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Sample records for angle of rest

  1. Correlation of resting elbow angle with spasticity in chronic stroke survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Y Bhadane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate whether resting joint angle is indicative of severity of spasticity of the elbow flexors in chronic stroke survivors. Methods: Seventeen hemiparetic stroke subjects (male: n=13; female: n=4; age: 37-89 years; 11 right and 6 left hemiplegia; averaged 54.8 months after stroke, ranging 12-107 months participated in the study. The number of subjects with modified Ashworth scale score (MAS = 0, 1, 1+, 2, 3 was 3, 3, 5, 3, 3, respectively. In a single experimental session, resting elbow joint angle, MAS, and Tardieu scale score (Tardieu R1 were measured. A customized motorized stretching device was used to stretch elbow flexors at 5°/s, 50°/s, and 100°/s, respectively. Biomechanical responses (peak reflex torque and reflex stiffness of elbow flexors were quantified. Correlation analyses between clinical and biomechanical assessments were performed. Results: Resting elbow joint angle showed a strong positive correlation with Tardieu R1 (r = 0.77, p<0.01 and a very strong negative correlation with MAS (r = −0.89, p<0.01. The resting angle also had strong correlations with biomechanical measures (r= −0.63 to −0.76, p<0.01. Conclusion: Our study provides experimental evidence for anecdotal observation that the resting elbow joint angle correlates with severity of spasticity in chronic stroke. Resting angle observation for spasticity assessment can and will be an easy, yet a valid way of spasticity estimation in clinical settings, particularly for small muscles or muscles which are not easily measurable by common clinical methods.

  2. Correlation of Resting Elbow Angle with Spasticity in Chronic Stroke Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadane, Minal Y; Gao, Fan; Francisco, Gerard E; Zhou, Ping; Li, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether resting joint angle is indicative of severity of spasticity of the elbow flexors in chronic stroke survivors. Seventeen hemiparetic stroke subjects (male: n = 13; female: n = 4; age: 37-89 years; 11 right and 6 left hemiplegia; averaged 54.8 months after stroke, ranging 12-107 months) participated in the study. The number of subjects with modified Ashworth scale score (MAS) = 0, 1, 1+, 2, and 3 was 3, 3, 5, 3, and 3, respectively. In a single experimental session, resting elbow joint angle, MAS, and Tardieu scale score (Tardieu R1) were measured. A customized motorized stretching device was used to stretch elbow flexors at 5, 50, and 100°/s, respectively. Biomechanical responses (peak reflex torque and reflex stiffness) of elbow flexors were quantified. Correlation analyses between clinical and biomechanical assessments were performed. Resting elbow joint angle showed a strong positive correlation with Tardieu R1 (r = 0.77, p spasticity in chronic stroke. Resting angle observation for spasticity assessment can and will be an easy, yet a valid way of spasticity estimation in clinical settings, particularly for small muscles or muscles which are not easily measurable by common clinical methods.

  3. Correlation of resting elbow angle with spasticity in chronic stroke survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Minal Y Bhadane; Minal Y Bhadane; Fan eGao; Gerard E Francisco; Gerard E Francisco; Ping eZhou; Ping eZhou; Ping eZhou; Sheng eLi; Sheng eLi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether resting joint angle is indicative of severity of spasticity of the elbow flexors in chronic stroke survivors. Methods: Seventeen hemiparetic stroke subjects (male: n=13; female: n=4; age: 37-89 years; 11 right and 6 left hemiplegia; averaged 54.8 months after stroke, ranging 12-107 months) participated in the study. The number of subjects with modified Ashworth scale score (MAS) = 0, 1, 1+, 2, 3 was 3, 3, 5, 3, 3, respectively. In a single experimental session, ...

  4. Correlation of Resting Elbow Angle with Spasticity in Chronic Stroke Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Bhadane, Minal Y.; Gao, Fan; Francisco, Gerard E.; Zhou, Ping; Li, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether resting joint angle is indicative of severity of spasticity of the elbow flexors in chronic stroke survivors. Methods Seventeen hemiparetic stroke subjects (male: n = 13; female: n = 4; age: 37–89 years; 11 right and 6 left hemiplegia; averaged 54.8 months after stroke, ranging 12–107 months) participated in the study. The number of subjects with modified Ashworth scale score (MAS) = 0, 1, 1+, 2, and 3 was 3, 3, 5, 3, and 3, respectively. In a single e...

  5. Development and reliability of the Achilles Tendon Length Measure and comparison with the Achilles Tendon Resting Angle on patients with an Achilles tendon rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maria Swennergren; Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Kristensen, Morten Tange

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a need for a valid, reliable, and easily applicable clinical measure of the length of the Achilles tendon (AT) after rupture. This study examines the reliability of a new ruler based measurement, the Achilles Tendon Length Measure (ATLM) in comparison with the goniometer......-based Achilles Tendon Resting Angle (ATRA). METHODS: Measurements were performed by two independent physiotherapists eight weeks after AT rupture on 28 patients treated non-operatively. RESULTS: The mean (SD) injured ATLM was 56.5 (2.3)cm, ICC2.1 0.91(CI [0.72-0.97]), SEM 0.7cm (SEM% 1.2), MDC 1.9cm (MDC% 3...

  6. ESTIMATING LONG GRB JET OPENING ANGLES AND REST-FRAME ENERGETICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Adam [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Connaughton, Valerie [Science and Technology Institute, Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Briggs, Michael S.; Burns, Eric, E-mail: adam.m.goldstein@nasa.gov [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    We present a method to estimate the jet opening angles of long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using the prompt gamma-ray energetics and an inversion of the Ghirlanda relation, which is a correlation between the time-integrated peak energy of the GRB prompt spectrum and the collimation-corrected energy in gamma-rays. The derived jet opening angles using this method and detailed assumptions match well with the corresponding inferred jet opening angles obtained when a break in the afterglow is observed. Furthermore, using a model of the predicted long GRB redshift probability distribution observable by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), we estimate the probability distributions for the jet opening angle and rest-frame energetics for a large sample of GBM GRBs for which the redshifts have not been observed. Previous studies have only used a handful of GRBs to estimate these properties due to the paucity of observed afterglow jet breaks, spectroscopic redshifts, and comprehensive prompt gamma-ray observations, and we potentially expand the number of GRBs that can be used in this analysis by more than an order of magnitude. In this analysis, we also present an inferred distribution of jet breaks which indicates that a large fraction of jet breaks are not observable with current instrumentation and observing strategies. We present simple parameterizations for the jet angle, energetics, and jet break distributions so that they may be used in future studies.

  7. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  8. Clustering of resting state networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan H Lee

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to demonstrate a hierarchical structure of resting state activity in the healthy brain using a data-driven clustering algorithm.The fuzzy-c-means clustering algorithm was applied to resting state fMRI data in cortical and subcortical gray matter from two groups acquired separately, one of 17 healthy individuals and the second of 21 healthy individuals. Different numbers of clusters and different starting conditions were used. A cluster dispersion measure determined the optimal numbers of clusters. An inner product metric provided a measure of similarity between different clusters. The two cluster result found the task-negative and task-positive systems. The cluster dispersion measure was minimized with seven and eleven clusters. Each of the clusters in the seven and eleven cluster result was associated with either the task-negative or task-positive system. Applying the algorithm to find seven clusters recovered previously described resting state networks, including the default mode network, frontoparietal control network, ventral and dorsal attention networks, somatomotor, visual, and language networks. The language and ventral attention networks had significant subcortical involvement. This parcellation was consistently found in a large majority of algorithm runs under different conditions and was robust to different methods of initialization.The clustering of resting state activity using different optimal numbers of clusters identified resting state networks comparable to previously obtained results. This work reinforces the observation that resting state networks are hierarchically organized.

  9. Clustering of resting state networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Megan H; Hacker, Carl D; Snyder, Abraham Z; Corbetta, Maurizio; Zhang, Dongyang; Leuthardt, Eric C; Shimony, Joshua S

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study was to demonstrate a hierarchical structure of resting state activity in the healthy brain using a data-driven clustering algorithm. The fuzzy-c-means clustering algorithm was applied to resting state fMRI data in cortical and subcortical gray matter from two groups acquired separately, one of 17 healthy individuals and the second of 21 healthy individuals. Different numbers of clusters and different starting conditions were used. A cluster dispersion measure determined the optimal numbers of clusters. An inner product metric provided a measure of similarity between different clusters. The two cluster result found the task-negative and task-positive systems. The cluster dispersion measure was minimized with seven and eleven clusters. Each of the clusters in the seven and eleven cluster result was associated with either the task-negative or task-positive system. Applying the algorithm to find seven clusters recovered previously described resting state networks, including the default mode network, frontoparietal control network, ventral and dorsal attention networks, somatomotor, visual, and language networks. The language and ventral attention networks had significant subcortical involvement. This parcellation was consistently found in a large majority of algorithm runs under different conditions and was robust to different methods of initialization. The clustering of resting state activity using different optimal numbers of clusters identified resting state networks comparable to previously obtained results. This work reinforces the observation that resting state networks are hierarchically organized.

  10. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  11. Rest requirements and rest management of personnel in shift work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammell, B.D. [PDG Environmental, Melbourne, FL (United States); Scheuerle, A. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A difficulty-weighted shift assignment scheme is proposed for use in prolonged and strenuous field operations such as emergency response, site testing, and short term hazardous waste remediation projects. The purpose of the work rotation plan is to increase productivity, safety, and moral of workers. Job weighting is accomplished by assigning adjustments to the mental and physical intensity of the task, the protective equipment worn, and the climatic conditions. The plan is based on medical studies of sleep deprivation, the effects of rest adjustments, and programs to reduce sleep deprivation and normalize shift schedules.

  12. Relationship between the angle of repose and angle of internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Click on the link to view the abstract. Keywords: Angle of repose, angle of internal friction, granular materials, triaxial compression machine, moisture content. Tanzania J. Agric. Sc. (1998) Vol.1 No.2, 187-194 ...

  13. Scaling of misorientation angle distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, D.A.; Chrzan, D.C.; Liu, Q.

    1998-01-01

    The measurement of misorientation angle distributions following different amounts of deformation in cold-rolled aluminum and nickel and compressed stainless steel is reported. The sealing of the dislocation cell boundary misorientation angle distributions is studied. Surprisingly, the distributio...

  14. The cause of ischaemic nocturnal rest pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Bülow, J; Tønnesen, K H

    1988-01-01

    of symptomatology. In two limbs, with a normal peripheral circulation, blood flow decreased by 8 +/- 7%. In five limbs with arterial insufficiency, but no rest pain, blood flow decreased by 16 +/- 8% and in eight limbs with ischaemic nocturnal rest pain blood flow was reduced by 32 +/- 12% during sleep...

  15. Generalization of the Euler Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Shuster, Malcolm D.; Markley, F. Landis

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the Euler angles can be generalized to axes other than members of an orthonormal triad. As first shown by Davenport, the three generalized Euler axes, hereafter: Davenport axes, must still satisfy the constraint that the first two and the last two axes be mutually perpendicular if these axes are to define a universal set of attitude parameters. Expressions are given which relate the generalized Euler angles, hereafter: Davenport angles, to the 3-1-3 Euler angles of an associated direction-cosine matrix. The computation of the Davenport angles from the attitude matrix and their kinematic equation are presented. The present work offers a more direct development of the Davenport angles than Davenport's original publication and offers additional results.

  16. Relationship between the Angle of Repose and Angle of Internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ghum and rice. The angles have a big influence on the design offlow and storage structures of ... the angles of internal friction for the same grains and same moisture contents. The data ob- tained were fed into SAS statistical software for step-wise regression analysis. A model of the ..... tion, Application and Validation of En-.

  17. Measurement of the angle gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.; Sphicas, P.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA

    1993-12-01

    The angle γ as defined in the Wolfenstein approximation is not completely out of reach of current or proposed dedicated B experiments. This work represents but a first step in the direction of extracting the third angle of the unitarity triangle by study the feasibility of using new decay modes in a hadronic machine. (A.B.). 11 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  18. Nucleation of small angle boundaries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The internal stresses induced by the strain gradients in an array of lattice cells delineated by low-angle dislocation boundaries are partially relieved by the creation of new low-angle boundaries. This is shown to be a first-order transition...

  19. Effects Of Exercise During Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Bernauer, Edmund M.

    1993-01-01

    Pair of reports adds to growing body of knowledge of physical deconditioning caused by prolonged bed rest and effectiveness of various exercise regimens in preserving or restoring fitness. Major objective to determine what regimens to prescribe to astronauts before flight, during prolonged weightlessness, and immediately before returning to Earth. Knowledge also benefits patients confined by illness or injury. First report discusses experiment on effects of two types of periodic, intense, short-duration exercise during bed rest. Experiment also discussed in documents "Effects Of Exercise During Prolonged Bed Rest" (ARC-12190), and "Isotonic And Isokinetic Exercise During Bed Rest" (ARC-12180). Second report reviews knowledge acquired with view toward development of protocols for exercise regimens.

  20. Effects of Rest-Break Intention on Rest-Break Frequency and Work-Related Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasche, Gerhard; Pasalic, Sanja; Bauböck, Verena-Maria; Haluza, Daniela; Schoberberger, Rudolf

    2017-03-01

    The present paper presents findings from two studies addressing the effects of the employee's intention to have rest breaks on rest-break frequency and the change of well-being during a workday. Rest breaks are effective in avoiding an accumulation of fatigue during work. However, little is known about individual differences in rest-break behavior. In Study 1, the association between rest-break intention and the daily number of rest breaks recorded over 4 consecutive workdays was determined by generalized linear model in a sample of employees ( n = 111, 59% females). In Study 2, professional geriatric nurses ( n = 95 females) who worked over two consecutive 12-hour day shifts recorded well-being (fatigue, distress, effort motivation) at the beginning and the end of their shifts. The effect of rest-break intention on the change of well-being was determined by multilevel modeling. Rest-break intention was positively associated with the frequency of rest breaks (Study 1) and reduced the increase of fatigue and distress over the workday (Study 2). The results indicate that individual differences account for the number of breaks an employee takes and, as a consequence, for variations in the work-related fatigue and distress. Strengthening rest-break intentions may help to increase rest-break behavior to avoid the buildup of fatigue and distress over a workday.

  1. The Physiology of Bed Rest. Chapter 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Schneider, Victor S.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Prolonged rest in bed has been utilized by physicians and other health-care workers to immobilize and confine patients for rehabilitation and restoration of health since time immemorial. The sitting or horizontal position is sought by the body to relieve the strain of the upright or vertical postures, for example during syncopal situations, bone fractures, muscle injuries, fatigue, and probably also to reduce energy expenditure. Most health-care personnel are aware that adaptive responses occurring during bed rest proceed concomitantly with the healing process; signs and symptoms associated with the former should be differentiated from those of the latter. Not all illnesses and infirmities benefit from prolonged bed rest. Considerations in prescribing bed rest for patients-including duration, body position, mode and duration of exercise, light-dark cycles, temperature, and humidity-have not been investigated adequately. More recently, adaptive physiological responses have been measured in normal, healthy subjects in the horizontal or slightly head-down postures during prolonged bed rest as analogs for the adaptive responses of astronauts exposed to the microgravity environment of outer and bed-rest research.

  2. Resting site use of giant pandas in Wanglang Nature Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Dongwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Li, Junqing

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the resting sites used by the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), which restricts our understanding of their resting habits and limits conservation efforts. To enhance our understanding of resting site requirements and factors affecting the resting time of giant pandas, we investigated the characteristics of resting sites in the Wanglang Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China. The results indicated that the resting sites of giant pandas were characterised by a mean sl...

  3. [Creep of amalgam fillings under clasp rests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, L; Jung, T; West, M

    1989-10-01

    A clinically realistic experiment was set up to obtain information on the amount of vertical settling of clasp rests in amalgam restorations under functional loading. Mesioocclusal cavities were prepared in 16 lower molar specimens cast in brass. The cavities were filled with amalgam and provided with a mesial rest seat. A constant load of 100 N was applied via a simplified (experimental) saddle to a cobalt-chromium E-clasp cast to the saddle. The duration of the load corresponded to 160 days of clinical function. The chronological course of vertical displacement was analyzed mathematically. According to this result the process can be divided into three components: settling immediately upon load initiation (mean value 96 microns, transition creep (mean value 25 microns) and creep ata constant rate (mean value 15 microns). The mean overall vertical displacement of the rests was 136 microns, the maximum value 287 microns. These findings suggest that vertical settling of a clasp rest into its seat in an amalgam restoration may eventually result in significant changes in occlusion and may almost completely exhaust gingival resilience.

  4. Temperature dependence of Brewster's angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a dielectric at a finite temperature is modeled as an ensemble of identical atoms moving randomly around where they are trapped. Light reflection from the dielectric is then discussed in terms of atomic radiation. Specific calculation demonstrates that because of the atoms' thermal motion, Brewster's angle is, in principle, temperature-dependent, and the dependence is weak in the low-temperature limit. What is also found is that the Brewster's angle is nothing but a result of destructive superposition of electromagnetic radiation from the atoms.

  5. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire reveals multiple phenotypes of resting-state cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Alexander eDiaz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state neuroimaging is a dominant paradigm for studying brain function in health and disease. It is attractive for clinical research because of its simplicity for patients, straightforward standardization, and sensitivity to brain disorders. Importantly, non-sensory experiences like mind wandering may arise from ongoing brain activity. However, little is known about the link between ongoing brain activity and cognition, as phenotypes of resting-state cognition—and tools to quantify them—have been lacking. To facilitate rapid and structured measurements of resting-state cognition we developed a 50-item self-report survey, the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ. Based on ARSQ data from 813 participants assessed after five minutes eyes-closed rest in their home, we identified seven dimensions of resting-state cognition using factor analysis: Discontinuity of Mind, Theory of Mind, Self, Planning, Sleepiness, Comfort, and Somatic Awareness. Further, we showed that the structure of cognition was similar during resting-state fMRI and EEG, and that the test-retest correlations were remarkably high for all dimensions. To explore whether inter-individual variation of resting-state cognition is related to health status, we correlated ARSQ-derived factor scores with psychometric scales measuring depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Mental health correlated positively with Comfort and negatively with Discontinuity of Mind. Finally, we show that sleepiness may partially explain a resting-state EEG profile previously associated with Alzheimer’s disease. These findings indicate that the ARSQ readily provides information about cognitive phenotypes and that it is a promising tool for research on the neural correlates of resting-state cognition in health and disease.

  6. Effects of slant angle and illumination angle on MTF estimations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vhengani, LM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available angle d(?) was not constant. It was also noted that the iris of the imaging system was in most cases adjusted during initial setups of each measurements. After each measurement, the knife-edge target was replaced with the ISO 12233 MTF target (shown....085 0.09 0.095 K:\\Working Folder\\Project_On_orbit MTF\\edgetargets\\MTF_Lab_Measurements _20120302_Edge Slant Angle (degrees) Ny qu ist MT F (c yc le/p ixe l) Data Regression -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0.05 0.055 0.06 0...

  7. Preference of female mosquitoes for natural and artificial resting sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Eubanks, Micky D; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2008-06-01

    At a wetland study site in Tuskegee National Forest, AL, resting female mosquitoes were collected from natural and artificial resting sites to identify species-specific resting sites and to evaluate various artificial resting sites for their utility in collecting resting mosquitoes. Natural resting sites included small tree cavities, large tree cavities, and understory vegetation. Artificial resting sites included resting boxes, fiber pots, and plastic trash cans. We collected 12,888 female mosquitoes, representing 23 species in 8 genera, during the 6-month study. Each mosquito species demonstrated a preference for a particular type of resting site. Resting Aedes vexans females were collected almost exclusively from understory vegetation, while the great majority of Anopheles quadrimaculatus females were aspirated from large tree cavities. Culex erraticus and Cx. peccator females preferred trash cans over other available resting sites. Females of Cx. territans, although collected most commonly in large tree cavities, were also collected frequently from understory vegetation and trash cans. A multiple regression of resting-site parameters (excluding vegetation), including volume, surface area, and opening size, indicated that 50% and 20% of the variability associated with An. quadrimaculatus and Cx. territans collections, respectively, could be explained by opening size. Inner surface area and volume accounted for 33% and 12% of variation in Cx. erraticus and Cx. peccator collections, respectively. Thus, female mosquitoes generally preferred larger resting sites over smaller resting sites. Similarly shaped artificial resting sites (fiber pots and trash cans) yielded comparable numbers of females per unit of volume (for those species that preferred artificial resting sites), indicating that shape of the resting site is an important factor in resting-site preference. In addition, trash cans proved to be a valuable novel tool for collecting resting female mosquitoes.

  8. Measurement of the angle gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.; Kayser, B.; Sphicas, P.

    1993-01-01

    The angle γ at least as defined in the Wolfenstein approximation is not completely out of reach of current or proposed dedicated B experiments. This conclusion certainly depends crucially on the assumed trigger and tagging efficiencies and also on the expected backgrounds. The work summarized here represents but a first step in the direction of extracting the third angle of the unitarity triangle. The theoretical developments during the workshop have resulted in a clearer understanding of the quantities studied. On the experimental side, new decay modes (i.e. in addition to the traditional ρK s decay) have resulted in expections for observing CP violation in B s decays which are not unreasonable. It is conceivable that a dedicated B experiment can probe a fundamental aspect of the Standard Model, the CKM matrix, in multiple ways. In the process, new physics can appear anywhere along the line

  9. Motion of particles of non-zero rest masses exterior to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, we extend the metric tensor exterior to astrophysically real or imaginary spherical distributions of mass whose tensor field varies with polar angle only; to derive equations of motion for test particles in this field. The time, radial, polar and azimuthal equations of motion for particles of non-zero rest masses moving ...

  10. The value of radionuclide phase analysis and parameters of cardial function for diagnosis CAD at rest and during exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Gang

    1990-01-01

    27 patients and 5 normal were studied with ECG-gated cardial blood pool images and radionuclide phase analysis at rest and during exercise. The results showed that the sensitivity of LVEF in CAD at rest and during exercise were 57% and 71% respectively, and the sensitivity of the ventricular phase in CAD were 79% at rest and 90% during exercise, and the sensitivity of phase angle in CAD were higher than of LVEF. This suggested that the ventricular phase angle was important for diagnosing early CAD. In addition, regional EF, phase image and ventricular wall motion were useful to detect the lesion of ischemia in CAD

  11. Indoor resting heights of some anophelines in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, M L; Suarez, M F

    1990-12-01

    The nocturnal, indoor resting behavior of female anophelines in Colombia was studied. Anopheles darlingi and An. marajoara had a tendency to rest close to the ground, but An. oswaldoi and An. rangeli rested higher up. This behavior was independent of bloodfed status (except for An. oswaldoi) and whether the surface had been sprayed with DDT. With this information it should be possible to modify insecticide applications to coincide with the resting preferences of these species.

  12. Resting site use of giant pandas in Wanglang Nature Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Li, Junqing

    2017-10-23

    Little is known about the resting sites used by the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), which restricts our understanding of their resting habits and limits conservation efforts. To enhance our understanding of resting site requirements and factors affecting the resting time of giant pandas, we investigated the characteristics of resting sites in the Wanglang Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China. The results indicated that the resting sites of giant pandas were characterised by a mean slope of 21°, mean nearest tree size of 53.75 cm, mean nearest shrub size of 2.82 cm, and mean nearest bamboo number of 56. We found that the resting sites were closer to bamboo than to trees and shrubs, suggesting that the resting site use of giant pandas is closely related to the presence of bamboo. Considering that giant pandas typically rest near a large-sized tree, protection of large trees in the forests is of considerable importance for the conservation of this species. Furthermore, slope was found to be an important factor affecting the resting time of giant pandas, as they tended to rest for a relatively longer time in sites with a smaller degree of slope.

  13. The effects of rehabilitation on the muscles of the trunk following prolonged bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Julie A; Lambrecht, Gunda; Richardson, Carolyn A; Stanton, Warren R; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Pruett, Casey; Damann, Volker; Felsenberg, Dieter; Belavý, Daniel L

    2011-05-01

    Microgravity and inactivity due to prolonged bed rest have been shown to result in atrophy of spinal extensor muscles such as the multifidus, and either no atrophy or hypertrophy of flexor muscles such as the abdominal group and psoas muscle. These effects are long-lasting after bed rest and the potential effects of rehabilitation are unknown. This two-group intervention study aimed to investigate the effects of two rehabilitation programs on the recovery of lumbo-pelvic musculature following prolonged bed rest. 24 subjects underwent 60 days of head down tilt bed rest as part of the 2nd Berlin BedRest Study (BBR2-2). After bed rest, they underwent one of two exercise programs, trunk flexor and general strength (TFS) training or specific motor control (SMC) training. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbo-pelvic region was conducted at the start and end of bed rest and during the recovery period (14 and 90 days after re-ambulation). Cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the multifidus, psoas, lumbar erector spinae and quadratus lumborum muscles were measured from L1 to L5. Morphological changes including disc volume, spinal length, lordosis angle and disc height were also measured. Both exercise programs restored the multifidus muscle to pre-bed-rest size, but further increases in psoas muscle size were seen in the TFS group up to 14 days after bed rest. There was no significant difference in the number of low back pain reports for the two rehabilitation groups (p=.59). The TFS program resulted in greater decreases in disc volume and anterior disc height. The SMC training program may be preferable to TFS training after bed rest as it restored the CSA of the multifidus muscle without generating potentially harmful compressive forces through the spine.

  14. REST represses a subset of the pancreatic endocrine differentiation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to devise successful beta-cell differentiation strategies for the cure of Type 1 diabetes we sought to uncover barriers that restrict endocrine fate acquisition by studying the role of the transcriptional repressor REST in the developing pancreas. Rest expression is prevented...... in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic...... endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1(+) progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3...

  15. Exercise thermoregulation after 14 days of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Reese, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of bed rest and exercise training during bed rest on body temperature and thermoregulatory responses at rest and during exercise are investigated. Seven male subjects underwent three two-week periods of bed rest during which isometric, isotonic, or no exercises were performed, separated by two ambulatory control periods and preceded by a two-week control period, during which they exercised regularly. Rectal and mean skin temperatures and sweating responses were determined during 70-min submaximal supine exercise during the bed rest and recovery periods. Measurements reveal a reduction in basal oral temperature during the control-recovery periods, with a relatively constant level during bed rest periods, and a significant increase in the rectal temperature elavation brought on by exercise following all three bed-rest regimes. It is concluded that the excessive increase in rectal temperature could be influenced by changes in skin heat conductance or the inhibition of sweating.

  16. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire reveals multiple phenotypes of resting-state cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz, B.A.; van der Sluis, S.; Moens, S.; Benjamins, J.S.; Migliorati, F.; Stoffers, D.; den Braber, A.; Poil, S.S.; Hardstone, R.E.; van t Ent, D.; Boomsma, D.I.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Mansvelder, H.D.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Linkenkaer Hansen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Resting-state neuroimaging is a dominant paradigm for studying brain function in health and disease. It is attractive for clinical research because of its simplicity for patients, straightforward standardization, and sensitivity to brain disorders. Importantly, non sensory experiences like mind

  17. Latent heat of traffic moving from rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzad Ahmadi, S.; Berrier, Austin S.; Doty, William M.; Greer, Pat G.; Habibi, Mohammad; Morgan, Hunter A.; Waterman, Josam H. C.; Abaid, Nicole; Boreyko, Jonathan B.

    2017-11-01

    Contrary to traditional thinking and driver intuition, here we show that there is no benefit to ground vehicles increasing their packing density at stoppages. By systematically controlling the packing density of vehicles queued at a traffic light on a Smart Road, drone footage revealed that the benefit of an initial increase in displacement for close-packed vehicles is completely offset by the lag time inherent to changing back into a ‘liquid phase’ when flow resumes. This lag is analogous to the thermodynamic concept of the latent heat of fusion, as the ‘temperature’ (kinetic energy) of the vehicles cannot increase until the traffic ‘melts’ into the liquid phase. These findings suggest that in situations where gridlock is not an issue, drivers should not decrease their spacing during stoppages in order to lessen the likelihood of collisions with no loss in flow efficiency. In contrast, motion capture experiments of a line of people walking from rest showed higher flow efficiency with increased packing densities, indicating that the importance of latent heat becomes trivial for slower moving systems.

  18. Resting blood pressure values of adult athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga-Pintér, Barbara; Horváth, Patrícia; Kneffel, Zsuzsanna; Major, Zsuzsanna; Osváth, Péter; Pavlik, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Regular physical activity has a favorable effect upon the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Various movements in sports, however, affect blood pressure (BP) differently. In the present study, the resting BP data of a large number (3,697) of young men and women (age: 19-40 years) who participated in sports medical examinations were compared according to their sport. Athletes were arranged into definite subgroups based on their different sport activities, i.e. if their movement pattern characteristics were similar and no significant intergroup differences were seen in BP values. BP values were lower in the dynamic type athletes (speed, endurance sports and ball games) than in the static type. Out of the endurance athletes, BP values were not lower in cycle racers, kayakers/canoeists and rowers. In water athletes, BP values were higher than in corresponding dry-land athletes. There was a quite large significant difference between the BP values of athletes involved in static muscular activity (power athletes) and dynamic-type strength athletes (combat competitors). Although cycling, kayaking/canoeing and competitive water sports increase BP, as leisure time activities they more than likely do not elevate BP. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Impact of rest-break interventions on the neck and shoulder posture of symptomatic VDU operators during prolonged computer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikumarn, Montakarn; Nakphet, Nuttika; Janwantanakul, Prawit

    2018-06-01

    There is limited research on the effects of different types of rest-break interventions for visual display unit (VDU) operators on neck and shoulder postures. This study examined the effect of rest-break interventions on the neck and shoulder postures of symptomatic VDU operators during prolonged computer work. Thirty subjects were randomly and equally assigned to breaks with stretching, breaks with dynamic movement and passive breaks. Subjects performed the typing task for 60 min and received 3-min breaks after 20 min of work. The craniovertebral and forward shoulder angles were obtained from a 3D motion analysis system. Results showed that there were no significant differences in the craniovertebral and forward shoulder angles among any types of rest breaks. It can be concluded that the three types of rest-break interventions had positive effects on neck and shoulder posture during prolonged computer terminal work.

  20. The qualitative criterion of transient angle stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyu, R.; Xue, Y.; Xue, F.

    2015-01-01

    In almost all the literatures, the qualitative assessment of transient angle stability extracts the angle information of generators based on the swing curve. As the angle (or angle difference) of concern and the threshold value rely strongly on the engineering experience, the validity and robust...... of these criterions are weak. Based on the stability mechanism from the extended equal area criterion (EEAC) theory and combining with abundant simulations of real system, this paper analyzes the criterions in most literatures and finds that the results could be too conservative or too optimistic. It is concluded...

  1. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest on Functional Mobility and Balance: Relationship to Resting State Motor Cortex Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdeniz, B.; Koppelmans, V.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Kofman, I. S.; DeDios, Y. E.; Riascos-Castaneda, R. F.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA offers researchers from a variety of backgrounds the opportunity to study bed rest as an experimental analog for space flight. Extended exposure to a head-down tilt position during long duration bed rest can resemble many of the effects of a low-gravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The aim of our study is to a) identify changes in brain function that occur with prolonged bed rest and characterize their recovery time course; b) assess whether and how these changes impact behavioral and neurocognitive performance. Thus far, we completed data collection from six participants that include task based and resting state fMRI. The data have been acquired through the bed rest facility located at the University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston, TX). Subjects remained in bed with their heads tilted down 6 degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Behavioral measures and neuroimaging assessments were obtained at seven time points: a) 7 and 12 days before bed rest; b) 7, 30, and 65 days during bed rest; and c) 7 and 12 days after bed rest. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (FcMRI) analysis was performed to assess the connectivity of motor cortex in and out of bed rest. We found a decrease in motor cortex connectivity with vestibular cortex and the cerebellum from pre bed rest to in bed rest. We also used a battery of behavioral measures including the functional mobility test and computerized dynamic posturography collected before and after bed rest. We will report the preliminary results of analyses relating brain and behavior changes. Furthermore, we will also report the preliminary results of a spatial working memory task and vestibular stimulation during in and out of bed rest.

  2. Computing angle of arrival of radio signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, John J.; Steele, David K.

    2017-11-07

    Various technologies pertaining to computing angle of arrival of radio signals are described. A system that is configured for computing the angle of arrival of a radio signal includes a cylindrical sheath wrapped around a cylindrical object, where the cylindrical sheath acts as a ground plane. The system further includes a plurality of antennas that are positioned about an exterior surface of the cylindrical sheath, and receivers respectively coupled to the antennas. The receivers output measurements pertaining to the radio signal. A processing circuit receives the measurements and computes the angle of arrival of the radio signal based upon the measurements.

  3. Practical evaluation of action-angle variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1984-02-01

    A practical method is described for establishing action-angle variables for a Hamiltonian system. That is, a given nearly integrable Hamiltonian is divided into an exactly integrable system plus a perturbation in action-angle form. The transformation of variables, which is carried out using a few short trajectory integrations, permits a rapid determination of trajectory properties throughout a phase space volume

  4. Experimental study of crossing angle collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.; Rice, D.; Rubin, D.; Sagan, D.; Tigner, M.

    1993-05-01

    The non-linear coupling due to the beam-beam interaction with crossing angle has been studied. The major effect of a small (∼12mrad) crossing angle is to excite 5Q x ±Q s =integer coupling resonance family on large amplitude particles, which results in bad lifetime. On the CESR, a small crossing angle (∼2.4mr) was created at the IP and a reasonable beam-beam tune-shift was achieved. The decay rate of the beam is measured as a function of horizontal tune with and without crossing angle. The theoretical analysis, simulation and experimental measurements have a good agreement. The resonance strength as a function of crossing angle is also measured

  5. Experimental study of crossing angle collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.; Rice, D.; Rubin, D.; Sagan, D.; Tigner, M.

    1993-01-01

    The non-linear coupling due to the beam-beam interaction with crossing angle has been studied. The major effect of a small (∼12mrad) crossing angle is to excite 5Q x ±Q s =integer coupling resonance family on large amplitude particles, which results in bad lifetime. On the CESR, a small crossing angle (∼2.4mr) was created at the IP and a reasonable beam-beam tune-shift was achieved. The decay rate of the beam is measured as a function of horizontal tune with and without crossing angle. The theoretical analysis, simulation and experimental measurements have a good agreement. The resonance strength as a function of crossing angle is also measured

  6. Resting behaviors of captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yuske; Kohshima, Shiro

    2003-09-01

    In order to specify the resting behaviors in captive bottlenose dolphin, we quantitatively analyzed behavior of 16 dolphins in three aquariums in Japan. We observed their behaviors in the low-activity time (0 a.m.-3 a.m.), assuming that the resting behaviors would be most prominent and abundant at this time. We analyzed these behaviors based on the data of their diurnal activity rhythm that we have clarified by measuring swimming speed and breath frequency. The behavior patterns characteristic to the low-activity time could be categorized into the following three types: "bottom-rest" characterized by long immobile stay on the tank bottom, "surface-rest" characterized by long immobile stay at the water surface, and "swim-rest" characterized by slow circle-swim near the bottom along a fixed trajectory. During these behaviors, breath frequency was significantly lower than the daily mean and at least one eye tended to be closed. These three behaviors accounted for 86.6% of the total observation time in the low-activity time. The resting behaviors were often observed even in the high-activity time (0 p.m.-4 p.m.); these three behaviors accounted for 38.5% of the total observation time in the high-activity time. In swim-rest, frequency of sound emission was significantly lower than that of other behaviors with high-speed swimming, and both eyes or one eye, especially the eye facing the inner side of the swimming circle tended to be closed. The eye condition and the periodical change of circle-swim direction or position-exchange observed during swim-rest suggest a relation between this behavior and unihemispheric sleep. The change in the resting behavior observed in the dolphins under nervous situations suggests that the dolphins flexibly change the type and the quantity of the resting behaviors according to the situation.

  7. Comparison of stress-rest and rest-stress one day myocardial perfusion scintigraphies in detecting coronary artery diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Jun; Song, Ho Cheon; Kim, Ji Yeul

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that both rest and stress myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium agents can be performed on the same day using two different doses injected within few hours. The purpose of this study was to compare the two protocols (stress-rest and rest-stress) in detecting coronary artery diseases. One hundred and sixty patients (101 males, 59 females, mean age 57±9 years) and 120 patients (79 males, 41 females, mean age 59±10 years) underwent stress-rest myocardial perfusion SPECT and rest-stress myocardial perfusion SPECT, respectively. All of them underwent both myocardial perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography within 1 month. A coronary stenosis was considered significant when it compromised the luminal diameter by ≥50%. The chi square test was used to compare differences in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy between the two groups. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of stress-rest protocol were 99%, 35% and 68%, respectively. Those of rest-stress protocol were 96%, 47% and 78%, respectively. There was no difference between the two protocols in identifying individual diseased coronary artery branches. Therefore, one day stress-rest and rest-stress myocardial SPECT using 99m Tc agents were comparable and were very sensitive tests in detecting coronary artery diseases

  8. Solid angles III. The role of conformers in solid angle calculations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    White, D

    1995-06-14

    Full Text Available The values of the solid angles Omega for a range of commonly encountered ligands in organometallic chemistry (phosphines, phosphites, amines, arsines and cyclopentadienyl rings) have been determined. The solid angles were derived from a single...

  9. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  10. Resting Orientations of Dinosaur Scapulae and Forelimbs: A Numerical Analysis, with Implications for Reconstructions and Museum Mounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Phil; Robins, James H

    2015-01-01

    The inclination of the scapular blade and the resting pose of the forelimb in dinosaurs differ among reconstructions and among skeletal mounts. For most dinosaurian taxa, no attempt has previously been made to quantify the correct resting positions of these elements. Here, we used data from skeletons preserved in articulation to quantify the resting orientations of the scapula and forelimb in dinosaurs. Specimens were included in the study only if they were preserved lying on their sides; for each specimen the angle between forelimb bones at a given joint was included in the analysis only if the joint was preserved in articulation. Using correlation analyses of the angles between the long axis of the sacrum, the first dorsal centrum, and the scapular blade in theropods and Eoraptor, we found that vertebral hyperextension does not influence scapular orientation in saurischians. Among examined taxa, the long axis of the scapular blade was found to be most horizontal in bipedal saurischians, most vertical in basal ornithopods, and intermediate in hadrosauroids. We found that in bipedal dinosaurs other than theropods with semilunate carpals, the resting orientation of the elbow is close to a right angle and the resting orientation of the wrist is such that the hand exhibits only slight ulnar deviation from the antebrachium. In theropods with semilunate carpals the elbow and wrist are more flexed at rest, with the elbow at a strongly acute angle and with the wrist approximately at a right angle. The results of our study have important implications for correct orientations of bones in reconstructions and skeletal mounts. Here, we provide recommendations on bone orientations based on our results.

  11. Memory reactivation during rest supports upcoming learning of related content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Margaret L.; Preston, Alison R.

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of studies have highlighted the importance of offline processes for memory, how these mechanisms influence future learning remains unknown. Participants with established memories for a set of initial face–object associations were scanned during passive rest and during encoding of new related and unrelated pairs of objects. Spontaneous reactivation of established memories and enhanced hippocampal–neocortical functional connectivity during rest was related to better subsequent learning, specifically of related content. Moreover, the degree of functional coupling during rest was predictive of neural engagement during the new learning experience itself. These results suggest that through rest-phase reactivation and hippocampal–neocortical interactions, existing memories may come to facilitate encoding during subsequent related episodes. PMID:25331890

  12. Normalized cut group clustering of resting-state FMRI data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn van den Heuvel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Functional brain imaging studies have indicated that distinct anatomical brain regions can show coherent spontaneous neuronal activity during rest. Regions that show such correlated behavior are said to form resting-state networks (RSNs. RSNs have been investigated using seed-dependent functional connectivity maps and by using a number of model-free methods. However, examining RSNs across a group of subjects is still a complex task and often involves human input in selecting meaningful networks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report on a voxel based model-free normalized cut graph clustering approach with whole brain coverage for group analysis of resting-state data, in which the number of RSNs is computed as an optimal clustering fit of the data. Inter-voxel correlations of time-series are grouped at the individual level and the consistency of the resulting networks across subjects is clustered at the group level, defining the group RSNs. We scanned a group of 26 subjects at rest with a fast BOLD sensitive fMRI scanning protocol on a 3 Tesla MR scanner. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: An optimal group clustering fit revealed 7 RSNs. The 7 RSNs included motor/visual, auditory and attention networks and the frequently reported default mode network. The found RSNs showed large overlap with recently reported resting-state results and support the idea of the formation of spatially distinct RSNs during rest in the human brain.

  13. Solar cell angle of incidence corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Dale R.; Mueller, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Literature on solar array angle of incidence corrections was found to be sparse and contained no tabular data for support. This lack along with recent data on 27 GaAs/Ge 4 cm by 4 cm cells initiated the analysis presented in this paper. The literature cites seven possible contributors to angle of incidence effects: cosine, optical front surface, edge, shadowing, UV degradation, particulate soiling, and background color. Only the first three are covered in this paper due to lack of sufficient data. The cosine correction is commonly used but is not sufficient when the incident angle is large. Fresnel reflection calculations require knowledge of the index of refraction of the coverglass front surface. The absolute index of refraction for the coverglass front surface was not known nor was it measured due to lack of funds. However, a value for the index of refraction was obtained by examining how the prediction errors varied with different assumed indices and selecting the best fit to the set of measured values. Corrections using front surface Fresnel reflection along with the cosine correction give very good predictive results when compared to measured data, except there is a definite trend away from predicted values at the larger incident angles. This trend could be related to edge effects and is illustrated by a use of a box plot of the errors and by plotting the deviation of the mean against incidence angle. The trend is for larger deviations at larger incidence angles and there may be a fourth order effect involved in the trend. A chi-squared test was used to determine if the measurement errors were normally distributed. At 10 degrees the chi-squared test failed, probably due to the very small numbers involved or a bias from the measurement procedure. All other angles showed a good fit to the normal distribution with increasing goodness-of-fit as the angles increased which reinforces the very small numbers hypothesis. The contributed data only went to 65 degrees

  14. Genetic variablilities of body temperature and resting behaviour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implies that neither progeny nor generation had effect on body temperature. The Alpha strain exhibited more resting behaviour than did the exotic and the pure native types. Majority of the birds rested in the afternoon at 2.00 pm. This could be attributed to the fact that at 2.00 pm the weather is hot and birds search for a ...

  15. Discovering EEG resting state alterations of semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, Matthias; Koenig, Thomas; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Utsunomiya, Keita; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Dierks, Thomas; Nishida, Keiichiro

    2016-05-01

    Diagnosis of semantic dementia relies on cost-intensive MRI or PET, although resting EEG markers of other dementias have been reported. Yet the view still holds that resting EEG in patients with semantic dementia is normal. However, studies using increasingly sophisticated EEG analysis methods have demonstrated that slightest alterations of functional brain states can be detected. We analyzed the common four resting EEG microstates (A, B, C, and D) of 8 patients with semantic dementia in comparison with 8 healthy controls and 8 patients with Alzheimer's disease. Topographical differences between the groups were found in microstate classes B and C, while microstate classes A and D were comparable. The data showed that the semantic dementia group had a peculiar microstate E, but the commonly found microstate C was lacking. Furthermore, the presence of microstate E was significantly correlated with lower MMSE and language scores. Alterations in resting EEG can be found in semantic dementia. Topographical shifts in microstate C might be related to semantic memory deficits. This is the first study that discovered resting state EEG abnormality in semantic dementia. The notion that resting EEG in this dementia subtype is normal has to be revised. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The constancy of the contact angle in viscous liquid motions with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Consider motion initiated in a viscous liquid in a smooth walled container. The liquid is initially at rest under uniform pressure from an inert gas of negligible inertia. We show that if the contact line is pinned and the interface is single valued, the contact angle has to remain constant throughout the motion. This is true ...

  17. The constancy of the contact angle in viscous liquid motions with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Consider motion initiated in a viscous liquid in a smooth walled container. The liquid is initially at rest under uniform pressure from an inert gas of negligible inertia. We show that if the contact line is pinned and the interface is single valued, the contact angle has to remain constant throughout the motion. This is true even for ...

  18. Flocking and invariance of velocity angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Le; Huang, Lihong; Wu, Jianhong

    2016-04-01

    Motsch and Tadmor considered an extended Cucker-Smale model to investigate the flocking behavior of self-organized systems of interacting species. In this extended model, a cone of the vision was introduced so that outside the cone the influence of one agent on the other is lost and hence the corresponding influence function takes the value zero. This creates a problem to apply the Motsch-Tadmor and Cucker-Smale method to prove the flocking property of the system. Here, we examine the variation of the velocity angles between two arbitrary agents, and obtain a monotonicity property for the maximum cone of velocity angles. This monotonicity permits us to utilize existing arguments to show the flocking property of the system under consideration, when the initial velocity angles satisfy some minor technical constraints.

  19. Precision measurements of the CKM angle gamma

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The level of CP-violation permitted within the Standard Model cannot account for the matter dominated universe in which we live. Within the Standard Model the CKM matrix, which describes the quark couplings, is expected to be unitary. By making precise measurements of the CKM matrix parameters new physics models can be constrained, or with sufficient precision the effects of physics beyond the standard model might become apparent. The CKM angle gamma is the least well known angle of the unitarity triangle. It is the only angle easily accessible at tree-level, and furthermore has almost no theoretical uncertainties. Therefore it provides an invaluable Standard Model benchmark against which other new physics sensitive tests of the CP-violation can be made. I will discuss recent measurements of gamma using the the Run 1 LHCb dataset, which improve our knowledge of this key parameter.

  20. On the dip angle of subducting plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsui, Albert T.; Tang, Xiao-Ming; Toksoz, M. Nafi

    1990-01-01

    A new approximate analytic model is developed for the thermal structure of a subducting plate with a finite length. This model provides the capability of easily examining the thermal and mechanical structure of a subducting plate with different lengths and at different angles. Also, the torque balance of a descending plate can be examined, and effects such as the leading edge effect, the adiabatic compression effect, and the phase change effect can be incorporated. A comparison with observed data indicates that short slabs are likely under torque equilibrium at present, while long slabs are probably dominated by their gravitational torques such that their dip angles are transient, moving toward a steeper dip angle similar to that of the Mariana slab.

  1. Feasibility Study of a Lunar Analog Bed Rest Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.; Platts, Steven H.; Yarbough, Patrice; Buccello-Stout, Regina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a 9.5deg head-up tilt bed rest model to simulate the effects of the 1/6 g load to the human body that exists on the lunar surface. The lunar analog bed rest model utilized a modified hospital bed. The modifications included mounting the mattress on a sled that rolled on bearings to provide freedom of movement. The weight of the sled was off-loaded using a counterweight system to insure that 1/6 body weight was applied along the long axis (z-axis) of the body. Force was verified through use of a force plate mounted at the foot of the bed. A seating assembly was added to the bed to permit periods of sitting. Subjects alternated between standing and sitting positions throughout the day. A total of 35% of the day was spent in the standing position and 65% was spent sitting. In an effort to achieve physiologic fluid shifts expected for a 1/6 G environment, subjects wore compression stockings and performed unloaded foot and ankle exercises. Eight subjects (3 females and 5 males) participated in this study. Subjects spent 13 days in the pre-bed rest phase, 6 days in bed rest and 3 days post bed rest. Subjects consumed a standardized diet throughout the study. To determine feasibility, measures of subject comfort, force and plasma volume were collected. Subject comfort was assessed using a Likert scale. Subjects were asked to assess level of comfort (0-100) for 11 body regions and provide an overall rating. Results indicated minimal to no discomfort as most subjects reported scores of zero. Force measures were performed for each standing position and were validated against subject s calculated 1/6 body weight (r(sup 2) = 0.993). The carbon monoxide rebreathing technique was used to assess plasma volume during pre-bed rest and on the last day of bed rest. Plasma volume results indicated a significant decrease (p = 0.001) from pre to post bed rest values. Subjects lost on average 8.3% (sd = 6.1%) during the

  2. Radon - an angle of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palecek, S.

    1996-01-01

    Apart from its radiation effects on living organism, radon induces the formation of atmospheric ions which are beneficial to man: some asthmatics can breathe more easily in an environment with elevated ion levels, the blood pH increases, the fraction of albumins is higher while the serotonin level is lower, sedimentation decreases and the leukocyte counts in peripherals diminish. The blood pressure, particularly in people suffering from hypertension, drops appreciably. The production of pituitary hormones as well as the overall sexual activity is stimulated by ions in air. Exposure to negative ions affects circulation through the skin, reduces skin temperature and improves overall resistance of the organism to infection. Negative ions also have a stimulating effect on mental activity and help against insomnia. Sites where radon is present in not too high concentrations are often famous as climatic spas. So, antiradon provisions, if exercised too thoroughly, may have adverse rather than positive consequences. All pros and cons should always be taken into account when deciding on antiradon steps. (P.A.)

  3. Resting heart rate is a predictor of mortality in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Marott, Jacob L; Lange, Peter; Vestbo, Jørgen; Schnohr, Peter; Nielsen, Olav Wendelboe; Jensen, Jan Skov; Jensen, Gorm B

    2013-08-01

    The clinical significance of high heart rate in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unexplored. We investigated the association between resting heart rate, pulmonary function, and prognosis in subjects with COPD. 16 696 subjects aged ≥40 years from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective study of the general population, were followed for 35.3 years, 10 986 deaths occurred. Analyses were performed using time-dependent Cox-models and net reclassification index (NRI). Resting heart rate increased with severity of COPD (p85 bpm was 5.5 years without COPD, 9.8 years in mild (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage I), 6.7 years in moderate (GOLD stage II) and 5.9 years in severe/very severe COPD (GOLD stage III/IV), (pNRI 4.9%, p = 0.01; category less NRI 23.0%, pNRI 7.8%, p = 0.002; category less NRI 24.1%, p<0.0001). Resting heart rate increases with severity of COPD. Resting heart rate is a readily available clinical variable that improves risk prediction in patients with COPD above and beyond that of pulmonary function alone. Resting heart rate may be a potential target for intervention in COPD.

  4. Measurement of critical angle in SSTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, A.; Serra, D.A.B.

    1984-01-01

    A method of measurement of critical angles of etching is described, relying upon the distortion caused in the shape of the distribution in the number of etched tracks of ions emitted from a 'point-like' source. The method is applied to quartz and mica samples. (author)

  5. Majorana equations and the rest mass of neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Borzeszkowski, H.; Treder, H.

    1985-02-01

    As is well known, the law of parity conservation does not hold in weak interactions. This type of asymmetry created a number of theoretical problems which were solved, first of all, by a new understanding of the features of neutrinos and their role in weak interactions. These solutions were based, however, essentially on the handedness (chirality) of neutrinos which is closely related to their vanishing rest mass. The thesis of neutrinos with nonvanishing rest mass, newly considered in the literature, therefore requires a rediscussion of the early arguments concerning the relation between the neutrino theory and some weak interaction essentials. When one does this, as in the present paper, it is noted that neutrinos with rest mass lead to some difficulties, in particular to a violation of T invariance.

  6. Evaluation of protein dihedral angle prediction methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harinder Singh

    Full Text Available Tertiary structure prediction of a protein from its amino acid sequence is one of the major challenges in the field of bioinformatics. Hierarchical approach is one of the persuasive techniques used for predicting protein tertiary structure, especially in the absence of homologous protein structures. In hierarchical approach, intermediate states are predicted like secondary structure, dihedral angles, Cα-Cα distance bounds, etc. These intermediate states are used to restraint the protein backbone and assist its correct folding. In the recent years, several methods have been developed for predicting dihedral angles of a protein, but it is difficult to conclude which method is better than others. In this study, we benchmarked the performance of dihedral prediction methods ANGLOR and SPINE X on various datasets, including independent datasets. TANGLE dihedral prediction method was not benchmarked (due to unavailability of its standalone and was compared with SPINE X and ANGLOR on only ANGLOR dataset on which TANGLE has reported its results. It was observed that SPINE X performed better than ANGLOR and TANGLE, especially in case of prediction of dihedral angles of glycine and proline residues. The analysis suggested that angle shifting was the foremost reason of better performance of SPINE X. We further evaluated the performance of the methods on independent ccPDB30 dataset and observed that SPINE X performed better than ANGLOR.

  7. Expression of REST4 in human gliomas in vivo and influence of pioglitazone on REST in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Huan [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Changsha 410078 (China); Gao, Zhangfeng [Department of Neurosurgery, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Wu, Nayiyuan; Zeng, Liu; Tang, Xinyue; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Zhaoqian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Liansheng [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Changsha 410078 (China); Li, Zhi, E-mail: lizhi489@163.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Changsha 410078 (China)

    2015-08-07

    The repressor element-1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) has an irreplaceable role during the differentiation of neurons. REST has multiple splice variants which link to various types of cancer. Previous work had highlighted the role of REST in glioma, where the expression of REST is enhanced. But whether alternative splicing of REST is expressed in glioma has not been described. Here, we show that a specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens, and will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists have a role of antineoplastic in various tumor cells, which including glioma cells. Moreover, study indicated that PPARγ agonist pioglitazone can promote alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. In this study, we selected pioglitazone as a tool drug to explore whether the role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma is mediated by regulating REST expression or promoting alternative splicing of REST in glioma cells. Results show that pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cell in vitro, which may be mediated by down-regulating REST mRNA level but not by inducing alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. Our study firstly reports the expression of REST4 in glioma tissue samples. And we recommend that pioglitazone, which can reduce the expression level of REST, represents a promising drug for therapy of glioma. - Highlights: • A specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens in vivo. • REST4 will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. • Pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cells. • The role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma may be mediated by down-regulating REST.

  8. Evaluation of resting sites of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... while the handcatch method significantly exceeded the box shelters in the yield of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae s.l. Conclusion: The indoor resting habit observed by Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. gambiae s.l. makes indoor residual spraying and use of insecticide treated nets suitable for their control.

