the septated multi-nucleoided bacilli completed cell division and separated into mono-nucleoided Small Resting Cells, SMRCs. This demonstrated that the non-sporulating mycobacteria are in fact capable of forming morphologically differentiated resting cells when exposed to starvation. Depending on the specific starvation conditions they can form two different resting cell types, LARCs or SMRCs, which share a common cellular differentiation pathway. The mRNA encoding the (pppGpp synthetase Rel was found to be transiently upregulated immediately upon starvation under both conditions, suggesting a role for the stringent response factor in both LARC and SMRC development. Here, we disrupted Rel function by generating two types of mutant M. smegmatis strains: a rel nonsense mutant (relE4TAG in which translation is prematurely terminated at codon 4, and a rel deletion mutant (△rel in which the entire coding sequence was deleted. Both mutants showed identical phenotypes: sparse septum formation, less DNA compaction and failure in formation of both the septated multi-nucleoided LARCs and the small-cell morphotype SMRC under starvation conditions. All phenotypes were rescued through the introduction of a wild-type copy of rel. Therefore, we conclude that loss-of-function mutations in rel block the development of both LARCs and SMRCs by preventing the first morphogenetic step in mycobacterial resting cell development, the formation of septated multi-nucleoided cells. Interestingly, in contrast to Rel’s role in most other bacteria

  16. The mixing angle as a function of neutrino mass ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Subhankar

    2016-01-01

    In the quark sector, we experience a correlation between the mixing angles and the mass ratios. A partial realization of the similar tie-up in the neutrino sector helps to constrain the parametrization of masses and mixing, and hints for a predictive framework. We derive five hierarchy dependent textures of neutrino mass matrix with minimum number of parameters ($\\leq\\,4$), following a model-independent strategy.

  17. Photoproduction of Pseudoscalar Mesons off Nuclei at Forward Angles

    OpenAIRE

    Gevorkyan, S; Gasparian, A.; Gan, L.; Larin, I.; Khandaker, M.

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of new photon tagging facilities and novel experimental technologies it has become possible to perform photoproduction cross section measurements of pseudoscalar mesons on nuclei with a percent level accuracy. The extraction of the radiative decay widths from these measurements at forward angles is done by the Primakoff method, which requires theoretical treatment of all processes participating in these reactions at the same percent level. In this work we review the theoretica...

  18. Scattering angle base filtering of the inversion gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach based on the availability of low frequencies to maneuver the complex nonlinearity associated with the problem of velocity inversion. I develop a model gradient filter to help us access the parts of the gradient more suitable to combat this potential nonlinearity. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which low scattering angles of the gradient update are initially muted. The result are long-wavelength updates controlled by the ray component of the wavefield. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce near zero wavelength updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Allowing smaller scattering angle to contribute provides higher resolution information to the model.

  19. Atomistic aspects of crack propagation along high angle grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The author presents atomistic simulations of the crack tip configuration near a high angle {Sigma} = 5 [001](210) symmetrical tilt grain boundary in NiAl. The simulations were carried out using molecular statics and embedded atom (EAM) potentials. The cracks are stabilized near a Griffith condition involving the cohesive energy of the grain boundary. The atomistic configurations of the tip region are different in the presence of the high angle grain boundary than in the bulk. Three different configurations of the grain boundary were studied corresponding to different local compositions. It was found that in ordered NiAl, cracks along symmetrical tilt boundaries show a more brittle behavior for Al rich boundaries than for Ni-rich boundaries. Lattice trapping effects in grain boundary fracture were found to be more significant than in the bulk.

  20. In search of neural mechanisms of mirror neuron dysfunction in schizophrenia: resting state functional connectivity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytseva, Yuliya; Bendova, Marie; Garakh, Zhanna; Tintera, Jaroslav; Rydlo, Jan; Spaniel, Filip; Horacek, Jiri

