WorldWideScience

Sample records for angle of incidence

  1. Extended incident-angle dependence formula of sputter yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extend a new semi-empirical formula for incident-angle dependence of normalized sputter yield that includes the contribution to sputter yield from the direct knock-out process that was not considered in the previously proposed one. Three parameters included in the new one are estimated for data calculated with ACAT code for D+ ions incident obliquely on C, Fe and W materials in incident-energy regions from several tens of eV to 10 keV. Then, the parameters are expressed with functions of incident energy. The formula with the functions derived well reproduces that using the ACAT data in the whole energy range. (author)

  2. Incident velocity and incident angle of saltating sand grains on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incident velocity and incident angle are important parameters for Martian aeolian research. In this paper we have established a model for investigating the saltation of sand in steady state, mainly considering the hopping of sand in the air and sand–bed collision process. The model proves to be able to predict sand motion in steady-state saltation on Earth well both qualitatively and quantitatively. Thus, it was applied to the study of sand saltation on Mars. With the help of the model, we found incident velocities and incident angles of Martian grains in steady-state saltation in cases of various wind strengths. Then, these predicted velocities and angles were compared with previous studies. Besides, the model also can show information on lift-off parameters of saltating particles. Therefore, it allows us to study other features in aeolian processes such as the saltation length and sand transport rate. (paper)

  3. A Study of Radiation Incidence Angle in Anteroposterior Cervical Vertebra Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In anteroposterior projection for cervical vertebra, it is general that the incidence angle of X-ray is 15 degrees to 20 degrees to head in order to prevent overlap of mandible and occipital bone and to observe array of cervical interbody and shapes of joints. However, the angle is appropriate for foreigners that was determined by foreign literature review long ago, and there have been few researches of incidence angle for Koreans' body type. The purpose of in this study are to identify the incidence angle appropriate for Koreans and to present methodology. In order to measure the incidence angle, 1,044 patients who visited S Hospital located in Seosan were selected and measured of average length of cervical vertebra, OID, axis angle, and FID. The incidence angle was calculated from the applied formula by measuring average values per age groups and sex (see Formula 1 and 2). The average length of cervical vertebra was 6cm: the length was increased from teenagers to twenties but was decreased since thirties. The difference between males and females was around 1cm (p<.01). The OID was almost the same regardless of age groups and sex. As for axis angle, the slope was increased in teenagers and twenties, but was decreased since thirties. The difference between males and females was around 2 degrees (p<.01). The FID measurements were almost the same regardless of age groups and sex, and when the incidence angle was measured from these values, the teenagers were 15.9 degrees, the twenties were 16.9 degrees, the thirties were 16.6 degrees, the forties were 16.2 degrees, the fifties were 15.9 degrees, and the sixties were 14.5 degrees, indicating that the angle was increased from teenagers to the twenties but decreased since the thirties. While the angles of males and females were measured to be the same in the teenagers, the angle was different between males and females by 2 degrees. When the incidence angle statistically analyzed with measurement of average length of

  4. A Study of Radiation Incidence Angle in Anteroposterior Cervical Vertebra Examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeung, Seung Woon; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang; Joo, Yeong Cheol; Park, Mi Ja [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Beon Hee [Dept. of Radiological Science, Seonam University, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    In anteroposterior projection for cervical vertebra, it is general that the incidence angle of X-ray is 15 degrees to 20 degrees to head in order to prevent overlap of mandible and occipital bone and to observe array of cervical interbody and shapes of joints. However, the angle is appropriate for foreigners that was determined by foreign literature review long ago, and there have been few researches of incidence angle for Koreans' body type. The purpose of in this study are to identify the incidence angle appropriate for Koreans and to present methodology. In order to measure the incidence angle, 1,044 patients who visited S Hospital located in Seosan were selected and measured of average length of cervical vertebra, OID, axis angle, and FID. The incidence angle was calculated from the applied formula by measuring average values per age groups and sex (see Formula 1 and 2). The average length of cervical vertebra was 6cm: the length was increased from teenagers to twenties but was decreased since thirties. The difference between males and females was around 1cm (p<.01). The OID was almost the same regardless of age groups and sex. As for axis angle, the slope was increased in teenagers and twenties, but was decreased since thirties. The difference between males and females was around 2 degrees (p<.01). The FID measurements were almost the same regardless of age groups and sex, and when the incidence angle was measured from these values, the teenagers were 15.9 degrees, the twenties were 16.9 degrees, the thirties were 16.6 degrees, the forties were 16.2 degrees, the fifties were 15.9 degrees, and the sixties were 14.5 degrees, indicating that the angle was increased from teenagers to the twenties but decreased since the thirties. While the angles of males and females were measured to be the same in the teenagers, the angle was different between males and females by 2 degrees. When the incidence angle statistically analyzed with measurement of average length

  5. Orientation dependence of high energy electron multiple scattering at small angles of incidence to crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental investigations is carried out for the orientational dependence of the mean square of the multiple scattering angle at small incidence angles of 4.5 GeV electrons relative to crystallographic (110) planes of diamond. A theoretical discussion of the experiment is reported. 4 refs.; 2 figs

  6. Multiple incidence angle SIR-B experiment over Argentina Mapping of forest units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, J.; Casey, D.; Wall, S. D.; Brandani, A.; Rabassa, J.

    1986-01-01

    Multiple incidence angle SIR-B data of the Cordon la Grasa region of the Chubut Province of Argentina are used to discriminate various forest types by their relative brightness versus incidence angle signatures. The region consists of several species of Nothofagas which change in canopy structure with elevation, slope, and exposure. In general, the factors that appear to impact the radar response most are canopy structure, density, and ground cover (presence or absence of dead trunks and branches in particular). The results of this work indicate that (1) different forest species, and structures of a single species, may be discriminated using multiple incidence angle radar imagery and (2) it is essential to consider the variation in backscatter due to incidence angle when analyzing the comparing data collected at varying frequencies and polarizations.

  7. Energy Reflection from Gold Bombarded with keV Protons at Various Angles of Incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.

    1976-01-01

    The calorimetric deuterium film method operating at liquid‐helium temperature was used for measuring the energy reflection coefficient γ for 1–10‐keV protons incident on gold at angles of incidence up to 75°. H+2 and H+3 ions were used to obtain the lowest velocities. The growth with angle...... increases with energy. There is fair agreement with the theoretical results of Robinson and of Oen and Robinson....

  8. Energy reflection from gold bombarded with keV protons at various angles of incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calorimetric deuterium film method operating at liquid-helium temperature was used for measuring the energy reflection coefficient γ for 1--10-keV protons incident on gold at angles of incidence up to 75degree. H+2 and H+3 ions were used to obtain the lowest velocities. The growth with angle increases with energy. There is fair agreement with the theoretical results of Robinson and of Oen and Robinson

  9. Incident angle dependence of reactions between graphene and hydrogen atom by molecular dynamics simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Seiki; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    Incident angle dependence of reactions between graphene and hydrogen atoms are obtained qualitatively by classical molecular dynamics simulation under the NVE condition with modified Brenner reactive empirical bond order (REBO) potential. Chemical reaction depends on two parameters, i.e., polar angle $\\theta$ and azimuthal angle $\\phi$ of the incident hydrogen. From the simulation results, it is found that the reaction rates strongly depend on polar angle $\\theta$. Reflection rate becomes larger with increasing $\\theta$, and the $\\theta$ dependence of adsorption rate is also found. The $\\theta$ dependence is caused by three dimensional structure of the small potential barrier which covers adsorption sites. $\\phi$ dependence of penetration rate is also found for large $\\theta$.

  10. Aerodynamic Investigation of Incidence Angle Effects in a Large Scale Transonic Turbine Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVetta, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2013-01-01

    Aerodynamic measurements showing the effects of large incidence angle variations on an HPT turbine blade set are presented. Measurements were made in NASA's Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility which has been used in previous studies to acquire detailed aerodynamic and heat transfer measurements for CFD code validation. The current study supports the development of variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) speed-change technology for the NASA Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) vehicle. In order to maintain acceptable main rotor propulsive efficiency, the VSPT operates over a nearly 50 percent speed range from takeoff to altitude cruise. This results in 50deg or more variations in VSPT blade incidence angles. The cascade facility has the ability to operate over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers, but had to be modified in order to accommodate the negative incidence angle variation required by the LCTR VSPT operation. Using existing blade geometry with previously acquired aerodynamic data, the tunnel was re-baselined and the new incidence angle range was exercised. Midspan exit total pressure and flow angle measurements were obtained at seven inlet flow angles. For each inlet angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with inlet Reynolds numbers varying from 6.83×10(exp 5) to 0.85×10(exp 5) and two isentropic exit Mach numbers of 0.74 and 0.34. The midspan flowfield measurements were acquired using a three-hole pneumatic probe located in a survey plane 8.6 percent axial chord downstream of the blade trailing edge plane and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressure distributions were also acquired for each flow condition.

  11. Inferring the impact of radar incidence angle on soil moisture retrieval skill using data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of measurement incidence angle (') on the accuracy of radar-based surface soil moisture (') retrievals is largely unknown due to discrepancies in theoretical backscatter models as well as limitations in the availability of sufficiently extensive ground-based ' observations for validation....

  12. The impact of radar incidence angle on soil moisture retrieval skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of measurement incidence angle on the accuracy of radar-based surface soil moisture retrievals is largely unknown due to discrepancies in theoretical backscatter models as well as limitations in the availability of sufficiently-extensive ground-based soil moisture observations for validat...

  13. Influence of the incident flux angles on the structures and properties of magnetron sputtered MoS2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, by adjusting the angle between the incident flux and the normal direction of the substrate’s surface, the MoS2 film prepared by magnetron sputtering was used as a model system to study the influence of incident flux angles on the structures and properties of deposited films. The morphological and structural evolutions of MoS2 films deposited at different angles ranging from 0 to 85 degrees were characterized and the corresponding mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated. The results show that a conversion of a continuous film structure to a separate columnar structure with high porosity is found as the incident flux angle increases. Although changing the incident flux angle plays a negligible effect on the crystal preferential orientation of deposited MoS2 films, the mechanical and tribological properties of these films degrade dramatically when the incident flux angle is larger than 60 degrees. (paper)

  14. Dependence of the output parameters of the polycrystalline silicon (cast) solar cell on the incident radiation angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decrease in output parameters of polycrystalline silicon (CAST) solar cells with increasing angle of incidence has been investigated. The distribution of the surface photon, reflection losses and effective junction depth are modeled, by taking in the front surface recombination velocity< It is shown that that angle of incidence radiation is depended on the increase of the surface recombination velocity.(Author)

  15. The effects of impurities and incidence angle on the secondary electron emission of Ni(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Hadar; Patino, Marlene; Raitses, Yevgeny; Koel, Bruce; Gentile, Charles; Feibush, Eliot

    The investigation of secondary electron emission (SEE) of conducting materials used for magnetic fusion devices and plasma thrusters is important for determining device lifetime and performance. Methods to quantify the secondary electron emission from conducting materials and to characterize the effects that impurities and incidence angles have on secondary electron emission were developed using 4-grid low energy electron diffraction (LEED) optics. The total secondary electron yield from a Ni(110) surface was continuously measured from the sample current as surface contamination increased from reactions with background gases in the ultrahigh vacuum chamber. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) were used to examine the composition and impurity levels on the Ni(110) surface. The total secondary electron yield was also measured at different incidence angles. Thank you to the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and the Department of Energy (DOE) for the opportunity to work on this project through the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships (SULI).

  16. The effect of impurities and incident angle on the secondary electron emission of Ni(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Hadar; Patino, Marlene; Raitses, Yevgeny; Koel, Bruce E.; Gentile, Charles; Feibush, Eliot

    2015-11-01

    The investigation of secondary electron emission (SEE) of conducting materials used for magnetic fusion devices and plasma thrusters is important for determining device lifetime and performance. Methods to quantify the secondary electron emission from conducting materials and to characterize the effects that impurities and incident angles have on secondary electron emission were developed using 4-grid low energy electron diffraction (LEED) optics. The total secondary electron yield from a Ni(110) surface was continuously measured from the sample current as surface contamination increased from reactions with background gases in the ultrahigh vacuum chamber. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) were used to examine the composition and impurity levels on the Ni(110) surface. The total secondary electron yield was also measured at different incident angles. Thank you to the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and the Department of Energy for the opportunity to work on this project through the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships.

  17. Effect of different incidence angles on bonding performance in cold spraying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gang; WANG Xiao-fang; LI Wen-ya

    2007-01-01

    The deformation behaviour of spray particles impacting upon a substrate under the oblique impact condition in cold spraying was investigated using finite element analysis(FEA) method. The effect of incidence angle of particle on the deformation of particle and substrate was examined. It is found that the contact area between the deformed particle and substrate decreases and the crater depth in the substrate reduces with increasing the tilting angle at the same impact velocity. The normal component of impact velocity takes an important role in the impacting process and formation of bonding.

  18. Influence of incident angle on the defect mode of locally doped photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of a transfer matrix method, this paper deduces the transmittance calculation equation of light travelling in locally doped (including one defect layer) mirror heterostructure (ABCCBA)P D(ABCCBA)Q photonic crystals. In the cases of defect layers being either introduced or not introduced, an ORIGIN simulation shows the influence of incident angle change on the number of photon band gap, bandwidth and defect mode numbers. Studies indicate that when such photonic crystals have 8 mirror cycles and the thickness of defect layer D meets nDdD = λ0/2 or nDdD = 4λ0, the photonic crystal defect mode transmission peak changes significantly. Also, with the change of incident angle, the number of defect mode transmission peaks changes. By altering incident angle and defect layer thickness, we can get photon band gaps and defect mode transmission peaks at different frequency domains and different relative angular frequencies. This provides theoretical reference for achieving light wave multi-channel filtering and tunable filtering. (semiconductor physics)

  19. Specular reflectance of soiled glass mirrors - Study on the impact of incidence angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimsath, Anna; Lindner, Philip; Klimm, Elisabeth; Schmid, Tobias; Moreno, Karolina Ordonez; Elon, Yehonatan; Am-Shallem, Morag; Nitz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The accumulation of dust and soil on the surface of solar reflectors is an important factor reducing the power output of solar power plants. Therefore the effect of accumulated dust on the specular reflectance of solar mirrors should be understood well in order to improve the site-dependent performance prediction. Furthermore, an optimization of the CSP System maintenance, in particular the cleaning cycles, can be achieved. Our measurements show a noticeable decrease of specular reflectance when the angle of incidence is increased. This effect may be explained by shading and blocking mechanisms caused by dirt particles. The main physical causes of radiation loss being absorption and scattering, the near-angle scattering leads to a further decrease of specular reflectance for smaller angles of acceptance. Within this study mirror samples were both outdoor exposed and indoor artificially soiled. For indoor soiling, the mirror samples were artificially soiled in an in-house developed dusting device using both artificial-standardized dust and real dust collected from an arid outdoor test field at the Negev desert. A model function is proposed that approximates the observed reduction of specular reflectance with the incidence angle with a sufficient accuracy and by simple means for this soil type. Hence a first step towards a new approach to improve site dependent performance prediction of solar power plants is taken.

  20. The influence of incidence angle on the aerodynamics of condensing flow around a rotor tip section of steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti Amiri, H.; Salmaniyeh, F.; Izadi, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of incidence angle on the aerodynamics of the steam flow field around a rotor tip section is investigated. An Eulerian-Eulerian method, based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamics model for simulating the wet flow is employed. In this study, the effects of incidence angle on different design parameters such as: outflow Mach number, outflow gas phase mass fraction, loss coefficient and deviation angle are studied.

  1. Study of the Incident Angles and SPP(Surface Plasmon Polaritons) in the Nano Scaled Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Richard; Cho, Jay-Young

    2016-05-01

    In this study, SPP(Surface Plasmon Polaritons) in multi-layered nano structures, which consist of metals and dielectrics, have been analyzed using numerical and computational simulation. The purpose of this research is to find incident angles, and observe dispersions and plasmon polaritons occurring inside the materials when a laser beam is absorbed by the structure. The setup of the models consisted of air, metal oxide, metal, and prism. Numerical computer programs such as COMSOL and Matlab are used to analyze the phenomenon. Modes of SPP(Surface Plasmon Polaritons) have been observed and calculated for the multi-layered metals and metal oxides. The accurate incident angle, dispersion, magnetic field inside the material and the effective index are found to be different for each model.

  2. Association of Open-Angle Glaucoma Loci With Incident Glaucoma in the Blue Mountains Eye Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn P Burdon; Mitchell, Paul; Lee, Anne; Healey, Paul R.; White, Andrew J R; Rochtchina, Elena; Thomas, Peter B.M.; Wang, Jie Jin; Craig, Jamie E

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine if open-angle glaucoma (OAG)-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with incident glaucoma and if such genetic information is useful in OAG risk prediction. Design Case-control from within a population-based longitudinal study. Methods study population : Individuals aged over 49 years of age living in the Blue Mountains region west of Sydney and enrolled in the Blue Mountains Eye Study. observation : Cases for this sub-study (n = 67) developed in...

  3. CALIBRATION OF FULL-WAVEFORM ALS DATA BASED ON ROBUST INCIDENCE ANGLE ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Abed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Full-waveform airborne laser scanning data has shown its potential to enhance available segmentation and classification approaches through the additional information it can provide. However, this additional information is unable to directly provide a valid physical representation of surface features due to many variables affecting the backscattered energy during travel between the sensor and the target. Effectively, this delivers a mis-match between signals from overlapping flightlines. Therefore direct use of this information is not recommended without the adoption of a comprehensive radiometric calibration strategy that accounts for all these effects. This paper presents a practical and reliable radiometric calibration routine by accounting for all the variables affecting the backscattered energy, including the essential factor of angle of incidence. A new robust incidence angle estimation approach has been developed which has proven capable of delivering a reliable estimation for the scattering direction of the individual echoes. The routine was tested and validated both visually and statistically over various land cover types with simple and challenging surface trends. This proved the validity of this approach to deliver the optimal match between overlapping flightlines after calibration, particularly by adopting a parameter which accounts for the angle of incidence effect.

  4. Microwave Doppler spectra of sea return at small incidence angles: specular point scattering contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that the sea return echo contains contributions from at least two scattering mechanisms. In addition to the resonant Bragg scattering, the specular point scattering plays an important role as the incidence angle becomes smaller (≤ 20 °). Here, in combination with the Kirchhoff integral equation of scattering field and the stationary phase approximation, analytical expressions for Doppler shift and spectral bandwidth of specular point scattering, which are insensitive to the polarization state, are derived theoretically. For comparison, the simulated results related to the two-scale method (TSM) and the method of moment (MOM) are also presented. It is found that the Doppler shift and the spectral bandwidth given by TSM are insufficient at small incidence angles. However, a comparison between the analytical results and the numerical simulations by MOM in the backscatter configuration shows that our proposed formulas are valid for the specular point scattering case. In this work, the dependences of the predicted results on incidence angle, radar frequency, and wind speed are also discussed. The obtained conclusions seem promising for a better understanding of the Doppler spectra of the specular point scattering fields from time-varying sea surfaces. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  5. Fast beating null strip during the reflection of pulsed Gaussian beams incident at the Rayleigh angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, Nico F

    2006-12-22

    It is well known that harmonic bounded Gaussian beams undergo a transformation into two bounded beams upon reflection on a solid immersed in a liquid. The effect is known as the Schoch effect and can be found at the Rayleigh angle for thick plates and at the different Lamb angles for thin plates. Here, a study is made on the effect of pulsed Gaussian beams reflected on solids. It is found experimentally that the Rayleigh wave phenomenon still generates two reflected bounded beams, whereas Lamb wave phenomena do not generate this effect. This fact may be explained intuitively by realizing that the Rayleigh phenomenon is a coincidental phenomenon that is generated in situ, whereas the Lamb wave phenomenon is a non-coincidental phenomenon that is generated only after incident sound is influenced by both sides of a thin plate. Another explanation is the fact that Rayleigh waves are not dispersive, whereas stimulation and propagation of Lamb waves is frequency dependent. A pulse contains many frequencies and therefore only a fraction of the incident pulse is transformed into a Lamb wave. In this paper, numerical simulations are performed that show that actually the Schoch effect does occur neither for Rayleigh waves, nor for Lamb waves. As a matter of fact, a pulse, incident at the Rayleigh angle, generates two reflected lobes with a null zone of a different kind. The null zone is beating several times during the passage of each pulse. This results in a 'null zone' having a lower mean intensity than any of the two lobes, still less outspoken than for the case of harmonic incident bounded beams. This effect does only occur for Rayleigh wave generation and is much less outspoken for Lamb wave generation. PMID:16815510

  6. The influence of incident beam's angle offset of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer on the spectrum measurement explored with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of the incident angle offset on FT-IR spectra are investigated in this paper. The simulated FT-IR spectra are obtained by Fourier inverse transform. The results show that this frequency shift varies with the angle offset of the incident beam in FT-IR. As an example,the factors that affect the angle of incident IR light at SSRF are analyzed. According to performance specifications of the IR beamline, requirements of the optical component installation precision and position drift of the light source are given. (authors)

  7. Application of the variable incident angle method for PIXE and Pige in the field of arrhythmic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several years PIGE (particle induced gamma-ray emission) and PIXE(particle induced X-ray emission) have been considered as very suitable methods in the field of archaeometry. In fact these techniques, used under atmospheric pressure, are sensitive, multielemental and above all nondestructive. However both suffer from the same disadvantage: the information coming from the different part of the charged particle path is integrated and the inhomogeneities of the sample are not taken into account. The present paper shows how the use of several measurements at different incident angle could give an answer to this problem. The incident angle variation allows to investigate the material at different depths and then, either to distinguish between the elements belonging to the successive layers or even to deduce the concentration gradient. Several examples are given for PIXE in the case of multilayered painting, the measurements qualitatively show the stratigraphy and then allow to detect over painting or to understand how the artist has proceeded to obtain some special effects. For PIGE, the possibility to measure the evolution of the sodium concentration in the depth of ancient glasses allows to obtain information about the corrosion status. For achieving this work, the CGRMEV AVF cyclotron and the atmospheric PIGE-PIXE set-up of the (Institut de Physique Nucleare et Atomique et de Spectroscopy) have been used

  8. Holmium laser ablation of cartilage: effects of delivery fiber angle of incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asshauer, Thomas; Oberthur, Thorsten; Jansen, Thomas; Gerber, Bruno E.; Delacretaz, Guy P.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of 2.12 micrometers Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG laser pulses delivered in isotonic saline solution via an optical fiber system on fresh porcine femur patellar groove cartilage were studied in vitro. Various irradiation geometry, corresponding to angles of 0 - 90 degree(s) of the delivering fiber with respect to the cartilage surface, have been investigated. A laser pulse energies of 1.0 J with a pulse duration of 250 microsecond(s) (FWHM) was used. The dynamics of the induced transient vapor bubbles and the ablation process were monitored by time resolved flash videography techniques. Acoustic transients of up to 200 bars induced by bubble collapses were measured by a calibrated piezoelectric needle probe hydrophone. Histological assessment of the irradiated cartilage samples was performed using azan and Safranin-O stains. The extent of the area of altered cartilage cells is larger than the zone of tissue matrix damage. The predominant mechanism of tissue damage is thermal rather than acousto-mechanical. Cartilage treatment at an angle of incidence of 30 degree(s) reduces significantly the overall damage as compared to 60 degree(s) or 90 degree(s) irradiation.

  9. Three dimensional reconstruction of nanoislands from grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefanov, O. M.; Vartanyants, I. A.

    2009-02-01

    The combination of grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) with tomographic methods and phase retrieval is proposed for the reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) electron density of nanometer sized objects. In this approach GISAXS data from a small object are collected successively at different azimuthal angular positions. This 3D intensity distribution in reciprocal space is used for the phase retrieval and reconstruction of the 3D electron density. The power of our approach is demonstrated in a series of calculations performed in the frame of kinematical and distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) theories for the case of GISAXS scattering on a 200 nm island in the form of truncated pyramid.

  10. Incident angle insensitive tunable multichannel perfect absorber consisting of nonlinear plasma and matching metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Xiang-kun [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics, College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Meteorological Observation and Information Processing, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Liu, Shao-Bin, E-mail: plrg@nuaa.edu.cn; Bian, Bo-rui; Chen, Chen [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics, College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Zhang, Hai-feng [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics, College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Nanjing Branch, Artillery Academy of the PLA, Nanjing 211132 (China)

    2014-12-15

    A novel, compact, and multichannel nonreciprocal absorber through a wave tunneling mechanism in epsilon-negative and matching metamaterials is theoretically proposed. Nonreciprocal absorption properties are acquired via the coupling together of evanescent and propagating waves in an asymmetric configuration, constituted of nonlinear plasma alternated with matching metamaterial. The absorption channel number can be adjusted by changing the periodic number. Due to the positive feedback between nonlinear permittivity of plasma and the inner electric field, bistable absorption and reflection are achieved. Moreover, compared with some truncated photonic crystal or multilayered designs proposed before, our design is more compact and independent of incident angle or polarization. This kind of multilayer structure offers additional opportunities to design novel omnidirectional electromagnetic wave absorbers.

  11. Incident angle insensitive tunable multichannel perfect absorber consisting of nonlinear plasma and matching metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel, compact, and multichannel nonreciprocal absorber through a wave tunneling mechanism in epsilon-negative and matching metamaterials is theoretically proposed. Nonreciprocal absorption properties are acquired via the coupling together of evanescent and propagating waves in an asymmetric configuration, constituted of nonlinear plasma alternated with matching metamaterial. The absorption channel number can be adjusted by changing the periodic number. Due to the positive feedback between nonlinear permittivity of plasma and the inner electric field, bistable absorption and reflection are achieved. Moreover, compared with some truncated photonic crystal or multilayered designs proposed before, our design is more compact and independent of incident angle or polarization. This kind of multilayer structure offers additional opportunities to design novel omnidirectional electromagnetic wave absorbers

  12. Influence of Incidence Angle on the Use of C-Band SAR Data for the Detection Flooded Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, M. W.; Townsend, P.; Kasischke, E.

    2006-12-01

    Hydrology is the single most important factor in the formation and functioning of a wetland. Many limitations still exist to accurately characterize wetland hydrology over large spatial extents, especially in forested wetlands. Imaging radar has emerged as a viable tool for forested wetland flood mapping, although the limitations of radar data have not been fully explored. The influence of incidence angle on the ability to detect flooding in different forest types was examined along the Roanoke River in North Carolina using Radarsat (C- HH) data collected during the leaf-off and leaf-on seasons. Backscatter generally decreased with increasing incidence angle under all conditions, but the distinction between flooded and non-flooded areas did not decline sharply with incidence angle as predicted. The ability to detect flooding under leaf-on conditions varied much more according to incidence angle while forest type had a greater effect during the leaf-off season. Differentiation of flooded and non-flooded forests was similar during the leaf-off and leaf-on seasons. Use of a wider range of incidence angles during the entire year increases the temporal resolution of imagery which may, in turn, enhance mapping of inundation beneath forest canopies.

  13. Hypersonic phononic stopbands at small angles of wave incidence in porous silicon multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, Gazi N.; Goller, Bernhard

    2015-08-01

    We report theoretical simulation and experimental observation of the mode conversion effect in a hypersonic distributed Bragg reflector of porous silicon. Acoustic transmission of longitudinal waves through the multilayered structure has been measured in the frequency range 0-3 GHz. It is found that the measured transmittance at the gap frequencies is always higher than that theoretically predicted for normal incidence. We attribute this to non-perpendicular wave propagation that was not deliberately sought, which subsequently increases the center gap transmittance due to the mode conversion effect. Oblique incidence with angles of about 1° results in truncated gap depth in acoustic transmission spectra from about  -80 dB, and deeper, to about  -40 dB and shallower. The spectra were simulated by employing the stiffness matrix method. Porosity-dependent acoustic viscous damping was included in the calculations. A way to optimize reflectors in the frequency range, where the forbidden gaps for longitudinal and shear waves overlap, is discussed.

  14. Characterization of surface Ag nanoparticles in nanocomposite a-C:Ag coatings by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction at sub-critical angles of incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manninen, N.K.; Oliveira, J.C.; Cavaleiro, A. [University of Coimbra, SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, Coimbra (Portugal); Carvalho, S. [University of Minho, GRF-CFUM, Physics Department, Guimaraes (Portugal)

    2016-03-15

    Silver diffusion within nanocomposite films and/or toward the film surface is often observed during annealing of the silver-based nanocomposite films. In order to control and/or minimize this process, it is crucial to characterize the aggregated silver nanoparticles on the films surface. In this paper grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) with both sub-critical and supra-critical angles of incidence is used to characterize the Ag nanoparticles distribution, shape and structure both inside the matrix and on the nanocomposite film surface. The nanocomposite carbon coating containing Ag nanoparticles (a-C:Ag) was deposited by dc magnetron sputtering. The coatings were analyzed by GIXRD using fixed incident angles both below and above the critical angle for total reflection. By using sub-critical angles it was possible to eliminate diffraction from the bulk material allowing to estimate the size distribution of the nanoparticles sitting on the surface. The results obtained by GIXRD analysis were checked through comparison with the observations made by both TEM and SEM analysis. The proposed methodology can be used to characterized nanoparticles deposition on a surface and/or island formation during film growth as long an adequate substrate with high critical angle for total reflection is used. (orig.)

  15. Characterization of surface Ag nanoparticles in nanocomposite a-C:Ag coatings by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction at sub-critical angles of incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver diffusion within nanocomposite films and/or toward the film surface is often observed during annealing of the silver-based nanocomposite films. In order to control and/or minimize this process, it is crucial to characterize the aggregated silver nanoparticles on the films surface. In this paper grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) with both sub-critical and supra-critical angles of incidence is used to characterize the Ag nanoparticles distribution, shape and structure both inside the matrix and on the nanocomposite film surface. The nanocomposite carbon coating containing Ag nanoparticles (a-C:Ag) was deposited by dc magnetron sputtering. The coatings were analyzed by GIXRD using fixed incident angles both below and above the critical angle for total reflection. By using sub-critical angles it was possible to eliminate diffraction from the bulk material allowing to estimate the size distribution of the nanoparticles sitting on the surface. The results obtained by GIXRD analysis were checked through comparison with the observations made by both TEM and SEM analysis. The proposed methodology can be used to characterized nanoparticles deposition on a surface and/or island formation during film growth as long an adequate substrate with high critical angle for total reflection is used. (orig.)

  16. Ultra Wideband Polarization-Selective Conversions of Electromagnetic Waves by Metasurface under Large-Range Incident Angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jia Yuan; Wan, Xiang; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    We propose an ultra-wideband polarization-conversion metasurface with polarization selective and incident-angle insensitive characteristics using anchor-shaped units through multiple resonances. The broadband characteristic is optimized by the genetic optimization algorithm, from which the anchor-shaped unit cell generates five resonances, resulting in expansion of the operating frequency range. Owing to the structural feature of the proposed metasurface, only x- and y-polarized incident waves can reach high-efficiency polarization conversions, realizing the polarization-selective property. The proposed metasurface is also insensitive to the angle of incident waves, which indicates a promising future in modern communication systems. We fabricate and measure the proposed metasurface, and both the simulated and measured results show ultra-wide bandwidth for the x- and y-polarized incident waves. PMID:26202495

  17. Impact and Penetration of Thin Aluminum 2024 Flat Panels at Oblique Angles of Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Charles R.; Revilock, Duane M.; Pereira, J. Michael; Emmerling, William; Queitzsch, Gilbert K., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    under more extreme conditions, using a projectile with a more complex shape and sharp contacts, impacting flat panels at oblique angles of incidence.

  18. Femtosecond laser ablation of a metal, a dielectric and a semiconductor illuminated at oblique angles of incidence

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiao-Long; Petrarca, Massimo; Polynkin, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    We report the measurements of fluence thresholds for single-shot femtosecond laser ablation, as functions of the angle of incidence and at different polarizations of the laser beam, for a metal, a dielectric and a semiconductor. We use the linear index of refraction, unperturbed by the ablating laser pulse, to compute the values of the laser fluence transmitted into the material, corresponding to the measured values of the ablation threshold fluence in the incident beam. Our data show that, in spite of the complex nonlinear ionization dynamics involved in the ablation process, thus computed transmitted threshold fluence is remarkably independent of the angle of incidence and polarization of the laser beam, for all three material types. We suggest that the angular dependence of ablation threshold can be utilized for profiling fluence distributions in ultra-intense femtosecond laser beams.

  19. Effect of light incidence angle on optical absorption characteristics of low bandgap polymer-based bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan-Yong; Park, Sun-Joo; Kim, Do-Hyun; Kim, Young-Joo

    2014-08-01

    The bulk heterojunction organic solar cell based on thieno[3,4-b]thiophene/benzodithiophene (PTB7) is one of an alternative candidate for traditional silicon-based solar cells owing to its advantages of ease of manufacture, low cost, and flexibility. Currently, many research studies of these devices focus on power conversion efficiency (PCE) enhancement with only normal sunlight incidence. In this study, we have experimentally verified that PCE markedly decreased from 5.51 to 3.47% as incidence angle was changed from 0 to 60°. Using the finite-difference time-domain method, we found that the degeneration of optical absorption is caused by the decreased electrical field intensity in the photoactive layer over the entire wavelength range due to the optical interference profile change. In addition, we confirmed that a higher incidence angle also results in unbalanced charge carrier transport characteristics, resulting in further decrease in solar cell efficiency.