  9. The effects of elbow joint angle change on the elbow flexor muscle activation in pulley with weight exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Taewook; Seo, Youngjoon; Park, Jaehoon; Dong, Eunseok; Seo, Byungdo; Han, Dongwook

    2013-09-01

    [Purpose] This research investigated the effect of angular variation of flexion of the elbow joint on the muscle activation of elbow flexor muscles. [Subjects] The research subjects were 24 male college students with a dominant right hand who had no surgical or neurological disorders and gave their prior written consent to participation with full knowledge of the method and purpose of this study. [Methods] The subjects' shoulder joints stayed in the resting position, and the elbow joint was positioned at angles of 55°, 70°, and 90°. The angle between the pulley with weights and forearm stayed at 90°. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activities. Three measurements were made at each elbow angle, and every time the angle changed, two minutes rest was given. [Result] The muscle activities of the elbow flexors showed significant changes with change in the elbow joint angle, except for the biceps brachii activities between the angles of 55° and 70° of elbow flexion. The muscle activities of the biceps brachii and brachioradialis showed angle-related changes in the order of 55°, which showed the biggest value, followed by 70° and 90°. [Conclusion] In order to improve muscle strength of the elbow flexor using a pulley system, it seems more effective to have a 90° angle between the pulley with weights and the forearm when the muscle is stretched to a length 20% greater than its resting position.

  10. MRI pelvic landmark angles in the assessment of apical pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginath, Shimon; Garely, Alan; Luchs, Jonathan S; Shahryarinejad, Azin; Olivera, Cedric; Zhou, Sue; Ascher-Walsh, Charles; Condrea, Alexander; Brodman, Michael; Vardy, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pelvic landmark angles and lines in the assessment of apical vault prolapse. Seventeen women were evaluated as part of a prospective surgical trial. Baseline data are presented as a pilot study of the utility of MRI in addition to this evaluation of 6 nulliparous volunteers without prolapse and 11 parous women with symptomatic ≥ stage II uterine prolapse. Each patient underwent assessment for pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POPQ) and pelvic MRI. Pelvic landmark angles and lines were measured. Mann-Whitney Rank sum test and Spearman's Rank order correlation test were used to assess agreement. Women with prolapse had a significantly larger h angle, g angle, and e angle at rest than those without prolapse. Correlation between apical vault descent was measured clinically by POPQ point C with MRI measurements: h angle (r = 0.61, p = 0.01), g angle (r = 0.64, p = 0.005), and e angle (r = 0.62, p = 0.007). MRI measurements of pelvic landmark angles reliably differentiate between women with and without uterine prolapse and correlate best with POPQ point C.

  11. Experimental technique of small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Qingzhong; Chen Bo

    2006-03-01

    The main parts of Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) spectrometer, and their function and different parameters are introduced from experimental aspect. Detailed information is also introduced for SANS spectrometer 'Membrana-2'. Based on practical experiments, the fundamental requirements and working condition for SANS experiments, including sample preparation, detector calibration, standard sample selection and data preliminary process are described. (authors)

  12. Measurement of the angle alpha at BABAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present recent measurements of the CKM angle α using data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e + e - collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, operating at the Υ(4S) resonance. They present constraints on α from B → ππ, B → ρρ and B → ρπ decays.

  13. Long-term outcomes after acute primary angle closure of Caucasian chronic angle closure glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fea, Antonio Maria; Dallorto, Laura; Lavia, Carlo; Pignata, Giulia; Rolle, Teresa; Aung, Tin

    2017-07-19

    There is a lack of information about long-term results of chronic angle closure glaucoma following an acute primary angle closure attack in Caucasian patients. The aim of the study was to report morphological and functional long-term data of chronic angle closure eyes following a monolateral primary angle closure attack and to provide a comparison with their fellow eyes. Observational retrospective case series. Fifty-seven consecutive patients (114 eyes) underwent long-term follow-up analysis. Patients underwent ophthalmic assessment more than 5 years since the angle closure attack. Intraocular pressure, best-corrected visual acuity, angle assessment, vertical C/D ratio and standard automated perimetry were the main outcome measures. Comparisons were made between angle closure attack eyes and fellow eyes and between phakic and pseudophakic eyes. Mean follow-up time was 5.86 ± 1.19 years. A significant greater damage in the angle closure eyes compared with fellow eyes in both structural (mean C/D 0.61 ± 0.16; P APAC attack to prevent potential glaucoma damage in both APAC and fellow eye. © 2017 The Authors Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  14. The rhythm of rest and excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Russell G; Wulff, Katharina

    2005-05-01

    There is a stark contrast between our attitudes to sleep and those of the pre-industrial age. In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar we are told to "Enjoy the honey-heavy dew of slumber". There seems little chance of this today, as we crave more, work more and expect more, and, in the process, abandon sleep. Our occupation of the night is having unanticipated costs for both our physical and mental health, which, if continued, might condemn whole sectors of our society to a dismal future.

  15. Philosophy for the rest of cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Nigel; Chemero, Anthony; Turvey, Michael T

    2011-04-01

    Cognitive science has always included multiple methodologies and theoretical commitments. The philosophy of cognitive science should embrace, or at least acknowledge, this diversity. Bechtel's (2009a) proposed philosophy of cognitive science, however, applies only to representationalist and mechanist cognitive science, ignoring the substantial minority of dynamically oriented cognitive scientists. As an example of nonrepresentational, dynamical cognitive science, we describe strong anticipation as a model for circadian systems (Stepp & Turvey, 2009). We then propose a philosophy of science appropriate to nonrepresentational, dynamical cognitive science. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Qualification issues: the rest of the iceberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Luna, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    Reactor safety has been a primary concern since the beginning of commercial power reactor development. But only since the IEEE became actively involved (circa-1970), through IEEE-323-1971 and its predecessor drafts, has the qualification of selected Class 1 equipment been formalized and intensified. Currently EPRI and the USNRC are funding significant qualification research programs. However, these current research topics address only a few of the issues and there are more to come. A review of recent achievements and a discussion of some issues still to be encountered are presented

  17. Separation of uranium in bone rest for their dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia R, G.; Ordonez R, E.; Tenorio, D.; Cordoba, L.

    2001-01-01

    The uranium (U) and thorium (Th) recovery, as fundamental part of the 'uranium serie' technique is an alternative method for dating of bone rests in Mexico. That so is how it has been possible its application for dating geological material and in this research it has been determined the age of some mammoth samples from the basin of Mexico valley. (Author)

  18. Journalists like the rest of them?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    journalistic work routines in the paid press. This article addresses that gap with a case study of the Danish free newspaper Metroxpress. After identifying the economic, political and digital forces shaping the contents at Metroxpress, the article maps the newspaper’s news net, analyse efforts put......Academics have paid little attention to the practice of journalism at free newspapers since the free daily press emerged in 1995. A few studies have looked at the contents of free newspapers but not at the way journalism is practiced at free newspapers and whether these practices are different from...... into newsgathering and compare them to the newsgathering efforts of other Danish news brands. Findings indicate that while the news net is smaller than those of other Danish newspapers, journalists at Metroxpress have similar work routines to other journalists, and their work is routinely recognised by peers...

  19. The Rest of the C2 Iceberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Slow by Nobel Laureate economist Daniel Kahneman (New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, 2011). See also David Eagleman , Incognito: The Secret Lives...see Maj Gen Kenneth S. Wilsbach and Lt Col David J. Lyle, “NATO Air Com- mand–Afghanistan: The Continuing Evolution of Airpower Command and Control...implementation_ncw%5B1%5D.pdf. See also publications by the Department of Defense’s C4ISR Cooperative Research Program, such as David S. Alberts

  20. Association of lens vault with narrow angles among different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roland Y; Huang, Guofu; Cui, Qi N; He, Mingguang; Porco, Travis C; Lin, Shan C

    2012-06-01

    To compare lens vault between open-angle and narrow-angle eyes in African-, Caucasian-, Hispanic-, Chinese- and Filipino-Americans. In this prospective study, 436 patients with open angle and narrow angle based on the Shaffer gonioscopic grading classification underwent anterior-segment optical coherence tomography. The Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program was used to calculate lens vault. The narrow-angle group included 32 Chinese-Americans, 22 Filipino-Americans, 26 African-Americans, 24 Hispanic-Americans and 73 Caucasian-Americans. The open-angle group included 56 Chinese-Americans, 29 Filipino-Americans, 45 African-Americans, 27 Hispanic-Americans and 102 Caucasian-Americans. Linear mixed effect regression models, accounting for the use of both eyes and adjusting for age, sex, pupil diameter and spherical equivalent, were used to test for the ethnicity and angle coefficients. Tukey's multiple comparison test was used for pairwise comparisons among the open-angle racial groups. Significant difference in lens vault was found among the open-angle racial groups (P = 0.022). For the open-angle patients, mean values for the lens vault measurements were 265 ± 288 µm for Chinese-Americans, 431 ± 248 µm for Caucasian-Americans, 302 ± 213 µm for Filipino-Americans, 304 ± 263 µm for Hispanic-Americans and 200 ± 237 µm for African-Americans. Using Tukey's multiple comparison for pairwise comparisons among the open-angle racial groups, a significant difference was found between African-American and Caucasian-Americans groups (P values for the rest of the pairwise comparisons were not statistically significant. No significant difference was found among the narrow-angle racial groups (P = 0.14). Comparison between the open angle and narrow angle within each racial group revealed significant difference for all racial groups (P < 0.05). Among all the ethnicities included in this study, narrow-angle eyes have greater lens vault compared to open-angle

  1. 75 FR 80746 - Interpretation of Rest Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov and follow the online instructions... Government Printing Office's Web page at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . ] You can also get a copy....A.A., 291 F.3d 49 (DC Cir. 2002) (upholding the validity of the Whitlow Letter). See, e.g., Mar. 18...

  2. Reliability of hematocrit during rest and stress in healthy adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ring, C.; Patterson, S.M.; Bacon, S.L.; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J.J.; Willemsen, G.; Carroll, D.

    2008-01-01

    Hematocrit has been implicated in the triggering of cardiovascular events and the development of cardiovascular disease. Studies have demonstrated the reliability of hematocrit at rest, however, data are lacking about hematocrit during repeated acute stress exposures. The current study assessed the

  3. Effects of temperature and salinity on resting metabolism in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the resting metabolic rate (RMR; mg O2 g/h) of the resident rock pool fish Caffrogobius caffer and the transient sparid Diplodus sargus capensis at a range of salinities (5, 15, 25, 35 and 45 PSU) and temperatures (14, 20 and 28°C) using closed-vessel respirometry. Both species were temperature ...

  4. Effects of Flotation-REST on Muscle Tension Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Kjellgren

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the floating form of the restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST may be applied within the field of pain relief. Flotation-REST consists of a procedure whereby an individual is immersed in a tank filled with water of an extremely high salt concentration. Thirty-seven patients (14 men and 23 women suffering from chronic pain consisting of aching muscles in the neck and back area participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either a control group (17 participants or an experimental group (20 participants. The experimental group received nine opportunities to use the flotation-REST technique in the water tank over a three-week period. The results indicated that the most severe perceived pain intensity was significantly reduced, whereas low perceived pain intensity was not influenced by the floating technique. Further, the results indicated that circulating levels of the noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol were reduced significantly in the experimental group but not in the control group following treatment, whereas endorphin levels were not affected by flotation. Flotation-REST treatment also elevated the participants' optimism and reduced the degree of anxiety or depression; at nighttime, patients who underwent flotation fell asleep more easily. The present findings describe possible changes, for the better, in patients presenting with chronic pain complaints.

  5. 78 FR 14166 - Clarification of Flight, Duty, and Rest Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... flight segments. For example, consider a 3-segment unaugmented FDP that begins at 1100. Pursuant to Table..., 2012). For example, 14 CFR 121.471(b) and (c) specify the amount of rest that a flight crewmember on a... of Subparts Q, R, and S. For example, a certificate holder who wishes to engage in augmentation on...

  6. Didactical Design Enrichment of Angle in Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiadi, D. R.; Suryadi, D.; Mulyana, E.

    2017-09-01

    The underlying problem of this research is the lack of student’s competencies in understanding the concept of angle in geometry as the results of the teaching and learning pattern that only to receive the topic rather than to construct the topic and has not paid attention to the learning trajectory. The purpose of this research is to develop the didactical design of angle in space learning activity. The used research method is a method of qualitative research in the form of a didactical design research through three phases of analysis i.e. didactical situation analysis, metapedadidactical analysis, and retrospective analysis, which conducted in students from 10th grade at one of private schools in Bandung. Based on the results of research and discussion, the didactical design that has been made, is capable to change student’s learning habit and quite capable to develop student’s competencies although not optimal.

  7. Resting state activity in patients with disorders of consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soddu, Andrea; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Demertzi, Athena; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Tshibanda, Luaba; Di, Haibo; Boly, Mélanie; Papa, Michele; Laureys, Steven; Noirhomme, Quentin

    Summary Recent advances in the study of spontaneous brain activity have demonstrated activity patterns that emerge with no task performance or sensory stimulation; these discoveries hold promise for the study of higher-order associative network functionality. Additionally, such advances are argued to be relevant in pathological states, such as disorders of consciousness (DOC), i.e., coma, vegetative and minimally conscious states. Recent studies on resting state activity in DOC, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques, show that functional connectivity is disrupted in the task-negative or the default mode network. However, the two main approaches employed in the analysis of resting state functional connectivity data (i.e., hypothesis-driven seed-voxel and data-driven independent component analysis) present multiple methodological difficulties, especially in non-collaborative DOC patients. Improvements in motion artifact removal and spatial normalization are needed before fMRI resting state data can be used as proper biomarkers in severe brain injury. However, we anticipate that such developments will boost clinical resting state fMRI studies, allowing for easy and fast acquisitions and ultimately improve the diagnosis and prognosis in the absence of DOC patients’ active collaboration in data acquisition. PMID:21693087

  8. Intra- and Interobserver Reliability of the Cobb Angle-Vertebral Rotation Angle-Spinous Process Angle for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Amanda C Y; Morrison, Devlin G; Nguyen, Duc V; Hill, Douglas L; Parent, Eric; Lou, Edmond H M

    2014-05-01

    A reliability analysis of Cobb angle, vertebral rotation (VR), and spinous process angle (SPA) measurements in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To determine the intra- and interobserver reliability of semi-automated digital radiograph measurements. Cobb angle measurements on posteroanterior radiographs are commonly used to determine the severity of scoliosis. Vertebral rotation helps assess scoliosis 3-dimensionally and has a role in predicting curve progression. Recent studies have shown that the spinous process angle is a useful parameter in assessing scoliosis when using ultrasound imaging. Because the reliability of SPA measurements on radiographs has yet to be determined, it is important to compare the reliability of these 3 parameters (Cobb angle, VR, and SPA) using a computer assisted semi-automated method. Sixty posteroanterior radiographs of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were obtained and measured twice by 3 observers who were blinded to their previous measurements, using an in-house developed program. Measurements were obtained using a semi-automated method to minimize variability resulting from observer reliability. The intra- and interobserver reliabilities were analyzed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) as well as Bland-Altman's bias and limits of agreement. Over 350 (intra) and 90 (inter) sets of curves with an average Cobb angle of 26° ± 9° (range, 10° to 44°) were compared for each parameter. Intra-observer reliabilities for each parameter were excellent (ICC [2,1] , .82; 1.00), with mean absolute differences under 3° between most measurements. Interobserver reliability (ICC [2,1] , .72; .95) was mostly good to excellent, with mean absolute differences ranging from 2.0° to 5.6°. Both the intra- and interobserver assessment of the Cobb, VR, and SPA from the semi-automated measurements had clinically acceptable reliability ranges and may be considered for clinical implementation. Additional studies will be

  9. Measurement of the angle alpha at BABAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, A.; /Orsay, LAL

    2009-06-25

    The authors present recent measurements of the CKM angle {alpha} using data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, operating at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. They present constraints on {alpha} from B {yields} {pi}{pi}, B {yields} {rho}{rho} and B {yields} {rho}{pi} decays.

  10. Seamless Integration of RESTful Services into the Web of Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Lanthaler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We live in an era of ever-increasing abundance of data. To cope with the information overload we suffer from every single day, more sophisticated methods are required to access, manipulate, and analyze these humongous amounts of data. By embracing the heterogeneity, which is unavoidable at such a scale, and accepting the fact that the data quality and meaning are fuzzy, more adaptable, flexible, and extensible systems can be built. RESTful services combined with Semantic Web technologies could prove to be a viable path to achieve that. Their combination allows data integration on an unprecedented scale and solves some of the problems Web developers are continuously struggling with. This paper introduces a novel approach to create machine-readable descriptions for RESTful services as a first step towards this ambitious goal. It also shows how these descriptions along with an algorithm to translate SPARQL queries to HTTP requests can be used to integrate RESTful services into a global read-write Web of Data.

  11. Influence of rest interval on foot-tibia coordination with chronic ankle instability during the Star Excursion Balance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Ung; Arnold, Brent L; Powell, Douglas W; Williams, D S Blaise

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether different rest intervals affect performance on the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) associated with chronic ankle instability (CAI) and whether foot-tibia coordination can be associated factors that may help discriminate between individuals with and without CAI during the SEBT. Participants included forty-eight individuals with (n = 24) and without CAI (n = 24). Subjects completed 3 trials in each of the 3 reach directions (anteromedial, medial, posteromedial) in random order. A total of three visits were required to complete the 3 rest interval conditions (10, 20, 40 s). Coupling angles (CA) of tibial internal rotation/dorsiflexion (TIR/DF) and tibial internal rotation/eversion (TIR/EV) were calculated and compared between groups in each direction for each rest interval. Individuals with CAI showed greater CAs of TIR/DF in the M direction (p = 0.01) and of TIR/EV in the P direction (p = 0.04) than healthy individuals in 20 s rest interval time. Overall, joint CAs were different between healthy individuals and those with CAI during the SEBT regardless of rest interval. Based on these results, rest interval and a natural result of CAI could alter ankle joint coordination in comparison of healthy individuals when performing the SEBT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Presurgical Mapping of the Language Network Using Resting State Functional Connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Naoaki; Stufflebeam, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (Resting-state fMRI) is a tool for investigating the functional networks that arise during the resting-state of the brain. Recent advances of the resting-state fMRI analysis suggest its feasibility for evaluating language function. The most common clinical application is for presurgical mapping of cortex for a brain tumor or for resective epilespy surgery. In this article, we review the techniques and presurgical applications of resting-stat...

  13. What's the angle: a study of the angle bisected in intraoral radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson-Hing, L R

    1980-01-01

    Intraoral radiographs were made via the bisecting-the-angle technique on patients of different ages, sexes, and races. The tooth-film angles for various areas of the mouth were measured and found to be close to 30 degrees for all areas of the mouth except the mandibular posterior regions. The study was conducted to assist in quick positioning of the x-ray beam in difficult cases.

  14. Research on recognition of ramp angle based on transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao GU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the recognition of ramp angle, the relationship between the signal of vehicle transducer and real ramp angle is studied. The force change of vehicle on the ramp, and the relationship between the body tilt angle and front and rear suspension scale is discussed. According to the suspension and tire deformation, error angle of the ramp angle is deduced. A mathematical model is established with Matlab/Simulink and used for simulation to generate error curve of ramp angle. The results show that the error angle increases with the increasing of the ramp angle, and the limit value can reach 6.5%, while the identification method can effectively eliminate this error, and enhance the accuracy of ramp angle recognition.

  15. The effect of beam angle in abrasive-waterjet machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashish, M.

    1989-01-01

    In the machining of materials, abrasive-waterjets are typically applied at a 90-degree angle to the surface of the workpiece. This paper presents results and observations on machining with abrasive-waterjets at angles other than 90 degrees. Previous visualization studies of the cutting process in transparent materials has shown that there are optimal angles for maximum depth of cut and kerf depth uniformity. Here, observations on the effect of angle in machining applications, such as turning, milling. linear cutting, and drilling, are addressed. The effects of variations in both the impact angle and the rake angle are investigated. Results indicate that the volume removal rate is significantly affected by these angles and that surface finish can be improved by angling the jet. However, shallow angle drilling of small holes in laminated or ceramic-coated materials requires further investigation

  16. Specific Circuit Training in Young Judokas: Effects of Rest Duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, Stephane; Roux, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Ten adolescent judokas performed circuit training consisting of six 40-s periods of judo exercises separated by 40 s (CT1:1), 120 s (CT1:3), or 200 s (CT1:5) of rest. Heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and the number of repetitions were recorded. Heart rate reached [approximately]180 beats[middle dot]min-1 at the end of work periods, with…

  17. Hydroelastic Oscillations of a Circular Plate, Resting on Winkler Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratov, D. V.; Mogilevich, L. I.; Popov, V. S.; Popova, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The forced hydroelastic oscillations of a circular plate resting on elastic foundation are investigated. The oscillations are caused by a stamp vibration under interaction with a plate through a thin layer of viscous incompressible liquid. The axis-symmetric problem for the regime of the steady-state harmonic oscillations is considered. On the basis of hydroelasticity problem solution the laws of plate deflection and pressure in the liquid are found. The functions of the amplitudes deflection distribution and liquid pressure along the plate are constructed. The presented mathematical model provides for investigating viscous liquid layer interaction dynamics with a circular plate resting on an elastic foundation. The above-mentioned model makes it possible to define the plate oscillations resonance frequencies and the corresponding amplitudes of deflection and liquid pressure, as well.

  18. Fatigue resistance of cast occlusal rests using Co-Cr and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapido, Cynthia G; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Miyakawa, Osamu; Kohno, Shoji

    2003-09-01

    Fatigue failure in a removable partial denture framework includes fracture of the occlusal rest at the rest-minor connector angle. This in vitro study evaluated the fatigue resistance of 0.8-mm-thick occlusal rests cast with Co-Cr and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloys. The specimen consisted of occlusal rest (0.8 x 2.0 x 10 mm), vertical minor connector (0.9 x 2.0 x 5.0 mm), and denture base connector (1.5 x 5.0 x 25 mm). Twenty-five specimens each were cast with Co-Cr and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloys. From each group, 5 specimens were subjected to a load-deflection test conducted to determine the amount of deflection to be used in fatigue test. The fatigue test was performed such that the occlusal rest component was deflected by displacing the denture base component in a tissueward direction. Predetermined denture base displacement values of 0.25 and 0.49 mm for Co-Cr and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au specimens, respectively, were repeated at a rate of 500 cycles/min by use of a displacement-controlled fatigue testing machine, until occlusal rest failure occurred or a preset limit of 2 million cycles was achieved. The survival rates of the occlusal rests were calculated assuming a chewing cycle of 2 x 10(5) per year. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photographs were made to examine the fracture surfaces and to identify casting defects. The relationship between fatigue cycles and number of casting defects was determined by Spearman rank correlation analysis (PAg-Pd-Cu-Au specimens fractured. After 3 years of simulated clinical use, only 50% of the Ag-Pd-Cu-Au occlusal rests survived. Statistical analysis showed that the fatigue cycles and number of casting defects were inversely related (PAg-Pd-Cu Au fatigue fracture surface consisted of smooth propagation and dimpled and smooth final fracture areas. This study suggests that cast Co-Cr rests are more rigid and fatigue resistant than Ag-Pd-Cu-Au rests. The fatigue resistance of 0.8-mm-thick occlusal rests may be adequate if cast with Co-Cr alloy. An

  19. Dirac Matrices and Feynman’s Rest of the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There are two sets of four-by-four matrices introduced by Dirac. The first set consists of fifteen Majorana matrices derivable from his four γ matrices. These fifteen matrices can also serve as the generators of the group SL(4, r. The second set consists of ten generators of the Sp(4 group which Dirac derived from two coupled harmonic oscillators. It is shown possible to extend the symmetry of Sp(4 to that of SL(4, r if the area of the phase space of one of the oscillators is allowed to become smaller without a lower limit. While there are no restrictions on the size of phase space in classical mechanics, Feynman’s rest of the universe makes this Sp(4-to-SL(4, r transition possible. The ten generators are for the world where quantum mechanics is valid. The remaining five generators belong to the rest of the universe. It is noted that the groups SL(4, r and Sp(4 are locally isomorphic to the Lorentz groups O(3, 3 and O(3, 2 respectively. This allows us to interpret Feynman’s rest of the universe in terms of space-time symmetry.

  20. [Measurement of the lumbosacral angle and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bene, E

    1981-01-01

    The author reports about the result of a series of investigations and tests concerning the angle of the L-S vertebral column. Different factors influencing the values of L-S angle are analyzed. The clinical importance of the respective angles is small, the statics of the L-S transition is determined by all angles together. The reduced L-S angle cannot be considered as an aetiological factor of the spondylolysthesis. The pathological angle values as well as the positions play a role in the induction of the discopathy

  1. Soundscape Ecology of Hawaiian Spinner Dolphin Resting Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenehan, Heather Leigh

    Sound is a key sensory modality for Hawaiian spinner dolphins. Like many other marine animals, these dolphins rely on sound and their acoustic environment for many aspects of their daily lives, making it is essential to understand soundscape in areas that are critical to their survival. Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest during the day in shallow coastal areas and forage offshore at night. In my dissertation I focus on the soundscape of the bays where Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest taking a soundscape ecology approach. I primarily relied on passive acoustic monitoring using four DSG-Ocean acoustic loggers in four Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting bays on the Kona Coast of Hawai'i Island. 30-second recordings were made every four minutes in each of the bays for 20 to 27 months between January 8, 2011 and March 30, 2013. I also utilized concomitant vessel-based visual surveys in the four bays to provide context for these recordings. In my first chapter I used the contributions of the dolphins to the soundscape to monitor presence in the bays and found the degree of presence varied greatly from less than 40% to nearly 90% of days monitored with dolphins present. Having established these bays as important to the animals, in my second chapter I explored the many components of their resting bay soundscape and evaluated the influence of natural and human events on the soundscape. I characterized the overall soundscape in each of the four bays, used the tsunami event of March 2011 to approximate a natural soundscape and identified all loud daytime outliers. Overall, sound levels were consistently louder at night and quieter during the daytime due to the sounds from snapping shrimp. In fact, peak Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting time co-occurs with the quietest part of the day. However, I also found that humans drastically alter this daytime soundscape with sound from offshore aquaculture, vessel sound and military mid-frequency active sonar. During one recorded mid

  2. Application of tooth brushing behavior to active rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadachi, Hidetoshi; Murakami, Yoshinori; Tonomura, Manabu; Yada, Yukihiro; Simoyama, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of tooth brushing with toothpaste as active rest using the flicker value as a physiological parameter and a subjective questionnaire as a psychological parameter. Seventeen healthy, right-handed subjects (12 males and 5 females) aged 22.5 +/- 1.5 yr (mean +/- standard deviation) were randomly divided into tooth brushing with toothpaste (N=9) and non-tooth brushing groups (N=8). The subjects performed a serial calculation task for 20 min using personal computers. Subsequently, the tooth brushing group brushed their teeth, and the flicker value and mood were compared before and after the tooth brushing. The flicker value significantly increased in the tooth brushing group compared with the non-tooth brushing group (pbrushing group, the incidence of a "feeling of being refreshed" significantly increased (pbrushing activated cerebral activity, producing refreshing effects. These results suggest the applicability of tooth brushing to active rest.

  3. Neuroaging through the Lens of the Resting State Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Cieri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI allows studying spontaneous brain activity in absence of task, recording changes of Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD signal. rs-fMRI enables identification of brain networks also called Resting State Networks (RSNs including the most studied Default Mode Network (DMN. The simplicity and speed of execution make rs-fMRI applicable in a variety of normal and pathological conditions. Since it does not require any task, rs-fMRI is particularly useful for protocols on patients, children, and elders, increasing participant’s compliance and reducing intersubjective variability due to the task performance. rs-fMRI has shown high sensitivity in identification of RSNs modifications in several diseases also in absence of structural modifications. In this narrative review, we provide the state of the art of rs-fMRI studies about physiological and pathological aging processes. First, we introduce the background of resting state; then we review clinical findings provided by rs-fMRI in physiological aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, Alzheimer Dementia (AD, and Late Life Depression (LLD. Finally, we suggest future directions in this field of research and its potential clinical applications.

  4. Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Jacobsen, Rikke K; Skaaby, Tea

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Smoking is an important cardiovascular disease risk factor, but the mechanisms linking smoking to blood pressure are poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Data on 141,317 participants (62,666 never, 40,669 former, 37,982 current smokers) from 23 population-based studies were...... included in observational and Mendelian randomisation (MR) meta-analyses of the associations of smoking status and smoking heaviness with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), hypertension, and resting heart rate. For the MR analyses, a genetic variant rs16969968/rs1051730 was used as a proxy...... for smoking heaviness in current smokers. In observational analyses, current as compared with never smoking was associated with lower SBP, DBP, and lower hypertension risk, but with higher resting heart rate. In observational analyses amongst current smokers, one cigarette/day higher level of smoking...

  5. The effect of different rest intervals between multiple bench press ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to examine the effects of different rest intervals between sets on the training volume completed during a workout, 15 male bodybuilders served as subjects (Mean SD, age=25.28±2.01; mass=73.06±8.33 kg; height=176.33±6.30 cm). All the subjects performed a minimum of three strength workouts per week for a ...

  6. Electroencephalographic Resting-State Networks: Source Localization of Microstates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custo, Anna; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Wells, William M; Tomescu, Miralena I; Brunet, Denis; Michel, Christoph M

    2017-12-01

    Using electroencephalography (EEG) to elucidate the spontaneous activation of brain resting-state networks (RSNs) is nontrivial as the signal of interest is of low amplitude and it is difficult to distinguish the underlying neural sources. Using the principles of electric field topographical analysis, it is possible to estimate the meta-stable states of the brain (i.e., the resting-state topographies, so-called microstates). We estimated seven resting-state topographies explaining the EEG data set with k-means clustering (N = 164, 256 electrodes). Using a method specifically designed to localize the sources of broadband EEG scalp topographies by matching sensor and source space temporal patterns, we demonstrated that we can estimate the EEG RSNs reliably by measuring the reproducibility of our findings. After subtracting their mean from the seven EEG RSNs, we identified seven state-specific networks. The mean map includes regions known to be densely anatomically and functionally connected (superior frontal, superior parietal, insula, and anterior cingulate cortices). While the mean map can be interpreted as a "router," crosslinking multiple functional networks, the seven state-specific RSNs partly resemble and extend previous functional magnetic resonance imaging-based networks estimated as the hemodynamic correlates of four canonical EEG microstates.

  7. Stretch Reflex as a Simple Measure to Evaluate the Efficacy of Potential Flight Countermeasures Using the Bed Rest Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerisano, J. M.; Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Fisher, E. A.; Harm, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spaceflight is acknowledged to have significant effects on the major postural muscles. However, it has been difficult to separate the effects of ascending somatosensory changes caused by the unloading of these muscles during flight from changes in sensorimotor function caused by a descending vestibulo-cerebellar response to microgravity. It is hypothesized that bed rest is an adequate model to investigate postural muscle unloading given that spaceflight and bed rest may produce similar results in both nerve axon and muscle tissue. METHODS: To investigate this hypothesis, stretch reflexes were measured on 18 subjects who spent 60 to 90 days in continuous 6 head-down bed rest. Using a motorized system capable of rotating the foot around the ankle joint (dorsiflexion) through an angle of 10 deg at a peak velocity of approximately 250 deg/sec, a stretch reflex was recorded from the subject's left triceps surae muscle group. Using surface electromyography, about 300 reflex responses were obtained and ensemble-averaged on 3 separate days before bed rest, 3 to 4 times in bed, and 3 times after bed rest. The averaged responses for each test day were examined for reflex latency and conduction velocity (CV) across gender and compared with spaceflight data. RESULTS: Although no gender differences were found, bed rest induced changes in reflex latency and CV similar to the ones observed during spaceflight. Also, a relationship between CV and loss of muscle strength in the lower leg was observed for most bed rest subjects. CONCLUSION: Even though bed rest (limb unloading) alone may not mimic all of the synaptic and muscle tissue loss that is observed as a result of spaceflight, it can serve as a working analog of flight for the evaluation of potential countermeasures that may be beneficial in mitigating unwanted changes in the major postural muscles that are observed post flight.

  8. Gender Differences in Bed Rest: Preliminary Analysis of Vascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Martin, David S.; Freeman-Perez, Sondra A.; Phillips, Tiffany; Ribeiro, L. Christine

    2008-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is a recognized consequence of spaceflight. Numerous studies have shown that women are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight as well as bed rest, the most commonly used ground-based analog for spaceflight. One of the possible mechanisms proposed to account for this is a difference in vascular responsiveness between genders. We hypothesized that women and men would have differing vascular responses to 90 days of 6-degree head down tilt bed rest. Additionally, we hypothesized that vessels in the upper and lower body would respond differently, as has been shown in the animal literature. Thirteen subjects were placed in bedrest for 90 days (8 men, 5 women) at the Flight Analogs Unit, UTMB. Direct arterial and venous measurements were made with ultrasound to evaluate changes in vascular structure and function. Arterial function was assessed, in the arm and leg, during a reactive hyperemia protocol and during sublingual nitroglycerin administration to gauge the contributions of endothelial dependent and independent dilator function respectively. Venous function was assessed in dorsal hand and foot veins during the administration of pharmaceuticals to assess constrictor and dilator function. Both gender and day effects are seen in arterial dilator function to reactive hyperemia, but none are seen with nitroglycerin. There are also differences in the wall thickness in the arm vs the leg during bed rest, which return toward pre-bed rest levels by day 90. More subjects are required, especially females as there is not sufficient power to properly analyze venous function. Day 90 data are most underpowered.

  9. Effects of strict prolonged bed rest on cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Aarts, Hugo M; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    with larger declines in V̇o2max). Furthermore, the systematic review revealed a gap in the knowledge about the cardiovascular response to extreme physical inactivity, particularly in older subjects and women of any age group. In addition to its relevance to spaceflight, this lack of data has significant....... Since 1949, 80 studies with a total of 949 participants (>90% men) have been published with data on strict bed rest and V̇o2max The studies were conducted mainly in young participants [median age (interquartile range) 24.5 (22.4-34.0) yr]. The duration of bed rest ranged from 1 to 90 days. V̇o2max...... declined linearly across bed rest duration. No statistical difference in the decline among studies reporting V̇o2max as l/min (-0.3% per day) compared with studies reporting V̇o2max normalized to body weight (ml·kg-1·min-1; -0.43% per day) was observed. Although both total body weight and lean body mass...

  10. Fostering Students' Development of the Concept of Angles Using Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Sue Ellen; Koyunkaya, Melike Yigit

    2017-01-01

    We have used "GeoGebra," a dynamic geometry software environment, to explore how Year 4 students understand definitions of angles. Seven students defined angle and then completed several activities adapted for the dynamic environment. Afterward, students again shared their definitions of angles. We found that even a short investigation…

  11. Myoeletric indices of fatigue adopting different rest intervals during leg press sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Humberto; Maia, Marianna; de Oliveira, Carlos G; Farias, Déborah; da Silva, Jurandir B; Lima, Vicente P; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Paz, Gabriel A

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of different rest intervals between multiple sets of the 45° angled leg press exercise (LP45) on surface electromyographic (SEMG) spectral and amplitude indices of fatigue. Fifteen recreationally trained females performed three protocols in a randomized crossover design; each consisting of four sets of 10 repetitions with 1 (P1), 3 (P3), or 5 (P5) minute rest intervals between sets. Each set was performed with 70% of the LP45 ten-repetition maximum load. The SEMG data for biceps femoris (BF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF) muscles was then evaluated. The SEMG amplitude change in the time coefficient (CRMS) and spectral fatigue index (Cf5) indicated higher levels of fatigue for all muscles evaluated during the P3 protocol versus the P1 and P5 protocols (p ≤ 0.05), respectively. The RF and VL muscles showed greater fatigue levels by the second and third sets; whereas, greater fatigue was shown in the VM and BF muscles by the fourth set (p ≤ 0.05). A three-minute rest interval between sets might represent a neuromuscular window between a fatigue stated and fully recovered state in the context of neural activation. Moreover, a three minute rest interval between sets might allow for consistent recruitment of high threshold motor units over multiple sets, and thus promote a more effective stimulus for strength gains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Joining by plating: optimization of occluded angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Kan, Y.R.

    1978-11-01

    An empirical method has been developed for predicting the minimum angle required for maximum joint strength for materials joined by plating. This is done through a proposed power law failure function, whose coefficients are taken from ring shear and conical head tensile data for plating/substrate combinations and whose exponent is determined from one set of plated-joint data. Experimental results are presented for Al-Ni-Al (7075-T6) and AM363-Ni-AM363 joints, and the failure function is used to predict joint strengths for Al-Ni-Al (2024-T6), UTi-Ni-UTi, and Be-Ti-Be

  13. Changes in Activation of Abdominal Muscles at Selected Angles During Trunk Exercise by Using Ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Dong; Jeon, Dong-Min; Bae, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Jong-Gil; Han, Nami; Eom, Mi-Ja

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the changes of activation of the abdominal muscles depending on exercise angles and whether the activation of rectus abdominis differs according to the location, during curl up and leg raise exercises, by measuring the thickness ratio of abdominal muscles using ultrasonography. We examined 30 normal adults without musculoskeletal problems. Muscle thickness was measured in the upper rectus abdominis (URA), lower rectus abdominis (LRA), obliquus externus (EO), obliquus internus (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA), at pre-determined angles (30°, 60°, 90°) and additionally at the resting angle (0°). Muscle thickness ratio was calculated by dividing the resting (0°) thickness for each angle, and was used as reflection of muscle activity. The muscle thickness ratio was significantly different depending on the angles in URA and LRA. For curl up-URA p=0 (30°90°), p=0.44 (30°90°), p=0.44 (30°>90°), respectively, by one-way ANOVA test-and for leg raise-URA p=0 (30°abdominal muscles (EO, IO, and TrA). Also, there was no significant difference in the muscle thickness ratio of URA and LRA during both exercises. In the aspect of muscle activity, there was significant difference in the activation of RA muscle by selected angles, but not according to location during both exercises. According to this study, exercise angle is thought to be an important contributing factor for strengthening of RA muscle; however, both the exercises are thought to have no property of strengthening RA muscle selectively based on the location.

  14. 78 FR 64179 - Hours of Service of Drivers; Amendment of the 30-Minute Rest Break Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ...; Amendment of the 30-Minute Rest Break Requirement AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA... of Service of Drivers'' to provide an exception from the 30- minute rest break requirement for short...). The final rule included a new provision requiring drivers to take a rest break during the work day...

  15. Cubic Equations and the Ideal Trisection of the Arbitrary Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Marion B.

    2006-01-01

    In the year 1837 mathematical proof was set forth authoritatively stating that it is impossible to trisect an arbitrary angle with a compass and an unmarked straightedge in the classical sense. The famous proof depends on an incompatible cubic equation having the cosine of an angle of 60 and the cube of the cosine of one-third of an angle of 60 as…

  16. Evaluation of the normal calcaneal angles in Egyptian population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fahmy Anwar Shoukry

    2012-02-01

    Feb 1, 2012 ... ison of the angles according to the side), independent t-test was used to compare the angles according to the sex), distribution of the angles within different age groups was compared with one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The level of sig- nificance was set at p < 0.05, and compared the results of.

  17. The impact of inlet angle and outlet angle of guide vane on pump in reversal based hydraulic turbine performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, F X; Yang, J H; Wang, X H; Zhang, R H; Li, C E

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, in order to research the impact of inlet angle and outlet angle of guide vane on hydraulic turbine performance, a centrifugal pump in reversal is adopted as turbine. A numerical simulation method is adopted for researching outer performance and flow field of turbine. The results show: inlet angle has a crucial role to turbine, to the same flow, there is a noticeable decline for the efficiency and head of turbine with the inlet angle increases. At the best efficiency point(EFP),to a same inlet angle, when the inlet angle greater than inlet angle, velocity circulation in guide vane outlet decreases, which lead the efficiency of turbine to reduce, Contrarily, the efficiency rises. With the increase of inlet angle and outlet angle, the EFP moves to the big flow area and the uniformity of pressure distribution becomes worse. The paper indicates that the inlet angle and outlet angle have great impact on the turbine performance, and the best combination exists for the inlet angle and outlet angle of the guide vane.

  18. Measurement of Angle Kappa Using Ultrasound Biomicroscopy and Corneal Topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Joon Hyung; Moon, Nam Ju; Lee, Jeong Kyu

    2017-06-01

    To introduce a new convenient and accurate method to measure the angle kappa using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and corneal topography. Data from 42 eyes (13 males and 29 females) were analyzed in this study. The angle kappa was measured using Orbscan II and calculated with UBM and corneal topography. The angle kappa of the dominant eye was compared with measurements by Orbscan II. The mean patient age was 36.4 ± 13.8 years. The average angle kappa measured by Orbscan II was 3.98° ± 1.12°, while the average angle kappa calculated with UBM and corneal topography was 3.19° ± 1.15°. The difference in angle kappa measured by the two methods was statistically significant (p topography to calculate the angle kappa. This method is convenient to use and allows for measurement of the angle kappa without an expensive device. © 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society

  19. 47 CFR 25.205 - Minimum angle of antenna elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum angle of antenna elevation. 25.205... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.205 Minimum angle of antenna elevation. (a) Earth station antennas shall not normally be authorized for transmission at angles less than 5° measured from the...

  20. Contact angle measurement of natural materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianyi; Jiang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Contact angle (CA) is the most important parameter used to quantify the wettability of solid surfaces. In order to evaluate wettability performance, numerous methods have been developed to measure the CA of solid surfaces. Recent years have seen increased focus on the special wettability performance of various biological materials. Biomimetic wettability has become one of the most popular research fields, and novel CA measurements have been invented accordingly. In this protocol, we introduce several CA measurement techniques mainly based on the image capture method, which is commonly to investigate the wettability of natural materials. According to the solid/liquid/gas context, we classify CA measurements into three types: in air, under liquid, and air bubble measurements, and describe methods for each. The precise measurement of CA together with study of surface structure can reveal the mechanisms of special wettability, thus accelerating the investigation of biomaterials. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Vascular anomalies of the cerebellopontine angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Grunwald, I.Q.; Politi, M.; Struffert, T.; Ahlhelm, F.; Reith, W.

    2006-01-01

    Vascular anomalies of the cerebellopontine angle are rare compared to tumors in this area. Irritation of the trigeminal, facial, or vestibulocochlear nerve may cause trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm and vertigo, or tinnitus accordingly. Vessel loops in the cerebellopontine cisterns may cause compression at the root entry or exit zone of the cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII, a phenomenon which is called ''vascular loop syndrome.'' Megadolichobasilar artery and aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar system can also lead to dislocation and compression of the cranial nerves and brain stem. Three-dimensional CISS MR imaging and MR angiography are useful in the detection of neurovascular compression. Microvascular decompression is an effective surgical procedure in the management of compression syndromes of the cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII. (orig.) [de

  2. REST based mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambow, Mark; Preuss, Thomas; Berdux, Jörg; Conrad, Marc

    2008-02-01

    Simplicity is the major advantage of REST based webservices. Whereas SOAP is widespread in complex, security sensitive business-to-business aplications, REST is widely used for mashups and end-user centric applicatons. In that context we give an overview of REST and compare it to SOAP. Furthermore we apply the GeoDrawing application as an example for REST based mobile applications and emphasize on pros and cons for the use of REST in mobile application scenarios.

  3. Energy landscapes of resting-state brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamitsu eWatanabe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During rest, the human brain performs essential functions such as memory maintenance, which are associated with resting-state brain networks (RSNs including the default-mode network (DMN and frontoparietal network (FPN. Previous studies based on spiking-neuron network models and their reduced models, as well as those based on imaging data, suggest that resting-state network activity can be captured as attractor dynamics, i.e., dynamics of the brain state toward an attractive state and transitions between different attractors. Here, we analyze the energy landscapes of the RSNs by applying the maximum entropy model, or equivalently the Ising spin model, to human RSN data. We use the previously estimated parameter values to define the energy landscape, and the disconnectivity graph method to estimate the number of local energy minima (equivalent to attractors in attractor dynamics, the basin size, and hierarchical relationships among the different local minima. In both of the DMN and FPN, low-energy local minima tended to have large basins. A majority of the network states belonged to a basin of one of a few local minima. Therefore, a small number of local minima constituted the backbone of each RSN. In the DMN, the energy landscape consisted of two groups of low-energy local minima that are separated by a relatively high energy barrier. Within each group, the activity patterns of the local minima were similar, and different minima were connected by relatively low energy barriers. In the FPN, all dominant energy were separated by relatively low energy barriers such that they formed a single coarse-grained global minimum. Our results indicate that multistable attractor dynamics may underlie the DMN, but not the FPN, and assist memory maintenance with different memory states.

  4. Angle parameter changes of phacoemulsification and combined phacotrabeculectomy for acute primary angle closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the difference in angle parameters and clinical outcome following phacoemulsification and combined phacotrabeculectomy in patients with acute primary angle closure (APAC using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM.METHODS: Patients (n=23, 31 eyes were randomized to receive phacoemulsification or combined phacotrabeculectomy (n=24, 31 eyes. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, intraocular pressure (IOP, the main complications following surgery, and indentation gonioscopy and angle parameters measured using UBM were documented preoperatively and postoperatively.RESULTS:The improvement in BCVA in the phacoemulsification group was significantly greater than in the combined group (P<0.05. IOP in the phacoemulsification group was slightly higher than in the combined group following 1wk of follow-up (P<0.05, whereas there was no significant difference between the two groups at the latter follow-up (P>0.05. Phacoemulsification alone resulted in a slight increase in the trabecular ciliary processes distance compared with the combined surgery (P<0.05, whereas the other angle parameters showed no significant difference between the groups. Complications in combined group were greater than phacoemulsification only group.CONCLUSION:Both surgeries effectively opened the drainage angle and deepened the anterior chamber, and IOP was well controlled postoperatively. However, phacoemulsification showed better efficacy in improving visual function and showed reduced complications following surgery.

  5. Exercise Thermoregulation Following 13 Days of Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Williams, W. Jon; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation examined two potential mechanisms, altered skin blood flow (SBF) and sweating rate (SR) responses, that may be responsible for an elevated core temperature during exercise after bed rest (BR) and space flight. Seven healthy men (29 +/- 5 yr, 179.6 +/- 7.1 cm, 77.2 +/- 17.0kg; mean +/- SD) underwent 13 days of 6 deg head-down BR. Pre- and post-BR, subjects completed supine submaximal cycle ergometry (20 min at 40% and 20 min at 65% of pre-BR supine VO2pk) in a thermoneutral room (23.4 +/- 0.5 C, 56 +/- 8 %RH) during, heat production (VO2 ; indirect calorimetry), intestinal temperature (T(sub in) ; ingestible pill), SBF (laser Doppler velocimetry), local SR (dew point hygrometry), and total sweat loss (TSL; Delta body weight) were measured. Pre- and post- BR plasma volume (PV) was measured using I-125 dilution. After BR, T(sub in) was elevated at rest (36.99 +/- 0.14 vs. 37.30 +/- 0.06 C; p<_0.05) and at the end of exercise (37.57 +/- 0.13 vs. 37.90 +/- 0.09 C; P less than or equal to 0.05). However, the increase in T(sub in) from rest to the end of exercise was not different after BR (0.59 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.60 +/- 0.07 C). There was no difference in VO2 pre- to post-BR during rest (0.28 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.24 +/- 0.03 1 multiplied by min(exp -1) ) or 40% VO2pk (0.95 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.96 +/- 0.05 1 multiplied by min(exp -1)), but VO2 was significantly less at the end of the 65% VO2pk stage (1.53 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.42 +/- 0.11 1 multiplies by min(exp - 1); p less than or equal to 0.05). The percent change in SBF from rest to end of exercise was less after BR (211 +/- 53 vs. 96 +/- 31%; p less than or equal to 0.05), the threshold for the onset of SBF was greater (37.17 +/- 0.18vs. 37.51 +/- 0.17 C; p less than or equal to 0.05), and the slope of the response tended to be reduced (536 +/- 184 vs. 201 +/- 46 %A PC; p=0.08). TSL was not different after BR (0.42+0.06 vs. 0.44 +/- 0.08 kg), but the T in threshold at the onset of sweating was delayed significantly (37

  6. Airline Chair-rest Deconditioning: Induction of Immobilization Thromboemboli?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Rehrer, N. J.; Mohler, S. R.; Quach, D. T.; Evans, D. G.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Air passenger miles will likely double by year 2020. The altered and restrictive environment in an airliner cabin can influence hematological homeostasis in passengers and crew. Flight-related deep various thromboemboli (DVT) have been associated with at least 577 deaths on 42 of 120 airlines from 1977 to 1984 (25 deaths/million departures), whereas many such cases go unreported. However, there are four major factors that could influence formation of possible flight-induced DVT: sleeping accomodations (via sitting immobilization), travelers' medical history (via tissue injury), cabin environmental factors (via lower partial pressure of oxygen and lower relative humidity), and the more encompassing chair-rest deconditioning (C-RD) syndrome. There is ample evidence that recent injury and surgery (especially in deconditioned hospitalized patients) facilitate thrombophlebitis and formation of DVT that may be exacerbated by the immobilization of prolonged air travel. In the healthy flying population immobilization factors associated with prolonged (> 5 hr) C-RID such as total body dehydration, hypovolemia and increased blood viscosity, and reduced various blood flow (pooling) in the legs may facilitate formation of DVT. However, data from at least four case-controlled epidemiological studies did not confirm a direct causative relationship between air travel and DART, but factors such as history of vascular thromboemboli, various insufficiency, chronic heart failure, obesity, immobile standing position, more than 3 pregnancies, infectious disease, long-distance travel, muscular trauma and violent physical effort were significantly more frequent in DVT patients than in controls. Thus, there is no clear, direct evidence yet that prolonged sitting in airliner seats, or prolonged experimental chair-rest- or bed- rest-deconditioning treatments cause deep various thromboemboli in healthy people.

  7. Airline chair-rest deconditioning: induction of immobilisation thromboemboli?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Rehrer, Nancy J.; Mohler, Stanley R.; Quach, David T.; Evans, David G.

    2004-01-01

    Air passenger miles will likely double by year 2020. The altered and restrictive environment in an airliner cabin can influence haematological homeostasis in passengers and crew. Flight-related deep venous thromboemboli (DVT) have been associated with at least 577 deaths on 42 of 120 airlines from 1977 to 1984 (25 deaths/million departures), whereas many such cases go unreported. However, there are four major factors that could influence formation of possible flight-induced DVT: sleeping accommodations (via sitting immobilisation); travellers' medical history (via tissue injury); cabin environmental factors (via lower partial pressure of oxygen and lower relative humidity); and the more encompassing chair-rest deconditioning (C-RD) syndrome. There is ample evidence that recent injury and surgery (especially in deconditioned hospitalised patients) facilitate thrombophlebitis and formation of DVT that may be exacerbated by the immobilisation of prolonged air travel.In the healthy flying population, immobilisation factors associated with prolonged (>5 hours) C-RD such as total body dehydration, hypovolaemia and increased blood viscosity, and reduced venous blood flow (pooling) in the legs may facilitate formation of DVT. However, data from at least four case-controlled epidemiological studies did not confirm a direct causative relationship between air travel and DVT, but factors such as a history of vascular thromboemboli, venous insufficiency, chronic heart failure, obesity, immobile standing position, more than three pregnancies, infectious disease, long-distance travel, muscular trauma and violent physical effort were significantly more frequent in DVT patients than in controls. Thus, there is no clear, direct evidence yet that prolonged sitting in airliner seats, or prolonged experimental chair-rest or bed-rest deconditioning treatments cause DVT in healthy people.

  8. Same day injections of Tc-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (hexamibi) for myocardial tomographic imaging: Comparison between rest-stress and stress-rest injection sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillefer, R.; Gagnon, A.; Laflamme, L.; Leveille, J.; Phaneuf, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    It has been shown that both rest and stress 99m Tc-hexamibi myocardial perfusion imaging can be performed on the same day using two different doses injected within few h (the first one at rest followed by a second at stress). In order to evaluate and compare 2 sequences (rest-stress and stress-rest) of 99m Tc-hexamibi injections performed the same day, 18 patients with either abnormal 201 Tl myocardial scan or abnormal coronary angiography were studied with 2 99m Tc-hexamibi injections protocols. The rest-stress study was performed as follows: 7 mCi 99m Tc-hexamibi was injected at rest. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed 60 min later. Immediately after the rest study, patients were injected at peak stress with 25 mCi 99m Tc-hexamibi. Tomographic imaging was repeated 1 h later. Patients were submitted to the stress-rest protocol within 3 days. Tomographic imaging was done 1 h after a 7 mCi injection at stress. This study was followed by an injection of 25 mCi 99m Tc-hexamibi at rest, a tomographic study was performed 60 min later. Myocardial sections were reconstructed in horizontal long, vertical long, and short axes. Data analysis also included polar map representation. A total of 324 segments were interpreted blind by 3 observers, there was an agreement in 283/324 (87.3%) segments between the 2 protocols. However, 24 segments (7.4%) judged ischemic on rest-stress were called scars on stress-rest. In three patients, myocardial segments were judged normal on the rest image of the rest-stress protocol while they were found abnormal (false positive images) on the stress-rest sequence. Stress images from both protocols were judged similar in 17 patients. In conclusion, when using a short time interval (less than 2 h) between two 99m Tc-hexamibi injections, it is preferable to do a rest-stress sequence since the rest image performed initially represents a true rest study, which is not necessarily the case with the stress-rest sequence

  9. Dilemma of gonial angle measurement: Panoramic radiograph or lateral cephalogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Pillai Devu; Varma, Nilambur Kovilakam Sapna; Ajith, Vallikat Velath [Dept. of Orthodontics, Amrita School of Dentistry, Kochi (India)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of panoramic imaging in measuring the right and left gonial angles by comparing the measured angles with the angles determined using a lateral cephalogram of adult patients with class I malocclusion. The gonial angles of 50 class I malocclusion patients (25 males and 25 females; mean age: 23 years) were measured using both a lateral cephalogram and a panoramic radiograph. In the lateral cephalograms, the gonial angle was measured at the point of intersection of the ramus plane and the mandibular plane. In the panoramic radiographs, the gonial angle was measured by drawing a line tangent to the lower border of the mandible and another line tangent to the distal border of the ascending ramus and the condyle on both sides. The data obtained from both radiographs were statistically compared. No statistically significant difference was observed between the gonial angle measured using the lateral cephalograms and that determined using the panoramic radiographs. Further, there was no statistically significant difference in the measured gonial angle with respect to gender. The results also showed a statistically insignificant difference in the mean of the right and the left gonial angles measured using the panoramic radiographs. As the gonial angle measurements using panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms showed no statistically significant difference, panoramic radiography can be considered in orthodontics for measuring the gonial angle without any interference due to superimposed images.