    2015-09-01

    It has been repeatedly shown that schizophrenia patients have immense alterations in goal-directed behaviour, social cognition, and social interactions, cognitive abilities that are presumably driven by the mirror neurons system (MNS). However, the neural bases of these deficits still remain unclear. Along with the task-related fMRI and EEG research tapping into the mirror neuron system, the characteristics of the resting state activity in the particular areas that encompass mirror neurons might be of interest as they obviously determine the baseline of the neuronal activity. Using resting state fMRI, we investigated resting state functional connectivity (FC) in four predefined brain structures, ROIs (inferior frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, premotor cortex and superior temporal gyrus), known for their mirror neurons activity, in 12 patients with first psychotic episode and 12 matched healthy individuals. As a specific hypothesis, based on the knowledge of the anatomical inputs of thalamus to all preselected ROIs, we have investigated the FC between thalamus and the ROIs. Of all ROIs included, seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis revealed significantly decreased FC only in left posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the areas in visual cortex and cerebellum in patients as compared to controls. Using ROI-to-ROI analysis (thalamus and selected ROIs), we have found an increased FC of STG and bilateral thalamus whereas the FC of these areas was decreased in controls. Our results suggest that: (1) schizophrenia patients exhibit FC of STG which corresponds to the previously reported changes of superior temporal gyrus in schizophrenia and might contribute to the disturbances of specific functions, such as emotional processing or spatial awareness; (2) as the thalamus plays a pivotal role in the sensory gating, providing the filtering of the redundant stimulation, the observed hyperconnectivity between the thalami and the STGs in patients with schizophrenia

  1. Small-angle X-ray scattering of solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of synchrotron radiation in small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques in biological structural studies is described. The main features of the monochromatic radiation systems and the white radiation systems are considered. The detectors, data acquisition and experimental procedures are briefly described. Experimental results are presented for 1) measurements on dilute solutions and weak scatterers, 2) measurement of conformational transitions, 3) contrast variation experiments, 4) time-resolved measurements and 5) complex contrast variation. (U.K.)

  2. Incoherent photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons off nuclei at forward angles

    OpenAIRE

    Gevorkyan, S; Gasparian, A.; Gan, L.; Larin, I.; Khandaker, M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in the photon tagging facilities together with the novel, high resolution fast calorimetry made possible to perform photoproduction cross section measurements of pseudoscalar mesons on nuclei with a percent level accuracy. The extraction of the radiative decay widths, needed for testing the symmetry breaking effects in QCD, from these measurements at small angles is done by the Primakoff method. This method requires theoretical treatment of all processes participating in these...

  3. Variable Angle of SRG for Wind Energy Control Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged N. F. Nashed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Switched reluctance machine has various desirable features, which comes from its simple construction. They are the wide speed range, high temperature operation and small moment of inertia. There are many control variables, such as: firing angles, reference current, speed and voltage. This paper presents a nonlinear model of 6/4 Switched Reluctance Generator (SRG with two converter (one with generator side and other with grid side based on wind Energy system. This system provides a new approach to maximize the amount of power generated. Closed loop control with based PI current Control model is used. A Power converter in SRG can be produced maximum power efficiency and minimize the ripple contents in the output of SRG depend on the converter angles. A second power converter namely PI based controlled PWM inverter is used to interface the machine to the Grid. This system proposed feasibility and validity are simulated on MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  4. Dynamic-angle spinning and double rotation of quadrupolar nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei is complicated by the coupling of the electric quadrupole moment of the nucleus to local variations in the electric field. The quadrupolar interaction is a useful source of information about local molecular structure in solids, but it tends to broaden resonance lines causing crowding and overlap in NMR spectra. Magic- angle spinning, which is routinely used to produce high resolution spectra of spin-1/2 nuclei like carbon-13 and silicon-29, is incapable of fully narrowing resonances from quadrupolar nuclei when anisotropic second-order quadrupolar interactions are present. Two new sample-spinning techniques are introduced here that completely average the second-order quadrupolar coupling. Narrow resonance lines are obtained and individual resonances from distinct nuclear sites are identified. In dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) a rotor containing a powdered sample is reoriented between discrete angles with respect to high magnetic field. Evolution under anisotropic interactions at the different angles cancels, leaving only the isotropic evolution of the spin system. In the second technique, double rotation (DOR), a small rotor spins within a larger rotor so that the sample traces out a complicated trajectory in space. The relative orientation of the rotors and the orientation of the larger rotor within the magnetic field are selected to average both first- and second-order anisotropic broadening. The theory of quadrupolar interactions, coherent averaging theory, and motional narrowing by sample reorientation are reviewed with emphasis on the chemical shift anisotropy and second-order quadrupolar interactions experienced by half-odd integer spin quadrupolar nuclei. The DAS and DOR techniques are introduced and illustrated with application to common quadrupolar systems such as sodium-23 and oxygen-17 nuclei in solids

  5. Bank Angle of a V-Type 12-Cylinder Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Norio; Nakagawa, Akihito; Kitamura, Ryuji