  20. Effect of changing the saddle angle on the incidence of low back pain in recreational bicyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Salai, M; Brosh, T.; Blankstein, A.; Oran, A.; Chechik, A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: According to the literature, 30-70% of cyclists suffer from cervical, dorsal, or lumbar back pain. This study was conducted to evaluate one of the possible causes of low back pain and to suggest a solution by appropriate adjustments to the bicycle. METHODS: Serial fluoroscopic studies were performed while cyclists sat on different types of bicycle (sports, mountain, and city). Pelvic/spine angles were measured at different seat angles, and the related force vectors analysed. ...

  1. Influence of the incident angle of energetic carbon ions on the properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongping; Benstetter, Günther; Lodermeier, Edgar; Vancea, Johann

    2003-09-01

    Tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films have been grown on Ar+-beam-cleaned silicon substrates by changing the incident angle of energetic carbon ions produced in the plasma of pulsed cathodic vacuum arc discharge. Their surface roughness, deposition rate, composition, and mechanical and frictional properties as a function of the incident angle of energetic carbon ions were reported. The substrate holder can be rotated, and so an angle of deposition was defined as the angle of ion flux with respect to the substrate surface. While the deposition angle is varied from 20° to 59°, the root-mean-square (rms) roughness decreases from 0.5 to 0.1 nm, then it turns to increase at a slow rate when the deposition angle is over 77°. The variation correlates well with the one of hardness with the deposition angle and the films with lower rms roughness exhibit the higher hardness. The soft graphite-like surface layers existing at the surfaces of these films were revealed by atomic force microscopy-based nanowear tests and their thickness increases from 0.35 to 2.9 nm with the deposition angle decreasing from 90° to 30°. The soft surface layer thickness can have a great effect on the sp3 contents measured by x-ray photoelectron spectra. Nanoscale friction coefficient measurements were performed from lateral force microscopy by using a V-shaped Si3N4 cantilever. The low friction coefficients (0.076-0.093) of ta-C films can be attributed to their graphite-like surface structure. The implications of these results on the mechanisms proposed for the film formation were discussed.

  2. Influence of the incidence angle on the morphology of enamel and dentin under Er:YAG laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to make an in vitro evaluation, using scanning electron microscopy, of the influence of the laser beam irradiation angle on the enamel and dentin morphology. These tissues were both irradiated by Er:YAG Laser, with the same energy parameter. Twenty-four incisive bovine teeth were used, separated in eight groups, four of enamel, and four of dentin, with three specimens in each group. Each specimen was submitted to three laser applications, varying the incidence angle, between the laser and the tooth surface, at 90, 50 and 20 degrees. The applied frequency was 2 Hz, with 20 pulses in each application. The KaVo Key Laser 3 was employed, wavelength at 2940 nm, adjustable energy from 40 to 600 mJ and repetition rate from 1 to 25 Hz. The groups were distributed according to the energy parameter as follows - enamel: 250 mJ; 300 mJ; 350 mJ and 400 mJ; dentin: 200 mJ; 250 mJ; 300 mJ and 350 mJ. The results evidenced the Laser incidence angle importance; it is an essential parameter in the protocol of utilization and it should not be disregarded. The observations of this study allow to conclude that the Laser incidence angle has direct influence on the morphological aspect of the alterations produced in enamel and dentin. (author)

  3. Laser warning receiver to identify the wavelength and angle of arrival of incident laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair; Michael B.; Sweatt, William C.

    2010-03-23

    A laser warning receiver is disclosed which has up to hundreds of individual optical channels each optically oriented to receive laser light from a different angle of arrival. Each optical channel has an optical wedge to define the angle of arrival, and a lens to focus the laser light onto a multi-wavelength photodetector for that channel. Each multi-wavelength photodetector has a number of semiconductor layers which are located in a multi-dielectric stack that concentrates the laser light into one of the semiconductor layers according to wavelength. An electrical signal from the multi-wavelength photodetector can be processed to determine both the angle of arrival and the wavelength of the laser light.

  4. The effects of incidence angle on film dosimetry and their consequences in IMRT dose verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The dosimetric accuracy of EDR2 radiographic film has been rigorously assessed in regular and intensity modulated beams for various incidence angles, including the parallel and perpendicular orientation. There clearly exists confusion in literature regarding the effect of film orientation. The primary aim is to clarify potential sources of the confusion and to gain physical insight into the film orientation effect with a link to radiochromic film as well. Methods: An inverse pyramid IMRT field, consisting of six regular and elongated 3 × 20 cm2 field segments, was studied in perpendicular and parallel orientation. Assessment of film self-perturbation and intrinsic directional sensitivity were also included in the experiments. Finally, the authors investigated the orientational effect in composite beams in the two extreme orientations, i.e., perpendicular and parallel. Results: The study of an inverse pyramid dose profile revealed good agreement between the perpendicular film and the diamond detector within 0.5% in the low-scatter regions for both 6 and 18 MV. The parallel oriented film demonstrated a 3% under-response at 5-cm (6 MV) depth against the perpendicular orientation, but both orientations over responded equally in the central region, which received only scattered dose, at both 5- and 20-cm depths. In a regular 6-MV 5 × 5 cm2 field, a 4.1% lower film response was observed in the parallel orientation compared to perpendicular orientation. The under response gradually increased to 6% when reducing the field size to 0.5 × 5 cm2. On the other hand, the film showed a 1.7% lower response in parallel orientation for the large field size of 20 × 20 cm2 at 5-cm depth but the difference disappeared at 10 cm. At 18 MV, similar but somewhat lower differences were found between the two orientations. The directional sensitivity of the film diminishes with increasing field size and depth. Surprisingly a composite IMRT beam consisting of 20 adjacent strip

  5. Reflectance and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of sculptured silver films deposited at various vapor incident angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using e-beam evaporation at various oblique angles, silver nanorod arrays were produced on silicon and fused silica substrates. Reflectance of P and S polarizations was measured at an incident angle of 30°, with the data analyzed by using the appropriate optical dispersive model. The surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was investigated using trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethene (BPE) as a probe molecule at an excitation wavelength of 633 nm. The Ag-coated surface become rougher as the vapor incident angle is increased. Only the sample deposited at 85° shows clear oblique column structure. Reflectance fitting confirmed the positive rexlation between roughness and deposition angle and showed an increase of porosity in the film with increasing deposition angle. The reflectance measurements also indicate that the sample deposited at 85° has a very high anisotropic effect due to the inclined column structure. In the RS scans, only the 85° samples on Si and silica substrates gave strong SERS with a similar enhancement factor, with a higher background level and noise signal from the silica substrate. (paper)

  6. Reflectance and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of sculptured silver films deposited at various vapor incident angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shigeng; Keating, Martin; Chen, Yu; Placido, Frank

    2012-08-01

    By using e-beam evaporation at various oblique angles, silver nanorod arrays were produced on silicon and fused silica substrates. Reflectance of P and S polarizations was measured at an incident angle of 30°, with the data analyzed by using the appropriate optical dispersive model. The surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was investigated using trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethene (BPE) as a probe molecule at an excitation wavelength of 633 nm. The Ag-coated surface become rougher as the vapor incident angle is increased. Only the sample deposited at 85° shows clear oblique column structure. Reflectance fitting confirmed the positive rexlation between roughness and deposition angle and showed an increase of porosity in the film with increasing deposition angle. The reflectance measurements also indicate that the sample deposited at 85° has a very high anisotropic effect due to the inclined column structure. In the RS scans, only the 85° samples on Si and silica substrates gave strong SERS with a similar enhancement factor, with a higher background level and noise signal from the silica substrate.

  7. The effect of incidence angle on the overall three-dimensional aerodynamic performance of a classical annular airfoil cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsten, D. E.; Fleeter, S.

    1983-01-01

    To be of quantitative value to the designer and analyst, it is necessary to experimentally verify the flow modeling and the numerics inherent in calculation codes being developed to predict the three dimensional flow through turbomachine blade rows. This experimental verification requires that predicted flow fields be correlated with three dimensional data obtained in experiments which model the fundamental phenomena existing in the flow passages of modern turbomachines. The Purdue Annular Cascade Facility was designed specifically to provide these required three dimensional data. The overall three dimensional aerodynamic performance of an instrumented classical airfoil cascade was determined over a range of incidence angle values. This was accomplished utilizing a fully automated exit flow data acquisition and analysis system. The mean wake data, acquired at two downstream axial locations, were analyzed to determine the effect of incidence angle, the three dimensionality of the cascade exit flow field, and the similarity of the wake profiles. The hub, mean, and tip chordwise airfoil surface static pressure distributions determined at each incidence angle are correlated with predictions from the MERIDL and TSONIC computer codes.

  8. Changes of transmission characteristics for different optic radiation incidence angles in filters protecting against hazardous infrared radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Gralewicz; Janusz Kubrak; Grzegorz Owczarek

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the fundamental information concerning the types of protective optical filters used for protection against hazardous radiation within the visible and near-infrared spectrum range. The changes of transmission characteristics for different optic radiation angles of incidence with metallic reflective filters and interference filters have been analyzed. The results demonstrate that such changes exert no effect on the level of protection provided by the filters.

  9. Turbulent boundary layers along straight and curved long thin circular cylinders at low angles-of-incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Stephen A.

    2016-05-01

    Long thin circular cylinders commonly serve as towed sonar tracking devices, where the radius-of-curvature along the longitudinal axis is quite low [ρr = O(10-4)]. Because no understanding presently exists about the direct impact of longitudinal curvature on the turbulent statistics, the long cylinder is simply viewed as a chain of straight segments at various (increasing then decreasing) small inclinations to the freestream direction. Realistically, even our statistical evidence along straight thin cylinders at low incidence angles is inadequate to build solid evidence towards forming reliable empirical models. In the present study, we address these shortcomings by executing Large-Eddy Simulations (LESs) of straight and longitudinally curved thin cylinders at low to moderate turbulent radius-based Reynolds numbers (500 ≤ Rea ≤ 3500) and small angles-of-incidence (α = 0° → 9°). Coupled with the previous experimental measurements and numerical results, the new expanded database (311 ≤ Rea ≤ 56 500) delivered sufficient means to propose power-law expressions for the longitudinal evolution of the skin friction, normal drag, and turbulent boundary layer (TBL) length scales. Surprisingly, the LES computations of the curved cylinders at analogous geometric and kinematic conditions as the straight cylinder showed similar character in terms of the longitudinal skin friction. Beyond incidence 1°-3° (upper end corresponds to the highest simulated Rea), the skin friction was directly proportional to the yaw angle and monotonically shifted downward with higher Rea. Conversely, the flow structure, normal drag, TBL length scales, Reynolds stresses, and the separation state of the transverse shear layers towards regular vortex shedding for the curved cylinder were highly dissimilar than the straight one at equivalent incidence angles.

  10. Near perfect light trapping in a 2D gold nanotrench grating at oblique angles of incidence and its application for sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junpeng; Li, Zhitong; Guo, Hong

    2016-07-25

    A two-dimensional nanotrench cavity grating on a thick gold film was fabricated by using e-beam lithography. Optical reflection spectra from the fabricated device were measured at oblique angles of incidence for TE and TM polarizations. Near perfect light absorption was observed at different wavelengths for TE and TM polarizations at oblique angles of incidence. The peak absorption wavelength of TM polarization red-shifts significantly as angle of incidence increases. The peak absorption wavelength of TE polarization blue-shifts slightly as incident angle increases. Using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations, two orders of magnitude magnetic field enhancement was revealed inside nanotrenches, indicating strong light trapping inside the nanostructure. The fabricated device was investigated as a refractive index chemical sensor. It was found that sensitivity increases for TM polarization and decreases for TE polarization when angle of incidence increases from zero. PMID:27464175

  11. Energetic deposition of metal ions: Observation of self-sputtering and limited sticking for off-normal angles of incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hongchen; Anders, Andre

    2009-09-15

    The deposition of films under normal and off-normal angle of incidence has been investigated to show the relevance of non-sticking of and self-sputtering by energetic ions, leading to the formation of neutral atoms. The flow of energetic ions was obtained using a filtered cathodic arc system in high vacuum and therefore the ion flux had a broad energy distribution of typically 50-100 eV per ion. The range of materials included Cu, Ag, Au, Ti, and Ni. Consistent with molecular dynamics simulations published in the literature, the experiments show, for all materials, that the combined effects of non-sticking and self-sputtering are very significant, especially for large off-normal angles. Modest heating and intentional introduction of oxygen background affect the results.

  12. Investigation of EAS by the reconstruction of the center and angle - of - incidence of the shower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two important observables that describe extensive air showers (EAS) are the center of particle distribution in the shower front (the center of gravity of the particle distribution) and the arrival direction (the zenithal and azimuthal angle of the shower axis). In view of the KASCADE - Grande experiment and based on CORSIKA simulations a program has been made to reconstruct the center of the EAS front and the arrival direction by using different algorithms. For each algorithm the efficiency for reconstruction has been investigated relative to the place in which the air shower hits the detector array. The reconstruction of the center of the shower front has been done by using an algorithm that calculates the center of gravity of particle intensity distribution measured in detectors. A good reconstruction efficiency has been achieved for showers hitting near the center of the array (uncertainty - 10 m). An increase in the reconstruction error is found when the shower front hits the array closer to the array border. The arrival direction reconstruction algorithms use as input data the arrival time of particle measured in detectors and approximate the shower front with a plane, a conic or a spherical disk. Efficiency of these algorithms has also been studied. As geometrical layout for the detector array, the KASCADE - Grande detector array (Karlsruhe, Germany) has been used. (authors)

  13. The effect of temperature and angle of incidence on photonic band gap in a dispersive Si-based one dimensional photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of temperature and angle of incidence on photonic band gaps (PBGs) in a dispersive Si-based one dimensional photonic crystal consisting of alternate layers of silicon and air has been investigated. More physically realistic situation is considered by taking the refractive index of silicon layers as a function of temperature and wavelength. The effect of temperature and angle of incidence on reflection spectra of proposed structure for TE polarization has also been studied. The PBG can be tuned by varying the temperature of the geometry or by changing the angle of incidence. The propagation characteristics of the proposed structure are analyzed using transfer matrix method

  14. Effect of laser incidence angle on cut quality of 4 mm thick stainless steel sheet using fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullick, Suvradip; Agrawal, Arpit Kumar; Nath, Ashish Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Fiber laser has potential to outperform the more traditionally used CO2 lasers in sheet metal cutting applications due to its higher efficiency, better beam quality, reliability and ease of beam delivery through optical fiber. It has been however, reported that the higher focusability and shorter wavelength are advantageous for cutting thin metal sheets up to about 2 mm only. Better focasability results in narrower kerf-width, which leads to an earlier flow separation in the flow of assist gas within the kerf, resulting in uncontrolled material removal and poor cut quality. However, the advarse effect of tight focusability can be taken care by shifting the focal point position towards the bottom surface of work-piece, which results in a wider kerf size. This results in a more stable flow within the kerf for a longer depth, which improves the cut quality. It has also been reported that fiber laser has an unfavourable angle of incidence during cutting of thick sections, resulting in poor absorption at the metal surface. Therefore, the effect of laser incidence angle, along with other process parameters, viz. cutting speed and assist gas pressure on the cut quality of 4 mm thick steel sheet has been investigated. The change in laser incidence angle has been incorporated by inclining the beam towards and away from the cut front, and the quality factors are taken as the ratio of kerf width and the striation depth. Besides the absorption of laser radiation, beam inclination is also expected to influence the gas flow characteristics inside the kerf, shear force phenomena on the molten pool, laser beam coupling and laser power distribution at the inclined cut surface. Design of experiment has been used by implementing response surface methodology (RSM) to study the parametric dependence of cut quality, as well as to find out the optimum cut quality. An improvement in quality has been observed for both the inclination due to the combined effect of multiple phenomena.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation for the influence of incident angles of energetic carbon atoms on the structure and properties of diamond-like carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of incident angles of energetic carbon atoms (0–60°) on the structure and properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was investigated by the molecular dynamics simulation using a Tersoff interatomic potential. The present simulation revealed that as the incident angles increased from 0 to 60°, the surface roughness of DLC films increased and the more porous structure was generated. Along the growth direction of DLC films, the whole system could be divided into four regions including substrate region, transition region, stable region and surface region except the case at the incident angle of 60°. When the incident angle was 45°, the residual stress was significantly reduced by 12% with little deterioration of mechanical behavior. The further structure analysis using both the bond angles and bond length distributions indicated that the compressive stress reduction mainly resulted from the relaxation of highly distorted C–C bond length. - Highlights: • The dependence of films properties on different incident angles was investigated. • The change of incident angles reduced the stress without obvious damage of density. • The stress reduction attributed to the relaxation of highly distorted bond length

  16. On relationship between surface effective mass and incident angle of oncoming particle in hyperthermal gas-surface scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of analyzing the interactive mechanisms between hyperthermal particles and a solid surface, a formal expression describing the dependency of surface effective mass upon the incident angle of the oncoming particle is presented. The formulation is deduced based on the interrelationships among the surface effective mass, the distance of impulse propagation and the non-conservative tangential momentum of the oncoming particle. Following the deduction, some reasoning is attempted toward the viewpoint adopted frequently by the exiting works where the mass is assumed to be constant

  17. Systemic antihypertensive medication and incident open-angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, Rogier P. H. M.; de Voogd, Simone; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the association between systemic anti hypertensive medication and incident open-angle glaucoma. Design: Prospective population-based cohort study. Participants: The study population consisted of a subset of 3842 participants of the Rotterdam Study for whom data from identical o

  18. Effects of spray axis incident angle on heat transfer performance of rhombus-pitch shell-and-tube interior spray evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An interior spray method is proposed for enhancing the heat transfer performance of a compact rhombus-pitch shell-and-tube spray evaporator. The experimental results show that the shell-side heat transfer coefficient obtained using the proposed spray method is significantly higher than that achieved in a conventional flooded-type evaporator. Four different spray axis incident angles (0 .deg., 45 .deg., 60 .deg. and 75 .deg.) are tested in order to investigate the effect of the spray inclination angle on the heat transfer performance of the spray evaporator system. It is shown that the optimal heat transfer performance is obtained using a spray axis incident angle of 60 .deg.

  19. A Grazing-Incidence Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering View of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lučić Lavčević

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering study of ZnO films with vertically aligned and randomly distributed nanowires, grown through a hydrothermal growth process on nanostructured ZnO seeding coatings and deposited by electron beam evaporation on silicon and glass, respectively. The comparison of the scattering patterns of seeding coatings and nanowires showed that the scattering of vertically aligned nanowires exhibited a specific feature: the dominant characteristic of their scattering patterns is the appearance of fine structure effects around the specular peak. These effects were clarified by the combined reflection and scattering phenomena, suggested for the aligned nanowires-substrate system. Furthermore, they enabled the calculation of the average gyration radius of nanowires in horizontal direction. The calculated value was in good agreement with the radii of nanowires estimated by surface electron microscopy. Therefore, the observed feature in the scattering pattern can serve as evidence of the aligned growth of nanowires.

  20. Grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering study of silver nanoparticles in ion-exchanged glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Weidong, E-mail: 57399942@qq.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Wu, Zhaojun [Department of Practice Teaching and Equipment Management, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Gu, Xiaohua [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Xing, Xueqing; Mo, Guang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Zhonghua, E-mail: wuzh@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-05-15

    The size and distribution of silver nanoparticles in ion-exchanged silicate glass induced by thermal treatments in air at different temperatures were investigated by means of grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering technique, X-ray diffraction and optical absorption spectra. Silver–sodium ion exchange of soda-lime silicate glasses was done at 350 °C for 240 min, then the samples were treated by thermal annealing in air at different temperatures 400, 500 and 550 °C, respectively, for 1 h. After the annealing treatment above 400 °C for 1 h, smaller Ag nanoparticles occurred, together with bigger ones. Both dissolution of smaller Ag nanoparticles and diffusion of larger ones are discussed in these stages of annealing in this contribution.

  1. Incidence Angle Effect of Energetic Carbon Ions on Deposition Rate, Topography, and Structure of Ultrathin Amorphous Carbon Films Deposited by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, N.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of the incidence angle of energetic carbon ions on the thickness, topography, and structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon (a-C) films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) was examined in the context of numerical and experimental results. The thickness of a-C films deposited at different incidence angles was investigated in the light of Monte Carlo simulations, and the calculated depth profiles were compared with those obtained from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The topography and structure of the a-C films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The film thickness decreased with the increase of the incidence angle, while the surface roughness increased and the content of tetrahedral carbon hybridization (sp 3) decreased significantly with the increase of the incidence angle above 45° , measured from the surface normal. TEM, AFM, and XPS results indicate that the smoothest and thinnest a-C films with the highest content of sp 3 carbon bonding were produced for an incidence angle of 45°. The findings of this study have direct implications in ultrahigh-density magnetic recording, where ultrathin and smooth a-C films with high sp 3 contents are of critical importance. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Validation of aerodynamic parameters at high angles of attack for RAE high incidence research models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A. Jean; Edwards, Geraldine F.; Klein, Vladislav; Batterson, James G.

    1987-01-01

    Two series of free-flight tests have been conducted for combat aircraft configuration research models in order to investigate flight behavior near departure conditions as well as to obtain response data from which aerodynamic characteristics can be derived. The structure of the mathematical model and values for the mathematical derivatives have been obtained through an analysis of the first series, using stepwise regression. The results thus obtained are the bases of the design of active control laws. Flight test results for a novel configuration are compared with predicted responses.

  3. Investigation of photon detection probability dependence of SPADnet-I digital photon counter as a function of angle of incidence, wavelength and polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Játékos, Balázs, E-mail: jatekosb@eik.bme.hu; Ujhelyi, Ferenc; Lőrincz, Emőke; Erdei, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    SPADnet-I is a prototype, fully digital, high spatial and temporal resolution silicon photon counter, based on standard CMOS imaging technology, developed by the SPADnet consortium. Being a novel device, the exact dependence of photon detection probability (PDP) of SPADnet-I was not known as a function of angle of incidence, wavelength and polarization of the incident light. Our targeted application area of this sensor is next generation PET detector modules, where they will be used along with LYSO:Ce scintillators. Hence, we performed an extended investigation of PDP in a wide range of angle of incidence (0° to 80°), concentrating onto a 60 nm broad wavelength interval around the characteristic emission peak (λ=420 nm) of the scintillator. In the case where the sensor was optically coupled to a scintillator, our experiments showed a notable dependence of PDP on angle, polarization and wavelength. The sensor has an average PDP of approximately 30% from 0° to 60° angle of incidence, where it starts to drop rapidly. The PDP turned out not to be polarization dependent below 30°. If the sensor is used without a scintillator (i.e. the light source is in air), the polarization dependence is much less expressed, it begins only from 50°.

  4. Investigation of photon detection probability dependence of SPADnet-I digital photon counter as a function of angle of incidence, wavelength and polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPADnet-I is a prototype, fully digital, high spatial and temporal resolution silicon photon counter, based on standard CMOS imaging technology, developed by the SPADnet consortium. Being a novel device, the exact dependence of photon detection probability (PDP) of SPADnet-I was not known as a function of angle of incidence, wavelength and polarization of the incident light. Our targeted application area of this sensor is next generation PET detector modules, where they will be used along with LYSO:Ce scintillators. Hence, we performed an extended investigation of PDP in a wide range of angle of incidence (0° to 80°), concentrating onto a 60 nm broad wavelength interval around the characteristic emission peak (λ=420 nm) of the scintillator. In the case where the sensor was optically coupled to a scintillator, our experiments showed a notable dependence of PDP on angle, polarization and wavelength. The sensor has an average PDP of approximately 30% from 0° to 60° angle of incidence, where it starts to drop rapidly. The PDP turned out not to be polarization dependent below 30°. If the sensor is used without a scintillator (i.e. the light source is in air), the polarization dependence is much less expressed, it begins only from 50°

  5. Potential Application of the Surface Reference Technique Over Land at Large Incidence Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, L.; Heymsfield, G. M.; Bidwell, S. W.

    1999-01-01

    Airborne meteorological radars typically operate at attenuating wavelengths. Correction for attenuation along the propagation path, therefore, is required to retrieve reflectivity factor for accurate estimation of the rainfall rate. The surface reference technique (SRT) to correct the observed reflectivity for the effects of attenuation has been developed for down-looking radars (Meneghini et al.,1983). The SRT algorithm uses the radar cross section of the ocean surface as a means of estimating the path integrated attenuation. In the SRT an initial value is determined for the radar cross section of a rain-free area in relatively close proximity to the rain cloud. During subsequent observations of precipitation any decrease in the observed surface cross section from the reference value is assumed to be a result of the two-way attenuation along the propagation path (PIA). The PIA for each beam is then used as a limiting condition in an attenuation correction algorithm (Iguchi and Meneghini, 1994).

  6. Incidence and risk factors of open-angle glaucoma : the Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. de Voogd (Simone); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2006-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Glaucoma is one of the poorest understood and defined eye diseases among those known since our era. Despite two millennia of writing about glaucoma, a straightforward and clear-cut definition is not available worldwide. In essence, glaucoma is an eye disease characteriz

  7. Large-angle production of charged pions with incident pion beams on nuclear targets

    OpenAIRE

    HARP Collaboration; Burguet Castell, Jordi; Cervera Villanueva, Anselmo; Gómez Cadenas, Juan José; Martín-Albo, Justo; Novella, Pau; Sorel, Michel; Apollonio, M.; Catanesi, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    We gratefully acknowledge the help and support of the PS beam staff and of the numerous technical collaborators who contributed to the detector design, construction, commissioning and operation. In particular, we would like to thank G. Barichello, R. Brocard, K. Burin, V. Carassiti, F. Chignoli, D. Conventi, G. Decreuse, M. Delattre, C. Detraz, A. Domeniconi, M. Dwuznik, F. Evangelisti, B. Friend, A. Iaciofano, I. Krasin, D. Lacroix, J.-C. Legrand, M. Lobello, M. Lollo, J. Loquet, F. Marinill...

  8. Vortex-induced vibration of a square-section cylinder with incidence angle variation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jisheng; Nemes, Andras; Lo Jacono, David; Sheridan, John

    2010-01-01

    Vortex-induced vibration (VIV) occurs when vortex shedding from a body results in fluctuating forces that, in turn, cause the body to vibrate. This can result in undesired large-amplitude vibrations leading to structural damage or catastrophic failure. While much has been done on the VIV of a circular cylinder less has been done on other canonical bluff bodies, such as rectangular cylinders. The present experimental work studied the VIV of a square cross-section cylinder in a water channel, w...

  9. Quantitative analysis of grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering: Pd/MgO(001) growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper focuses on the analysis of grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) of islands on a substrate. Getting accurate morphological parameters relevant for the elaboration process, i.e., growth curves, island equilibrium shape, and interfacial energy, implies a quantitative data analysis. The emphasis is put on the island form factor, i.e., the Fourier transform of the island shape. It is shown that the island shape and size can be obtained through the island symmetry, the presence of island facets, the asymptotic behavior at high momentum transfer for large polydispersity, and the zeros or minima of the intensity for small polydispersity. The specificity brought by the grazing incidence scattering geometry is highlighted by a careful comparison between the Born approximation and the more accurate distorted wave Born approximation. The interplay between the form factor and the interference function is all the more important in the total scattering intensity when incoherent diffuse scattering comes into play at small momentum transfer for disordered systems. Getting rid of these interpretation difficulties requires accurate measurements of the scattered intensity far in the reciprocal space. This analysis methodology is illustrated through recently acquired GISAXS patterns during the in situ molecular beam epitaxy of Pd nanoislands on MgO(001) single crystals for different thicknesses and temperatures. The morphological parameters obtained agree very well with subsequent transmission electron microscopy-results. Finally, GISAXS diffuse scattering has been shown, originating from the growth-coalescence process and from the size dependence of the island capture area

  10. A Grazing-Incidence Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering View of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nano wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering study of ZnO films with vertically aligned and randomly distributed nano wires, grown through a hydrothermal growth process on nano structured ZnO seeding coatings and deposited by electron beam evaporation on silicon and glass, respectively. The comparison of the scattering patterns of seeding coatings and nano wires showed that the scattering of vertically aligned nano wires exhibited a specific feature: the dominant characteristic of their scattering patterns is the appearance of fine structure effects around the specular peak. These effects were clarified by the combined reflection and scattering phenomena, suggested for the aligned nano wires-substrate system. Furthermore, they enabled the calculation of the average gyration radius of nano wires in horizontal direction. The calculated value was in good agreement with the radii of nano wires estimated by surface electron microscopy. Therefore, the observed feature in the scattering pattern can serve as evidence of the aligned growth of nano wires.

  11. Inner Stucture of Thin Films of Lamellar Poly(styrene-b-butadiene) Diblock Copolymers as revealed by Grazing-Incidence Small-Angle Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Peter; Posselt, Dorthe; Smilgies, Detlef-Matthias;

    2007-01-01

    The lamellar orientation in supported, thin films of poly(styrene-b-butadiene) (P(S-b-B)) depends on block copolymer molar mass. We have studied films from nine block copolymer samples with molar masses between 13.9 and 183 kg/mol using grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and ...

  12. Large incidence angle and defocus influence cat's eye retro-reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lai-xian; Sun, Hua-yan; Zhao, Yan-zhong; Yang, Ji-guang; Zheng, Yong-hui

    2014-11-01

    Cat's eye lens make the laser beam retro-reflected exactly to the opposite direction of the incidence beam, called cat's eye effect, which makes rapid acquiring, tracking and pointing of free space optical communication possible. Study the influence of cat's eye effect to cat's eye retro-reflector at large incidence angle is useful. This paper analyzed the process of how the incidence angle and focal shit affect effective receiving area, retro-reflected beam divergence angle, central deviation of cat's eye retro-reflector at large incidence angle and cat's eye effect factor using geometrical optics method, and presented the analytic expressions. Finally, numerical simulation was done to prove the correction of the study. The result shows that the efficiency receiving area of cat's eye retro-reflector is mainly affected by incidence angle when the focal shift is positive, and it decreases rapidly when the incidence angle increases; the retro-reflected beam divergence and central deviation is mainly affected by focal shift, and within the effective receiving area, the central deviation is smaller than beam divergence in most time, which means the incidence beam can be received and retro-reflected to the other terminal in most time. The cat's eye effect factor gain is affected by both incidence angle and focal shift.

  13. Optimal design and fabrication method for antireflection coatings for P-polarized 193 nm laser beam at large angles of incidence (68°-74°).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingcheng; Jin, Chunshui; Li, Chun; Deng, Wenyuan; Chang, Yanhe

    2013-09-01

    Most of the optical axes in modern systems are bent for optomechanical considerations. Antireflection (AR) coatings for polarized light at oblique incidence are widely used in optical surfaces like prisms or multiform lenses to suppress undesirable reflections. The optimal design and fabrication method for AR coatings with large-angle range (68°-74°) for a P-polarized 193 nm laser beam is discussed in detail. Experimental results showed that after coating, the reflection loss of a P-polarized laser beam at large angles of incidence on the optical surfaces is reduced dramatically, which could greatly improve the output efficiency of the optical components in the deep ultraviolet vacuum range. PMID:24323257

  14. Sound scattering from rough bubbly ocean surface based on modified sea surface acoustic simulator and consideration of various incident angles and sub-surface bubbles' radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolghasi, Alireza; Ghadimi, Parviz; Chekab, Mohammad A. Feizi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to improve the capabilities and precision of a recently introduced Sea Surface Acoustic Simulator (SSAS) developed based on optimization of the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff-Fresnel (HKF) method. The improved acoustic simulator, hereby known as the Modified SSAS (MSSAS), is capable of determining sound scattering from the sea surface and includes an extended Hall-Novarini model and optimized HKF method. The extended Hall-Novarini model is used for considering the effects of sub-surface bubbles over a wider range of radii of sub-surface bubbles compared to the previous SSAS version. Furthermore, MSSAS has the capability of making a three-dimensional simulation of scattered sound from the rough bubbly sea surface with less error than that of the Critical Sea Tests (CST) experiments. Also, it presents scattered pressure levels from the rough bubbly sea surface based on various incident angles of sound. Wind speed, frequency, incident angle, and pressure level of the sound source are considered as input data, and scattered pressure levels and scattering coefficients are provided. Finally, different parametric studies were conducted on wind speeds, frequencies, and incident angles to indicate that MSSAS is quite capable of simulating sound scattering from the rough bubbly sea surface, according to the scattering mechanisms determined by Ogden and Erskine. Therefore, it is concluded that MSSAS is valid for both scattering mechanisms and the transition region between them that are defined by Ogden and Erskine.

  15. Per-point and per-field contextual classification of multipolarization and multiple incidence angle aircraft L-band radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Roger M.; Hussin, Yousif Ali

    1989-01-01

    Multipolarized aircraft L-band radar data are classified using two different image classification algorithms: (1) a per-point classifier, and (2) a contextual, or per-field, classifier. Due to the distinct variations in radar backscatter as a function of incidence angle, the data are stratified into three incidence-angle groupings, and training and test data are defined for each stratum. A low-pass digital mean filter with varied window size (i.e., 3x3, 5x5, and 7x7 pixels) is applied to the data prior to the classification. A predominately forested area in northern Florida was the study site. The results obtained by using these image classifiers are then presented and discussed.