  10. A baseline for the multivariate comparison of resting state networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A Allen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available As the size of functional and structural MRI datasets expands, it becomes increasingly important to establish a baseline from which diagnostic relevance may be determined, a processing strategy that efficiently prepares data for analysis, and a statistical approach that identifies important effects in a manner that is both robust and reproducible. In this paper, we introduce a multivariate analytic approach that optimizes sensitivity and reduces unnecessary testing. We demonstrate the utility of this mega-analytic approach by identifying the effects of age and gender on the resting state networks of 603 healthy adolescents and adults (mean age: 23.4 years, range: 12 to 71 years. Data were collected on the same scanner, preprocessed using an automated analysis pipeline based in SPM, and studied using group independent component analysis. Resting state networks were identified and evaluated in terms of three primary outcome measures: time course spectral power, spatial map intensity, and functional network connectivity. Results revealed robust effects of age on all three outcome measures, largely indicating decreases in network coherence and connectivity with increasing age. Gender effects were of smaller magnitude but suggested stronger intra-network connectivity in females and more inter-network connectivity in males, particularly with regard to sensorimotor networks. These findings, along with the analysis approach and statistical framework described here, provide a useful baseline for future investigations of brain networks in health and disease.

  11. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain at rest--exploring EEG microstates as electrophysiological signatures of BOLD resting state networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Han; Zotev, Vadim; Phillips, Raquel; Drevets, Wayne C; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2012-05-01

    Neuroimaging research suggests that the resting cerebral physiology is characterized by complex patterns of neuronal activity in widely distributed functional networks. As studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal, the resting brain activity is associated with slowly fluctuating hemodynamic signals (~10s). More recently, multimodal functional imaging studies involving simultaneous acquisition of BOLD-fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG) data have suggested that the relatively slow hemodynamic fluctuations of some resting state networks (RSNs) evinced in the BOLD data are related to much faster (~100 ms) transient brain states reflected in EEG signals, that are referred to as "microstates". To further elucidate the relationship between microstates and RSNs, we developed a fully data-driven approach that combines information from simultaneously recorded, high-density EEG and BOLD-fMRI data. Using independent component analysis (ICA) of the combined EEG and fMRI data, we identified thirteen microstates and ten RSNs that are organized independently in their temporal and spatial characteristics, respectively. We hypothesized that the intrinsic brain networks that are active at rest would be reflected in both the EEG data and the fMRI data. To test this hypothesis, the rapid fluctuations associated with each microstate were correlated with the BOLD-fMRI signal associated with each RSN. We found that each RSN was characterized further by a specific electrophysiological signature involving from one to a combination of several microstates. Moreover, by comparing the time course of EEG microstates to that of the whole-brain BOLD signal, on a multi-subject group level, we unraveled for the first time a set of microstate-associated networks that correspond to a range of previously described RSNs, including visual, sensorimotor, auditory, attention, frontal, visceromotor and default mode networks. These

  12. Implications of longer term rest from grazing in the sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Davies; M. Vavra; B. Schultz; N. Rimbey

    2014-01-01

    Longer term grazing rest has occurred or been proposed in large portions of the sagebrush steppe based on the assumption that it will improve ecosystem properties. However, information regarding the influence of longer term rest from grazing is limited and has not been summarized. We synthesized the scientific literature on long-term rest in the sagebrush steppe to...

  13. Implementation of the NASA AG-Bed Rest Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L. E.; Paloski, W. H.; Young, L. R.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the efficacy of artificial gravity (AG) as a countermeasure to spaceflight deconditioning, intermittent AG produced by a horizontal short-radius centrifuge (SRC) was utilized on human test subjects deconditioned by bed rest. This poster will present the subject screening, study design, logistics, and implementation of the 41 day pilot study conducted at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX bed rest facility. An extensive screening process was employed to exclude subjects that were dissimilar to the U.S. astronaut population. Candidates underwent a modified U.S. Air Force Class III physical and tests of bone density, cardiovascular fitness, vestibular system function, psychological fitness and centrifuge tolerance. 15 subjects completed the study; 7 control and 8 AG treatment. All provided written consent to volunteer after the nature of the study and its hazards were clearly explained to them. Standard conditions were strictly regulated; Ta = 72 +/- 2 F, humidity = 70 +/- 5%, light/dark cycle 16h:8h. All fluid intake (minimum 28.5 ml/kg body weight/day) and urine output was monitored. Caloric intake was adjusted as necessary to maintain body weight. Carbohydrate, fat and protein were provided in a ratio of 55:30:15. Phosphorus intake was 1400 mg/d, sodium intake was 2 mmol/kg/d, potassium intake was 1.3 mmol/kg/d, and dietary calcium intake was 1000 mg/d. A physician examined each subject daily. During the first 11 days of the study protocol, subjects were ambulatory, but confined to the facility. Subjects participated in multiple baseline tests of bone, muscle, cardiovascular, sensory-motor, immunological, and psychological function. On the 12th day, subjects entered the bed rest phase of the study, during which they were confined to strict 6? head down tilt bed rest for 21 days. Beginning 24 hrs into this period, treatment subjects received 1 hour daily exposures to artificial gravity which was produced by spinning the subjects on a 3

  14. High Angle-of-Attack Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    poudre d’hostaflon ou Butres traceurs Idgera rdpandus &Is surface libre), dout l’emloi rests gindralesnt liaiti au courant plan 3-32 - peintures et huiles...rapages sans arrft de la soufflerie [28]J (fig. 7ab, fig.16g); -enduits visqueux (fig. 7cde ), peintures plastiques (fig.5b, 9j), psintures the

  15. Steering Angle Function Algorithm of Morphing of Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Tian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A residential area feature morphing method based on steering angle function is presented. To residential area with the same representation under two different scales,transforming the representation of the residential area polygon from vector coordinates to steering angle function,then using the steering angle function to match,and finding out the similarity and the differences between the residential areas under different scale to get the steering angle function of the the residential areas under any middle scale,the final,transforming the middle scale steering angle function to vector coordinates form,and get the middle shape interpolation of the the residential area polygon.Experimental results show:the residential area morphing method by using steering angle function presented can realize the continuous multi-scale representation under the premise of keeping in shape for the residential area with the rectangular boundary features.

  16. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest as a Spaceflight Analogue on Resting State Sensorimotor Network Functional Connectivity and Neurocognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, K.; Koppelmans, V.; Yuan, P.; Cooke, K.; De Dios, Y.; Stepanyan, V.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S.; Reuter-Lorenz, P.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight has been associated with detrimental alterations in human sensorimotor systems and neurocognitive performance. Prolonged exposure to a head-down tilt position during long duration bed rest can resemble several effects of the microgravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The question of whether microgravity affects other central nervous system functions such as brain functional connectivity and its relationship with neurocognitive performance is largely unknown, but of potential importance to the health and performance of astronauts both during and post-flight. The aims of the present study are 1) to identify changes in sensorimotor resting state functional connectivity that occur with extended bed rest exposure, and to characterize their recovery time course; 2) to evaluate how these neural changes correlate with neurocognitive performance. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data were collected from 17 male participants. The data were acquired through the NASA bed rest facility, located at the University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston, TX). Participants remained in bed with their heads tilted down six degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. RsfMRI data were obtained at seven time points: 7 and 12 days before bed rest; 7, 50, and 65 days during bed rest; and 7 and 12 days after bed rest. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) analysis was performed to measure the connectivity of sensorimotor networks in the brain before, during, and post-bed rest. We found a decrease in left putamen connectivity with the pre- and post-central gyri from pre bed rest to the last day in bed rest. In addition, vestibular cortex connectivity with the posterior cingulate cortex decreased from pre to post bed rest. Furthermore, connectivity between cerebellar right superior posterior fissure and other cerebellar regions decreased from

  17. Atypical Laterality of Resting Gamma Oscillations in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Christina R.; Villalobos, Michele E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Kohls, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal brain oscillatory activity has been found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and proposed as a potential biomarker. While several studies have investigated gamma oscillations in ASD, none have examined resting gamma power across multiple brain regions. This study investigated resting gamma power using EEG in 15 boys with ASD and 18 age…

  18. Presurgical Mapping of the Language Network Using Resting-state Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Naoaki; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2016-02-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (resting-state fMRI) is a tool for investigating the functional networks that arise during the resting state of the brain. Recent advances of the resting-state fMRI analysis suggest its feasibility for evaluating language function. The most common clinical application is for presurgical mapping of cortex for a brain tumor or for resective epilespy surgery. In this article, we review the techniques and presurgical applications of resting-state fMRI analysis for language evaluation, and discuss the use in the clinical setting, focusing on planning for neurosurgery.

  19. Presurgical Mapping of the Language Network Using Resting State Functional Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Naoaki; Stufflebeam, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (Resting-state fMRI) is a tool for investigating the functional networks that arise during the resting-state of the brain. Recent advances of the resting-state fMRI analysis suggest its feasibility for evaluating language function. The most common clinical application is for presurgical mapping of cortex for a brain tumor or for resective epilespy surgery. In this article, we review the techniques and presurgical applications of resting-state fMRI analysis for language evaluation, and discuss the use in the clinical setting, focusing on planning for neurosurgery. PMID:26848557

  20. Resting and energy reserves of Aedes albopictus collected in common landscaping vegetation in St. Augustine, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Dayana M; Qualls, Whitney A; Roque, Deborah; Naranjo, Diana P; Alimi, Temitope; Arheart, Kristopher L; Müller, Günter C; Beier, John C; Xue, Rui-De

    2013-09-01

    The resting behavior of Aedes albopictus was evaluated by aspirating diurnal resting mosquitoes from common landscape vegetation in residential communities in St. Augustine, FL. Energy reserves of the resting mosquitoes were analyzed to determine if there was a correlation between mosquito resting habitat and energy accumulation. Six species of plants were selected and 9 collections of resting mosquitoes were aspirated from each plant using a modified John W. Hock backpack aspirator during June and July 2012. Eight mosquito species were collected, with Ae. albopictus representing 74% of the overall collection. The number of Ae. albopictus collected varied significantly with the species of vegetation. When comparing the vegetation and abundance of resting mosquitoes, the highest percentages of Ae. albopictus were collected resting on Ruellia brittoniana (Mexican petunia), Asplenium platyneuron (fern), Gibasis geniculate (Tahitian bridal veil), followed by Plumba goauriculata (plumbago), Setcreasea pallida (purple heart), and Hibiscus tiliaceus (hibiscus). There were significant differences in lipid and glycogen accumulation based on type of vegetation Ae. albopictus was found resting in. Resting mosquitoes' sugar reserves were not influenced by species of vegetation. However, there was an overall correlation between vegetation that serves as a resting habitat and energy reserve accumulation. The results of our study demonstrate the potential to target specific vegetation for control of diurnal resting mosquitoes.

  1. A cephalometric assessment of the nasolabial angle of an adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: One of the most important components of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is an evaluation of the patient's soft tissue profile. An assessment of the nasolabial angle is a vital component of this evaluation. The purpose of this study was to establish norms for the nasolabial angle of an adult Nigerian ...

  2. Practical Implementation of 10 Rules for Writing REST APIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Hradil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a practical implementation of “10 Rules for Writing REST APIs introduced in the article” (Hradil, 2016. The application is done in Invoice Home (Wikilane, 2016, an invoicing web application for small business and entrepreneurs available world-wide. The API is implemented in JSON hypermedia format (ECMA International, 2016 and with Ruby on Rails framework (Hansson, 2016. The main purpose of the API is to allow connection of Invoice Home with external systems and offer Invoice Home data in simpler format compared to the current HTML format of the full-stack web application. The paper could be also used as a basic template or pattern for any other implementation of the JSON API in any web-based application.

  3. Effects of an interatrial shunt on rest and exercise hemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaye, David; Shah, Sanjiv J; Borlaug, Barry A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A treatment based on an interatrial shunt device has been proposed for counteracting elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) in patients with heart failure and mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We tested the theoretical hemodynamic effects...... of the conditions tested. CONCLUSIONS: The interatrial shunt reduced left-sided cardiac output with a marked reduction in PCWP. This approach may reduce the propensity for heart failure exacerbations and allow patients to exercise longer, thus attaining higher heart rates and cardiac outputs with the shunt compared...... of this approach with the use of a previously validated cardiovascular simulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rest and exercise hemodynamics data from 2 previous independent studies of patients with HFpEF were simulated. The theoretical effects of a shunt between the right and left atria (diameter up to 12 mm) were...

  4. Graph theoretical analysis of resting magnetoencephalographic functional connectivity networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay eRutter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex networks have been observed to comprise small-world properties, believed to represent an optimal organization of local specialization and global integration of information processing at reduced wiring cost. Here, we applied magnitude squared coherence to resting magnetoencephalographic time series in reconstructed source space, acquired from controls and patients with schizophrenia, and generated frequency-dependent adjacency matrices modeling functional connectivity between virtual channels. After configuring undirected binary and weighted graphs, we found that all human networks demonstrated highly localized clustering and short characteristic path lengths. The most conservatively thresholded networks showed efficient wiring, with topographical distance between connected vertices amounting to one-third as observed in surrogate randomized topologies. Nodal degrees of the human networks conformed to a heavy-tailed exponentially truncated power-law, compatible with the existence of hubs, which included theta and alpha bilateral cerebellar tonsil, beta and gamma bilateral posterior cingulate, and bilateral thalamus across all frequencies. We conclude that all networks showed small-worldness, minimal physical connection distance, and skewed degree distributions characteristic of physically-embedded networks, and that these calculations derived from graph theoretical mathematics did not quantifiably distinguish between subject populations, independent of bandwidth. However, post-hoc measurements of edge computations at the scale of the individual vertex revealed trends of reduced gamma connectivity across the posterior medial parietal cortex in patients, an observation consistent with our prior resting activation study that found significant reduction of synthetic aperture magnetometry gamma power across similar regions. The basis of these small differences remains unclear.

  5. Neuroticism and Functional Connectomics of the Resting Adolescent Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baruël Johansen, Louise

    The personality trait neuroticism is a well-known risk factor for anxiety and mood disorders that typically have their onset in childhood and adolescence. This period is characterized by ongoing structural and functional maturation of the brain, which can be traced with magnetic resonance imaging...... network organization on the global level, while network characteristics of fronto-limbic regions, involved in emotional processing, are implicated on a local level. Little is known about neuroticism and functional brain organization in childhood and adolescence. The main aim of this thesis was therefore...... to examine whether those associations between neuroticism and network characteristics observed in adults are already present in children and adolescents, or whether they emerge in this period of life. In this thesis, graph theoretical network analysis was applied to resting-state functional MRI acquired...

  6. Applications of Resting-State Functional Connectivity to Neurodegenerative Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Juan; Liu, Siwei; Ng, Kwun Kei; Wang, Juan

    2017-11-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases target specific large-scale neuronal networks, leading to distinct behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMR imaging)-based functional connectivity method maps symptoms-associated functional network deterioration in vivo. This article summarizes accumulating functional connectivity findings supporting the network-based neurodegeneration hypothesis. Understanding of disease mechanism can further guide early detection and predictions of disease progression and inform development of more effective treatment. With better clinical phenotyping and larger samples across multiple sites, we discuss several possible future directions to further develop rsfMR imaging-based functional connectivity methods into scientifically and clinically useful assays for neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Deformation of an Elastic Substrate Due to a Resting Sessile Droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardall, Aaron; Daniels, Karen; Shearer, Michael

    2017-11-01

    On a sufficiently soft substrate, a resting fluid droplet will cause significant deformation of the substrate. This deformation is driven by a combination of capillary forces at the contact line and the fluid pressure at the solid surface. These forces are balanced at the surface by the solid traction stress induced by the substrate deformation. Young's Law, which predicts the equilibrium contact angle of the droplet, also indicates an a priori radial force balance for rigid substrates, but not necessarily for soft substrates which deform under loading. It remains an open question whether the contact line transmits a non-zero force tangent to the substrate surface in addition to the conventional normal force. This talk will present a model for the static deformation of the substrate that includes a non-zero tangential contact line force as well as general interfacial energy conditions governing the angle of a two-dimensional droplet. We discuss extensions of this model to non-symmetric droplets and their effect on the static configuration of the droplet/substrate system. NSF #DMS-1517291.

  8. Angle Dependent Optics of Plasmonic Core-Shell Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-21

    function of spherical co-ordinates: azimuthal and polar angles. Absorption, scattering and emission of light from nanoparticles, especially when they are...placed on a substrate, can drastically depend on angle of excitation and angle of scattering/ emission . Such particle-substrate coupling can...V’ antenna with the Raman marker molecule nile blue chloride. Typical SERS spectra of nile blue from a ‘V’ antenna under different polarizations (0

  9. Matched-pair analyses of resting and dynamic morphology between Monarc and TVT-O procedures by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jenn-Ming; Yang, Shwu-Huey; Huang, Wen-Chen; Tzeng, Chii-Ruey

    2013-07-01

    To determine morphologic differences between Monarc and TVT-O procedures in axial and coronal planes by three- and four-dimensional (3D and 4D) ultrasound. Retrospective chart audits and ultrasound analyses were conducted on 128 women who had undergone either Monarc or TVT-O procedures for urodynamic stress incontinence. Thirty matched pairs of the two successful procedures were randomly selected and compared. Matched variables were age, parity, body mass index, cesarean status, menopausal status, and primary surgeries. Six-month postoperative 3D and 4D ultrasound results obtained at rest, on straining, and during coughing in these 60 women were analyzed. Assessed ultrasound parameters included the axial tape urethral distance (aTUD), axial central urethral echolucent area (aUCEA), axial tape angle (aTA), and coronal tape angle (cTA), all of which were measured at three equidistant points along the tapes. Paired t-tests were used to compare differences in ultrasound parameters between women after the two procedures and a P value TVT-O procedures. There were no significant differences in other resting ultrasound parameters between these two procedures. Additionally, after both procedures women had comparable straining and coughing ultrasound manifestations as well as respective dynamic changes. Despite flatter resting tape angulations in women following Monarc procedures, both Monarc and TVT-O tapes had equivalent dynamic patterns and changes assessed by 4D ultrasound. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A study of images of Projective Angles of pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jue [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhaoqi, Zhang [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)], E-mail: zhaoqi5000@vip.sohu.com; Yu Wei; Miao Cuilian; Yan Zixu; Zhao Yike [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15

    Aims: In images of magnetic resonance and computed tomography (CT) there are visible angles between pulmonary veins and the coronary, transversal or sagittal section of body. In this study these angles are measured and defined as Projective Angles of pulmonary veins. Several possible influential factors and characters of distribution are studied and analyzed for a better understanding of this imaging anatomic character of pulmonary veins. And it could be the anatomic base of adjusting correctly the angle of the central X-ray of the angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing the catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Method: Images of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) and contrast enhanced computer tomography (CECT) of the left atrium and pulmonary veins of 137 health objects and patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are processed with the technique of post-processing, and Projective Angles to the coronary and transversal sections are measured and analyzed statistically. Result: Project Angles of pulmonary veins are one of real and steady imaging anatomic characteristics of pulmonary veins. The statistical distribution of variables is relatively concentrated, with a fairly good representation of average value. It is possible to improve the angle of the central X-ray according to the average value in the selective angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing the catheter ablation of AF.

  11. Non-contact measurement of rotation angle with solo camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Xiaochuan; Sun, Anbin; Ye, Xin; Ma, Liqun

    2015-02-01

    For the purpose to measure a rotation angle around the axis of an object, a non-contact rotation angle measurement method based on solo camera was promoted. The intrinsic parameters of camera were calibrated using chessboard on principle of plane calibration theory. The translation matrix and rotation matrix between the object coordinate and the camera coordinate were calculated according to the relationship between the corners' position on object and their coordinates on image. Then the rotation angle between the measured object and the camera could be resolved from the rotation matrix. A precise angle dividing table (PADT) was chosen as the reference to verify the angle measurement error of this method. Test results indicated that the rotation angle measurement error of this method did not exceed +/- 0.01 degree.

  12. Effects of Different Types of 3D Rest Frames on Reducing Cybersickness in a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KyungHun Han

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A virtual environment (VE presents several kinds of sensory stimuli for creating a virtual reality. Some sensory stimuli presented in the VE have been reported to provoke cybersickness, which is caused by conflicts between sensory stimuli, especially conflicts between visual and vestibular sensations. Application of a rest frame has been known to be effective on reducing cybersickness by alleviating sensory conflict. The form and the way rest frames are presented in 3D VEs have different effects on reducing cybersickness. In this study, two different types of 3D rest frames were created. For verifying the rest frames' effects in reducing cybersickness, twenty subjects were exposed to two different rest frame conditions and a non-rest frame condition after an interval of three days in 3D VE. We observed the characteristic changes in the physiology of cybersickness in terms of autonomic regulation. Psychophysiological signals including EEG, EGG, and HRV were recorded and a simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ was used for measuring the intensity of the sickness before and after the exposure to the different conditions. In the results, the SSQ was reduced significantly in the rest frame conditions. Psychophysiological responses changed significantly in the rest frame conditions compared to the non-rest frame condition. The results suggest that the rest frame conditions have condition-specific effects on reducing cybersickness by differentially alleviating aspects of visual and vestibular sensory conflicts in 3D VE.

  13. Rest-to-Rest Slew Maneuver of Three-Axis Rotational Flexible Spacecraft

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J.J.; Agrawal, B.N.

    2008-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.3182/20080706-5-KR-1001.02040 This paper presents a slew maneuver control design of three-axis rotational flexible spacecraft. The focus of the work is to investigate the nonlinear effect of the three axis maneuver for a flexible spacecraft when a vibration suppression technique for linear systems such as input shaping is used in the control design. A simple method of slewing three-axis rotational spacecraft using inpu...

  14. Influence of anterior segment biometric parameters on the anterior chamber angle width in eyes with angle closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Takaaki; Hirose, Fumitaka; Ito, Shin-Ichiro; Hata, Masayuki; Hirami, Yasuhiko; Kurimoto, Yasuo

    2015-02-01

    To predict angle narrowing in eyes with angle closure in a Japanese population using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) quantitative parameters. AS-OCT was used to examine 118 eyes of 118 patients with angle closure and 40 eyes of 40 patients with open angle under dark conditions. After measuring the angle opening distance 500 (AOD500), anterior chamber depth, iris thickness (IT), iris convexity (IC), pupil diameter, anterior chamber width, and crystalline lens rise, multivariate regression analyses were performed for the AOD500 in each group. With the exception of IT, significant differences were observed between the AS-OCT parameters for the angle closure and open-angle groups. Anterior chamber depth, IT, and IC were the explanatory variables associated with AOD500 for each group (P≤0.001). A significant negative association was found between IT and IC only in the angle-closure group (Pchamber depth was a major mechanism of angle narrowing, and that both IT and IC had a strong impact on angle narrowing. Moreover, the negative association found between IT and IC in only the angle closure group indicated the existence of the stretch force placed on the iris by relative pupillary block.

  15. Glancing angle x-ray studies of oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenport, A.J.; Isaacs, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    High brightness synchrotron radiation incident at glancing angles has been used to study inhibiting species present in low concentrations in oxide films on aluminum. Glancing incident angle fluorescence measurements give surface-sensitive information on the valence state of elements from the shape of the x-ray absorption edge. Angle-resolved measurements show the depth distribution of the species present. 15 refs., 4 figs

  16. Contact angle distribution of particles at fluid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeyink, Craig; Barman, Sourav; Christopher, Gordon F

    2015-01-27

    Recent measurements have implied a distribution of interfacially adsorbed particles' contact angles; however, it has been impossible to measure statistically significant numbers for these contact angles noninvasively in situ. Using a new microscopy method that allows nanometer-scale resolution of particle's 3D positions on an interface, we have measured the contact angles for thousands of latex particles at an oil/water interface. Furthermore, these measurements are dynamic, allowing the observation of the particle contact angle with high temporal resolution, resulting in hundreds of thousands of individual contact angle measurements. The contact angle has been found to fit a normal distribution with a standard deviation of 19.3°, which is much larger than previously recorded. Furthermore, the technique used allows the effect of measurement error, constrained interfacial diffusion, and particle property variation on the contact angle distribution to be individually evaluated. Because of the ability to measure the contact angle noninvasively, the results provide previously unobtainable, unique data on the dynamics and distribution of the adsorbed particles' contact angle.

  17. Effect of 14 days of bed rest on urine metabolite excretion and plasma enzyme levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Newsom, B. D.

    1974-01-01

    After 1 week of ambulatory base-line measurement, a group of 8 men 19-26 years of age remained continuously recumbent for 14 days. Studies were continued for 1 week following the prolonged recumbency. Urine excretion rates for a number of constituents were determined 2 days before bed rest, on day 14 of bed rest, and day 6 after bed rest. Blood plasma samples were also obtained at these times, and analyzed for several enzymes. On day 14 of bed rest significant increases were observed in urine excretion of total osmotically-active substances, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, creatinine, hydroxyproline, and 17-OH corticosteroids. A decrease occurred in urinary glucose excretion. Plasma levels of alkaline phosphatase and LDH-3 were depressed, while plasma GPT was elevated. Many of these changes persisted on day 6 after bed rest, and are interpreted as concomitants of the disuse atrophy of the musculoskeletal system that characterizes prolonged bed rest and weightlessness.

  18. "I am resting but rest less well with you." The moderating effect of anxious attachment style on alpha power during EEG resting state in a social context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem); R. Pozharliev (Rumen); J.W. van Strien (Jan); F.D. Belschak (Frank); R.P. Bagozzi (Richard)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe took EEG recordings to measure task-free resting-state cortical brain activity in 35 participants under two conditions, alone (A) or together (T). We also investigated whether psychological attachment styles shape human cortical activity differently in these two settings. The results

  19. "I am resting but rest less well with you." The moderating effect of anxious attachment style on alpha power during EEG resting state in a social context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeke, W.J.M.I.; Pozharliev, R.; van Strien, J.W.; Belschak, F.; Bagozzi, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    We took EEG recordings to measure task-free resting-state cortical brain activity in 35 participants under two conditions, alone (A) or together (T). We also investigated whether psychological attachment styles shape human cortical activity differently in these two settings. The results indicate

  20. Alternative REST Splicing Underappreciated

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Guo-Lin; Miller, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    As a major orchestrator of the cellular epigenome, the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) can either repress or activate thousands of genes depending on cellular context, suggesting a highly context-dependent REST function tuned by environmental cues. While REST shows cell-type non-selective active transcription, an N-terminal REST4 isoform caused by alternative splicing - inclusion of an extra exon (N3c) which introduces a pre-mature stop codon - has been implicated in...

  1. Investigation of Polarimetric SAR Data Acquired at Multiple Incidence Angles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Thougaard; Skriver, Henning; Thomsen, A.

    1998-01-01

    The dependence of different polarimetric parameters on the incidence angles in the range of 30° to 60° is investigated for a number of different crops using airborne SAR data. The purpose of the investigation is to determine the effect of the variation of incidence angle within a SAR image when...

  2. Ultrasound biomicroscopic features associated with angle closure in fellow eyes of acute primary angle closure after laser iridotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bao-qun; Wu, Ling-ling; Zhang, Chun; Wang, Xin

    2009-03-01

    To investigate the frequency of appositional angle closure and related anatomic characteristics in fellow eyes of Chinese subjects with acute primary angle closure (APAC) after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI). Cross-sectional study. Consecutive subjects with APAC presenting from April 2006 to September 2006 at the Glaucoma Service of Peking University Eye Center, Peking University Third Hospital. Under dark conditions, fellow eyes were divided into 2 groups based on the detection of appositional angle closure by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). For all subjects, UBM parameters were measured to evaluate the different anatomic features between the 2 groups. Darkroom provocative tests (DRPTs) and gonioscopy were performed to investigate the relationship between angle closure and intraocular pressure. Central anterior chamber depth (ACD); angle opening distance(500) (AOD(500)); angle recess area(750) (ARA(750)); trabecular-iris angle (T-I angle); trabecular-ciliary process distance (TCPD); peripheral iris thickness (IT(1)); iris-zonule distance (IZD); and the position of the iris insertion. Thirty-four post-LPI fellow eyes of 34 patients with APAC (8 men, 26 women; mean +/- standard deviation age 66.3+/-7.2 years, range 54-83) were included. Peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) were not observed in any subject. Appositional angle closure was observed in at least 1 quadrant in 13 (38.2%) of the 34 patients. Compared with eyes without appositional closure, eyes with appositional closure showed significantly lower AOD(500), ARA(750), and T-I angle in 4 quadrants; shorter TCPD in the inferior and temporal quadrants; and thicker IT(1) in the superior and nasal quadrants (PAPAC showed appositional angle closure after LPI. The anatomic findings indicate a narrower angle, a more anterior position of the ciliary body, and a thicker peripheral iris in fellow eyes of APAC after LPI may be associated with an increased risk for progressive angle closure.

  3. Simulation of Canopy Leaf Inclination Angle in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-cui ZHANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A leaf inclination angle distribution model, which is applicable to simulate leaf inclination angle distribution in six heights of layered canopy at different growth stages, was established by component factors affecting plant type in rice. The accuracy of the simulation results was validated by measured values from a field experiment. The coefficient of determination (R2 and the root mean square error (RMSE between the simulated and measured values were 0.9472 and 3.93%, respectively. The simulation results showed that the distribution of leaf inclination angles differed among the three plant types. The leaf inclination angles were larger in the compact variety Liangyoupeijiu with erect leaves than in the loose variety Shanyou 63 with droopy leaves and the intermediate variety Liangyou Y06. The leaf inclination angles were distributed in the lower range in Shanyou 63, which matched up with field measurements. The distribution of leaf inclination angles in the same variety changed throughout the seven growth stages. The leaf inclination angles enlarged gradually from transplanting to booting. During the post-booting period, the leaf inclination angle increased in Shanyou 63 and Liangyou Y06, but changed little in Liangyoupeijiu. At every growth stage of each variety, canopy leaf inclination angle distribution on the six heights of canopy layers was variable. As canopy height increased, the layered leaf area index (LAI decreased in all the three plant types. However, while the leaf inclination angles showed little change in Liangyoupeijiu, they became larger in Shanyou 63 but smaller in Liangyou Y06. The simulation results used in the constructed model were very similar to the actual measurement values. The model provides a method for estimating canopy leaf inclination angle distribution in rice production.

  4. Small angle polarised neutron scattering investigation of magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergenti, I.; Deriu, A.; Savini, L.; Bonetti, E.; Spizzo, F.; Hoell, H.

    2003-01-01

    Small angle scattering of polarised neutron (SANSPOL) is a powerful technique for the determination of magnetisation, density and compositional profiles of nanostructured particles. We present here some examples of the magnetic profile determination using the SANSPOL technique and we discuss in detail its advantage with respect to the conventional small angle neutron scattering approach

  5. An assessment of recreational bank angling in the Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recreational angling is an important form of utilisation of inland fisheries in South Africa but there is little information on this sector. The objective of this study was to provide an assessment of recreational bank angling in the Free State Province using licence sale and tournament data. During 2013 and 2014, 8 256 and 7 ...

  6. Determination of the Optimum Collector Angle for Composite Solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model for predicting solar radiation available at any given time in the inhabited area in Ilorin was developed. From the equation developed, the optimum tilt angle of the collector due south was carried out. The optimum angle of tilt of the collector and the orientation are dependent on the month of the year and the location ...

  7. Comparison of Anterior Segment-Optical Coherence Tomography Parameters in Phacomorphic Angle Closure and Acute Angle Closure Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Sasan; Ramezani, Farshid; He, Mingguang; Coleman, Anne L; Lin, Shan C

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare anterior segment-optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) parameters in phacomorphic angle closure and acute primary angle closure (APAC) eyes. In this cross-sectional case series, a total of 134 patients with phacomorphic angle closure (28 eyes) or APAC (54 eyes), as well as normal control subjects (52 eyes), were enrolled. Patients underwent AS-OCT imaging and A-scan biometry of both eyes. Anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber area (ACA), iris thickness (IT), iris curvature, lens vault (LV), anterior vault (AV), and angle parameters including angle opening distance (AOD 500 and AOD750) and trabecular iris space area (TISA500 and TISA750) were measured in qualified images using the Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program and compared among eyes with phacomorphic angle closure, APAC, and normal control subjects. Phacomorphic angle closure and APAC eyes had smaller AOD, ACD, ACA, ACW, AV, and posterior corneal arc length and greater LV than normal controls (P APAC eyes: ACD 1042 μm (OR,12.12; P APAC eyes. In multivariate analysis, ACD, LV, AOD500, and axial length could significantly distinguish the two entities. Ocular biometric parameters can differentiate phacomorphic angle closure from APAC eyes. Shallower ACD and greater LV, axial length, and ACA are the main parameters that distinguish phacomorphic angle closure from APAC.

  8. Predictive value of casual ECG-based resting heart rate compared with resting heart rate obtained from Holter recording

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Nicholas; Dixen, Ulrik; Marott, Jacob L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Assessment of heart rate (HR) from Holter recording may afford a more precise estimate of the effect of RHR on cardiovascular risk, as compared to casual RHR. Comparative analysis was carried...... and mean HR by Multivariate Cox regression was performed. RESULTS: A total of 57 composite endpoints occurred during 17.1 years of follow-up. Regression analysis suggests correlation between Casual RHR and Holter RHR. Multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusted for gender and age demonstrated hazard...... rates of 1.02 (p = 0.079) for casual RHR, 1.04 (p = 0.036*) for Holter RHR, and 1.03 (p = 0.093) for mean HR for each 10 beat increment in HR. CONCLUSIONS: In a comparative analysis on the correlation and significance of differing RHR measurement modalities RHR measured by 24-hour Holter recording...

  9. Predictive value of casual ECG-based resting heart rate compared with resting heart rate obtained from Holter recording

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Nicholas; Dixen, Ulrik; Marott, Jacob L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Assessment of heart rate (HR) from Holter recording may afford a more precise estimate of the effect of RHR on cardiovascular risk, as compared to casual RHR. Comparative analysis was carried...... HRs recorded and mean HR calculated from all daytime HRs. Follow-up was recorded from public registers. Outcome measure was hazard rate for the combined endpoint of cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal heart failure and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Comparison of casual RHR, Holter RHR...... was found to be marginally superior as a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The results presented here do not however warrant the abandonment of a tested epidemiological variable....

  10. The effect of inter-set rest intervals on resistance exercise-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henselmans, Menno; Schoenfeld, Brad J

    2014-12-01

    Due to a scarcity of longitudinal trials directly measuring changes in muscle girth, previous recommendations for inter-set rest intervals in resistance training programs designed to stimulate muscular hypertrophy were primarily based on the post-exercise endocrinological response and other mechanisms theoretically related to muscle growth. New research regarding the effects of inter-set rest interval manipulation on resistance training-induced muscular hypertrophy is reviewed here to evaluate current practices and provide directions for future research. Of the studies measuring long-term muscle hypertrophy in groups employing different rest intervals, none have found superior muscle growth in the shorter compared with the longer rest interval group and one study has found the opposite. Rest intervals less than 1 minute can result in acute increases in serum growth hormone levels and these rest intervals also decrease the serum testosterone to cortisol ratio. Long-term adaptations may abate the post-exercise endocrinological response and the relationship between the transient change in hormonal production and chronic muscular hypertrophy is highly contentious and appears to be weak. The relationship between the rest interval-mediated effect on immune system response, muscle damage, metabolic stress, or energy production capacity and muscle hypertrophy is still ambiguous and largely theoretical. In conclusion, the literature does not support the hypothesis that training for muscle hypertrophy requires shorter rest intervals than training for strength development or that predetermined rest intervals are preferable to auto-regulated rest periods in this regard.

  11. Radiological assessment of the femoral bicondylar angle in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Femoral bicondylar angle is the angle between the diaphysis of the femur and a line perpendicular to the infracondylar plane. It is indispensable in bipedal locomotion as it serves to place the knee and foot under the body's center of gravity during the single support phase of gait. Although the mechanism for the ...

  12. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery, angles of inclination. 58.01-40 Section 58.01-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-40 Machinery, angles of inclination. (a) Propulsion machinery and all auxiliary...

  13. Comparison of connectivity analyses for resting state EEG data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Marzetti, Laura; Pizzella, Vittorio; Zappasodi, Filippo

    2017-06-01

    Objective. In the present work, a nonlinear measure (transfer entropy, TE) was used in a multivariate approach for the analysis of effective connectivity in high density resting state EEG data in eyes open and eyes closed. Advantages of the multivariate approach in comparison to the bivariate one were tested. Moreover, the multivariate TE was compared to an effective linear measure, i.e. directed transfer function (DTF). Finally, the existence of a relationship between the information transfer and the level of brain synchronization as measured by phase synchronization value (PLV) was investigated. Approach. The comparison between the connectivity measures, i.e. bivariate versus multivariate TE, TE versus DTF, TE versus PLV, was performed by means of statistical analysis of indexes based on graph theory. Main results. The multivariate approach is less sensitive to false indirect connections with respect to the bivariate estimates. The multivariate TE differentiated better between eyes closed and eyes open conditions compared to DTF. Moreover, the multivariate TE evidenced non-linear phenomena in information transfer, which are not evidenced by the use of DTF. We also showed that the target of information flow, in particular the frontal region, is an area of greater brain synchronization. Significance. Comparison of different connectivity analysis methods pointed to the advantages of nonlinear methods, and indicated a relationship existing between the flow of information and the level of synchronization of the brain.

  14. Effect of Angle of Attack on Slope Climbing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Colin M.; Jones, Lucas; Smith, Lauren M.

    2017-01-01

    Ascending steep slopes is often a very difficult challenge for off-road vehicles, whether on Earth or on extraterrestrial bodies. This challenge is even greater if the surface consists of loose granular soil that does not provide much shear strength. This study investigated how the path at which a vehicle traverses a slope, specifically the angle that it is commanded to drive relative to the base of the hill (the angle of attack), can affect its performance. A vehicle was driven in loose sand at slope angles up to 15 degrees and angles of attack ranging from 10 to 90 degrees. A novel photogrammetry technique was implemented to both track vehicle motion and create a three-dimensional profile of the terrain. This allowed for true wheel sinkage measurements. The study showed that though low angles of attack result in lower wheel slip and sinkage, the efficiency of the vehicles uphill motion increased at higher angles of attack. For slopes up to 15 degrees, a 90 degree angle of attack provided the greatest likelihood of successful ascent.

  15. I am resting but rest less well with you. The Moderating Effect of Anxious Attachment Style on Alpha Power during EEG Resting State in a Social Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem J.M.I. Verbeke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We took EEG recordings to measure task-free resting-state cortical brain activity in 35 participants under two conditions, alone (A or together (T. We also investigated whether psychological attachment styles shape human cortical activity differently in these two settings. The results indicate that social context matters and that participants’ cortical activity is moderated by the anxious, but not avoidant attachment style. We found enhanced alpha, beta and theta band activity in the T rather than the A resting-state condition, which was more pronounced in posterior brain regions. We further found a positive correlation between anxious attachment style and enhanced alpha power in the T versus A condition over frontal and parietal scalp regions. There was no significant correlation between the absolute powers registered in the other two frequency bands and the participants’ anxious attachment style.

  16. Influence of ROI selection on Resting Functional Connectivity: An Individualized Approach for Resting fMRI Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Seunghyun Sohn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The differences in how our brain is connected are often thought to reflect the differences in our individual personalities and cognitive abilities. Individual differences in brain connectivity has long been recognized in the neuroscience community however it has yet to manifest itself in the methodology of resting state analysis. This is evident as previous studies use the same region of interest (ROIs for all subjects. In this paper we demonstrate that the use of ROIs which are standardized across individuals leads to inaccurate calculations of functional connectivity. We also show that this problem can be addressed by taking an individualized approach by using subject-specific ROIs. Finally we show that ROI selection can affect the way we interpret our data by showing different changes in functional connectivity with ageing.

  17. Physiological response to angling of Africa's premier freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood plasma was analysed for glucose, cortisol and lactate concentrations to assess the effects of angling duration, fish size and fish condition. Larger fish were angled for a longer duration. Plasma glucose concentrations decreased with greater lactate concentrations, an indication of the aerobic and anaerobic work done ...

  18. Contact angle hysteresis: a review of fundamentals and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eral, Burak; 't Mannetje, Dieter; Oh, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Contact angle hysteresis is an important physical phenomenon. It is omnipresent in nature and also plays a crucial role in various industrial processes. Despite its relevance, there is a lack of consensus on how to incorporate a description of contact angle hysteresis into physical models. To

  19. Normal values of knee angle, intercondylar and intermalleolar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is little data on the range of variation of knee angle, intermalleolar and intercondylar distances in African children. Such measurements are needed to assist determining whether a child legs are normal or not. Knee angle intermalleolar and intercondylar distances were measured in 2166 Nigerian children aged one ...

  20. Presentation of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) at Lions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma in Africa. We carried out a study to determine the clinical presentation pattern of patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) at a tertiary hospital in Malawi. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Lions Sight First Eye Hospital—a ...

  1. Engineering sidewall angles of silica-on-silicon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haiyan, Ou

    2004-01-01

    Burned photoresist is used as etch mask when producing silica-onsilicon waveguides. The sidewall angle of the optical glass waveguides is engineered by varying photoresist thickness and etch selectivity. The principle for the formation of the angles is introduced and very promising experimental...

  2. The neural basis of unwanted thoughts during resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Raedt, Rudi; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    Human beings are constantly engaged in thought. Sometimes thoughts occur repetitively and can become distressing. Up to now the neural bases of these intrusive or unwanted thoughts is largely unexplored. To study the neural correlates of unwanted thoughts, we acquired resting-state fMRI data of 41 female healthy subjects and assessed the self-reported amount of unwanted thoughts during measurement. We analyzed local connectivity by means of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity of a seed region. More unwanted thoughts (state) were associated with lower ReHo in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and higher ReHo in left striatum (putamen). Additional seed-based analysis revealed higher functional connectivity of the left striatum with left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in participants reporting more unwanted thoughts. The state-dependent higher connectivty in left striatum was positively correlated with rumination assessed with a dedicated questionnaire focussing on trait aspects. Unwanted thoughts are associated with activity in the fronto-striatal brain circuitry. The reduction of local connectivity in DLPFC could reflect deficiencies in thought suppression processes, whereas the hightened activity in left striatum could imply an imbalance of gating mechanisms housed in basal ganglia. Its functional connectivity to left IFG is discussed as the result of thought-related speech processes. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Body water compartments during bed rest: Evaluation of analytical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H. L.; Juhos, L.; Castle, B. L.; Yusken, J.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Nine healthy young men were studied to determine the reproducibility and interchangeability of the use of radio-iodinated human serum albumin and Evans Blue dye for estimating plasma volume, sodium bromide for extracellular fluid volume, and deuterium oxide for total body water volume. All subjects were tested in a semibasal condition and allowed to rest for at least 30 min. after arriving at the laboratory. The results indicate that there was uniform distribution of I131 and Evans Blue dye 10 min. after injection and of NaBr and D2O 3 hours after oral ingestion; the buildup of residual tracer did not interfere appreciably with the measurement of either or Evans Blue spaces when they are administered at equal intervals, and the buildup of background tracer after ingestion of NaBr and D2O once per week for three consecutive weeks did not affect the accuracy of the measurement. It was found that I131 and Evans Blue may be used interchangeably for estimating plasma volume; for estimating bromide and D2O spaces, one 3-hour equilibrium blood sample gives results similar to the extrapolation of multiple samples.

  4. Bleach Solution Requirement for Hatching of Daphnia magna Resting Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Retnaningdyah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia (water fleas belong to the zooplankton group called Cladocerans have sexual reproduction when conditions less favorable that produce diapausing eggs are enclosed in the ephippium. Hatching ephippial eggs in the laboratory is important in ecological, toxicology, genetical, and evolutionary studies. This study aims to improve the current methods of egg hatching from ephippium. Each of 50 ephippium were treated together by placing them in a glass jar and adding 50 mL bleach solution (sodium hypochlorite. Concentrations of sodium hypochlorite used in this experiment were 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 8%. These concentration treatments were crossed with the following exposure times (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 minutes. Culturing was done in 80 mL of artificial Daphnia medium, incubated in constant light and temperatures 20°C for 25 days. There were two repetitions in this experiment that were run at the same time. Result of this experiment showed that pretreatment with 0.5-8% bleach solution significantly increases the yield of total hatch rate of Daphnia magna resting eggs by about 21% over unbleached control. However, there was no significant difference among the bleach treatments. Concentration of bleach solution 0.5%, 1% and 4% significantly accelerated the time period until the first hatching (first day hatching. Difference of exposure time (1 - 32 minutes at each concentration treatments were not influence the yield of total hatch and the time period until first hatching.

  5. The Evaluation of Usefulness of the Manufactured DTAB (Double Tilt Angle Board) System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joung Jin; Jang, In Gi; Kim, Wan Sun

    2006-01-01

    To resolution of A hospital-handmade modification double tilt angle immobilization system (DTAB immobilization system) and to report the clinical results of it. It was developed in conjunction with the breast board for patients unable to achieve and maintain the desired uncomfortable respiration and position of set-up needed in the treatment of RT (This custom design provides an alternative to accomplishing this desired head angle needed to relax position treatment area, realizing that the lenses totally protected eye-ball out) By using the angled breast board and SBDD(small bowel device), reproducibility of set-up and patient comfort were addressed throughout the simulation, computed tomography planning and treatment process. Usually patients the error range-within 5 mm. When use of Aqua patients error range-within 3 mm. It was constructed in tandem with a unique custom-built double tilt angle board (DTAB). It was designed to eliminate clinical set-up problems with head immobilization and instability during treatment, thus providing for a more comfortable head rest for the patient.

  6. EFFECT OF SWEEP ANGLE ON THE VORTICAL FLOW OVER DELTA WINGS AT AN ANGLE OF ATTACK OF 10°

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMES BRETT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CFD simulations have been used to analyse the vortical flows over sharp edged delta wings with differing sweep angles under subsonic conditions at an angle of attack of 10°. RANS simulations were validated against experimental data for a 65° sweep wing, with a flat cross-section, and the steadiness of the flow field was assessed by comparing the results against unsteady URANS and DES simulations. To assess the effect of sweep angle on the flow field, a range of sweep angles from 65° to 43° were simulated. For moderate sweep wings the primary vortex was observed to detach from the leading edge, undergoing vortex breakdown, and a weaker, replacement, "shadow" vortex was formed. The shadow vortex was observed for sweep angles of 50° and less, and resulted in reduced lift production near the wing tips loss of the stronger primary vortex.

  7. Influence of Stockpile Angle in Natural Drying of Laterite Ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoalbys Retirado-Mediaceja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural drying is performed at Cuban nickel plants by depositing bulk ore in the open. The ore is currently being stockpiled without much consideration for the impact of the drying surface angle on the process power behavior. Simulations were carried out in this investigation, which prove that an increased triangular stockpile angle considerably reduces natural drying efficiency. A 45 sexagesimal degree angle to the horizontal plane results in exposure of a large volume of ore to natural drying and guarantees adequate energy performance.

  8. [Diagnostic value of Blumensaat angle for anterior cruciate ligament injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiang-Yun; Feng, Jiang-Feng; Lu, Yan-Hui; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Yang, Zi-Quan

    2017-08-25

    The receiver operator characteristic(ROC) curve was used to determine the best Blumensaat angle for the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament injury, so as to objectively evaluate the diagnostic value of Blumensaat angle for anterior cruciate ligament injury. Total 167 patients who had knee arthroscopic treatment in a hospital from January 2015 to January 2016 were retrospectively studied, and the patients' age, gender, left and right limb condition were recorded. The patients were divided into two groups according to Blumensaat angle measured on the MRI: group A(Blumensaat angle0°). The ROC curve was drawn from the statistical data of the group B to get the best critical value of the anterior cruciate ligament injury when the Blumensaat angle was more than 0°. According to the best critical value obtained by ROC curve, the coincidence rate of the total sample was obtained. There were no significant differences in patients' age, gender, and affected limbs. There were 51 patients in group A, in which 49 patients were diagnosed as anterior cruciate injury under arthroscopy(gold standard for diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament injury), and 2 patients were diagnosed as no anterior cruciate injury under arthroscopy. When the Blumensaat angle was=15°, the probability of anterior cruciate ligament injury was greater. When the Blumensaat angle was 0° to 15°, the anterior cruciate ligament was more likely to be not injured. The Blumensaat angle=15° were used to diagnose the injury of anterior cruciate ligament. Compared with the results of arthroscopy, the coincidence rate of the total sample was 92.8%. Blumensaat angle is helpful to diagnose the ACL injuries. When the Blumensaat angle was =15°, the probability of ACL injury is greater.

  9. Neutron small angle scattering of irradiated aluminium-silicon alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostorz, G.

    1976-01-01

    Technically pure aluminium and aluminium-silicon alloys (0.43, 0.83 and 1.2% Si, also containing 0.11 to 0.14 at. % Fe) were investigated by slow neutron small angle scattering after irradiation with fast neutrons at low temperatures. Different irradiation levels, ageing at room temperature and at 60/70 0 C had no measurable effect upon small angle scattering cross-sections. From the experimental precision upper limit for the amount of Si involved in clustering after irradiation can be given. The observed small angle scattering shows a strong dependence on scattering angles and is attributed to large precipitates of Al 12 Fe 3 Si. A surface layer on the as-received samples is identified as another source of low-intensity small angle scattering. (orig.) [de

  10. Physiological effects of acute and ordinary bed rest conditions on endurance trained volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Y. G.; Ivanov, A. A.; Madvedev, S. N.; Kakurin, A. G.

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a comparative study of water balance and water protein composition of the blood during exposure to acute (abrupt restriction of motor activity) and ordinary rigorous bed rest of 7 days. The studies were performed on 30 long distance runners aged 22-25 years old who had a VO 2 max of 66 ml kg -1·min -1 on the average. The volunteers were divided into three equal groups: the volunteers in the 1st group were under a normal ambulatory life conditions (control subjects), the volunteers of the 2nd group subjected to an acute bed rest (abrupt restriction of motor activity) regime (acute bed rested subjects) and the volunteers of the 3rd group were submitted to ordinary and rigorous bed rest (rigorous bed rested subjects). All volunteers were on an average of 13.8 km/day before taking part in this investigation. The 2nd and 3rd groups of volunteers were kept under a rigorous bed rest regime for 7 days. During the prebed rest period and actual bed rest period plasma volume (PV), total protein and protein fractions (albumins and globulins) and hematocrit were measured. Exposure to acute bed rest conditions induced a significant increase in hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, protein fractions and marked decrease in (PV) and water balance which were significantly more pronounced than during exposure to ordinary rigorous bed rest. It was concluded that exposure to acute bed rest conditions induces significantly greater changes in water balance and water-protein concentration of the blood of endurance trained volunteers than exposure to ordinary rigorous bed rest conditions.

  11. Nonlinearity in the effect of an inhomogeneous Hall angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Daniel W.

    2007-03-01

    The differential equation for the electric potential in a conducting material with an inhomogeneous Hall angle is extended to the large-field limit. This equation is solved for a square specimen, using a successive over-relaxation [SOR] technique for matrices of up to 101x101 size, and the Hall weighting function -- the effect of local pointlike perturbations on the measured Hall angle -- is calculated as both the unperturbed Hall angle, θH, and the perturbation, δθH, exceed the linear, small angle limit. Preliminary results show that the Hall angle varies by no more than 5% if both | θH |<1 and | δθH |<1. Thus, previously calculated results for the Hall weighting function can be used for most materials in all but the most extreme magnetic fields.

  12. Preferred viewing distance and screen angle of electronic paper displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Kong-King; Lee, Der-Song

    2007-09-01

    This study explored the viewing distance and screen angle for electronic paper (E-Paper) displays under various light sources, ambient illuminations, and character sizes. Data analysis showed that the mean viewing distance and screen angle were 495 mm and 123.7 degrees. The mean viewing distances for Kolin Chlorestic Liquid Crystal display was 500 mm, significantly longer than Sony electronic ink display, 491 mm. Screen angle for Kolin was 127.4 degrees, significantly greater than that of Sony, 120.0 degrees. Various light sources revealed no significant effect on viewing distances; nevertheless, they showed significant effect on screen angles. The screen angle for sunlight lamp (D65) was similar to that of fluorescent lamp (TL84), but greater than that of tungsten lamp (F). Ambient illumination and E-paper type had significant effects on viewing distance and screen angle. The higher the ambient illumination was, the longer the viewing distance and the lesser the screen angle. Character size had significant effect on viewing distances: the larger the character size, the longer the viewing distance. The results of this study indicated that the viewing distance for E-Paper was similar to that of visual display terminal (VDT) at around 500 mm, but greater than normal paper at about 360 mm. The mean screen angle was around 123.7 degrees, which in terms of viewing angle is 29.5 degrees below horizontal eye level. This result is similar to the general suggested viewing angle between 20 degrees and 50 degrees below the horizontal line of sight.