    As the automobile engine advances towards higher performance and higher power, the increase in displacement and the number of cylinders in the engine has led to larger engines. As a result, the need for rigidity countermeasures and reductions in size and weight have brought about the switch from in-line type engines to V-type engines. Currently, most of the V-type automobile engines produced have six or eight cylinders, and some large passenger cars produced in Europe and America have V-type engines with 10 or 12 cylinders. The bank angles of engines in these passenger are almost fixed based on the cylinder number. Therefore, the form of the V-type engine is limited according to the number of cylinders. The present study examines the bank angle of a V-12 engine by performing a detailed analysis of the relationship between the cylinder arrangement and the exciting moment. The goal of the present study is to find a bank angle that has as of yet not been applied to the V-type engine so that the layouts of the absorption and exhaust systems, as well as the attached apparatuses, can be reconfigured.

  6. The effect of exercise and rest duration on the generation of venous gas bubbles at altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervay, Joseph P.; Powell, Michael R.; Butler, Bruce; Fife, Caroline E.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Decompression, as occurs with aviators and astronauts undergoing high altitude operations or with deep-sea divers returning to surface, can cause gas bubbles to form within the organism. Pressure changes to evoke bubble formation in vivo during depressurization are several orders of magnitude less than those required for gas phase formation in vitro in quiescent liquids. Preformed micronuclei acting as "seeds" have been proposed, dating back to the 1940's. These tissue gas micronuclei have been attributed to a minute gas phase located in hydrophobic cavities, surfactant-stabilized microbubbles, or arising from musculoskeletal activity. The lifetimes of these micronuclei have been presumed to be from a few minutes to several weeks. HYPOTHESIS: The greatest incidence of venous gas emboli (VGE) will be detected by precordial Doppler ultrasound with depressurization immediately following lower extremity exercise, with progressively reduced levels of VGE observed as the interval from exercise to depressurization lengthens. METHODS: In a blinded cross-over design, 20 individuals (15 men, 5 women) at sea level exercised by performing knee-bend squats (150 knee flexes over 10 min, 235-kcal x h(-1)) either at the beginning, middle, or end of a 2-h chair-rest period without an oxygen prebreathe. Seated subjects were then depressurized to 6.2 psia (6,706 m or 22,000 ft altitude equivalent) for 120 min with no exercise performed at altitude. RESULTS: Of the 20 subjects with VGE in the pulmonary artery, 10 demonstrated a greater incidence of bubbles with exercise performed just prior to depressurization, compared with decreasing bubble grades and incidence as the interval of rest increased prior to depressurization. No decompression illness was reported. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant increase in decompression-induced bubble formation at 6.2 psia when lower extremity exercise is performed just prior to depressurization as compared with longer rest intervals

  7. Identification of resting cells by dual-parameter flow cytometry of statin expression and DNA content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellicciari, C.; Mangiarotti, R.; Bottone, M.G.; Danova, M. [Univ. of Pavia (Italy); Wang, E. [Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-12-01

    Statin, a 57-kDa nuclear protein, has been recognized as a unique marker of quiescent (G{sub 0}) cells; specific monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) against statin have been produced and used to label resting cells in tissue sections and in cultured cells. We present an improved method for the identification of G{sub 0} cells by dual-parameter flow cytometry of statin expression and DNA content. The appropriate technical conditions were set up by using resting and cycling human fibroblasts as a model cell system. Several fixatives proved to be suitable for the immunocytochemical detection of statin; among them, 70% ethanol was selected because this fixation procedure is suitable for DNA staining with intercalating dyes and is routinely used for the immunolabeling of proliferation markers (such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] and Ki-67) and of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) incorporation. Following cell permeabilization with detergent, exposure to the antistatin antibody (S-44), and indirect fluorescein isothiocyanate immunolabeling, cells were counterstained for DNA with propidium iodide and analyzed by dual-parameter flow cytometry. In cells from several animal sources (rat thymocytes and C6 glioma cells, mouse 3T3 cells, and human MCF-7 cells), under different experimental conditions, the expression of statin was found to correlate inversely with that of PCNA and Ki-67, and with the BrdUrd labeling index. In dual-parameter flow scattergrams, G{sub 0} (statin positive) cells can be discriminated from the potentially cycling (statin negative) G{sub 1} cells, i.e., within a cell fraction having the same DNA content. This approach can be envisaged as a powerful tool both for monitoring changes in the resting cell fraction and for investigating the process of G{sub 0}-G{sub 1} transition in unperturbed and drug-treated cell populations. 48 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Precise determination of lattice phase shifts and mixing angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bing-Nan; Lähde, Timo A.; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a general and accurate method for determining lattice phase shifts and mixing angles, which is applicable to arbitrary, non-cubic lattices. Our method combines angular momentum projection, spherical wall boundaries and an adjustable auxiliary potential. This allows us to construct radial lattice wave functions and to determine phase shifts at arbitrary energies. For coupled partial waves, we use a complex-valued auxiliary potential that breaks time-reversal invariance. We benchmark our method using a system of two spin-1/2 particles interacting through a finite-range potential with a strong tensor component. We are able to extract phase shifts and mixing angles for all angular momenta and energies, with precision greater than that of extant methods. We discuss a wide range of applications from nuclear lattice simulations to optical lattice experiments.