  16. Influence on ultrasonic incident angle and defect detection sensitivity by cast stainless steel structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that ultrasonic waves are affected strongly by macro-structures in cast stainless steel, as in the primary pipe or other components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). In this work, ultrasonic refractive angles and defect detection sensitivities are investigated at different incident angles to cast stainless steel. The aims of the investigation are to clarify the transmission of ultrasonic waves in cast stainless steel and to contribute to the transducer design. The results are that ultrasonic refractive angles in cast stainless steel shift towards the 45-degree direction with respect to the direction of dendritic structures by 11.8 degrees at the maximum and that the sensitivity of transducer for inner surface breaking cracks increases with decreasing incident angle. However, in an ultrasonic inspection of actual welds at smaller incident angles, a trade-off occurs between increased defect detection sensitivity and decreased defect discrimination capability due to intense false signals produced by non-defective features. (orig.)

  17. Derivation of effective penetration depth of femtosecond laser pulses in metal from ablation rate dependence on laser fluence, incidence angle, and polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablation rate dependence on laser fluence for copper subjected to oblique femtosecond laser irradiation has been determined experimentally in order to investigate processing induced by oblique irradiation. A difference of ablation rate between p-polarized and s-polarized oblique irradiation is clearly observed. Effective penetration depth is defined to explain the ablation rate dependence instead of using optical penetration depth, which is treated as a key value for determining the ablation rate in conventional theory. The effective penetration depth for copper is presented in simple formulas as a function of laser incidence angle for each polarization

  18. Characterization of a particle size distribution in a Ni-C granular thin film by grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) technique has been applied for characterizing a particle size distribution of nickel nano-particles in a nickel-carbon granular (Ni-C granular) film fabricated by a cosputtering method on a silicon substrate. The particles were modelled as a spherical shape in order to calculate scattering intensity, and a Γ-distribution was employed for determining the size distribution. In addition, a grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) was also measured in order to determine crystallite size of the particles. The crystallite size was analyzed by the Sherrer equation. The average particle size and the crystallite size are 5.7 and 5.2 nm respectively. These results suggest most of nickel particles are single crystal

  19. Characterization of the shape and line-edge roughness of polymer gratings with grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Hyo Seon; Chen, Xuanxuan; Rincon-Delgadillo, Paulina A.; Jiang, Zhang; Strzalka, Joseph; Wang, Jin; Chen, Wei; Gronheid, Roel; de Pablo, Juan J.; Ferrier, Nicola; Doxastakis, Manolis; Nealey, Paul F.

    2016-04-22

    Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) is increasingly used for the metrology of substrate-supported nanoscale features and nanostructured films. In the case of line gratings, where long objects are arranged with a nanoscale periodicity perpendicular to the beam, a series of characteristic spots of high-intensity (grating truncation rods, GTRs) are recorded on a two-dimensional detector. The intensity of the GTRs is modulated by the three-dimensional shape and arrangement of the lines. Previous studies aimed to extract an average cross-sectional profile of the gratings, attributing intensity loss at GTRs to sample imperfections. Such imperfections are just as important as the average shape when employing soft polymer gratings which display significant line-edge roughness. Herein are reported a series of GISAXS measurements of polymer line gratings over a range of incident angles. Both an average shape and fluctuations contributing to the intensity in between the GTRs are extracted. The results are critically compared with atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements, and it is found that the two methods are in good agreement if appropriate corrections for scattering from the substrate (GISAXS) and contributions from the probe shape (AFM) are accounted for.

  20. Calculation of the atomic scattering factors of fast electrons at zero angle of incidence of an electron beam and mean inner crystal potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic scattering factors of fast electrons at zero angle of incidence of an electron beam, fel(0), are calculated for neutral atoms with Z = 1−54, using the mean-square radii of electron-density distributions in atoms and ions, derived on the basis of the Hartree-Fock wave functions. The values of fel(0) have been calculated for the first time for some positive and negative ions. The obtained values of fel(0) were used to determine the mean inner potentials V0 of metallic, covalent, and ionic crystals. The calculated values of V0 are compared with the experimental data in the literature. The values of V0 calculated for III–V and II–VI compounds are reported.

  1. Making structured metals transparency for broadband and wide-incidence-angle electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Renhao; Peng, Ruwen; Huang, Xianrong; Wang, Mu

    2014-03-01

    Very recently, we have demonstrated that one-dimensional metallic gratings can become transparent and completely antireflective for extremely broadband electromagnetic (EM) waves under oblique incidence. However, the oblique-incidence geometry, is inconvenient for the technological applications. To overcome this drawback, here we instead use oblique metal gratings with optimal tilt angles to achieve normal-incidence broadband transparence for EM waves. Further we use two-dimensional periodic metallic cuboids to achieve broadband and broad-angle high transmission and antireflection. By introducing such metallic cuboids arrays into silicon solar cells, we find that high performance of light trapping in the cells can be obtained with a significant enhancement of the ultimate quantum efficiency. The structured metals, which achieve broadband and broad-angle high transmission for EM waves, may have many other potential applications, such as transparent conducting panels, white-beam polarizers, and stealth objects.

  2. A three-dimensional negative refractive index medium operated at multiple-angle incidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ting-Tzuo; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2010-08-01

    We present a negative refractive index medium (NRIM) operating at multiple-angle incidences by expanding a conventional planar metamaterial to a three-dimensional (3D) structure. The proposed 3D NRIM is comprised of semi-spherical metal shells and planar plamonic wires, thus giving rise to negative magnetic permeability and negative electric permittivity, respectively. Our results show that reflectance (transmittance) peaks slightly which locate the region of negative refraction index are insensitive to the incident angles from 0° to 45° and the polarization of the excitation wave at a certain range of frequencies. Such pseudo-isotropic NRIM may be exploited for superlens and antenna applications.

  3. Low energy positron diffraction from Cu(111): Importance of surface loss processes at large angles of incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensities of positrons specularly diffracted from Cu(111) were measured at the Brandeis positron beam facility and analyzed in the energy range 8eVi = 4eV. At lower energies strong energy dependences occur associated both with multiple elastic scattering phenomena within atomic layers of Cu parallel to the surface and with the thresholds of inelastic channels (e.g., plasmon creation). Use of the free electron calculation of Vi shows that energy dependence of inelastic processes is necessary to obtain a satisfactory description of the absolute magnitude of the diffracted intensities below E = 50eV. Detailed comparison of the calculated and observed diffraction intensities reveals the necessity of incorporating surface loss processes explicitly into the model in order to achieve a quantitative description of the measured intensities for E40 degree. 30 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. Generalized fragility curves for bearing-supported skew bridges, for arbitrary angle of incidence of the seismic action

    OpenAIRE

    Moschonas, I. F.; Kappos, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous work by the authors and their co-workers an analytical methodology for the derivation of seismic fragility curves for bridges was proposed. Bridges were classified into three main categories according to their seismic energy dissipation mechanism: bridges with yielding piers of the column type, bridges with bearings and non-yielding piers of the wall type, and bridges with bearings and yielding piers of the column type. Then, damage states were defined using deck displacement at...

  5. A method for the possible species discrimination of juvenile gadoids by broad-bandwidth backscattering spectra vs. angle of incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Bo; Nielsen, J. Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    Measurements were made of the broad-bandwidth (80-220 kHz) acoustic backscattering from free-swimming juvenile gadoids at various orientations and positions in an acoustic beam, under controlled conditions. The experimental apparatus consisted of a stereo-video camera system, a broad-bandwidth ec......Measurements were made of the broad-bandwidth (80-220 kHz) acoustic backscattering from free-swimming juvenile gadoids at various orientations and positions in an acoustic beam, under controlled conditions. The experimental apparatus consisted of a stereo-video camera system, a broad......-bandwidth echosounder and echo-processor system, a narrowband 120 kHz split-beam echosounder, a large tank, and a fishnet cage. The net cage was centred on the acoustic beams and was virtually transparent, both acoustically and optically. Accurate three-dimensional positions and angular orientations of individual fish......, alignment of acoustic and optical-reference frames, and automatic position-fitting of fish models to manually marked fix-points on fish images. The software also performs Fourier spectrum analysis and pulse-shape analysis of broad-bandwidth echoes. Therefore, several measurement series on free...

  6. Doppler shift generated by diffraction gratings under time-dependent incidence angle near a Wood anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Dossou, Kokou B

    2015-01-01

    Diffraction gratings are famous for their ability to exhibit, near a Wood anomaly, an arbitrarily large angular dispersion, e.g., with respect to the incidence angle or wavelength. For a diffraction grating under incidence by a plane wave at a fixed frequency, by rotating the incidence angle at a given angular velocity, the field propagated by a nonzero diffraction order will rotate at increasingly fast angular velocity as the incidence angle approaches the angle where Wood anomaly occurs. Such a fast rotating diffracted field has the potential to generate a substantial Doppler shift. Indeed, under the assumption of a grating with infinite extent, the expression for the instantaneous frequency shift perceived by an observer, who is looking into the light radiated by the diffraction order, is derived and it is in full agreement with the prediction from an interpretation based on the Doppler shift generated by a rotation of light sources. In particular the classical (non-relativistic) Doppler shift can take arb...

  7. Directional loudness perception:the effect of sound incidence angle on loudness and the underlying binaural summation

    OpenAIRE

    Sivonen, Ville Pekka

    2006-01-01

    Loudness, the perceived intensity of sound, is a fundamental attribute in psychoacoustics. An immense body of literature on loudness has been accumulated, and based on the reported findings, models for predicting loudness from monophonic, acoustical measurements of sound pressure have been developed. The research and modeling of loudness have mainly been concerned with the temporal and spectral aspects of sounds, while the spatial aspects have mostly been overlooked.This PhD thesis investigat...

  8. Convective assembly of 2D lattices of virus-like particles visualized by in-situ grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Carlee E; Dunphy, Darren R; Jiang, Zhang; Carnes, Eric C; Yuan, Zhen; Petsev, Dimiter N; Atanassov, Plamen B; Velev, Orlin D; Sprung, Michael; Wang, Jin; Peabody, David S; Brinker, C Jeffrey

    2011-04-18

    The rapid assembly of icosohedral virus-like particles (VLPs) into highly ordered (domain size > 600 nm), oriented 2D superlattices directly onto a solid substrate using convective coating is demonstrated. In-situ grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) is used to follow the self-assembly process in real time to characterize the mechanism of superlattice formation, with the ultimate goal of tailoring film deposition conditions to optimize long-range order. From water, GISAXS data are consistent with a transport-limited assembly process where convective flow directs assembly of VLPs into a lattice oriented with respect to the water drying line. Addition of a nonvolatile solvent (glycerol) modified this assembly pathway, resulting in non-oriented superlattices with improved long-range order. Modification of electrostatic conditions (solution ionic strength, substrate charge) also alters assembly behavior; however, a comparison of in-situ assembly data between VLPs derived from the bacteriophages MS2 and Qβ show that this assembly process is not fully described by a simple Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek model alone. PMID:21425464

  9. Reciprocal space XRD mapping with varied incident angle as a probe of structure variation within surface depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qiguang [Norfolk State University; Williams, Frances [Norfolk State University; Zhao, Xin [JLAB; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Krishnan, Mahadevan [AASC, San Leandro, California

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we used a differential-depth X-Ray diffraction Reciprocal Spacing Mapping (XRD RSM) technique to investigate the crystal quality of a variety of SRF-relevant Nb film and bulk materials. By choosing different X-ray probing depths, the RSM study successfully revealed evolution the of materials’ microstructure after different materials processes, such as energetic condensation or surface polishing. The RSM data clearly measured the materials’ crystal quality at different thickness. Through a novel differential-depth RSM technique, this study found: I. for a heteroepitaxy Nb film Nb(100)/MgO(100), the film thickening process, via a cathodic arc-discharge Nb ion deposition, created a near-perfect single crystal Nb on the surface’s top-layer; II. for a mechanically polished single-crystal bulk Nb material, the microstructure on the top surface layer is more disordered than that in-grain.

  10. Characterizing the dependence of vegetation model parameters on crop structure, incidence angle, and polarization at L-band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigneron, J-P.; Pardé, M.; Waldteufel, P.;

    2004-01-01

    To retrieve soil moisture over vegetation-covered areas from microwave radiometry, it is necessary to account for vegetation effects. At L-band, many retrieval approaches are based on a simple model that relies on two vegetation parameters: the optical depth (tau) and the single-scattering albedo......, wheat, grass, and alfalfa) based on L-band experimental datasets. The results should be useful for developing more accurate forward modeling and retrieval methods over mixed pixels including a variety of vegetation types....

  11. Distribution of melt along the East Pacific Rise from 9°30' to 10°N from an amplitude variation with angle of incidence (AVA) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, Milena; Carton, Hélène; Carbotte, Suzanne M.; Nedimović, Mladen R.; Mutter, John C.; Canales, J. Pablo

    2015-10-01

    We examine along-axis variations in melt content of the axial magma lens (AML) beneath the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) using an amplitude variation with angle of incidence (AVA) crossplotting method applied to multichannel seismic data acquired in 2008. The AVA crossplotting method, which has been developed for and, so far, applied for hydrocarbon prospection in sediments, is for the first time applied to a hardrock environment. We focus our analysis on 2-D data collected along the EPR axis from 9°29.8'N to 9°58.4'N, a region which encompasses the sites of two well-documented submarine volcanic eruptions (1991-1992 and 2005-2006). AVA crossplotting is performed for a ˜53 km length of the EPR spanning nine individual AML segments (ranging in length from ˜3.2 to 8.5 km) previously identified from the geometry of the AML and disruptions in continuity. Our detailed analyses conducted at 62.5 m interval show that within most of the analysed segments melt content varies at spatial scales much smaller (a few hundred of metres) than the length of the fine-scale AML segments, suggesting high heterogeneity in melt concentration. At the time of our survey, about 2 yr after the eruption, our results indicate that the three AML segments that directly underlie the 2005-2006 lava flow are on average mostly molten. However, detailed analysis at finer-scale intervals for these three segments reveals AML pockets (from >62.5 to 812.5 m long) with a low melt fraction. The longest such mushy section is centred beneath the main eruption site at ˜9°50.4'N, possibly reflecting a region of primary melt drainage during the 2005-2006 event. The complex geometry of fluid flow pathways within the crust above the AML and the different response times of fluid flow and venting to eruption and magma reservoir replenishment may contribute to the poor spatial correlation between incidence of hydrothermal vents and presence of highly molten AML. The presented results are an important

  12. New reactor dedicated to in operando studies of model catalysts by means of surface x-ray diffraction and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new experimental setup has been developed to enable in situ studies of catalyst surfaces during chemical reactions by means of surface x-ray diffraction (SXRD) and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering. The x-ray reactor chamber was designed for both ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) and reactive gas environments. A laser beam heating of the sample was implemented; the sample temperature reaches 1100 K in UHV and 600 K in the presence of reactive gases. The reactor equipment allows dynamical observations of the surface with various, perfectly mixed gases at controlled partial pressures. It can run in two modes: as a bath reactor in the pressure range of 1-1000 mbars and as a continuous flow cell for pressure lower than 10-3 mbar. The reactor is connected to an UHV preparation chamber also equipped with low energy electron diffraction and Auger spectroscopy. This setup is thus perfectly well suited to extend in situ studies to more complex surfaces, such as epitaxial films or supported nanoparticles. It offers the possibility to follow the chemically induced changes of the morphology, the structure, the composition, and growth processes of the model catalyst surface during exposure to reactive gases. As an example the Pd8Ni92(110) surface structure was followed by SXRD under a few millibars of hydrogen and during butadiene hydrogenation while the reaction was monitored by quadrupole mass spectrometry. This experiment evidenced the great sensitivity of the diffracted intensity to the subtle interaction between the surface atoms and the gas molecules

  13. The Diffraction Pattern Calculator (DPC) toolkit: a user-friendly approach to unit-cell lattice parameter identification of two-dimensional grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering data

    OpenAIRE

    Hailey, Anna K.; Hiszpanski, Anna M.; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2014-01-01

    The computer program DPC toolkit is a simple and user-friendly tool that identifies the unit-cell lattice parameters of a crystal structure that are consistent with a given set of two-dimensional grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering data.

  14. Incidence angle and spectral effects on vertical junction silicon solar cell capacitance

    OpenAIRE

    SANE, MOUSTAPHA; ŞAHİN, Gökhan; BARRO, Fabé Idrissa; MAIGA, Amadou Seidou

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present a theoretical study of a vertical junction silicon solar cell under monochromatic illumination. By solving the continuity equation and using a one-dimensional model in frequency modulation, we derive the analytical expressions of both excess minority carrier density and photovoltage. Based on these expressions, the solar cell capacitance was calculated; we then exhibited the effects of both illumination wavelength and incidence angle on the solar cell capaci...

  15. INVESTIGATION ON SILICON SOLAR CELL CAPACITANCE AND ITS DEPENDENCE ON BOTH TEMPERATURE AND INCIDENCE ANGLE

    OpenAIRE

    Moustapha Sané

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate a theoretical study of a vertical junction silicon solar cell capacitance under monochromatic illumination. By solving the continuity equation and using a one dimensional model in frequency modulation, we derive the analytical expressions of both excess minority carrier density and photovoltage. Based on these expressions, the solar cell capacitance was calculated; we then exhibited the effects of both temperature and incidence angle on the solar cell ca...

  16. Perception of perspective angles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    We perceive perspective angles, that is, angles that have an orientation in depth, differently from what they are in physical space. Extreme examples are angles between rails of a railway line or between lane dividers of a long and straight road. In this study, subjects judged perspective angles bet

  17. Influence of the incidence angle on the morphology of enamel and dentin under Er:YAG laser irradiation; Estudo da influencia da angulacao do feixe laser na morfologia de esmalte e dentina irradiados com laser de Er:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira Junior, Duilio Naves

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to make an in vitro evaluation, using scanning electron microscopy, of the influence of the laser beam irradiation angle on the enamel and dentin morphology. These tissues were both irradiated by Er:YAG Laser, with the same energy parameter. Twenty-four incisive bovine teeth were used, separated in eight groups, four of enamel, and four of dentin, with three specimens in each group. Each specimen was submitted to three laser applications, varying the incidence angle, between the laser and the tooth surface, at 90, 50 and 20 degrees. The applied frequency was 2 Hz, with 20 pulses in each application. The KaVo Key Laser 3 was employed, wavelength at 2940 nm, adjustable energy from 40 to 600 mJ and repetition rate from 1 to 25 Hz. The groups were distributed according to the energy parameter as follows - enamel: 250 mJ; 300 mJ; 350 mJ and 400 mJ; dentin: 200 mJ; 250 mJ; 300 mJ and 350 mJ. The results evidenced the Laser incidence angle importance; it is an essential parameter in the protocol of utilization and it should not be disregarded. The observations of this study allow to conclude that the Laser incidence angle has direct influence on the morphological aspect of the alterations produced in enamel and dentin. (author)

  18. Sensitivity and performance estimates for the multiple-wavelength multiple-incidence angle ellipsometry for OCD applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelyanskii, Michael; Jiang, Gary

    2008-03-01

    Optical metrology techniques are essential for process control of the gate formation process steps from lithography to the dielectric, spacers, gate and straining layer deposition in the sub-65nm technology nodes. Traditionally, optical metrology is based on the measurements of periodic lines or hole arrays using a spectroscopic ellipsometer or reflectometer, collecting data across a wavelength range at a single angle of incidence. In this paper, we discuss measurements using Focused Beam Ellipsometry (FBE), illuminating at discrete laser wavelengths while data is collected over a wide angle of incidence range. We verify precision estimates of the different model parameters with actual values obtained from measured data. We show sensitivity ranges for different applications over the space of measured wavelength spectrum from DUV to IR, angle of incidence range, and sample azimuthal orientations. Major factors contributing to the projected recipe performance - wavelength, orientation of the incident beam are discussed.

  19. The 3-D collagen structure of equine articular cartilage, characterized using variable-angle-of-incidence polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Gangnus, Sergei V.; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2005-08-01

    Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography has been used to spatially map the birefringence of equine articular cartilage. Images obtained in the vicinity of visible osteoarthritic lesions display a characteristic disruption of the regular birefringence bands shown by normal cartilage. We also note that significant (e.g. ×2) variations in the apparent birefringence of samples taken from young (18 month) animals that otherwise appear visually homogeneous are found over spatial scales of a few millimeters. We suggest that whilst some of this variation may be due to changes in the intrinsic birefringence of the tissue, the 3-D orientation of the collagen fibers relative to the plane of the joint surface should also be taken into account. We propose a method based on multiple angles of illumination to determine the polar angle of the collagen fibers.

  20. Variable angle-of-incidence polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography: its use to study the 3D collagen structure of equine articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Gangnus, Sergei V.; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2006-02-01

    Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography has been used to spatially map the birefringence of equine articular cartilage. The polar orientation of the collagen fibers relative to the plane of the joint surface must be taken into account if a quantitative measurement of true birefringence is required. Using a series of images taken at different angles of illumination, we determine the fiber polar angle and true birefringence at one site on a sample of equine cartilage, on the assumption that the fibers lie within the plane of imaging. We propose a more general method based on the extended Jones matrix formalism to determine both the polar and azimuthal orientation of the collagen fibers as well as the true birefringence as functions of depth.

  1. Incidence-angle dependent Cs incorporation in Si during low-energy bombardment: A dynamic computer simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implantation of Cs atoms in silicon was investigated by dynamic computer simulations using the Monte-Carlo code T-DYN that takes into account the gradual change of the target composition due to the Cs irradiation. The incorporation of Cs atoms was studied for incidence angles ranging from 0 deg. to 85 deg. and for four impact energies (0.2, 0.5, 1 and 3 keV). The total implantation fluences were (1-2) x 1017 Cs/cm2, well above the values required to reach a stationary state. The steady-state Cs surface concentrations exhibit a pronounced dependence on impact angle and energy. At normal incidence, they vary between ∼0.57 (at 0.2 keV) and ∼0.18 (3 keV), but decrease with increasing incidence angle. Under equilibrium, the partial sputtering yield of Si exhibits the typical dependence on incidence angle, first increasing up to a maximum value (at ∼70 deg. - 75 deg.) and declining sharply for larger angles. For all irradiation conditions a strongly preferential sputtering of Cs as compared to Si atoms is found, increasing with decreasing irradiation energy (from 4.6 at 3 keV to 7.2 at 0.2 keV) and for nearer-normal incidence.

  2. Incidence-angle dependent Cs incorporation in Si during low-energy bombardment: A dynamic computer simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnaser, Hubert [Department of Physics, University of Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)], E-mail: gnaser@rhrk.uni-kl.de

    2009-08-15

    The implantation of Cs atoms in silicon was investigated by dynamic computer simulations using the Monte-Carlo code T-DYN that takes into account the gradual change of the target composition due to the Cs irradiation. The incorporation of Cs atoms was studied for incidence angles ranging from 0 deg. to 85 deg. and for four impact energies (0.2, 0.5, 1 and 3 keV). The total implantation fluences were (1-2) x 10{sup 17} Cs/cm{sup 2}, well above the values required to reach a stationary state. The steady-state Cs surface concentrations exhibit a pronounced dependence on impact angle and energy. At normal incidence, they vary between {approx}0.57 (at 0.2 keV) and {approx}0.18 (3 keV), but decrease with increasing incidence angle. Under equilibrium, the partial sputtering yield of Si exhibits the typical dependence on incidence angle, first increasing up to a maximum value (at {approx}70 deg. - 75 deg.) and declining sharply for larger angles. For all irradiation conditions a strongly preferential sputtering of Cs as compared to Si atoms is found, increasing with decreasing irradiation energy (from 4.6 at 3 keV to 7.2 at 0.2 keV) and for nearer-normal incidence.

  3. Three kinds of high-energy Pb ion tracks on the LiF crystal surface at grazing angles of incidence

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobyova, I V

    2002-01-01

    Tracks induced on a surface of a LiF crystal by Pb ions with energy of 4.46 MeV/u were studied by the method of shadow replica electron microscopy. The irradiation was carried out at angles of 0.5 deg. and 2 deg. relative to the surface plane of the crystal. Lengths and widths of three kinds of tracks were compared: (1) surface tracks which are formed on a pure crystal surface; (2) island tracks which are formed in an island film of gold (with island radius and separation of <=5 nm) deposited on the crystal surface prior to irradiation and (3) island tracks which are formed in the same island film pressed against the crystal surface by the carbon layer. It was established: (1) At angle of irradiation of 0.5 deg. , the surface track formation is initiated at a point where the ion has not yet crossed the crystal surface, but rather moves above the surface plane at a distance of <=1 nm. (2) When the island track is formed in the free island film, the islands completely removed from the track zone. (3) When...

  4. A metho d of measuring the incidence angle of intense electron b eam%强流电子束入射角二维分布测量方法∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡杨; 杨海亮; 孙剑锋; 孙江; 张鹏飞

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a great many of effect data obtained from the high current pulsed electron beam play an impor-tant role in the studying of X-ray thermal-mechanical effects. Energy deposition profile is the criterion to measure the equivalence of thermal-mechanical effects between high-current electron beam and X-rays. To adjust the energy deposi-tion profiles to improve the equivalence of the simulations of X-ray and thermal-mechanical effect, the intense electron beam energy deposition profile measurement should be studied. Two-dimensional distribution measurement which is an important part of the energy deposition profile is to obtain a two-dimension (r, θ) incidence angle distribution. A new method of measuring the incidence angle based on small Faraday cup array covered with aluminum films, called modified multi-layer stacking, is presented in this paper. With the help of the filtered Faraday cups, the transmission fraction of the electron beam confined at a specific position and time is stored. Two-dimension incidence angle distribution on the anode target that changes over the working time is obtained with these transmission fractions by computer calculation. The result indicates that the two-dimension incidence angle distribution has a close relationship with the pinch of the beam. The electrons tend to move vertically to the equipotential line when the diode is under Child-Langmuir flow, then they hit the target in a small angle range (<40◦). When the beam starts to pinch, as a consequence of the E × B drift, the trajectory of the electrons becomes a slanted helix with pitch changing. The incidence angle then increases to about 60◦ from small angle.%电子束与靶物质相互作用时的入射角测量是强流电子束热-力学效应研究中的难点问题。提出了一种新的基于覆盖不同厚度衰减片微型法拉第筒阵列的电子束入射角测量方法,与现有方法相比,可获得具有时域特性和位置分布的强流电

  5. 强流电子束入射角二维分布测量方法∗%A metho d of measuring the incidence angle of intense electron b eam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡杨; 杨海亮; 孙剑锋; 孙江; 张鹏飞

    2015-01-01

    电子束与靶物质相互作用时的入射角测量是强流电子束热-力学效应研究中的难点问题。提出了一种新的基于覆盖不同厚度衰减片微型法拉第筒阵列的电子束入射角测量方法,与现有方法相比,可获得具有时域特性和位置分布的强流电子束入射角分布。以此方法进行了入射角二维分布(r,θ)测量实验,结果表明,电子束入射角二维分布与束流箍缩情况紧密相关。如果箍缩不明显,则电子主要在自身做回旋运动的同时沿着电力线运动,多以垂直或者小角度(40◦以下)轰击到阳极靶面;如果箍缩明显,受E × B漂移影响,电子束入射角度会明显变大,从40◦以下增至60◦左右。%In recent years, a great many of effect data obtained from the high current pulsed electron beam play an impor-tant role in the studying of X-ray thermal-mechanical effects. Energy deposition profile is the criterion to measure the equivalence of thermal-mechanical effects between high-current electron beam and X-rays. To adjust the energy deposi-tion profiles to improve the equivalence of the simulations of X-ray and thermal-mechanical effect, the intense electron beam energy deposition profile measurement should be studied. Two-dimensional distribution measurement which is an important part of the energy deposition profile is to obtain a two-dimension (r, θ) incidence angle distribution. A new method of measuring the incidence angle based on small Faraday cup array covered with aluminum films, called modified multi-layer stacking, is presented in this paper. With the help of the filtered Faraday cups, the transmission fraction of the electron beam confined at a specific position and time is stored. Two-dimension incidence angle distribution on the anode target that changes over the working time is obtained with these transmission fractions by computer calculation. The result indicates that the two-dimension incidence angle distribution has

  6. Influence of incident angle of swirler on performance of swirl meter%起旋器入射角度对旋进旋涡流量计性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔宝玲; 吕子强; 陈德胜; 陈坤; 黄敦回

    2015-01-01

    In order to optimize and expand the measure range of the swirl meter with 150 mm diameter, the incident angle of swirler is investigated to improve the performance of swirl meter. The internal flow fields of the swirl meter with different swirler incident angles are numerically simulated using RNG k-ε turbulence model based on CFD (computational fluid dynamics) technique. The pressure loss, instrument coefficient and the distribution of flow field are comparatively analyzed for the swirl meters. First, under the flow rates of 120, 300, 750, 1 200 and 2 100 m3/h, the numerical simulations and experiments are carried out to study the pressure loss characteristics and instrument coefficient of the swirl meter with 150 mm diameter when the incident angle of swirler is 57.5°. The commercial software Gambit is used to obtain the numerical mesh, and the structured and unstructured grids are used for different regions which take both calculation speed and accuracy into consideration. In the process of calculation, FLUENT software is used for the numerical simulation, and the RNGk-ε turbulence model is adopted considering its better prediction ability in complex unsteady flow condition; besides, the inlet boundary condition is set as velocity inlet, and the outlet boundary condition is set as outflow, which assumes the flow is fully developed. The medium of simulation is air and the density is 1.225 kg/m3; moreover, for the maximum velocity of air in this study is about 33 m/h (when flow rate is 2 100 m3/h) which is much less than Mach 0.3, therefore, the air is considered as incompressible fluid during the simulation. The experiment research is completed by sonic nozzle calibration device under a standard atmospheric pressure and the temperature of 24℃. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental ones, and therefore, the numerical method adopted in this paper is proved to be feasible for the research of swirl meter and can save lots of time in

  7. An Approximate Analytical Propagation Formula for Gaussian Beams through a Cat-Eye Optical Lens under Large Incidence Angle Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan-Zhong; SUN Hua-Yan; ZHENG Yong-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Based on the generalized diffraction integral formula and the idea that the angle misalignment of the cat-eye optical lens can be transformed into the displacement misalignment,an approximate analytical propagation formula for Gaussian beams through a cat-eye optical lens under large incidence angle condition is derived.Numerical results show that the diffraction effect of the apertures of the cat-eye optical lens becomes stronger along with the increase in incidence angle. The results are also compared with those from using an angular spectrum diffraction integral and experiment to illustrate the applicability and validity of our theoretical formula.It is shown that the approximate extent is good enough for the application of a cat-eye optical lens with a radius of 20 mm and a propagation distance of 100m,and the approximate extent becomes better along with the increase in the radius of the cat-eye optical lens and the propagation distance.

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF TILT ANGLE FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumar; N.S.Thakur,; Rahul Makade,; Maneesh Kumar Shivhar

    2011-01-01

    The performance of a solar radiation conversion system is affected by its tilt angle with the horizontal plane, thus photovoltaic array need to be tilted at the correct angle to maximize the performance of the System, This paper deals with the determination of optimum tilt angle for solar PV array in order to maximize incident solar irradiance. The model starts by calculating the monthly averaged daily solar irradiation components (direct, diffuse, ground- eflected) absorbed by the solar PV a...

  9. Fused-silica sandwiched three-port grating under second Bragg angle incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongtao; Wang, Bo; Pei, Hao; Chen, Li; Lei, Liang; Zhou, Jinyun

    2016-05-01

    The fused-silica sandwiched three-port grating under second Bragg angle incidence is presented with operation in transmission. To obtain a highly-efficient three-port grating for a working wavelength of 800 nm, the grating depth and period should be optimized by using rigorous coupled-wave analysis. With the optimized different three-port grating depths and periods, both TE-polarized and TM-polarized waves can be diffracted into three orders with nearly 33% efficiency for the given duty cycle of 0.6. Based on the grating parameters of numerical optimization, modal method may be employed to explain the physical mechanism of the beam propagation in the grating and analyze the splitting behavior. For the sandwiched three-port grating, it is feasible that the diffraction efficiencies can be enhanced for both TE and TM polarizations.

  10. Incident-angle dependent color tuning from a single plasmonic chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a broad color tuning effect covering the visible range from a single plasmonic chip. By simply tilting the orientation of the designed plasmonic chip within a certain range, the photon–plasmon coupling interactions between the incident light and the plasmonic nanostructures on the chip can be finely tuned, resulting in an angle-dependent continuous color filtering effect. The physical mechanism of the device is investigated through the full-wave calculations, which provide important guidance for the design and optimization of the proposed devices. The broad color tuning from the demonstrated single chip will potentially benefit visualization and display technologies, and is particularly useful for the construction of reflection-based spatial light modulators. (paper)

  11. 6 MV x-ray dose in the build up region: empirical model and the incident angle effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and fast empirical model has been developed which accurately predicts central axis surface and build up dose for a 6MV radiotherapy x-ray beam. The model is based on fits to experimental data and accounts for open fields, block trays and wedges at normal incidence and at angle. The model separates the beam into components produced by primary photon interactions which have only interacted in the phantom at normal and oblique incidence and head scattered photons/ electrons generated in the treatment head. The model quantifies these components for open unwedged fields and then the effect on each component by introducing beam modifying devices / accessories or changing the angle of incidence is determined. Dose results at oblique incidence for Monte Carlo (electron contamination free) and experimental (electron contamination present) are sufficiently close to imply that the increase in build up dose with beam angle is mainly due to changes in photon interactions within the phantom and only a slight increase with angle is due to changes in the electron contamination. Electron contamination/ head scatter component was found to be measurable by three methods. These being TLD extrapolation in air, ionisation chamber measurements in air and Monte Carlo pure photon methods. These methods produced comparable electron contamination/head scatter dose results at all field sizes. 19 refs., 10 figs

  12. Empirical sea ice thickness retrieval during the freeze-up period from SMOS high incident angle observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huntemann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice thickness information is important for sea ice modelling and ship operations. Here a method to detect the thickness of sea ice up to 50 cm during the freeze-up season based on high incidence angle observations of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS satellite working at 1.4 GHz is suggested. By comparison of thermodynamic ice growth data with SMOS brightness temperatures, a high correlation to intensity and an anticorrelation to the difference between vertically and horizontally polarised brightness temperatures at incidence angles between 40 and 50° are found and used to develop an empirical retrieval algorithm sensitive to thin sea ice up to 50 cm thickness. The algorithm shows high correlation with ice thickness data from airborne measurements and reasonable ice thickness patterns for the Arctic freeze-up period.