  13. Resting physiological arousal is associated with the experience of music-induced chills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    In the study of emotion and autonomic nervous system functioning, resting physiological arousal is usually considered a negative characteristic. The present study examined the relationship between resting physiological arousal and positive emotional experience linked to psychophysiological arousal. We assessed resting physiological arousal using markers as high skin conductance level and low respiratory sinus arrhythmia, measured just before participants listened to their favorite music. Participants reported the sensation of chills (goose bumps, shivers) by pressing a mouse button while listening. The results indicated that individuals with resting physiological arousal frequently experience music-induced chills, which evoked unambiguous pleasurable feelings and an increase in skin conductance response. The current results, and the previously demonstrated relationship between resting physiological arousal and negative emotionality linked to psychophysiological arousal (e.g., anxiety, panic), suggest that resting physiological arousal may reflect sensitivity to psychophysiological arousal with both intense positive and negative emotions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sharper angle, higher risk? The effect of cutting angle on knee mechanics in invasion sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Mervin J; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2017-10-03

    Cutting is an important skill in team-sports, but unfortunately is also related to non-contact ACL injuries. The purpose was to examine knee kinetics and kinematics at different cutting angles. 13 males and 16 females performed cuts at different angles (45°, 90°, 135° and 180°) at maximum speed. 3D kinematics and kinetics were collected. To determine differences across cutting angles (45°, 90°, 135° and 180°) and sex (female, male), a 4×2 repeated measures ANOVA was conducted followed by post hoc comparisons (Bonferroni) with alpha level set at α≤0.05a priori. At all cutting angles, males showed greater knee flexion angles than females (pknee flexion -42.53°±8.95°, females decreased their knee flexion angle from -40.6°±7.2° when cutting at 45° to -36.81°±9.10° when cutting at 90°, 135° and 180° (pKnee flexion moment decreased for both sexes when cutting towards sharper angles (pknee valgus moments than females. For both sexes, knee valgus moment increased towards the sharper cutting angles and then stabilized compared to the 45° cutting angle (pknee kinematics and kinetics. Sharper cutting angles place the knee more at risk. However, females and males handle this differently, which has implications for injury prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of angle of inclination for optimum power production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the performance of the photovoltaic modules at different tilt angle (angle of inclination) from 5º to 90º. The solar panel of 45 Watts capacity was placed on the manual tracker between the hours of 7:00am and 6:15pm on the geographical location of latitude of 40 55' 58” North and longitude of 60 59' 55” ...

  16. Rapid Deployment of a RESTful Service for Oceanographic Research Cruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Linyun; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries, by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. R2R publishes information online as Linked Open Data, making it widely available using Semantic Web standards. Each vessel, sensor, cruise, dataset, person, organization, funding award, log, report, etc, has a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). Complex queries that federate results from other data providers are supported, using the SPARQL query language. To facilitate interoperability, R2R uses controlled vocabularies developed collaboratively by the science community (eg. SeaDataNet device categories) and published online by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS). In response to user feedback, we are developing a standard programming interface (API) and Web portal for R2R's Linked Open Data. The API provides a set of simple REST-type URLs that are translated on-the-fly into SPARQL queries, and supports common output formats (eg. JSON). We will demonstrate an implementation based on the Epimorphics Linked Data API (ELDA) open-source Java package. Our experience shows that constructing a simple portal with limited schema elements in this way can significantly reduce development time and maintenance complexity.

  17. Behavior of lambs in rest pens during long-distance transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczel, Peter D; Friend, Ted H; Archer, Greg S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how one group of lambs utilized 2 consecutive rest periods in novel environments with access to food and water that occurred during 22 hr of motor transport. The 18.5 +/- 0.6 kg lambs (n = 15) were transported for 8 hr and then unloaded for a 6-hr rest period. After 6 hr, the lambs were reloaded for another 8 hr of transport followed by a 24-hr rest period. Reloading for a second 8 hr of transport followed the initial rest period. The percentage of lambs engaged in drinking, eating, lying, playing, or "other" was determined at 15-min intervals. During the 6-hr rest period, peak lying behavior occurred during the 2nd and 6th hr of the period. During the first 6 hr of the 24-hr rest period, the percentage of lambs lying increased while the percentage of lambs eating decreased. In addition, the percentage of lambs lying during the first 6 hr of the 24-hr rest period was greater than during the 6-hr rest period. Lying down had a greater priority than eating during the second (24-hr) rest period.

  18. The long-term persistence of phytoplankton resting stages in aquatic "seed banks"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Marianne; Ribeiro, Sofia

    2018-01-01

    to terrestrial seed beds of vascular plants, but are much less studied. It is therefore timely to review the phenomenon of long-term persistence of aquatic resting stages in sediment seed banks. Herein we compare function, morphology and physiology of phytoplankton resting stages to factors central...... in phytoplankton resting stages and the ecological, evolutionary and management implications of this important trait. Phytoplankton resting stages exhibiting long-term viability are characterized by thick, often multi-layered walls and accumulation vesicles containing starch, lipids or other materials...

  19. Within tree variation of lignin, extractives, and microfibril angle coupled with the theoretical and near infrared modeling of microfibril angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Via; chi L. So; Leslie H. Groom; Todd F. Shupe; michael Stine; Jan. Wikaira

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical model was built predicting the relationship between microfibril angle and lignin content at the Angstrom (A) level. Both theoretical and statistical examination of experimental data supports a square root transformation of lignin to predict microfibril angle. The experimental material used came from 10 longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)...

  20. Effects of Fourteen-Day Bed Rest on Trunk Stabilizing Functions in Aging Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejc Sarabon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bed rest has been shown to have detrimental effects on structural and functional characteristics of the trunk muscles, possibly affecting trunk and spinal stability. This is especially important in populations such as aging adults with often altered trunk stabilizing functions. This study examined the effects of a fourteen-day bed rest on anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex responses of the abdominal wall and back muscles in sixteen adult men. Postural activation of trunk muscles was measured using voluntary quick arm movement and sudden arm loading paradigm. Measurements were conducted prior to the bed rest, immediately after, and fourteen days after the bed rest. Immediately after the bed rest, latencies of anticipatory postural adjustments showed significant shortening, especially for the obliquus internus and externus muscles. After a fourteen-day recuperation period, anticipatory postural adjustments reached a near to complete recovery. On the contrary, reactive response latencies increased from pre-bed-rest to both post-bed-rest measurement sessions. Results indicate an important effect of bed rest on stabilizing functions of the trunk muscles in elderly adults. Moreover, there proved to be a significant deterioration of postural reactive responses that outlasted the 14-day post-bed-rest rehabilitation.

  1. Measurement of the angle of superficial tension by images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez M., Javier; Alonso R., Sergio

    2006-02-01

    When a liquid is deposited on a surface, this one form a certain angle with respect to the surface, where depending on its value, it will conclude that so hard it is his adhesion with the surface. By means of the analysis of images we looked for to measure this angle of superficial tension. In order to make this measurement, we propose a technique by means of projective transformations and one method of regression to estimation parameters to conic fitting.

  2. Experimental evaluation of the influence of various rests on task performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaka, Akihiko; Hirose, Ayako

    2000-01-01

    This report deals with the result of the experiment that 8 subjects had executed adding task and search task. They executed each task in 80 minutes under 5 conditions: (1) with no rest, and with 4 kinds of 20 minutes rests, in which they (2) opened eyes, (3) closed eyes, (4) closed eyes with listening classic music and (5) closed eyes with feet massage, in the middle of the task. The results of analysis of variance with the task performance in the latter half, there were significant differences between each condition with every subject in adding task, and with 6 subjects in search task. However, the orders of the task performance with each condition were not the same by each subject. It was suggested that transition of the arousal levels under the rest was related to the effects of the rest rather than the subjects' taste in rests. In the rest, the percentage of α wave of electroencephalogram and the coefficient of variation of R-R interval (time interval of heart beats) were increased than in executing task. The mean Kendall's rank correlation of coefficient with the order of increase rate of α/β wave and the task performance in the latter half was slightly negative in adding task, but was about 0.4 in search task. From these results, about six requirements for 'an effective rest' were able to be mentioned, for example, 'the devices that raises the arousal levels is carried out just before a rest end'. (author)

  3. MATLAB Toolboxes for Reference Electrode Standardization Technique (REST) of Scalp EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Li, Fali; Liu, Qiang; Wen, Xin; Lai, Yongxiu; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    Reference electrode standardization technique (REST) has been increasingly acknowledged and applied as a re-reference technique to transform an actual multi-channels recordings to approximately zero reference ones in electroencephalography/event-related potentials (EEG/ERPs) community around the world in recent years. However, a more easy-to-use toolbox for re-referencing scalp EEG data to zero reference is still lacking. Here, we have therefore developed two open-source MATLAB toolboxes for REST of scalp EEG. One version of REST is closely integrated into EEGLAB, which is a popular MATLAB toolbox for processing the EEG data; and another is a batch version to make it more convenient and efficient for experienced users. Both of them are designed to provide an easy-to-use for novice researchers and flexibility for experienced researchers. All versions of the REST toolboxes can be freely downloaded at http://www.neuro.uestc.edu.cn/rest/Down.html, and the detailed information including publications, comments and documents on REST can also be found from this website. An example of usage is given with comparative results of REST and average reference. We hope these user-friendly REST toolboxes could make the relatively novel technique of REST easier to study, especially for applications in various EEG studies.

  4. Anthropometric study of angle of femoral torsion in Maharashtrian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Dwivedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Angle of femoral torsion is a normal torsion or twist present in femur that plays an important role in stability and function of the hip joint. The angle of femoral torsion can be defined as the angle formed by femoral condyle′s plane (bicondylar plane and a plane passing through center of neck and femoral head. Abnormal angle of femoral torsion has been implicated in the etiology of hip osteoarthrosis and developmental dysplasia of hip joint. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on unpaired 280, adult human femora devoid of any gross pathology, 139 male (65 right and 74 left, and 141 female (71 right and 70 left from bone banks of three medical colleges of Maharashtra. The gender of each specimen was determined by the established practice. Femora were evaluated by Kingsley Olmsted method, and data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: The average angle of femoral torsion 13.39° and 11.23° on the right and left side respectively in male, 16.21° and 13.23° on the right and left side, respectively, in female. Statistical analysis using Student′s "t"-test revealed significant difference (P < 0.05, greater angle of femoral torsion in female and on the right side. Conclusion: Knowledge of angle of femoral torsion is becoming significant nowadays with an increase in demand for total hip replacement, as the angle of femoral torsion is crucial to attain a normal activity of the replaced joint.

  5. Production of doubly charmed baryons nearly at rest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groote, Stefan; Koshkarev, Sergey [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Tartu (Estonia)

    2017-08-15

    We investigate the production cross sections, momentum distributions and rapidity distributions for doubly charmed baryons which according to the intrinsic heavy quark mechanism are produced nearly at rest. These events should be measurable at fixed-target experiments like STAR rate at RHIC and AFTER rate at LHC. (orig.)

  6. A Comparison of Tandem Walk Performance Between Bed Rest Subjects and Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Chris; Peters, Brian; Kofman, Igor; Philips, Tiffany; Batson, Crystal; Cerisano, Jody; Fisher, Elizabeth; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Feiveson, Alan; Reschke, Millard; hide

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience a microgravity environment during spaceflight, which results in a central reinterpretation of both vestibular and body axial-loading information by the sensorimotor system. Subjects in bed rest studies lie at 6deg head-down in strict bed rest to simulate the fluid shift and gravity-unloading of the microgravity environment. However, bed rest subjects still sense gravity in the vestibular organs. Therefore, bed rest isolates the axial-unloading component, thus allowing for the direct study of its effects. The Tandem Walk is a standard sensorimotor test of dynamic postural stability. In a previous abstract, we compared performance on a Tandem Walk test between bed rest control subjects, and short- and long-duration astronauts both before and after flight/bed rest using a composite index of performance, called the Tandem Walk Parameter (TWP), that takes into account speed, accuracy, and balance control. This new study extends the previous data set to include bed rest subjects who performed exercise countermeasures. The purpose of this study was to compare performance during the Tandem Walk test between bed rest subjects (with and without exercise), short-duration (Space Shuttle) crewmembers, and long-duration International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers at various time points during their recovery from bed rest or spaceflight.

  7. Reliability of resting-state microstate features in electroencephalography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Khanna

    Full Text Available Electroencephalographic (EEG microstate analysis is a method of identifying quasi-stable functional brain states ("microstates" that are altered in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, suggesting their potential use as biomarkers of neurophysiological health and disease. However, use of EEG microstates as neurophysiological biomarkers requires assessment of the test-retest reliability of microstate analysis.We analyzed resting-state, eyes-closed, 30-channel EEG from 10 healthy subjects over 3 sessions spaced approximately 48 hours apart. We identified four microstate classes and calculated the average duration, frequency, and coverage fraction of these microstates. Using Cronbach's α and the standard error of measurement (SEM as indicators of reliability, we examined: (1 the test-retest reliability of microstate features using a variety of different approaches; (2 the consistency between TAAHC and k-means clustering algorithms; and (3 whether microstate analysis can be reliably conducted with 19 and 8 electrodes.The approach of identifying a single set of "global" microstate maps showed the highest reliability (mean Cronbach's α > 0.8, SEM ≈ 10% of mean values compared to microstates derived by each session or each recording. There was notably low reliability in features calculated from maps extracted individually for each recording, suggesting that the analysis is most reliable when maps are held constant. Features were highly consistent across clustering methods (Cronbach's α > 0.9. All features had high test-retest reliability with 19 and 8 electrodes.High test-retest reliability and cross-method consistency of microstate features suggests their potential as biomarkers for assessment of the brain's neurophysiological health.

  8. Reliability of resting-state microstate features in electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Arjun; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Farzan, Faranak

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) microstate analysis is a method of identifying quasi-stable functional brain states ("microstates") that are altered in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, suggesting their potential use as biomarkers of neurophysiological health and disease. However, use of EEG microstates as neurophysiological biomarkers requires assessment of the test-retest reliability of microstate analysis. We analyzed resting-state, eyes-closed, 30-channel EEG from 10 healthy subjects over 3 sessions spaced approximately 48 hours apart. We identified four microstate classes and calculated the average duration, frequency, and coverage fraction of these microstates. Using Cronbach's α and the standard error of measurement (SEM) as indicators of reliability, we examined: (1) the test-retest reliability of microstate features using a variety of different approaches; (2) the consistency between TAAHC and k-means clustering algorithms; and (3) whether microstate analysis can be reliably conducted with 19 and 8 electrodes. The approach of identifying a single set of "global" microstate maps showed the highest reliability (mean Cronbach's α > 0.8, SEM ≈ 10% of mean values) compared to microstates derived by each session or each recording. There was notably low reliability in features calculated from maps extracted individually for each recording, suggesting that the analysis is most reliable when maps are held constant. Features were highly consistent across clustering methods (Cronbach's α > 0.9). All features had high test-retest reliability with 19 and 8 electrodes. High test-retest reliability and cross-method consistency of microstate features suggests their potential as biomarkers for assessment of the brain's neurophysiological health.

  9. Phacoemulsification treatment of subjects with acute primary angle closure and chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Ye-Hong; Wang, Mei; Li, Ying; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Lin, Min-Kai; Fang, Min; Ge, Jian

    2009-12-01

    To investigate and compare the effects of phacoemulsification as an initial procedure to control intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes with acute primary angle closure (APAC) and chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma (CPACG) with coexisting cataracts and peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) of greater than 180 degrees. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Thirteen patients (13 eyes) with APAC and 10 patients (10 eyes) with CPACG were enrolled in the study. IOP control in the 2 groups was compared at final follow-up. Other outcome measures included visual acuity, anterior chamber depth, gonioscopic appearance, and complications. The postoperative IOP was reduced in both the APAC and CPACG groups. As assessed at last follow-up (median 6 mo), IOP in the APAC group was significantly lower than that in the CPACG group. The absolute success rate was 100% in the APAC group and 80% in the CPACG group. The number of hypotensive medications decreased in both APAC and CPACG group. The postoperative degree of PAS was relieved in 11 of 12 eyes with APAC and 5 of 9 eyes with CPACG. Initial phacoemulsification performed to provide short-term control of IOP is more efficacious in patients with APAC than in those with CPACG, especially when PAS is greater than 180 degrees.

  10. A study of arrival angles of natural VLF waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsen, A. G.; Fedorenko, Iu. V.; Chernysheva, S. P.; Kleimenova, N. G.; Putilin, A. N.

    Methods are proposed for determining the arrival angles of natural VLF waves at a ground-based observatory. A device in which the proposed method is implemented is described, and questions regarding its calibration and suppression of lightning-induced and industrial noise are addressed. Measurements of natural VLF-wave arrival angles, carried out in the auroral zone in the Murmansk region are presented.

  11. The Influence of Face Angle and Club Path on the Resultant Launch Angle of a Golf Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wood

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A two-part experimental study was conducted in order to better understand how the delivered face angle and club path of a golf club influences the initial launch direction of a golf ball for various club types. A robust understanding of how these parameters influence the ball direction has implications for both coaches and club designers. The first study used a large sample of golfers hitting shots with different clubs. Initial ball direction was measured with a Foresight Sports camera system, while club delivery parameters were recorded with a Vicon motion capture system. The second study used a golf robot and Vision Research camera to measure club and ball parameters. Results from these experiments show that the launch direction fell closer to face angle than club path. The percent toward the face angle ranged from 61% to 83%, where 100% designates a launch angle entirely toward the face angle.

  12. Recovery of resting brain connectivity ensuing mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Dawn Bharath

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brains reveal amplified plasticity as they recover from an injury. We aimed to define time dependent plasticity changes in patients recovering from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. 25 subjects with mild head injury were longitudinally evaluated within 36 hours, 3 and 6 months using resting state functional connectivity (RSFC. Region of interest (ROI based connectivity differences over time within the patient group and in comparison with a healthy control group were analyzed at p<0.005. We found 33 distinct ROI pairs that revealed significant changes in their connectivity strength with time. Within three months, the majority of the ROI pairs had decreased connectivity in mTBI population, which increased and became comparable to healthy controls at 6 months. Initial imaging within 36 hours of injury revealed hyper connectivity predominantly involving the salience network and default mode network, which reduced at 3 months when lingual, inferior frontal and fronto-parietal networks revealed hyper connectivity. At six months all the evaluated networks revealed hyper connectivity and became comparable to the healthy controls. Our findings in a fairly homogenous group of patients with mTBI evaluated during the 6 month window of recovery defines time varying brain connectivity changes as the brain recovers from an injury. A majority of these changes were seen in the frontal and parietal lobes between 3-6 months after injury. Hyper connectivity of several networks supported normal recovery in the first six months and it remains to be seen in future studies whether this can predict an early and efficient recovery of brain function.

  13. New discovery: Quantization of atomic and nuclear rest mass differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareev, F. A.; Zhidkova, I. E.

    2007-01-01

    We come to the conclusion that all atomic models based on either the Newton equation and the Kepler laws, or the Maxwell equations, or the Schrodinger and Dirac equations are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. We can only suspect that these equations are grounded on the same fundamental principle(s) which is (are) not known or these equations can be transformed into each other. We proposed a new mechanism of LENR: cooperative processes in the whole system - nuclei + atoms + condensed matter - nuclear reactions in plasma - can occur at smaller threshold energies than the corresponding ones on free constituents. We were able to quantize [1] phenomenologically the first time the differences between atomic and nuclear rest masses by the formula: ΔΔ M = n 1 /n 2 x 0.0076294 (in MeV/c 2 ), n i =1,2,3,... Note that this quantization rule is justified for atoms and nuclei with different A, N and Z and the nuclei and atoms represent a coherent synchronized open systems - a complex of coupled oscillators (resonators). The cooperative resonance synchronization mechanisms are responsible for explanation of how the electron volt world can influence on the nuclear mega electron volt world. It means that we created new possibilities for inducing and controlling nuclear reactions by atomic processes grounded on the fundamental low of physics - conservation law of energy. The results of these research fields can provide new ecologically pure mobile sources of energy independent from oil, gas and coal, new substances, and technologies. For example, this discovery gives us a simple and cheep method for utilization of nuclear waste. References [1] F.A. Gareev, I.E. Zhidkova, E-print arXiv Nucl-th/0610002 2006

  14. The effect of 8 days of strict bed rest on the incretin effect in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Harder-Lauridsen, Nina Majlund; Benatti, Fabiana Braga

    2016-01-01

    in the levels of GLP-1 and Glucagon. Bed rest led to a mean loss of 2.4 kg of fat-free mass, and induced insulin resistance evaluated by the Matsuda index, but did not affect the incretin effect (P = 0.6). In conclusion, 8 days of bed rest induces insulin resistance, but we did not see evidence of an associated......Bed rest and physical inactivity are the consequences of hospital admission for many patients. Physical inactivity induces changes in glucose metabolism, but its effect on the incretin effect, which is reduced in, e.g., Type 2 diabetes, is unknown. To investigate how 8 days of strict bed rest...... affects the incretin effect, 10 healthy nonobese male volunteers underwent 8 days of strict bed rest. Before and after the intervention, all volunteers underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) followed by an intravenous glucose infusion (IVGI) on the following day to mimic the blood glucose profile...

  15. Control of Angular Intervals for Angle-Multiplexed Holographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Nobuhiro; Muroi, Tetsuhiko; Ishii, Norihiko; Kamijo, Koji; Shimidzu, Naoki

    2009-03-01

    In angle-multiplexed holographic memory, the full width at half maximum of the Bragg selectivity curves is dependent on the angle formed between the medium and incident laser beams. This indicates the possibility of high density and high multiplexing number by varying the angular intervals between adjacent holograms. We propose an angular interval scheduling for closely stacking holograms into medium even when the angle range is limited. We obtained bit error rates of the order of 10-4 under the following conditions: medium thickness of 1 mm, laser beam wavelength of 532 nm, and angular multiplexing number of 300.

  16. Validation of resting metabolic rate prediction equations for teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Santos da Fonseca

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The resting metabolic rate (RMR can be defi ned as the minimum rate of energy spent and represents the main component of the energetic outlay. The purpose of this study is to validate equations to predict the resting metabolic rate in teenagers (103 individuals, being 51 girls and 52 boys, with age between 10 and 17 years from Florianópolis – SC – Brazil. It was measured: the body weight, body height, skinfolds and obtained the lean and body fat mass through bioimpedance. The nonproteic RMR was measured by Weir’s equation (1949, utilizing AeroSport TEEM-100 gas analyzer. The studied equations were: Harry and Benedict (1919, Schofi eld (1985, WHO/FAO/UNU (1985, Henry and Rees (1991, Molnár et al. (1998, Tverskaya et al. (1998 and Müller et al. (2004. In order to study the cross-validation of the RMR prediction equations and its standard measure (Weir 1949, the following statistics procedure were calculated: Pearson’s correlation (r ≥ 0.70, the “t” test with the signifi cance level of p0.05 in relation to the standard measure, with exception of the equations suggested for Tverskaya et al. (1998, and the two models of Müller et al (2004. Even though there was not a signifi cant difference, only the models considered for Henry and Rees (1991, and Molnár et al. (1995 had gotten constant error variation under 5%. All the equations analyzed in the study in girls had not reached criterion of correlation values of 0.70 with the indirect calorimetry. Analyzing the prediction equations of RMR in boys, all of them had moderate correlation coeffi cients with the indirect calorimetry, however below 0.70. Only the equation developed for Tverskaya et al. (1998 presented differences (p ABSTRACT0,05 em relação à medida padrão (Weir 1949, com exceção das equações sugeridas por Tverskaya et al. (1998 e os dois modelos de Müller et al (2004. Mesmo não havendo diferença signifi cativa, somente os modelos propostos por Henry e Rees (1991

  17. Cephalometric appraisal of tongue and related soft tissues in normal and open bite subjects at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Usha; Hazarey, Pushpa; Akhare, Pankaj J; Mute, Bhumika K

    2015-01-01

    To compare the tongue position of normal and open bite subjects at rest and to study if there is any difference in the hyoid bone and posterior pharyngeal wall positions in normal and open bite subjects. Sample size consisted of 48 individuals with 24 subjects having normal occlusion and 24 subjects having open bite malocclusion within the age range of 16 to 25 y. Standardized Lateral cephalograms were taken for all the subjects. The subjects were asked to protrude their tongue as much as possible. The dorsum of the tongue was then coated with a palatable suspension of Barium Sulphate (MICROBAR). The subjects were asked to swallow on command, after 10 sec of the swallow, lateral cephalograms were taken. t-test The antero-posterior relationship of maxilla and mandible to the cranial base is normal in both the groups. The open bite subjects had a larger over jet and as compared to the normal subjects, and had steeper mandibular planes.It was also seen that as the total tongue occupancy area increased so did the partial tongue occupancy area. A significant positive correlation was found between the horizontal position of the tongue tip and the lower incisor position in the normal group, also for the ratio of total tongue area to total oral area & the ratio of upper tongue area to the anterior oral area in the normal and openbite groups. There was no difference in the position of the tongue, hyoid bone and posterior wall in the normal and openbite groups. The mandibular plane angle and palatal plane - mandibular plane angles were found to be larger in the openbite subjects as compared to normal subjects. Supra-eruption of the maxillary molars was seen in the openbite group leading to a downward and backward rotation of the mandible. The maxillary and mandibular incisors were more proclinated in the normal as well as openbite groups.

  18. Indoor Measurement of Angle Resolved Light Absorption by Black Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amdemeskel, Mekbib Wubishet; Iandolo, Beniamino; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    Angle resolved optical spectroscopy of photovoltaic (PV) samples gives crucial information on PV panels under realistic working conditions. Here, we introduce measurements of angle resolved light absorption by PV cells, performed indoors using a collimated high radiance broadband light source. Our...... indoor method offers a significant simplification as compared to measurements by solar trackers. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we show characterization of black silicon solar cells. The experimental results showed stable and reliable optical responses that makes our setup suitable for indoor......, angle resolved characterization of solar cells....

  19. Feeding and resting postures of wild northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurck, Maria F; Nowak, Matthew G; Costa, Leny C M; Mendes, Sérgio L; Ford, Susan M; Strier, Karen B

    2013-01-01

    Increased body size in Brachyteles has been regarded as an important evolutionary adaptation that allowed a greater reliance on leaves compared to other more frugivorous Atelidae, but its association with muriqui positional behavior and substrate use is still unknown. Here, we present original data on the feeding and resting postures of the northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) and evaluate predictions about the relationships between body size, postural behavior, and substrate use derived from previously published data for other atelids (e.g. Alouatta, Ateles, and Lagothrix). The study was undertaken from August 2002 to July 2003 on a large group of well-habituated muriquis inhabiting the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural - Felíciano Miguel Abdala in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Consistent with our predictions, we found that B. hypoxanthus was highly suspensory during postural feeding (60.9%) and commonly used tail-hind limb suspension/horizontal tripod (38.0%) or tail-forelimb/hind limb suspension (21.4%). However, although tail-suspensory postures permitted the muriquis to use the terminal canopy and small-sized substrates, these areas were also accessed via tail-assisted above-branch postural behaviors involving multiple substrates. Unexpectedly, tail-suspensory postures were found to be frequently associated with large substrates, tree trunks, and the understory. We suggest that Brachyteles' ability to access food resources from all areas of a feeding tree and from tree crowns at different canopy levels may account for their ability to efficiently exploit food resources in seasonal disturbed forest fragments of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest today. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Patient-specific rhytidectomy: finding the angle of maximal rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacono, Andrew A; Ransom, Evan R

    2012-09-01

    Rhytidectomy is fundamentally an operation of tissue release and resuspension, although the manner and direction of suspension are subject to perpetual debate. The authors describe a method for identifying the angle of maximal rejuvenation during rhytidectomy and quantify the resulting angle and its relationship to patient age. Patients were prospectively enrolled; demographic data, history, and operative details were recorded. Rhytidectomies were performed by the senior author (AAJ). After complete elevation, the face-lift flap was rotated in a medially-based arc (0-90°) while attention was given to the submental area, jawline, and midface. The angle of maximal rejuvenation for each hemiface was identified as described, and the flap was resuspended. During redraping, measurements of vertical and horizontal skin excess were recorded in situ. The resulting angle of lift was then calculated for each hemiface using trigonometry. Symmetry between sides was determined, and the effect of patient age on this angle was assessed. Three hundred hemifaces were operated (147 women; 3 men). Mean age was 60 years (range, 37-80 years). Mean resulting angle for the cohort was 60° from horizontal (range, 46-77°). This was inversely correlated with patient age (r = -.3). Younger patients (<50 years, 64°) had a significantly more vertical angle than older patients (≥70 years, 56°; P < .0002). No significant intersubject difference was found between hemifaces (P = .53). The authors present a method for identifying the angle of maximal rejuvenation during rhytidectomy. This angle was more superior than posterior in all cases and is intimately related to patient age. Lasting results demand a detailed anatomical understanding and strict attention to the direction and degree of laxity.

  1. [Laser Iridotomy - In Cases of Acute Angle Closure Only?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handzel, Daniel M; Meyer, Carsten H; Wegener, Alfred

    2017-11-01

    The narrowing of the chamber angle-as a result of anatomic predispositions like high hyperopia or increasing lens thickness-poses the greatest risk for acute angle closure. A laser iridotomy counts as a standard procedure in cases of acute angle closure, whereas there are no coherent recommendations or guidelines for a prophylactic therapy. Modern imaging techniques, such as anterior segment optical coherence tomography or Scheimpflug photography, can give valuable information for the planning of treatment. This review presents traditional and modern imaging techniques and summarises recommendations for action in relation to recent publications. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Projection angles of mandibular condyles in panoramic and transcranial radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the true projection angles of film-side mandibular condyles in panoramic and transcranial radiographs. 52 panoramic and transcranial radiographs of 4 condyles from two human dry mandibles with gradual horizontal and vertical angle changes were taken. The results were compared with the standard panoramic and transcranial radiographs and the identical pairs were selected. Panoramic radiography projected 10 degree to the film-sided condyles both horizontally and vertically. Transcranial radiography projected 15 degree to the film-sided condyles vertically. The medical and lateral poles were not forming the outline of condylar images in both projections when the horizontal angles of condyles were not sufficiently big enough

  3. Investigation of ferromagnetic domain structures by neutron small angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schild, L.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetic small angle scattering of thermal neutrons caused by magnetic refraction at domain walls of ferromagnetic materials without texture has been investigated. Experiments on Fe-Si alloys with a twin crystal diffractometer were carried out. It is shown that the mean extension of magnetic basic units (domains as well as parallel wall systems) can be determined. A comparison of grain sizes determined metallographically with domain sizes obtained by neutron small-angle scattering has shown that neither mean grain size nor domain size can be assessed by small-angle scattering experiments

  4. Resting 12-lead electrocardiogram reveals high-risk sources of cardioembolism in young adult ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirinen, Jani; Putaala, Jukka; Aro, Aapo L; Surakka, Ida; Haapaniemi, Anita; Kaste, Markku; Haapaniemi, Elena; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Lehto, Mika

    2015-11-01

    The diagnostic work-up to reveal etiology in a young ischemic stroke (IS) patient includes evaluation for high-risk source of cardioembolism (HRCE), since this subtype associates with high early recurrence rate and mortality. We investigated the association of ECG findings with a final etiologic subgroup of HRCE in a cohort of young patients with first-ever IS. The Helsinki Young Stroke Registry includes IS patients aged 15 to 49 years admitted between 1994 and 2007. Blinded to other clinical data, we analyzed a 12-lead resting ECG obtained 1-14 days after the onset of stroke symptoms in 690 patients. We then compared the ECG findings between a final diagnosis of HRCE (n=78) and other/undetermined causes (n=612). We used multivariate logistic regression to study the association between ECG parameters and HRCE. Of our cohort (63% male), 35% showed ECG abnormality, the most common being T-wave inversion (16%), left ventricular hypertrophy (14%), prolonged P-wave (13%), and prolonged QTc (12%). 3% had atrial fibrillation (AF), and 4% P-terminal force (PTF). Of the continuous parameters, longer QRS-duration, QTc, and wider QRS-T-angle independently associated with HRCE. After AF, PTF had the strongest independent association with HRCE (odds ratio=44.32, 95% confidence interval=[10.51-186.83]), followed by a QRS-T angle >110° (8.29 [3.55-19.32]), T-wave inversion (5.06, 2.54-10.05), and prolonged QTc (3.02 [1.39-6.56]). Routine ECG provides useful information for directing the work-up of a young IS patient. In addition to AF, PTF in particular showed a strong association with etiology of HRCE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sharper angle, higher risk? The effect of cutting angle on knee mechanics in invasion sport athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, Mervin J.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cutting is an important skill in team-sports, but unfortunately is also related to non-contact ACL injuries. The purpose was to examine knee kinetics and kinematics at different cutting angles. Material and methods: 13 males and 16 females performed cuts at different angles (45°, 90°,

  6. The pecking, resting and feeding behaviour of four broiler strains in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pecking, resting and feeding behaviour of four broiler strains in a humid tropical environment. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... An experiment to determine the pecking, resting and feeding behaviour of four strains of broilers (Anak, Hubbard, Lohman, and Hybro) was conducted with 120 day old chicks.

  7. BIPHASIC TREATMENT OF 2ND CLASS ANGLE ANOMALIES

    OpenAIRE

    C. Romanec; R. Stanciu; Anca Telmecea; Valentina Dorobat

    2011-01-01

    Our approach aims at presenting, based on clinical observations and complementary examinations, the effects of a treatment’s setting up during the mixed dentition period. The objectives include the identification of the optimal time of treatment of II/1, II/2 Angle malocclusions, as well as the therapeutic possibilities for the treatment of 2nd class Angle malocclusion during the period of mixed and permanent dentition. The study is based on data collected from 114 cli...

  8. Proteome Profiles of Longissimus and Biceps femoris Porcine Muscles Related to Exercise and Resting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Keuning, E.; Wiel, van de D.F.M.; Young, J.F.; Oksbjerg, N.; Kruijt, L.

    2011-01-01

    Exercise affects muscle metabolism and composition in the untrained muscles. The proteome of muscle tissue will be affected by exercise and resting. This is of economic importance for pork quality where transportation relates to exercise of untrained muscles. Rest reverses exercise effects. The

  9. Rest Among African American Women: The Current State of the Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert Harris, Eboni T; Hillfinger Messias, DeAnne K; Timmons, Shirley M; Felder, Tisha M; Estrada, Robin Dawson

    Effective health promotion among African American women requires knowledge and understanding of cultural influences and practices. This scoping review focused on rest, related concepts, and cultural perspectives and practices. We found a lack of conceptual distinction between fatigue and sleep and limited research on cultural meanings and practices of rest.

  10. Setting of angles on machine tools speeded by magnetic protractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, L. B.

    1964-01-01

    An adjustable protractor facilitates transference of angles to remote machine tools. It has a magnetic base incorporating a beam which can be adjusted until its shadow coincides with an image on the screen of a projector.

  11. Quantized contact angles in the dewetting of a structured liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilton, Mark; Stasiak, Pawel; Matsen, Mark W; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2014-02-14

    We investigate the dewetting of a disordered melt of diblock copolymer from an ordered residual wetting layer. In contrast to simple liquids where the wetting layer has a fixed thickness and the droplets exhibit a single unique contact angle with the substrate, we find that structured liquids of diblock copolymer exhibit a discrete series of wetting layer thicknesses each producing a different contact angle. These quantized contact angles arise because the substrate and air surfaces each induce a gradient of lamellar order in the wetting layer. The interaction between the two surface profiles creates an effective interface potential that oscillates with film thickness, thus, producing a sequence of local minimums. The wetting layer thicknesses and corresponding contact angles are a direct measure of the positions and depths of these minimums. Self-consistent field theory is shown to provide qualitative agreement with the experiment.

  12. Predictive Modeling of Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Resting Habitat in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Lesley H.; Johnston, David W.; Urban, Dean L.; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W.; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H.; Deakos, Mark H.; Mobley, Joseph R.; Pack, Adam A.; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood. PMID:22937022

  13. Predictive modeling of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley H Thorne

    Full Text Available Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood.

  14. NORMAL AXIAL ANGLES OF THE KNEE JOINT IN ADULT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-08-01

    Aug 1, 2003 ... centres of the hip, knee and ankle all lie on a straight line, forming the mechanical axis of the lower limb (Figure 1). This axis coincides with the anatomical axis of the tibia in the leg, while in the thigh it forms an angle of 6° with the anatomical axis of the femoral shaft in Caucasians (1). The mechanical angle ...

  15. Walking, running, and resting under time, distance, and average speed constraints: optimality of walk–run–rest mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Leroy L.; Srinivasan, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    On a treadmill, humans switch from walking to running beyond a characteristic transition speed. Here, we study human choice between walking and running in a more ecological (non-treadmill) setting. We asked subjects to travel a given distance overground in a given allowed time duration. During this task, the subjects carried, and could look at, a stopwatch that counted down to zero. As expected, if the total time available were large, humans walk the whole distance. If the time available were small, humans mostly run. For an intermediate total time, humans often use a mixture of walking at a slow speed and running at a higher speed. With analytical and computational optimization, we show that using a walk–run mixture at intermediate speeds and a walk–rest mixture at the lowest average speeds is predicted by metabolic energy minimization, even with costs for transients—a consequence of non-convex energy curves. Thus, sometimes, steady locomotion may not be energy optimal, and not preferred, even in the absence of fatigue. Assuming similar non-convex energy curves, we conjecture that similar walk–run mixtures may be energetically beneficial to children following a parent and animals on long leashes. Humans and other animals might also benefit energetically from alternating between moving forward and standing still on a slow and sufficiently long treadmill. PMID:23365192

  16. Walking, running, and resting under time, distance, and average speed constraints: optimality of walk-run-rest mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Leroy L; Srinivasan, Manoj

    2013-04-06

    On a treadmill, humans switch from walking to running beyond a characteristic transition speed. Here, we study human choice between walking and running in a more ecological (non-treadmill) setting. We asked subjects to travel a given distance overground in a given allowed time duration. During this task, the subjects carried, and could look at, a stopwatch that counted down to zero. As expected, if the total time available were large, humans walk the whole distance. If the time available were small, humans mostly run. For an intermediate total time, humans often use a mixture of walking at a slow speed and running at a higher speed. With analytical and computational optimization, we show that using a walk-run mixture at intermediate speeds and a walk-rest mixture at the lowest average speeds is predicted by metabolic energy minimization, even with costs for transients-a consequence of non-convex energy curves. Thus, sometimes, steady locomotion may not be energy optimal, and not preferred, even in the absence of fatigue. Assuming similar non-convex energy curves, we conjecture that similar walk-run mixtures may be energetically beneficial to children following a parent and animals on long leashes. Humans and other animals might also benefit energetically from alternating between moving forward and standing still on a slow and sufficiently long treadmill.

  17. Exercise-induced pyruvate dehydrogenase activation is not affected by 7 days of bed rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian; Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that physical inactivity impairs the exercise-induced modulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), 6 healthy normally physically active male subjects completed 7 days of bed rest. Before and immediately after the bed rest, the subjects completed an OGTT and a one-legged knee...

  18. Expanded functional coupling of subcortical nuclei with the motor resting-state network in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Siebner, Hartwig R; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2013-01-01

    is characterised by more widespread motor connectivity in the basal ganglia while cortical motor resting-state connectivity is preserved. The expansion of subcortical motor resting-state connectivity in MS indicates less efficient funnelling of neural processing in the executive motor cortico-basal ganglia...

  19. Selection and spatial arrangement of rest sites within northern tamandua home ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, D. D.; Montgomery, R. A.; Millspaugh, J. J.; Jansen, P. A.; Garzon-Lopez, C. X.; Kays, R.

    The distribution of suitable rest sites is considered to be a key determinant of spatial patterns in animal activity. However, it is not immediately evident which landscape features satisfy rest site requirements or how these sites are configured within the home range. We used Global Positioning

  20. Selection and spatial Arrangement of rest sites within Northern tamandua (Tamandua mexicana) home ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, D.D.; Montgomery, R.A.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Jansen, P.A.; Garzon-Lopez, C.X.; Kays, R.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of suitable rest sites is considered to be a key determinant of spatial patterns in animal activity. However, it is not immediately evident which landscape features satisfy rest site requirements or how these sites are configured within the home range. We used Global Positioning

  1. The influence of low-grade glioma on resting state oscillatory brain activity: a magnetoencephalography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, I.; Stam, C.; Douw, L.; Bartolomei, F.; Heimans, J.; Dijk, van B.; Postma, T.; Klein, M.; Reijneveld, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In the present MEG-study, power spectral analysis of oscillatory brain activity was used to compare resting state brain activity in both low-grade glioma (LGG) patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that LGG patients show local as well as diffuse slowing of resting state brain

  2. The effect of icepack cooling on skin and muscle temperature at rest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of icepack cooling on skin and muscle temperature at rest and after exercise. M Mars, B Hadebe, M Tufts. Abstract. Objective. To compare cooling of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle, produced by an icepack, at rest and after short-duration exhaustive exercise. Methods. Eight male subjects were studied. With the ...

  3. Evaluation of the anterior chamber angle in pseudoexfoliation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, Małgorzata; Turno-Kręcicka, Anna; Tomczyk-Socha, Martyna; Kaczorowski, Kamil; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta

    2017-08-01

    Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) is the most frequently identifiable cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma, known as pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. The exact pathophysiology and etiology of PEX and associated glaucoma remains obscure. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the morphology of the anterior chamber angle in people with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma compared to a control group. We also evaluated the correlation between intraocular pressure (IOP) and pigmentation of the angle with the amount of exfoliated material in the anterior segment. The study group was composed of 155 eyes from 103 patients aged between 43 and 86 years. Each patient underwent a complete ophthalmological examination. Some difference was found in intraocular pressure between the PEX group and the control group and between the pseudoexfoliation glaucoma group and the control group, but no significant difference was found between the 2 study groups. There was a significant difference in the incidence of some degree of pigmentation in the anterior chamber angle and no difference in the widths of the angle between each group. A significant positive relationship was observed between intraocular pressure and the degree of pigmentation of the anterior chamber angle in both the PEX group and the pseudoexfoliation glaucoma group. The results of this study indicate that the amount of pigmentation and exfoliation material in the anterior segment significantly correlates with the level of IOP and possibly with the degree of trabecular dysfunction. It seems that for clear identification of PEX and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma factors, clinical assessment appears to be insufficient.

  4. Virtual characterization of delamination failures in pultruded GFRP angles

    OpenAIRE

    Girão Coelho, Ana M.; Mottram, J. Toby; Matharu, Navroop S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of cohesive zone models to study delamination failures in leg-angles of pultruded glass fibre reinforced polymer material using the general-purpose finite element software Abaqus. The objective of the study is present a finite element modelling methodology that can, for example, help to fill-in knowledge gaps in the available experimental data pertaining to the tying force resistance of angle-cleated jointing in frame construction. It may be used to optim...

  5. Acquisition of Infrared Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometer (IR-VASE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-22

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This award was used to acquire a J.A. Woollam Infrared Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometer ( IR -VASE). The IR -VASE...unit is capable of obtaining crucial IR information of ultrathin films whilst being complemented with ellipsometry data. This powerful and versatile...Unlimited UU UU UU UU 22-04-2016 1-Feb-2015 31-Jan-2016 Final Report: Acquisition of Infrared Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometer ( IR -VASE) The

  6. Direct Measurement of Static and Dynamic Contact Angles Using a Random Micromodel Considering Geological CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jafari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The pore-level two-phase fluids flow mechanism needs to be understood for geological CO2 sequestration as a solution to mitigate anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide. Capillary pressure at the interface of water–CO2 influences CO2 injectability, capacity, and safety of the storage system. Wettability usually measured by contact angle is always a major uncertainty source among important parameters affecting capillary pressure. The contact angle is mostly determined on a flat surface as a representative of the rock surface. However, a simple and precise method for determining in situ contact angle at pore-scale is needed to simulate fluids flow in porous media. Recent progresses in X-ray tomography technique has provided a robust way to measure in situ contact angle of rocks. However, slow imaging and complicated image processing make it impossible to measure dynamic contact angle. In the present paper, a series of static and dynamic contact angles as well as contact angles on flat surface were measured inside a micromodel with random pattern of channels under high pressure condition. Our results showed a wide range of pore-scale contact angles, implying complexity of the pore-scale contact angle even in a highly smooth and chemically homogenous glass micromodel. Receding contact angle (RCA showed more reproducibility compared to advancing contact angle (ACA and static contact angle (SCA for repeating tests and during both drainage and imbibition. With decreasing pore size, RCA was increased. The hysteresis of the dynamic contact angle (ACA–RCA was higher at pressure of one megapascal in comparison with that at eight megapascals. The CO2 bubble had higher mobility at higher depths due to lower hysteresis which is unfavorable. CO2 bubbles resting on the flat surface of the micromodel channel showed a wide range of contact angles. They were much higher than reported contact angle values observed with sessile drop or captive bubble tests on a

  7. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of sodium butyl benzene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Na-NBBS), in aqueous solutions is investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Nearly ellipsoidal aggregates of Na-NBBS at concentrations well above its minimum hydrotrope concentration were detected by SANS. The hydrotrope ...

  8. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of sodium butyl benzene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Na-NBBS), in aqueous solutions is investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Nearly ellipsoidal aggregates of Na-NBBS at concentrations well above its minimum hydrotrope concentration were detected by SANS. The hydrotrope ...

  9. Parameterization of ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Barney L.

    2016-03-01

    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different power functions of the arguments. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles, minimum yields, effects on half-angles and minimum yields of amorphous overlayers. The program can calculate these half-angles and minimum yields for axes and [h k l] planes up to (5 5 5). The program is open source and available at

  10. Comparison of different passive knee extension torque-angle assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Sandro R; Vaz, João R; Bruno, Paula M; Valamatos, Maria J; Mil-Homens, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have used isokinetic dynamometry to assess joint torques and angles during passive extension of the knee, often without reporting upon methodological errors and reliability outcomes. In addition, the reliability of the techniques used to measure passive knee extension torque-angle and the extent to which reliability may be affected by the position of the subjects is also unclear. Therefore, we conducted an analysis of the intra- and inter-session reliability of two methods of assessing passive knee extension: (A) a 2D kinematic analysis coupled to a custom-made device that enabled the direct measurement of resistance to stretch and (B) an isokinetic dynamometer used in two testing positions (with the non-tested thigh either flexed at 45° or in the neutral position). The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) of torque, the slope of the torque-angle curve, and the parameters of the mathematical model that were fit to the torque-angle data for the above conditions were measured in sixteen healthy male subjects (age: 21.4 ± 2.1 yr; BMI: 22.6 ± 3.3 kg m −2 ; tibial length: 37.4 ± 3.4 cm). The results found were: (1) methods A and B led to distinctly different torque-angle responses; (2) passive torque-angle relationship and stretch tolerance were influenced by the position of the non-tested thigh; and (3) ICCs obtained for torque were higher than for the slope and for the mathematical parameters that were fit to the torque-angle curve. In conclusion, the measurement method that is used and the positioning of subjects can influence the passive knee extension torque-angle outcome. (paper)

  11. Exchange interpretation of anomalous back angle heavy ion elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1977-10-01

    Anomalous back angle oscillations in the angular distributions obtained in the elastic scattering of 16 O + 28 Si and 12 C + 28 Si have been interpreted in terms of an elastic cluster transfer comparable to that observed in other heavy ion reactions. The calculations appear to at least qualitatively explain the data with respect to the existence and phase of the back angle oscillations. The results indicate that an exchange mechanism may play an important role in the oscillations

  12. Cognitive Stress Reduces the Effect of Levodopa on Parkinson's Resting Tremor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zach, H.; Dirkx, M.F.M.; Pasman, J.W.; Bloem, B.R.; Helmich, R.C.G.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Resting tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) increases markedly during cognitive stress. Dopamine depletion in the basal ganglia is involved in the pathophysiology of resting tremor, but it is unclear whether this contribution is altered under cognitive stress. We test the hypothesis that

  13. Strength of Default Mode Resting-State Connectivity Relates to White Matter Integrity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Evan M.; Lee, Philip S.; Maisog, Jose M.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer; Billington, Michael E.; VanMeter, John; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2011-01-01

    A default mode network of brain regions is known to demonstrate coordinated activity during the resting state. While the default mode network is well characterized in adults, few investigations have focused upon its development. We scanned 9-13-year-old children with diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.…

  14. Painful nerve injury decreases resting cytosolic calcium concentrations in sensory neurons of rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, Andreas; Lirk, Philipp; Stucky, Cheryl; Abram, Stephen E.; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2005-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is difficult to treat and poorly understood at the cellular level. Although cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca]c) critically regulates neuronal function, the effects of peripheral nerve injury on resting sensory neuronal [Ca]c are unknown. Resting [Ca]c was determined by microfluorometry in

  15. Highly demanding resistive vibration exercise program is tolerated during 56 days of strict bed-rest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rittweger, J.; Belavy, D.; Hunek, P.; Gast, U.; Boerst, H.; Feilcke, B.; Armbrecht, G.; Mulder, E.; Schubert, H.; Richardson, C.; Haan, A. de; Stegeman, D.F.; Schiessl, H.; Felsenberg, D.

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have tried to find countermeasures against musculoskeletal de-conditioning during bed-rest, but none of them yielded decisive results. We hypothesised that resistive vibration exercise (RVE) might be a suitable training modality. We have therefore carried out a bed-rest study to

  16. Highly demanding resistive vibration exercise program is tolerated during 56 days of strict bed-rest.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rittweger, J.; Belavy, D.; Hunek, P.; Gast, U.; Boerst, H.; Feilcke, B.; Armbrecht, G.; Mulder, E.R.; Schubert, H.; Richardson, C.; de Haan, A.; Stegeman, D.F.; Schiessl, H.; Felsenberg, D.

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have tried to find countermeasures against musculoskeletal de-conditioning during bed rest, but none of them yielded decisive results. We hypothesised that resistive vibration exercise (RVE) might be a suitable training modality. We have therefore carried out a bed-rest study to

  17. REST-mediated recruitment of polycomb repressor complexes in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Nikolaj; Lerdrup, Mads; Landt, Eskild

    2012-01-01

    Polycomb Repressive Complex (PRC) 1 and PRC2 regulate genes involved in differentiation and development. However, the mechanism for how PRC1 and PRC2 are recruited to genes in mammalian cells is unclear. Here we present evidence for an interaction between the transcription factor REST, PRC1......, and increased gene expression. Genome-wide analysis of Polycomb binding in Rest¿/¿ and Eed¿/¿ mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells showed that Rest was required for PRC1 recruitment to a subset of Polycomb regulated neuronal genes. Furthermore, we found that PRC1 can be recruited to Rest binding sites independently...... of CpG islands and the H3K27Me3 mark. Surprisingly, PRC2 was frequently increased around Rest binding sites located in CpG-rich regions in the Rest¿/¿ mES cells, indicating a more complex interplay where Rest also can limit PRC2 recruitment. Therefore, we propose that Rest has context...

  18. Photovoltaic Modules: Effect of Tilt Angle on Soiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Jose

    2011-12-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are one of the next generation's renewable energy sources for our world energy demand. PV modules are highly reliable. However, in polluted environments, over time, they will collect grime and dust. There are also limited field data studies about soiling losses on PV modules. The study showed how important it is to investigate the effect of tilt angle on soiling. The study includes two sets of mini-modules. Each set has 9 PV modules tilted at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 23, 30, 33 and 40°. The first set called "Cleaned" was cleaned every other day. The second set called "Soiled" was never cleaned after the first day. The short circuit current, a measure of irradiance, and module temperature was monitored and recorded every two minutes over three months (January-March 2011). The data were analyzed to investigate the effect of tilt angle on daily and monthly soiling, and hence transmitted solar insolation and energy production by PV modules. The study shows that during the period of January through March 2011 there was an average loss due to soiling of approximately 2.02% for 0° tilt angle. Modules at tilt angles 23° and 33° also have some insolation losses but do not come close to the module at 0° tilt angle. Tilt angle 23° has approximately 1.05% monthly insolation loss, and 33° tilt angle has an insolation loss of approximately 0.96%. The soiling effect is present at any tilt angle, but the magnitude is evident: the flatter the solar module is placed the more energy it will lose.

  19. Detection of Contact Binaries Using Sparse High Phase Angle Lightcurves

    OpenAIRE

    Lacerda, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    We show that candidate contact binary asteroids can be efficiently identified from sparsely sampled photometry taken at phase angles >60deg. At high phase angle, close/contact binary systems produce distinctive lightcurves that spend most of the time at maximum or minimum (typically >1mag apart) brightness with relatively fast transitions between the two. This means that a few (~5) sparse observations will suffice to measure the large range of variation and identify candidate contact binary s...