  9. Flight Calibration of the LROC Narrow Angle Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humm, D. C.; Tschimmel, M.; Brylow, S. M.; Mahanti, P.; Tran, T. N.; Braden, S. E.; Wiseman, S.; Danton, J.; Eliason, E. M.; Robinson, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Characterization and calibration are vital for instrument commanding and image interpretation in remote sensing. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Narrow Angle Camera (LROC NAC) takes 500 Mpixel greyscale images of lunar scenes at 0.5 meters/pixel. It uses two nominally identical line scan cameras for a larger crosstrack field of view. Stray light, spatial crosstalk, and nonlinearity were characterized using flight images of the Earth and the lunar limb. These are important for imaging shadowed craters, studying ˜1 meter size objects, and photometry respectively. Background, nonlinearity, and flatfield corrections have been implemented in the calibration pipeline. An eight-column pattern in the background is corrected. The detector is linear for DN = 600--2000 but a signal-dependent additive correction is required and applied for DNground-based images taken with the Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) at much lower spatial resolution but with the same photometric angles.

  10. Variability and Similarity of Gait as Evaluated by Joint Angles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter Kastmand; Alkjær, Tine;

    2014-01-01

    Closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage is used in criminal investigations to compare perpetrators with suspects. Usually, incomplete gait cycles are collected, making evidential gait analysis challenging. This study aimed to analyze the discriminatory power of joint angles throughout a gait cycle....... Six sets from 12 men were collected. For each man, a variability range VR (mean ± 1SD) of a specific joint angle at a specific time point (a gait cycle was 100 time points) was calculated. In turn, each individual was compared with the 11 others, and whenever 1 of these 11 had a value within...... this individual’s VR, it counted as positive. By adding the positives throughout the gait cycle, we created simple bar graphs; tall bars indicated a small discriminatory power, short bars indicated a larger one. The highest discriminatory power was at time points 60–80 in the gait cycle. We show how our data can...

  11. Lactobionic and cellobionic acid production profiles of the resting cells of acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryu, Takaaki; Kiso, Taro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Lactobionic acid was produced by acetic acid bacteria to oxidize lactose. Gluconobacter spp. and Gluconacetobacter spp. showed higher lactose-oxidizing activities than Acetobacter spp. Gluconobacter frateurii NBRC3285 produced the highest amount of lactobionic acid per cell, among the strains tested. This bacterium assimilated neither lactose nor lactobionic acid. At high lactose concentration (30%), resting cells of the bacterium showed sufficient oxidizing activity for efficient production of lactobionic acid. These properties may contribute to industrial production of lactobionic acid by the bacterium. The bacterium showed higher oxidizing activity on cellobiose than that on lactose and produced cellobionic acid. PMID:25965080

  12. Output characteristics of right angle cone mirror cavity laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongqi Li; Zuhai Cheng

    2005-01-01

    The anti-misalignment stability and output characteristics of the right angle cone cavity laser are experimentally studied. When the misalignment angle of the cone mirror turns to 46.8 minutes, the single-pulse output energy of the plano-cone cavity laser decreases 24% and the near-field beam patterns have little change; as for the beam directional stability, when the measuring place stands 3.12 m in front of the output mirror, the near-field beam patterns of the plano-cone laser are located at the primary places until the misalignment angle of the cone mirror turns to 18 minutes. These results show that the plano-cone cavity laser has better performances in comparison with the plano-concave cavity laser. The analytical results of the mode instrument are also obtained, which show that the near-field beam intensity distribution of the plano-cone mirror cavity laser is near to the plane wave.