  13. Monthly Surface Water Mapping Using Multiple Incidence Angles and Multiple Temporal Envisat ASAR Global Monitoring Mode Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianwei; Huang, Shifeng; Li, Jiren; Li, Xiaotao; Song, Xiaoning; Leng, Pei

    2014-11-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a useful and efficient technology for monitoring the water extent. However, the return signal of SAR is most likely affected by the wind, vegetation, and dry sand distributed around the water, which will reduce the separability of water and land using SAR. In order to overcome the mentioned problems, two method with the ratio of the standard deviations of backscatter (σº) and local incidence angle (α) over the window sample (SDR, SDR=sd(σº)/sd(α)) and, the slope of a linear model fitting backscatter against local incidence angle (S, σº=Sxa+b), are primarily calculated using multiple incident angles and multiple temporal ENVISAT ASAR Global Monitoring Mode data, and are subsequently to obtain monthly water extent through the year 2011. Compared with MODIS derived reference maps, Slope S provides evident advantage to segregate land from water with an average pixel accuracy of 57.1%, while SDR merely has an average pixel accuracy of 38.35%.

  14. Incidência de glaucoma agudo primário no Serviço de Glaucoma do Hospital São Geraldo Incidence of primary angle-closure glaucoma in the Glaucoma Service of the São Geraldo Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vidal Mérula

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a incidência do glaucoma agudo primário no Serviço de Glaucoma do Hospital São Geraldo; estabelecer o perfil destes pacientes e identificar possíveis fatores de risco. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal. Período de análise: setembro/2005 a agosto/2006. Inclusão: diagnóstico de glaucoma agudo primário. Exclusão: presença de catarata que acarrete baixa acuidade visual ou miopização, glaucomas secundários, íris em platô. Foram avaliados: número de atendimentos, incidência de glaucoma agudo primário, idade, sexo, raça, história familiar de glaucoma, ceratometria, e dados biométricos. RESULTADOS: Dentre 879 pacientes atendidos, 20 (2,3% tiveram o diagnóstico de glaucoma agudo primário, desse modo, a incidência de glaucoma agudo primário foi de 22,7 por 1000 atendimentos. Dos pacientes com glaucoma agudo primário: 6 (30,0% eram do sexo masculino e 14 (70,0% feminino; a idade variou de 40 a 73 anos (média: 60,4 ± 8,1 anos; 12 (60,0% eram leucodérmicos e 8 (40,0% feodérmicos; 5 (25,0% com história familiar positiva para glaucoma. O risco relativo para o sexo feminino foi de 1,44 (IC 95%. Onze (55,0% pacientes tiveram glaucoma agudo primário no olho direito e 9 (45,0% no esquerdo. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na comparação dos parâmetros biométricos e ceratometria entre os olhos afetados e os contralaterais. CONCLUSÕES: A incidência de glaucoma agudo primário no Serviço de Glaucoma do Hospital São Geraldo foi de 22,7 por 1000 atendimentos, sendo mais freqüente em mulheres, leucodérmicas, com história familiar negativa para glaucoma e média de idade de 60,4 anos. Os olhos afetados e olhos contralaterais foram semelhantes nos parâmetros biométricos.PURPOSE: To determine the incidence of the primary angle-closure glaucoma at the Glaucoma Service of São Geraldo Hospital, to establish the profile of these patients and to identify the possible risk factors. METHODS

  15. Cholesterol-lowering drugs and incident open-angle glaucoma: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W Marcus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Open-angle glaucoma (OAG is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that may lead to blindness. An elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is its major risk factor. OAG treatment is currently exclusively directed towards the lowering of the IOP. IOP lowering does not prevent disease progression in all patients and thus other treatment modalities are needed. Earlier studies reported cholesterol-lowering drugs to have neuroprotective properties. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between the use of cholesterol-lowering drugs and incident OAG. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants in a prospective population-based cohort study underwent ophthalmic examinations, including IOP measurements and perimetry, at baseline and follow-up. The use of statins and non-statin cholesterol-lowering drugs was monitored continuously during the study. Associations between the use of cholesterol-lowering drugs and incident OAG were analyzed with Cox regression; associations between cholesterol-lowering drugs and IOP at follow-up were analyzed with multiple linear regression. During a mean follow-up of 9.8 years, 108 of 3939 eligible participants (2.7% developed OAG. The hazard ratio for statin use was 0.54 (95% confidence interval 0.31-0.96; P = 0.034 and for non-statin cholesterol-lowering drugs 2.07 (0.81-5.33; P = 0.13. The effect of statins was more pronounced with prolonged use (hazard ratio 0.89 [0.41-1.94; P = 0.77] for use two years or less; 0.46 [0.23-0.94; P = 0.033] for use more than two years; P-value for trend 0.10. The analyzes were adjusted for age and gender, baseline IOP and IOP-lowering treatment, the family history of glaucoma, and myopia. There was no effect of statins on the IOP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term use of statins appears to be associated with a reduced risk of OAG. The observed effect was independent of the IOP. These findings are in line with the idea that statins have

  16. Self-similarity during growth of the Au/TiO2(110) model catalyst as seen by the scattering of x-rays at grazing-angle incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, Rémi; Renaud, Gilles; Jupille, Jacques; Leroy, Frédéric

    2007-09-01

    The growth of gold nanoparticles on TiO2(110) was investigated in situ by grazing incidence x-ray scattering techniques. The in-plane diffraction showed complex epitaxial relationships with a preferential alignment of dense gold direction along the bridging oxygen rows of TiO2(110) ([11¯0]Au‖[001]TiO2) with a low lattice mismatch. Whatever the growth temperature (T=300,600K) , two nearly equiproportional epitaxial planes, i.e., (111)Au‖(110)TiO2 and (112¯)Au‖(110)TiO2 , were observed. The small angle scattering from the nanoparticles was analyzed using a truncated sphere shape with models [R. Lazzari, F. Leroy, and G. Renaud, Phys. Rev. B 76, 125411 (2007)] that account for (i) multiple scattering effects due to the graded profile of refraction index in the normal direction and (ii) the correlation between the particle spacing and sizes. At the beginning of the growth, gold particles are pinned on defects and grow through a diffusion-limited mechanism. However, coalescence does not occur via a static mechanism. It rather involves surface diffusion of clusters. It proceeds through a self-similar mechanism, not only on the size distribution but also on the spatial ordering. Particle locations, which are no longer controlled by the randomness of nucleation centers, become dominated by the correlation between the particle size and its influence area. A strong link between island height and radius indicates that particles are close to equilibrium. Indeed, the value derived for contact angle (adhesion energy) compares well with tabulated data. In addition, the cluster size before the onset of coalescence compares with that of the gold particles at the maximum of catalytic activity for the oxidation of CO.

  17. Self-similarity during growth of the Au/TiO2(110) model catalyst as seen by the scattering of x-rays at grazing-angle incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of gold nanoparticles on TiO2(110) was investigated in situ by grazing incidence x-ray scattering techniques. The in-plane diffraction showed complex epitaxial relationships with a preferential alignment of dense gold direction along the bridging oxygen rows of TiO2(110) ([110]Au parallel [001]TiO2) with a low lattice mismatch. Whatever the growth temperature (T=300,600 K), two nearly equiproportional epitaxial planes, i.e., (111)Au parallel (110)TiO2 and (112)Au parallel (110)TiO2, were observed. The small angle scattering from the nanoparticles was analyzed using a truncated sphere shape with models [R. Lazzari, F. Leroy, and G. Renaud, Phys. Rev. B 76, 125411 (2007)] that account for (i) multiple scattering effects due to the graded profile of refraction index in the normal direction and (ii) the correlation between the particle spacing and sizes. At the beginning of the growth, gold particles are pinned on defects and grow through a diffusion-limited mechanism. However, coalescence does not occur via a static mechanism. It rather involves surface diffusion of clusters. It proceeds through a self-similar mechanism, not only on the size distribution but also on the spatial ordering. Particle locations, which are no longer controlled by the randomness of nucleation centers, become dominated by the correlation between the particle size and its influence area. A strong link between island height and radius indicates that particles are close to equilibrium. Indeed, the value derived for contact angle (adhesion energy) compares well with tabulated data. In addition, the cluster size before the onset of coalescence compares with that of the gold particles at the maximum of catalytic activity for the oxidation of CO

  18. Superwide-angle acoustic propagations above the critical angles of the Snell law in liquid—solid superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, superwide-angle acoustic propagations above the critical angles of the Snell law in liquid—solid superlattice are investigated. Incident waves above the critical angles of the Snell law usually inevitably induce total reflection. However, incident waves with big oblique angles through the liquid—solid superlattice will produce a superwide angle transmission in a certain frequency range so that total reflection does not occur. Together with the simulation by finite element analysis, theoretical analysis by using transfer matrix method suggests the Bragg scattering of the Lamb waves as the physical mechanism of acoustic wave super-propagation far beyond the critical angle. Incident angle, filling fraction, and material thickness have significant influences on propagation. Superwide-angle propagation phenomenon may have potential applications in nondestructive evaluation of layered structures and controlling of energy flux. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  19. An Approximate Analytical Propagation Formula for Gaussian Beams through a Cat-Eye Optical Lens under Large Incidence Angle Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the generalized diffraction integral formula and the idea that the angle misalignment of the cat-eye optical lens can be transformed into the displacement misalignment, an approximate analytical propagation formula for Gaussian beams through a cat-eye optical lens under large incidence angle condition is derived. Numerical results show that the diffraction effect of the apertures of the cat-eye optical lens becomes stronger along with the increase in incidence angle. The results are also compared with those from using an angular spectrum diffraction integral and experiment to illustrate the applicability and validity of our theoretical formula. It is shown that the approximate extent is good enough for the application of a cat-eye optical lens with a radius of 20 mm and a propagation distance of 100 m, and the approximate extent becomes better along with the increase in the radius of the cat-eye optical lens and the propagation distance. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  20. Detection of short range order in SiO2 thin-films by grazing-incidence wide and small-angle X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Kohki; Ogura, Atsushi; Hirosawa, Ichiro; Suwa, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Akinobu; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    2016-04-01

    The effects of the fabrication process conditions on the microstructure of silicon dioxide thin films of literature. It was indicated that these differences originate from inner stress. The detailed structure in an amorphous thin film was not revealed owing to detection difficulties.

  1. Wide-angle incidence x-ray waveguides prepared by micro-/nano-technology using crystal surface diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sung-Yu; Shen, Yu-Chi; Chiu, Mau-Sen; Chu, Chia-Hung; Stetsko, Yuriy P.; Shew, Bo-Yuan; Chang, Shih-Lin

    2008-03-01

    Grazing incidence x-ray waveguides have been most studied because of its simple geometry and its applicability for all photon energies. However, wide-angle incidence waveguides are also essential for modern x-ray optics, as far as coupling/guiding x-ray beams into given directions are concerned. To investigate this possibility we have prepared waveguides on silicon wafers by x-ray lithographic technique. The waveguides are 100μm high and 1cm long with different widths and the distance between the adjacent waveguides is 2.5 mm. Both the top and bottom surface of a waveguide are plated with gold. With this type of waveguides we have actually observed the effects of guiding x-rays in both lateral and vertical directions using (113) surface diffraction in Au/Si waveguide systems.

  2. Grazing incidence angle based sensing approach integrated with fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared (FO-FTIR) spectroscopy for remote and label-free detection of medical device contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of medical devices has become a critical and prevalent public health safety concern since medical devices are being increasingly used in clinical practices for diagnostics, therapeutics and medical implants. The development of effective sensing methods for real-time detection of pathogenic contamination is needed to prevent and reduce the spread of infections to patients and the healthcare community. In this study, a hollow-core fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy methodology employing a grazing incidence angle based sensing approach (FO-FTIR-GIA) was developed for detection of various biochemical contaminants on medical device surfaces. We demonstrated the sensitivity of FO-FTIR-GIA sensing approach for non-contact and label-free detection of contaminants such as lipopolysaccharide from various surface materials relevant to medical device. The proposed sensing system can detect at a minimum loading concentration of approximately 0.7 μg/cm2. The FO-FTIR-GIA has the potential for the detection of unwanted pathogen in real time

  3. Grazing incidence angle based sensing approach integrated with fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared (FO-FTIR) spectroscopy for remote and label-free detection of medical device contaminations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Moinuddin, E-mail: moinuddin.hassan@fda.hhs.gov; Ilev, Ilko [Optical Therapeutics and Medical Nanophotonics Laboratory, Division of Biomedical Physics, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Contamination of medical devices has become a critical and prevalent public health safety concern since medical devices are being increasingly used in clinical practices for diagnostics, therapeutics and medical implants. The development of effective sensing methods for real-time detection of pathogenic contamination is needed to prevent and reduce the spread of infections to patients and the healthcare community. In this study, a hollow-core fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy methodology employing a grazing incidence angle based sensing approach (FO-FTIR-GIA) was developed for detection of various biochemical contaminants on medical device surfaces. We demonstrated the sensitivity of FO-FTIR-GIA sensing approach for non-contact and label-free detection of contaminants such as lipopolysaccharide from various surface materials relevant to medical device. The proposed sensing system can detect at a minimum loading concentration of approximately 0.7 μg/cm{sup 2}. The FO-FTIR-GIA has the potential for the detection of unwanted pathogen in real time.

  4. Probing the surface microstructure of layer-by-layer self-assembly chitosan/poly(l-glutamic acid) multilayers: A grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nie; Yang, Chunming; Wang, Yuzhu; Zhao, Binyu; Bian, Fenggang; Li, Xiuhong; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study characterized the surface structure of layer-by-layer self-assembly chitosan/poly(L-glutamic acid) multilayers through grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A weakly long-period ordered structure along the in-plane direction was firstly observed in the polyelectrolyte multilayer by the GISAXS technique. This structure can be attributed to the specific domains on the film surface. In the domain, nanodroplets that were formed by polyelectrolyte molecules were orderly arranged along the free surface of the films. This ordered structure gradually disappeared with the increasing bilayer number because of the complex merging behavior of nanodroplets into large islands. Furthermore, resonant diffuse scattering became evident in the GISAXS patterns as the number of bilayers in the polyelectrolyte multilayer was increased. Notably, the lateral cutoff length of resonant diffuse scattering for these polyelectrolyte films was comparable with the long-period value of the ordered nanodroplets in the polyelectrolyte multilayer. Therefore, the nanodroplets could be considered as a basic transmission unit for structure propagation from the inner interface to the film surface. It suggests that the surface structure with length scale larger than the size of nanodroplets was partially complicated from the interface structure near the substrate, but surface structure smaller than the cutoff length was mainly depended on the conformation of nanodroplets. PMID:26478320

  5. Incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Abelmann, Walter H.

    1985-01-01

    Full reliable data on the incidence and prevalence of dilated cardiomyopathy are not available. In the United States, at least 0.7% of cardiac deaths are attributable to cardiomyopathy. Dilated cardiomyopathy probably contributes the great majority of these cases. The mortality rate for cardiomyopathy in males is twice that of females, and for blacks it is 2.4 times that of whites. Cardiomyopathy was diagnosed in 0.67% of patients discharged from hospitals in 1979 with diagnoses of disease of...

  6. On Dihedral Angles of a Simplex

    OpenAIRE

    Maehara, H.

    2013-01-01

    For an $n$-simplex, let $\\alpha,\\,\\beta$ denote the maximum, and the minimum dihedral angles of the simplex, respectively. It is proved that the inequality $\\alpha\\le \\arccos(1/n)\\le \\beta$ always holds, and either side equality implies that the $n$-simplex is a regular simplex. Similar inequalities are also given for a star-simplex, which is defined as a simplex that has a vertex (apex) such that the angles between distinct edges incident to the apex are all equal. Further, an explicit formu...

  7. A customizable software for fast reduction and analysis of large X-ray scattering data sets: applications of the new DPDAK package to small-angle X-ray scattering and grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benecke, Gunthard; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Li, Chenghao; Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Flucke, Gero; Hoerth, Rebecca; Zizak, Ivo; Burghammer, Manfred; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Trebbin, Martin; Förster, Stephan; Paris, Oskar; Roth, Stephan V; Fratzl, Peter

    2014-10-01

    X-ray scattering experiments at synchrotron sources are characterized by large and constantly increasing amounts of data. The great number of files generated during a synchrotron experiment is often a limiting factor in the analysis of the data, since appropriate software is rarely available to perform fast and tailored data processing. Furthermore, it is often necessary to perform online data reduction and analysis during the experiment in order to interactively optimize experimental design. This article presents an open-source software package developed to process large amounts of data from synchrotron scattering experiments. These data reduction processes involve calibration and correction of raw data, one- or two-dimensional integration, as well as fitting and further analysis of the data, including the extraction of certain parameters. The software, DPDAK (directly programmable data analysis kit), is based on a plug-in structure and allows individual extension in accordance with the requirements of the user. The article demonstrates the use of DPDAK for on- and offline analysis of scanning small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data on biological samples and microfluidic systems, as well as for a comprehensive analysis of grazing-incidence SAXS data. In addition to a comparison with existing software packages, the structure of DPDAK and the possibilities and limitations are discussed. PMID:25294982

  8. Airborne X-Hh Incidence Angle Impact on Canopy Height Retreival: Implications for Spaceborne X-Hh Tandem-X Global Canopy Height Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, M. L.; King, D.; Balzter, H.; Bannari, A.; McNairn, H.

    2012-07-01

    To support international climate change mitigation efforts, the United Nations REDD+ initiative (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) seeks to reduce land use induced greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. It requires independent monitoring of forest cover and forest biomass information in a spatially explicit form. It is widely recognised that remote sensing is required to deliver this information. Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry (InSAR) techniques have gained traction in the last decade as a viable technology from which vegetation canopy height and bare earth elevations can be derived. The viewing geometry of a SAR sensor is side-looking where the radar pulse is transmitted out to one side of the aircraft or satellite, defining an incidence angle (θ) range. The incidence angle will change from near-range (NR) to far-range (FR) across of the track of the SAR platform. InSAR uses image pairs and thus, contain two set of incidence angles. Changes in the InSAR incidence angles can alter the relative contributions from the vegetation canopy and the ground surface and thus, affect the retrieved vegetation canopy height. Incidence angle change is less pronounced in spaceborne data than in airborne data and mitigated somewhat when multiple InSAR-data takes are combined. This study uses NEXTMap® single- and multi-pass X-band HH polarized InSAR to derive vegetation canopy height from the scattering phase centre height (hspc). Comparisons with in situ vegetation canopy height over three test sites (Arizona-1, Minnesota-2); the effect of incidence angle changes across swath on the X-HH InSAR hspc was examined. Results indicate at steep incidence angles (θ = 35º), more exposure of lower vegetation canopy structure (e.g. tree trunks) led to greater lower canopy double bounce, increased ground scattering, and decreased volume scattering. This resulted in a lower scattering phase centre height (hspc) or a greater underestimation of vegetation

  9. Incident users of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Kruse, Marie

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: In Denmark, as well as in many other countries, consumption of antipsychotics is on the rise, partly due to increasing off-label use. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the extent of off-label use and polypharmacy in incident users of antipsychotic medication, and to examine...... polypharmacy (HR 1.38; 95 % CI 1.32-1.45), whereas antipsychotic discontinuation was associated with decreased hospitalization risk in most off-label conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The brief duration of most antipsychotic prescriptions suggests that antipsychotics are prescribed more liberally than recommended. As a...

  10. Axisymmetric Grazing-Incidence Focusing Optics for Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Dazhi; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Resta, Giacomo; Ramsey, Brian D.; Moncton, David E.; Khaykovich, Boris

    2012-01-01

    We propose and design novel axisymmetric focusing mirrors, known as Wolter optics, for small-angle neutron scattering instruments. Ray-tracing simulations show that using the mirrors can result in more than an order-of-magnitude increase in the neutron flux reaching detectors, while decreasing the minimum wave vector transfer. Such mirrors are made of Ni using a mature technology. They can be coated with neutron supermirror multilayers, and multiple mirrors can be nested to improve their flux...

  11. Semi-guided plane wave reflection by thin-film transitions for angled incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Çivitci, Fehmi; Hammer, Manfred; Hoekstra, Hugo J.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    The non-normal incidence of semi-guided plane waves on step-like or tapered transitions between thin film regions with different thicknesses, an early problem of integrated optics, is being reconsidered. As a step beyond the common effective index picture, we compare two approaches on how this problem can be tackled—at least approximately—by nowadays readily available simulation tools for integrated optics design. Accepting the scalar approximation, using an ansatz of harmonic field dependenc...

  12. Statement of nuclear incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight incidents were reported. Three mothers (two at BNFL's Sellafield Reprocessing Plant and one at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories) had been contaminated and received more than the annual dose limit. At the Winfrith Atomic Energy Establishment, Cs124 and Cs137 had been washed off the outside of a flask onto the ground. At the BNFL Springfields works a discharge of a solution of natural uranium had occurred to the site foul drain. At the Drigg storage and disposal site a leak from a storage tank was reported. In the other three cases no radioactive release occurred. There was a loose coupling on a tiebar of a fuel stringer at Heysham-I reactor, water beneath a pipeline discharging from Harwell Laboratory was found not to be contaminated and at Dungeness-B a fuel assembly was dropped to the bottom of the reactor during refuelling. (UK)

  13. Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering from alkaline phosphatase immobilized in atmospheric plasmapolymer coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortore, M. G.; Sinibaldi, R.; Heyse, P.; Paulussen, S.; Bernstorff, S.; Sels, B.; Mariani, P.; Rustichelli, F.; Spinozzi, F.

    2008-06-01

    Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) has been used to study proteins embedded in thin polymer films obtained by a new cold, atmospheric-pressure plasma technique. In order to test the efficiency of the technology, four samples of alkaline phosphatase incorporated in organic polymer coatings in different plasma conditions have been investigated. Data have been analysed in the framework of the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA), by using a new method for the simultaneous fitting of the two-dimensional diffuse scattering from each sample. As a result, protein film concentration and aggregation state as well as a set of parameters describing the polymer coatings have been obtained.

  14. Calculations of the Wigner angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new methods to determine Wigner's angle in special relativity are presented. The first one consists in calculating the angle between the compositions u-bar x ν-bar and ν-bar x u-bar of the two non-collinear velocities u-bar and ν-bar. In another method we introduce a generalization in the complex plane of Einstein's addition law of parallel velocities. (author)

  15. True incidence of vestibular schwannoma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Tos, Mirko; Thomsen, Jens;

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of diagnosed sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) has increased, due primarily to more widespread access to magnetic resonance imaging.......The incidence of diagnosed sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) has increased, due primarily to more widespread access to magnetic resonance imaging....

  16. Side-pumped Nd:YVO4 cw laser with grazing-incidence small angle configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the existing variety of laser cavity geometries and gain materials there is one combination that is particularly interesting because of its reduced complexity and high efficiency: the edge-pumped slab-laser using grazing-incidence geometry and a gain media with a very high pump absorption cross-section. In this work we studied a diode side-pumped Nd:YVO4 cw laser. We describe a single and a multiple bounce laser configurations. We demonstrate 22 W of multimode output power for 35 watts of pump power with a single pass through the gain media. A high optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 63% and a slope efficiency of 74% with a very compact and simple Nd:YVO4 cavity that uses joint stability zones was achieved. The beam quality was M2 = 26 x 11 in the horizontal and vertical direction, respectively. With a double pass configuration we achieved 17 watts with a better beam quality of M2 = 3,4 x 3,7, in the horizontal and vertical direction, respectively. (author)

  17. Angle dependence of Andreev scattering at semiconductor-superconductor interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1999-01-01

    We study the angle dependence of the Andreev scattering at a semiconductor-superconductor interface, generalizing the one-dimensional theory of Blonder, Tinkham, and Klapwijk (BTK),An increase of the momentum parallel to the interface leads to suppression of the probability of Andreev reflection ...... angle of incidence above which only normal reflection exists. For two- and three-dimensional interfaces a lower excess current compared to ballistic transport with perpendicular incidence is found. Thus, the one-dimensional BTK model overestimates the barrier strength for two- and three...

  18. Active correction of the tilt angle of the surface plane with respect to the rotation axis during azimuthal scan

    CERN Document Server

    Sereno, M; Debiossac, M; Kalashnyk, N; Roncin, P

    2016-01-01

    A procedure to measure the residual tilt angle $\\tau$ between a flat surface and the azimuthal rotation axis of the sample holder is described. When the incidence angle $\\theta$ and readout of the azimuthal angle $\\phi$ are controlled by motors, an active compensation mechanism can be implemented to reduce the effect of the tilt angle during azimuthal motion. After this correction, the effective angle of incidence is kept fixed, and only the small residual oscillation of the scattering plane remains.

  19. Disorders of the cerebellopontine angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disorders of the cerebellopontine angle may present by symptoms like vertigo, hearing problems, affection of the trigeminal or facial nerve. Ipsilateral ataxia and contralateral hemiparesis develop in case of a rather large tumor in this region and display an involvement of the cerebellum and/or brainstem. However, some of these typical symptoms are not recognized by the patient. Thus, in case of a suspicion of a disorder of the cerebellopontine angle the relevant functions have to be tested clinically. In addition, electrophysiology can confirm dysfunction of these cranial nerves. Mainstay of the therapy should be the treatment of the underlying cause. Nevertheless, not seldom it is necessary to treat symptoms like vertigo or facial pain. (orig.)

  20. Idiot Savants: Rate of Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A. Lewis

    1977-01-01

    A survey of 300 public residential facilities for the mentally retarded revealed a .06 percent incidence rate for idiot savants, persons of low intelligence who possess an unusually high skill in some special task. (CL)

  1. Regional comparison of cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European and world countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data on cancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo city, which represents a symbol of difficult times in the recent past, and to compare it to the incidence in the neighbouring countries. Patients and methods. Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases, permanent residents of Sarajevo Canton, in the years 1999 and 2000 were collected. Crude incidence rate has been calculated according to the years observed, gender and localizations of the disease The data were compared to the cancer registries of Slovenia and Croatia and were observed in the light of specific local situation. Results. The crude cancer incidence of all sites but skin was the highest in both years and by both genders in Croatia. The incidence of the most common tumours (lung and breast cancer) was similar in all three countries. The differences in the incidence between both genders in the Sarajevo canton were registered in laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer, as well as in bone and cartilage sarcoma. Cervical cancer had extremely high incidence and was high up on the incidence list in the Sarajevo canton, which correlates with the data in developing countries. The incidence of other tumours in the post-war period is reaching expected numbers. Conclusions. It is difficult to identify whether the war and post-war stress, irregular and insufficient nutrition during and after the siege of the city of Sarajevo or some other factor influenced the cancer incidence among exposed population. The prevalence of smoking in the whole region is extremely high, in Bosnia and

  2. Estimation of Incident Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Helm-Petersen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The paper is the results found by Aalborg University in the calculations of the incident wave heights hm0 and the reflection coefficients α from the LIP-MAST investigations in the Vinje-Basin during May to July 1994....

  3. Control of Angular Intervals for Angle-Multiplexed Holographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Nobuhiro; Muroi, Tetsuhiko; Ishii, Norihiko; Kamijo, Koji; Shimidzu, Naoki

    2009-03-01

    In angle-multiplexed holographic memory, the full width at half maximum of the Bragg selectivity curves is dependent on the angle formed between the medium and incident laser beams. This indicates the possibility of high density and high multiplexing number by varying the angular intervals between adjacent holograms. We propose an angular interval scheduling for closely stacking holograms into medium even when the angle range is limited. We obtained bit error rates of the order of 10-4 under the following conditions: medium thickness of 1 mm, laser beam wavelength of 532 nm, and angular multiplexing number of 300.

  4. Surface morphological changes on the human dental enamel and cement after the Er:YAG laser irradiation at different incidence angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a morphological analysis study through SEM of the differences of the laser tissue interaction as a function of the laser beam irradiation angle, under different parameters of energy. Fourteen freshly extracted molars stored in a 0,9% sodium chloride solution were divided in seven pairs and were irradiated with 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 mJ per pulse, respectively. Each sample received three enamel irradiations and three cement irradiations, either in the punctual or in the contact mode, one near to the other, with respectively 30, 45 and 90 inclinations degrees of dental surface-laser-beam incidence. Four Er:YAG pulses (2,94 μm, 7-20 Hz, 0,1-1 J energy/pulse - Opus 20 - Opus Dent) with water cooling system (0,4 ml/s) were applied. After the laser irradiation the specimens were analysed through scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results were analysed by SEM micrographs showing a great difference on the laser tissue interaction characteristics as a function of the irradiation angle of the laser beam. All the observations led to conclude that, considering the laser parameters used, the incidence angle variation is a very important parameter regarding the desired morphological effects. This represents an extremely relevant detail on the technical description of the Er:YAG laser irradiation protocols on dental tissues. (author)

  5. Trends in anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering in grazing incidence for supported nano-alloyed and core-shell metallic nano-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As atomic structure and morphology of particles are directly correlated to their functional properties, experimental methods probing local and average features of particles at the nano-scale elicit a growing interest. Anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering (ASAXS) is a very attractive technique to investigate the size, shape and spatial distribution of nano-objects embedded in a homogeneous matrix or in porous media. The anomalous variation of the scattering factor close to an absorption edge enables element specific investigations. In the case of supported nano-objects, the use of grazing incidence is necessary to limit the probed depth. The combination of grazing incidence with the anomalous technique provides a powerful new method, anomalous grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (AGISAXS), to disentangle complex chemical patterns in supported multi-component nano-structures. Nevertheless, a proper data analysis requires accurate quantitative measurements associated to an adapted theoretical framework. This paper presents anomalous methods applied to nano-alloys phase separation in the 1-10 nm size range, and focuses on the application of AGISAXS in bimetallic systems: nano-composite films and core-shell supported nano-particles

  6. Angle-independent structural colors of silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Weirich, Johannes; Nørregaard, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    Structural colors are optical phenomena of physical origin, where microscale and nanoscale structures determine the reflected spectrum of light. Artificial structural colors have been realized within recent years. However, multilayer structures require substantial fabrication. Instead we considered...... one-layer surface textures of silicon.We explored four patterns of square structures in a square lattice with periods of 500, 400, 300, and 200 nm. The reflectivity and daylight-colors were measured and compared with simulations based on rigorously coupledwave analysis with excellent agreement. Based...... on the 200-nm periodic pattern, it was found that angle-independent specular colors up to 60 deg of incidence may be provided. The underlying mechanisms include (1) the suppression of diffraction and (2) a strong coupling of light to localized surface states. The strong coupling yields absorption...

  7. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p < .001), the incidence rate of community-acquired bacteremia decreased by 25.6% from 119.0 to 93.8 (3.7% annually, p < .001) and the...... incidence rate of nosocomial bacteremia decreased by 28.9% from 82.2 to 56.0 (4.2% annually, p < .001). The incidence rate of healthcare-associated bacteremia remained stable. The most common microorganisms were Escherichia coli (28.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (12.3%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (10...

  8. Changing incidence of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of thyroid cancer was examined temporally and geographically by age and sex from data provided by tumor registries in the United States and abroad. The temporal trends in Connecticut showed an increase in annual incidence after 1945, with an especially sudden increase in incidence in females. The increase occurred predominantly in older males and younger females. The increase in young females was confirmed by cohort analysis. The rates rose with age in both sexes, but recently females have developed a secondary peak in the fourth decade of life. The same phenomenon was observed in other U.S. data but not as clearly in data from ten foreign registries. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that radiation therapy for benign conditions of the head and neck in childhood was a factor in the increased incidence of thyroid cancer in U.S. females, but some other etiologic or modifying factor should be sought to explain the increased incidence in U.S. males

  9. The spectral characteristics of the splitting angle for double Wollaston prism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wen-di; WANG Zhao-bing; WANG Hai-long; ZHANG Shan

    2009-01-01

    The spectral characteristics of the splitting angle and its asymmetry for double-Wollaston prism are analyzed theoretically. With the increase of the prism structure angle, the splitting angle of the double Wollaston prism and its asymmetry increase. However, the splitting angle decreases with the increase of the wavelength of incident light. The influence of the incident light wavelength on the splitting angle in the ultraviolet wave band is much greater than that in visible and near-infrared wave band. To verify the theoretical analysis, the characteristics of the double Wollaston prism are also studied experimentally.

  10. Opening Angles of Collapsar Jets

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuta, Akira; Ioka, Kunihito

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the jet propagation and breakout from the stellar progenitor for gamma-ray burst (GRB) collapsars by performing two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations and analytical modeling. We find that the jet opening angle is given by $\\theta_j \\sim 1/5 \\Gamma_{0}$, and infer the initial Lorentz factor of the jet at the central engine, $\\Gamma_0$, is a few for existing observations of $\\theta_j$. The jet keeps the Lorentz factor low inside the star by converging cylindricall...