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of trunk muscles during prolonged bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Julie A; Belavý, Daniel L; Stanton, Warren; Wilson, Stephen J; Rittweger, Jörn; Felsenberg, Dieter; Richardson, Carolyn A

    2007-07-01

    Prospective longitudinal study. OBJECTIVE.: To investigate, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the influence of bed rest on the lumbopelvic musculature. Reduced gravitational loading and inactivity (bed rest) are known to result in significant change in musculoskeletal function, although little is known about its effects on specific muscles of the lumbopelvic region. Ten healthy male subjects underwent 8 weeks of bed rest with 6 months of follow-up. MRI of the lumbopelvic region was conducted at regular time-points during and after bed rest. Using uniplanar images at L4, cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the multifidus, lumbar erector spinae, quadratus lumborum, psoas, anterolateral abdominal, and rectus abdominis muscles were measured. Multifidus CSA decreased by day 14 of bed rest (F = 7.4, P = 0.04). The lumbar erector spinae and quadratus lumborum CSA showed no statistically significant difference to baseline across the time of bed rest (P > 0.05). The anterolateral abdominal, rectus abdominis, and psoas CSA all increased over this time. Psoas CSA increased by day 14 (F = 6.9, P = 0.047) and remained so until day 56, whereas the anterolateral abdominal CSA (F = 29.4, P = 0.003) and rectus abdominis CSA (F = 8.9, P = 0.03) were not statistically larger than baseline until day 56. On reambulation after completion of the bed rest phase, multifidus, anterolateral abdominal, and rectus abdominis CSA returned to baseline levels (P > 0.05) by day 4 of follow-up, whereas psoas CSA returned to baseline level after day 28 of the follow-up period. Bed rest resulted in selective atrophy of the multifidus muscle. An increased CSA of the trunk flexor musculature (increases in psoas, anterolateral abdominal, and rectus abdominis muscles) may reflect muscle shortening or possible overactivity during bed rest. Some of the changes resemble those seen in low back pain and may in part explain the negative effects of bed rest seen in low back pain sufferers.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging quantitation of changes in muscle volume during 7 days of strict bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A A; Stuart, C A; Brunder, D G; Hillman, G R

    1995-10-01

    Prolonged bed rest results in a loss of leg lean body mass. Previous studies using bed rest as a model for microgravity have shown decreases in leg mass after 12 and 14 d, 5 and 17 wk. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide a precise and non-invasive means of determining muscle volume, we sought to determine if changes in leg muscle volume could be detected in bed rest periods as short as 7 d. Five young, healthy, male volunteers were subjected to 7 d of absolute bed rest. Each subject underwent MRI quantitation of segmental muscle volumes of the calves and thighs before and after bed rest. Eleven (calf) and nine (thigh) contiguous 1-cm thick transaxial images were generated over prescribed regions using a Technicare MRI imager with a 0.6T superconducting magnet and body coil. Image processing was performed using a generalized 8-bit medical image analysis package developed at University of Texas Medical Branch. Images were analyzed for muscle and non-muscle volumes (including fat, blood vessel, and bone marrow volumes). The MRI quantitation demonstrated bed rest-induced significant decreases in segmental thigh muscle (approximately 3.0%, p image analysis of MRI images provides a sensitive tool capable of detecting leg volume changes of as little as 3.0% over a 7-d period of strict bed rest.

  2. Hydrologic controls on junction angle of river networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshyar, Milad; Singh, Arvind; Wang, Dingbao

    2017-05-01

    The formation and growth of river channels and their network evolution are governed by the erosional and depositional processes operating on the landscape due to the movement of water. The branching angles, i.e., the angle between two adjoining channels, in drainage networks are important features related to the network topology and contain valuable information about the forming mechanisms of the landscape. Based on the channel networks extracted from 1 m Digital Elevation Models of 120 catchments with minimal human impacts across the United States, we show that the junction angles have two distinct modes with α1¯≈49.5° and α2¯≈75.0°. The observed angles are physically explained as the optimal angles that result in minimum energy dissipation and are linked to the exponent characterizing the slope-area curve. Our findings suggest that the flow regimes, debris-flow dominated or fluvial, have distinct characteristic angles which are functions of the scaling exponent of the slope-area curve. These findings enable us to understand the geomorphic signature of hydrologic processes on drainage networks and develop more refined landscape evolution models.

  3. Contact angle control of sessile drops on a tensioned web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Janghoon; Kim, Dongguk; Lee, Changwoo

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the influence of the change of tension applied to flexible and thin web substrate on the contact angle of sessile drop in roll-to-roll system was investigated. Graphene oxide and deionized water solutions were used in the experiments. Tension was changed to 29, 49, and 69 N, and the casting distance of the micropipette and the material was set to 10, 20, and 40 mm, and the droplet volume was set to 10, 20, and 30 μL, respectively. Statistical analysis of three variables and analysis of the variance methodology showed that the casting distance was most significant for the contact angle change, and the most interesting tension variable was also affected. The change in tension caused the maximum contact angle to change by 5.5°. The tension was not uniform in the width direction. When the droplet was applied in the same direction in the width direction, it was confirmed that the tension unevenness had great influence on the contact angle up to 11°. Finally, the casting distance, which has a large effect on the contact angle, was calibrated in the width direction to reduce the width direction contact angle deviation to 1%. This study can be applied to fine patterning research using continuous inkjet printing and aerosol jet printing, which are roll-to-roll processes based on droplet handling.

  4. Effects of five days of bed rest with intermittent centrifugation on neurovestibular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, G; Bareille, M P; Goel, R; Linnarsson, D; Mulder, E; Paloski, W H; Rittweger, J; Wuyts, F L; Zange, J

    2015-03-01

    We tested whether intermittent short-radius centrifugation was effective for mitigating alteration in balance and gait following bed rest. Ten male subjects were exposed to 5 days of 6° head-down tilt bed rest with: (a) no countermeasure; (b) daily 1-g centrifugation for a continuous 30-min period; and (c) daily 1-g centrifugation for six periods of 5 min. During and after the bed rest, subjects were asked to scale the severity of neurovestibular symptoms that followed centrifugation or 80° head-up tilt. Following the bed rest, equilibrium scores were derived from anterior-posterior sway while standing on a foam pad with the eyes open or closed while making pitch head movements, and gait was evaluated by grading subjects' performance during various locomotion tasks. At the beginning of bed rest, one single 30-min period of centrifugation induced more severe neurovestibular symptoms than six periods of 5-min centrifugation. After bed rest, although equilibrium scores and gait performance were not significantly altered, subjects felt less neurovestibular dysfunction with orthostatic stress when centrifugation was used. Centrifugation was effective at reducing the severity of neurovestibular symptoms after bed rest, but this decrease was not different between one or multiple daily sessions.

  5. Contact angles of wetting and water stability of soil structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, V. A.; Yaroslavtseva, N. V.; Yashin, M. A.; Frid, A. S.; Lazarev, V. I.; Tyugai, Z. N.; Milanovskiy, E. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    From the soddy-podzolic soils and typical chernozems of different texture and land use, dry 3-1 mm aggregates were isolated and sieved in water. As a result, water-stable aggregates and water-unstable particles composing dry 3-1 mm aggregates were obtained. These preparations were ground, and contact angles of wetting were determined by the static sessile drop method. The angles varied from 11° to 85°. In most cases, the values of the angles for the water-stable aggregates significantly exceeded those for the water-unstable components. In terms of carbon content in structural units, there was no correlation between these parameters. When analyzing the soil varieties separately, the significant positive correlation between the carbon content and contact angle of aggregates was revealed only for the loamy-clayey typical chernozem. Based on the multivariate analysis of variance, the value of contact wetting angle was shown to be determined by the structural units belonging to water-stable or water-unstable components of macroaggregates and by the land use type. In addition, along with these parameters, the texture has an indirect effect.

  6. Transcriptional activation of REST by Sp1 in Huntington's disease models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Ravache

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Huntington's disease (HD, mutant huntingtin (mHtt disrupts the normal transcriptional program of disease neurons by altering the function of several gene expression regulators such as Sp1. REST (Repressor Element-1 Silencing Transcription Factor, a key regulator of neuronal differentiation, is also aberrantly activated in HD by a mechanism that remains unclear. Here, we show that the level of REST mRNA is increased in HD mice and in NG108 cells differentiated into neuronal-like cells and expressing a toxic mHtt fragment. Using luciferase reporter gene assay, we delimited the REST promoter regions essential for mHtt-mediated REST upregulation and found that they contain Sp factor binding sites. We provide evidence that Sp1 and Sp3 bind REST promoter and interplay to fine-tune REST transcription. In undifferentiated NG108 cells, Sp1 and Sp3 have antagonistic effect, Sp1 acting as an activator and Sp3 as a repressor. Upon neuronal differentiation, we show that the amount and ratio of Sp1/Sp3 proteins decline, as does REST expression, and that the transcriptional role of Sp3 shifts toward a weak activator. Therefore, our results provide new molecular information to the transcriptional regulation of REST during neuronal differentiation. Importantly, specific knockdown of Sp1 abolishes REST upregulation in NG108 neuronal-like cells expressing mHtt. Our data together with earlier reports suggest that mHtt triggers a pathogenic cascade involving Sp1 activation, which leads to REST upregulation and repression of neuronal genes.

  7. Dispersion of Love Waves in a Composite Layer Resting on Monoclinic Half-Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar Saha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dispersion of Love waves is studied in a fibre-reinforced layer resting on monoclinic half-space. The wave velocity equation has been obtained for a fiber-reinforced layer resting on monoclinic half space. Shear wave velocity ratio curve for Love waves has been shown graphically for fibre reinforced material layer resting on various monoclinic half-spaces. In a similar way, shear wave velocity ratio curve for Love waves has been plotted for an isotropic layer resting on various monoclinic half-spaces. From these curves, it has been observed that the curves are of similar type for a fibre reinforced layer resting on monoclinic half-spaces, and the shear wave velocity ratio ranges from 1.14 to 7.19, whereas for the case isotropic layer, this range varies from 1.0 to 2.19.

  8. Comparison of the Effects of Seated, Supine, and Walking Interset Rest Strategies on Work Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Kristen A; Brusseau, Timothy A; Davidson, Lance E; Ford, Candus N; Hatfield, Disa L; Shaw, Janet M; Eisenman, Patricia A

    2016-12-01

    Ouellette, KA, Brusseau, TA, Davidson, LE, Ford, CN, Hatfield, DL, Shaw, JM, and Eisenman, PA. Comparison of the effects of seated, supine, and walking interset rest strategies on work rate. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3396-3404, 2016-The idea that an upright posture should be maintained during the interset rest periods of training sessions is pervasive. The primary aim of this study was to determine differences in work rate associated with 3 interset rest strategies. Male and female members of the CrossFit community (male n = 5, female n = 10) were recruited to perform a strenuous training session designed to enhance work capacity that involved both cardiovascular and muscular endurance exercises. The training session was repeated on 3 separate occasions to evaluate 3 interset rest strategies, which included lying supine on the floor, sitting on a flat bench, and walking on a treadmill (0.67 m·s). Work rate was calculated for each training session by summing session joules of work and dividing by the time to complete the training session (joules of work per second). Data were also collected during the interset rest periods (heart rate [HR], respiratory rate [RR], and volume of oxygen consumed) and were used to explain why one rest strategy may positively impact work rate compared with another. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between the passive and active rest strategies, with the passive strategies allowing for improved work rate (supine = 62.77 ± 7.32, seated = 63.66 ± 8.37, and walking = 60.61 ± 6.42 average joules of work per second). Results also suggest that the passive strategies resulted in superior HR, RR, and oxygen consumption recovery. In conclusion, work rate and physiological recovery were enhanced when supine and seated interset rest strategies were used compared with walking interset rest.

  9. Antecedents and outcomes of nurses' rest break organization: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendsche, Johannes; Ghadiri, Argang; Bengsch, Amelie; Wegge, Jürgen

    2017-10-01

    To prevent an accumulation of strain during work and to reduce error risk, many countries have made rest breaks mandatory. In the nursing literature, insufficient rest break organization is often reported. However, the outcomes of nurses' rest break organization and its anteceding factors are less clear. We searched for academic literature on nurses' rest break organization in electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, PsycArticles, PsycINFO, CINAHL). Our search yielded 93 potentially relevant articles published between 01/1990 and 04/2016. The final sample in our scoping review consisted of 36 publications and included data from 35 independent and international study samples and two reviews. Several studies reported a high prevalence of missed, interrupted, or delayed rest breaks in nursing. Nurses' rest breaks often related to better physical and mental well-being but did not affect motivational outcomes and performance systematically. Results on the effects of napping breaks were inconsistent. Rest break activities and high quality rest break areas are further factors that relieve nurses from job demands and can be helpful in coping with them. Several study results indicated that temporal and quantitative work demands, job resources, and individual characteristics influence rest break organization. However, most of these findings stem from studies that do not allow causal conclusions to be drawn. Well-designed rest breaks influence nurses' occupational well-being and behavior positively. However, the mechanisms and moderating break-, work-, and person-related factors involved in producing these effects are not well understood today. Thus, further theory building and stronger empirical data are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Angle-of-attack estimation for analysis of CAT encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, R. E., Jr.; Parks, E. K.

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies of clear-air turbulence (CAT) encounters involving wide-body airliners have been based upon flight-path wind estimates made by analyzing digital flight-data-recorder (DFDR) records and radar records. Such estimates require a time history of the aircraft angle of attack, a record that is not usually included in the DFDR measurement set. This paper describes a method for reconstructing angle of attack that utilizes available flight record and aircraft-specific information associated with an aerodynamic model of the lift coefficient. Results from two wide-body incidents in which vane measurements of angle of attack were recorded show good agreement between measured and calculated time histories. This research has been performed in cooperation with the National Transportation Safety Board to provide a better understanding of the CAT phenomenon.

  11. Angles of Elevation of the Pyramids of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arthur F.

    1982-01-01

    The nature and history of the construction of pyramids in Egypt is detailed. It is noted that one can only theorize about why the Egyptians used particular angles of elevation. It is thought, perhaps, that new clues will provide a clear solution to this mystery as additional artifacts and hieroglyphics are discovered. (MP)

  12. Scoliosis angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, T.

    1978-01-01

    The most commonly used methods of assessing the scoliotic deviation measure angles that are not clearly defined in relation to the anatomy of the patient. In order to give an anatomic basis for such measurements it is proposed to define the scoliotic deviation as the deviation the vertebral column makes with the sagittal plane. Both the Cobb and the Ferguson angles may be based on this definition. The present methods of measurement are then attempts to measure these angles. If the plane of these angles is parallel to the film, the measurement will be correct. Errors in the measurements may be incurred by the projection. A hypothetical projection, called a 'rectified orthogonal projection', is presented, which correctly represents all scoliotic angles in accordance with these principles. It can be constructed in practice with the aid of a computer and by performing measurements on two projections of the vertebral column; a scoliotic curve can be represented independent of the kyphosis and lordosis. (Auth.)

  13. Evaluation of Various Cardiac Indices and ROC Analysis in Coronary Artery Disease Employing Resting ECG Gated Blood Pool Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Sang Eun; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Park, Young Bae; Seo, Jung Don; Lee, Young Woo; Koh, Chang Soon

    1992-01-01

    Gated blood pool scan is frequently used for evaluating the change in cardiac function in various cardiac diseases. But resting gated blood pool scan using only LVEF as a cardiac index has been consistently shown to have a low sensitivity, which is about 50%, in detecting coronary artery disease. So it is recommended to compare exercise gated blood pool scan to resting gated blood pool scan. Exercise tests, however, are not always possible, especially in patients with musculoskeletal diseases, recent myocardial infarction and in elderly persons. We studied the usefulness of resting gated blood pool scan using multiple indices in evaluating the patients with coronary artery disease. Studied cases were 185 patients with coronary artery disease (angina pectoris 31, myocardial infarction 154) and 25 normals with low likelihood of coronary artery disease. We used 99m Tc-labeled RBC, 740 MBq labeled by in vivo method. The data were evaluated by Micro DELTA computer program. The results were as following: 1) The ejection rates (PER, AER) and filling rates (PFR, AFR) were different in normals and patients with angina pectoris or myocardial infarction. 2) Mean phase angle, ejection rates and filling rates could separate normals from coronary artery disease patients with normal LVEF. 3) Regional ejection fraction was decreased at the site of the infarct in patients with myocardial infarction. 4) Peak filling rate was the most detectable index in evaluation of cardiac function in patients with coronary artery disease. 5) The threshold at 1.5 standard deviation of normal range was considered as the most reliable cut-off value from ROC analysis. These data suggest that the resting gated blood pool scan has an important role in the evaluation of cardiac functional changes using various cardiac indices in patients with coronary artery disease.

  14. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest on Brain Functional Connectivity and Sensorimotor Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, K.; Koppelmans, V.; De Dios, Y.; Stepanyan, V.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S.; Reuter-Lorenz, P.; Castenada, R. Riascos; Kofman, I.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight has been associated with detrimental alterations in human sensorimotor functioning. Prolonged exposure to a head-down tilt (HDT) position during long duration bed rest can resemble several effects of the microgravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The question of whether microgravity affects other central nervous system functions such as brain functional connectivity and its relationship with behavior is largely unknown, but of importance to the health and performance of astronauts both during and post-flight. In the present study, we investigate the effects of prolonged exposure to HDT bed rest on resting state brain functional connectivity and its association with behavioral changes in 17 male participants. To validate that our findings were not due to confounding factors such as time or task practice, we also acquired resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and behavioral measurements from 14 normative control participants at four time points. Bed rest participants remained in bed with their heads tilted down six degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Rs-fMRI and behavioral data were obtained at seven time points averaging around: 12 and 8 days prior to bed rest; 7, 50, and 70 days during bed rest; and 8 and 12 days after bed rest. 70 days of HDT bed rest resulted in significant increases in functional connectivity during bed rest followed by a reversal of changes in the post bed rest recovery period between motor cortical and somatosensory areas of the brain. In contrast, decreases in connectivity were observed between temporoparietal regions. Furthermore, post-hoc correlation analyses revealed a significant relationship between motor-somatosensory network connectivity and standing balance performance changes; participants that exhibited the greatest increases in connectivity strength showed the least deterioration in postural

  15. Cancer of the colon spleen angle. Presentation of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Sanchez, Yariana; De la Rosa Perez, Nereida; Barcelo Casanova, Renato E

    2010-01-01

    The colon cancer is currently an important public health problem in developed countries. It is the fourth most common cancer in the world. We report the case of a 65-years-old, black, female patient, assisting our consultation with dyspeptic disturbances as the unique symptom, without known risk factors. We indicated a colon by enema and a distal narrowing was observed at the colon spleen angle, at the same zone of the physiologic narrowing at that level. A colonoscopy was carried out diagnosing a left colon tumor near the spleen angle. It was operated with segmental resection of the spleen angle and a biopsy was made. Pathologic anatomy informed a well-differentiated colon adenocarcinoma

  16. Qualitative assessment of anorectal junction levels and anorectal angles to investigate functional differences between constipation and fecal incontinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, S.I.; Somers, S.; Anvari, M.; Stevenson, G.W.; Waterfall, W.E.; Huizinga, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Female patients consecutively referred for defecography, with either chronic constipation or incontinence, were assessed for posterior anorectal angle and anorectal junction level as measured from the ischial tuberosities. The clinical groups did not differ in grades of rectoceles, enteroceles, or intussusception. Both constipated and incontinent patients had a low resting anorectal junction position compared with that of volunteers, indicating a stretched pelvic floor. Despite this, the constipated patients achieved a similar degree of lift of the pelvic floor on squeezing as controls, and they also showed significant angle changes on lifting and straining. Incontinent patients showed a significantly smaller amount of lift than controls, a significantly larger descent than constipated patients, and no angle changes on lifting and straining. These data are consistent with significantly weaker pelvic floor muscles in incontinent compared with constipated patients, despite a similar degree of stretching

  17. Reliability of the ATD Angle in Dermatoglyphic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunson, Emily K; Hohnan, Darryl J; Giovas, Christina M

    2015-09-01

    The "ATD" angle is a dermatoglyphic trait formed by drawing lines between the triradii below the first and last digits and the most proximal triradius on the hypothenar region of the palm. This trait has been widely used in dermatoglyphic studies, but several researchers have questioned its utility, specifically whether or not it can be measured reliably. The purpose of this research was to examine the measurement reliability of this trait. Finger and palm prints were taken using the carbon paper and tape method from the right and left hands of 100 individuals. Each "ATD" angle was read twice, at different times, by Reader A, using a goniometer and a magnifying glass, and three times by a Reader B, using Adobe Photoshop. Inter-class correlation coefficients were estimated for the intra- and inter-reader measurements of the "ATD" angles. Reader A was able to quantify ATD angles on 149 out of 200 prints (74.5%), and Reader B on 179 out of 200 prints (89.5%). Both readers agreed on whether an angle existed on a print 89.8% of the time for the right hand and 78.0% for the left. Intra-reader correlations were 0.97 or greater for both readers. Inter-reader correlations for "ATD" angles measured by both readers ranged from 0.92 to 0.96. These results suggest that the "ATD" angle can be measured reliably, and further imply that measurement using a software program may provide an advantage over other methods.

  18. Analysis of exercise-to-rest ratios during division IA televised football competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosia, Mikaele F; Bishop, Phillip A

    2008-03-01

    A play in football is speculated to last 3 to 5 seconds. There are few if any peer-reviewed studies determining the exercise-to-rest ratios of a televised National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division IA college football competition. In this study, we measured the duration of a play, rest intervals between plays, and series of plays. The results of this study may aid strength and conditioning professionals in developing appropriate conditioning programs for their teams that compete on television based on appropriate exercise-to-rest ration training. Durations may have been influenced by the style of offense. Style of play for this study was determined to be running (RUN), passing (PASS), or balanced (BAL). Two NCAA Division IA teams were selected for each style of play based on their offensive production from the 2004 season. The average duration of a play was 5.23 +/- 1.7 seconds. Durations of RUN and PASS plays were 4.86 +/- 1.4 and 5.60 +/- 1.7 seconds, respectively. Durations related to style for RUN, PASS, and BAL were 4.84 +/- 1.4, 5.41 +/- 1.6, and 5.44 +/- 1.6 seconds, respectively. Duration of rest between plays was 46.9 +/- 34 seconds, including extended rest periods such as time outs and injury attention. The average duration of rest between plays without extended rest was 36.1 +/- 6.7 seconds. Average rest time between series was 11:39 +/- 4:19 minutes. The average duration of a PASS play was significantly different (P < 0.05) than that of a RUN play. The average duration of a play for PASS was significantly different (P < 0.05) from that of RUN and BAL. There was no significant difference between style of play and duration of rest between plays or series.

  19. Discriminating electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamam, Rafif E.; Bermel, Peter; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Yeng, Adrian Y. X.; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Joannopoulos, John D.

    2015-06-16

    The present invention provides systems, articles, and methods for discriminating electromagnetic radiation based upon the angle of incidence of the electromagnetic radiation. In some cases, the materials and systems described herein can be capable of inhibiting reflection of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., the materials and systems can be capable of transmitting and/or absorbing electromagnetic radiation) within a given range of angles of incidence at a first incident surface, while substantially reflecting electromagnetic radiation outside the range of angles of incidence at a second incident surface (which can be the same as or different from the first incident surface). A photonic material comprising a plurality of periodically occurring separate domains can be used, in some cases, to selectively transmit and/or selectively absorb one portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation while reflecting another portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation, based upon the angle of incidence. In some embodiments, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic dielectric function, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic dielectric function. In some instances, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic magnetic permeability, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic magnetic permeability. In some embodiments, non-photonic materials (e.g., materials with relatively large scale features) can be used to selectively absorb incoming electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence.

  20. The Importance of REST for Development and Function of Beta Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, David; Grapin-Botton, Anne

    2017-01-01

    these, the transcriptional repressor RE-1 Silencing Transcription factor (REST) is expressed in most cells of the body, excluding most populations of neurons, as well as pancreatic beta and alpha cells. In the cell types where it is expressed, REST represses the expression of hundreds of genes......Beta cells are defined by the genes they express, many of which are specific to this cell type, and ensure a specific set of functions. Beta cells are also defined by a set of genes they should not express (in order to function properly), and these genes have been called forbidden genes. Among...... is expressed in the progenitors of both neurons and beta cells during development, but it is down-regulated as the cells differentiate. Although REST mutations and deregulation have yet to be connected to diabetes in humans, REST activation during both development and in adult beta cells leads to diabetes...

  1. Association of iris crypts with acute primary angle closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Victor; Chua, Jacqueline; Shi, Yuan; Thakku, Sri Gowtham; Lee, Ryan; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Baskaran, Mani; Kumar, Rajesh S; Perera, Shamira; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2017-10-01

    To determine the relationship between iris surface features and acute primary angle closure (APAC) in eyes with angle closure. Case-control study involving Asian patients diagnosed with previous APAC, primary angle closure suspect (PACS), primary angle closure (PAC) and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) at an eye centre in Singapore between August 2012 and January 2015. Participants underwent ophthalmic examination and digital slit-lamp iris photography. Iris surface features were graded based on crypts, furrows and colour. Fellow eyes of APAC were compared with PACS and PAC/PACG eyes with regard to their iris surface features. Occurrence of APAC. A total of 309 patients (71 APAC, 139 PACS, 47 PAC and 52 PACG) were included (mean age: 67.7±7.2 years and 36.6% male). Compared with PACS, higher crypt grade was significantly associated with lower odds of APAC (OR=0.58 for one grade higher in crypt grade; p=0.027, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity and pupil diameter). The results remained similar when compared with PAC/PACG group (OR=0.58 for one grade higher in crypt grade; p=0.043). We did not observe any significant associations between iris furrows or colour with presence of APAC. Our study comprising Asian eyes with angle closure suggests that the presence of a higher crypt grading may be protective for APAC. As such, assessing iris surface architecture for crypts could be a new measure for risk stratification of developing APAC in eyes with angle closure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Angles of total shifts and angles of maxumum crop during development of faces diagonal to seam strike directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. А. Колесник

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When predicting deformations and determining measures to protect underworked objects, angular parameters are used: the boundary angles, the angles of total shift, the angle of maximum crop. The values of these angular parameters are given in the normative documents, but only for sections across and along the strike of the formation. However, at present, longwall face mining is mainly being carried out along a diagonal direction to the strike of the formation. In connection with this, the determination of the values of the angular parameters for such conditions is a topical task.The method of determination and the analytical dependences of the angles of total shifts and angles of maximum crop in sections of the longitudinal and transverse axes of coal-mining faces developed along diagonal directions to the strike of the formation are proposed. These angular parameters are used for prognosis of deformations of the earth's surface and for determining the characteristic zones of influence of mine workings on the local places.

  3. Analysis of the changing Solar Radiation Angle on Hainan Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Zhiwu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the only tropical provinces in China, Hainan province has advantageous geographical location, and abundant solar energy resources. But because of Local ideas and habits, especially the lack of theoretical research on local solar resources, development and application of solar energy in Hainan is almost blank. In this paper, we studied the variation regularity of sunlight angle on Hainan tropical island, analyzed the revolution and rotation of the earth, and the change rule of sunlight angle caused by the sun’s movement between the tropic of cancer and the tropic of capricorn, deduced the change rule of sunlight angle in the spring equinox, the autumnal equinox, summer solstice and winter solstice day, and got the movement rules of solar elevation angle throughout the year. Theoretic analysis is consistent with field measurement results. These rules are of importance and can effectively guide the local People’s daily life and production, such as the reasonable layout of the buildings, floor distance between different heights of buildings, the direction of the lighting windows of tall buildings, installation angle of photovoltaic panels, and other similar solar energy absorbing and conversion equipment.

  4. Stability of whole brain and regional network topology within and between resting and cognitive states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzucidlo, Justyna K; Roseman, Paige L; Laurienti, Paul J; Dagenbach, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Graph-theory based analyses of resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data have been used to map the network organization of the brain. While numerous analyses of resting state brain organization exist, many questions remain unexplored. The present study examines the stability of findings based on this approach over repeated resting state and working memory state sessions within the same individuals. This allows assessment of stability of network topology within the same state for both rest and working memory, and between rest and working memory as well. fMRI scans were performed on five participants while at rest and while performing the 2-back working memory task five times each, with task state alternating while they were in the scanner. Voxel-based whole brain network analyses were performed on the resulting data along with analyses of functional connectivity in regions associated with resting state and working memory. Network topology was fairly stable across repeated sessions of the same task, but varied significantly between rest and working memory. In the whole brain analysis, local efficiency, Eloc, differed significantly between rest and working memory. Analyses of network statistics for the precuneus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex revealed significant differences in degree as a function of task state for both regions and in local efficiency for the precuneus. Conversely, no significant differences were observed across repeated sessions of the same state. These findings suggest that network topology is fairly stable within individuals across time for the same state, but also fluid between states. Whole brain voxel-based network analyses may prove to be a valuable tool for exploring how functional connectivity changes in response to task demands.

  5. Nuclear retention of multiply spliced HIV-1 RNA in resting CD4+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara G Lassen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 latency in resting CD4+ T cells represents a major barrier to virus eradication in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. We describe here a novel post-transcriptional block in HIV-1 gene expression in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART. This block involves the aberrant localization of multiply spliced (MS HIV-1 RNAs encoding the critical positive regulators Tat and Rev. Although these RNAs had no previously described export defect, we show that they exhibit strict nuclear localization in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART. Overexpression of the transcriptional activator Tat from non-HIV vectors allowed virus production in these cells. Thus, the nuclear retention of MS HIV-1 RNA interrupts a positive feedback loop and contributes to the non-productive nature of infection of resting CD4+ T cells. To define the mechanism of nuclear retention, proteomic analysis was used to identify proteins that bind MS HIV-1 RNA. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB was identified as an HIV-1 RNA-binding protein differentially expressed in resting and activated CD4+ T cells. Overexpression of PTB in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART allowed cytoplasmic accumulation of HIV-1 RNAs. PTB overexpression also induced virus production by resting CD4+ T cells. Virus culture experiments showed that overexpression of PTB in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART allowed release of replication-competent virus, while preserving a resting cellular phenotype. Whether through effects on RNA export or another mechanism, the ability of PTB to reverse latency without inducing cellular activation is a result with therapeutic implications.

  6. Numerical simulation of the effects of variation of angle of attack and sweep angle on vortex breakdown over delta wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekaterinaris, J. A.; Schiff, Lewis B.

    1990-01-01

    In the present investigation of the vortical flowfield structure over delta wings at high angles of attack, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical simulations were conducted to predict the complex leeward flowfield characteristics; these encompass leading-edge separation, secondary separation, and vortex breakdown. Attention is given to the effect on solution accuracy of circumferential grid-resolution variations in the vicinity of the wing leading edge, and well as to the effect of turbulence modeling on the solutions. When a critical angle-of-attack was reached, bubble-type vortex breakdown was found. With further angle-of-attack increase, a change from bubble-type to spiral-type vortex breakdown was predicted by the numerical solution.

  7. Experimental evaluation of the influence of various rests on task performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasaka, Akihiko; Hirose, Ayako [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    This report deals with the result of the experiment that 8 subjects had executed adding task and search task. They executed each task in 80 minutes under 5 conditions: (1) with no rest, and with 4 kinds of 20 minutes rests, in which they (2) opened eyes, (3) closed eyes, (4) closed eyes with listening classic music and (5) closed eyes with feet massage, in the middle of the task. The results of analysis of variance with the task performance in the latter half, there were significant differences between each condition with every subject in adding task, and with 6 subjects in search task. However, the orders of the task performance with each condition were not the same by each subject. It was suggested that transition of the arousal levels under the rest was related to the effects of the rest rather than the subjects' taste in rests. In the rest, the percentage of {alpha} wave of electroencephalogram and the coefficient of variation of R-R interval (time interval of heart beats) were increased than in executing task. The mean Kendall's rank correlation of coefficient with the order of increase rate of {alpha}/{beta} wave and the task performance in the latter half was slightly negative in adding task, but was about 0.4 in search task. From these results, about six requirements for 'an effective rest' were able to be mentioned, for example, 'the devices that raises the arousal levels is carried out just before a rest end'. (author)

  8. Numerical study of hub taper angle on podded propeller performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.F.; Veitch, B.; Bose, N.; Liu, P.

    2005-01-01

    Presently, the majority of podded propulsion systems are of the pulling type, because this type provides better hydrodynamic efficiency than the pushing type. There are several possible explanations for the better overall performance of a puller type podded propulsor. One is related to the difference in hub shape. Puller and pusher propellers have opposite hub taper angles, hence different hub and blade root shape. These differences cause changes in the flow condition and possibly influence the overall performance. The current study focuses on the variation in performance of pusher and puller propellers with the same blade sections, but different hub taper angles. A hyperboloidal low order source doublet steady/unsteady time domain panel method code was modified and used to evaluate effects of hub taper angle on the open water propulsive performance of some fixed pitch screw propellers used in podded propulsion systems. The modified code was first validated against measurements of two model propellers in terms of average propulsive performance and good agreement was found. Major findings include significant effects of hub taper angle on propulsive performance of tapered hub propellers and noticeable effects of hub taper angle on sectional pressure distributions of tapered hub propeller blades. (author)

  9. Contact angles of nanodrops on chemically rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berim, Gersh O; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2009-08-18

    The experimental observations of Gao and McCarthy [Gao, L.; McCarthy, T. Langmuir, 2007, 23, 3762] that only the interfacial area near the leading edges of the drop on physically smooth but chemically rough solid surfaces affects the contact angle and that most of the contact area has no effect is checked for nanodrops on the basis of a density functional theory. The contact angle was calculated for three cases: (i) the leading edges of the drops are located on much higher or (ii) much lower hydrophobic surfaces than the remaining surface beneath the drop; (iii) the surface is composed of a periodic array of two kinds of stripelike solid plates. In the first two cases, if the distance between the leading edges and the region which has higher or lower hydrophobicity is sufficiently large, there is agreement with the experiments mentioned. However, when those distances are sufficiently small, the internal part affects the value of the angle. In the third case, we found that the internal part always affects the wetting angle. All these peculiarities, as well as the contact angle hysteresis, can be explained by accounting for the local conditions in the vicinity of the leading edges of the drop.

  10. The impact of "physiological correction" on functional connectivity analysis of pharmacological resting state fMRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalili-Mahani, N.; Chang, C.; Osch, M.J.; Veer, I.M.; van Buchem, M.A.; Dahan, A.; Beckmann, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Growing interest in pharmacological resting state fMRI (RSfMRI) necessitates developing standardized and robust analytical approaches that are insensitive to spurious correlated physiological signals. However, in pharmacological experiments physiological variations constitute an important aspect of

  11. Development of spin echo small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouwman, W.G.; Uca, O.; Van Oossanen, M.; Kraan, W.H.; Rekveldt, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    A novel kind of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument is being built, based on the Larmor precession of polarised neutrons in a magnetic field. A spin echo of the polarised neutrons is used to detect the scattering. The basis of this instrument is a symmetric set-up with a spin flipper in the centre, which creates a spin echo, even with a divergent beam. The precession regions on either side of the spin flipper are shaped such to produce a very sensitive relation between the vertical angle of the neutron path and the total precession angle on one side. Any SANS of a sample placed in the instrument changes the symmetry of the neutron path and therefore decreases the echo. This amounts to measuring only the difference of the incoming and outgoing angle. This gives a huge increase in intensity of the signal with respect to conventional SANS in which both incoming and outgoing angle are defined. Magnetised foils, which rotate the neutron spin between being parallel to the magnetic field and perpendicular to the field are used to start or terminate the precession. With a preliminary set-up the first spin echo SANS signal have been measured. A full correlation function in samples over distances from 5 to 1000 nm is expected to be measured in some minutes. (author)

  12. Exercise Effects on the Course of Gray Matter Changes Over 70 Days of Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelmans, V.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.; DeDios, Y. E.; Wood, S. J.; Reuter-Lorenz, P. A.; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight affects posture control, locomotion, and manual control. The microgravity environment is an important causal factor for spaceflight induced sensorimotor changes through direct effects on peripheral changes that result from reduced vestibular stimulation and body unloading. Effects of microgravity on sensorimotor function have been investigated on earth using bed rest studies. Long duration bed rest serves as a space-flight analogue because it mimics microgravity in body unloading and bodily fluid shifts. It has been hypothesized that the cephalad fluid shift that has been observed in microgravity could potentially affect central nervous system function and structure, and thereby indirectly affect sensorimotor or cognitive functioning. Preliminary results of one of our ongoing studies indeed showed that 70 days of long duration head down-tilt bed rest results in focal changes in gray matter volume from pre-bed rest to various time points during bed rest. These gray matter changes that could reflect fluid shifts as well as neuroplasticity were related to decrements in motor skills such as maintenance of equilibrium. In consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers both inand post-flight we are currently conducting a study that investigates the potential preventive effects of exercise on gray matter and motor performance changes that we observed over the course of bed rest. Numerous studies have shown beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on brain structure and cognitive performance in healthy and demented subjects over a large age range. We therefore hypothesized that an exercise intervention in bed rest could potentially mitigate or prevent the effects of bed rest on the central nervous system. Here we present preliminary outcomes of our study.

  13. Estimation of Upper Limb Joint Angle Using Surface EMG Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Mon Aung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the development of robot-assisted rehabilitation systems for upper limb rehabilitation therapy, human electromyogram (EMG is widely used due to its ability to detect the user intended motion. EMG is one kind of biological signal that can be recorded to evaluate the performance of skeletal muscles by means of a sensor electrode. Based on recorded EMG signals, user intended motion could be extracted via estimation of joint torque, force or angle. Therefore, this estimation becomes one of the most important factors to achieve accurate user intended motion. In this paper, an upper limb joint angle estimation methodology is proposed. A back propagation neural network (BPNN is developed to estimate the shoulder and elbow joint angles from the recorded EMG signals. A Virtual Human Model (VHM is also developed and integrated with BPNN to perform the simulation of the estimated angle. The relationships between sEMG signals and upper limb movements are observed in this paper. The effectiveness of our developments is evaluated with four healthy subjects and a VHM simulation. The results show that the methodology can be used in the estimation of joint angles based on EMG.

  14. Scattering-angle based filtering of the waveform inversion gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-11-22

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach to maneuver the complex non-linearity associated with the problem of velocity update. In anisotropic media, the non-linearity becomes far more complex with the potential trade-off between the multiparameter description of the model. A gradient filter helps us in accessing the parts of the gradient that are suitable to combat the potential non-linearity and parameter trade-off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which the low scattering angle of the gradient update is initially muted out in the FWI implementation, in what we may refer to as a scattering angle continuation process. The result is a low wavelength update dominated by the transmission part of the update gradient. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce vertically near-zero wavenumber updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Relaxing the filtering at a later stage in the FWI implementation allows for smaller scattering angles to contribute higher-resolution information to the model. The benefits of the extended domain based filtering of the gradient is not only it\\'s ability in providing low wavenumber gradients guided by the scattering angle, but also in its potential to provide gradients free of unphysical energy that may correspond to unrealistic scattering angles.

  15. Frequency of unerupted mandibular third molar in mandibular angle fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, M.M.; Abbas, I.; Abbas, I.; Khan, N.; Hameed, H.; Zulfiqar, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fractures of the mandibular angle are common and comprise 31% of all mandibular fractures. Multiple recent studies report a 2-3 fold increased risk for mandibular angle fractures when un-erupted mandibular third molars are present. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of un-erupted mandibular third molar in mandibular angle fractures. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad from April to October 2009. One hundred and two patients were included both from the outdoor and ward on consecutive non-probability sampling base. Data were recorded on a structured Performa and analysed using SPSS-16. Results: A hemi-mandible containing un-erupted mandibular third molar was seen to have a 1.41 times the risk of mandibular angle fracture then a hemi-mandible containing an erupted mandibular third molar. Conclusion: The presence of unerupted mandibular third molar is associated with an increased risk for mandibular angle fracture. (author)

  16. Application of optical techniques in documentation and identification of archaeological rests: the case study of the Roman bronze rest found in Lucentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, L.; Diaz, F.; Dominguez, R.; Hervás, J.; Simón, S.; Pérez, E.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper it will be presented a case study of the optical technologies applicated to archaeology. This case study is centered in the main actions executed on an extraordinary rest appeared in the excavations of the Roman forum of Lucentum (Alicante, Spain) in 2005. This rest is a fragment of a bronze sculpture, and is catalogued as a Unicum (that is, a sample that presents some singular elements with no comparison with other samples, in this case of the Roman Art). That sample represents the only part that is conserved so far of that statue. This paper will explain briefly the main 3D digitizing systems and, after that, will focus in the process of identification and documentation of the rest. In particular, it will be widely described the 3D digitizing process of the rest and the post-processing of the information obtained on it, showing the main steps of the work and the results obtained, used subsequently in other processes.

  17. Effect of Rest Interval Length on the Volume Completed During Upper Body Resistance Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Humberto; Simão, Roberto; Moreira, Leonardo Marmo; de Souza, Renato Aparecido; de Souza, João Antônio Alves; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Willardson, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to compare the workout volume (sets x resistance x repetitions per set) completed during two upper body resistance exercise sessions that incorporated 1 minute versus 3 minute rest intervals between sets and exercises. Twelve trained men completed two experimental sessions that consisted of 5 upper body exercises (i.e. barbell bench press, incline barbell bench press, pec deck flye, barbell lying triceps extension, triceps pushdown) performed for three sets with an 8-RM load. The two experimental sessions differed only in the length of the rest interval between sets and exercises; one session with a 1-minute and the other session with a 3-minute rest interval. The results demonstrated that for each exercise, significantly greater workout volume was completed when resting 3 minutes between sets and exercises (p < 0.05). These results indicate that during a resistance exercise session, if sufficient time is available, resting 3 minutes between sets and exercises allows greater workout volume for the upper body exercises examined. Key points The length of the rest interval between sets is an important variable when designing a resistance exercise program and may vary depending on the characteristic being emphasized (i.e. maximal strength, hypertrophy, localized muscular endurance, power). Although acknowledged, this variable is rarely monitored precisely in field settings. Previous studies that examined rest interval lengths from 1 to 5 minutes between sets for single exercises demonstrated significant differences in repetition performance and the exercise volume completed. There is a need for further research to compare the workout volume (sets x resistance x repetitions per set) completed over an entire resistance exercise session with different rest intervals between sets. The results of the current study indicate that during a resistance exercise session, if sufficient time is available, resting 3 minutes between sets and

  18. Effect of inlet cone pipe angle in catalytic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amira Zainal, Nurul; Farhain Azmi, Ezzatul; Arifin Samad, Mohd

    2018-03-01

    The catalytic converter shows significant consequence to improve the performance of the vehicle start from it launched into production. Nowadays, the geometric design of the catalytic converter has become critical to avoid the behavior of backpressure in the exhaust system. The backpressure essentially reduced the performance of vehicles and increased the fuel consumption gradually. Consequently, this study aims to design various models of catalytic converter and optimize the volume of fluid flow inside the catalytic converter by changing the inlet cone pipe angles. Three different geometry angles of the inlet cone pipe of the catalytic converter were assessed. The model is simulated in Solidworks software to determine the optimum geometric design of the catalytic converter. The result showed that by decreasing the divergence angle of inlet cone pipe will upsurge the performance of the catalytic converter.

  19. Small angle neutron scattering study of mixed micelles of oppositely ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    - methylammonium bromide (DTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) have been studied using small angle neutron scattering. The concentration of one of the components was kept fixed (0.3 M) and that of another varied in the range 0 to ...

  20. Small angle neutron scattering studies of mixed micelles of sodium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aqueous solutions of sodium cumene sulphonate (NaCS) and its mixtures with each of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) are characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). NaCS when added to CTAB solution leads to the formation of long rod-shaped micelles with ...

  1. Determination of the Contact Angle Based on the Casimir Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin; Volz, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    On a macroscopic scale, a nonreactive liquid partially covering a homogeneous solid surface will intersect the solid at an angle called the contact angle. For molten metals and semiconductors, the contact angle is materially dependent upon both the solid and liquid and typical values fall in the range 80-170 deg, depending on the crucible material. On a microscopic scale, there does not exist a precise and sharp contact angle but rather the liquid and solid surfaces merge smoothly and continuously. Consider the example of the so called detached Bridgman crystal growth process. In this technique, a small gap is formed between the growing crystal and the crucible. At the crystal/melt interface, a meniscus ring is formed. Its width can be in the range of a few micrometers, approaching a microscopic scale. It then becomes questionable to describe the shape of this meniscus by the contact angle. A more advanced treatment of the interface is needed and here we propose such a refined model. The interaction of the liquid surface with the solid can be calculated by considering two forces: a short-range repulsive force and a longer range (up to a few micrometers) Casimir or van der Waals force.

  2. Parameter dependence of conic angle of nanofibres during electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhengping; Wu Xiangfa; Jiang Long; Gao Xueqin; Zhao Yong; Fong Hao

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the dependence of conic angle of nanofibres on the processing and material parameters during electrospinning. Solutions of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in dimethylformamide (DMF) with varied PAN concentrations were studied as the model systems, and they were electrospun into nanofibres at different high direct current (dc) voltages, flow rates and needle diameters. The dynamic and transient shear viscosities of the PAN/DMF solutions were characterized by a parallel-plate rheometer at varied shear rates. Rheological measurements showed that the PAN/DMF solutions behaved as Newtonian fluids at relatively low to medium shear rates, while the solutions with high PAN concentrations of 18 and 20 wt% exhibited a significant shear-thinning behaviour at high shear rates, especially in the case of transient shear mode. Experimental results indicated that at the electrostatic field of ∼80 kV m -1 and needle inner diameter of 0.48 mm (22 gauge), the conic angle of the nanofibre envelope decreased from ∼160° to ∼75° with an increase in PAN concentration from 12 to 20 wt%; at the PAN concentration of 16 wt%, the conic angle increased nonlinearly from ∼40° to ∼160° with an increase in electric field from 50 to 140 kV m -1 . In addition, experimental results showed that the needle inner diameter also noticeably influenced the conic angle. This study provided the experimental evidence useful for understanding the scaling properties of electrohydrodynamic jet motion for controllable electrospinning and process modelling.

  3. Perception of angle in visual categorization by pigeons (Columba livia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter T. Herbranson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pigeons are capable of learning to categorize stimuli based on visual features, and often reach levels of accuracy comparable with humans. Nevertheless, recent research has suggested that the cognitive processes behind categorization in pigeons and humans may not always be the same. Pigeons learned a categorization task in which they categorized either Shepard circles varying in size and orientation of a radial line (stimuli that are frequently used in research on human categorization, or moving dots varying in speed and direction of travel (stimuli that have been successfully used to study pigeon categorization. Even though categories were balanced so that the angles of orientation of Shepard circles matched the directions of travel for moving dots, birds failed to learn categories based on the former but not the latter. Results suggest that information about angle as a direction of travel may be more important for pigeons than information about angle of orientation.

  4. Towards the Extraction of the CKM Angle $\\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert

    1999-01-01

    The determination of the angle $\\gamma$ of the unitarity triangle of the CKM matrix is regarded as a challenge for future $B$-physics experiments. In this context, the decays $B^\\pm\\to \\pi^\\pm K$ and $B_d\\to\\pi^\\mp K^\\pm$, which were observed by the CLEO collaboration last year, received a lot of interest in the literature. After a general parametrization of their decay amplitudes, strategies to constrain and determine the CKM angle $\\gamma$ with the help of the corresponding observables are reviewed. The theoretical accuracy of these methods is limited by certain rescattering and electroweak penguin effects. It is emphasized that the rescattering processes can be included in the bounds on decays, and steps towards the control of electroweak penguins are pointed out. Moreover, strategies to probe the CKM angle $\\gamma$ with the help of $B_s\\to

  5. The generation of resting membrane potentials in an inner ear hair cell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, H; Budelli, R

    1978-01-01

    1. The macula sacculi in the mudpuppy is an inner ear sensory area accessible for intracellular recordings in vitro and in vivo. 2. The resting potentials recorded in vitro can be explained by the electrodiffusion theory assuming a uniform ionic selective in the membranes of the neuroepithelial cells. 3. The resting potentials recorded in vivo are significantly larger than predicted by the electrodiffusion theory, probably because of an electrogenic metabolic process present in the neuroepithelial cells. 4. An equivalent circuit is proposed to explain the resting electrogenesis in the neuroepithelial cells present in the sensory area. Images Plate 1 PMID:702400

  6. Analysis of Arterial Mechanics During Head-Down-Tilt Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Morgan B.; Martin, David S.; Westby, Christian M.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Carotid, brachial, and tibial arteries reacted differently to HDTBR. Previous studies have not analyzed the mechanical properties of the human brachial or anterior tibial arteries. After slight variations during bed-rest, arterial mechanical properties and IMT returned to pre-bed rest values, with the exception of tibial stiffness and PSE, which continued to be reduced post-bed rest while the DC remained elevated. The tibial artery remodeling was probably due to decreased pressure and volume. Resulting implications for longer duration spaceflight are unclear. Arterial health may be affected by microgravity, as shown by increased thoracic aorta stiffness in other ground based simulations (Aubert).

  7. Influence of small forms of active rest on intellection of students of agrarian higher institutes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prysjazhnuk S.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Influence of facilities of active rest is considered on the increase of mental capacity of students. In research took part 105 students with the low level of physical preparedness. Progress of students is select the integral index of mental capacity. It is set that the most effective factors of diminishing of action of processes of fatigue and increase of mental capacity of students is the use of small forms of active rest during an educational day. It is suggested to utillize athletic pauses (minutes, micro pauses during the leadthrough of employments on theoretical disciplines. It is set that small forms of active rest in combination with a leadthrough independent health-improvement-trainings employments on physical self-perfection instrumental in the substantial improvement of the state of physical and mental capacity of student young people.

  8. Determinants of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: Review of records ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) has continued to cause high disease burden globally and Zambia is no exception. We investigated the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of POAG based on records of clients attending the eye clinic at University Teaching Hospital (UTH), Lusaka. Methods: ...

  9. Small-angle neutron scattering study of structural evolution of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Small-angle neutron scattering; biological macromolecules; protein solution. PACS Nos 61.12.Ex; 87.14.Ee; 87.15.Nn. Biological macromolecules such as proteins possess a specific shape and charge, which regulate and ... Figure 1a shows the phase diagram of crystallization of 1 wt% lysozyme protein solution as a ...

  10. Surface tension and contact angles of molten cadmium telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, R.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1990-01-01

    The surface tension and contact angle of molten cadmium telluride (CdTe) were measured as a function of temperature by the sessile drop technique. A FORTRAN code was developed to calculate the surface tension of sessile drops, with the contact angle ranging from O to 180°. The wetting of cadmium telluride melt was studied on different surfaces. The surface tension of cadmium telluride was about 160 ±5 dynes · cm-1[1.6 m-1] at the melting point of 1093°C. The contact angle of CdTe melt was about 65° on a quartz optical flat, 75° on commercial fused quartz, and 125° on boron nitride coated quartz.

  11. Optical Enhancement of Exoskeleton-Based Estimation of Glenohumeral Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Cortés

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation (RAR the accurate estimation of the patient limb joint angles is critical for assessing therapy efficacy. In RAR, the use of classic motion capture systems (MOCAPs (e.g., optical and electromagnetic to estimate the Glenohumeral (GH joint angles is hindered by the exoskeleton body, which causes occlusions and magnetic disturbances. Moreover, the exoskeleton posture does not accurately reflect limb posture, as their kinematic models differ. To address the said limitations in posture estimation, we propose installing the cameras of an optical marker-based MOCAP in the rehabilitation exoskeleton. Then, the GH joint angles are estimated by combining the estimated marker poses and exoskeleton Forward Kinematics. Such hybrid system prevents problems related to marker occlusions, reduced camera detection volume, and imprecise joint angle estimation due to the kinematic mismatch of the patient and exoskeleton models. This paper presents the formulation, simulation, and accuracy quantification of the proposed method with simulated human movements. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of the method accuracy to marker position estimation errors, due to system calibration errors and marker drifts, has been carried out. The results show that, even with significant errors in the marker position estimation, method accuracy is adequate for RAR.

  12. Optical Enhancement of Exoskeleton-Based Estimation of Glenohumeral Angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Camilo; Unzueta, Luis; de Los Reyes-Guzmán, Ana; Ruiz, Oscar E; Flórez, Julián

    2016-01-01

    In Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation (RAR) the accurate estimation of the patient limb joint angles is critical for assessing therapy efficacy. In RAR, the use of classic motion capture systems (MOCAPs) (e.g., optical and electromagnetic) to estimate the Glenohumeral (GH) joint angles is hindered by the exoskeleton body, which causes occlusions and magnetic disturbances. Moreover, the exoskeleton posture does not accurately reflect limb posture, as their kinematic models differ. To address the said limitations in posture estimation, we propose installing the cameras of an optical marker-based MOCAP in the rehabilitation exoskeleton. Then, the GH joint angles are estimated by combining the estimated marker poses and exoskeleton Forward Kinematics. Such hybrid system prevents problems related to marker occlusions, reduced camera detection volume, and imprecise joint angle estimation due to the kinematic mismatch of the patient and exoskeleton models. This paper presents the formulation, simulation, and accuracy quantification of the proposed method with simulated human movements. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of the method accuracy to marker position estimation errors, due to system calibration errors and marker drifts, has been carried out. The results show that, even with significant errors in the marker position estimation, method accuracy is adequate for RAR.