  13. High angle of attack aerodynamics subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flows

    CERN Document Server

    Rom, Josef

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamics of aircraft at high angles of attack is a subject which is being pursued diligently, because the modern agile fighter aircraft and many of the current generation of missiles must perform well at very high incidence, near and beyond stall. However, a comprehensive presentation of the methods and results applicable to the studies of the complex aerodynamics at high angle of attack has not been covered in monographs or textbooks. This book is not the usual textbook in that it goes beyond just presenting the basic theoretical and experimental know-how, since it contains reference material to practical calculation methods and technical and experimental results which can be useful to the practicing aerospace engineers and scientists. It can certainly be used as a text and reference book for graduate courses on subjects related to high angles of attack aerodynamics and for topics related to three-dimensional separation in viscous flow courses. In addition, the book is addressed to the aerodynamicist...

  14. Refractive Focusing of Interstellar Clouds and Intraday Polarization Angle Swings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Jie Qian; T. P. Krichbaum; Long Gao; Xi-Zhen Zhang; A. Witzel; J. A. Zensus

    2007-01-01

    Intraday variations of compact extragalactic radio sources in flux density and polarization are generally interpreted in terms of refractive scintillation from the continuous interstellar medium of our Galaxy. However, continuous polarization angle swings of ~ 180°(for example, the one observed in the QSO 0917+624) could not be interpreted in this way.Qian et al. have shown that the polarization angle swing observed in the QSO 1150+812 can be explained in terms of focusing-defocusing effect by an interstellar cloud, which occults two closely-placed polarized components. Here we further show that the polarization angle swing event observed in the QSO 0917+624 can also be explained in this way. We also found evidence for the cloud eclipsing a non-polarized (core) component during a short period outside the swing. A particular (and specific) plasma-lens model is proposed to model-fit the polarization swing event of 0917+624. Some physical parameters related to the plasma-lens and the source components are estimated. The brightness temperatures of the two lensed components are estimated to be ~ 1.6 × 1013 K. Thus bulk relativistic motion with a Lorentz factor less than ~20 may be sufficient to avoid the inverse - Compton catastrophe.

  15. Precise determination of lattice phase shifts and mixing angles

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Bing-Nan; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a general method for determining phase shifts and mixing angles on the lattice with greater precision than existing methods. The approach starts with angular momentum projection on the lattice wave functions in order to construct lattice radial wave functions. We then impose spherical wall boundaries together with an adjustable auxiliary potential to determine phase shifts at arbitrary energy. For coupled partial waves, we use a complex-valued auxiliary potential that breaks time-reversal invariance in order to extract phase shifts and mixing angles from the complex-valued wave functions. We benchmark the method using a system of two spin-1/2 particles interacting through a finite-range potential with a strong tensor component, and find that scattering parameters can be extracted precisely for all angular momenta and energies. We discuss the application of the method to ab initio lattice Monte Carlo studies.

  16. EFFECTS OF LORAZEPAM ON CARDIAC VAGAL TONE DURING REST AND MENTAL STRESS - ASSESSMENT BY MEANS OF SPECTRAL-ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TULEN, JHM; MULDER, G; PEPPLINKHUIZEN, L; INTVELD, AJM; VANSTEENIS, HG; MOLEMAN, P

    1994-01-01

    Dose-dependent effects of intravenously administered lorazepam on haemodynamic fluctuations were studied by means of spectral analysis, in order to elucidate sympathetic and parasympathetic components in cardiovascular control during situations of rest and mental stress after benzodiazepine administ

  17. Impact Angle Control of Interplanetary Shock Geoeffectiveness: A Statistical Study

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, D M

    2015-01-01

    We present a survey of interplanetary (IP) shocks using WIND and ACE satellite data from January 1995 to December 2013 to study how IP shock geoeffectiveness is controlled by IP shock impact angles. A shock list covering one and a half solar cycle is compiled. The yearly number of IP shocks is found to correlate well with the monthly sunspot number. We use data from SuperMAG, a large chain with more than 300 geomagnetic stations, to study geoeffectiveness triggered by IP shocks. The SuperMAG SML index, an enhanced version of the familiar AL index, is used in our statistical analysis. The jumps of the SML index triggered by IP shock impacts on the Earth's magnetosphere is investigated in terms of IP shock orientation and speed. We find that, in general, strong (high speed) and almost frontal (small impact angle) shocks are more geoeffective than inclined shocks with low speed. The strongest correlation (correlation coefficient R = 0.70) occurs for fixed IP shock speed and varying the IP shock impact angle. We ...