  11. [Incidence of cancer in Navarre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardanaz, E; Moreno, C; Pérez de Rada Arístegui, M E; Ezponda, C; Navaridas, N

    2004-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2000 an annual average of 3,303 cases of invasive cancer were registered in Navarre, 58% of them in men. If we except non melanoma skin tumours, the annual number of cases was 2,495, with gross incidence rates of 559 and 372 per 100,000 in men and women, and rates adjusted to the world population of 312 and 203 per 100,000 respectively. Amongst men, the four most frequently diagnosed tumoural localisations were the prostate, lung, colorectal and bladder, accounting for 57% of all cases. The most notable due to their frequency amongst women were tumours of the breast, colorectal, uterus body and ovary, accounting for 54% of all cases. With respect to the five year period from 1993 to 1997, the global incidence of cancer in the three year period from 1998 to 2000 has increased 4.2% in men and 7.4% in women. The incidence of lung cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphomas in both sexes and of breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in men are notable. There continues to be a fall in the incidence rates of stomach cancer in both sexes, following the tendency begun in the 1970s. PMID:15644889

  12. The qualitative criterion of transient angle stability

    OpenAIRE

    Lyu, R; Xue, Y.; Xue, F; Wu, Qiuwei; Yang, Guangya; Zhou, H; Ju, P.

    2015-01-01

    In almost all the literatures, the qualitative assessment of transient angle stability extracts the angle information of generators based on the swing curve. As the angle (or angle difference) of concern and the threshold value rely strongly on the engineering experience, the validity and robust of these criterions are weak. Based on the stability mechanism from the extended equal area criterion (EEAC) theory and combining with abundant simulations of real system, this paper analyzes the crit...

  13. An intensity correction for pole figure measurements by grazing incident and grazing exit angle X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In pole figure measurement by X-ray diffraction, the intensity must be corrected for geometric factors entering into the intensity. For the grazing (often, also called glancing) angle diffraction mode, the irradiated area changes with the grazing angle. A theoretical analysis of this effect was made and compared with measured data from a texture-free silver sample. An intensity correction factor is given as the ratio of the detector slit width and the width of the irradiated sample area as seen from the detector. As an application, the texture of thin copper film was studied

  14. Incidence of respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in hospital born babies. Subjects and Methods: All live born infants delivered at the hospital and who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were included in the study. Results: Ninety-four neonates developed RDS. Out of these, 88 (93.61%) were preterm and 06 (6.38%) were term infants. There was a male preponderance (65.95%). RDS was documented in 1.72% of total live births. 37.28% of preterm and 0.11% of term neonates born at the hospital. The incidence of RDS was 100% at 26 or less weeks of gestation, 57.14% at 32 weeks, and 3.70% at 36 weeks. The mortality with RDS was 41 (43.61%). Conclusion: RDS is the commonest cause of respiratory distress in the newborn, particularly, in preterm infants. It carries a high mortality rate and the incidence is more than that documented in the Western world. (author)

  15. Good Gradings of Generalized Incidence Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    This inquiry is based on both the construction of generalized incidence rings due to Gene Abrams and the construction of good group gradings of incidence algebras due to Molli Jones. We provide conditions for a generalized incidence ring to be graded isomorphic to a subring of an incidence ring over a preorder. We also extend Jones's construction to good group gradings for incidence algebras over preorders with crosscuts of length one or two.

  16. Evaluation of blotchy pigments in the anterior chamber angle as a sign of angle closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha L Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blotchy pigments in the anterior chamber (AC angle are considered diagnostic of primary angle closure (PAC. But there are no reports either on the prevalence of blotchy pigments in AC angles or the validity of this sign. Aims: To determine the prevalence of blotchy pigments in AC angles and to evaluate their relationship with glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON in eyes with occludable angles. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional, comparative study. Materials and Methods: Gonioscopy was performed in 1001 eyes of 526 subjects (245 eyes of 148 consecutive, occludable angle subjects and 756 eyes of 378 non-consecutive, open angle subjects, above 35 years of age. Quadrant-wise location of blotchy pigments was documented. Statistical Analysis: Odds of blotchy pigments in occludable angles against that in open angles were evaluated. Relationship of GON with blotchy pigments in occludable angle eyes was evaluated using a multivariate model. Results: Prevalence of blotchy pigments in occludable angles was 28.6% (95% CI, 22.9-34.3 and in open angles was 4.7% (95% CI, 3.2-6.3. Blotchy pigments were more frequently seen in inferior (16% and superior quadrants (15% of occludable angles, and inferior quadrant of open angles (4%. Odds of superior quadrant blotchy pigments in occludable angles were 33 times that in open angles. GON was seen in 107 occludable angle eyes. Blotchy pigments were not significantly associated with GON (odds ratio = 0.5; P = 0.1. Conclusions: Blotchy pigments were seen in 28.6% of occludable angle eyes and 4.7% of open angles eyes. Presence of blotchy pigments in the superior quadrant is more common in occludable angles. Presence of GON in occludable angle eyes was not associated with blotchy pigments.

  17. Research and application of multi-angle polarization characteristics of water body mirror reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the multi-angle polarized reflection spectrum of the water samples,the water body mirror reflection polarization characteristics and mechanism are described systematically. By altering such influential factors as the angle of incidence,detecting angle,detecting azimuth angle and polari-zation angle,ubiquitous laws for the multi-angle polarized reflection spectrum of the water samples are obtained. Combining multi-angle remote sensing with polarized light,the multi-angle polarized reflec-tion method about eliminating the water body mirror reflection and the suitable time of the polarized remote sensing of the water body are proposed. This study provides technical references for the ap-plication of multi-angle polarization technology on water body remote sensing.

  18. Research and application of multi-angle polarization characteristics of water body mirror reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO YangJie; ZHAO YunSheng; LI XiaoWen; WU TaiXia; ZHAO LiLi

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the multi-angle polarized reflection spectrum of the water samples, the water body mirror reflection polarization characteristics and mechanism are described systematically. By altering such influential factors as the angle of incidence, detecting angle, detecting azimuth angle and polarization angle, ubiquitous laws for the multi-angle polarized reflection spectrum of the water samples are obtained. Combining multi-angle remote sensing with polarized light, the multi-angle polarized reflection method about eliminating the water body mirror reflection and the suitable time of the polarized remote sensing of the water body are proposed. This study provides technical references for the application of multi-angle polarization technology on water body remote sensing.

  19. Pitch angle of galactic spiral arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the key parameters that characterizes spiral arms in disk galaxies is a pitch angle that measures the inclination of a spiral arm to the direction of galactic rotation. The pitch angle differs from galaxy to galaxy, which suggests that the rotation law of galactic disks determines it. In order to investigate the relation between the pitch angle of spiral arms and the shear rate of galactic differential rotation, we perform local N-body simulations of pure stellar disks. We find that the pitch angle increases with the epicycle frequency and decreases with the shear rate and obtain the fitting formula. This dependence is explained by the swing amplification mechanism.

  20. The qualitative criterion of transient angle stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyu, R.; Xue, Y.; Xue, F.;

    2015-01-01

    In almost all the literatures, the qualitative assessment of transient angle stability extracts the angle information of generators based on the swing curve. As the angle (or angle difference) of concern and the threshold value rely strongly on the engineering experience, the validity and robust of...... these criterions are weak. Based on the stability mechanism from the extended equal area criterion (EEAC) theory and combining with abundant simulations of real system, this paper analyzes the criterions in most literatures and finds that the results could be too conservative or too optimistic. It is...

  1. Behavior of Tilted Angle Shear Connectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koosha Khorramian

    Full Text Available According to recent researches, angle shear connectors are appropriate to transfer longitudinal shear forces across the steel-concrete interface. Angle steel profile has been used in different positions as L-shaped or C-shaped shear connectors. The application of angle shear connectors in tilted positions is of interest in this study. This study investigates the behaviour of tilted-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic loading using experimental push out tests. Eight push-out specimens are tested to investigate the effects of different angle parameters on the ultimate load capacity of connectors. Two different tilted angles of 112.5 and 135 degrees between the angle leg and steel beam are considered. In addition, angle sizes and lengths are varied. Two different failure modes were observed consisting of concrete crushing-splitting and connector fracture. By increasing the size of connector, the maximum load increased for most cases. In general, the 135 degrees tilted angle shear connectors have a higher strength and stiffness than the 112.5 degrees type.

  2. Preliminary proposals for extending the ENDF format to allow incident charged particles and energy-angle correlation for emitted particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rewrite of Data Formats and Procedures for the Evaluated Nuclear Data File, ENDF pertains to the latest version, ENDF/B-VI. Earlier versions provided representations for neutron cross sections and distributions, photon production from neutron reactions, a limited amount of charged-particle production from neutron reactions, photo-atomic interaction data, thermal neutron scattering data, and radionuclide production and decay data (including fission products). This version allows higher incident energies, adds more complete descriptions of the distributions of emitted particles, and provides for incident charged particles and photo-nuclear data by partitioning the ENDF library into sublibraries. Decay data, fission product yield data, thermal scattering data, and photo-atomic data have also been formally placed in sublibraries. In addition, this rewrite represents an extensive update to the Version V manual

  3. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller;

    2004-01-01

    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes.......To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  4. Determination of refractive index of various materials on Brewster angle

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhonov, Eugene A

    2015-01-01

    Studied experimentally the origin of the non-zero reflection of p-polarized radiation (TM) of Brewster's angle. The results have shown the residual reflected light in the vicinity of Brewster angle occurs due to inaccessibility 100% polarization degree the incident linearly-polarized radiation and installation of the zero azimuthal angle. These factors create the s-component of the radiation reflected from the examined surface indeed. A smooth change of reflected light polarization in the vicinity of Brewster angle in the sequence p-s-p appears due to the changing power proportion of reflected p-, and s-components but not is the result of the atomically thin transitional layer at the border of the material/environment according to Drude model. Metrological aspects of refractive index measurement by Brewster angle are investigated: due to the above-mentioned factors, as well as due to the contribution of the reflected scattered light caused by on residual roughness of the optical surface. Advantages of Brewste...

  5. Incidência de glaucoma agudo primário no Serviço de Glaucoma do Hospital São Geraldo Incidence of primary angle-closure glaucoma in the Glaucoma Service of the São Geraldo Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Vidal Mérula; Sebastião Cronemberger; Nassim Calixto

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Determinar a incidência do glaucoma agudo primário no Serviço de Glaucoma do Hospital São Geraldo; estabelecer o perfil destes pacientes e identificar possíveis fatores de risco. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal. Período de análise: setembro/2005 a agosto/2006. Inclusão: diagnóstico de glaucoma agudo primário. Exclusão: presença de catarata que acarrete baixa acuidade visual ou miopização, glaucomas secundários, íris em platô. Foram avaliados: número de atendimentos, incidência de glauc...

  6. Limiares de reconhecimento de sentenças em indivíduos normo-ouvintes na presença de ruído incidente de diferentes ângulos Sentences recognition thresholds in normal hearing individuals in the presence of inciding noise from different angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Oliveira Henriques

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar e comparar os limiares de reconhecimento de sentenças no ruído, em campo livre, na presença de ruído incidente de diferentes ângulos e verificar qual a condição de escuta mais desfavorável, em indivíduos normo-ouvintes. MÉTODOS: Aplicou-se o teste Listas de Sentenças em Português em 38 adultos jovens, avaliados em cabine acústica. As sentenças foram apresentadas a 0°- 0º azimute e o ruído competitivo a 0°- 0°, 0º- 90º, 0º - 180° e 0º - 270º azimute, em intensidade fixa de 65 dB NPS (A. RESULTADOS: As relações sinal-ruído nas quais foram obtidos os limiares de reconhecimento de sentenças no ruído para estes ângulos de incidência foram, respectivamente: -7,56, -11,11, -9,75 e -10,43 dB. Houve diferença entre os resultados nas condições: 0º- 0º e 0º - 90º; 0º - 0º e 0º - 180º; - 0º - 0º e 0º - 270º. CONCLUSÃO: Os seguintes limiares de reconhecimento de sentenças no ruído, em campo livre, foram obtidos nessas relações sinal/ruído: 0° - 0° = -7,56 dB; -0º - 90º = -11,11 dB; -0º - 180° = -9,75 dB; 0º - 270º = -10,43 dB. Os melhores limiares no ruído foram obtidos com os ângulos de incidência de 0º - 90º e 0º - 270º, seguidos pela condição de 0º - 180º e, por último, 0º - 0º. A condição de escuta no ruído mais desfavorável foi aquela na qual o ruído encontra-se no mesmo ângulo de incidência da fala, na posição frontal do indivíduo avaliado.PURPOSE: To determine and compare the sentence recognition thresholds in the noise, in sound field, in the presence of incident noise from different angles, and to verify the most unfavorable hearing condition, in normal-hearing individuals. METHODS: The Portuguese Sentences Lists test was carried out in 38 young adults, evaluated in acoustic booth. The sentences were presented at 0º - 0º azimuth, and the competitive noise at 0º - 0°, 0° - 90°, 0° - 180°, and 0° - 270° azimuth, in a fixed loudness of 65

  7. Analysis of factors affecting angle ANB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussels, W; Nanda, R S

    1984-05-01

    Cephalometric analyses based on angular and linear measurements have obvious fallacies, which have been discussed in detail by Moyers and Bookstein. However, the clinical application of such an analysis by the orthodontic profession in treatment planning is widely accepted. Variations of angle ANB are commonly used to determine relative jaw relationships in most of the cephalometric evaluations. Several authors, including points A and B influences angle ANB, as does rotational growth of the upper and lower jaws. In addition, the authors point out that growth in a vertical direction (distance N to B) and an increase of the dental height (distance A to B) may contribute to changes in angle ANB. For a Class I relation (Wits = 0 mm), a mathematical formula has been developed which enables the authors to study the geometric influence of angle ANB caused by the following four effects: (1) rotation of the jaws and/or occlusal plane relative to the anterior cranial base; (2) anteroposterior position of N relative to point B, (3) vertical growth (distance N to B); (4) increase in dental height (distance A to B). It was observed that, contrary to the common belief that an ANB angle of 2 +/- 3.0 degrees is considered normal for a skeletal Class I relation, the calculated values of angle ANB will vary widely with changes in these four controlling factors under the same skeletal Class I conditions (Wits = 0 mm). Therefore, in a case under consideration, angle ANB must be corrected for these geometric effects in order to get a proper perspective of the skeletal discrepancy. This is facilitated by comparing the measured ANB angle with the corresponding ANB angle calculated by a formula for a Class I relationship. The corresponding calculated angle ANB can be taken from the tables which are based upon the formula using the same values for SNB, omega (angle between occlusal plane and anterior cranial base), b (which is distance N to B) and a (dental height measured as perpendicular

  8. Worldwide Incidence of Autoimmune Liver Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter; Grønbæk, Lisbet; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The variation that occurs in the incidence patterns of autoimmune liver diseases may provide insight into the risk factors causing the diseases. We systematically reviewed studies on the incidence of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing...... England. Most studies of PSC found incidence rates around 1 per 100,000 population per year, but there were no incident cases among 100,000 Alaska natives during the period 1984-2000. The incidence of IAC remains unknown. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of the autoimmune liver diseases is around 1-2 per 100......,000 population per year for each disease. The variation in incidence over time and place suggests that there are differences in the prevalence of risk factors for the diseases, but the studies used different methods and so it is difficult to draw firm conclusions. We recommend that groups of investigators...

  9. Design of an Angle Detector for Laser Beams Based on Grating Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel angle detector for laser beams is designed in this paper. It takes advantage of grating coupling to couple the incident light into a slab waveguide; and, the incident light’s angle can be determined by reading the outputs of light detectors within the waveguide. This device offers fast-responding on-chip detection of laser beam’s angle. Compared to techniques based on quadrant photodiodes or lateral effect photodiodes, the device in this paper has far greater detectable range (up to a few degrees, to be specific. Performance of the laser angle detector in this paper is demonstrated by finite-difference-time-domain simulations. Numerical results show that, the detectable angle range can be adjusted by several design parameters and can reach [−4°, 4°]. The laser beam angle detector in this paper is expected to find various applications such as ultra-fast optical interconnects.

  10. Calibration of photographic dosemeters to evaluate the personal equivalent dose, Hp (10), irradiated by different radiation qualities and angles of incidence; Calibracao de dosimetros fotograficos para avaliar o equivalente de dose pessoal, Hp(10), irradiados por diferentes qualidades de radiacao e angulos de incidencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, Christiana; Antonio Filho, Joao, E-mail: chsantoro@gmail.com, E-mail: jaf@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Santos, Marcus Aurelio P.; Goncalves Filho, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: masantos@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: l.filho@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, Pe (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To use radiation detectors, should periodically perform tests and calibrations on instruments in order to verify its good functionality. One way to ascertain the quality of the instrument is to conduct a study of the angular dependence of the response of the radiation detectors. The photographic dosimetry has been used widely to quantify the radiation doses and to estimate levels of doses received by workers involved with X-and gamma radiation. Photographic dosimeters are used because provide wide range of exposure and good accuracy. One of the sources of error have been introduced by different irradiation geometries between calibration and measurement in radiation fields used in x-ray and gamma ray sources, therefore, there is a need for an evaluation of the sensitivity of dosimeters with variation of the angle of the incident beam. In this study were tested 190 photographic dosemeters in the Metrology Laboratory of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE) using the phantom H{sub p} (10), where the dosimeters are evaluated on the basis of the new operational magnitude for individual monitoring, the equivalent personal dose, H{sub p} (10). Angular dependence of these radiation detectors was studied in X radiation fields (in the range of 45 keV energy to 164 keV) and gamma radiation ({sup 137}Cs-662 keV e {sup 60}Co - 1250 keV)

  11. A lattice determination of gA and left angle x right angle from overlap fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results for the nucleon's axial charge gA and the first moment left angle x right angle of the unpolarized parton distribution function from a simulation of quenched overlap fermions. (orig.)

  12. Optical properties of glazing materials at normal incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, M.; Powles, R.

    2001-10-01

    Measurements of spectral transmittance T and reflectance R at normal incidence continue to be the most common and accurate source of energy performance data for glazing materials. Prediction of these radiometric properties from more fundamental materials data is often confounded by the complexity and uncertainty of coating structures. Angle-dependent radiometric properties of coated glazing will probably be predicted from normal-incidence data rather than being measured at many angles. The general error level demonstrated in round-robin tests is on the order 1-2%; it is often necessary to achieve better levels of performance. Based on results obtained following the round-robin tests, it is expected that accuracy of better than 0.5% can be generally achieved. A new type of absolute standard reference is described and tested with promising results.

  13. Compression failure of angle-ply laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Peel, Larry D

    1991-01-01

    The present work deals with modes and mechanisms of failure in compression of angleply laminates. Experimental results were obtained from 42 angle-ply IM7/8551-7a specimens with a lay-up of [ (±9) / (=F9)] 6s where 9, the off-axis angle, ranged from 0° to 90°. The results showed four failure modes, these modes being a function of off-axis angle. Failure modes include fiber compression, inplane transverse tension, inplane shear, and inplane transverse compression. Excessive inte...

  14. Nonadiabatic Hannay's Angle of Spin One Half in Grassmannian Version and Invariant Angle Coherent States

    OpenAIRE

    Cherbal, Omar; Maamache, Mustapha; Drir, Mahrez

    2003-01-01

    We propose to determinate the nonadiabatic Hannay’s angle of spin one half in a varying external magnetic field, by using an averaged version of the variational principal. We also show how the evolution and this nonadiabatic Hannay’s angle is associated with the evolution of Grassmannian invariant-angle coherent states.

  15. Precipitation study in thin layers by grazing small-angle scattering of X-rays

    OpenAIRE

    Slimani, T.; Thoft, N.; Naudon, A.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of thin layer by small-angle scattering of X-rays in the transmission mode give weak intensities because the X-ray path is short. Grazing-incidence X-ray scattering circumvents this difficulty for the analysis of a thin layer deposited on a substrate. Furthermore, for a bulk sample, grazing incidence is the only way to study the surface layer, and the penetration depth can be controlled by the incidence angle of the X-ray beam. In this study, we report on krypton and xenon bubbles whi...

  16. EMERGENCE ANGLE OF FLOW OVER AN AERATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aerator is an important device for release works of hydraulic structures with high-speed flow in order to protect them from cavitation damage. This kind of protecting effect is related closely to cavity length below the aerator, while the cavity length is dominated by the emergence angle over the aerator. Therefore it is crucial to determine this angle accurately. In the present paper the affecting intensities of flow depth and the fluctuating velocity on this angle were analyzed through two introduced parameters. Furthermore, the improved expressions of emergence angle estimation, for both ramp-type and step-type aerators, were presented by means of 68 sets of experimental data from 6 projects based on error theory. The results showed that the present method has higher accuracy than the previously reported methods.

  17. Tunable angle absorption of hyperbolic metamaterials based on plasma photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zheng; Ning, Renxia; Xu, Yuan; Bao, Jie

    2016-06-01

    We present the design of a multilayer structure of hyperbolic metamaterials based on plasma photonic crystals which composed of two kinds of traditional dielectric and plasma. The relative permittivity of hyperbolic metamaterials has been studied at certain frequency range. The absorption and reflection of the multilayer period structure at normal and oblique incident have been investigated by the transfer matrix method. We discussed that the absorption is affected by the thickness of material and the electron collision frequency γ of the plasma. The results show that an absorption band at the low frequency can be obtained at normal incident angle and another absorption band at the high frequency can be found at a large incident angle. The results may be applied by logical gate, stealth, tunable angle absorber, and large angle filter.

  18. Viewing angle analysis of integral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Xia; Wu, Chun-Hong; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Lan

    2007-12-01

    Integral imaging (II) is a technique capable of displaying 3D images with continuous parallax in full natural color. It is becoming the most perspective technique in developing next generation three-dimensional TV (3DTV) and visualization field due to its outstanding advantages. However, most of conventional integral images are restricted by its narrow viewing angle. One reason is that the range in which a reconstructed integral image can be displayed with consistent parallax is limited. The other is that the aperture of system is finite. By far many methods , an integral imaging method to enhance the viewing angle of integral images has been proposed. Nevertheless, except Ren's MVW (Maximum Viewing Width) most of these methods involve complex hardware and modifications of optical system, which usually bring other disadvantages and make operation more difficult. At the same time the cost of these systems should be higher. In order to simplify optical systems, this paper systematically analyzes the viewing angle of traditional integral images instead of modified ones. Simultaneously for the sake of cost the research was based on computer generated integral images (CGII). With the analysis result we can know clearly how the viewing angle can be enhanced and how the image overlap or image flipping can be avoided. The result also promotes the development of optical instruments. Based on theoretical analysis, preliminary calculation was done to demonstrate how the other viewing properties which are closely related with the viewing angle, such as viewing distance, viewing zone, lens pitch, and etc. affect the viewing angle.

  19. Incidence of childhood psychiatric disorders in India

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Savita; Kohli, Adarsh; Kapoor, Mehak; Pradhan, Basant

    2009-01-01

    Background: Studies on incidence of childhood mental disorders are extremely rare globally and there are none from India. Incidence studies though more difficult and time consuming, provide invaluable information on the pattern and causes of occurrence of mental disorders allowing opportunity for early intervention and primary prevention. Aim: This study aimed at estimating the incidence of psychiatric disorders in school children. Materials and Methods: A representative sample of school chil...

  20. Declining incidence of acromioplasty in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Paloneva, Juha; Lepola, Vesa; Karppinen, Jaro; Ylinen, Jari; Äärimaa, Ville; Mattila, Ville M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose An increased incidence rate of acromioplasty has been reported; we analyzed data from the Finnish National Hospital Discharge Register. Patients and methods During the 14-year study period (1998–2011), 68,877 acromioplasties without rotator cuff repair were performed on subjects aged 18 years or older. Results The incidence of acromioplasty increased by 117% from 75 to 163 per 105 person years between 1998 and 2007. The highest incidence was observed in 2007, after whic...

  1. Method on camouflaged target recognition using the angle of ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuansun, Xiao-bo; Wu, Wen-Yuan; Huang, Yan-hua; Li, Zhao-zhao

    2015-10-01

    Using polarimetric information of the camouflaged target surface to identify camouflage has been a hot research area in camouflage detecting. The main method is to use the difference in the degree of polarization(DOP) between background and target to add the contrast ratio of them. The measurement of the DOP has some requirements on the intensity of reflected radiation. In case of low reflected radiation intensity, the difference in the DOP for different materials is not so distinguishable. In addition, the linear degree of polarization is largely under the effects of detection angle and surface roughness, so it is hard to differentiate the degree of polarization when the targets with similar surface roughness are detected at the same detection angle. By analyzing the elements affecting the reflected electromagnetic radiation amplitudes and phase on the camouflaged target surface, this article makes a research on the polarization character of reflected radiation A method on camouflaged target recognition directly or indirectly by taking the angle of ellipsometry (AOE) imaging under the linear polarized light. The function model of the angle of incidence, complex refractive index and AOE was modeled, then the model was simulated by MATLAB and the results showed it can describe the distribution properties of AOE. A new thought for the approach of identifying camouflaged target recognition by detecting polarimetric information was proposed, and it has a deep theoretical and practical significance in camouflaged target recognition.

  2. Properties of wideband resonant reflectors under fully conical light incidence

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Lee, Kyu Jin; Magnusson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Applying numerical modeling coupled with experiments, we investigate the properties of wideband resonant reflectors under fully conical light incidence. We show that the wave vectors pertinent to resonant first-order diffraction under fully conical mounting vary less with incident angle than those associated with reflectors in classical mounting. Therefore, as the evanescent diffracted waves drive the leaky modes responsible for the resonance effects, fully-conical mounting imbues reflectors with larger angular tolerance than their classical counterparts. We quantify the angular-spectral performance of representative resonant wideband reflectors in conic and classic mounts by numerical calculations with improved spectra found for fully conic incidence. Moreover, these predictions are verified experimentally for wideband reflectors fashioned in crystalline and amorphous silicon in distinct spectral regions spanning the 1200-1600-nm and 1600-2400-nm spectral bands. These results will be useful in various applic...

  3. Incidence and Epidemiology of Patellar Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter; Court-Brown, Charles M; Vedel, Julie Odgaard;

    2016-01-01

    The literature lacks large-scale, up-to-date, population-based epidemiology studies on the incidence of patellar fractures based on complete populations. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date information concerning the incidence of patellar fractures in a large and complete population...

  4. Incidence and predictors of coronary stent thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Bollati, Mario; Clementi, Fabrizio;

    2013-01-01

    Stent thrombosis remains among the most feared complications of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting. However, data on its incidence and predictors are sparse and conflicting. We thus aimed to perform a collaborative systematic review on incidence and predictors of stent...

  5. Randi'c incidence energy of graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Gu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Let $G$ be a simple graph with vertex set $V(G = {v_1, v_2,ldots , v_n}$ and edge set $E(G = {e_1, e_2,ldots , e_m}$. Similar to the Randi'c matrix, here we introduce the Randi'c incidence matrix of a graph $G$, denoted by $I_R(G$, which is defined as the $ntimes m$ matrix whose $(i, j$-entry is $(d_i^{-frac{1}{2}}$ if $v_i$ is incident to $e_j$ and $0$ otherwise. Naturally, the Randi'c incidence energy $I_RE$ of $G$ is the sum of the singular values of $I_R(G$. We establish lower and upper bounds for the Randi'c incidence energy. Graphs for which these bounds are best possible are characterized. Moreover, we investigate the relation between the Randi'c incidence energy of a graph and that of its subgraphs. Also we give a sharp upper bound for the Randi'c incidence energy of a bipartite graph and determine the trees with the maximum Randi'c incidence energy among all $n$-vertex trees. As a result, some results are very different from those for incidence energy.

  6. Radon - an angle of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from its radiation effects on living organism, radon induces the formation of atmospheric ions which are beneficial to man: some asthmatics can breathe more easily in an environment with elevated ion levels, the blood pH increases, the fraction of albumins is higher while the serotonin level is lower, sedimentation decreases and the leukocyte counts in peripherals diminish. The blood pressure, particularly in people suffering from hypertension, drops appreciably. The production of pituitary hormones as well as the overall sexual activity is stimulated by ions in air. Exposure to negative ions affects circulation through the skin, reduces skin temperature and improves overall resistance of the organism to infection. Negative ions also have a stimulating effect on mental activity and help against insomnia. Sites where radon is present in not too high concentrations are often famous as climatic spas. So, antiradon provisions, if exercised too thoroughly, may have adverse rather than positive consequences. All pros and cons should always be taken into account when deciding on antiradon steps. (P.A.)

  7. Precision measurements of the CKM angle gamma

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The level of CP-violation permitted within the Standard Model cannot account for the matter dominated universe in which we live. Within the Standard Model the CKM matrix, which describes the quark couplings, is expected to be unitary. By making precise measurements of the CKM matrix parameters new physics models can be constrained, or with sufficient precision the effects of physics beyond the standard model might become apparent. The CKM angle gamma is the least well known angle of the unitarity triangle. It is the only angle easily accessible at tree-level, and furthermore has almost no theoretical uncertainties. Therefore it provides an invaluable Standard Model benchmark against which other new physics sensitive tests of the CP-violation can be made. I will discuss recent measurements of gamma using the the Run 1 LHCb dataset, which improve our knowledge of this key parameter.

  8. A Customizable Software for Fast Reduction and Analysis of Large X-Ray Scattering Data Sets: Applications of the New DPDAK Package to Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering and Grazing-Incidence Small-Angle X-Ray scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Benecke, Gunthard; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Trebbin, Martin; Förster, Stephan; Paris, Oskar; Roth, Stephan V.; Fratzl, Peter; Li, Chenghao; Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Flucke, Gero; Hoerth, Rebecca; Zizak, Ivo; Burghammer, Manfred; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2014-01-01

    X-ray scattering experiments at synchrotron sources are characterized by large and constantly increasing amounts of data. The great number of files generated during a synchrotron experiment is often a limiting factor in the analysis of the data, since appropriate software is rarely available to perform fast and tailored data processing. Furthermore, it is often necessary to perform online data reduction and analysis during the experiment in order to interactively optimize experimental design....

  9. The Incidence of Ankle Sprains in Orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Jan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates relationship between ankle sprains and participation time in competitive orienteering. Examined 15,474 competitors in races in the Swedish O-ringen 5-day event in 1987. Injuries requiring medical attention were analyzed, showing 137 (23.9 percent) ankle sprains. Injury incidence was 8.4/10,000 hours. Incidence of ankle sprains was…

  10. Reflection of keV light ions from solids at oblique and grazing incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukanić Jovan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The particle reflection coefficient of light keV ions backscattered from heavy targets has been determined by two different analytical approaches: by the single collision model in the case of nearly perpendicular incidence and by the small-angle multiple scattering theory in the case of glancing angles of incidence. The obtained analytical formulae are approximately universal functions of the scaled transport cross-section describing the reflection of all light ions from heavy targets. Going from perpendicular to grazing incidence, the transition from pure single to pure multiple scattering type of reflection is observed. For larger values of the scaling parameter the results of these theories cover the whole region of ion incident angles and the present estimates of the particle reflection coefficient are in good agreement with the results obtained from the empirical formula of Tabata et al.

  11. Millimeter-scale and large-angle self-collimation in a photonic crystal composed of silicon nanorods

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hao; Li, Wei; Lin, Xulin; Qiu, Chao; Sheng, Zhen; Wang, Xi; Zou, Shichang; Gan, Fuwan

    2013-01-01

    We report the observation of a large-angle self-collimation phenomenon occurring in photonic crystals composed of nanorods. Electromagnetic waves incident onto such photonic crystals from directions covering a wide-range of incident angles become highly localized along a single array of rods, which results in narrow-beam propagation without divergence. A propagation length of 0.4 mm is experimentally observed over the wavelength range of 1540 nm to 1570 nm, even in the large incident angle case, which is a very considerable length scale for on-chip optical interconnection.

  12. Angle-Resolved Spectroscopy of Parametric Fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Feng-kuo

    2013-01-01

    The parametric fluorescence from a nonlinear crystal forms a conical radiation pattern. We measure the angular and spectral distributions of parametric fluorescence in a beta-barium borate crystal pumped by a 405-nm diode laser employing angle-resolved imaging spectroscopy. The experimental angle-resolved spectra and the generation efficiency of parametric down conversion are compared with a plane-wave theoretical analysis. The parametric fluorescence is used as a broadband light source for the calibration of the instrument spectral response function in the wavelength range from 450 to 1000 nm.