  13. Six-Degree Head-Down Tilt Bed Rest: Forty Years of Development as a Physiological Analog for Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey D.; Cromwell, Ronita L.; Kundrot, Craig E.; Charles, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Early on, bed rest was recognized as a method for inducing many of the physiological changes experienced by spaceflight. Head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest was first introduced as an analog for spaceflight by a Soviet team led by Genin and Kakurin. Their study was performed in 1970 (at -4 degrees) and lasted for 30 days; results were reported in the Russian Journal of Space Biology (Kosmicheskaya Biol. 1972; 6(4): 26-28 & 45-109). The goal was to test physiological countermeasures for cosmonauts who would soon begin month-long missions to the Salyut space station. HDT was chosen to produce a similar sensation of blood flow to the head reported by Soyuz cosmonauts. Over the next decade, other tilt angles were studied and comparisons with spaceflight were made, showing that HDT greater than 4 degrees was superior to horizontal bed rest for modeling acute physiological changes observed in space; but, at higher angles, subjects experienced greater discomfort without clearly improving the physiological comparison to spaceflight. A joint study performed by US and Soviet investigators, in 1979, set the goal of standardization of baseline conditions and chose 6-degrees HDT. This effectively established 6-degree HDT bed rest as the internationally-preferred analog for weightlessness and, since 1990, nearly all further studies have been conducted at 6-degrees HDT. A thorough literature review (1970-2010) revealed 534 primary scientific journal articles which reported results from using HDT as a physiological analog for spaceflight. These studies have ranged from as little as 10 minutes to the longest duration of 370 days. Long-term studies lasting four weeks or more have resulted in over 170 primary research articles. Today, the 6-degree HDT model provides a consistent, thoroughly-tested, ground-based analog for spaceflight and allows the proper scientific controls for rigorous testing of physiological countermeasures; however, all models have their strengths and limits. The 6

  14. The long-term persistence of phytoplankton resting stages in aquatic "seed banks"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Marianne; Ribeiro, Sofia

    2018-01-01

    to terrestrial seed beds of vascular plants, but are much less studied. It is therefore timely to review the phenomenon of long-term persistence of aquatic resting stages in sediment seed banks. Herein we compare function, morphology and physiology of phytoplankton resting stages to factors central......In the past decade, research on long-term persistence of phytoplankton resting stages has intensified. Simultaneously, insight into life-cycle variability in the diverse groups of phytoplankton has also increased. Aquatic 'seed banks' have tremendous significance and show many interesting parallels...... for persistence of terrestrial seeds. We review the types of resting stages found in different groups of phytoplankton and focus on the groups for which long-term (multi-decadal) persistence has been shown: dinoflagellates, diatoms, green algae and cyanobacteria. We discuss the metabolism of long-term dormancy...

  15. determination of determination of optimal tilt angle for maximum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The analysis showed that the best tilt angle for PV energy production is 60 if the module is fixed module ... suitable solar technology at an efficiency of 1%. Also, ... it. Thus, achieving the maximum possible performance is critical in PV power generation [14]. Installing PV modules on either a single or dual-axis trackers is one.

  16. Oral Rehabilitation of a Patient with Cerebellopontine Angle Epidermoid Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Nourizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts are rare congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS, histologically benign and slow- growing lesions. Their frequency among primitive intracranial tumors is about 1% and they account for 40% of all intracranial epidermoid cysts of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA; the most common symptom which brings about difficulties in oral rehabilitation of these patients is facial weakness which diversely affects impression processes and use of prosthesis. We report the oral rehabilitation of a patient with a cerebellopontine angle epidermoid cyst using neutral zone approach.   Keywords: Soft tissue thickness; Facial reconstruction; Cone Beam Computed Tomography

  17. BIPHASIC TREATMENT OF 2ND CLASS ANGLE ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Romanec

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Our approach aims at presenting, based on clinical observations and complementary examinations, the effects of a treatment’s setting up during the mixed dentition period. The objectives include the identification of the optimal time of treatment of II/1, II/2 Angle malocclusions, as well as the therapeutic possibilities for the treatment of 2nd class Angle malocclusion during the period of mixed and permanent dentition. The study is based on data collected from 114 clinical cases (69 girls and 45 boys with an age span between 7 and 18 years.

  18. Stop and revive? The effectiveness of nap and active rest breaks for reducing driver sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher N; Smith, Simon S; Horswill, Mark S

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two commonly utilized sleepiness countermeasures: a nap break and an active rest break. The effects of the countermeasures were evaluated by physiological (EEG), subjective, and driving performance measures. Participants completed 2 h of simulated driving, followed by a 15-min nap break or a 15-min active rest break, then completed the final hour of simulated driving. The nap break reduced EEG and subjective sleepiness. The active rest break did not reduce EEG sleepiness, with sleepiness levels eventually increasing, and resulted in an immediate reduction of subjective sleepiness. No difference was found between the two breaks for the driving performance measure. The immediate reduction of subjective sleepiness after the active rest break could leave drivers with erroneous perceptions of their sleepiness, particularly with increases of physiological sleepiness after the break. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. Measurement of the CKM angle $\\gamma$ at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Gersabeck, M

    2009-01-01

    The precise measurement of the CKM unitarity triangle angle $\\gamma$ is a key goal of the LHCb physics programme. The uncertainty on $\\gamma$, the currently least-well known of the three angles, will be reduced dramatically. Complementary measurements will be made in tree-level processes, and modes where loop diagrams play an important role. The tree-level measurements will cover time-integrated as well as time- dependent measurements in both the $B^0_d$ and the $B^0_s$ sectors. The ensemble of these measurements will provide a powerful test of whether new physics phases contribute to heavy-flavour transitions.

  20. Noise during rest enables the exploration of the brain's dynamic repertoire.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Rho, Y.; McIntosh, A.R.; Kotter, R.; Jirsa, V.K.

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally brain function is studied through measuring physiological responses in controlled sensory, motor, and cognitive paradigms. However, even at rest, in the absence of overt goal-directed behavior, collections of cortical regions consistently show temporally coherent activity. In humans,

  1. Optimization of sharp and viewing-angle-independent structural color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Miller, Owen D; Johnson, Steven G; Soljačić, Marin

    2015-04-06

    Structural coloration produces some of the most brilliant colors in nature and has many applications. Motivated by the recently proposed transparent displays that are based on wavelength-selective scattering, here we consider the new problem of transparent structural color, where objects are transparent under omnidirectional broad-band illumination but scatter strongly with a directional narrow-band light source. Transparent structural color requires two competing properties, narrow bandwidth and broad viewing angle, that have not been demonstrated simultaneously previously. Here, we use numerical optimization to discover geometries where a sharp 7% bandwidth in scattering is achieved, yet the peak wavelength varies less than 1%, and the peak height and peak width vary less than 6% over broad viewing angles (0-90°) under a directional illumination. Our model system consists of dipole scatterers arranged into several rings; interference among the scattered waves is optimized to yield the wavelength-selective and angle-insensitive response.

  2. Contact Angles and Surface Tension of Germanium-Silicon Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croell, A.; Kaiser, N.; Cobb, S.; Szofran, F. R.; Volz, M.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Precise knowledge of material parameters is more and more important for improving crystal growth processes. Two important parameters are the contact (wetting) angle and the surface tension, determining meniscus shapes and surface-tension driven flows in a variety of methods (Czochralski, EFG, floating-zone, detached Bridgman growth). The sessile drop technique allows the measurement of both parameters simultaneously and has been used to measure the contact angles and the surface tension of Ge(1-x)Si(x) (0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1.3) alloys on various substrate materials. Fused quartz, Sapphire, glassy carbon, graphite, SiC, carbon-based aerogel, pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN), AIN, Si3N4, and polycrystalline CVD diamond were used as substrate materials. In addition, the effect of different cleaning procedures and surface treatments on the wetting behavior were investigated. Measurements were performed both under dynamic vacuum and gas atmospheres (argon or forming gas), with temperatures up to 1100 C. In some experiments, the sample was processed for longer times, up to a week, to investigate any changes of the contact angle and/or surface tension due to slow reactions with the substrate. For pure Ge, stable contact angles were found for carbon-based substrates and for pBN, for Ge(1-x)Si(x) only for pBN. The highest wetting angles were found for pBN substrates with angles around 170deg. For the surface tension of Ge, the most reliable values resulted in gamma(T) = (591- 0.077 (T-T(sub m)) 10(exp -3)N/m. The temperature dependence of the surface tension showed similar values for Ge(1-x)Si(x), around -0.08 x 10(exp -3)N/m K, and a compositional dependence of 2.2 x 10(exp -3)N/m at%Si.

  3. Dynamical measurements of the Spin Hall angle

    OpenAIRE

    Talalaevskyy, Oleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Broad study of magnetic properties of YIG films is performed. This thesis covers the whole path from YIG sample growth to characterization of magnetization dynamics. In the sub-chapter 5.1, full magnetic characterization of the thin sputtered YIG films is given. A batch of YIG samples with thicknesses of 19, 29, 38 and 49 nanometer is grown by magnetron sputtering for the spin waves experiment. The thickness and the surface roughness are controlled by XRR and AFM measurements. The obtained sa...

  4. Comparison of SOAP and REST Based Web Services Using Software Evaluation Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomirovs Juris

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The usage of Web services has recently increased. Therefore, it is important to select right type of Web services at the project design stage. The most common implementations are based on SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol and REST (Representational State Transfer Protocol styles. Maintainability of REST and SOAP Web services has become an important issue as popularity of Web services is increasing. Choice of the right approach is not an easy decision since it is influenced by development requirements and maintenance considerations. In the present research, we present the comparison of SOAP and REST based Web services using software evaluation metrics. To achieve this aim, a systematic literature review will be made to compare REST and SOAP Web services in terms of the software evaluation metrics.

  5. Is Rest Really Rest? Resting State Functional Connectivity during Rest and Motor Task Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkiewicz, Michael T; Crawley, Adrian P; Mikulis, David J

    2018-04-18

    Numerous studies have identified the default mode network (DMN) within the brain of healthy individuals, which has been attributed to the ongoing mental activity of the brain during the wakeful resting-state. While engaged during specific resting-state fMRI paradigms, it remains unclear as to whether traditional block-design simple movement fMRI experiments significantly influence the default mode network or other areas. Using blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI we characterized the pattern of functional connectivity in healthy subjects during a resting-state paradigm and compared this to the same resting-state analysis performed on motor task data residual time courses after regressing out the task paradigm. Using seed-voxel analysis to define the DMN, the executive control network (ECN), and sensorimotor, auditory and visual networks, the resting-state analysis of the residual time courses demonstrated reduced functional connectivity in the motor network and reduced connectivity between the insula and the ECN compared to the standard resting-state datasets. Overall, performance of simple self-directed motor tasks does little to change the resting-state functional connectivity across the brain, especially in non-motor areas. This would suggest that previously acquired fMRI studies incorporating simple block-design motor tasks could be mined retrospectively for assessment of the resting-state connectivity.

  6. Combinations of resting RSA and RSA reactivity impact maladaptive mood repair and depression symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Bylsma, Lauren M.; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Kovacs, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether the combined indices of respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest (resting RSA) and in response to a sad film (RSA reactivity) predict effective and ineffective responses to reduce sadness (adaptive vs. maladaptive mood repair) in women with histories of juvenile-onset depression (n = 74) and no history of major mental disorders (n = 75). Structural equation models were used to estimate latent resting RSA, depression, and adaptive and maladaptive mood repair and to test the study hypotheses. Results indicated that combinations of resting RSA+RSA reactivity (RSA patterns) predicted maladaptive mood repair, which in turn, mediated the effects of RSA pattern on depression. Further, RSA patterns moderated the depressogenic effects of maladaptive mood repair. RSA patterns were unrelated to adaptive mood repair. Our findings suggest that mood repair is one mechanism through which physiological vulnerabilities adversely affect mental health. PMID:23827087

  7. Proteome profiles of longissimus and biceps femoris porcine muscles related to exercise and resting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F.W.Te Pas, Marinus; Keuning, Els; Van der Wiel, Dick J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Exercise affects muscle metabolism and composition in the untrained muscles. The proteome of muscle tissue will be affected by exercise and resting. This is of economic importance for pork quality where transportation relates to exercise of untrained muscles. Rest reverses exercise effects....... The objective of this research was to develop potential protein biomarkers that predict the optimal resting time after exercise related to optimal pork quality. Ten litters of four female pigs were within litter allocated to the four treatment groups: exercise by running on a treadmill for 27 minutes followed...... by rest for 0, 1, or 3 h; control pigs without exercise. Proteome profiles and biochemical traits measuring energy metabolism and meat quality traits expected to be related to exercise were determined in the Longissimus and the Biceps femoris of the pigs. The results indicated associations between protein...

  8. Angle-independent structural colors of silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Weirich, Johannes; Nørregaard, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Structural colors are optical phenomena of physical origin, where microscale and nanoscale structures determine the reflected spectrum of light. Artificial structural colors have been realized within recent years. However, multilayer structures require substantial fabrication. Instead we considered...... in the visual spectrum, causing robust colors to be defined for a large angular interval. The result is a manifestation of a uniformly defined color, similar to pigment-based colors. These mechanisms hold potential for color engineering and can be used to explain and predict the structural-color appearance...

  9. Determination of Work-Rest Schedules Based on Physical Workload Among Bakers in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Afshari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Bakery workers due to exposure to radiant heat and doing manual labor are at risk of heat-related illnesses and musculoskeletal disorders Objectives The current study aimed to determine the appropriate work-rest time interval using two indexes of wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT and relative heart rate (RHR. Methods It was an analytical and descriptive research. Heart rate of workers was continuously recorded to achieve the physiological monitoring and the obtained information was used to determine the work difficulty and physical workload. The ratio of heat stress and RHR was measured using the WBGT and polar team pro device, respectively. Work-rest schedules were detected through the heart rate reserve and heat stress indexes. The level of significance was α = 0.05. Results Physical workload based on heart rate was estimated light to moderate in bakery workers. Suitable work-rest schedule for all bakery workers according to WBGT index was 25% work-75% rest and based on heart rate reserve index in half of the workers was 50% work-50% rest, and in the other half of the bakery workers was continuous work without rest. According to Kappa test, there was no agreement between the two methods of heat stress index and heart rate reserve to determine the work-rest schedules of workers (P < 0.001. Conclusions Physical workloads on the basis of heart rate were light for all workers except the workers of Tanoury who had moderate workload. Meanwhile, determining the work-rest schedule was different using the two indexes. The heart rate reserve index represents the physiological status of individual during the work and states the ratio of physical workload more precisely.

  10. DESIGN OF ILC EXTRACTION LINE FOR 20 MRAD CROSSING ANGLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosochkov, Y.; Moffeit, K.; Seryi, A.; Woods, M.; SLAC; Arnold, R.; Massachusetts U., Amherst; Oliver, W.; Tufts U.; Parker, B.; Brookhaven; Torrence, E.; Oregon U.

    2005-01-01

    One of the two ILC Interaction Regions will have a large horizontal crossing angle which would allow to extract the spent beams in a separate beam line. In this paper, the extraction line design for 20 mrad crossing angle is presented. This beam line transports the primary e + /e - and beamstrahlung photon beams from the IP to a common dump, and includes diagnostic section for energy and polarization measurements. The optics is designed for a large energy acceptance to minimize losses in the low energy tail of the disrupted beam. The extraction optics, diagnostic instrumentation and particle tracking simulations are described

  11. Small angle elastic scattering of electrons by noble gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagenaar, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, measurements are carried out to obtain small angle elastic differential cross sections in order to check the validity of Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations for electrons scattered by noble gas atoms. First, total cross sections are obtained for argon, krypton and xenon. Next, a parallel plate electrostatic energy analyser for the simultaneous measurement of doubly differential cross section for small angle electron scattering is described. Also absolute differential cross sections are reported. Finally the forward dispersion relation for electron-helium collisions is dealt with. (Auth.)

  12. High contact angle hysteresis of superhydrophobic surfaces: Hydrophobic defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Ming; Hong, Siang-Jie; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2009-08-01

    A typical superhydrophobic surface is essentially nonadhesive and exhibits very low water contact angle (CA) hysteresis, so-called Lotus effect. However, leaves of some plants such as scallion and garlic with an advancing angle exceeding 150° show very serious CA hysteresis. Although surface roughness and epicuticular wax can explain the very high advancing CA, our analysis indicates that the unusual hydrophobic defect, diallyl disulfide, is the key element responsible for contact line pinning on allium leaves. After smearing diallyl disulfide on an extended polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film, which is originally absent of CA hysteresis, the surface remains superhydrophobic but becomes highly adhesive.

  13. Assessment of resting energy expenditure and body composition in Japanese pregnant women with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Eriko; Maki, Jota; Tamada, Shoko; Mitsui, Takashi; Hayata, Kei; Hiramatsu, Yuji; Masuyama, Hisashi

    2017-12-27

    To measure longitudinal changes in resting energy expenditure and body composition of Japanese pregnant women with or without diabetes. The study population consisted of women who had delivered a live singleton neonate after 22 weeks' gestation at Okayama University Hospital from July 2013 to June 2017. Resting energy expenditure and body composition were measured in the first trimester, second trimester, third trimester and postpartum. A total of 144 women participated in this study: 103 with normal glucose tolerance and 41 with diabetes. The resting energy expenditure (kcal/day) of pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance was significantly higher in the third trimester (1,644 ± 234) than in the first (1,461 ± 215) and second trimesters (1,491 ± 219), and postpartum (1,419 ± 254), whereas that of pregnant women with diabetes did not significantly change during all periods (1,568 ± 404, 1,710 ± 332, 1,716 ± 251, 1,567 ± 249). The resting energy expenditure of women with good glycemic control was lower than that of women with poor control. Fat-free mass was closely correlated with resting energy expenditure. The resting energy expenditure of Japanese pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance was significantly increased in the third trimester. The resting energy expenditure of women with good glycemic control was lower than that of women with poor control. Resting energy expenditure and fat-free mass are potential indexes for medical nutrition therapy in pregnant women with diabetes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Identifying Subgroups of Tinnitus Using Novel Resting State fMRI Biomarkers and Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-13

    applied to the resting-state data to identify tinnitus subgroups within the patient population and pair them with specific behavioral ...and behavioral data  Specific Aim 2: Determine tinnitus subgroups using automated cluster analysis of resting state data and associate the subgroups...data analysis and clustering method previously developed to apply to current tinnitus data set o Percentage of completion at end of Year 2 (24 months

  15. Effects of exercise on fluid exchange and body composition in man during 14-day bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.; Morse, J. T.; Staley, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of an investigation in which body composition, fluid intake, and fluid and electrolyte losses were measured in seven normal, healthy men during three 2-wk bed-rest periods, separated by two 3-wk recovery periods. During bed rest the subjects remained in the horizontal position continuously. During the dietary control periods, body mass decreased significantly with all three regimens, including no exercise, isometric exercise, and isotonic excercise. During bed rest, body mass was essentially unchanged with no exercise, but decreased significantly with isotonic and isometric exercise. With one exception, there were no statistically significant changes in body density, lean body mass, or body fat content by the end of each of the three bed-rest periods.

  16. Contact angle hysteresis of liquid drops as means to measure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A comparison of the two methods shows that the extent of contact angle hysteresis is indicative of both hydrophobicity of the surface as well as the force of adhesion. Mechanical properties and microstructure of zein films prepared by casting from solutions and using Langmuir-Blodgett film technique have been investigated.

  17. Metrology concept design of the GAIA basic angle monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veggel, M. van; Vink, R.; Rosielle, N.; Nijmeijer, H.; Wielders, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    The GAIA satellite, scheduled for launch in 2010, will make a highly accurate map of our Galaxy. It will measure the position of stars with an accuracy of 50 prad using two telescopes, which are positioned under a 'basic' angle between the the lines-of-sight of the telescopes of 106°. With a Basic

  18. Resting-state connectivity of pre-motor cortex reflects disability in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogonowski, A-M; Siebner, H R; Soelberg Sørensen, P; Paulson, O B; Dyrby, T B; Blinkenberg, M; Madsen, K H

    2013-11-01

    To characterize the relationship between motor resting-state connectivity of the dorsal pre-motor cortex (PMd) and clinical disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total of 27 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS) and 15 patients with secondary progressive MS (SP-MS) underwent functional resting-state magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Independent component analysis was used to characterize motor resting-state connectivity. Multiple regression analysis was performed in SPM8 between the individual expression of motor resting-state connectivity in PMd and EDSS scores including age as covariate. Separate post hoc analyses were performed for patients with RR-MS and SP-MS. The EDSS scores ranged from 0 to 7 with a median score of 4.3. Motor resting-state connectivity of left PMd showed a positive linear relation with clinical disability in patients with MS. This effect was stronger when considering the group of patients with RR-MS alone, whereas patients with SP-MS showed no increase in coupling strength between left PMd and the motor resting-state network with increasing clinical disability. No significant relation between motor resting-state connectivity of the right PMd and clinical disability was detected in MS. The increase in functional coupling between left PMd and the motor resting-state network with increasing clinical disability can be interpreted as adaptive reorganization of the motor system to maintain motor function, which appears to be limited to the relapsing-remitting stage of the disease. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Graph network analysis of immediate motor-learning induced changes in resting state BOLD

    OpenAIRE

    Sami, S.; Miall, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that following learning tasks, changes in the resting state activity of the brain shape regional connections in functionally specific circuits. Here we expand on these findings by comparing changes induced in the resting state immediately following four motor tasks. Two groups of participants performed a visuo-motor joystick task with one group adapting to a transformed relationship between joystick and cursor. Two other groups were trained in either explicit ...

  20. Petechiae: reproducible pattern of distribution and increased appearance after bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganse, Bergita; Limper, Ulrich; Bühlmeier, Judith; Rittweger, Jörn

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to acceleration can cause petechial hemorrhages, called G measles. Petechiae usually start to develop between 5 and 9 G with a high interindividual variance. Centrifuge training delays the onset to higher G levels. One might expect onset at lower G levels after bed rest; however, there is no evidence in the literature. A case of petechiae formation after bed rest is presented here. Orthostatic tolerance was tested using a tilt table and lower body negative pressure before and after bed rest in both campaigns of a 2 x 21-d bed rest study with 6 degrees head-down tilt. A 42-yr-old male Caucasian without any history of thrombosis, venous disease, hemorrhage, or petechiae, and with a negative thrombophilia screening, took part in the bed rest study as 1 out of 10 subjects. He was the only one to develop petechiae during the orthostatic tests after, but not before, bed rest in both campaigns. Petechiae were distributed throughout the lower legs and most pronounced at the shin in a stocking-like fashion, surprisingly reoccurring in an identical pattern of distribution. Petechiae appeared slowly over minutes during hyperemia. This case indicates that prolonged bed rest decreases the threshold for petechiae formation. A reproducible distribution pattern suggests that factors predisposing to petechiae formation keep their local distribution over time (possibly due to local vessel structures). Mechanisms of adaptation and interindividual variance are unclear. Findings are of clinical relevance as such cases might occur after prolonged bed rest in patients without need of expensive testing.

  1. Temperature dependent small-angle neutron scattering of CTABr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Micelles are aggregates of surfactant molecules and these aggregates are usually formed in different shapes of spherical, cylindrical, ellipsoidal, disc-like etc. The size and shapes of these micelles are studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) [2]. A preparation of stable emulsion of magnetic fluid with micelles ...

  2. The inter-relationships between angle of inclination, height and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the dependence of number of sprouted teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F) stumps on the height above root collar and angle of inclination of planted teak stumps. The studies were aim-ed at developing suitable methods of converting teak seedlings into stumps and planting practices to ...

  3. Angle dependence of Andreev scattering at semiconductor-superconductor interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1999-01-01

    We study the angle dependence of the Andreev scattering at a semiconductor-superconductor interface, generalizing the one-dimensional theory of Blonder, Tinkham, and Klapwijk (BTK),An increase of the momentum parallel to the interface leads to suppression of the probability of Andreev reflection...

  4. Small angle neutron scattering study of two nonionic surfactants in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cO Indian Academy of Sciences. Vol. 71, No. 5. — journal of. November 2008 physics pp. 1079–1083. Small angle neutron scattering study of two nonionic surfactants in water micellar solutions. RAJEWSKA ALDONA. Institute of Atomic Energy, 05-400 Swierk-Otwock, Poland. E-mail: aldonar@cyf.gov.pl. Abstract.

  5. Small angle neutron scattering studies on the interaction of cationic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in a wide variety of industrial, biological, pharmaceutical and cosmetic systems. The mechanism of unfolding of proteins on addition of the surfactant has been studied by several techniques such as circular dichroism (CD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), microcalorimetry, light scattering and small angle scattering.

  6. Temperature dependent small-angle neutron scattering of CTABr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. cDepartment of Physics, Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar 364 002, India. E-mail: ruv@bhavuni.edu. Abstract. Small-angle neutron scattering studies have been carried out to check the structural integrity of ... the surface of the micelle. Micellar solution of CTABr is isotropic ...

  7. Comparison of rest and exercise thallium-201 kinetics in man and implications for quantitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, M.R.; Kanwar, N.; Armstrong, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    To develop a technique for quantitative analysis of resting thallium scintigrams, an understanding of thallium kinetics at rest is required. This study evaluates in normal man the thallium distribution and washout rates of thallium at rest and compares these findings to similar data obtained during exercise. The thallium half-life in normal resting myocardium is significantly longer than after exercise, 10.2 +/- 1.4 hours versus 3.9 +/- 0.3 hours (P less than .01). Differences in resting thallium half-life exist between the anterior, 45 degrees left anterior oblique (LAO), and 70 degrees LAO views and are 11.4 +/- 1.0, 10.6 +/- 1.0, 8.8 +/- 0.7 hours, respectively (all significantly different from each other by ANOVA, P less than or equal to .01); these differences are related to the imaging sequence. After exercise, the thallium half-life also varies according to imaging sequence, but in the opposite direction; i.e., anterior, 45 degrees LAO, and 70 degrees LAO views are 3.6 +/- 0.1, 3.9 +/- 0.3, 4.2 +/- 0.3 hours, respectively (P less than or equal to .01). Since imaging sequence and time of acquisition at rest and exercise were similar, this finding may be related to earlier maximal uptake of thallium after exercise as compared to rest. There are also significant segmental differences in thallium half-life at rest in the 45 degrees LAO view (9.8 +/- 0.9, septal vs. 11.0 +/- 0.9, posterolateral, P less than .01) and 70 degrees LAO view (8.3 +/- 0.4, anteroseptal vs. 9.2 +/- 0.6, inferior, P less than or equal to .01)

  8. Combined surgical management of mandibular angle prominence and microgenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portelles Masso, Ayelen Maria; Berger Kohn, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Chin play a very important role in facial aesthetics. Different deformities of volume and of position may occur at this level and it is the microgenia one of the more frequent. Treatment options include the use of silicone, alloplasty materials and autologous bone graft. Authors report the use of the bone removed from mandibular angle to increase the chin. This is the case of a white female patient aged 18 seen by the Orthognathics Multidisciplinary Staff of 'V. I. Lenin' Hospital due to its uncommon face width. The corresponding physical examination as well as the complementary ones diagnosed a bilateral prominence of mandibular angle associated with a microgenia. Surgery carried out was of remodeling type of both mandibular angles and genioplasty of height increase and a discrete advancement using the bone removed from the gonion. There were satisfactory aesthetic results without evidence of bone reabsorption. We conclude that use of autologous graft of mandibular angle is an effective treatment alternative for correction of microgenia. (author)

  9. Brain dynamics of post?task resting state are influenced by expertise: Insights from baseball players

    OpenAIRE

    Muraskin, Jordan; Dodhia, Sonam; Lieberman, Gregory; Garcia, Javier O.; Verstynen, Timothy; Vettel, Jean M.; Sherwin, Jason; Sajda, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Post?task resting state dynamics can be viewed as a task?driven state where behavioral performance is improved through endogenous, non?explicit learning. Tasks that have intrinsic value for individuals are hypothesized to produce post?task resting state dynamics that promote learning. We measured simultaneous fMRI/EEG and DTI in Division?1 collegiate baseball players and compared to a group of controls, examining differences in both functional and structural connectivity. Participant...

  10. The influence of rest period instructions on the default mode network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher eBenjamin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The default mode network (DMN refers to regional brain activity that is greater during rest periods than during attention-demanding tasks and many studies have reported DMN alterations in patient populations. It has also been shown that the DMN is suppressed by scanner background noise (SBN, which is the noise produced by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. However, it is unclear whether different approaches to rest in the noisy MR environment can alter the DMN and constitute a confound in studies investigating the DMN in particular patient populations (e.g., individuals with schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease. We examined twenty-seven healthy adult volunteers who completed an fMRI experiment with 3 different instructions for rest: (1 relax and be still, (2 attend to SBN, or (3 ignore SBN. Region of interest (ROI analyses were performed to determine the influence of rest period instructions on core regions of the DMN and DMN regions previously reported to be altered in patients with or at risk for Alzheimer’s disease or schizophrenia. The dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC exhibited greater activity when specific resting instructions were given (i.e. attend to or ignore SBN compared to when non-specific resting instructions were given. Condition-related differences in connectivity were also observed between regions of the dmPFC and inferior parietal/posterior superior temporal cortex. We conclude that rest period instructions and SBN levels should be carefully considered for fMRI studies on the DMN, especially studies on clinical populations and groups that may have different approaches to rest, such as first-time research participants and children.

  11. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT REST INTERVALS ON THE EXERCISE VOLUME COMPLETED DURING SQUAT BOUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Rahimi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare effect 3 different rest intervals on the squat volume completed during a workout. Twenty college-aged men volunteered to participate in this study (age 20.73 ± 2.60 years; body mass 80.73 ± 10.80 kg. All subjects performed 3 testing sessions, during which 4 sets of the squat was performed with 85% of a 1RM load. During each testing session, the squat was performed with a 1, 2, or 5-minute rest interval between sets. Volume was defined as the total number of repetitions completed over 4 sets for each rest condition. Statistical analysis was conducted separately for the squat. One-way repeated analyses of variance with Bonferroni post hocs demonstrated significant differences between each rest condition for both exercises tested (p < 0.05. The 5-minute rest condition resulted in the highest volume completed, followed in descending order by the 2- and 1-minute rest conditions. The ability to perform a higher volume of training with a given load may stimulate greater strength adaptations.

  12. Local synchronization of resting-state dynamics encodes Gray's trait Anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hahn

    Full Text Available The Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS as defined within the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST modulates reactions to stimuli indicating aversive events. Gray's trait Anxiety determines the extent to which stimuli activate the BIS. While studies have identified the amygdala-septo-hippocampal circuit as the key-neural substrate of this system in recent years and measures of resting-state dynamics such as randomness and local synchronization of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations have recently been linked to personality traits, the relation between resting-state dynamics and the BIS remains unexplored. In the present study, we thus examined the local synchronization of spontaneous fMRI BOLD fluctuations as measured by Regional Homogeneity (ReHo in the hippocampus and the amygdala in twenty-seven healthy subjects. Correlation analyses showed that Gray's trait Anxiety was significantly associated with mean ReHo in both the amygdala and the hippocampus. Specifically, Gray's trait Anxiety explained 23% and 17% of resting-state ReHo variance in the left amygdala and the left hippocampus, respectively. In summary, we found individual differences in Gray's trait Anxiety to be associated with ReHo in areas previously associated with BIS functioning. Specifically, higher ReHo in resting-state neural dynamics corresponded to lower sensitivity to punishment scores both in the amygdala and the hippocampus. These findings corroborate and extend recent findings relating resting-state dynamics and personality while providing first evidence linking properties of resting-state fluctuations to Gray's BIS.

  13. Expanded functional coupling of subcortical nuclei with the motor resting-state network in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Siebner, Hartwig R; Sørensen, Per Soelberg; Wu, Xingchen; Biswal, Bharat; Paulson, Olaf B; Dyrby, Tim B; Skimminge, Arnold; Blinkenberg, Morten; Madsen, Kristoffer H

    2013-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) impairs signal transmission along cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical connections, affecting functional integration within the motor network. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during motor tasks has revealed altered functional connectivity in MS, but it is unclear how much motor disability contributed to these abnormal functional interaction patterns. To avoid any influence of impaired task performance, we examined disease-related changes in functional motor connectivity in MS at rest. A total of 42 patients with MS and 30 matched controls underwent a 20-minute resting-state fMRI session at 3 Tesla. Independent component analysis was applied to the fMRI data to identify disease-related changes in motor resting-state connectivity. Patients with MS showed a spatial expansion of motor resting-state connectivity in deep subcortical nuclei but not at the cortical level. The anterior and middle parts of the putamen, adjacent globus pallidus, anterior and posterior thalamus and the subthalamic region showed stronger functional connectivity with the motor network in the MS group compared with controls. MS is characterised by more widespread motor connectivity in the basal ganglia while cortical motor resting-state connectivity is preserved. The expansion of subcortical motor resting-state connectivity in MS indicates less efficient funnelling of neural processing in the executive motor cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops.

  14. Impact of age on pulmonary artery systolic pressures at rest and with exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garvan C Kane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: It is not well known if advancing age influences normal rest or exercise pulmonary artery pressures. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association of increasing age with measurements of pulmonary artery systolic pressure at rest and with exercise. Subjects and methods: A total of 467 adults without cardiopulmonary disease and normal exercise capacity (age range: 18–85 years underwent symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing with Doppler measurement of rest and exercise pulmonary artery systolic pressure. Results: There was a progressive increase in rest and exercise pulmonary artery pressures with increasing age. Pulmonary artery systolic pressures at rest and with exercise were 25 ± 5 mmHg and 33 ± 9 mmHg, respectively, in those <40 years, and 30 ± 5 mmHg and 41 ± 12 mmHg, respectively, in those ≥70 years. While elevated left-sided cardiac filling pressures were excluded by protocol design, markers of arterial stiffness associated with the age-dependent effects on pulmonary pressures. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that in echocardiographically normal adults, pulmonary artery systolic pressure increases with advancing age. This increase is seen at rest and with exercise. These increases in pulmonary pressure occur in association with decreasing transpulmonary flow and increases in systemic pulse pressure, suggesting that age-associated blood vessel stiffening may contribute to these differences in pulmonary artery systolic pressure.

  15. Cognitive Stress Reduces the Effect of Levodopa on Parkinson's Resting Tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zach, Heidemarie; Dirkx, Michiel F; Pasman, Jaco W; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Helmich, Rick C

    2017-03-01

    Resting tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) increases markedly during cognitive stress. Dopamine depletion in the basal ganglia is involved in the pathophysiology of resting tremor, but it is unclear whether this contribution is altered under cognitive stress. We test the hypothesis that cognitive stress modulates the levodopa effect on resting tremor. Tremulous PD patients (n = 69) were measured in two treatment conditions (OFF vs. ON levodopa) and in two behavioral contexts (rest vs. cognitive co-activation). Using accelerometry, we tested the effect of both interventions on tremor intensity and tremor variability. Levodopa significantly reduced tremor intensity (across behavioral contexts), while cognitive co-activation increased it (across treatment conditions). Crucially, the levodopa effect was significantly smaller during cognitive co-activation than during rest. Resting tremor variability increased after levodopa and decreased during cognitive co-activation. Cognitive stress reduces the levodopa effect on Parkinson's tremor. This effect may be explained by a stress-related depletion of dopamine in the basal ganglia motor circuit, by stress-related involvement of nondopaminergic mechanisms in tremor (e.g., noradrenaline), or both. Targeting these mechanisms may open new windows for treatment. Clinical tremor assessments under evoked cognitive stress (e.g., counting tasks) may avoid overestimation of treatment effects in real life. © 2017 The Authors. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Non-linear Flight Dynamics at High Angles of Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granasy, P.; Sørensen, C.B.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1998-01-01

    The methods of nonlinear dynamics are applied to the longitudinal motion of a vectored thrust aircraft, in particular the behavior at high angles of attack. Our model contains analytic nonlinear aerodynamical coefficients based on NASA windtunnel experiments on the F-18 high-alpha research vehicl...

  17. THE EFFECTS OF OFF TAKE ANGLE ON THE VELOCITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smiegle

    Sediments could either originate in the canals themselves through bank and bed erosion or they could be transported from the surroundings by flood and run off, or they could ... In fact, an idealized fluvial ... THE EFFECTS OF OFF TAKE ANGLE ON THE VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF SILTATION OF CANALS.

  18. THE TREATMENT OF OPEN- AND NARROW-ANGLE GLAUCOMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-04-10

    Apr 10, 1971 ... Treatment. A more realistic approach to the treatment of open-angle glaucoma is necessary. Medical therapy. The general trend of thought concern- ... sibility on the ophthalmologists because of the adequate follow-up which has become mandatory. Cupping. Although it is frequently stated that with.

  19. Anthropometric characterisation of elbow angles and lines among Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Awasthi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: For understanding injuries in paediatric elbow and checking the degree of reduction after manipulation, various radiological criteria using anthropometric parameters are used. Since anthropometric parameters of Caucasians are different from European and Mongoloids, their parameters cannot be applied on our population. Hence, there is a need to characterise anthropometric parameters of elbow among children in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised all cases of injury to the elbow joint between 3 and 13 years of age reporting to the Department of Orthopaedics during the study. The X-rays films were preserved, and the angles and lines (as anthropometric parameters were drawn on the radiographs. Results: Mean ± (standard deviation [SD] for Baumann angle in children included in this study was 75° ± 4.70°. Mean ± (SD of Baumann angle in males was 76° ± 4.44° and females was 74° ± 5.37°. Mean ± (SD for lateral capitellohumeral angle in children from 3 to 13 years of age was 49 ± 5.75. Conclusions: As the values of normal side have been found to affect the functional and cosmetic outcome of the affected extremity, slight changes in values of our population in comparison to that of the Western population can significantly affect the outcome.

  20. Hereditary primary open angle glaucoma: case study of a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To present a case of hereditary primary open angle glaucoma in a Nigerian family. Method: Six members of an Ibo family from Delta State, Nigeria were interviewed and examined by the authors. Information on age, gender, tribe, history of blindness, eye disease and other medical conditions was recorded.

  1. The effect of circular bridge piers with different inclination angles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. The effect of circular bridge piers with different inclination angles toward downstream on scour. MOHAMMAD VAGHEFI1,∗, MASOUD GHODSIAN2 and. SAEID SALIMI3. 1Department of Civil Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Shahid Mahini Street, P.O. Box: 75169-13817,. Bushehr, Iran.

  2. Comparison of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Patients in Rural and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To compare the clinical features of glaucoma patients who present at a rural hospital in North Eastern Ghana and an urban hospital in the capital city of Accra. Methods: This is a multi-center retrospective case series involving records of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients with emphasis on primary open angle ...

  3. Compliance to Medical Therapy of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study was to determinethe rate of compliance to medical therapy of primary open angle glaucoma in Enugu with a view to improving patient care and reducing visual deterioration and loss from glaucoma. Method: One hundred and five patients were reviewed from the glaucoma patients who ...

  4. Molecular complexity of primary open angle glaucoma: current ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-12-31

    Dec 31, 2009 ... [Ray K. and Mookherjee S. 2009 Molecular complexity of primary open angle glaucoma: current concepts J. Genet. 88, 451–467]. Introduction .... cellular matrix (ECM) protein but its function is still not well elucidated. Although a large ...... ergy starvation of the nerve cells is possible. Opening of. PTPC will ...

  5. Ultra Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study of Porous Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Reshma R.; Desa, J. A. Erwin; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.

    2011-01-01

    Compacts of silica micro-spheres prepared for different times at sintering temperatures of 640 deg. C and 740 deg. C have been studied by Ultra Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (USANS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Stress versus strain measurements display several breakage points related to a range of nearest neighbour coordination around each microsphere.

  6. Contrast-enhanced CISS imaging of cerebellopontine angle tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tozaki, Mitsuhiro; Toyoda, Keiko; Hata, Yuichi; Fukuda, Yasushi; Fukuda, Kunihiko [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Katano, Shuichi

    1999-10-01

    Our purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of contrast-enhanced CISS-3DFT MR imaging for the diagnosis of CP angle tumors. CISS-3DFT MR imaging is expected for screening procedure of acoustic schwannoma because of excellent spatial resolution. Recently, we discovered contrast enhancement effect on CISS sequence in spite of heavily T{sub 2}-weighted images. Fourteen patients with CP angle tumors were performed on a 1.0 T MR unit. Transaxial CISS-3DFT MRI was obtained both before and after intravenous injections of Gd-DTPA. Multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs) were performed in all cases. Contrast enhancement effect of CP angle tumors, and the relationship between tumors and the adjacent cranial nerves were evaluated. Contrast enhancement effect of the tumors was present in all cases in spite of heavily T{sub 2}-weighted images of CISS sequences. In the internal auditory canal, relationship between the tumors and the cranial nerves was demonstrated in 6 cases (6/9). In the cerebellopontine cistern, all cases were demonstrated (11/11). Contrast-enhanced CISS-3DFT MR imaging with a good contrast resolution and an excellent spatial resolution is useful for the diagnosis of CP angle tumors. (author)

  7. Influence of gender on quadriceps (Q) angle among adult Urhobos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... adult Nigerian population of Urhobo ethnicity between the age range of 19-32 years, measurements were taken from healthy individuals with no previous history of musculoskeletal disorder to establish a standard value. The Q-angle was taken using a goniometer with the subject standing on a weight bearing position.

  8. The effect of Q angle on ankle sprain occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pefanis, Nikolaos; Papaharalampous, Xenofon; Tsiganos, Georgios; Papadakou, Eugenia; Baltopoulos, Panagiotis

    2009-02-01

    The intersegmental joint forces and the structures that must resist them (articular surfaces, ligaments, and musculature) are related through anatomical alignment of the joints and skeletal system. Ankle joint structure can affect or be affected by bony malformations of the surrounding areas, including the knee and hip. The aim of the current study is to examine the possible relationship between the quadriceps (Q) angle and other factors (anthropometric characteristics, medical history, and age) on the occurrence of ankle sprains, because its value, when assessed correctly, provides useful information for the anatomical alignment of the lower extremity. The study sample consisted of 45 high-level athletes, evenly distributed among 3 sports (basketball, soccer, and volleyball). Q angle measurements were made on radiographs. The study lasted for 2 years. A logistic regression was used to determine the importance of each factor on the probability in question. A significance level of P = .1 was used. The factors contributing more to an ankle sprain were a previous injury of the same type ( P .10). The results were valid even when the BMI variable was substituted by body inertia propensity, a derived variable. The Q angle remained statistically nonsignificant ( P > .10). The Q angle magnitude does not seem to be a decisive factor that could increase the probability of spraining an ankle. The most important factors that could affect the probability of sustaining an ankle sprain are the athlete's age, anthropometric characteristics, and prior injuries.

  9. small signal analysis of load angle governing and excitation control

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    optimal value of regulator gain for damping as far as this study is concerned will be some value above 0.25. This is similar to the findings of Aldred and Shackshaft [2] using frequency response methods. Following as above for the same machine with excitation control only, but this time around, utilizing the load angle.

  10. Characterization of porous materials by small-angle scattering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. E-mail: smazu@apsara.barc.ernet.in. Abstract. Characterization of porous materials by small-angle scattering has been ex- tensively pursued for several years now as the pores are often of mesoscopic size and compatible with the ...

  11. The Perspective Effect of Wide-Angle Lenses in Laparoscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentink, M.; Fischer, H.; Dankelman, J.; Stassen, L.P.S.; Wieringa, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of perspective distortion of wide-angle lenses in laparoscopes on hand-eye coordination during endoscopic manipulation. Methods: Sixteen subjects repeatedly performed a standardized positioning task in a pelvi-trainer under two conditions. The subjects had no prior

  12. Optimisation of underwater visual census and controlled angling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whereas UVC provided less variable estimates of relative density, controlled angling provided greater sampling efficiency. It is thus recommended that the two methods be used in conjunction. The optimal sampling protocols identified are suitable for rapid assessments or long-term monitoring of subtidal, temperate reef fish ...

  13. Estimation of Sideslip Angle Based on Extended Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sideslip angle plays an extremely important role in vehicle stability control, but the sideslip angle in production car cannot be obtained from sensor directly in consideration of the cost of the sensor; it is essential to estimate the sideslip angle indirectly by means of other vehicle motion parameters; therefore, an estimation algorithm with real-time performance and accuracy is critical. Traditional estimation method based on Kalman filter algorithm is correct in vehicle linear control area; however, on low adhesion road, vehicles have obvious nonlinear characteristics. In this paper, extended Kalman filtering algorithm had been put forward in consideration of the nonlinear characteristic of the tire and was verified by the Carsim and Simulink joint simulation, such as the simulation on the wet cement road and the ice and snow road with double lane change. To test and verify the effect of extended Kalman filtering estimation algorithm, the real vehicle test was carried out on the limit test field. The experimental results show that the accuracy of vehicle sideslip angle acquired by extended Kalman filtering algorithm is obviously higher than that acquired by Kalman filtering in the area of the nonlinearity.

  14. Characterization of porous materials by small-angle scattering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the availability of ultra small-angle scattering instru- ments, one can investigate porous materials in the sub-micron length scale. Because of the increased accessible length scale vis-a-vis the multiple scattering effect, conventional data analysis procedures based on single scattering approximation quite often fail. The.

  15. Characterization of porous materials by small-angle scattering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the availability of ultra small-angle scattering instruments, one can investigate porous materials in the sub-micron length scale. Because of the increased accessible length scale vis-a-vis the multiple scattering effect, conventional data analysis procedures based on single scattering approximation quite often fail.

  16. Characterization of alumina using small angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megat Harun Al Rashidn Megat Ahmad; Abdul Aziz Mohamed; Azmi Ibrahim; Che Seman Mahmood; Edy Giri Rachman Putra; Muhammad Rawi Muhammad Zin; Razali Kassim; Rafhayudi Jamro

    2007-01-01

    Alumina powder was synthesized from an aluminium precursor and studied using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique and complemented with transmission electron microscope (TEM). XRD measurement confirmed that the alumina produced was high purity and highly crystalline αphase. SANS examination indicates the formation of mass fractals microstructures with fractal dimension of about 2.8 on the alumina powder. (Author)

  17. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of nonionic surfactant: Effect

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Micellar solution of nonionic surfactant -dodecyloligo ethyleneoxide surfactant, decaoxyethylene monododecyl ether [CH3(CH2)11(OCH2CH2)10OH], C12E10 in D2O solution have been analysed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) at different temperatures (30, 45 and 60°C) both in the presence and absence of ...

  18. Small angle neutron scattering studies on the interaction of cationic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The structure of the protein–surfactant complex of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cationic surfactants has been studied by small angle neutron scattering. At low concentrations, the CTAB monomers are observed to bind to the protein leading to an increase in its size. On the other hand at high concentrations, surfactant ...

  19. Selected fishery and population parameters of eight shore-angling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The large inter annual variations in mean CPUE and size for all species indicated that a minimum assessment period of four years is required to obtain reliable estimates. Keywords: catch per unit effort; fisheries management; marine protected area; natural mortality; shore-angling fishery. African Journal of Marine Science ...

  20. Determination Method of Bridge Rotation Angle Response Using MEMS IMU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Hidehiko; Kinomoto, Takeshi; Miki, Chitoshi

    2016-11-09

    To implement steel bridge maintenance, especially that related to fatigue damage, it is important to monitor bridge deformations under traffic conditions. Bridges deform and rotate differently under traffic load conditions because their structures differ in terms of length and flexibility. Such monitoring enables the identification of the cause of stress concentrations that cause fatigue damage and the proposal of appropriate countermeasures. However, although bridge deformation monitoring requires observations of bridge angle response as well as the bridge displacement response, measuring the rotation angle response of a bridge subject to traffic loads is difficult. Theoretically, the rotation angle response can be calculated by integrating the angular velocity, but for field measurements of actual in-service bridges, estimating the necessary boundary conditions would be difficult due to traffic-induced vibration. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a method for determining the rotation angle response of an in-service bridge from its angular velocity, as measured by a inertial measurement unit (IMU). To verify our proposed method, field measurements were conducted using nine micro-electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) IMUs and two contact displacement gauges. The results showed that our proposed method provided high accuracy when compared to the reference responses calculated by the contact displacement gauges.

  1. [Morphometric analysis of nasal shapes and angles in young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Ahmet; Ozdemir, Fikri

    2014-01-01

    The size, angle, shape and type of nose are a signature indicating race, age and sex. Describe and compare nasal angles, nose types, nostril models, and nasal profiles in young Turkish males and females. The study group consisted of university students, 56 males and 59 females. Nasal measurements were obtained from all subjects, using anthropometric methods. The nose types of females and males were 78% and 70% narrow nose, respectively. The means of females' nasofrontal, nasal tip, nasolabial, and alar slope angles were 133.16° ± 8.88°; 77.91° ± 9.80°; 98.91° ± 10.01°, and 80.89° ± 8.33°, respectively. The means of males' nasofrontal, nasal tip, nasolabial, and alar slope angles were 123.85° ± 13.23°; 82.16° ± 9.98°; 97.91° ± 8.78° and 85.98° ± 8.72°, respectively. The average values of the nose in this population may be used as a guide to plan corrective esthetic-cosmetic surgery and for burn scars of the nose. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Splint: the efficacy of orthotic management in rest to prevent equinus in children with cerebral palsy, a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maas Josina C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Range of motion deficits of the lower extremity occur in about the half of the children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP. Over time, these impairments can cause joint deformities and deviations in the children's gait pattern, leading to limitations in moblity. Preventing a loss of range of motion is important in order to reduce secondary activity limitations and joint deformities. Sustained muscle stretch, imposed by orthotic management in rest, might be an effective method of preventing a decrease in range of motion. However, no controlled study has been performed. Methods A single blind randomised controlled trial will be performed in 66 children with spastic CP, divided over three groups with each 22 participants. Two groups will be treated for 1 year with orthoses to prevent a decrease in range of motion in the ankle (either with static or dynamic knee-ankle-foot-orthoses and a third group will be included as a control group and will receive usual care (physical therapy, manual stretching. Measurements will be performed at baseline and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure will be ankle dorsiflexion at full knee extension, measured with a custom designed hand held dynamometer. Secondary outcome measures will be i ankle and knee flexion during gait and ii gross motor function. Furthermore, to gain more insight in the working mechanism of the orthotic management in rest, morphological parameters like achilles tendon length, muscle belly length, muscle fascicle length, muscle physiological cross sectional area length and fascicle pennation angle will be measured in a subgroup of 18 participants using a 3D imaging technique. Discussion This randomised controlled trial will provide more insight into the efficacy of orthotic management in rest and the working mechanisms behind this treatment. The results of this study could lead to improved treatments. Trial Registration Number

  3. Computer Simulation of Angle-measuring System of Photoelectric Theodolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, L; Zhao, Z W; Song, S L; Wang, L T

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a virtual test platform based on malfunction phenomena is designed, using the methods of computer simulation and numerical mask. It is used in the simulation training of angle-measuring system of photoelectric theodolite. Actual application proves that this platform supplies good condition for technicians making deep simulation training and presents a useful approach for the establishment of other large equipment simulation platforms

  4. Variability and Similarity of Gait as Evaluated by Joint Angles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter Kastmand; Alkjær, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage is used in criminal investigations to compare perpetrators with suspects. Usually, incomplete gait cycles are collected, making evidential gait analysis challenging. This study aimed to analyze the discriminatory power of joint angles throughout a gait cyc...

  5. Clinical imaging of the cerebello-pontine angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valavanis, A.; Schubiger, O.; Naidich, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes the diagnostic problems encountered in cerebello-pontine angle lesions. It includes the differential diagnostic criteria for each specific lesion. The former radiological methods of examination are briefly reviewed, but the main stress is on computer tomography. A chapter is devoted to magnetic resonance imaging.

  6. Multiple small-angle neutron scattering studies of anisotropic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, A J; Long, G G; Ilavsky, J

    2002-01-01

    Building on previous work that considered spherical scatterers and randomly oriented spheroidal scatterers, we describe a multiple small-angle neutron scattering (MSANS) analysis for nonrandomly oriented spheroids. We illustrate this with studies of the multi-component void morphologies found in plasma-spray thermal barrier coatings. (orig.)

  7. Neutrino Mass Models: Impact of non-zero reactor angle

    OpenAIRE

    King, Stephen F.

    2011-01-01

    In this talk neutrino mass models are reviewed and the impact of a non-zero reactor angle and other deviations from tri-bimaximal mixing are discussed. We propose some benchmark models, where the only way to discriminate between them is by high precision neutrino oscillation experiments.

  8. Magnetosheath distortion of pitch angle distributions of solar protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, I.D.; Higbie, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    The propagation of energetic solar protons of 9 or approx. =1 MeV into the magnetosheath is investigated through three-dimensional pitch angle distributions measured on Vela satellites. Distortions are observed in the magnetosheath, as compared with isotropic or unidirectional distributions normally expected in interplanetary space. Two types of distortions are observed which are characterized by breaks in the distributions at μ/sub o/ O, where μ is the cosine of the pitch angle. The distributions in the magnetosheath are explained by a Liouville transformation, if particle motion across the bow shock and through the magnetosheath is assumed to be adiabatic. Whether μ/sub o/ is positive or negative is determined by whether the satellite in the magnetosheath lies beyond or in front of the region of maximum magnetic field compression (or neck) in the magnetosheath, relative to the direction of the net flow of particles. The magnitude of μ/sub o/ is a measure of the field ratio between neck and satellite. Scattering effects, which must occur at the bow shock and in the magnetosheath, only perturb the adiabatic propagation of the particles. The results show that one must be cautious in inferring the true interplanetary anisotropy from measurements in the magnetosheath. While the maxima and minima of the corresponding pitch angle distributions will be the same, the distributions can be vastly different, and both anisotropy and omnidirectional intensities significantly different, too. By corollary, the pitch angle distribution and anisotropy measured in the solar wind on field line that intercepts the bow shock sunward of the earth will in general be different from that which would be measured in interplanetary space on a field line not connected to the bow shock; to first order the effect of the bow shock can be computed by treating the motion as adiabatic

  9. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography of acute primary angle closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai Tao; Xu, Liang; Cao, Wei Fang; Wang, Ya Xing; Jonas, Jost B

    2010-06-01

    To assess anterior segment optical coherence tomographic measurements of patients after acute unilateral primary angle closure (APAC) compared with those of normal subjects. The clinical observational study included 41 hospital-based patients after unilateral APAC, their unaffected contralateral eyes, and 205 subjects. These were selected from the population-based Beijing Eye Study, and were matched with the APAC group for age, gender, and refractive error. All study participants underwent slit-lamp adapted optical coherence tomography (OCT). Compared with the unaffected contralateral eyes, eyes with APAC had a significantly shallower anterior chamber (P APAC and the unaffected contralateral eyes both showed more shallow anterior chambers (P APAC group, the anterior chamber angle was closed in three or more quadrants. Anterior segment OCT measurements show significant differences between eyes with APAC, contralateral eyes at risk for APAC, and normal eyes. This may open possibilities for a semi-automatic assessment of subjects at risk for APAC by anterior segment OCT. The anterior chamber angle was closed most often in the nasal quadrant, and, in APAC, the angle was closed in three or more quadrants.