  18. LHCb Measurement of the CKM angle $\\gamma$ at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Ali, S

    2014-01-01

    In this poster we present the latest result by the LHCb collaboration in determining the CKM angle $\\gamma$ ($(67.1 \\pm 12)^{\\circ}$). The result is determined by combining several $B \\to Dh$ analyses. Latest results from the decay time dependent $B_{s} \\to D_{s}K$ analysis is also reported, along with a few other decay channels interesting for determination of $\\gamma$ in the future.

  19. Compensation of the Crossing Angle with Crab Cavities at KEKB

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T; Akemoto, M; Akiyama, A; Arinaga, M; Ebihara, K; Egawa, K; Enomoto, A; Flanagan, J; Fukuda, S; Fukuma, H; Funakoshi, Y; Furukawa, K; Furuya, T; Hara, K; Higo, T; Hiramatsu, S; Hisamatsu, H; Honma, H; Honma, T; Hosoyama, K; Ieiri, T; Iida, N; Ikeda, H; Ikeda, M; Inagaki, S; Isagawa, S; Ishii, H; Kabe, A; Kadokura, E; Kageyama, T; Kakihara, K; Kako, E; Kamada, S; Kamitani, T; Kanazawa, K; Katagiri, H; Kato, S; Kawamoto, T; Kazakov, S; Kikuchi, M; Kikutani, E; Kitagawa, K; Koiso, H; Kojima, Y; Komada, I; Kubo, T; Kudo, K; Kudo, N; Marutsuka, K; Masuzawa, M; Matsumoto, S; Matsumoto, T; Michizono, S; Mikawa, K; Mimashi, T; Mitsunobu, S; Mori, K; Morita, A; Morita, Y; Nakai, H; Nakajima, H; Nakamura, T T; Nakanishi, H; Nakanishi, K; Nakao, K; Ninomiya, S; Ogawa, Y; Ohmi, K; Ohsawa, S; Ohsawa, Y; Ohnishi, Y; Ohuchi, N; Oide, K; Ono, M; Ozaki, T; Saitô, K; Sakai, H; Sakamoto, Y; Sato, M; Satoh, M; Shibata, K; Shidara, T; Shirai, M; Shirakawa, A; Sueno, T; Suetake, M; Suetsugu, Y; Sugahara, R; Sugimura, T; Suwada, T; Tajima, O; Takano, S; Takasaki, S; Takenaka, T; Takeuchi, Y; Tawada, M; Tejima, M; Tobiyama, M; Tokuda, N; Uehara, S; Uno, S; Yamamoto, Y; Yano, Y; Yokoyama, K; Yoshida, Ma; Yoshida, Mi; Yoshimoto, S; Yoshino, K; Perevedentsev, E; Shatilov, D N

    2007-01-01

    Crab cavities have been installed in the KEKB B--Factory rings to compensate the crossing angle at the collision point and thus increase luminosity. The beam operation with crab crossing has been done since February 2007. This is the first experience with such cavities in colliders or storage rings. The crab cavities have been working without serious issues. While higher specific luminosity than the geometrical gain has been achieved, further study is necessary and under way to reach the prediction of simulation.

  20. Absorption of negative pions resting on nuclei of the 1p layer. Theoretical and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the probability of capture of π- resting on 12C with emission of a single proton which has been measured on the Saclay Linear Accelerator (ALS), is relatively high, it was obvious that this reaction type was based on a mechanism involving two nucleons. Due to the lack of theoretical interpretation for the emission of a single nucleon, a model has been developed in which the pion is absorbed by a correlated proton-proton pair, only one of these both protons being emitted. The first part of this research thesis addresses the calculation of absorption on a pair of nucleons with emission of these nucleons. It comprises the detailed presentation of the theoretical model, its comparison with other published calculations, and the comparison with results obtained by experiments of emission of nucleon pairs from carbon and oxygen. The second part proposes an overview of the great number of experimental results obtained by capture of π- resting on carbon. It reports the measurement of the emission of a single nucleon, the presentation of the elaborated theoretical model which has been developed to interpret this measurement. The author also compares the results of his calculation with the experimentally measured probability for the (π-p) process and the results published on the measurement of the (π-n).reaction