  13. Longitudinal Changes of Angle Configuration in Primary Angle-Closure Suspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuzhen; Chang, Dolly S.; Zhu, Haogang; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Aung, Tin; Huang, Shengsong; Chen, Qianyun; Munoz, Beatriz; Grossi, Carlota M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine longitudinal changes in angle configuration in the eyes of primary angle-closure suspects (PACS) treated by laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) and in untreated fellow eyes. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Participants Primary angle-closure suspects aged 50 to 70 years were enrolled in a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Methods Each participant was treated by LPI in 1 randomly selected eye, with the fellow eye serving as a control. Angle width was assessed in a masked fashion using gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) before and at 2 weeks, 6 months, and 18 months after LPI. Main Outcome Measures Angle width in degrees was calculated from Shaffer grades assessed under static gonioscopy. Angle configuration was also evaluated using angle opening distance (AOD250, AOD500, AOD750), trabecular-iris space area (TISA500, TISA750), and angle recess area (ARA) measured in AS-OCT images. Results No significant difference was found in baseline measures of angle configuration between treated and untreated eyes. At 2 weeks after LPI, the drainage angle on gonioscopy widened from a mean of 13.5° at baseline to a mean of 25.7° in treated eyes, which was also confirmed by significant increases in all AS-OCT angle width measures (P<0.001 for all variables). Between 2 weeks and 18 months after LPI, a significant decrease in angle width was observed over time in treated eyes (P<0.001 for all variables), although the change over the first 5.5 months was not statistically significant for angle width measured under gonioscopy (P = 0.18), AOD250 (P = 0.167) and ARA (P = 0.83). In untreated eyes, angle width consistently decreased across all follow-up visits after LPI, with a more rapid longitudinal decrease compared with treated eyes (P values for all variables ≤0.003). The annual rate of change in angle width was equivalent to 1.2°/year (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8–1.6) in treated eyes and 1.6°/year (95% CI, 1

  14. Incidence of ascariasis in gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompted by the finding that the radiological incidence of small bowel ascariasis in the patient with gastric carcinoma was unexpectedly lower than the incidence in the normal population, a clinical study was performed to investigate possible relationship between gastric carcinoma and intestinal ascariasis. As a preliminary survey, we reviewed the radiological incidence of ascariasis in a total of 2,446 cases of upper GI series performed at the Department of Radiology, St Mary's Hospital Catholic Medical College. These included 1,573 normal subjects, 146 gastric carcinoma patients, 100 benign gastric ulcer and 249 duodenal ulcer patients and 378 other upper GI diseases. Following the preliminary study, a more accurate parasitologic study was conducted in another 578 normal subjects and 51 gastric carcinoma patients. The radiological incidences of ascaiasis in normal subjects and gastric carcinoma patients were 15.1% and 28.1%, respectively. The incidence of overall helminthiasis including ascaris lumbricoides, trichocephalus trichiurus and trichostrongyloides orientalis in normal subjects of the present series was 73.5%. This figure is virtually the same with 69.1% of the general population incidence reported by Kim, et al. (1971), but the incidence in gastric carcinoma patients was 94.1%. The high incidence pattern of overall helminthiasis in gastric carcinoma patients is, however, reversed as for as ascariasis is concerned. Thus, the incidence of ascariasis of gastric carcinoma patients was much lower than that of normal subjects (9.8% vs 19.4%). From the present observation, it is postulated that there can be some possible antagonistic relationship between evolution of gastric carcinoma and small bowel infestation of ascaris lumbricoides

  15. Incidence of ascariasis in gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Rhee, Hak Song; Bahk, Yong Whee [St Mary' s Hospital Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    Prompted by the finding that the radiological incidence of small bowel ascariasis in the patient with gastric carcinoma was unexpectedly lower than the incidence in the normal population, a clinical study was performed to investigate possible relationship between gastric carcinoma and intestinal ascariasis. As a preliminary survey, we reviewed the radiological incidence of ascariasis in a total of 2,446 cases of upper GI series performed at the Department of Radiology, St Mary's Hospital Catholic Medical College. These included 1,573 normal subjects, 146 gastric carcinoma patients, 100 benign gastric ulcer and 249 duodenal ulcer patients and 378 other upper GI diseases. Following the preliminary study, a more accurate parasitologic study was conducted in another 578 normal subjects and 51 gastric carcinoma patients. The radiological incidences of ascaiasis in normal subjects and gastric carcinoma patients were 15.1% and 28.1%, respectively. The incidence of overall helminthiasis including ascaris lumbricoides, trichocephalus trichiurus and trichostrongyloides orientalis in normal subjects of the present series was 73.5%. This figure is virtually the same with 69.1% of the general population incidence reported by Kim, et al. (1971), but the incidence in gastric carcinoma patients was 94.1%. The high incidence pattern of overall helminthiasis in gastric carcinoma patients is, however, reversed as for as ascariasis is concerned. Thus, the incidence of ascariasis of gastric carcinoma patients was much lower than that of normal subjects (9.8% vs 19.4%). From the present observation, it is postulated that there can be some possible antagonistic relationship between evolution of gastric carcinoma and small bowel infestation of ascaris lumbricoides.

  16. Status of the CDF small angle spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1987 Tevatron collider period the CDF small angle spectrometer system was partially installed and elastic scattering events were recorded in a special high-β run. The design and physics goals of this system are described and results from an analysis of the elastic scattering data are discussed

  17. Experimental technique of small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main parts of Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) spectrometer, and their function and different parameters are introduced from experimental aspect. Detailed information is also introduced for SANS spectrometer 'Membrana-2'. Based on practical experiments, the fundamental requirements and working condition for SANS experiments, including sample preparation, detector calibration, standard sample selection and data preliminary process are described. (authors)

  18. A fringe shadow method for measuring flapping angle and torsional angle of a dragonfly wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lijiang; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Kawachi, Keiji

    1996-05-01

    A fringe shadow (FS) method was developed for measuring the flapping angle and torsional angle of a dragonfly wing during beating motion. This new method involves two sets of fringe patterns projected onto the wing from orthogonal directions. The torsional angle is determined using the length of the shadow of the wing chord that is cast by the two sets of fringe patterns. The flapping angle is determined using the shadowgraph of the wing projected by a laser. The advantages of the FS method are its capability (i) to measure the flapping angle and torsional angle of a dragonfly wing simultaneously using only one high-speed camera and (ii) to recognize the spanwise position of a section from the number of fringes, without having to use diffuse marks that are common in current methods. The resolution of the FS method can be changed easily by adjusting the fringe spacing. The measurement results for the torsional angle and flapping angle of a dragonfly wing prove the effectiveness of the FS method in studying the flight performance of dragonflies.

  19. Incidence of tuberculosis in and around Banglore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of Tuberculosis is higher in developing countries due to absence of National control and Eradication programme. Incidence is higher due to close contact with infected animal or human being. In the present study, 2668 bovines were screened for tuberculosis by single intradermal test from 15 different organized government and private farm. Currently, the SID test is used worldwide to determine whether an animal is sensitized to Mycobacterial antigens or not and the test is approved by OIE. Out of which, incidence of 2.89% in HF cross breeds, 0.69% in Jersey cross bred animals and none were shown reactor to Single Intradermal test in Indigenous animals. The higher incidence of 3.26% was found in female and 0.48% found in male. The calves which were below two year of age were found 1.56% reactor. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 161-164

  20. Correlation between structural and optical properties of WO3 thin films sputter deposited by glancing angle deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tungsten oxide WO3 thin films are prepared by DC reactive sputtering. The GLancing Angle Deposition method (GLAD) is implemented to produce inclined columnar structures. The incident angle α between the particle flux and the normal to the substrate is systematically changed from 0 to 80°. For incident angles higher than 50°, a typical inclined columnar architecture is clearly produced with column angles β well correlated with the incident angle α according to conventional relationships determined from geometrical models. For each film, the refractive index and extinction coefficient are calculated from optical transmittance spectra of the films measured in the visible region. The refractive index at 589 nm drops from n589 = 2.18 down to 1.90 as α rises from 0 to 80°, whereas the extinction coefficient reaches k589 = 4.27 × 10−3 for an incident angle α = 80°, which indicates that the films produced at a grazing incident angle become more absorbent. Such changes of the optical behaviors are correlated with changes of the microstructure, especially a porous architecture, which is favored for incident angles higher than 50°. Optical band gap Eg, Urbach energy Eu and birefringence Δn617, determined from optical transmittance measurements, are also influenced by the orientation of the columns and their trend is discussed taking into account the disorder produced by the inclined particle flux. - Highlights: • Oriented columnar WO3 thin films were grown by glancing angle deposition. • Structural and optical properties depend on the incident angle of the particle flux. • Refractive index correlates with the resulting porous architecture. • Birefringence is connected to the structural anisotropy of the columnar growth

  1. Incidence of Federal and State Gasoline Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Chouinard, Hayley; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    2003-01-01

    The federal specific gasoline tax falls equally on consumers and wholesalers; whereas state specific taxes fall almost entirely on consumers. The consumer incidence of state taxes is greater in states that use relatively little gasoline.

  2. Incidence of federal and state gasoline taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Chouinard, Hayley; Perloff, Jeffrey M

    2003-01-01

    The federal specific gasoline tax falls equally on consumers and wholesalers; whereas state specific taxes fall almost entirely on consumers. The consumer incidence of state taxes is greater in states that use relatively little gasoline.

  3. Simultaneity of Crime Incidence in Mindanao

    OpenAIRE

    Madanlo, Lalaine; Murcia, John Vianne; Tamayo, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The study simulated the predictive relationships of regional monthly crime rates for a period covering January 2009 to July 2013. A six-equation model representing the six regions in Mindanao was estimated using the seemingly unrelated regression (SUR). The SUR estimation shows that the increase of incidences of crimes in Southern Mindanao Region and SOCCSKSARGEN tended a 1.73% rise and 0.85% reduction in crime incidences in Zamboanga Peninsula. Monthly crime rates in Northern Mindanao in...

  4. High angle of attack aerodynamics subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flows

    CERN Document Server

    Rom, Josef

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamics of aircraft at high angles of attack is a subject which is being pursued diligently, because the modern agile fighter aircraft and many of the current generation of missiles must perform well at very high incidence, near and beyond stall. However, a comprehensive presentation of the methods and results applicable to the studies of the complex aerodynamics at high angle of attack has not been covered in monographs or textbooks. This book is not the usual textbook in that it goes beyond just presenting the basic theoretical and experimental know-how, since it contains reference material to practical calculation methods and technical and experimental results which can be useful to the practicing aerospace engineers and scientists. It can certainly be used as a text and reference book for graduate courses on subjects related to high angles of attack aerodynamics and for topics related to three-dimensional separation in viscous flow courses. In addition, the book is addressed to the aerodynamicist...

  5. Nanostructures and sensing properties of ZnO prepared using normal and oblique angle deposition techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu Jin; Peng Xiaoyan; Sajjad, M. [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, 00936 (Puerto Rico); Yang Boqian [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Feng, Peter X., E-mail: p.feng@upr.edu [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, 00936 (Puerto Rico)

    2012-02-29

    Nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) for gas sensing application has been prepared by using normal and oblique angle sputtering deposition techniques under different substrate temperatures. Oblique angle plasma beam deposition is demonstrated effectively growing large-area uniformly aligned and inclined ZnO nanorod arrays on catalyst-free silicon substrate due to a self-shadowing mechanism, whereas normal radio frequency sputtering deposition yields nanoparticles as island growth mode. Furthermore, the density of the nanorod arrays is dependent on the incident angle of ZnO plasma beam. With an increase of the incident flux angle, large inter spacing was induced, resulting in sparser nanorod arrays. The nanorod arrays grown with an incident angle of 70 Degree-Sign have an average diameter of {approx} 150-300 nm and length of {approx} 700-750 nm. The experimental data from characterization of the samples indicates that the obtained samples at different substrate temperatures and incident angles have wurtzite structure with a c-axis orientation. Sensing characterization reveals that the nanorod-based sensor shows higher sensitivity, faster response and recovery time, as well as better reproducibility than that of nanoparticle-based gas sensor to 100 ppm hydrogen and methane at low operating temperature below 150 Degree-Sign C due to the porosity and large grain boundaries of the nanorod arrays. It demonstrates that oblique angle of sputtering deposition is a simple, inexpensive synthesis process to get high-porosity nanostructures and as a result, improves the sensing properties of fabricated ZnO sensors, which permits us to obtain sensors with high sensitivity, low operating temperature and stability. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface morphology depends on the deposition angle during sputtering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High quality crystalline ZnO by radio frequency sputtering obtained at 350 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO nanorod

  6. Cognitive models for the concept of angle

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, José Manuel Leonardo de

    1999-01-01

    The instructional models taught in class were similar to the students' models. The teachers addressed angle as a basic-level category, discussed its submodels, clarified the boundaries, and established cognitive reference points. They gradually increased the use of complex metaphors and of several models. The study enriched the characterization of the first two levels of van Hiele theory and demonstrated the value of categorization theory in understanding how our comprehension ...

  7. Perceptions of tilt angles of an agricultural tractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görücü, Serap; Cavallo, Eugenio; Murphy, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    A tractor stability simulator has been developed to help study tractor operators' perceptions of angles when the simulator is tilted to the side. The simulator is a trailer-mounted tractor cab equipped with hydraulic lift that can tilt the tractor cabin up to 30 degrees. This paper summarizes data from 82 participants who sat in the simulator while it was tilted. Demographic variables, estimates of tilt angles, and measured tilt angles were collected. The effects of age, gender, tractor driving experience, and frequency of operation on the estimated and measured tilt angles were analyzed. The results showed that about 50% of the participants reported estimations of side tilt angles within ±5 degrees of the actual angles, and nearly the same percentage overestimated the actual side tilt angles. Only a small percentage underestimated the angles. Older, more experienced, and male participants set higher limits on the actual angle at which they felt uncomfortable and would not drive. PMID:24417527

  8. Small angle elastic scattering of protons off of spinless nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elastic differential cross sections and analyzing powers for 800 MeV protons incident on 12C, 40Ca, and 208Pb in the momentum transfer range 20 MeV/c < q < 130 MeV/c have been measured. The data was taken with the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Special delay-line drift chambers with dead regions for the beam to pass through them were used to obtain the data. Through the interference of the Coulomb and nuclear contributions to the differential cross section in the small angle region, the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the forward nuclear amplitude α/sub n/(0) = Ref/sub n/(0)/Imf/sub n/(0) is extracted. The importance of knowing this quantity at lower energies in order to study the differences between relativistic and non-relativistic scattering theories is discussed. 130 refs., 60 figs., 12 tabs

  9. Incidence and epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter; Elsøe, Rasmus; Hansen, Sandra Hope;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The literature lacks recent population-based epidemiology studies of the incidence, trauma mechanism and fracture classification of tibial shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date information on the incidence of tibial shaft fractures in a large and compl......Introduction: The literature lacks recent population-based epidemiology studies of the incidence, trauma mechanism and fracture classification of tibial shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date information on the incidence of tibial shaft fractures in a large...... the highest frequency between the age of 30 and 40. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type, representing 34% of all tibial shaft fractures. The majority of tibial shaft fractures occur during walking, indoor activity and sports. The distribution among genders shows that males present a higher...... frequency of fractures while participating in sports activities and walking. Women present the highest frequency of fractures while walking and during indoor activities. Conclusion: This study shows an incidence of 16.9/100,000/year for tibial shaft fractures. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type...

  10. The value of reconstruction of radiation incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A film badge, or thermoluminescent personal dosemeter, as a means of assessing personal radiation dose is adequate under normal working exposure circumstances. However, in a radiation incident where the direction, dimensions and gradient of the radiation field may be of prime importance, the personal dosemeter does not always indicate a dose which is representative of whole body or partial body dose. Reconstruction of such an incident is therefore essential in determining these parameters. In this paper, reference will be to the need for prompt reconstruction, the value of a search interview and repeated re-enactment of the incident. It will emphasize the need for a personal dosemeter, and describe how the recorded dose may be used as a basis for substantiating both the information derived from the search interview and subsequent physical and radiation measurements. These measurements are used to predict the partial and average whole body exposures, which in turn may be compared to the assessment of radiation exposure indicated by a study of the chormosome aberration yield in human lymphocytes. The principles involved here are discussed with reference to an incident involving the over-exposure of two radiographers working in an industrial environment

  11. Mandibular Angle Fractures: Comparison of One Miniplate vs. Two Miniplates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Hajmohammadi

    2013-01-01

    favorable mandibular angle fractures was associated with a similar incidence of complications. Thus, it seems that the use of two miniplates in this setting may not be warranted, nor cost-efficient.

  12. Incidence of Cancer: Alarming Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Lourdes Iglesias Armenteros

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is an important health problem worldwide. It affects all of the countries, independently of the race, culture, level of economical development and political system. Around 10 million of new cases of cancer are detected every year. At present approximately 50 000 women died because of this disease.

  13. Statement of nuclear incidents at nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three incidents were reported in April-June 1993. The first was on the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) site at Sellafield and concerned leakage of 0.5 TBq of alpha activity from plutonium contaminated waste stored in a steel drum. This was subsequently double contained and moved so it could be inspected regularly. No contamination of personnel occurred. The second concerned the leakage of thorium liquor from a pipe at the UKAEA's Thorium reprocessing plant at Dounreay. Two temporary repairs were made and no personnel were contaminated. The third was at the Sellafield site where a small quantity (5 mls) of plutonium containing liquor had leaked from a package and released alpha activity. The bags were temporary containment of engineering debris which may have had sharp edges. The bags had been piled up and one of the bags had torn. Recommendations were made following inquiries into each of the incidents to improve procedures and prevent similar incidents occurring. (UK)

  14. Analysis of medication incidents and development of a Medication Incident Rate Clinical Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headford, C; McGowan, S; Clifford, R

    2001-07-01

    Most health service organisations depend solely upon spontaneous voluntary reporting of medication incidents and a wide variety of available denominators are used in order to calculate the Medication Incident Rate (MIR). This paper describes how nursing staff and clinical pharmacists reviewed medication incident data, revised and established new systems of reporting and developed a clinically useful, rate-based MIR Clinical Indicator. In order to make the MIR more meaningful, the frequency of occurrence of incidents was considered within the context of the total number of medications given to patients. This was achieved by undertaking a point prevalence audit of all inpatient medication charts (n=372) to determine the total number of doses of medication given to patients during a 24 hour period (n=3211). This value was then used as the denominator for the MIR indicator. During 1998, a total of 475 medication incidents were reported; the average number of incidents was 1.3 per 24 hours. The MIR per 1000 doses was calculated to be 0.4. In most cases (77%) the incident caused no harm to the patient and no change in treatment was required, and the most 'severe' category for any incident was that active treatment was required (3% of reported incidents). The most common type of incident was the omission of a dose of medication (50%). A wide range of drugs were involved in the incidents, most commonly morphine (3.4%). The authors consider that the development and use of the MIR Clinical Indicator has positively influenced clinical practice in some areas at the authors' hospital. PMID:15484647

  15. Remote Sensing of Sea State by the Brewsters Angle Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Sathe

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available The extent of plane polarised light resulting from Brewsters reflection from the wide-roughened sea surface is studied for various sea states on the assumption that the incident light on the air-sea interface is unpolarised. The sea states associated with different wind speeds are simulated using the Cox and Munk 'wind speed-wave slope' law and the Gaussian distribution of wave-slopes. The spatial distribution of plane polarised component of diffuse reflected light is also studied with a view to exploring possibilities of using this parameter for remote sensing of sea state from a sensor viewing the sea surface through an appropriate polaroid. The results show that the plane polarised fraction of reflected light as received in a given look angle can be directly related to the prevailing sea state and can be used as a convenient parameter for remote sensing of sea state. The scope and limitations of the method proposed are discussed.

  16. Small-Angle Measurement of Laser Beam Steering Based on Total Internal-Reflection Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A precision small-angle measurement system is introduced based on optical total internal reflection effect. When the incident angle of a polarized beam is larger than the critical angle, and the beam has a small steering angle in the vicinity of the critical angle, the total internal reflection will take place and a relative phased shift between the s- and the p-polarized components is produced. By utilizing the characteristics we could measure the small angle displacement of the incident beam. A differential optical system including four right-angle prisms is set up based on above, and we take the difference of the interference intensity of sand p-components divided by their sum as the output signal. A good linearity between the output signal and the angular displacement is proved by the theoretical simulation. The system result and error analysis are given as well. The experiment shows that the measurement range of this system is ±20, and a resolution of 10'' is achieved. This method has many advantages, such as simple configuration, high sensitivity, good linearity and high antinoise ability

  17. Incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens; Pedersen, Marianne G;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To estimate the occurrence of epilepsy in Denmark between 1977 and 2002, taking gender, age, and secular trends into consideration. METHODS: We used the Danish Civil Registration System to identify all persons born in Denmark and the Danish National Hospital Register to identify persons...... registered with epilepsy between 1977 and 2002. RESULTS: Between 1977 and 2002 the average incidence of epilepsy was 68.8 new epilepsy patients per 100,000 person-years at risk. However, the incidence changed with calendar time and increased steeply from 1990 to 1995, probably due to changes in diagnostic...... declined from a high level in children to a low level between 20 and 40 years of age, and thereafter a gradual increase was seen. The incidence rate was slightly higher in men than in women except for the age range 10-20 years. About 2% of the population was diagnosed with epilepsy at some point during the...

  18. Dynamic detection of nuclear reactor core incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveillance, safety and security of evolving systems area challenge to prevent accident. The dynamic detection of a hypothetical and theoretical blockage incident in the Phenix nuclear reactor is investigated. Such an incident is characterized by abnormal temperature rises in the neighbourhood of the concerned reactor core assembly. The data set is the output temperature map of the reactor, it is provided by the Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA). A real time approach is proposed, based on a sliding temporal window, it is divided into two steps. The first one behaves like a sieve, its function is to detect simultaneous temperature evolutions in a close neighbourhood which may induce a potential incident. When such evolutions are detected, the second step computes the temperature contrast between each assembly having these evolutions and its neighbourhood. This method permits to monitor the system evolution in real time while only few observations are required. Results are validated on various noisy realistic simulated perturbations. (authors)

  19. Perfect tunneling of obliquely-incident wave through a structure with a double-negative layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanas'ev, S. A.; Sementsov, D. I.; Yakimov, Y. V.

    2016-06-01

    The oblique incidence of TE-polarized plane electromagnetic wave on a three-layered lossless structure containing the layer of double-negative medium is discussed. The resonant values of the angle of incidence are obtained, for which the perfect tunneling of electromagnetic power through the structure can be achieved. The results of exact numerical analysis are compared with approximate solution based on the model of symmetrical slab waveguide.

  20. Incidence, etiology and mortality of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam Fialla, Annette; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B; Touborg Lassen, Annmarie

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge on the prognosis among patients with cirrhosis is mainly based on clinical trials with selected patient groups as well as population-based register studies with suboptimal diagnostic reliability. The aim of the study was to describe incidence, etiology, and mortality of well-validated c......Knowledge on the prognosis among patients with cirrhosis is mainly based on clinical trials with selected patient groups as well as population-based register studies with suboptimal diagnostic reliability. The aim of the study was to describe incidence, etiology, and mortality of well...

  1. Measurement of small angle based on a (1 0 0) silicon wafer and heterodyne interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Lin, Jiun-You; Chen, Yu-Fong; Chang, Chia-Ou

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a new optical material application and a heterodyne interferometer are proposed for measuring small angles. In the proposed interferometer, the optical material is a (1 0 0) silicon wafer applied to compose a new architecture of small angle sensor. The small angle measurement used the phase difference which is dependent on the incident angle at the silicon wafer surface to deduce the angular variation. The proposed architecture is simple and uses the common path method to compare test and reference signals; thus, small angles can be easily and accurately measured by estimating the phase difference. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this method. The angular resolution and sensitivity levels superior to 7 × 10-5° (1.3 × 10-6 rad) and 150 (deg/deg), respectively, were attainable in a dynamic range of 0.45°.

  2. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Major; Ariane Schweighauser; Thierry Francey

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of ...

  3. Urbanisation and the incidence of eating disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Son, G.E. van; Hoeken, D. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Furth, E.F. van; Hoek, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose response relati

  4. Urbanisation and the incidence of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Son, Gabrielle E.; Van Hoeken, Daphne; Bartelds, Aad I. M.; Van Furth, Eric F.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2006-01-01

    The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose-response relati

  5. Contact angles of liquid metals on quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetting with μm-sized Pb droplets on thin polycrystalline films of decagonal Al13Co4 is reported. The films were prepared under high vacuum conditions in order to have Pb droplets lying on a clean surface. The method used is sequential deposition and annealing of specific stackings of Al and Co layers of nanometric thicknesses. A 300 nm thick Pb slab was then deposited on top of the films and dewetting experiments were followed in situ in a scanning Auger microprobe. The contact angle between the Pb droplet and the surface of the film is measured to be 49 deg. ± 7 deg. Further investigation performed by cross section transmission electron microscopy allows us to better characterize the interface. Taking into account the rugosity of the film, it is concluded that there is partial wetting of the film, which corresponds to a smaller contact angle. The comparison with other results obtained either with pure metals or with a cubic AlCo compound leads to the conclusion that the wetting behaviour of Pb on the surface of a decagonal compound is close to that of a metal with a high melting point and not significantly different from that of a crystalline compound with a small unit cell

  6. Incidence of hepatitis C in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliét Silveira Hanus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C is a public health problem of global dimensions, affecting approximately 200 million people worldwide. The main objective of this study was to estimate the incidence rate of hepatitis C in Brazil during the period between 2001 and 2012. METHODS: An epidemiological, temporal, and descriptive study was performed using data from the Information System for Reportable Diseases. RESULTS: Between 2001 and 2012, a total of 151,056 hepatitis C cases were recorded, accounting for 30.3% of all hepatitis notifications in Brazil. The average gross coefficient for the analysis period was 6.7 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The regions with the highest rates were the Southeast region (8.7 new cases/100,000 inhabitants and the South (13.9 new cases/100,000 inhabitants. There was a predominance of men with respect to the incidence rate (8.0 new cases/100,000 inhabitants compared to women (5.5 new cases/100,000 inhabitants. Injection drug use was the most common source of infection, and members of the white race, residents of urban areas, and those aged 60 to 64 years had the highest incidences. CONCLUSIONS: Over the last 10 years, the incidence of hepatitis C in Brazil has increased, mainly in the South and Southeast. The adoption of fast, accurate diagnostic methods, together with epidemiological awareness, can facilitate early intervention measures for adequate control of the disease.

  7. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark, and to...

  8. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin; Drzewiecki, K T; Balslev, Eva; Muhic, Aida; Krarup-Hansen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    reviwed published papers about MCC based on a MEDLINE search. Fourteen of the 51 patients developed recurrence, and 37 (73%) died during the study period. Mean follow-up was 13 months (range 1-122). A total of 153 patients were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry, and showed that incidence rates had...

  9. Worldwide Increasing Incidences of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne E. Godar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM has been increasing at a steady rate in fair-skinned populations around the world for decades. Scientists are not certain why CMM has been steadily increasing, but strong, intermittent UVB (290–320 nm exposures, especially sunburn episodes, probably initiate, CMM, while UVA (321–400 nm passing through glass windows in offices and cars probably promotes it. The CMM incidence may be increasing at an exponential rate around the world, but it definitely decreases with increasing latitude up to ~50°N where it reverses and increases with the increasing latitude. The inversion in the incidence of CMM may occur because there is more UVA relative to UVB for most of the year at higher latitudes. If windows, allowing UVA to enter our indoor-working environment and cars, are at least partly responsible for the increasing incidence of CMM, then UV filters can be applied to reduce the rate of increase worldwide.

  10. The incidence of anorexia nervosa on Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, HW; van Harten, PN; Hermans, KME; Katzman, MA; Matroos, GE; Susser, ES

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Although anorexia nervosa was once thought to occur only in affluent societies, cases have now been documented across the globe. To examine whether anorexia nervosa emerges in societies undergoing socioeconomic transition, the authors studied the incidence of anorexia nervosa on the Carib

  11. Investigation into the influence of diffuser stagger angles on the flow field and performance of a centrifugal compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Guang; ZHOU Li; DING Haiping; YUAN Minjian; ZHANG Chunmei

    2007-01-01

    The performance graphs of a centrifugal compressor under different diffuser stagger angles were measured,and the influence of different stagger angles of vanes on the stage performance as well as flow field was investigated numerically.The results show that the performance graph shifts when the diffuser stagger angle is altered;the influence of different stagger angles of vanes on the flow field inside the centrifugal compressor is great.Large scale vortices appear on the diffuser vane under larger incidence.An optimal diffuser stagger angle should exist at a specified flow rate to make the characteristic of the flow optimized.The incidence corresponding to the highest efficiency is not 0° at the design condition.

  12. Distribution of angles in hyperbolic lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Morten Skarsholm; Truelsen, Jimi Lee

    2010-01-01

    We prove an effective equidistribution result about angles in a hyperbolic lattice. We use this to generalize a result from the study by Boca.......We prove an effective equidistribution result about angles in a hyperbolic lattice. We use this to generalize a result from the study by Boca....

  13. Distribution of Angles in Hyperbolic Lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Risager, Morten; L. Truelsen, Jimi

    2008-01-01

    We prove an effective equidistribution result about angles in a hyperbolic lattice. We use this to generalize a result due to F. P. Boca.......We prove an effective equidistribution result about angles in a hyperbolic lattice. We use this to generalize a result due to F. P. Boca....

  14. Competition of terrace and step-edge sputtering under oblique-incidence ion impact on a stepped Pt(1 1 1) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using molecular-dynamics simulation, we study the sputtering of a Pt(1 1 1) surface under oblique and glancing incidence 5 keV Ar ions. For incidence angles larger than a critical angle θc, the projectile is reflected off the surface and the sputter yield is zero. We discuss the azimuth dependence of the critical angle θc with the help of the surface corrugation felt by the impinging ion. If a step exists on the surface, sputtering occurs also for glancing incidence θ>θc. We demonstrate that for realistic step densities, the total sputtering of a stepped surface may be sizable even at glancing incidence.

  15. Brief communication: Lumbar lordosis in extinct hominins: implications of the pelvic incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Ella; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Kramer, Patricia A

    2014-06-01

    Recently, interest has peaked regarding the posture of extinct hominins. Here, we present a new method of reconstructing lordosis angles of extinct hominin specimens based on pelvic morphology, more specifically the orientation of the sacrum in relation to the acetabulum (pelvic incidence). Two regression models based on the correlation between pelvic incidence and lordosis angle in living hominoids have been developed. The mean values of the calculated lordosis angles based on these models are 36°-45° for australopithecines, 45°-47° for Homo erectus, 27°-34° for the Neandertals and the Sima de los Huesos hominins, and 49°-51° for fossil H. sapiens. The newly calculated lordosis values are consistent with previously published values of extinct hominins (Been et al.: Am J Phys Anthropol 147 (2012) 64-77). If the mean values of the present nonhuman hominoids are representative of the pelvic and lumbar morphology of the last common ancestor between humans and nonhuman hominoids, then both pelvic incidence and lordosis angle dramatically increased during hominin evolution from 27° ± 5 to 22° ± 3 (respectively) in nonhuman hominoids to 54° ± 10 and 51° ± 11 in modern humans. This change to a more human-like configuration appeared early in the hominin evolution as the pelvis and spines of both australopithecines and H. erectus show a higher pelvic incidence and lordosis angle than nonhuman hominoids. The Sima de los Huesos hominins and Neandertals show a derived configuration with a low pelvic incidence and lordosis angle. PMID:24615397

  16. Impact of overweight and obesity on the musculoskeletal system using lumbosacral angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyemaechi, Ndubuisi OC; Anyanwu, Godson E; Obikili, Emmanuel N; Onwuasoigwe, Okechukwu; Nwankwo, Okechukwu E

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity have been identified as independent risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. However, the association between obesity and low back pain remains controversial. Little is known about the effects of overweight and obesity on the angles of the lumbosacral spine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of body mass index (BMI) and waist–hip ratio (WHR) on lumbosacral angles. Methods The effects of BMI and WHR on the lumbar lordosis angle (LLA), lumbosacral angle (LSA), sacral inclination angle (°°), and lumbosacral disc angle (LSDA) of 174 overweight and obese subjects (test group) and 126 underweight and normal-weight subjects (control group) were analyzed. Results The test group had a significantly higher mean LSA, LLA, sacral inclination angle (SIA), and LSDA (P=0.001). A significant correlation was noted between BMI and LSA (P=0.001), LLA (P=0.001), SIA (P=0.001), and LSDA (P=0.03). There was also a positive relationship between WHR and LSA (P=0.012), LLA (P=0.009), SIA (P=0.02), and LSDA (P=0.01). Conclusion There was an increase in lumbosacral angles in individuals with raised BMI and WHR. This may result in biomechanical changes in the lumbosacral spine, which increase the incidence of low back pain. PMID:27022251

  17. Incidence of dental caries in chronic urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur Surrinder; Ghosh Srabani; Kanwar A; Gauba A

    1991-01-01

    Three hundred patients of chronic urticaria were screened for dental affections. Sixty two (20.66%) patients were detected to have dental caries. Among the control group which com-prised of 100 patients, 20% had dental caries. There was thus no increased incidence of dental caries among patients with urticaria. Only 2 patients had remission of urticaria following treat-ment of caries. Dental caries therefore is probably not a cause of chronic urticaria.