  10. Reliability of goniometry-based Q-angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Lawrence; DeForest, Bradley; Hammond, Kelley; Schilling, Brian; Ferreira, Lucas

    2013-09-01

    To establish the stability reliability, precision, and minimum value for detecting real differences for quadriceps angle (Q-angle) measurements based on standardized protocols and surface goniometry. An intratester reliability study. University research laboratory. Fifty-two healthy, young, relatively lean adults (25 men and 27 women) from the university community with no history of knee injury. Q-angle was assessed with surface goniometry on 2 separate occasions separated by 48 hours. Subjects assumed a supine position with: (1) extended hips and knees, (2) neutral hip rotational position, (3) neutral foot position, and (4) isometrically contracted quadriceps femoris muscles. The axis of a manual extendable-arm goniometer was placed over the center of the right patella with the proximal arm situated over the anterior-superior iliac spine and the distal arm over the center of the tibial tuberosity. Stability reliability was calculated with use of intraclass correlation (ICC, 2-way random model) and precision was calculated by standard error of measurement (SEM). The 95% limits of agreement also were calculated to estimate the minimum detectable difference in Q-angles. The lowest acceptable ICC was set at ≥0.70 for stability reliability. The following ICC (SEM) values were found: all subjects = 0.88 (1.0°), men = 0.77 (1.0°), and women = 0.85 (1.0°). The 95% limits of agreement were 3° for the same 3 groups. The surface goniometry protocol described herein appeared to be reliable for relatively lean young men and women. Although measures were precise to 1.0°, it appears a difference of 3° may be needed to detect a real difference in Q-angles when measured in this fashion. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Resting Heart Rate Variability, Facets of Rumination and Trait Anxiety: Implications for the Perseverative Cognition Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeWayne P. Williams

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The perseverative cognition hypothesis (PCH posits that perseveration, defined as the repetitive or sustained activation of cognitive representations of a real or imagined stressor, is a primary mechanism linking psychological (or stress vulnerability with poor health and disease. Resting vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV is an important indicator of self-regulatory abilities, stress vulnerability and overall health. Those with lower resting vmHRV are more vulnerable to stress, and thus more likely to engage in perseverative cognition and experience subsequent negative mental health outcomes such as anxiety. Recent research suggests that rumination—one of the core mechanisms underlying perseveration—is a construct containing (at least two maladaptive (depressive and brooding and one adaptive (reflective types of rumination. However, to date, research has not examined how the association between resting vmHRV may differ between these three facets of rumination, in addition to these facets’ mechanistic role in linking lower resting vmHRV with greater trait anxiety. The current cross-sectional study explores these relationships in a sample of 203 participants (112 females, 76 ethnic minorities, mean age = 19.43, standard deviation = 1.87. Resting vmHRV was assessed during a 5-min-resting period using an Electrocardiogram (ECG. Both trait rumination (including the three facets and anxiety were assessed via self-report scales. Significant negative associations were found between resting vmHRV and maladaptive, but not adaptive, forms of perseveration. Similarly, mediation analyses showed a significant indirect relationship between resting vmHRV and anxiety through maladaptive, but not adaptive, facets of rumination. Our findings support the PCH such that those with stress vulnerability, as indexed by lower resting vmHRV, are more likely to engage in maladaptive perseverative cognition and thus experience negative outcomes such as

  12. Resting Heart Rate Variability, Facets of Rumination and Trait Anxiety: Implications for the Perseverative Cognition Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, DeWayne P; Feeling, Nicole R; Hill, LaBarron K; Spangler, Derek P; Koenig, Julian; Thayer, Julian F

    2017-01-01

    The perseverative cognition hypothesis (PCH) posits that perseveration, defined as the repetitive or sustained activation of cognitive representations of a real or imagined stressor, is a primary mechanism linking psychological (or stress) vulnerability with poor health and disease. Resting vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) is an important indicator of self-regulatory abilities, stress vulnerability and overall health. Those with lower resting vmHRV are more vulnerable to stress, and thus more likely to engage in perseverative cognition and experience subsequent negative mental health outcomes such as anxiety. Recent research suggests that rumination-one of the core mechanisms underlying perseveration-is a construct containing (at least) two maladaptive (depressive and brooding) and one adaptive (reflective) types of rumination. However, to date, research has not examined how the association between resting vmHRV may differ between these three facets of rumination, in addition to these facets' mechanistic role in linking lower resting vmHRV with greater trait anxiety. The current cross-sectional study explores these relationships in a sample of 203 participants (112 females, 76 ethnic minorities, mean age = 19.43, standard deviation = 1.87). Resting vmHRV was assessed during a 5-min-resting period using an Electrocardiogram (ECG). Both trait rumination (including the three facets) and anxiety were assessed via self-report scales. Significant negative associations were found between resting vmHRV and maladaptive, but not adaptive, forms of perseveration. Similarly, mediation analyses showed a significant indirect relationship between resting vmHRV and anxiety through maladaptive, but not adaptive, facets of rumination. Our findings support the PCH such that those with stress vulnerability, as indexed by lower resting vmHRV, are more likely to engage in maladaptive perseverative cognition and thus experience negative outcomes such as anxiety. Our data

  13. Effect of phacoemulsification on drainage angle status in angle closure eyes with or without extensive peripheral anterior synechiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Golshan; Moghimi, Sasan; Eslami, Yadollah; Fakhraie, Ghasem; Zarei, Reza; Lin, Shan

    2013-01-21

    Purpose. To evaluate the anatomic effects of phacoemulsification on drainage angle status in primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Methods. A total of 62 eyes of 58 patients underwent cataract surgery in Farabi Rye Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Patients were examined postoperatively on day 1, week 1, and week 6. Indentation gonioscopy and AS-OCT were performed preoperatively and at 6 weeks after surgery. Main outcome measures were angle and anterior segment parameters by AS-OCT and amount of peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) by gonioscopy. Thirty-five eyes had PAS =180 degrees (group 1) and 27 eyes had >180-degree synechial closure (group 2). Results. Mean age of the patients was 64.3±9.0 years. The mean extent of PAS was significantly reduced from 45.9 to 32.2 degrees (p180 degrees.

  14. Measurement of the Position Angle and Separation of HJ 1924

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badami, Umar Ahmed; Tock, Kalée.; Carpenter, Steve; Kruger, Kurt; Freed, Rachel; Genet, Russell

    2018-01-01

    The position angle and separation of the binary HJ 1924 have been measured and noted in 10 publications since John Herschel's initial observation in 1828. Measurement techniques have improved in both precision and accuracy since that time. Although Herschel's initial measurement was slightly different, the position angle and separation of these stars have remained relatively constant for the past 122 years. The system was observed using the Skynet Robotic Telescope Network. AstroImageJ software was used to contribute a new data point. Our measurement of 8.12" ± 0.0127 (1 ± SEM), 225.1o ± 0.0298 (1 ± SEM),was in agreement with the 10 most recent published measurements, but not the initial one, implying that Herschel's measurement may have been inaccurate. While these stars appear to exhibit similar proper motion, and may therefore share a common origin, they are unlikely to be gravitationally bound.

  15. A low-complexity attitude control method for large-angle agile maneuvers of a spacecraft with control moment gyros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawajiri, Shota; Matunaga, Saburo

    2017-10-01

    This study examines a low-complexity control method that satisfies mechanical constraints by using control moment gyros for an agile maneuver. The method is designed based on the fact that a simple rotation around an Euler's principal axis corresponds to a well-approximated solution of a time-optimal rest-to-rest maneuver. With respect to an agile large-angle maneuver using CMGs, it is suggested that there exists a coasting period in which all gimbal angles are constant, and a constant body angular velocity is almost along the Euler's principal axis. The gimbals are driven such that the coasting period is generated in the proposed method. This allows the problem to be converted into obtaining only a coasting time and gimbal angles such that their combination maximizes body angular velocity along the rotational axis of the maneuver. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by using numerical simulations. The results indicate that the proposed method shortens the settling time by 20-70% when compared to that of a traditional feedback method. Additionally, a comparison with an existing path planning method shows that the proposed method achieves a low computational complexity (that is approximately 150 times faster) and a certain level of shortness in the settling time.

  16. Psychological Effects of Resting in Natural Environments: Improved choice reaction time and more efficient heart rate restoration as a function of resting with a window view of nature

    OpenAIRE

    Engell, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that natural environments can induce restorative effects on cognitive capacity and autonomic arousal, yielding improvements in cognitive functioning and more efficient heart rate restoration. The present study investigates differences in choice reaction time (CRT) and heart rate variability (HRV) in students (N=10) resting with or without a window view of a natural environment after a minor physical exertion. Subjects performed a pre-test of a Deary-Liewald choice reaction ...

  17. The Effects of Approach Angle and Rake Angle Due to Chatter Vibrations on Surface Roughness in Turning

    OpenAIRE

    NEŞELİ, Süleyman; YALDIZ, Süleyman

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the effect of the chatter vibrations depend on tool geometry on surface roughness in turning has been investigated. Machining process in universal lathe is carried out on AISI 1040 steel in dry cutting condition using various approaching/entering angles (60°, 75°, 90°) and rake angles (-3°,-6°,-9°) at depth of cut of 0.5 mm. During cutting processes, tool nose radius and tool overhang (tool noise of kept point distance) and cutting speed, feed rate and spindle speed as cutting ...

  18. On gravity's role in the genesis of rest masses of classical fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabados, László B.

    2018-03-01

    It is shown that in the Einstein-conformally coupled Higgs-Maxwell system with Friedman-Robertson-Walker symmetries the energy density of the Higgs field has stable local minimum only if the mean curvature of the t=const hypersurfaces is less than a finite critical value χ _c, while for greater mean curvature the energy density is not bounded from below. Therefore, there are extreme gravitational situations in which even quasi-locally defined instantaneous vacuum states of the Higgs sector cannot exist, and hence one cannot at all define the rest mass of all the classical fields. On hypersurfaces with mean curvature less than χ _c the energy density has the `wine bottle' (rather than the familiar `Mexican hat') shape, and the gauge field can get rest mass via the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism. The spacelike hypersurface with the critical mean curvature represents the moment of `genesis' of rest masses.

  19. Evaluation of anterior chamber angle under dark and light conditions in angle closure glaucoma: An anterior segment OCT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoodi, Habibeh; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Esmaeili, Alireza; Abolbashari, Fereshteh; Ahmadi Hosseini, Seyed Mahdi

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate changes of nasal and temporal anterior chamber angle (ACA) in subjects with angle closure glaucoma using Spectralis AS-OCT (SAS-OCT) under dark and light conditions. Based on dark-room gonioscopy, 24 subjects with open angles and 86 with narrow angles participated in this study. The nasal and temporal angle opening distance at 500 μm anterior to the scleral spur (AOD500), nasal and temporal ACA were measured using SAS-OCT in light and dark conditions. In 2 groups, ACA and AOD500 in nasal and temporal quadrants were significantly greater in light compared to dark (all with p=0.000). The AOD500 and ACA were significantly higher in nasal than temporal in measured conditions for 2 groups except the ACA and AOD500 of normal group measured in light. The difference between nasal and temporal in dark (29.07 ± 65.71 μm for AOD500 and 5.7 ± 4.07° for ACA) was greater than light (24.86 ± 79.85 μm for AOD500 and 2.09 ± 7.21° for ACA) condition. But the difference was only significant for ACA (p=0.000). The correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between AOD500 and pupil diameter in temporal and nasal quadrants (both with p=0.000). While temporal AOD500 difference correlated with spherical equivalent, temporal and asal gonioscopy, nasal AOD correlated with IOP, temporal and nasal gonioscopy. Clinically important changes in ACA structure could be detected with SAS-OCT in nasal and temporal quadrants under different illumination intensity. The results could help in improvement of examination condition for better and more accurate assessment of individuals with angle closure glaucoma. Copyright © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. RESTful Web Services Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Allamaraju, Subbu

    2010-01-01

    While the REST design philosophy has captured the imagination of web and enterprise developers alike, using this approach to develop real web services is no picnic. This cookbook includes more than 100 recipes to help you take advantage of REST, HTTP, and the infrastructure of the Web. You'll learn ways to design RESTful web services for client and server applications that meet performance, scalability, reliability, and security goals, no matter what programming language and development framework you use. Each recipe includes one or two problem statements, with easy-to-follow, step-by-step i

  1. Monitoring of desert dune topography by multi angle sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, J.; Kim, J.; Choi, Y.; Yun, H.

    2011-12-01

    Nowadays, the sandy desert is rapidly expanding world widely and results in a lot of risks in the socio-econimical aspects as well as the anthropogenic activities. For example, the increasing occurrences of mineral dust storm which presumably originated from the sandy deserts in northwest China become a serious threat in human activities as well as public health over Far East Asian area as the interpretation by the MODIS analysis (Zhang et al., 2007) and the particle trajectory simulation with HYSPLYT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) (Kim et al., 2011) identified. Since the sand dune activity has been recognized as an essential indicator of the progressive desertification, it is important to establish the monitoring method for the variations of topographic properties by the dune activities such as local roughness. Thus it will provide the crucial data about the extent and the transition of sandy desert. For example, it is well known the aerodynamic roughness lengths Zo which can be driven from the specialized sensor such as POLDER (POLarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances) is essential to understand desert dune characteristics. However, for the multi temporal observation of dune fields, the availability of data set to extract Zo is limited. Therefore, we employed MISR (Multi angle imaging Spectro Radiometer) image sequence to extract multi angle topographic parameters such as NDAI (Normalized Difference Angular Index) or the variation of radiance with the viewing geometry which are representing the characteristics of target desert topography instead of Zo. In our approach, NDAI were expanded to the all viewing angles and then compared over the target sandy desert and the surrounding land covers. It showed very strong consistencies according to the land cover type and especially over the dynamic dune fields. On the other hands, the variation of NDAIs of sandy desert combining with the metrological observations were

  2. Task-Rest Modulation of Basal Ganglia Connectivity in Mild to Moderate Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M.; Sullivan, Edith V.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Huang, Neng C.; Poston, Kathleen L.; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M.; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with abnormal synchronization in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. We tested whether early PD patients without demonstrable cognitive impairment exhibit abnormal modulation of functional connectivity at rest, while engaged in a task, or both. PD and healthy controls underwent two functional MRI scans: a resting-state scan and a Stroop Match-to-Sample task scan. Rest-task modulation of basal ganglia (BG) connectivity was tested using seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis with task and rest time series as conditions. Despite substantial overlap of BG–cortical connectivity patterns in both groups, connectivity differences between groups had clinical and behavioral correlates. During rest, stronger putamen–medial parietal and pallidum–occipital connectivity in PD than controls was associated with worse task performance and more severe PD symptoms suggesting that abnormalities in resting-state connectivity denote neural network dedifferentiation. During the executive task, PD patients showed weaker BG-cortical connectivity than controls, i.e., between caudate–supramarginal gyrus and pallidum–inferior prefrontal regions, that was related to more severe PD symptoms and worse task performance. Yet, task processing also evoked stronger striatal–cortical connectivity, specifically between caudate–prefrontal, caudate–precuneus, and putamen–motor/premotor regions in PD relative to controls, which was related to less severe PD symptoms and better performance on the Stroop task. Thus, stronger task-evoked striatal connectivity in PD demonstrated compensatory neural network enhancement to meet task demands and improve performance levels. fMRI-based network analysis revealed that despite resting-state BG network compromise in PD, BG connectivity to prefrontal, premotor, and precuneus regions can be adequately invoked during executive control demands enabling near normal task performance. PMID:25280970

  3. Task-rest modulation of basal ganglia connectivity in mild to moderate Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Huang, Neng C; Poston, Kathleen L; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M; Schulte, Tilman

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with abnormal synchronization in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. We tested whether early PD patients without demonstrable cognitive impairment exhibit abnormal modulation of functional connectivity at rest, while engaged in a task, or both. PD and healthy controls underwent two functional MRI scans: a resting-state scan and a Stroop Match-to-Sample task scan. Rest-task modulation of basal ganglia (BG) connectivity was tested using seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis with task and rest time series as conditions. Despite substantial overlap of BG-cortical connectivity patterns in both groups, connectivity differences between groups had clinical and behavioral correlates. During rest, stronger putamen-medial parietal and pallidum-occipital connectivity in PD than controls was associated with worse task performance and more severe PD symptoms suggesting that abnormalities in resting-state connectivity denote neural network dedifferentiation. During the executive task, PD patients showed weaker BG-cortical connectivity than controls, i.e., between caudate-supramarginal gyrus and pallidum-inferior prefrontal regions, that was related to more severe PD symptoms and worse task performance. Yet, task processing also evoked stronger striatal-cortical connectivity, specifically between caudate-prefrontal, caudate-precuneus, and putamen-motor/premotor regions in PD relative to controls, which was related to less severe PD symptoms and better performance on the Stroop task. Thus, stronger task-evoked striatal connectivity in PD demonstrated compensatory neural network enhancement to meet task demands and improve performance levels. fMRI-based network analysis revealed that despite resting-state BG network compromise in PD, BG connectivity to prefrontal, premotor, and precuneus regions can be adequately invoked during executive control demands enabling near normal task performance.

  4. An overview of the issues: physiological effects of bed rest and restricted physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Bloomfield, S. A.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    Reduction of exercise capacity with confinement to bed rest is well recognized. Underlying physiological mechanisms include dramatic reductions in maximal stroke volume, cardiac output, and oxygen uptake. However, bed rest by itself does not appear to contribute to cardiac dysfunction. Increased muscle fatigue is associated with reduced muscle blood flow, red cell volume, capillarization and oxidative enzymes. Loss of muscle mass and bone density may be reflected by reduced muscle strength and higher risk for injury to bones and joints. The resultant deconditioning caused by bed rest can be independent of the primary disease and physically debilitating in patients who attempt to reambulate to normal active living and working. A challenge to clinicians and health care specialists has been the identification of appropriate and effective methods to restore physical capacity of patients during or after restricted physical activity associated with prolonged bed rest. The examination of physiological responses to bed rest deconditioning and exercise training in healthy subjects has provided significant information to develop effective rehabilitation treatments. The successful application of acute exercise to enhance orthostatic stability, daily endurance exercise to maintain aerobic capacity, or specific resistance exercises to maintain musculoskeletal integrity rather than the use of surgical, pharmacological, and other medical treatments for clinical conditions has been enhanced by investigation and understanding of underlying mechanisms that distinguish physical deconditioning from the disease. This symposium presents an overview of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning associated with reduced physical work capacity following prolonged bed rest and exercise training regimens that have proven successful in ameliorating or reversing these adverse effects.

  5. Psychological effects of acute physical inactivty during microgravitiy simulated by bed rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dolenc

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-duration weightlessness simulated by bed rest represents an important model to study the consequences of physical inactivity and sedentarism on the human body. This study evaluated changes of mood status, psychological well-being, coping strategies and physical self in ten healthy young male subjects during a 35-day horizontal bed rest. Participants were asked to complete psychometrical inventories before and after the bed rest experiment. The preceived satisfaction with life and the physical self-concept did not change during bed rest period and mood states were relatively stable during the experiment according to the Emotional States Questionnaire. The neurotic level was enhanced during the bed rest period according to the Slovenian version of the General Health Questionnaire. However, even after the period of physical immobilization, the expression of these symptoms remains relatively low and does not represent a risk to the mental health of the subjects. The results from Coping Resources Inventory indicated a tendency toward an increase of emotion focused coping and a decrease of problem focused coping strategies. The importance of this research was to provide evidence that the provision of favourable habitability countermeasures can prevent deterioration in the psychological state under conditions of physical immobilisation. Our findings have applied value in the field of health prevention and rehabilitaion.

  6. Effects of capsinoid ingestion on energy expenditure and lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staples Aaron W

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The thermogenic and metabolic properties of capsinoids appear to mimic those of the more pungent sister compound capsaicin. However, few data exist on how capsinoid ingestion affects energy expenditure in humans and no data exist on its interaction with exercise. We aimed to determine how ingestion of capsinoids affected energy expenditure, lipid oxidation and blood metabolites at rest and during moderate intensity exercise. Methods Twelve healthy young men (age = 24.3 ± 3 yr, BMI = 25.5 ± 1.7 kg·m-2 were studied on two occasions in a double-blind design following ingestion of either placebo or 10 mg of purified capsinoids at rest, after 90 min of cycling at 55% VO2 peak, and for 30 min into recovery. Subjects ingested the capsules 30 min prior to exercise. Results At rest, following ingestion of capsinoids, we observed increases in VO2 and plasma norepinephrine levels, and decreases in concentrations of serum free fatty acids, plasma glycerol and the respiratory exchange ratio (all P Conclusion The ingestion of 10 mg of capsinoids increased adrenergic activity, energy expenditure, and resulted in a shift in substrate utilization toward lipid at rest but had little effect during exercise or recovery. The changes we observed confirm previous data on the thermogenic and metabolic effects of capsinoids at rest and further promote its potential role as an adjunct weight loss aid, in addition to diet and exercise.

  7. Small-angle neutron scattering analyses of nanoemulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Takuji

    2010-01-01

    A stable nanoemulsion consisting of nanometer-sized oil droplets in water having a self-standing capability was prepared by high-pressure emulsification. Rheological measurements show that the nanoemulsion has a yield stress. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) revealed the presence of an ordered crystal-like lattice structure in addition to spherical domains with a radius of 17 nm. A mixed solution of 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose and dilution of the nanoemulsion has shear-thickening behavior (shear-induced gelation). Real-time SANS measurements with a Couette geometry as a function of shear rate showed an increase in the scattering intensity exclusively at low scattering angle region. However, neither aggregation nor deformation of droplet was detected and the SANS patterns remained isotropic irrespective of shear rate. A possible mechanism of gelation is proposed from the viewpoint of shear-induced percolation transition. (author)

  8. Automatic classification of schizophrenia using resting-state functional language network via an adaptive learning algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Maohu; Jie, Nanfeng; Jiang, Tianzi

    2014-03-01

    A reliable and precise classification of schizophrenia is significant for its diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a novel tool increasingly used in schizophrenia research. Recent advances in statistical learning theory have led to applying pattern classification algorithms to access the diagnostic value of functional brain networks, discovered from resting state fMRI data. The aim of this study was to propose an adaptive learning algorithm to distinguish schizophrenia patients from normal controls using resting-state functional language network. Furthermore, here the classification of schizophrenia was regarded as a sample selection problem where a sparse subset of samples was chosen from the labeled training set. Using these selected samples, which we call informative vectors, a classifier for the clinic diagnosis of schizophrenia was established. We experimentally demonstrated that the proposed algorithm incorporating resting-state functional language network achieved 83.6% leaveone- out accuracy on resting-state fMRI data of 27 schizophrenia patients and 28 normal controls. In contrast with KNearest- Neighbor (KNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and l1-norm, our method yielded better classification performance. Moreover, our results suggested that a dysfunction of resting-state functional language network plays an important role in the clinic diagnosis of schizophrenia.

  9. Effect of furosemide on pulmonary blood flow distribution in resting and exercising horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, H. H.; Bernard, S. L.; Glenny, R. W.; Fedde, M. R.; Polissar, N. L.; Basaraba, R. J.; Walther, S. M.; Gaughan, E. M.; McMurphy, R.; Hlastala, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    We determined the spatial distribution of pulmonary blood flow (PBF) with 15-micron fluorescent-labeled microspheres during rest and exercise in five Thoroughbred horses before and 4 h after furosemide administration (0.5 mg/kg iv). The primary finding of this study was that PBF redistribution occurred from rest to exercise, both with and without furosemide. However, there was less blood flow to the dorsal portion of the lung during exercise postfurosemide compared with prefurosemide. Furosemide did alter the resting perfusion distribution by increasing the flow to the ventral regions of the lung; however, that increase in flow was abated with exercise. Other findings included 1) unchanged gas exchange and cardiac output during rest and exercise after vs. before furosemide, 2) a decrease in pulmonary arterial pressure after furosemide, 3) an increase in the slope of the relationship of PBF vs. vertical height up the lung during exercise, both with and without furosemide, and 4) a decrease in blood flow to the dorsal region of the lung at rest after furosemide. Pulmonary perfusion variability within the lung may be a function of the anatomy of the pulmonary vessels that results in a predominantly fixed spatial pattern of flow distribution.

  10. Performance of the upgraded small angle tile calorimeter at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Alvsvaag, S J; Barreira, G; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bigi, M; Bonesini, M; Bozzo, M; Camporesi, T; Carling, H; Cassio, V; Castellani, L; Cereseto, R; Chignoli, F; Della Ricca, G; Dharmasiri, D R; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Gamba, D; Giordano, V; Guz, Yu; Guerzoni, M; Gumenyuk, S A; Hedberg, V; Jarlskog, G; Karyukhin, A N; Klovning, A; Konoplyannikov, A K; Kronkvist, I J; Lanceri, L; Leoni, R; Maeland, O A; Maio, A; Mazza, R; Migliore, E; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nossum, B; Obraztsov, V F; Onofre, A; Paganoni, M; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Petrovykh, L P; Pimenta, M; Poropat, P; Prest, M; Read, A L; Romero, A; Shalanda, N A; Simonetti, L; Skaali, T B; Stugu, B; Terranova, F; Tomé, B; Torassa, E; Trapani, P P; Verardi, M G; Vallazza, E; Vlasov, E; Zaitsev, A

    1998-01-01

    The small angle tile calorimeter (STIC) provides calorimetric coverage in the very forward region of the DELPHI experiment at the CERN LEP collider. The structure of the calorimeters, built with so- called "shashlik" technique, $9 allows the insertion of tracking detectors within the sampling structure, in order to make it possible to determine the direction of the showering particle. Presented here are some results demonstrating the performance of the $9 calorimeter and of these tracking detectors at LEP. (5 refs).

  11. [Comparison of anterior chamber angle examination by UBM, SL-OCT and gonioscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui-jue; Wang, Men; Xia, Wen-tao; Yu, Xiao-ying; Chen, Jie-min; Zhou, Shu; Peng, Shu-ya; Liu, Dong-mei

    2014-08-01

    To compare the agreement of anterior chamber angle examination by ultrasound biomicroscope (UBM), slit lamp optical coherence tomography (SL-OCT), and gonioscopy in angle recession and angle closure. The anterior chamber angle was measured with UBM, SL-OCT and gonioscopy in turns for temporal, nasal, superior and inferior quadrant in the same dark room. The results were compared with the agreement of the three methods in angle recession and angle closure by χ2 test and Kappa test. There were no statistically significant differences of the three methods in testing angle closure and angle recession (P>0.05). The consistency of UBM and gonioscopy was better (Kappa value of 0.882) than that of SL-OCT and gonioscopy (Kappa value of 0.624). When testing angle recession, UBM is better than SL-OCT with gonioscopy as the standard. When testing angle closure, UBM, SL-OCT and gonioscopy have good agreement.

  12. Transition into daylight saving time influences the fragmentation of the rest-activity cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuulio-Henriksson Annamari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daylight saving time is widely adopted. Little is known about its influence on the daily rest-activity cycles. We decided to explore the effects of transition into daylight saving time on the circadian rhythm of activity. Methods We monitored the rest-activity cycles with the use of wrist-worn accelerometer on a sample of ten healthy adults for ten days around the transition into summer time. Identical protocols were carried out on the same individuals in two consecutive years, yielding data on 200 person-days for analysis in this study. Results There was no significant effect on the rest-activity cycle in the sample as a whole. Fragmentation of the rest-activity cycle was enhanced in a subgroup of persons having sleep for eight hours or less (P = 0.04 but reduced in those who preferred to sleep for more than eight hours per night (P = 0.05. The average level of motor activity was increased in persons having the morning preference for daily activity patterns (P = 0.01. Conclusion Transition into daylight saving time may have a disruptive effect on the rest-activity cycle in those healthy adults who are short-sleepers or more of the evening type.

  13. Physical active rest in education of active personality of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaycev V.P.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Meaningfulness of physical recreation is rotined in education of active personality of students. Research material is literary sources on this issue. Factors which influence on an educate function of personality of students are considered. Application of physical recreation is grounded for education of active personality of students. It is marked that physical recreation in pedagogical process decides educate, educational, health and social tasks. It positively influences on education of active personality of students. It is rotined that in education of active personality of students an important role is played by their research activity.

  14. Comparison of isoplanatic angles derived from thermosonde and optical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Edmund A.; Roadcap, John R.

    1998-11-01

    A comparison of isoplanatic angles derived from balloon- borne in-situ measurements of the index of refraction structure constant profiles and remote optical measurements of stellar intensity fluctuations using an isoplanometer is shown. Concurrent data taken over a six day period in the spring of 1986 show reasonably good agreement between the methods considering normal atmospheric variability. Possible reasons for differences between individual measurements are discussed.

  15. Functional connectivity analysis of the brain network using resting-state fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Spatial patterns of spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals reflect the underlying neural architecture. The study of the brain network based on these self-organized patterns is termed resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). This review article aims at briefly reviewing a basic concept of this technology and discussing its implications for neuropsychological studies. First, the technical aspects of resting-state fMRI, including signal sources, physiological artifacts, image acquisition, and analytical methods such as seed-based correlation analysis and independent component analysis, are explained, followed by a discussion on the major resting-state networks, including the default mode network. In addition, the structure-function correlation studied using diffuse tensor imaging and resting-state fMRI is briefly discussed. Second, I have discussed the reservations and potential pitfalls of 2 major imaging methods: voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and task fMRI. Problems encountered with voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping can be overcome by using resting-state fMRI and evaluating undamaged brain networks in patients. Regarding task fMRI in patients, I have also emphasized the importance of evaluating the baseline brain activity because the amplitude of activation in BOLD fMRI is hard to interpret as the same baseline cannot be assumed for both patient and normal groups. (author)

  16. Resting beta activation and trait motivation: Neurophysiological markers of motivated motor-action preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter Threadgill, A; Gable, Philip A

    2018-03-02

    Based on Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (Gray and McNaughton 2000), human behavior is influenced by systems of approach motivation, avoidance motivation, and a third regulatory system presiding over the other two. These systems mediate action and are likely related to neurophysiological markers of motor-action preparation. Previous research has found that lower levels of beta activity over the motor cortex are associated with greater motor-action preparation. The current study sought to test whether trait approach, avoidance, and regulatory control would relate to resting beta activity over the motor cortex, a measure of motor-action preparation. One hundred twenty-eight individuals completed measures of trait behavioral approach motivation and trait behavioral avoidance motivation (BIS/BAS; Carver and White 1994), as well as regulatory control (UPPS-P Impulsive Behaviour Scale; Whiteside et al. 2005). Then, resting EEG was recorded. Greater trait approach was negatively associated with resting beta activity. In contrast, greater trait impulsivity was associated with greater resting beta activity. Lower levels of resting beta activity in the motor cortex appear to be associated with traits related to deliberate motivated motor behaviors. Trait motor-action preparation seems to be an indicator of tendencies towards planful motivated behavior. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Regulation of gluconeogenesis during rest and exercise in the depancreatized dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, D H; Johnson, J L; Bupp, J L; Lacy, D B; Bracy, D P

    1993-07-01

    To assess the mechanism of the accelerated gluconeogenesis in the insulin-deficient state, chronically catheterized (carotid artery, portal vein, hepatic vein, vena cava) normal (C; n = 9) and depancreatized (PX; n = 7) dogs were studied during rest (40 min) and moderate exercise (150 min). Tracers ([14C]alanine, [3H]glucose) and dye were infused to measure determinants of gluconeogenesis in the gut and liver. Arterial levels, net gut output, hepatic load, and net hepatic uptake of alanine were similar in C and PX at rest. During exercise, alanine levels fell in C but rose approximately 100% in PX. Exercise did not affect gut output or liver uptake of alanine in C but increased these variables by approximately 50 and 100% in PX due to an increase in hepatic alanine load. Arterial lactate was similar at rest in C and PX but rose fourfold more in PX with exercise. Net gut lactate output was fivefold greater in PX during rest and exercise. Net hepatic lactate uptake was present in PX at rest, whereas net output was evident in C. In response to exercise, hepatic lactate uptake was increased further in PX due to a rise in hepatic lactate load. Net hepatic lactate uptake was not evident until the end of exercise in C. Net hepatic glycerol uptake was elevated at rest in PX and during the initial 60 min of exercise due to an elevated hepatic load. In contrast to the high rates of gut lactate and alanine output in PX, gut glycerol output was not present. Gluconeogenesis from lactate and alanine was 5- to 10-fold higher in PX than C during rest and exercise. At rest, this resulted, in part, from a twofold greater intrahepatic gluconeogenic efficiency. During exercise, the greater conversion occurred even though efficiency was not consistently greater. In summary, gluconeogenesis from alanine, lactate, and glycerol in the insulin-deficient diabetic state 1) is exaggerated at rest, due to an increased capacity for hepatic lactate extraction, increased hepatic precursor loads

  18. Effects of a Single Dose of Caffeine on Resting Cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 5mg/kg body weight dose of caffeine on cardiovascular system of normal young adult males of Black African Origin. Twenty normal young adult male volunteers participated. A repeated measures 2 randomized Crosse over (counter balanced) double blind design was ...

  19. Effects of a Single Dose of Caffeine on Resting Cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of. 5mg/kg body weight dose of caffeine on cardiovascular system of normal young adult males of Black African Origin. Twenty normal young adult male volunteers participated. A repeated measures 2 randomized Crosse over (counter balanced) double blind design was ...

  20. Resting stage in the biogenic fraction of surface sediments from the deep Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi della Tommasa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of resting stages in neritic areas is well known, while their occurrence in the deep sea realm has seldom been considered. Recent investigations showed strict interactions between neritic and deep sea domains, due to up- and down-welling phenomena driven by submarine canyons. To estimate the presence of resting stages in deep bottom sediments, seven sediment cores, collected along a trans-Mediterranean transect by means a multi-corer during the TRANSMED survey (1999, were studied. Most biogenic sediment was composed of Foraminifera tests (tens of thousand tests cm-3, Calciodinellum albatrosianum and Leonella granifera (Dinophyta cysts (up to thousands cysts cm-3. Eleven dinocyst morphotypes were recorded mainly as empty shells (seven calcareous-walled: C. albatrosianum, Calciperidinium asymmetricum, Leonella granifera, Scrippsiella trochoidea, S. precaria type 1, S. precaria type 2, S. regalis; four organic-walled: Impagidinium aculeatum, unid. dinocyst 1, unid. dinocyst 2 and unid. dinocyst 3, while no metazoan resting eggs were observed. The presence of viable resting stages in deep bottom surface sediments was much lower than in neritic areas, suggesting that oceanic species do not produce cysts for a "benthic resting" strategy. Further taxonomic and biogeographic studies are needed to better understand the ecological dynamics of oceanic plankton in the Mediterranean Sea.

  1. Hypoxia Worsens Affective Responses and Feeling of Fatigue During Prolonged Bed Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nektarios A. M. Stavrou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous research, although limited, suggests that both hypoxia and bed rest influence psychological responses by exaggerating negative psychological responses and attenuating positive emotions. The present study investigated the effect of a 21-day prolonged exposure to normobaric hypoxia and bed rest on affective responses and fatigue. Eleven healthy participants underwent three 21-day interventions using a cross-over design: (1 normobaric hypoxic ambulatory confinement (HAMB, (2 normobaric hypoxic bed rest (HBR and (3 normoxic bed rest (NBR. Affective and fatigue responses were investigated using the Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List, and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, which were completed before (Pre, during (Day 7, Day 14, and Day 21 and after (Post the interventions. The most negative psychological profile appeared during the HBR intervention. Specifically, tiredness, tension, general and physical fatigue significantly increased on days 7, 14, and 21, as well as at Post. After the HBR intervention, general and physical fatigue remained higher compared to Pre values. Additionally, a deterioration of psychological responses was also noted following HAMB and NBR. In particular, both hypoxia and BR per se induced subjective fatigue and negative affective responses. BR seems to exert a moderate negative effect on the sensation of fatigue, whereas exercise attenuates the negative effects of hypoxia as noted during the HAMB condition. In conclusion, our data suggest that the addition of hypoxia to bed rest-induced inactivity significantly worsens affective responses and feeling of fatigue.

  2. The angle property of positive real functions simply derived

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørsboe, Helge

    1973-01-01

    The angle property of positive real (rational) functionsZ(s), namely, that|arg s | geqq |arg Z(s)|in the right half of thes-plane, can be demonstrated very simply by an examination of the imaginary parts of the functionsln(s/Z(s))andln (sZ(s)), i.e.,arg s mp arg Z(s). In particular, on a contour...

  3. Scattering angle base filtering of the inversion gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach based on the availability of low frequencies to maneuver the complex nonlinearity associated with the problem of velocity inversion. I develop a model gradient filter to help us access the parts of the gradient more suitable to combat this potential nonlinearity. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which low scattering angles of the gradient update are initially muted. The result are long-wavelength updates controlled by the ray component of the wavefield. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce near zero wavelength updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Allowing smaller scattering angle to contribute provides higher resolution information to the model.

  4. Physical recreation in a structure of active rest of students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytzev V.P.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Experience of authors is generalized on issue «Physical recreation»: concept, facilities, forms and methods of physical culture that is used in physical recreation and offered for the students some recommendation on their realization. In the process of forming motive activity it is necessary to take into account both favourable and unfavorable social factors, and during practical work - such directions: hygienic, health-improving recreation, general preparatory and medical. It is presented bases of physical recreation of students: construction of the complex program, development of valeological and recreation measures; joint creative activity of teachers and students and at the same time use of modern methods of health forming technologies.

  5. Dependance of sputtering yield on incident angle for ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanizaki, Hironori; Ooba, Hikaru; Masuhara, Kenichi

    1987-07-01

    The relationship between sputtering yeild (S/sub theta/) and the incident angle (theta) of an ion beam to some metals such as Fe, Ni, Zn and SUS304, was studied by Ion Micro Analyzer (IMA). It was confirmed that S/sub theta/ varied as a function of (costheta)/sup -f/. The value of f was differed with each sample, and ranged from 1.0 to 1.5 in this study. As theta increased, the surface roughness of the sputtered samples became greater, and the depth resolution of the depth profile became worse. It is necessary to pay attention to depth resolution, when various data concerning different incident angles are compared.

  6. Resolution of pulsed-source small-angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, P.A.; Pynn, R.

    1986-01-01

    An analytic form is found for resolution of small-angle scattering in a plane, at a pulsed source with a white neutron spectrum. The function is found to be asymmetric at low values of Q and to have broad tails if data recorded over the entire wavelength range are combined. Monte Carlo calculations in three dimensions and including realistic spectra and collimator geometry confirm these features and provide ''data'' for studying the question of what regions of scattering angle and wavelength should be retained in data reduction. Comparisons are made with a spectrometer at a reactor, based on the accuracy, statistical precision, and time required to collect data for (simulated) monodisperse hard spheres of various radii. (orig.)

  7. Tumors of the cerebellopontine angle; Tumoren des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Maximilian [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Reimann, Katrin [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany). HNO Klinik; Soares Tatagiba, Marcos [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany). Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie; Bisdas, Sotirios [The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2016-12-15

    The diagnostic imaging of lesions in the cerebellopontine angle is mainly challenged by the possible differential diagnoses and their therapeutic relevance. As classification of tumors in contrast-enhancing and non-enhancing allows for a primary differentiation, MRI holds pivotal role in diagnosis and therapy planning on the basis of its quantitative and qualitative methods as volumetry, diffusion weighted imaging, perfusion imaging and spectroscopy.

  8. Canonical quantization of a string describing N branes at angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Pesando

    2014-12-01

    The splitting of the string coordinates into a classical and quantum part allows the formulation of an improved overlap principle. Using this approach we then proceed in computing the generating function for the generic correlator with L untwisted operators and N (excited twist fields for branes at angles. We recover as expected the results previously obtained using the path integral. This construction explains why these correlators are given by a generalization of the Wick theorem.

  9. The mandibular angles of dry adult human mandibles from north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mandibular angles of dry adult human mandibles from north-eastern arid zone of Nigeria. EF Mbajiorgu, AU Ekanem. Abstract. (Central African Journal of Medicine: 2002 48 (1-2): 9-13). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/cajm.v48i1.8417 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  10. Automatic measurement of contact angle in pore-space images

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlRatrout, Ahmed; Raeini, Ali Q.; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin J.

    2017-11-01

    A new approach is presented to measure the in-situ contact angle (θ) between immiscible fluids, applied to segmented pore-scale X-ray images. We first identify and mesh the fluid/fluid and fluid/solid interfaces. A Gaussian smoothing is applied to this mesh to eliminate artifacts associated with the voxelized nature of the image, while preserving large-scale features of the rock surface. Then, for the fluid/fluid interface we apply an additional smoothing and adjustment of the mesh to impose a constant curvature. We then track the three-phase contact line, and the two vectors that have a direction perpendicular to both surfaces: the contact angle is found from the dot product of these vectors where they meet at the contact line. This calculation can be applied at every point on the mesh at the contact line. We automatically generate contact angle values representing each invaded pore-element in the image with high accuracy. To validate the approach, we first study synthetic three-dimensional images of a spherical droplet of oil residing on a tilted flat solid surface surrounded by brine and show that our results are accurate to within 3° if the sphere diameter is 2 or more voxels. We then apply this method to oil/brine systems imaged at ambient temperature and reservoir pressure (10MPa) using X-ray microtomography (Singh et al., 2016). We analyse an image volume of diameter approximately 4.6 mm and 10.7 mm long, obtaining hundreds of thousands of values from a dataset with around 700 million voxels. We show that in a system of altered wettability, contact angles both less than and greater than 90° can be observed. This work provides a rapid method to provide an accurate characterization of pore-scale wettability, which is important for the design and assessment of hydrocarbon recovery and carbon dioxide storage.

  11. Morphing of Building Footprints Using a Turning Angle Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhong Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of morphing two polygons of building footprints at two different scales. This problem frequently occurs during the continuous zooming of interactive maps. The ground plan of a building footprint on a map has orthogonal characteristics, but traditional morphing methods cannot preserve these geographic characteristics at intermediate scales. We attempt to address this issue by presenting a turning angle function-based morphing model (TAFBM that can generate polygons at an intermediate scale with an identical turning angle for each side. Thus, the orthogonal characteristics can be preserved during the entire interpolation. A case study demonstrates that the model yields good results when applied to data from a building map at various scales. During the continuous generalization, the orthogonal characteristics and their relationships with the spatial direction and topology are well preserved.

  12. Economic impact of primary open-angle glaucoma in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirani, Mohamed; Crowston, Jonathan G; Taylor, Penny S; Moore, Peter T; Rogers, Sophie; Pezzullo, M Lynne; Keeffe, Jill E; Taylor, Hugh R

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is the World's leading cause of irreversible blindness, and poses serious public health and economic concerns.   Review. Published randomized trials and population-based studies since 1985. We report the economic impact of primary open-angle glaucoma and model the effect of changes in detection rates and management strategies. The cost-effectiveness of different interventions to prevent vision loss from primary open-angle glaucoma was measured in terms of financial cost (Australian dollars) and disability-adjusted life years. The prevalence of glaucoma in Australia is expected to increase from 208 000 in 2005 to 379 000 in 2025 because of the aging population. Health system costs over the same time period are estimated to increase from $AU355 million to $AU784 million. Total costs (health system costs, indirect costs and costs of loss of well-being) will increase from $AU1.9 billion to $AU4.3 billion in Australia. Primary open-angle glaucoma poses a significant economic burden, which will increase substantially by 2025. This dynamic model provides a valuable tool for ongoing policy formulation and determining the economic impact of interventions to better prevent visual impairment and blindness from glaucoma. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  13. Ultra-Wideband Angle-of-Arrival Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. Dickey; Ngo, Phong H.; Phan, Chau T.; Gross, Julia; Ni, Jianjun; Dusl, John

    2010-01-01

    Systems that measure the angles of arrival of ultra-wideband (UWB) radio signals and perform triangulation by use of those angles in order to locate the sources of those signals are undergoing development. These systems were originally intended for use in tracking UWB-transmitter-equipped astronauts and mobile robots on the surfaces of remote planets during early stages of exploration, before satellite-based navigation systems become operational. On Earth, these systems could be adapted to such uses as tracking UWB-transmitter-equipped firefighters inside buildings or in outdoor wildfire areas obscured by smoke. The same characteristics that have made UWB radio advantageous for fine resolution ranging, covert communication, and ground-penetrating radar applications in military and law-enforcement settings also contribute to its attractiveness for the present tracking applications. In particular, the waveform shape and the short duration of UWB pulses make it possible to attain the high temporal resolution (of the order of picoseconds) needed to measure angles of arrival with sufficient precision, and the low power spectral density of UWB pulses enables UWB radio communication systems to operate in proximity to other radio communication systems with little or no perceptible mutual interference.

  14. EFFECT OF REST INTERVAL LENGTH ON THE VOLUME COMPLETED DURING UPPER BODY RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Miranda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to compare the workout volume (sets x resistance x repetitions per set completed during two upper body resistance exercise sessions that incorporated 1 minute versus 3 minute rest intervals between sets and exercises. Twelve trained men completed two experimental sessions that consisted of 5 upper body exercises (i.e. barbell bench press, incline barbell bench press, pec deck flye, barbell lying triceps extension, triceps pushdown performed for three sets with an 8-RM load. The two experimental sessions differed only in the length of the rest interval between sets and exercises; one session with a 1-minute and the other session with a 3-minute rest interval. The results demonstrated that for each exercise, significantly greater workout volume was completed when resting 3 minutes between sets and exercises (p < 0.05. These results indicate that during a resistance exercise session, if sufficient time is available, resting 3 minutes between sets and exercises allows greater workout volume for the upper body exercises examined

  15. Glutamate Levels and Resting Cerebral Blood Flow in Anterior Cingulate Cortex Are Associated at Rest and Immediately Following Infusion of S-Ketamine in Healthy Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsten Borup Bojesen; Kirsten Borup Bojesen; Kasper Aagaard Andersen; Kasper Aagaard Andersen; Kasper Aagaard Andersen; Sophie Nordahl Rasmussen; Sophie Nordahl Rasmussen; Sophie Nordahl Rasmussen; Lone Baandrup; Line Malmer Madsen; Birte Yding Glenthøj; Birte Yding Glenthøj; Egill Rostrup; Brian Villumsen Broberg

    2018-01-01

    Progressive loss of brain tissue is seen in some patients with schizophrenia and might be caused by increased levels of glutamate and resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) alterations. Animal studies suggest that the normalisation of glutamate levels decreases rCBF and prevents structural changes in hippocampus. However, the relationship between glutamate and rCBF in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of humans has not been studied in the absence of antipsychotics and illness chronicity. Ketamine i...

  16. Estimation of continuous thumb angle and force using electromyogram classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Siddiqi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human hand functions range from precise minute handling to heavy and robust movements. Remarkably, 50% of all hand functions are made possible by the thumb. Therefore, developing an artificial thumb that can mimic the actions of a real thumb precisely is a major achievement. Despite many efforts dedicated to this area of research, control of artificial thumb movements in resemblance to our natural movement still poses as a challenge. Most of the development in this area is based on discontinuous thumb position control, which makes it possible to recreate several of the most important functions of the thumb but does not result in total imitation. This work looks into the classification of electromyogram signals from thumb muscles for the prediction of thumb angle and force during flexion motion. For this purpose, an experimental setup is developed to measure the thumb angle and force throughout the range of flexion and simultaneously gather the electromyogram signals. Further, various features are extracted from these signals for classification and the most suitable feature set is determined and applied to different classifiers. A “piecewise discretization” approach is used for continuous angle prediction. Breaking away from previous research studies, the frequency-domain features performed better than the time-domain features, with the best feature combination turning out to be median frequency–mean frequency–mean power. As for the classifiers, the support vector machine proved to be the most accurate classifier giving about 70% accuracy for both angle and force classification and close to 50% for joint angle–force classification.

  17. Dynamic-angle spinning and double rotation of quadrupolar nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K.T. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei is complicated by the coupling of the electric quadrupole moment of the nucleus to local variations in the electric field. The quadrupolar interaction is a useful source of information about local molecular structure in solids, but it tends to broaden resonance lines causing crowding and overlap in NMR spectra. Magic- angle spinning, which is routinely used to produce high resolution spectra of spin-{1/2} nuclei like carbon-13 and silicon-29, is incapable of fully narrowing resonances from quadrupolar nuclei when anisotropic second-order quadrupolar interactions are present. Two new sample-spinning techniques are introduced here that completely average the second-order quadrupolar coupling. Narrow resonance lines are obtained and individual resonances from distinct nuclear sites are identified. In dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) a rotor containing a powdered sample is reoriented between discrete angles with respect to high magnetic field. Evolution under anisotropic interactions at the different angles cancels, leaving only the isotropic evolution of the spin system. In the second technique, double rotation (DOR), a small rotor spins within a larger rotor so that the sample traces out a complicated trajectory in space. The relative orientation of the rotors and the orientation of the larger rotor within the magnetic field are selected to average both first- and second-order anisotropic broadening. The theory of quadrupolar interactions, coherent averaging theory, and motional narrowing by sample reorientation are reviewed with emphasis on the chemical shift anisotropy and second-order quadrupolar interactions experienced by half-odd integer spin quadrupolar nuclei. The DAS and DOR techniques are introduced and illustrated with application to common quadrupolar systems such as sodium-23 and oxygen-17 nuclei in solids.

  18. Dynamic-angle spinning and double rotation of quadrupolar nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.T.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA

    1991-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei is complicated by the coupling of the electric quadrupole moment of the nucleus to local variations in the electric field. The quadrupolar interaction is a useful source of information about local molecular structure in solids, but it tends to broaden resonance lines causing crowding and overlap in NMR spectra. Magic- angle spinning, which is routinely used to produce high resolution spectra of spin-1/2 nuclei like carbon-13 and silicon-29, is incapable of fully narrowing resonances from quadrupolar nuclei when anisotropic second-order quadrupolar interactions are present. Two new sample-spinning techniques are introduced here that completely average the second-order quadrupolar coupling. Narrow resonance lines are obtained and individual resonances from distinct nuclear sites are identified. In dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) a rotor containing a powdered sample is reoriented between discrete angles with respect to high magnetic field. Evolution under anisotropic interactions at the different angles cancels, leaving only the isotropic evolution of the spin system. In the second technique, double rotation (DOR), a small rotor spins within a larger rotor so that the sample traces out a complicated trajectory in space. The relative orientation of the rotors and the orientation of the larger rotor within the magnetic field are selected to average both first- and second-order anisotropic broadening. The theory of quadrupolar interactions, coherent averaging theory, and motional narrowing by sample reorientation are reviewed with emphasis on the chemical shift anisotropy and second-order quadrupolar interactions experienced by half-odd integer spin quadrupolar nuclei. The DAS and DOR techniques are introduced and illustrated with application to common quadrupolar systems such as sodium-23 and oxygen-17 nuclei in solids

  19. Physics of pitch angle scattering and velocity diffusion. I - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimabadi, H.; Krauss-Varban, D.; Terasawa, T.

    1992-01-01

    A general theory for the pitch angle scattering and velocity diffusion of particles in the field of a spectrum of waves in a magnetized plasma is presented. The test particle theory is used to analyze the particle motion. The form of diffusion surfaces is examined, and analytical expressions are given for the resonance width and bounce frequency. The resonance widths are found to vary strongly as a function of harmonic number. The resulting diffusion can be quite asymmetric with respect to pitch angle of 90 deg. The conditions for the onset of pitch angle scattering and energy diffusion are explained in detail. Some of the known shortcomings of the standard quasi-linear theory are also addressed, and ways to overcome them are shown. In particular, the often stated quasi-linear gap at 90 deg is found to exist only under very special cases. For instance, oblique wave propagation can easily remove the gap. The conditions for the existence of the gap are described in great detail. A new diffusion equation which takes into account the finite resonance widths is also discussed. The differences between this new theory and the standard resonance broadening theory is explained.

  20. Automated measurement of diagnostic angles for hip dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Raedt, Sepp; Mechlenburg, Inger Buur; Stilling, Maiken

    2013-01-01

    automatically calculated. Previous work in automating the measuring of angles required the manual segmentation or delineation of the articular joint surface. In the current work automatic segmentation is established using graph-cuts with a cost function based on a sheetness score to detect the sheet......-like structure of the bone. Anatomical landmarks are subsequently detected using heuristics based on ray-tracing and the distance to the approximated acetabulur joint surface. Standard diagnositic angles are finally calculated and presented for interpretation. Experiments using 26 patients, showed a good....... These values correspond to values found in evaluating interobserver and intraobserver variation for manual measurements. The method can be used in clinical practice to replace the current manual measurements performed by radiologists. In the future, the method will be integrated into an intraoperative surgical...

  1. Terahertz Spectroscopy and Brewster Angle Reflection Imaging of Acoustic Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Kilcullen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A Brewster angle reflection imaging apparatus is demonstrated which is capable of detecting hidden water-filled voids in a rubber tile sample. This imaging application simulates a real-world hull inspection problem for Royal Canadian Navy Victoria-class submarines. The tile samples represent a challenging imaging application due to their large refractive index and absorption coefficient. With a rubber transmission window at approximately 80 GHz, terahertz (THz sensing methods have shown promise for probing these structures in the laboratory. Operating at Brewster’s angle allows for the typically strong front surface reflection to be minimized while also conveniently making the method insensitive to air-filled voids. Using a broadband THz time-domain waveform imaging system (THz-TDS, we demonstrate satisfactory imaging and detection of water-filled voids without complicated signal processing. Optical properties of the tile samples at low THz frequencies are also reported.