  18. [Anatomic incidence of meniscochondrocalcinosis of the knee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, D; Stankovic, A; Morin, J; Borda-Iriarte, O; Uzan, M; Quintero, M; Memin, Y; Bard, M; de Sèze, S; Richewaert, A

    1982-06-01

    The authors have studied the incidence of menisco-calcinosis (MC) and that of menisco-chondrocalcinosis (MCC) of knee joints of 108 non selected cadavera. The mean age of the subjects was 71.8 +/- 13.8 years. The study was performed by radiographic examination of the menisci and cartilagineous fragments of femoral condyles using high contrast films. The incidence of MC or MCC was found to be 18.5 per cent. It was slightly higher in females (21.5 p. cent) than in males (15.8 p. cent) subjects but this difference failed to reach the level of statistical significance. No positive case was detected before the age of 60 years. For the age groups of: 60-69, 70-79, 80-89 and over 90 years, its incidence was: 11.7; 26.9; 21.2 and 50 (4 subjects out of 8) per cent respectively. Approximately 40 per cent of all positive cases had meniscocalcinosis without associated chondrocalcinosis. No single case of chondrocalcinosis without meniscocalcinosis was observed. Six out of 8 cases with MC calcinosis and 2 out of 12 cases with MCC were unilateral. The external menisci were more frequently and more heavily affected than internal ones. Eighty per cent of the knees affected by either MC or MCC were at the same time associated to an osteoarthrotic lesion compared to 35 p. cent of the knees without MC or MCC matched for age: a result which appeared to be highly significant difference. PMID:6896928

  19. The Racialistic Incidents Inventory: Measuring Awareness of Racialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Claiborne, Joyce G.; Taylor, Jerome

    The Racialistic Incidents Inventory (RII) was developed to measure individual awareness of eight types of racialistic incidents. Racialistic incidents were defined as situations in which behaviors or attitudes are directed toward a particular racial/ethnic group; these may reflect racist or nonracist attitudes. The typology of incidents was…

  20. Incidence of multiple myeloma in Nagasaki City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to observe the incidence of multiple myeloma in the population of Nagasaki City from 1973 to 1982, and to assess any influence caused by A-bomb exposure, 85 cases of myeloma have been collected and analysed. Informatively, 48 cases of this number were A-bomb survivors. Among the middle-aged cases, the crude incidence rates of myeloma in the exposed group were found to be higher than those in the non-exposed group. Further, the relative risk of myeloma was higher in A-bomb survivors and this tendency become more pronounced in the those who were within 2 km of the epicenter of the blast. The age-adjusted relative risk in male and female A-bomb survivors was 1.59 and 1.68 respectively, but no significant differences were noted. (author)

  1. Incidence of Fungal attack on Aircraft Fuselage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Dayal

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of fungal attack on the fuselage of a few Vampire aircraft has been observed. The fungus isolated from the infected regions has been tentatively indentified as TorulaSp. Laboratory experiments have revealed that within four weeks this fungus causes about 44 percent loss in the tensile strength of the brich plywood used in the manufacture of the fuselage of the aircraft.

  2. Urbanisation and the incidence of eating disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Son, G.E. van; Hoeken, D. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Furth, E.F. van; Hoek, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose response relation with degree of urbanisation and was five times higher in cities than in rural areas. Remarkably, anorexia nervosa showed no association with urbanisation. We conclude that urbanlife is a potenti...

  3. Incidence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    M.H. Shirazi; Sadeghifard, N; R Ranjbar; E. Daneshyar; A Ghasemi

    2006-01-01

    Incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy among Iranian women was examined. Midstream urine was collected from 380 pregnant women and streaked on blood agar and incubated for 24 to 48 h. Growth was considered significant if 105 mL-1 bacteria were present. Among the pregnant women, 10.1% had asymptomatic bacteriuria. Age, past history of abortion, proteinuria, level of education, number of fertility had no significant association with asymptomatic bacteriuria occurrence. But lower...

  4. The current status of grazing incidence optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developments in the area of grazing incidence optics with emphasis on telescopes for use in X-ray astronomy are reviewed. The performance of existing high-resolution telescopes is outlined and compared with those expected from future missions like ROSAT and AXAF. Starting from the basic principles of X-ray reflection and scattering, an attempt is made to highlight the current understanding of X-ray mirror physics using new theoretical ideas as well as experimental laboratory results. (author)

  5. Incidence of preeclampsia in pregnant Swiss women.

    OpenAIRE

    Purde, Mette-Triin; Baumann, Marc Ulrich; Wiedemann, Ute; Nydegger, Urs E.; Risch, Lorenz; Surbek, Daniel; Risch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    QUESTION UNDER STUDY The epidemiology of preeclampsia in Switzerland is known only from a retrospective registry study. This analysis aimed to prospectively determine the incidence of preeclampsia in a cohort of pregnant women in Switzerland. METHODS Pregnant women presenting at gestational week 11-14 at their obstetrician's office were consecutively included and prospectively followed-up until the end of pregnancy. Ultrasound characteristics, blood pressure measurements, body mas...

  6. Secondary Electron Emission from Solid Hydrogen and Deuterium Resulting from Incidence of keV Electrons and Hydrogen Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.

    1977-01-01

    the velocity or the stopping power of the incident particles. Measurements were also made for oblique incidence of H+ ions on solid deuterium for angles of incidence up to 75°. A correction could be made for the emission of secondary ions by also measuring the current calorimetrically. At largest...... energies, the angular dependence corresponds to δ (ϑ) =δ (ϑ)(cosϑ)−1....

  7. A physical explanation for the all-angle reflectionless property of transformation optics designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the all-angle reflectionless property of transformation optics devices is analyzed, and a physical explanation is provided for it. To this end, plane wave propagation through a planar boundary separating two homogenous, lossless magnetically anisotropic media is studied. The general form of material parameters enabling an all-angle reflectionless transmission of electromagnetic waves through the boundary is derived. Similarities are drawn between this general form of all-angle reflectionless material parameters and those observed in transformation optics designs. The findings are verified through full-wave simulation. Furthermore, a physical explanation as to why the general form of anisotropic material parameters are reflectionless for all angle of incidences is provided. This work provides an intuitive understanding of the inherent reflectionless property of transformation optics devices, and may find applications in designing reflectionless media to control electromagnetic waves without the use of coordinate transformations. (paper)

  8. Incidence of coliphage in potable water supplies.

    OpenAIRE

    el-Abagy, M M; Dutka, B J; Kamel, M; el Zanfaly, H T

    1988-01-01

    Samples of drinking water from different sources in greater Cairo, Egypt, and bottled drinking water were tested for total coliform, fecal coliform, and coliphage populations. Of the 147 samples tested, 4 samples were positive for both total coliforms and coliphage, 65 samples were negative for total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and coliphage, and 78 samples were positive for coliphage and negative for total coliforms and fecal coliforms. The incidence of coliphage in these potable water suppl...

  9. Incidence of cancer among Norwegian boiler welders.

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsen, T E; Langård, S; Andersen, A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The cancer incidence among 2957 boiler welders was investigated. The subjects were registered electrical welders from 1942 to 1981. A subcohort of 606 stainless steel welders was studied separately. METHODS: The investigation was a historical prospective cohort study based on a national registry. The loss of follow up was 4.9%. RESULTS: There were 625 deaths (659 expected). There were 269 cancer cases (264 expected). An excess of lung cancer was found; 50 cases v 37.5 expected. Th...

  10. Rethinking Security Incident Response: The Integration of Agile Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Grispos, George; Glisson, William Bradley; Storer, Tim

    2014-01-01

    In today's globally networked environment, information security incidents can inflict staggering financial losses on organizations. Industry reports indicate that fundamental problems exist with the application of current linear plan-driven security incident response approaches being applied in many organizations. Researchers argue that traditional approaches value containment and eradication over incident learning. While previous security incident response research focused on best practice d...

  11. Incidence of Metoclopramide-induced Methemoglobinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Akinci, Emine; Yücel YÜZBAŞIOĞLU; Semra ASLAY; Coşkun, Figen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Methemoglobinemia could be a congenital or acquired condition. It causes clinical conditions ranging from simple cyanosis to hypoxia, lactic acidosis and death. Several cases of metoclopramide-induced methemoglobinemia both in infants and adults have been reported in literature. We aimed to investigate the incidence of metoclopramide-induced methemoglobinemia in our emergency department (ED). Methods: Adult patients who were admitted to the ED with renal colic, peripheral vertigo,...

  12. Influence of scattering phenomena on the solar zenith angle dependence of in-water irradiance levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Monte Carlo analysis is utilized to determine the influence of the inherent properties of a water mass on the solar zenith angle dependence of subsurface irradiance levels. It is shown that the proportion of scattering interactions (as represented by the scattering albedo ω) has a greater influence on this dependence that does the backscattering probability B. Several representations of direct and/or diffuse incident radiation are considered, and their effects on the solar zenith angle dependence are evaluated. Irradiance level data collected in Lake Erie are compared to the predictions of the Monte Carlo analysis

  13. Temperature Influence on Divergence Angles of Quartz Crystal Wollaston Prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a structural angle and main refractive indices as two key factors to understand the temperature influence on the divergence angles of the Wollaston prism. The temperature influence on the divergence angles of quartz crystal Wollaston prism is studied theoretically The results show that divergence angles decrease with increasing temperature, while the divergence angle of e-light decrease more quickly than that of o-light. The testing system is established to verify the above results, and the experimental results are in agreement well with the theoretical analysis. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  14. Energy and angle differential cross sections for the electron-impact double ionization of helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pindzola, M S [AUBURN; Robicheaux, F [AUBURN

    2008-01-01

    Energy and angle differential cross sections for the electron-impact double ionization of helium are calculated using a non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling method. Collision probabilities are found by projection of a time evolved nine dimensional coordinate space wave function onto fully antisymmetric products of spatial and spin functions representing three outgoing Coulomb waves. At an incident energy of 106 eV, we present double energy differential cross sections and pentuple energy and angle differential cross sections. The pentuple energy and angle differential cross sections are found to be in relative agreement with the shapes observed in recent (e,3e) reaction microscope experiments. Integration of the differential cross sections over all energies and angles yields a total ionization cross section that is also in reasonable agreement with absolute crossed-beams experiments.

  15. Incidence of symptomatic spondylolithiasis in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B. Kuubiere

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low back pain disorders are an increasingly common and costly health problems in the western countries. For these patients, the return to work is their most important input to outcome measure of medical care. The incidence of spondylolithiasis varies from place to place, age, sex, association with certain disease states, fall from heights, previous road traffic accidents (trauma among others. Conservative therapy is usually the initial treatment of choice. In Northern Ghana many people complain of low back pain, yet there has not been any scientific study on the incidence of lumbar spine spondylolithiasis. The aim of the present study is to retrospectively investigate the incidence of lumbar spondylolithiasis in Northern Ghana. Study Design: Retrospective. Place and Duration: Tania Specialist Orthopaedic Hospital, Tamale, Ghana, from January 2010 -December 2013. Methodology: Data regarding patient’s age, sex and radiographic interpretations were retrieved and entered for analysis from January 2010- December 2013. Results: The incidence of symptomatic lumbar spondylolithiasis over the study period was 6.02% of all orthopaedic cases that reported to Tania Specialist Orthopaedic Hospital. Majority of the patients 219(75.78% of symptomatic spondylolithesis were aged 20-59 years. From this age group 121 patients (55.25 % were females. Out of a total of 289 patients who reported with the condition over the four (4 year period, 129 cases (44.64% were males and 160 patients (55.36% were females. The male to female ratio was 1:1,2. The year with the highest reporting cases was 2011 recording 110 patients, representing 38.06%. Majority of patients 262 (90.66% were managed conservatively, while only 27 cases (9.34 % had decompression laminectomy surgery done. The total number of orthopaedic cases within the period under review was 4,800. Conclusion: The incidence of symptomatic spondylolithiasis among the study subjects was relatively high (6

  16. Second harmonic generation by propagation of a p-polarized obliquely incident laser beam in underdense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical study of second harmonic generation due to interaction an intense, p-polarized laser beam propagating obliquely in homogeneous underdense plasma, in the mildly relativistic regime, has been presented. The efficiency of the second harmonic radiation as well as its detuning length has been obtained and their variation with the angle of incidence is analyzed. It is shown that, for a given plasma electron density, the second harmonic efficiency increases with the angle of incidence while the detuning length decreases. The second harmonic amplitude vanishes at normal incidence of the laser beam

  17. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a magnetized plasma column at oblique incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a magnetized plasma column is investigated using Maxwell's equations and applying boundary conditions. Backscattering cross section is evaluated by analytic solution of electric fields inside and outside of plasma column. Plots of backscattering cross section versus frequency, for the range up to J band, reveal two main peaks and two sidebands. Effects of plasma density and radius, as main parameters determining the characteristics of plasma column, on backscattering are discussed. Furthermore, the effect of electromagnetic wave incidence angle on backscattering of plasma column is included in the analysis. The influence of wave incidence angle and frequency, as well as, plasma density and radius on scattering pattern, which is an indicator of the distribution of scattered power in different azimuthal angles, is discussed

  18. Increasing incidence of canine leptospirosis in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-07-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes 90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  19. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Major

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73 and rainfall (r2 0.39, >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25 or rainy days (r2 0.38. Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%, pulmonary (76.7%, hepatic (26.0%, and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%, leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%. Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3. Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species.

  20. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes 90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  1. Impacts of tropical cyclone inflow angle on ocean surface waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; HONG Xin

    2011-01-01

    The inflow angle of tropical cyclones (TC) is generally neglected in numerical studies of ocean surface waves induced by TC. In this study, the impacts of TC inflow angle on ocean surface waves were investigated using a high-resolution wave model. Six numerical experiments were conducted to examine, in detail, the effects of inflow angle on mean wave parameters and the spectrum of wave directions. A comparison of the waves simulated in these experiments shows that inflow angle significantly modifies TC-induced ocean surface waves. As the inflow angle increases, the asymmetric axis of the significant wave height (SWH) field shifts 30° clockwise, and the maximum SWH moves from the front-right to the rear-right quadrant. Inflow angle also affects other mean wave parameters, especially in the rear-left quadrant, such as the mean wave direction, the mean wavelength, and the peak direction. Inflow angle is a key factor in wave models for the reproduction of double-peak or multi-peak patterns in the spectrum of wave directions. Sensitivity experiments also show that the simulation with a 40° inflow angle is the closest to that of the NOAA statistical SLOSH inflow angle. This suggests that 40° can be used as the inflow angle in future TC-induced ocean surface wave simulations when SLOSH or observed inflow angles are not available.

  2. Prediction of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Korea, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Hyunsoon; Lee, Jong-Keun; Lee, Duk Hyoung; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate of Korea’s current cancer burden, this study aimed to report on projected cancer incidence and mortality rates for the year 2016. Materials and Methods: Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2013 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and cancer mortality data from 1993 to 2014 were acquired from Statistics Korea. Cancer incidence in 2016 was projected by fitting a linear regression model to observed age-specific cancer incidence rates against obser...

  3. Perceptions and Incidence of Test Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Gerwing, Travis G.; Rash, Joshua A; Allen Gerwing, Alyssa M.; Bev Bramble; Jeff Landine

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety (TA) can lower student GPA and increase dropout rates in populations of university students. Despite numerous treatment options, many students still suffer from TA. The stigma attached to this type of anxiety and the incidence rates and perceptions of TA were quantified through surveys distributed to 1,099 students at a Canadian university. Results of this study indicated that 38.5% of students (30.0 % of males, 46.3 % of females) suffered from self-reported TA at some point over...

  4. Estimating the angle of inclination of the Earth's rotational axis: a potentially meaningful practical activity for astronomy education

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Danda de Oliveira; Letícia Zolet; Odilon Giovannini Junior

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a practical activity to estimate the angle of inclination of the Earth's rotation axis as a teaching resource with potential to promote the meaningful learning on topics related to astronomy and Earth science. Some topics of interest for carrying out the activity as the apparent movement of the sun, the angle of incidence of sunlight throughout the year and the seasons are discussed. The procedures and materials used in measuring the length of the shadow of a gnomon, th...

  5. Safety culture and learning from incidents: the role of incident reporting and causal analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear industry more than any other industrial branch has developed and used predictive risk analysis as a method of feedforward control of safety and reliability. Systematic evaluation of operating experience, statistical documentation of component failures, systematic documentation and analysis of incidents are important complementary elements of feedback control: we are dealing here with adjustment and learning from experience, in particular from past incidents. Using preliminary findings from ongoing research at the Research Center Systems Safety at the Berlin University of Technology the contribution discusses preconditions for an effective use of lessons to be learnt from closely matched incident reporting and in depth analyses of causal chains leading to incidents. Such conditions are especially standardized documentation, reporting and analyzing methods of incidents; structured information flows and feedback loops; abstaining from culpability search; mutual trust of employees and management; willingness of all concerned to continually evaluate and optimize the established learning system. Thus, incident related reporting and causal analyses contribute to safety culture, which is seen to emerge from tightly coupled organizational measures and respective change in attitudes and behaviour. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs

  6. Obliquely incident ion beam figuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Dai, Yifan; Xie, Xuhui; Li, Shengyi

    2015-10-01

    A new ion beam figuring (IBF) technique, obliquely incident IBF (OI-IBF), is proposed. In OI-IBF, the ion beam bombards the optical surface obliquely with an invariable incident angle instead of perpendicularly as in the normal IBF. Due to the higher removal rate in oblique incidence, the process time in OI-IBF can be significantly shortened. The removal rates at different incident angles were first tested, and then a test mirror was processed by OI-IBF. Comparison shows that in the OI-IBF technique with a 30 deg incident angle, the process time was reduced by 56.8%, while keeping the same figure correcting ability. The experimental results indicate that the OI-IBF technique is feasible and effective to improve the surface correction process efficiency.

  7. Impact Angle Control of Interplanetary Shock Geoeffectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, D M

    2015-01-01

    We use OpenGGCM global MHD simulations to study the nightside magnetospheric, magnetotail, and ionospheric responses to interplanetary (IP) fa st forward shocks. Three cases are presented in this study: two inclined oblique shocks, here after IOS-1 and IOS-2, where the latter has a Mach number twice stronger than the former. Both shocks have impact angles of 30$^o$ in relation to the Sun-Earth line. Lastly, we choose a frontal perpendicular shock, FPS, whose shock normal is along the Sun-Earth line, with the same Mach number as IOS-1. We find that, in the IOS-1 case, due to the north-south asymmetry, the magnetotail is deflected southward, leading to a mild compression. The geomagnetic activity observed in the nightside ionosphere is then weak. On the other hand, in the head-on case, the FPS compresses the magnetotail from both sides symmetrically. This compression triggers a substorm allowing a larger amount of stored energy in the magnetotail to be released to the nightside ionosphere, resulting in stronger...

  8. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part IV: Comparison of cancer incidence and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report compares cancer incidence and mortality among atomic bomb survivors in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study (LSS) cohort. Because the incidence data are derived from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, case ascertainment is limited to the time (1958-1987) and geographic restrictions (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) of the registries, whereas mortality data are available from 1950-1987 anywhere in Japan. With these conditions, there were 9,014 first primary incident cancer cases identified among LSS cohort members compared with 7,308 deaths for which cancer was listed as the underlying cause of death on death certificates. When deaths were limited to those occurring between 1958-1987 in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, there were 3,155 more incident cancer cases overall, and 1,262 more cancers of the digestive system. For cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, skin, breast, female and male genital organs, urinary system and thyroid, the incidence series was at least twice as large as the comparable mortality series. Although the incidence and mortality data are dissimilar in many ways, the overall conclusions regarding which solid cancers provide evidence of a significant dose response generally confirm the mortality findings. When either incidence or mortality data are evaluated, significant excess risks are observed for all solid cancers, stomach, colon, liver (when it is defined as primary liver cancer or liver cancer not otherwise specified on the death certificate), lung, breast, ovary and urinary bladder. No significant radiation effect is seen for cancers of the pharynx, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, nose, larynx, uterus, prostate or kidney in either series. There is evidence of a significant excess of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the incidence data, but not in the mortality series. 19 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  9. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. PMID:24726694

  10. Mapping of low flip angles in magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balezeau, Fabien; Saint-Jalmes, Herve [LTSI, INSERM U642, Universite Rennes 1 (France); Eliat, Pierre-Antoine [PRISM, IFR 140, Universite Rennes 1 (France); Cayamo, Alejandro Bordelois, E-mail: fabien.balezeau@gmail.com [Centro De BiofIsika Medica, Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba)

    2011-10-21

    Errors in the flip angle have to be corrected in many magnetic resonance imaging applications, especially for T1 quantification. However, the existing methods of B1 mapping fail to measure lower values of the flip angle despite the fact that these are extensively used in dynamic acquisition and 3D imaging. In this study, the nonlinearity of the radiofrequency (RF) transmit chain, especially for very low flip angles, is investigated and a simple method is proposed to accurately determine both the gain of the RF transmitter and the B1 field map for low flip angles. The method makes use of the spoiled gradient echo sequence with long repetition time (TR), such as applied in the double-angle method. It uses an image acquired with a flip angle of 90{sup 0} as a reference image that is robust to B1 inhomogeneity. The ratio of the image at flip angle alpha to the image at a flip angle of 90{sup 0} enables us to calculate the actual value of alpha. This study was carried out at 1.5 and 4.7 T, showing that the linearity of the RF supply system is highly dependent on the hardware. The method proposed here allows us to measure the flip angle from 1{sup 0} to 60{sup 0} with a maximal uncertainty of 10% and to correct T1 maps based on the variable flip angle method.

  11. Incidences and pairs of dot products

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Let $\\mathbb{F}$ be a field, let $P \\subseteq \\mathbb{F}^d$ be a finite set of points, and let $\\alpha,\\beta \\in \\mathbb{F} \\setminus \\{0\\}$. We study the quantity \\[|\\Pi_{\\alpha, \\beta}| = \\{(p,q,r) \\in P \\times P \\times P \\mid p \\cdot q = \\alpha, p \\cdot r = \\beta \\}.\\] We observe a connection between the question of placing an upper bound on $|\\Pi_{\\alpha,\\beta}|$ and a well-studied question on the number of incidences betwen points and hyperplanes, and use this connection to prove new and...

  12. Behavior of obliquely incident vector Bessel beams at planar interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of full-vector electromagnetic Bessel beams obliquely incident at an interface between two electrically different media. We employ a Fourier transform domain representation of Bessel beams to determine their behavior upon reflection and transmission. This transform, which is geometric in nature, consists of elliptical support curves with complex weighting associated with them. The behavior of the scattered field at an interface is highly complex, owing to its full-vector nature; nevertheless, this behavior has a straightforward representation in the transform domain geometry. The analysis shows that the reflected field forms a different vector Bessel beam, but in general, the transmitted field cannot be represented as a Bessel beam. Nevertheless, using this approach, we demonstrate a method to propagate a Bessel beam in the refractive medium by launching a non- Bessel beam at the interface. Several interesting phenomena related to the behavior of Bessel beams are illustrated, such as polarized reflection at Brewster\\'s angle incidence, and the Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Federov shifts in the case of total reflection. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  13. Study of the advancing and receding contact angles: liquid sorption as a cause of contact angle hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, C N C; Wu, R; Li, D; Hair, M L; Neumann, A W

    2002-02-25

    Two types of experiments were used to study the behavior of both advancing and receding contact angles, namely the dynamic one-cycle contact angle (DOCA) and the dynamic cycling contact angle (DCCA) experiments. For the preliminary study, DOCA measurements of different liquids on different solids were performed using an automated axisymmetric drop shape analysis-profile (ADSA-P). From these experimental results, four patterns of receding contact angle were observed: (1) time-dependent receding contact angle; (2) constant receding contact angle; (3) 'stick/slip'; (4) no receding contact angle. For the purpose of illustration, results from four different solid surfaces are shown. These solids are: FC-732-coated surface; poly(methyl methacrylate/n-butyl methacrylate) [P(MMA/nBMA)]; poly(lactic acid) (DL-PLA); and poly(lactic/glycolic acid) 50/50 (DL-PLGA 50/50). Since most of the surfaces in our studies exhibit time dependence in the receding contact angle, a more extended study was conducted using only FC-732-coated surfaces to better understand the possible causes of decreasing receding contact angle and contact angle hysteresis. Contact angle measurements of 21 liquids from two homologous series (i.e. n-alkanes and 1-alcohols) and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OCMTS) on FC-732-coated surfaces were performed. It is apparent that the contact angle hysteresis decreases with the chain length of the liquid. It was found that the receding contact angle equals the advancing angle when the alkane molecules are infinitely large. These results strongly suggest that the chain length and size of the liquid molecule could contribute to contact angle hysteresis phenomena. Furthermore, DCCA measurements of six liquids from the two homologous series on FC-732-coated surfaces were performed. With these experimental results, one can construe that the time dependence of contact angle hysteresis on relatively smooth and homogeneous surfaces is mainly caused by liquid retention

  14. Psychological Trauma in the Workplace: Variation of Incident Severity among Industry Settings and between Recurring vs Isolated Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS DeFraia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents occur within various work environments, with workgroups in certain industries vulnerable to multiple incidents. With the increasing prevalence of incidents in the USA, incident response is a growing practice area within occupational medicine, industrial psychology, occupational social work and other occupational health professions.Objective: To analyze a measure of incident severity based on level of disruption to the workplace and explore whether incident severity varied among different industry settings or between workgroups experiencing multiple vs single traumatic incidents.Methods: Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring incident severity level varied among industry settings or between workgroups impacted by multiple vs isolated events.Results: Incident severity level differed among various industry settings. Banks, retail stores and fast food restaurants accounted for the most severe incidents, while industrial and manufacturing sites reported less severe incidents. Workgroups experiencing multiple incidents reported more severe incidents than workgroups experiencing a single incident.Conclusion: Occupational health practitioners should be alert to industry differences in several areas: pre-incident resiliency training, the content of business recovery plans, assessing worker characteristics, strategies to assist continuous operations and assisting workgroups impacted by multiple or severe incidents.

  15. Numerical aperture characteristics of angle-ended plastic optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cheng; Farrell, Gerard

    2003-03-01

    With the increasing information rates demanded in consumer, automotive and aeronautical applications, a low cost and high performance physical transmission medium is required. Compared with Silica Optical Fiber, Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) offers an economic solution for a range of high-capacity, short-haul applications in industrial and military environments. Recently, a new type of POF, the perfluorinated graded-index plastic optical fiber (PF GI-POF), has been introduced that has low losses and high bandwidth at the communication wavelengths 850 nm and 1300nm. POF is normally terminated perpendicular to the fiber axis. We propose an angle-ended POF, which is terminated at non-perpendicular angles to the fiber axis. The aim of the research is to investigate the numerical aperture (NA) characteristics of angle-ended POF along the major axis of the elliptical endface. A theoretical model indicates that the NA of the angle-ended POF will increase nonlinearly with tilt-angle and the acceptance cone will be deflected with the angle of the deflection increasing nonlinearly with tilt-angle. We present results for the measured NA and the measured deflection angle using the far-field radiation method. Results are presented for 13 angle-ended SI-POF tilt-angles. We also present results for theoretical value of NA and deflection angle as a function of tilt-angle. The agreement between the measured and theoretical value is good up to tilt-angles of about 15 degrees, beyond which deviation occurs.

  16. Oblique incidence effect on steering efficiency of liquid crystal polarization gratings used for optical phased array beam steering amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangjie, Zhao; Jiazhu, Duan; Dayong, Zhang; Cangli, Liu; Yongquan, Luo

    2016-07-01

    A liquid crystal polarization grating (LCPG) is proposed that amplifies the steering angle of a liquid crystal optical phased array for non-mechanical beam steering, taking advantage of its high steering efficiency under normal incidence. However, oblique incidence may play an important role in the overall steering efficiency. The effect of oblique incidence on steering efficiency of a LCPG was analyzed by numerically solving the extended Jones matrix and considering propagation crosstalk. The results indicate that the outgoing laser beam is amplitude-modulated under the effect of oblique incidence and behaves as a sinusoidal-modulated amplitude grating, which diffracts certain energies to non-blazed orders. Over-oblique incidence may even eliminate the steering effect of the incident beam. The modulation depth of the induced amplitude grating was found to be proportional to the product of sinusoidal value of oblique incidence angle and the LC layer thickness, and inversely proportional to the periodic pitch length of the LCPG. Both in-plane incidence and out-of-plane incidence behave similarly to influence the steering efficiency. Finally, the overall steering efficiency for cascaded LCPGs was analyzed and a difference of up to 11 % steering efficiency can be induced between different LCPG configurations, even without considering the over-oblique incidence effect. Both the modulation depth and final steering efficiency can be optimized by varying the LC birefringence and layer thickness.

  17. THE EFFECTS OF LASER REFLECTION ANGLE ON RADIOMETRIC CORRECTION OF THE AIRBORNE LIDAR INTENSITY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shaker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiometric correction (RC of the airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR intensity data has been studied in the last few years. The physical model of the RC relies on the use of the laser range equation to convert the intensity values into the spectral reflectance of the reflected objects. A number of recent studies investigated the effects of the LiDAR system parameters (i.e. range, incidence angle, beam divergence, aperture size, automatic gain control, etc. on the results of the RC process. Nevertheless, the condition of the object surface (slope and aspect plays a crucial role in modelling the recorded intensity data. The variation of the object surface slope and aspect affects the direction as well as the magnitude of the reflected laser pulse which makes significant influence on the bidirectional reflectance distribution function. In this paper, the effects of the angle of reflection, which is the angle between the surface normal and the incidence laser pulse, on the RC results of the airborne LiDAR intensity data is investigated. A practical approach is proposed to compute the angle of reflection using the digital surface model (DSM derived from the LiDAR data. Then, a comparison between the results of the intensity data after RC using the scan angle and RC using the angle of reflection is carried out. The comparison is done by converting the intensity data into equivalent image data and evaluating the classification results of the intensity image data. Preliminary findings show that: 1 the variance-to-mean ratio of the land cover features are significantly reduced while using the angle of reflection in the RC process; 2 4% of accuracy improvement can be achieved using the intensity data corrected with the scan angle. The accuracy improvement increases to 8% when using the intensity data corrected with the angle of reflection. The research work practically justifies the use of the reflection angle in the RC process of airborne Li

  18. Grazing-angle incidence X-ray diffraction by Si1-α(x)Geα(x) thin layer if the composition coefficient α(x) is varying harmonically along the flat entrance surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented theoretical paper concerns the investigation of a principal possibility of the Grazing-angle incidence hard and soft X-ray diffraction (GIXD) owing to long-period harmonic variations of the composition coefficient of the strained or relaxed crystalline, as well as amorphous SiGe layer grown on a thick silicon perfect-crystal substrate. The evaluation of the coherent part of X-radiation scattered by mentioned SiGe layer is pointed out the possibility of the direct GIXD experimental investigations of the long-period structured intermediate transformation states of SiGe layer, which are emerging due to periodicity of the strain field along the substrate-layer boundary

  19. EVALUATION OF NECK SHAFT ANGLE OF FEMUR ON DRY BONES

    OpenAIRE

    Radha; Ravi Shankar; Naveen; Roopa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the neck shaft angle of femur helps to understand clinical relevance in bio mechanics of the hip joint. It helps for the better treatment of different pathological conditions of hip and femur and also to design prosthesis. Femoral neck shaft angle is important to convey the information regarding the race to ...

  20. INCREASED INCIDENCE OF THYROIDITIS IN RECENT YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEnroe D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was carried out on 123 patients with enlarged thyroid swelling between 16-65 years age group, attending Department of Surgery, Sree Gokulam Medical College and research foundation, Venjaramoodu, Trivandrum during the period of November 2011 to February 2013. All patients were examined clinically after taking a detailed history. Then, they were investigated by TFT, USG, X-ray neck, X-ray chest, Indirect Laryngoscopy, FNAC and anti-thyroid antibody tests and all the patients were subjected to surgery and histopathological examination (HPE of the specimen obtained. Finally, all the reports were analysed and the age distribution, sex distribution and the incidence of thyroiditis in study population was obtained. During the study period 123 cases of enlarged thyroid underwent surgery, out of which 115 were females and 8 male patients. The age of the patient in the study ranged from 16- 65 years, the youngest being 16 years old and oldest being 65 years. Maximum cases being in between 30-50 with mean age of 42.3 years. The study showed a female predominance. The incidence of thyroiditis in the present study was 38.21% (47 cases.

  1. A study of images of Projective Angles of pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jue [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhaoqi, Zhang [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)], E-mail: zhaoqi5000@vip.sohu.com; Yu Wei; Miao Cuilian; Yan Zixu; Zhao Yike [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15

    Aims: In images of magnetic resonance and computed tomography (CT) there are visible angles between pulmonary veins and the coronary, transversal or sagittal section of body. In this study these angles are measured and defined as Projective Angles of pulmonary veins. Several possible influential factors and characters of distribution are studied and analyzed for a better understanding of this imaging anatomic character of pulmonary veins. And it could be the anatomic base of adjusting correctly the angle of the central X-ray of the angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing the catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Method: Images of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) and contrast enhanced computer tomography (CECT) of the left atrium and pulmonary veins of 137 health objects and patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are processed with the technique of post-processing, and Projective Angles to the coronary and transversal sections are measured and analyzed statistically. Result: Project Angles of pulmonary veins are one of real and steady imaging anatomic characteristics of pulmonary veins. The statistical distribution of variables is relatively concentrated, with a fairly good representation of average value. It is possible to improve the angle of the central X-ray according to the average value in the selective angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing the catheter ablation of AF.

  2. EVALUATION OF NECK SHAFT ANGLE OF FEMUR ON DRY BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the neck shaft angle of femur helps to understand clinical relevance in bio mechanics of the hip joint. It helps for the better treatment of different pathological conditions of hip and femur and also to design prosthesis. Femoral neck shaft angle is important to convey the information regarding the race to which they belong. Hence the present study was under taken to determine the neck shaft angle of femur in humans. OBJECTIVE: 1. To correct the different types of deformity and to have a normal good walking Mechanism. 2. To know the recent methodology and attempt to evaluate the range of normal Angles of femora and their sex differences. METHODS: ANTHROPOMETRIC: 100 Adult dry bones were studied and analyzed . The neck shaft angle of femur was measured by tracing outlines of contours of all femora. RESULTS: The neck shaft angle of the femur have revealed that there is no much difference in between males and females. There was slightly higher 0.2° in females. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: There was no significant gender difference in neck shaft angle. The Knowledge of knowing the neck shaft angle helps to understand the Biomechanics of the hip joint and also for better treatment of pathological condition of hip and femur.