  2. The development of mathematics courseware for learning line and angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Noor Dayana Abd; Han, Ong Boon; Abdullah, Zaleha; Yusup, Junaidah

    2015-05-01

    Learning software is a teaching aid which is often used in schools to increase students' motivation, attract students' attention and also improve the quality of teaching and learning process. However, the development of learning software should be followed the phases in Instructional Design (ID) Model, therefore the process can be carried out systematic and orderly. Thus, this concept paper describes the application of ADDIE model in the development of mathematics learning courseware for learning Line and Angle named CBL-Math. ADDIE model consists of five consecutive phases which are Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation. Each phase must be properly planned in order to achieve the objectives stated. Other than to describe the processes occurring in each phase, this paper also demonstrating how cognitive theory of multimedia learning principles are integrated in the developed courseware. The principles that applied in the courseware reduce the students' cognitive load while learning the topic of line and angle. With well prepared development process and the integration of appropriate principles, it is expected that the developed software can help students learn effectively and also increase students' achievement in the topic of Line and Angle.

  3. Forced Response of Polar Orthotropic Tapered Circular Plates Resting on Elastic Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Ansari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forced axisymmetric response of polar orthotropic circular plates of linearly varying thickness resting on Winkler type of elastic foundation has been studied on the basis of classical plate theory. An approximate solution of problem has been obtained by Rayleigh Ritz method, which employs functions based upon the static deflection of polar orthotropic circular plates. The effect of transverse loadings has been studied for orthotropic circular plate resting on elastic foundation. The transverse deflections and bending moments are presented for various values of taper parameter, rigidity ratio, foundation parameter, and flexibility parameter under different types of loadings. A comparison of results with those available in literature shows an excellent agreement.

  4. Unusual case of hemangioblastoma of the cerebellopontine angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, A R; Khormi, Y H; van Landeghem, F; Chow, M M

    2017-01-01

    Hemangioblastomas are the most common primary tumor of the posterior fossa. There are few cases of hemangioblastoma of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). When present in this location, hemangioblastoma presents a diagnostic challenge as its imaging findings closely resemble those of vestibular schwannoma (VS), which is much more common in the CPA. We report the case of a 42-year-old man presenting with vertigo and diplopia found to have a CPA tumor with imaging resembling VS. He underwent retrosigmoidal resection of his tumor, which was found to be a hemangioblastoma. Hemangioblastoma, though rare in the CPA, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of CPA tumors.

  5. Overview of total beta activity index and beta rest in surface waters of the Spanish rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Payeras, J.; Pablo, M. A. de

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to give an overview of the index of total beta activity and the activity index beta rest in surface waters of the main Spanish rivers. These indices are a parameter over water quality that CEDEX comes determined by order of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, in water policy. (Author)

  6. High angle of attack aerodynamics subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flows

    CERN Document Server

    Rom, Josef

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamics of aircraft at high angles of attack is a subject which is being pursued diligently, because the modern agile fighter aircraft and many of the current generation of missiles must perform well at very high incidence, near and beyond stall. However, a comprehensive presentation of the methods and results applicable to the studies of the complex aerodynamics at high angle of attack has not been covered in monographs or textbooks. This book is not the usual textbook in that it goes beyond just presenting the basic theoretical and experimental know-how, since it contains reference material to practical calculation methods and technical and experimental results which can be useful to the practicing aerospace engineers and scientists. It can certainly be used as a text and reference book for graduate courses on subjects related to high angles of attack aerodynamics and for topics related to three-dimensional separation in viscous flow courses. In addition, the book is addressed to the aerodynamicist...

  7. Bed rest during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Belizán JM, Bergel E. Bed rest in singleton pregnancies for preventing preterm birth. Cochrane Database ... and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda Center for Fertility, ...

  8. VO2 kinetics of constant-load exercise following bed-rest-induced deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Goldwater, D. J.; Sandler, H.

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise and recovery may be changed by alterations in work intensity, prior exercise, muscle group involvement, ambient conditions, posture, disease state, and level of physical conditioning. However, the effects of detraining on oxygen uptake kinetics have not been determined. The present investigation has the objective to determine the effects of deconditioning following seven days of continuous head-down bed rest on changes in steady-state oxygen uptake, O2 deficit, and recovery oxygen uptake during the performance of constant-load exercise. The obtained results may provide support for previous proposals that submaximal oxygen uptake was significantly reduced following bed rest. The major finding was that bed-rest deconditioning resulted in a reduction of total O2 transport/utilization capacity during the transient phase of upright but not supine exercise.

  9. Executive function on the 16-day of bed rest in young healthy men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Yuko; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Tanaka, Hidetaka; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Fujii, Yuri; Hattori-Uchida, Yuko; Nakamura, Minako; Ohkawa, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Hodaka; Taniuchi, Shoichiro; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2009-05-01

    Microgravity due to prolonged bed rest may cause changes in cerebral circulation, which is related to brain function. We evaluate the effect of simulated microgravity due to a 6° head-down tilt bed rest experiment on executive function among 12 healthy young men. Four kinds of psychoneurological tests—the table tapping test, the trail making test, the pointing test and losing at rock-paper-scissors—were performed on the baseline and on day 16 of the experiment. There was no significant difference in the results between the baseline and day 16 on all tests, which indicated that executive function was not impaired by the 16-day 6° head-down tilting bed rest. However, we cannot conclude that microgravity did not affect executive function because of the possible contribution of the following factors: (1) the timing of tests, (2) the learning effect, or (3) changes in psychophysiology that were too small to affect higher brain function.

  10. Influence of visual angle on pattern reversal visual evoked potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Kothari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to find whether the visual evoked potential (VEP latencies and amplitude are altered with different visual angles in healthy adult volunteers or not and to determine the visual angle which is the optimum and most appropriate among a wide range of check sizes for the reliable interpretation of pattern reversal VEPs (PRVEPs. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 40 healthy volunteers. The subjects were divided into two groups. One group consisted of 20 individuals (nine males and 11 females in the age range of 25-57 years and they were exposed to checks subtending a visual angle of 90, 120, and 180 minutes of arc. Another group comprised of 20 individuals (10 males and 10 females in the age range of 36-60 years and they were subjected to checks subtending a visual angle of 15, 30, and 120 minutes of arc. The stimulus configuration comprised of the transient pattern reversal method in which a black and white checker board is generated (full field on a VEP Monitor by an Evoked Potential Recorder (RMS EMG. EPMARK II. The statistical analysis was done by One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA using EPI INFO 6. Results: In Group I, the maximum (max. P100 latency of 98.8 ± 4.7 and the max. P100 amplitude of 10.05 ± 3.1 μV was obtained with checks of 90 minutes. In Group II, the max. P100 latency of 105.19 ± 4.75 msec as well as the max. P100 amplitude of 8.23 ± 3.30 μV was obtained with 15 minutes. The min. P100 latency in both the groups was obtained with checks of 120 minutes while the min. P100 amplitude was obtained with 180 minutes. A statistically significant difference was derived between means of P100 latency for 15 and 30 minutes with reference to its value for 120 minutes and between the mean value of P100 amplitude for 120 minutes and that of 90 and 180 minutes. Conclusion: Altering the size of stimulus (visual angle has an effect on the PRVEP parameters. Our study found that the 120

  11. Staff Association membership is free of charge for the rest of 2017

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Staff Association membership is free of charge for the rest of 2017 Starting from September 1st, membership of the Staff Association is free for all new members for the period up to the end of 2017. This is to allow you to participate in the Staff Council elections, by voting and electing your representatives. Do not hesitate any longer; join now!

  12. Resting stages of Tortanus forcipatus (Crustacea, Calanoida) in sediments of Victoria Harbor, Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Li, Xiangdong; Zhang, Gan; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2006-05-01

    The distribution and abundance of viable and non-viable (so-called resting eggs) embryos of the calanoid copepod Tortanus forcipatus were determined in the laboratory by the enumeration of nauplii that emerge from sediments collected in Victoria Harbor (Hong Kong). Sediment cores sliced down to a depth of 37 cm showed the highest number of viable resting eggs near the surface layer (0-5 cm). The number of viable eggs sharply decreased with sediment depth, particularly at the inner harbor stations, although diapause eggs remained viable as deep as 25 cm. 210Pb analyses of the sediments indicated that the mean egg age was 4.9 years. The egg mortality of T. forcipatus in the sediments was 0.135 year -1, or 78.22% annual egg survival, calculated by regressing ln (egg density) from sediment age. The range of horizontal distribution of viable resting eggs was 24.25 × 10 3-58.90 × 10 3 m -2, with a mean value of 36.8 × 10 3 m -2 over all stations. The accumulation of viable resting eggs that can persist for an extended period of time provided evidence for the existence of an egg bank of T. forcipatus in the sediments of Victoria Harbor.

  13. The influence of mosquito resting behaviour and associated microclimate for malaria risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Matthew B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of the mosquito and parasite life-history traits that combine to determine malaria transmission intensity are temperature sensitive. In most cases, the process-based models used to estimate malaria risk and inform control and prevention strategies utilize measures of mean outdoor temperature. Evidence suggests, however, that certain malaria vectors can spend large parts of their adult life resting indoors. Presentation of hypothesis If significant proportions of mosquitoes are resting indoors and indoor conditions differ markedly from ambient conditions, simple use of outdoor temperatures will not provide reliable estimates of malaria transmission intensity. To date, few studies have quantified the differential effects of indoor vs outdoor temperatures explicitly, reflecting a lack of proper understanding of mosquito resting behaviour and associated microclimate. Testing the hypothesis Published records from 8 village sites in East Africa revealed temperatures to be warmer indoors than outdoors and to generally show less daily variation. Exploring the effects of these temperatures on malaria parasite development rate suggested indoor-resting mosquitoes could transmit malaria between 0.3 and 22.5 days earlier than outdoor-resting mosquitoes. These differences translate to increases in transmission risk ranging from 5 to approaching 3,000%, relative to predictions based on outdoor temperatures. The pattern appears robust for low- and highland areas, with differences increasing with altitude. Implications of the hypothesis Differences in indoor vs outdoor environments lead to large differences in the limits and the intensity of malaria transmission. This finding highlights a need to better understand mosquito resting behaviour and the associated microclimate, and to broaden assessments of transmission ecology and risk to consider the potentially important role of endophily.

  14. Association of ocular conditions with narrow angles in different ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roland Y; Chon, Brian H; Lin, Shuai-Chun; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan C

    2015-09-01

    To quantify the predictive strength of anterior chamber area (ACA), anterior chamber volume (ACV), anterior chamber width (ACW), lens vault (LV), iris thickness (IT), and iris area (IArea) for 2 angle width parameters, trabecular-iris space area (TISA750) and angle opening distance (AOD750) at 750 μm from the scleral spur, in different ethnicities. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography images for 166 white, 90 African, 75 Hispanic, and 132 Chinese subjects were analyzed. First, ACA, ACV, ACW, LV, IT, and IArea were compared among ethnic groups. Second, associations of TISA750 and AOD750 with ACA, ACV, ACW, LV, IT, and IArea were investigated within each ethnic group using multivariable linear regression models, standardized regression coefficients (β), and coefficients of determination (R(2)). Significant ethnic differences were observed in ACA, ACV, ACW, LV, IT, and IArea (all P ACV, and LV were significant predictors of TISA750 and AOD750 in all ethnic groups (all P ACV, and LV had the highest predictive strength for both TISA750 and AOD750 in all ethnic groups based on β and R(2). Despite ethnic differences in ACA, ACV, ACW, LV, IT, and IArea, the same 3 anterior segment parameters (ACA, ACV, and LV) were the strongest predictors of angle width (TISA750 and AOD750) in all 4 ethnic groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. LHCb Measurement of the CKM angle $\\gamma$ at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Ali, S

    2014-01-01

    In this poster we present the latest result by the LHCb collaboration in determining the CKM angle $\\gamma$ ($(67.1 \\pm 12)^{\\circ}$). The result is determined by combining several $B \\to Dh$ analyses. Latest results from the decay time dependent $B_{s} \\to D_{s}K$ analysis is also reported, along with a few other decay channels interesting for determination of $\\gamma$ in the future.

  16. Hydrogen and deuterium NMR of solids by magic angle spinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckman, Richard Raymond [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1982-10-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance of solids has long been characterized by very large spectral broadening which arises from internuclear dipole-dipole coupling or the nuclear electric quadrupole interaction. These couplings can obscure the smaller chemical shift interaction and make that information unavailable. Two important and difficult cases are that of hydrogen and deuterium. For example, the homonuclear dipolar broadening, HD, for hydrogen is usually several tens of kilohertz. For deuterium, HD is relatively small; however, the quadrupole interaction causes a broadening which can be hundreds of kilohertz in polycrystalline or amorphous solids. The development of cross polarization, heteronuclear radiofrequency decoupling, and coherent averaging of nuclear spin interactions has provided measurement of chemical shift tensors in solids. Recently, double quantum NMR and double quantum decoupling have led to measurement of deuterium and proton chemical shift tensors, respectively. A general problem of these experiments is the overlapping of the tensor powder pattern spectra of magnetically distinct sites which cannot be resolved. In this work, high resolution NMR of hydrogen and deuterium in solids is demonstrated. For both nuclei, the resonances are narrowed to obtain liquid-like isotropic spectra by high frequency rotation of the sample about an axis inclined at the magic angle, βm = Arccos(3-1/2), with respect to the direction of the external magnetic field. Two approaches have been developed for each nucleus. For deuterium, the powder spectra were narrowed by over three orders of magnitude by magic angle rotation with precise control of β. A second approach was the observation of deuterium double quantum transitions under magic angle rotation. For hydrogen, magic angle rotation alone could be applied to obtain the isotropic spectrum when HD was small. This often occurs naturally when the nuclei are semi-dilute or involved in

  17. Disrutpted resting-state functional architecture of the brain after 45-day simulated microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan eZhou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term spaceflight induces both physiological and psychological changes in astronauts. To understand the neural mechanisms underlying these physiological and psychological changes, it is critical to investigate the effects of microgravity on the functional architecture of the brain. In this study, we used resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI to study whether the functional architecture of the brain is altered after 45 days of -6° head-down tilt (HDT bed rest, which is a reliable model for the simulation of microgravity. Sixteen healthy male volunteers underwent rs-fMRI scans before and after 45 days of -6° HDT bed rest. Specifically, we used a commonly employed graph-based measure of network organization, i.e., degree centrality (DC, to perform a full-brain exploration of the regions that were influenced by simulated microgravity. We subsequently examined the functional connectivities of these regions using a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC analysis. We found decreased DC in two regions, the left anterior insula (aINS and the anterior part of the middle cingulate cortex (MCC; also called the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in many studies, in the male volunteers after 45 days of -6° HDT bed rest. Furthermore, seed-based RSFC analyses revealed that a functional network anchored in the aINS and MCC was particularly influenced by simulated microgravity. These results provide evidence that simulated microgravity alters the resting-state functional architecture of the brains of males and suggest that the processing of salience information, which is primarily subserved by the aINS–MCC functional network, is particularly influenced by spaceflight. The current findings provide a new perspective for understanding the relationships between microgravity, cognitive function, autonomic neural function and central neural activity.

  18. Use of resting myocardial scintigraphy during chest pain to exclude diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbirato, Gustavo Borges; Azevedo, Jader Cunha de; Felix, Renata Christian Martins; Correa, Patricia Lavatori; Volschan, Andre; Viegas, Monica; Pimenta, Lucia; Dohmann, Hans Fernando Rocha; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco

    2009-01-01

    Background: Images of myocardial perfusion taken during an episode of chest pain have been used for patients in the emergency department. Objective: To evaluate the operating characteristics of 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin scintigraphy during an episode of chest pain to exclude the diagnosis of cute myocardial infarction. Methods: One hundred and eight patients admitted with chest pain, or up to four hours after the end of symptoms and non diagnostic electrocardiogram, underwent resting scintigraphy and measurement of troponin I concentrations. Patients with a history of myocardial infarction (MI) were not excluded (24 patients). Troponin I concentrations were determined at admission and 6 hours later. Nuclear physicians performed a blind analysis of the images, and myocardial infarction was confirmed whenever troponin I level increase was three times that of the control. Results: Resting perfusion image was abnormal in all 6 patients with MI. Only 1 patient had a normal image and increased troponin levels. Fifty-five patients had positive images without MI, and 46 patients had normal images and troponin levels. The prevalence of the disease was 6.5%. The sensitivity and specificity of the resting images during an episode of chest pain to diagnose MI was 85.7% and 45.5%, respectively. The negative predictive value was 97.7%. Conclusion: Patients undergoing chest pain protocol with SPECT showed an excellent negative predictive value to exclude diagnosis of myocardial infarction. These results suggest that resting perfusion image is an important tool at the chest pain unit. (author)

  19. The influence of mosquito resting behaviour and associated microclimate for malaria risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paaijmans, Krijn P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2011-07-07

    The majority of the mosquito and parasite life-history traits that combine to determine malaria transmission intensity are temperature sensitive. In most cases, the process-based models used to estimate malaria risk and inform control and prevention strategies utilize measures of mean outdoor temperature. Evidence suggests, however, that certain malaria vectors can spend large parts of their adult life resting indoors. If significant proportions of mosquitoes are resting indoors and indoor conditions differ markedly from ambient conditions, simple use of outdoor temperatures will not provide reliable estimates of malaria transmission intensity. To date, few studies have quantified the differential effects of indoor vs outdoor temperatures explicitly, reflecting a lack of proper understanding of mosquito resting behaviour and associated microclimate. Published records from 8 village sites in East Africa revealed temperatures to be warmer indoors than outdoors and to generally show less daily variation. Exploring the effects of these temperatures on malaria parasite development rate suggested indoor-resting mosquitoes could transmit malaria between 0.3 and 22.5 days earlier than outdoor-resting mosquitoes. These differences translate to increases in transmission risk ranging from 5 to approaching 3,000%, relative to predictions based on outdoor temperatures. The pattern appears robust for low- and highland areas, with differences increasing with altitude. Differences in indoor vs outdoor environments lead to large differences in the limits and the intensity of malaria transmission. This finding highlights a need to better understand mosquito resting behaviour and the associated microclimate, and to broaden assessments of transmission ecology and risk to consider the potentially important role of endophily.

  20. Influence of inflow angle on flexible flap aerodynamic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H Y; Ye, Z; Li, Z M; Li, C

    2013-01-01

    Large scale wind turbines have larger blade lengths and weights, which creates new challenges for blade design. This paper selects NREL S809 airfoil, and uses the parameterized technology to realize the flexible trailing edge deformation, researches the dynamic aerodynamic characteristics in the process of continuous flexible deformation, analyses the influence of inflow angle on flexible flap aerodynamic performance, in order to further realize the flexible wind turbine blade design and provides some references for the active control scheme. The results show that compared with the original airfoil, proper trailing edge deformation can improve the lift coefficient, reduce the drag coefficient, and thereby more efficiently realize flow field active control. With inflow angle increases, dynamic lift-drag coefficient hysteresis loop shape deviation occurs, even turns into different shapes. Appropriate swing angle can improve the flap lift coefficient, but may cause early separation of flow. To improve the overall performance of wind turbine blades, different angular control should be used at different cross sections, in order to achieve the best performance

  1. Large area optical mapping of surface contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Guilherme; Canning, John; Padden, Whayne; Martelli, Cicero; Dligatch, Svetlana

    2017-09-04

    Top-down contact angle measurements have been validated and confirmed to be as good if not more reliable than side-based measurements. A range of samples, including industrially relevant materials for roofing and printing, has been compared. Using the top-down approach, mapping in both 1-D and 2-D has been demonstrated. The method was applied to study the change in contact angle as a function of change in silver (Ag) nanoparticle size controlled by thermal evaporation. Large area mapping reveals good uniformity for commercial Aspen paper coated with black laser printer ink. A demonstration of the forensic and chemical analysis potential in 2-D is shown by uncovering the hidden CsF initials made with mineral oil on the coated Aspen paper. The method promises to revolutionize nanoscale characterization and industrial monitoring as well as chemical analyses by allowing rapid contact angle measurements over large areas or large numbers of samples in ways and times that have not been possible before.

  2. Aggressive behavior: an alternative model of resting heart rate and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Low resting heart rate is a well-replicated biological correlate of aggression, and sensation seeking is frequently cited as the underlying causal explanation. However, little empirical evidence supports this mediating relationship. Furthermore, the biosocial model of violence and social push theory suggest sensation seeking may moderate the relationship between heart rate and aggression. In a sample of 128 college students (82.0% White; 73.4% female), the current study tested a moderation model as an alternative relationship between resting heart rate and sensation seeking in regard to aggression. Overall, the findings partially supported an interaction effect, whereby the relationship between heart rate and aggression was moderated by sensation seeking. Specifically, the oft-noted relationship between low resting heart rate and increased aggression was found, but only for individuals with low levels of sensation seeking. If replication supports this finding, the results may better inform prevention and intervention work. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Telehealth Delivery of Rapid Syllable Transitions (ReST) Treatment for Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Donna C.; McCabe, Patricia; Ballard, Kirrie J.; Lincoln, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rapid Syllable Transitions (ReST) treatment uses pseudo-word targets with varying lexical stress to target simultaneously articulation, prosodic accuracy and coarticulatory transitions in childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). The treatment is efficacious for the acquisition of imitated pseudo-words, and generalization of skill to…

  4. Pitch Angle Scattering of Energetic Electrons by Plasmaspheric Hiss Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobita, M.; Omura, Y.; Summers, D.

    2017-12-01

    We study scattering of energetic electrons in pitch angles and kinetic energies through their resonance with plasmaspheric hiss emissions consisting of many coherent discrete whistler-mode wave packets with rising and falling frequencies [1,2,3]. Using test particle simulations, we evaluate the efficiency of scattering, which depends on the inhomogeneity ratio S of whistler mode wave-particle interaction [4]. The value of S is determined by the wave amplitude, frequency sweep rate, and the gradient of the background magnetic field. We first modulate those parameters and observe variations of pitch angles and kinetic energies of electrons with a single wave under various S values so as to obtain basic understanding. We then include many waves into the system to simulate plasmaspheric hiss emissions. As the wave packets propagate away from the magnetic equator, the nonlinear trapping potential at the resonance velocity is deformed, making a channel of gyrophase for untrapped electrons to cross the resonance velocity, and causing modulations in their pitch angles and kinetic energies. We find efficient scattering of pitch angles and kinetic energies because of coherent nonlinear wave-particle interaction, resulting in electron precipitations into the polar atmosphere. We compare the results with the bounce averaged pitch angle diffusion coefficient based on quasi-linear theory, and show that the nonlinear wave model with many coherent packets can cause scattering of resonant electrons much faster than the quasi-linear diffusion process. [1] Summers, D., Omura, Y., Nakamura, S., and C. A. Kletzing (2014), Fine structure of plasmaspheric hiss, J. Geophys. Res., 119, 9134-9149. [2] Omura, Y., Y. Miyashita, M. Yoshikawa, D. Summers, M. Hikishima, Y. Ebihara, and Y. Kubota (2015), Formation process of relativistic electron flux through interaction with chorus emissions in the Earth's inner magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, 9545-9562. [3] Nakamura, S., Y

  5. Angle-resolved photoluminescence spectrum of a uniform phosphor layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Ichiro; Ohta, Masamichi

    2017-10-01

    A photoluminescence spectrum depends on an emission angle due to self-absorption in a phosphor material. Assuming isotropic initial emission and Lambert-Beer's law, we have derived simple expressions for the angle-resolved spectra emerging from the top and bottom surfaces of a uniform phosphor layer. The transmittance of an excitation light through the phosphor layer can be regarded as a design parameter. For a strongly-absorbing phosphor layer, the forward flux is less intense and more red-shifted than the backward flux. The red-shift is enhanced as the emission direction deviates away from the plane normal. When we increase the transmittance, the backward flux decreases monotonically. The forward flux peaks at a certain transmittance value. The two fluxes become similar to each other for a weakly-absorbing phosphor layer. We have observed these behaviors in experiment. In a practical application, self-absorption decreases the efficiency of conversion and results in angle-dependent variations in chromaticity coordinates. A patterned phosphor layer with a secondary optical element such as a remote reflector alleviates these problems.

  6. Angle-resolved photoluminescence spectrum of a uniform phosphor layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Fujieda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A photoluminescence spectrum depends on an emission angle due to self-absorption in a phosphor material. Assuming isotropic initial emission and Lambert-Beer’s law, we have derived simple expressions for the angle-resolved spectra emerging from the top and bottom surfaces of a uniform phosphor layer. The transmittance of an excitation light through the phosphor layer can be regarded as a design parameter. For a strongly-absorbing phosphor layer, the forward flux is less intense and more red-shifted than the backward flux. The red-shift is enhanced as the emission direction deviates away from the plane normal. When we increase the transmittance, the backward flux decreases monotonically. The forward flux peaks at a certain transmittance value. The two fluxes become similar to each other for a weakly-absorbing phosphor layer. We have observed these behaviors in experiment. In a practical application, self-absorption decreases the efficiency of conversion and results in angle-dependent variations in chromaticity coordinates. A patterned phosphor layer with a secondary optical element such as a remote reflector alleviates these problems.

  7. The Metabolic Cost of a High Intensity Exercise Program During Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Kyle; Everett, Meghan; Guined, Jamie; Cunningham, Daid

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given that disuse-related skeletal muscle atrophy may be exacerbated by an imbalance between energy intake and output, the amount of energy required to complete exercise countermeasures is an important consideration in the well being of subject health during bed rest and spaceflight. Objective: To evaluate the energy cost of a high intensity exercise program performed during short duration bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest and exercise countermeasures. Exercise energy expenditure and excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) were collected once in each of 5 different exercise protocols (30 second, 2 minute and 4 minute intervals, continuous aerobic and a variety of resistance exercises) during bed rest. Body mass, basal metabolic rate (BMR), upper and lower leg muscle, subcutaneous, and intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) volumes were assessed before and at the end of bed rest. Results: There were no significant differences in body mass (pre: 75.1 +/- 10.5 kg; post: 75.2 +/- 10.1 kg), BMR (pre: 1649 +/- 216 kcal; post: 1657 +/- 177 kcal), muscle subcutaneous, or IMAT volumes (Table 2) after 14 days of bed rest and exercise. Body mass was maintained with an average daily intake of 2710 +/- 262 kcal (36.2 +/- 2.1 kcal/kg/day), while average daily energy expenditure was 2579 +/-311 kcal (34.5 +/- 3.6 kcal/kg/day). Exercise energy expenditure was significantly greater as a result of continuous aerobic exercise than all other exercise protocols.

  8. Effect of prior immobilization on muscular glucose clearance in resting and running rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, J; Ohkuwa, T; Ploug, Thorkil

    1988-01-01

    In vitro studies have shown that prior disuse impairs the glucose clearance of red skeletal muscle because of a developed insensitivity to insulin. We studied whether an impaired glucose clearance is present in vivo in 42-h immobilized muscles of resting rats and, furthermore, whether the exercise...... similar in the two groups and decreased during exercise. Intracellular nonphosphorylated 2DG was present in tissues with high glucose clearances. In conclusions, 42 h of immobilization markedly impairs glucose clearance of resting red muscle fibers in vivo. Apparently, physical inactivity in particular...

  9. The effect of some ions on the muscle fibre resting potential in the cricket Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewski, L; Olszewska, E; Borkowska, M J

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on the skeletal muscle fibres of the cricket Acheta domesticus using conventional microelectrode methods. Both potassium and ammonium ions depolarized the fibres but with a considerable divergance from the slope of 58 mV. Calcium ions hyperpolarized the fibres. High concentrations of magnesium ions or dramatic increase in the osmotic pressure of the bathing medium exerted no influence on the resting potential. It seems likely that skeletal muscle fibres of Acheta domesticus at rest are multionic electrodes, but the role played by various ions needs further studies.

  10. The pharmacology of medieval sedatives: the "Great Rest" of the Antidotarium Nicolai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Nicholas; Gabra, Martino

    2014-08-08

    Past practices of compound drugs from different plant ingredients enjoyed remarkable longevity over centuries yet are largely dismissed by modern science as subtherapeutic, lethal or fanciful. To examine the phytochemical content of a popular medieval opiate drug called the "Great Rest" and gauge the bioavailability and combined effects of its alkaloid compounds (morphine, codeine, hyoscyamine, scopolamine) on the human body according to modern pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters established for these compounds. We reviewed the most recent studies on the pharmacodynamics of morphine, codeine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine to ascertain plasma concentrations required for different physiological effects and applied these findings to dosage of the Great Rest. Given the proportional quantities of the alkaloid rich plants, we calculate the optimal dose of Great Rest to be 3.1±0.1-5.3±0.76 g and reveal that the lethal dose of Great Rest is double the therapeutic concentration where all three alkaloid compounds are biologically active. This study helps establish the effective dose (ED50), toxic dose (TD50) and lethal dose (LD50) rates for the ingestion of raw opium, henbane and mandrake, and describes their probable combined effects, which may be applied to similar types of pre-modern pharmaceuticals to reveal the empirical logic behind past practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Temporal organization of rest defined by actigraphy data in healthy and childhood chronic fatigue syndrome children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Minako; Ueno, Taro; Tomita, Jun; Kawatani, Junko; Tomoda, Akemi; Kume, Shoen; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2013-11-04

    Accumulating evidence has shown a universality in the temporal organization of activity and rest among animals ranging from mammals to insects. Previous reports in both humans and mice showed that rest bout durations followed long-tailed (i.e., power-law) distributions, whereas activity bouts followed exponential distributions. We confirmed similar results in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Conversely, another report showed that the awakening bout durations, which were defined by polysomnography in bed, followed power-law distributions, while sleeping periods, which may correspond to rest, followed exponential distributions. This apparent discrepancy has been left to be resolved. Actigraphy data from healthy and disordered children were analyzed separately for two periods: time out of bed (UP period) and time in bed (DOWN period). When data over a period of 24 h were analyzed as a whole, rest bouts showed a power law distribution as previously reported. However, when UP and DOWN period data were analyzed separately, neither showed power law properties. Using a newly developed strict method, only 30% of individuals satisfied the power law criteria, even when the 24 h data were analyzed. The human results were in contrast to the Drosophila results, which revealed clear power-law distributions for both day time and night time rest through the use of a strict method. In addition, we analyzed the actigraphy data from patients with childhood type chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS), and found that they showed differences from healthy controls when their UP and DOWN data were analyzed separately. These results suggested that the DOWN sleep, the bout distribution of which showed exponential properties, contributes to the production of long-tail distributions in human rest periods. We propose that separate analysis of UP and DOWN period data is important for understanding the temporal organization of activity.

  12. Isolation by sugar flotation has no direct effect on the hatching success of zooplankton resting eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Lukic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton in temporary waters produces resting stages to survive recurrent dry periods. Branchiopod crustaceans (i.e., cladocerans, large branchiopods overcome these periods in the form of resting eggs buried in the sediment. Examining the diversity in the resting egg banks allows for a more accurate estimation of biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems than looking only at the active communities. The isolation of resting eggs from the sediment may be achieved by the sugar flotation method, which usually results in higher density and diversity than untreated samples (i.e., incubated in the sediment. We tested the effect of sugar isolation and centrifugation on the hatching success of resting eggs already isolated from sediment in order to reveal any direct effects on hatching success. We used four different branchiopod species, Daphnia magna, Moina brachiata, Branchinecta orientalis, and Triops cancriformis. Although we hypothesised that osmotic stress caused by sugar and centrifuging influence the hatching success either positively (e.g., faster activation as a response to osmotic changes or negatively (destroyed by centrifugation, we found no significant difference either in the timing or rate of hatching between centrifuged and non-centrifuged eggs. Once the eggs are exposed to light and/or oxygen availability by being removed from the sediment, the centrifugation process does not have any additional effect on their hatching. Regardless of treatment, we found a significant difference in the hatching timing in the two major groups, with large branchiopods hatching earlier than cladocerans. We found that the sugar flotation method itself does not influence the hatching fraction of branchiopod resting eggs (implying no adverse effect on their viability and its success in enhancing hatching can be attributed to its efficiency in removing eggs from the sediment.

  13. Enhanced persistency of resting and active periods of locomotor activity in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Sano

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia frequently exhibit behavioral abnormalities associated with its pathological symptoms. Therefore, a quantitative evaluation of behavioral dynamics could contribute to objective diagnoses of schizophrenia. However, such an approach has not been fully established because of the absence of quantitative biobehavioral measures. Recently, we studied the dynamical properties of locomotor activity, specifically how resting and active periods are interwoven in daily life. We discovered universal statistical laws ("behavioral organization" and their alterations in patients with major depressive disorder. In this study, we evaluated behavioral organization of schizophrenic patients (n = 19 and healthy subjects (n = 11 using locomotor activity data, acquired by actigraphy, to investigate whether the laws could provide objective and quantitative measures for a possible diagnosis and assessment of symptoms. Specifically, we evaluated the cumulative distributions of resting and active periods, defined as the periods with physical activity counts successively below and above a predefined threshold, respectively. Here we report alterations in the laws governing resting and active periods; resting periods obeyed a power-law cumulative distribution with significantly lower parameter values (power-law scaling exponents, whereas active periods followed a stretched exponential distribution with significantly lower parameter values (stretching exponents, in patients. Our findings indicate enhanced persistency of both lower and higher locomotor activity periods in patients with schizophrenia, probably reflecting schizophrenic pathophysiology.

  14. Production of vanillic acid from vanillin by resting cells of Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perestelo, F; Dalcón, M A; de la Fuente, G

    1989-01-01

    Resting-cell suspensions of Serratia marcescens were able to convert, quantitatively, 0.3% vanillin to vanillic acid. The vanillic acid-producing activity reached a maximum after 28 h of incubation with 0.01% vanillin as an inducer. PMID:2669632

  15. Production of vanillic acid from vanillin by resting cells of Serratia marcescens.

    OpenAIRE

    Perestelo, F; Dalcón, M A; de la Fuente, G

    1989-01-01

    Resting-cell suspensions of Serratia marcescens were able to convert, quantitatively, 0.3% vanillin to vanillic acid. The vanillic acid-producing activity reached a maximum after 28 h of incubation with 0.01% vanillin as an inducer.

  16. Book review: Estimation of parameters for animal populations: A primer for the rest of us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max

    2016-01-01

    No abstract available.Estimation of Parameters for Animal Populations: A Primer for the Rest of Us. Larkin A. Powell and George A. Gale. 2015. Caught Napping Publications, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. 239 pages. (http://larkinpowell.wixsite.com/larkinpowell/estimationof-parameters-for-animal-pop). ISBN: 978-329-06151-4.

  17. Resting cysts of freshwater dinoflagellates in southeastern Georgian Bay (Lake Huron) as proxies of cultural eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Francine M.G.; Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Ellegaard, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Resting cysts attributed to the freshwater dinoflagellate genus Peridinium were found in surface sediments from Severn Sound, southeastern Georgian Bay (Lake Huron, Laurentian Great Lakes of North America). Two distinct cyst morphotypes were present and they were assigned to Peridinium wisconsine...

  18. Effects of HDT Bed Rest on Excitability of the Sarcolemma in Postural Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shushakov, V.; Grunewald, M.; Maassen, N.; Zange, J.

    2013-02-01

    Prolonged decrease in physical activity level during bed rest leads to a decrease in muscle mass and force. A decrease in protein synthesis should be one of the main causes for the muscle atrophy and weakness. Additionally, a decrease in the sarcolemmal excitability may also contribute to the muscle weakness. After 21-day head tilt down (HDT) bed rest (BR) we have found that markedly decreased force in knee extensors and plantar flexors was accompanied by significant prolongation of the compound muscle action potential (m-wave) in m. vastus lateralis (VL) (+3.5%) and in m. gastrocnemius medialis (GM) (+8.1%). In this study, we studied effects of the 5-days HDT BR in the same muscles. 10 subjects were tested before, after, and 5 days after the bed rest. In contrast to the 21-days BR, the 5-days BR did not lead to changes in m-waves parameters. These findings show that effects of the HDT bed rest on the sarcolemmal excitability depend on its duration and are not directly associated with the fluid shift in lower extremities.

  19. Role of mitochondrial calcium uptake homeostasis in resting state fMRI brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannurpatti, Sridhar S; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Herman, Peter; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake influences both brain energy metabolism and neural signaling. Given that brain mitochondrial organelles are distributed in relation to vascular density, which varies considerably across brain regions, we hypothesized different physiological impacts of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake across brain regions. We tested the hypothesis by monitoring brain "intrinsic activity" derived from the resting state functional MRI (fMRI) blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fluctuations in different functional networks spanning the somatosensory cortex, caudate putamen, hippocampus and thalamus, in normal and perturbed mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake states. In anesthetized rats at 11.7 T, mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake was inhibited or enhanced respectively by treatments with Ru360 or kaempferol. Surprisingly, mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake inhibition by Ru360 and enhancement by kaempferol led to similar dose-dependent decreases in brain-wide intrinsic activities in both the frequency domain (spectral amplitude) and temporal domain (resting state functional connectivity; RSFC). The fact that there were similar dose-dependent decreases in the frequency and temporal domains of the resting state fMRI-BOLD fluctuations during mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake inhibition or enhancement indicated that mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and its homeostasis may strongly influence the brain's functional organization at rest. Interestingly, the resting state fMRI-derived intrinsic activities in the caudate putamen and thalamic regions saturated much faster with increasing dosage of either drug treatment than the drug-induced trends observed in cortical and hippocampal regions. Regional differences in how the spectral amplitude and RSFC changed with treatment indicate distinct mitochondrion-mediated spontaneous neuronal activity coupling within the various RSFC networks determined by resting state fMRI. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Unexpected increases in rotifer resting egg abundances during the period of contamination of Lake Orta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Piscia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite their ecological importance and rapid response to environmental changes, rotifers are rarely included in palaeolimnological studies. Here, we describe changes in abundance (ABD and morphotype (MTs diversity of rotifer resting eggs in the sediments of deep subalpine Lake Orta, Italy, covering a period prior to (pre- 1926, during long-term ammonia and metal pollution from a rayon factory, and subsequent recovery of water quality. Following the pollution and bacterial oxidation of the ammonia, Lake Orta became the largest and deepest acid lake in Europe. Recovery of water quality followed both a ban on the discharge of industrial wastes, and a liming intervention in 1989 and 1990. We sectioned a sediment core collected from the deepest part of the lake (ORTA 07/2A to provide a high  time resolution, given the ca. 3-4 y cm-1 of sediment accumulation. Rotifer resting egg (RRE abundance and morphotypes were examined from the sediments and compared to limnological variables indicating the pollution. Rotifer resting egg abundance significantly increased with lake contamination (r=0.609 and -0.624 for copper and pH, respectively; P<0.001; n=27. A lake-water copper concentration threshold of ca. 40 µg L-1discriminated among pre-, during-, and post- pollution compositions of the rotifer morphotype assemblages. Diversity and morphotype richness increased during the recovery from copper pollution and with complete restoration from acidity, while abundance increased during pollution. The persistence of presumably viable Brachionus resting eggs and of hatched egg cases during the heavy pollution phase suggests that, unlike most other organisms, which were extirpated by the pollution of the lake, rotifers survived producing resting eggs, which secured future generations.

  1. Effect of fence height on joint angles of agility dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Emily; Leśniak, Kirsty

    2013-12-01

    The Kennel Club (KC) and United Kingdom Agility (UKA) govern major dog agility competitions in the UK. Dogs are categorised into different jump heights depending on their height at the withers, with fence heights ranging from 300 to 650 mm for both organisations. Dogs fall into one of three height categories when competing under KC rules and one of four height categories under UKA rules. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an additional height category for agility dogs measuring over 430 mm at the withers. Jump heights were selected that related to the percentage of body height that dogs of 430 mm (7% lower) and 431 mm (51% higher) height at the withers would be encouraged to jump under UKA regulations without the addition of their fourth ('standard height') category. Joint angles were determined from anatomical markers placed on the forelimb and hind limb joints, and at six points along the vertebral column. As fence height increased, flexion of the scapulohumeral joint increased significantly for both the take-off and bascule (arc) phases of the jump. The increase in flexion as a consequence of the increase in fence height is likely to result in intensified stretching of the biceps brachii and supraspinatus muscles. In addition, increasing fence high resulted in an increase in the sacroiliac joint angle during take-off. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of Angle of Attack Measurements for Wind Tunnel Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas, W.; Hoppe, John C.

    2001-01-01

    Two optical systems capable of measuring model attitude and deformation were compared to inertial devices employed to acquire wind tunnel model angle of attack measurements during the sting mounted full span 30% geometric scale flexible configuration of the Northrop Grumman Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) installed in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The overall purpose of the test at TDT was to evaluate smart materials and structures adaptive wing technology. The optical techniques that were compared to inertial devices employed to measure angle of attack for this test were: (1) an Optotrak (registered) system, an optical system consisting of two sensors, each containing a pair of orthogonally oriented linear arrays to compute spatial positions of a set of active markers; and (2) Video Model Deformation (VMD) system, providing a single view of passive targets using a constrained photogrammetric solution whose primary function was to measure wing and control surface deformations. The Optotrak system was installed for this test for the first time at TDT in order to assess the usefulness of the system for future static and dynamic deformation measurements.

  3. Reduction of the A-Frame Angle of Incline does not Change the Maximum Carpal Joint Extension Angle in Agility Dogs Entering the A-Frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelgrein, Carla; Glyde, Mark R; Hosgood, Giselle; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Wickham, Sarah

    2018-02-01

     This article aims to investigate the effect of a decrease in the A-frame angle of incline on the highest carpal extension angle in agility dogs.  Kinematic gait analysis (two-dimensional) measuring carpal extension was performed on 40 dogs entering the A-frame at 3 angles of incline: 40° (standard), 35° and 30°. The highest carpal extension angle from three trials at each incline was examined for a significant effect of A-frame angle with height, body weight and velocity included as covariates.  There was no significant effect of A-frame angle on the highest carpal joint extension angle for the first or second limb. The adjusted mean carpal extension angle for the first limb at 40° was 64° [95% confidence interval (CI), 60-68), at 35° was 61° (95% CI, 57-65) and at 30° was 62° (95% CI, 59-65). The raw mean carpal extension angle for all dogs across all A-frame angles for the first limb was 62° (95% CI, 60-64) and the second limb was 61° (95% CI, 59-63).  Decreasing the A-frame angle of incline from 40° to 30° did not result in reduced carpal extension angles. The failure to find a difference and the narrow CI of the carpal angles may indicate that the physiologic limits of carpal extension were reached at all A-frame angles. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  4. Spatially distributed effects of mental exhaustion on resting-state FMRI networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, Fabrizio; Otto, Tobias; Zijlstra, Fred R H; Goebel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brain activity during rest is spatially coherent over functional connectivity networks called resting-state networks. In resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, independent component analysis yields spatially distributed network representations reflecting distinct mental processes, such

  5. Effects of Interval Training Programme on Resting Heart Rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DATONYE ALASIA

    4 and Department of Radiology,Federal Medical Center, Owerri, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. Background: Heart rate (HR) is a determinant of cardiovascular event risk in patient with hypertension. The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of interval training program on HR in black African subjects with.

  6. The hunt for the rest of the Higgs bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Nathaniel [Department of Physics, University of California,Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); D’Eramo, Francesco [Department of Physics, University of California,LeConte Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Draper, Patrick [Department of Physics, University of California,Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Thomas, Scott [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University,136 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Zhang, Hao [Department of Physics, University of California,Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2015-06-22

    We assess the current state of searches at the LHC for additional Higgs bosons in light of both direct limits and indirect bounds coming from coupling measurements of the Standard Model-like Higgs boson. Given current constraints, we identify and study three LHC searches that are critical components of a comprehensive program to investigate extended electroweak symmetry breaking sectors: production of a heavy scalar or pseudoscalar with decay to tt̄; bb̄ and tt̄ associated production of a heavy scalar or pseudoscalar with decay to invisible final states; and tb̄ associated production of a charged Higgs with decay to t̄b. Systematic experimental searches in these channels would contribute to robust coverage of the possible single production modes of additional heavy Higgs bosons.

  7. The hunt for the rest of the Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Nathaniel; D’Eramo, Francesco; Draper, Patrick; Thomas, Scott; Zhang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    We assess the current state of searches at the LHC for additional Higgs bosons in light of both direct limits and indirect bounds coming from coupling measurements of the Standard Model-like Higgs boson. Given current constraints, we identify and study three LHC searches that are critical components of a comprehensive program to investigate extended electroweak symmetry breaking sectors: production of a heavy scalar or pseudoscalar with decay to tt̄; bb̄ and tt̄ associated production of a heavy scalar or pseudoscalar with decay to invisible final states; and tb̄ associated production of a charged Higgs with decay to t̄b. Systematic experimental searches in these channels would contribute to robust coverage of the possible single production modes of additional heavy Higgs bosons.

  8. RDAR morphotype: A resting stage of some Enteroba cteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanov Dubravka S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Salmonella, some Escherichia coli strains as well as other species of the family Enterobacteriaceae, manifest the ability to express a specific phenotype, which is commonly termed as the 'rdar' (red, dry and rough morphotype. Both rdar and non-rdar phenotypes are commonly found in the nature; however, rdar is of essential importance for bacterial survival in the environment, outside of the host organisms. In that respect, it is comparable with the process of spore formation in Gram-positive bacteria. In laboratory conditions, rdar morphotype demonstrates growth of aforementioned organisms on agar containing diazo dye Congo Red, appearing as dark red (violet, rough and irregularly margined colonies. A coordinated expression of the number of genes mediated by major transcriptional regulators CsgD (curli subunit gene D is the prerequisite for the formation of rdar morphotype colonies. The key point in this process is the activation of csgBAC operon transcription, which encodes the synthesis of curli fimbriae and activates the AgfD regulated gene (AdrA involved in the cellulose biosynthesis. Curli fimbriae and cellulose are two basic structural components of the rdar morphotype. Curli fimbriae enable initial surface adhesion and intercellular aggregation of bacteria, whilst the cellulose (and other exopolysaccharides promotes intercellular interactions. CsgD affects the overall cell physiology towards a 'bacterial multicellular behavior' pattern, such as biofilm formation. The colony growth on Congo Red agar is a widely accepted laboratory method used for bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae and highly conserved between Salmonella. However, repeated laboratory sub-passaging results in the substantial loss of rdar morphotype and the formation of smooth mutants, suggests the necessity for using wild isolates. In this article, the characteristics of rdar and non-rdar morphotypes of diverse Salmonella serotypes isolated from

  9. On humanoids, avatars and the rest of us

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    and of swex/gender in the enactment of that imitation. Examples involve avatars from computer games, robots, mainly androids and geminoids and perhaps most importantly the Spaces between imaginaries and their materializations within this broad field of Technologies. Late in the paper, I will include figures...

  10. The GBAR experiment: Gravitational behaviour of antihydrogen at rest

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, P

    2012-01-01

    The recently recommended experiment GBAR is foreseen to run at CERN at the AD/ELENA antiproton source. It aims at performing the first measurement of the Earth's gravitational acceleration on antimatter by observing the free-fall of antihydrogen atoms. This requires creating anti-atoms at an unprecedented low energy. The different steps of the experiment and their present status are reviewed.

  11. Three Weeks of Overload Training Increases Resting Muscle Sympathetic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Alexandra M; Incognito, Anthony V; Seed, Jeremy D; Doherty, Connor J; Millar, Philip J; Burr, Jamie F

    2018-05-01

    Overload training is hypothesized to alter autonomic regulation, although interpretations using indirect measures of heart rate variability are conflicting. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of overload training on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), a direct measure of central sympathetic outflow, in recreational endurance athletes. Measurements of heart rate variability, cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), MSNA (microneurography), and sympathetic BRS were obtained in 17 healthy triathletes and cyclists after 1 wk of reduced training (baseline) and again after 3 wk of either regular (n = 7) or overload (n = 10) training. After training, the changes (Δ) in peak power output (10 ± 10 vs -12 ± 9 W, P 0.05). Overload training increased MSNA and attenuated increases in cardiac BRS and heart rate variability observed with regular training. These results support neural adaptations after overload training and suggest that increased central sympathetic outflow may be linked with decreased exercise performance.

  12. Effects of rehydration on +Gz tolerance after 14-days' bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Van Beaumont, W.; Bernauer, E. M.; Haines, R. F.; Sandler, H.; Staley, R. W.; Young, H. L.; Yusken, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Investigation of the magnitude of reduction in human tolerance to centrifugation following 2 weeks of bed rest with moderate daily exercise. The degree of hypovolemia associated with these exposures is assessed, and the possibility to improve or to return to control levels the tolerance to acceleration forces acting in the head-to-foot direction through rehydration prior to acceleration is explored.

  13. Identifying Subgroups of Tinnitus Using Novel Resting State fMRI Biomarkers and Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    project activities, for the purpose of enhancing public understanding and increasing interest in learning and careers in science, technology, and the... Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of resting state functional connectivity data to identify patients with mild tinnitus. Poster session presented...including drafting of IRB behavioral and scanning protocols, advising on recruiting and initial data collection. She also supervised analysis of data and

  14. [Monitoring of breathing pattern at rest by electrical impedance tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balleza, Marco; Fornos, Jaume; Calaf, Núria; Feixas, Teresa; González, Mercedes; Antón, Daniel; Riu, Pere; Casan, Pere

    2007-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) involves the application of a small alternating current to produce a series of chest images that can be used to monitor breathing pattern. The relation between chest images and tidal volume has not been sufficiently validated. The aim of the present study was to analyze the correlation between EIT images and the volume-time signal measured with a pneumotachometer in 13 healthy volunteers. The following measurement devices were used: a) MedGraphics preVent Pneumotach, with special software for recording the volume-time signal (reference test), and b) EIT-4, a fourth-generation prototype unit designed by the Department of Electronic Engineering at the Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Spain that records the volume-time signal and produces a graphic depiction of a cross section of the thorax at the sixth intercostal space. The mean (SD) tidal volume measured by the pneumotachometer and the EIT-4 was 0.523 (0.102) L and 0.527 (0.106) L, respectively (P value not significant). The linear correlation coefficient between the 2 measurements was 0.923 (P=.001), and the mean of the differences between the 2 procedures was -0.003 L (95% confidence interval, -0.045 to 0.038). The greatest differences were associated with female gender, body mass index, and chest circumference. In view of these differences, a different equation based on these variables was needed for calibration of the EIT-4. The EIT-4 provides an alternative means of monitoring breathing pattern, although a number of issues related to the circumference of the rib cage need to be resolved.

  15. US energy for the rest of the century, 1984 edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustaferro, J. F.

    1984-07-01

    The U.S. energy consumption and supply for two years 1983 and 2000 is presented. In 1983 the United States consumed about 70.5 quadrillion British thermal units of energy. A U.S. energy consumption of about 84 quadrillion British thermal units in the year 2000 is projected. The 84 quadrillion British thermal units consists of 13 million barrels per day of petroleum, 18 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and 3.5 trillion kilowatt hours of electricity. Coal production is projected at 1,405 million tons which includes exports. The data presented in the 1984 forecast over the spectrum of U.S. energy requirements and focus on the end use of energy operational purposes, e.g., highway transportation, space heating, lighting, and construction. Data on fuel consumption by types and energy content for 1983 and as projected for the year 2000 is provided. End users of energy in the United States currently spend $441 billion annually for energy. This includes direct taxes.

  16. Proposal to measure the Gravitational Behaviour of Antihydrogen at Rest

    CERN Document Server

    Chardin, G; Lunney, D; Manea, V; Badertscher, A; Crivelli, P; Curioni, A; Marchionni, A; Rossi, B; Rubbia, A; Nesvizhevsky, V; Hervieux, P-A; Manfredi, G; Comini, P; Debu, P; Dupré, P; Liszkay, L; Mansoulié, B; Pérez, P; Rey, J-M; Ruiz, N; Sacquin, Y; Voronin, A; Biraben, F; Cladé, P; Douillet, A; Gérardin, A; Guellati, S; Hilico, L; Indelicato, P; Lambrecht, A; Guérout, R; Karr, J-P; Nez, F; Reynaud, S; Tran, V-Q; Mohri, A; Yamazaki, Y; Charlton, M; Eriksson, S; Madsen, N; van der Werf, D-P; Kuroda, N; Torii, H; Nagashima, Y; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2011-01-01

    We propose an experiment to measure the free fall acceleration of neutral antihydrogen atoms in order to test the Weak Equivalence Principle. The originality of this path is to first produce the antihydrogen ion Hbar+ (or anti H-). The ion is formed through two charge exchange processes involving the interaction of an antiproton with positronium to produce antihydrogen, followed by the interaction of this atom with positronium. The ion is then sympathetically cooled with laser cooled Be+ ions down to μK temperatures (i.e. m/s velocities). The excess positron can then be laser detached in order to recover the neutral antihydrogen atom. The laser pulse will give the start time for the antihydrogen free fall measurement. The stop will be determined by the detection of the charged pions coming from the annihilation of the antiprotons on a plate placed at a known distance from the initial position of the atoms. From the free fall time and distance one will can extract the value of g. Our goal is a measurement at ...

  17. Rest Easy (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-20

    The amount of sleep we need each day depends on our age. Sufficient sleep is critical for maintaining good health. In this podcast, Dr. Anne Wheaton discusses the importance of getting enough sleep every day.  Created: 4/20/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 4/20/2017.

  18. Rest Easy (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-20

    The amount of sleep we need each day depends on our age. Sufficient sleep is critical for maintaining good health. This podcast discusses the importance of getting enough sleep every day.  Created: 4/20/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 4/20/2017.

  19. Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Westfall, Richard S

    1980-01-01

    ... Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo, Mexico City Cambridge University Press 32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473, © Cambridge University Press 1980 USA www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521231435 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant...

  20. Jointness for the Rest of Us: Reforming Joint Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    capital .”12 In order to achieve this goal, DOD must take a comprehensive approach to managing its joint force requirements in order to achieve the...newsarticle.aspx?id=51354 (accessed 23 January, 2016). 12 Human Capital GAO-13-470. 2. 35 civilian—of its total joint force, and to create a...operations in Liberia and the Central African Republic, peacekeeping operations in Peru /Ecuador, the final withdrawal of UN peacekeepers from Somalia, and