  3. Contact pressure distribution and support angle optimization of kiln tyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to the shearing force character and the deformation coordination condition of shell at the station of supports, the mathematical models to calculate contact angle and contact pressure distribution between tyre and shell were set up, the formulae of bending moment and bending stress of tyre were obtained. Taking the maximum of tyre fatigue life as the optimal objective, the optimization model of tyre support angle was built. The computational results show that when tyre support angle is 30°, tyre life is far less than that when tyre support angle is optimal, which is 35.6°, and it is unsuitable to stipulate tyre support angle to be 30° in traditional design. The larger the load, the less the nominal stress amplitude increment of tyre, the more favorable the tyre fatigue life when tyre support angle is optimal.

  4. Ultrahigh vacuum/high-pressure flow reactor for surface x-ray diffraction and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering studies close to conditions for industrial catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A versatile instrument for the in situ study of catalyst surfaces by surface x-ray diffraction and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering in a 13 ml flow reactor combined with reaction product analysis by mass spectrometry has been developed. The instrument bridges the so-called ''pressure gap'' and ''materials gap'' at the same time, within one experimental setup. It allows for the preparation and study of catalytically active single crystal surfaces and is also equipped with an evaporator for the deposition of thin, pure metal films, necessary for the formation of small metal particles on oxide supports. Reactions can be studied in flow mode and batch mode in a pressure range of 100-1200 mbar and temperatures up to 950 K. The setup provides a unique combination of sample preparation, characterization, and in situ experiments where the structure and reactivity of both single crystals and supported nanoparticles can be simultaneously determined.

  5. Elevation angle dependence of the SMA antenna focus position

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, S; Sakamoto, K; Hunter, T R; Patel, N A; Sridharan, T K; Wilson, R W; Matsushita, Satoki; Saito, Masao; Sakamoto, Kazushi; Hunter, Todd R.; Patel, Nimesh A.; Sridharan, Tirupati K.; Wilson, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    We report the measurement results and compensation of the antenna elevation angle dependences of the Sub-millimeter Array (SMA) antenna characteristics. Without optimizing the subreflector (focus) positions as a function of the antenna elevation angle, antenna beam patterns show lopsided sidelobes, and antenna efficiencies show degradations. The sidelobe level increases and the antenna efficiencies decrease about 1% and a few %, respectively, for every 10 degrees change in the elevation angle at the measured frequency of 237 GHz. We therefore obtained the optimized subreflector positions for X (azimuth), Y (elevation), and Z (radio optics) focus axes at various elevation angles for all the eight SMA antennas. The X axis position does not depend on the elevation angle. The Y and Z axes positions depend on the elevation angles, and are well fitted with a simple function for each axis with including a gravity term (cosine and sine of elevation, respectively). In the optimized subreflector positions, the antenna ...

  6. The ocular hypotensive effect of saffron extract in primary open angle glaucoma: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbarpoor Bonyadi, Mohammad Hossein; yazdani, Shahin; Saadat, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Background The progressive nature of glaucoma and its growing incidence make its therapy an important target for research. The role of oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of glaucoma makes antioxidants such as saffron extract an attractive target for potential clinical use. Herein, we evaluate the effect of aqueous saffron extract on intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods Thirty-four eyes of 34 clinically stable POAG patients receiving treatment w...

  7. Impact of overweight and obesity on the musculoskeletal system using lumbosacral angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyemaechi NOC

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ndubuisi OC Onyemaechi,1,2 Godson E Anyanwu,3 Emmanuel N Obikili,3 Okechukwu Onwuasoigwe,1,2 Okechukwu E Nwankwo1,2 1Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus, Enugu, Nigeria; 2University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria; 3Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu, Nigeria Background: Overweight and obesity have been identified as independent risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. However, the association between obesity and low back pain remains controversial. Little is known about the effects of overweight and obesity on the angles of the lumbosacral spine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of body mass index (BMI and waist–hip ratio (WHR on lumbosacral angles. Methods: The effects of BMI and WHR on the lumbar lordosis angle (LLA, lumbosacral angle (LSA, sacral inclination angle (°°, and lumbosacral disc angle (LSDA of 174 overweight and obese subjects (test group and 126 underweight and normal-weight subjects (control group were analyzed. Results: The test group had a significantly higher mean LSA, LLA, sacral inclination angle (SIA, and LSDA (P=0.001. A significant correlation was noted between BMI and LSA (P=0.001, LLA (P=0.001, SIA (P=0.001, and LSDA (P=0.03. There was also a positive relationship between WHR and LSA (P=0.012, LLA (P=0.009, SIA (P=0.02, and LSDA (P=0.01. Conclusion: There was an increase in lumbosacral angles in individuals with raised BMI and WHR. This may result in biomechanical changes in the lumbosacral spine, which increase the incidence of low back pain. Keywords: body mass index, waist–hip ratio, lumbosacral angles

  8. Pulsed Laser Profiling of Grinding Wheels at Normal and Quasi-Tangential Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutey, Adrian H. A.; Fortunato, Alessandro; Zanini, Filippo; Carmignato, Simone

    2016-06-01

    A new methodology for normal and quasi-tangential pulsed laser profiling of grinding wheels is proposed, with laser path planning calculated according to a pre-specified angle of incidence and radial laser progression or predicted single-pass incision depth. Though tangential laser profiling has previously been investigated, few works have addressed the issue of negligible laser absorption under these conditions other than to apply a focal offset that effectively reduces the angle of incidence below 90∘. In the present work, the angle of incidence is specified explicitly, with normal and quasi-tangential profiling experiments performed on rotating bronze-bonded diamond and porous aluminum oxide grinding wheels with a 1064 nm nanosecond pulsed fiber laser source with 20 W average power. Triangular incisions are cut into each sample, following which analyses are performed with an optical profiler operating in confocal mode and x-ray computed tomography to determine the material removal rate and profile accuracy under all tested conditions. The angle of laser incidence is found to be of particular relevance to profiling operations, with more than one order of magnitude difference in material removal rates observed between 70∘ and 80∘ incidence, with improved profile accuracy in the latter case. Specifically, material removal rates of 0.12-0.14 mm 3/s, 0.075-0.1 mm 3/s and 0.002 mm 3/s are achieved at normal, 70∘ and 80∘ laser incidence, respectively, for bronze-bonded diamond, and 0.1 mm 3/s is achieved at 70∘ incidence for porous aluminum oxide. For both materials, profile accuracy of 50-70 μm is achieved under optimum conditions. The presented results highlight the necessity for precise specification and control of the angle of incidence during laser profiling operations. They furthermore confirm that laser profiling of grinding wheels is a viable alternative to electrical discharge machining for bronze-bonded diamond grinding wheels and a potential

  9. Pulsed Laser Profiling of Grinding Wheels at Normal and Quasi-Tangential Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutey, Adrian H. A.; Fortunato, Alessandro; Zanini, Filippo; Carmignato, Simone

    2016-09-01

    A new methodology for normal and quasi-tangential pulsed laser profiling of grinding wheels is proposed, with laser path planning calculated according to a pre-specified angle of incidence and radial laser progression or predicted single-pass incision depth. Though tangential laser profiling has previously been investigated, few works have addressed the issue of negligible laser absorption under these conditions other than to apply a focal offset that effectively reduces the angle of incidence below 90∘. In the present work, the angle of incidence is specified explicitly, with normal and quasi-tangential profiling experiments performed on rotating bronze-bonded diamond and porous aluminum oxide grinding wheels with a 1064 nm nanosecond pulsed fiber laser source with 20 W average power. Triangular incisions are cut into each sample, following which analyses are performed with an optical profiler operating in confocal mode and x-ray computed tomography to determine the material removal rate and profile accuracy under all tested conditions. The angle of laser incidence is found to be of particular relevance to profiling operations, with more than one order of magnitude difference in material removal rates observed between 70∘ and 80∘ incidence, with improved profile accuracy in the latter case. Specifically, material removal rates of 0.12-0.14 mm 3/ s, 0.075-0.1 mm 3/ s and 0.002 mm 3/ s are achieved at normal, 70∘ and 80∘ laser incidence, respectively, for bronze-bonded diamond, and 0.1 mm 3/ s is achieved at 70∘ incidence for porous aluminum oxide. For both materials, profile accuracy of 50-70 μm is achieved under optimum conditions. The presented results highlight the necessity for precise specification and control of the angle of incidence during laser profiling operations. They furthermore confirm that laser profiling of grinding wheels is a viable alternative to electrical discharge machining for bronze-bonded diamond grinding wheels and a potential

  10. Rotational Angle Measurement of Bridge Support Using Image Processing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Soo Park; John Arbie Agbayani; Jong-Han Lee; Jong-Jae Lee

    2016-01-01

    Measuring a very small rotational angle accurately and dynamically is indeed a challenging issue, especially in the case of bridge support. Also, existing inclinometers do not have sufficient resolution and accuracy to measure a bridge’s rotational angle. In this study, a new measurement system was developed to provide a practical means for measuring dynamic rotational angle of a bridge support. It features high resolution and accuracy compared with the available systems on the market. By the...

  11. Orientation angle and the adhesion of single gecko setae

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Ginel C.; Soto, Daniel R.; Peattie, Anne M.; Full, Robert J.; Kenny, T. W.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of orientation angle on the adhesion of single gecko setae using dual-axis microelectromechanical systems force sensors to simultaneously detect normal and shear force components. Adhesion was highly sensitive to the pitch angle between the substrate and the seta's stalk. Maximum lateral adhesive force was observed with the stalk parallel to the substrate, and adhesion decreased smoothly with increasing pitch. The roll orientation angle only needed to be roughly co...

  12. Lateral intermetatarsal angle: a useful measurement of metatarsus primus elevatus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, A; Mahoney, B; Tinley, P

    2001-05-01

    The lateral intermetatarsal angle, a measurement of the sagittal plane angular divergence between the dorsal cortices of the first and second metatarsals of lateral weightbearing foot radiographs, was compared in 30 normal and 30 hallux limitus feet. The results suggest that the angle may be measured reliably and that although the measured angles are relatively small, a significant difference exists between the normal and hallux limitus subjects studied. Accordingly, the lateral intermetatarsal angle may prove to be a useful radiographic measurement to assist the podiatric physician in the clinical assessment of hallux limitus. PMID:11359890

  13. Variations in the Incidence of Schizophrenia: Data Versus Dogma

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, John J.

    2006-01-01

    The schizophrenia research community has shared a belief that the incidence of schizophrenia shows little variation. This belief is related to the dogma that schizophrenia affects all individuals equally, regardless of sex, race, or nationality. However, there is now robust evidence that the incidence of schizophrenia is characterized by substantial variability. There is prominent variation in the incidence of schizophrenia between sites. The incidence of schizophrenia is significantly higher...

  14. On the miniaturization of polarization insensitive wide angle metamaterial absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Li-Fang; Li, Min-Hua; Zhai, Xiao-Min; Wang, Hui-Bo; Dong, Jian-Feng

    2016-02-01

    We present the design, fabrication and measurement of a perfect miniaturized planar metamaterial absorber based on folded-line structure. The absorber is polarization insensitive, and the absorption remains high even at large incident angles. The simulated and experimental results validate that the ratio between period ( p) and resonant wavelength ( λ) approaches 1/12 at 1.93 GHz. Surface current distributions and energy flow distributions demonstrate that the folded lines, where the absorbing intensity is strongest, play an important role in both perfect absorption and miniaturization design. The ratio p/ λ of the absorber has been further optimized to 1/21 at 550 MHz by increasing the number of folded lines. Besides, a smaller ratio of 1/25 is acquired at 9.6 THz by reducing the dimensions of the structure to nanoscale with careful optimization. This introduced folded-line structure successfully enhances the equivalent inductance and capacitance in a limited volume which has great impact on the design of devices with small size and integration. The proposed metamaterial absorber also has potential applications in wireless communication and optical devices.

  15. NEW ESTIMATES OF THE INCLINATION, POSITION ANGLE, PITCH ANGLE, AND SCALE HEIGHT OF THE WHIRLPOOL GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Tao [Department of Automation, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Rd., Shanghai 200072 (China); Shao Zhengyi [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Rd., Shanghai 200030 (China); Peng Qiuhe, E-mail: thu@shu.edu.cn, E-mail: taohu.nju@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Rd., Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2013-01-10

    The inclination (i) and position angle (PA) of the Whirlpool galaxy (M51) are critical to modeling and interpreting observations. Here we make improved estimates of these parameters by fitting logarithmic spirals to the main arms. From separate fits to each major arm, we obtain i = 20. Degree-Sign 3 {+-} 2. Degree-Sign 8 and PA = 12. Degree-Sign 0 {+-} 2. Degree-Sign 5. We then use Poisson's equation for the logarithmic perturbation of the density to estimate the mean vertical scale height (H) of M51 to be 95-178 pc.

  16. Correlation of Posterior Occipitocervical Angle and Surgical Outcomes for Occipitocervical Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Maulucci, Christopher M.; Ghobrial, George M; Sharan, Ashwini D.; Harrop, James S; Jallo, Jack I.; Alexander R Vaccaro; Prasad, Srinivas K.

    2014-01-01

    Study Type Retrospective cohort study. Introduction Craniocervical instability is a surgical disease, most commonly due to rheumatoid arthritis, trauma, erosive pathologies such as tumors and infection, and advanced degeneration. Treatment involves stabilization of the craniovertebral junction by occipitocervical instrumentation and fusion. However, the impact of the fixed occipitocervical angle on surgical outcomes, in particular the need for revision surgery and the incidence of dysphagia, ...

  17. What is the real incidence of vestibular schwannoma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tos, Mirko; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To present the incidence of vestibular schwannoma (VS) in Denmark, compare the incidence with that of previous periods, and discuss the real incidence of VS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Prospective registration of all diagnosed VS in Denmark, with a population of 5.1 to 5.2 million...

  18. Handling of incidents, near-misses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has primarily been done as a study of available literature about reporting systems. The following items have also been considered: the participants' experience of safety work in general and reporting systems in particular, as well as correspondence with researchers and organisations that have experience from reporting systems in safety-critical applications. A number of definitions of the English term 'near-miss' have been found in the documentation about safety-critical systems. An important conclusion is that creating a precise definition in itself is not critical. The main objective is to persuade the individuals to report perceived risks as well as actual events or conditions. In this report, we have chosen to use the following definition of what should be reported: A condition or an incident with potential for more serious consequences. The reporting systems that have been evaluated have all data in the same system; they do not divide data into separate systems for incidents or 'near-misses'. The term incident in the literature is not used consistently, especially if both Swedish and English texts are considered. In a large portion of the documentation where the reporting system is mentioned, the focus lies more on analysis than on the problem with the willingness to report. Even when the focus is on reporting it is often dealing with the design of the actual report in order to enable the subsequent treatment of data. In some cases this has led to unnecessary complicated report forms. The cornerstone of a high willingness to report is the creation of a 'no-blame' culture. Based on experience it can be concluded that the question whether a report could lead to personal reprisals is crucial. Even a system that explicitly gives the reporter immunity is still brittle. The bare suspicion (that immunity may vanish) in the mind of the one reporting reduces the willingness to report dramatically. Meaning that the purpose of the analysis of reports must be to

  19. Theory of small-angle multiple scattering of charged particles with consideration of geometrical interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applying the small-angle multiple scattering theory of Rossi and Greisen, especially the pencil-beam solution supplied by E. Fermi, we have solved two boundary surface problems of multiple scattering of electrons and other charged particles in the energy range of radiation therapy. In the validity range of the small-angle approximation, the number and the angular distribution of the scattered electrons leaving the lateral surface of an electron-irradiated absorber block have been correctly calculated. The essential step has been to find a continuous solution describing the transition from inner to outer space of the absorber. Furthermore, the phenomenon of 'quasi-reflexion', occurring when electrons are entering a boundary plane under a small entrance angle, has been correctly reproduced as an analytical result. The correctness of the analytical results was checked by comparison with a highly accurate, own Monte-Carlo program. We are planning to extend the theoretical treatment by considering large-angle scattering as well. In the framework of radiation therapy with electrons and hadrons, the present results can be applied to understand and quantitatively estimate the effects of 'in-scattering' into air-filled cavities of the irradiated body or of ionization chambers, of scattering at collimator edges and of 'quasi-reflexion' in the case of small-angle incidence into applicator cone walls. (orig.)

  20. Incidence of cardiac events in burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, David G; Hoestje, Sara M; Korentager, Richard A

    2003-06-01

    Given the increased level of adrenergic stimulation in burn patients, it would be expected that they would experience an increased incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and other cardiac events. We performed a retrospective chart review of 56 acute burn patients matched by age, length of hospital stay, and sex to 56 trauma patients, all of whom had been continuously monitored electrocardiographically. Burn and trauma patients were similar in injury severity, admission laboratory values, and prior history of cardiopulmonary diseases. Arrhythmias were noted in 34% of burn patients and 28% of trauma patients. One myocardial infarction and six deaths occurred in burn patients. No myocardial infarctions or deaths were observed in trauma patients. A past history of cardiopulmonary disease increased the risk of myocardial infarction or death by 6.6 times. Cardiac arrhythmias and other events are relatively infrequent and benign in burn patients and are similar to those experienced by other patients with acute injuries. PMID:12781616

  1. United Airlines wind shear incident of May 31, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarthy, John

    1987-01-01

    An incident involving wind shear which occured on 31 May 1984 on a United Airlines aircraft is discussed by a member of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The meteorological parameters important to this incident are detailed.

  2. Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Statement of nuclear incidents at nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) presents the statement of nuclear incidents at nuclear installations published under the Health and Safety Commission's powers derived from section 11 of the Health and Safety at Work, etc. Act 1974. INCIDENT 02/4/1. Harwell (United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority) On 6 November 2002 during operations in a glove box in B220, the over pressure alarm sounded. The operators evacuated and shortly afterwards the airborne activity monitors also sounded. The building emergency arrangements for airborne activity alarms was initiated to ascertain the source and to manage the operations. An investigation by UKAEA confirmed that a release of Americium 241 into the working area had occurred at a quantity in excess of Schedule 8 column 4 of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (IRRs). A number of personnel have received intakes including the two operators and the health physics personnel who attended the event. The highest dose (up to 6 mSv.) was received by the Health Physics charge hand. UKAEA placed an embargo on the use of similar systems and have completed their own management investigation and produced an internal report. It concludes that the likely cause of the event was over-pressurisation of the vacuum equipment used in the process. The report also highlights improvements required to the ventilation system in the laboratory and adjoining areas. An action plan has been developed for this work and progress is being made. NIl has followed the UKAEA investigation and carried out its own study including a visit by a ventilation specialist. This has confirmed the problems with the ventilation system. It is a complex issue that may have a wider impact across the building. A letter has been sent to UKAEA detailing a series of short-term requirements and the need to review implications and produce a longer-term action plan. UKAEA is cooperating fully with these requirements. INCIDENT 02/4/2. Dounreay (United Kingdom Atomic Energy

  4. Perceptions and Incidence of Test Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis G. Gerwing

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Test anxiety (TA can lower student GPA and increase dropout rates in populations of university students. Despite numerous treatment options, many students still suffer from TA. The stigma attached to this type of anxiety and the incidence rates and perceptions of TA were quantified through surveys distributed to 1,099 students at a Canadian university. Results of this study indicated that 38.5% of students (30.0 % of males, 46.3 % of females suffered from self-reported TA at some point over the course of their university career. The prevalence of TA varied by faculty, with the highest incidence among those students enrolled concurrently in Arts and Science, and Nursing students. While student perceptions varied by age, sex, and experience with TA, one third of students expressed negative and inaccurate views about TA. These negative perceptions may explain why 11.3% of surveyed students indicated they would not seek help for their TA as, for many, to do so would make them seem weak in the eyes of their colleagues. Further, 20.5% of students surveyed reported that they believe professors would be unable or unwilling to help. It may be the case that this negative perception towards TA makes it difficult for faculty and helping professionals to identify and intervene effectively. Faculty specific educational campaigns designed to educate students about TA, in particular about its prevalence and severity, are suggested as a method to circumvent the negative stigma surrounding this condition. Implementation of such educational policies will likely improve the educational experience and performance of students with TA, as well as improve student retention.

  5. Brocard angle of the standard triangle in an isotropic plane

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar-Begović, Zdenka; Kolar - Šuper, Ružica; Volenec, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The concept of Brocard angle of the standard triangle in an isotropic plane I2 is introduced. The relationships between Brocard angles of the allowable triangle and circum-Ceva’s triangle of its centroid and circum-Ceva’s triangle of its Feuerbach point are investigated.

  6. Discontinuation of denosumab and associated fracture incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Jacques P; Roux, Christian; Törring, Ove; Ho, Pei-Ran; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Gilchrist, Nigel; Recknor, Christopher; Austin, Matt; Wang, Andrea; Grauer, Andreas; Wagman, Rachel B

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic disease and requires long-term treatment with pharmacologic therapy to ensure sustained anti-fracture benefit. Denosumab reduced the risk for new vertebral, nonvertebral, and hip fractures over 36 months in the FREEDOM trial. While discontinuation of denosumab has been...... associated with transient increases in bone remodeling and declines in bone mineral density (BMD), the effect on fracture risk during treatment cessation is not as well characterized. To understand the fracture incidence between treatment groups after cessation of investigational product, we evaluated...... 797 subjects (470 placebo, 327 denosumab), who were evaluable during the off-treatment period, showed similar baselinecharacteristics for age, prevalent fracture, and lumbar spine and total hip BMD T-scores. During treatment, more placebo-treated subjects as compared with denosumab-treated subjects...

  7. Proposed algorithm to angular radiation incidence correction of fast neutron track dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming to improve the dosimetry of workers potentially exposed to neutron radiation in Brazil, the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN, a governmental Research Center, in association with PRO-RAD, a private Monitoring Service, designed and developed an individual dosimeter for gamma-neutron mixed field monitoring using the techniques of Thermoluminescent Albedo Dosimetry (TLAD) and Solid State Nuclear Track Dosimetry (SSNTD). Neutron doses are preferably estimated according to albedo neutrons dosimeter response. Track detectors are used just to high fast neutron doses confirmation. Thermoluminescent detectors Harshaw TLD-600 and TLD-700 were used to evaluate gamma and intermediate (albedo) neutrons doses. A commercial polycarbonate produced in Brazil, named SS-1, was used as track detector to measure fast neutrons doses. Previous study shown that SS-1 directional (angular) response presents a cosine behavior. Knowing the incidence angle, a correction factor, equal to the inverse of this angle's cosine, must be applied in the dose calculation algorithm. The ratio of fast and albedo neutrons responses could be considered constant as a function of dose, but decreases proportionally with increasing radiation incidence angle. This variation allows estimating the incidence angle and, then, correcting the fast neutrons dose response. An algorithm to directional incidence correction applied to Americium-Beryllium neutron sources and dose range of radiation protection interest (up to 20 mSv) was proposed based on these premises and considering that correction factor will be applied only if the ratio of fast and albedo neutron responses is below its average to normal incidence less 30% (∼ 200 tracks/cm2.nC). (author)

  8. Numerical Prediction of Green Water Incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K. B.; Mayer, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Green water loads on moored or sailing ships occur when an incoming wave signigicantly exceeds the freeboard and water runs onto the deck. In this paper, a Navier-Stokes solver with a free surface capturing scheme (i.e. the VOF model; Hirt and Nichols, 1981) is used to numerically model green water...... loads on a moored FPSO exposed to head sea waves. Two cases are investigated: first, green water ona fixed vessel has been analysed, where resulting waterheight on deck, and impact pressure on a deck mounted structure have been computed. These results have been compared to experimental data obtained by...... Greco (2001) and show very favourable agreement. Second, a full green water incident, including vessel motions has been modelled. In these computations, the vertical motion has been modelled by the use of transfer functions for heave and pitch, but the rotational contribution from the pitch motion has...

  9. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery, angles of inclination. 58.01-40 Section 58.01... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-40 Machinery, angles of inclination. (a) Propulsion machinery and all auxiliary machinery essential to the propulsion and safety of the vessel must...

  10. Interaction of Cotton-Mouton and Faraday effect under different initial polarization state of incident beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, J.; Kravtsov, Yu. A.

    2010-12-01

    The evolution of polarization along the ray in homogeneous plasma is analyzed in situation when Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effects are not small and comparable with each other. On the basis of the quasi-isotropic approximation of geometrical optics method authors find the numerical solution for azimuthal and ellipticity angles of polarization ellipse and analyze how the initial state of the incident beam affects obtained results. Numerical modeling is performed for plasma parameters comparable with those acceptable for the ITER project.

  11. Performance comparison of CPCs with and without exit angle restriction for concentrating radiation on solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CPCs with and without exit angle restriction based PV modules were fabricated and tested. • Performance of both CPVs was investigated and compared. • Results showed that CPV-65 performed slightly but insignificantly better as compared to CPV-90. - Abstract: To perform this comparison, the compound parabolic concentrator with a restricted exit angle of 65° (CPC-65) and the one without exit angle restriction (CPC-90) were fabricated and tested for concentrating radiation on multi-crystalline solar cells. Both CPC-65 and CPC-90 are identical in the acceptance half-angle (20°) and geometrical concentration factor (2×). Theoretical calculations showed that CPC-90 based PV system (CPV-90) annually concentrated about 3–5% more radiation on solar cells as compared to CPC-65 based PV system (CPV-65). For CPV-65, all radiation would arrive on the solar cells at the incidence angle less than 65°, but for CPV-90, about 8–10% of annual collectible radiation would arrive on solar cells at the incidence angle larger than 65°. Measurements at outdoor conditions showed that the CPV-65 performed slightly better than CPV-90 in terms of short-circuit current and power output as the projection incidence angle of solar rays on the cross-section of CPC-troughs (θp) less than the acceptance half-angle, otherwise the CPV-90 did better. Compared to CPV-90, the power output at maximum power points from CPV-65 were slightly higher, and increases of 2.1%, 5.4% and 8.17% were measured for θp = 0°, 10° and 16°, respectively. Analysis indicated that effect of solar flux distribution over solar cells on power output of both CPVs was almost identical and insignificant, and the CPV-65 performed slightly but insignificantly better than the CPV-90 in terms of annual power output except in areas with poor solar resources where the annual power output from both systems was almost identical

  12. [Double measurement of the Böhler angle: prognostic value of radiological angles in posterior facet fractures of the calcaneus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, B; Zographos, S; Uthéza, G

    2001-11-01

    In 1931, Böhler proposed that measuring the radiological angle of the tuberosity could be useful in posterior facet fractures of the calcaneus to evaluate initial damage as well as reduction quality. In opposition to the 1998 SOFCOT symposium, certain authors considered that the Böhler angle has no prognostic value. Progress in pathological anatomy has helped to better understand posterior facet fractures, justifying the use of a "double measurement". The fundamental fracture line separates the posterior facet into a lowered medial fragment and a pivoted lateral fragment. The double contour of the posterior facet visualized radiographically allows measurement of a medial Böhler angle and a lateral Böhler angle. It is demonstrated that is the smaller the medial Böhler angle, the greater the subtalar degeneration. Surgical restoration of a satisfactory Böhler angle is a necessary prerequisite for a good outcome. "Double measurement" of the Böhler angle on the lateral view contributes to the prognostic value of this historical angle. PMID:11845075

  13. The effect of knee joint angle on torque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Voudrie, Stefani J; Ebersole, Kyle T

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the author's investigation was to examine the effect of knee joint angle on torque control of the quadriceps muscle group. In all, 12 healthy adults produced maximal voluntary contractions and submaximal torque (15, 30, and 45% MVC [maximal voluntary contraction]) at leg flexion angles of 15 degrees , 30 degrees , 60 degrees , and 90 degrees below the horizontal plane. As expected, MVC values changed with respect to joint angle with maximum torque output being greatest at 60 degrees and least at 15 degrees . During the submaximal tasks, participants appropriately scaled their torque output to the required targets. Absolute variability (i.e., standard deviation) of torque output was greatest at 60 degrees and 90 degrees knee flexion. However, relative variability as indexed by coefficient of variation (CV) decreased as joint angle increased, with the greatest CV occurring at 15 degrees . These results are congruent with the hypothesis that joint angle influences the control of torque. PMID:19906637

  14. EFFECT OF SWEEP ANGLE ON THE VORTICAL FLOW OVER DELTA WINGS AT AN ANGLE OF ATTACK OF 10°

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMES BRETT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CFD simulations have been used to analyse the vortical flows over sharp edged delta wings with differing sweep angles under subsonic conditions at an angle of attack of 10°. RANS simulations were validated against experimental data for a 65° sweep wing, with a flat cross-section, and the steadiness of the flow field was assessed by comparing the results against unsteady URANS and DES simulations. To assess the effect of sweep angle on the flow field, a range of sweep angles from 65° to 43° were simulated. For moderate sweep wings the primary vortex was observed to detach from the leading edge, undergoing vortex breakdown, and a weaker, replacement, "shadow" vortex was formed. The shadow vortex was observed for sweep angles of 50° and less, and resulted in reduced lift production near the wing tips loss of the stronger primary vortex.

  15. Drop Size Dependence of the Contact Angle of Nanodroplets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hong-Kai; FANG Hai-Ping

    2005-01-01

    @@ The contact angle of nanosized non-polarized argon sessile droplets on a solid substrate is studied by using molecular dynamics simulations.It is found that the drop size dependence of the contact angle is sensitive to the interaction between the liquid molecules and solid molecules.The contact angle decreases with the decreasing drop size for larger interaction between the liquid molecules and the solid substrate, and vice versa.This observation is consistent with most of the previous theoretical and experimental results.

  16. Incidence of congenital syphilis in the South Region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Anie Savi Serafim; Gustavo Pasquali Moretti; Guilherme Savi Serafim; Cintia Vieira Niero; Maria Inês da Rosa; Maria Marlene de Souza Pires; Priscyla Waleska Targino de Azevedo Simões

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to establish the incidence rates of congenital syphilis in the South Region of Brazil from 2001 to 2009. Methods Temporal ecological and descriptive study based on the cases recorded by the System of Information of Notifiable Diseases. Results The incidence of congenital syphilis has been increasing in the South Region of Brazil since 2004; the highest incidence rates were in women who received prenatal care (113.5 new cases per 100,000 births, p

  17. Stable divergence angles of a magnetic dipole spiral array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, X.D.; Bursill, L.A.

    1996-03-01

    An analytical model is introduced for Douady and Couder`s [1992] experiment, where phyllotactic patterns appear as a dynamical result of the interaction between magnetic dipoles. The difference equation for the divergence angle (i.e. the angle between successive radial vectors) is obtained by solving the equations of motion with a second nearest neighbour (SNN) approximation. A one dimensional map analysis as well as a comprehensive analytical proof shows that the divergence angle always converges to a single attractor regardless of the initial conditions. This attractor is approximately the Fibonacci angle ({approx} 138 deg) within variations due to a growth factor {mu} of the pattern. The system is proved to be stable with the SNN approximation. Further analysis with a third nearest neighbour approximation (TNN) shows extra linearly stable attractors may appear around the Lucas angle at {approx} 99.5 deg. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  18. [The sulcus angle of the femoral trochlea: ultrasonographic evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, F; De Serio, A; Macarini, L; Colaianni, P; Solarino, M; Fracella, M R

    1995-03-01

    The sulcus angle of femoral trochlea is particularly important to evaluate the femoro-patellar joint. Our study was aimed at studying the normal trochlea, and especially the sulcus angle, with US. The right knees of 11 normal subjects were examined with US and Computed Tomography (CT) on the same section planes. The US measurements of the sulcus angle were correlated with CT results, which were considered the gold standard. The US and CT data were compared and a direct correlation was found (r = 0.832). The intraobserver difference in US measurements was r = 0.943. The mean sulcus angle value was 132 degrees, in agreement with literature data. We conclude that the US measurements of the sulcus angle are reproducible and as sensitive as CT. PMID:7754110

  19. Sputtering and surface state evolution of Bi under oblique incidence of 120 keV Ar{sup +} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mammeri, S. [CRNA, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Ouichaoui, S., E-mail: souichaoui@usthb.d [Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Faculte de Physique, Laboratoire SNIRM, B.P. 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Ammi, H.; Hammoudi, H. [CRNA, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba Labs, MRG, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Cape Town 7129 (South Africa)

    2011-05-01

    The sputtering and surface state evolution of Bi/Si targets under oblique incidence of 120 keV Ar{sup +} ions have been investigated over the range of incidence angles 0{sup o} {<=} {theta}{sub i} {<=} 60{sup o}. Increasing erosion of irradiated samples (whose surface thickness reduced by {approx}3% at normal incidence up to {approx}8% at {theta} = 60{sup o}) and their surface smoothing with reducing grain sizing were pointed out using Rutherford backscattering (RBS), atomic force (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Measured sputtering yield data versus {theta}{sub i} with fixed ion fluence to {approx}1.5 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} are well described by Yamamura et al. semi-empirical formula and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation using the SRIM-2008 computer code. The observed increase in sputter yield versus incidence angle is closely correlated to Bi surface topography and crystalline structure changes under ion irradiation.

  20. Contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Q; Kang, Q J; Chen, Q

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to investigate the implementation of contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting at a large density ratio. The pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model [X. Shan and H. Chen, Phys. Rev. E 49, 2941 (1994)] is a popular mesoscopic model for simulating multiphase flows and interfacial dynamics. In this model, the contact angle is usually realized by a fluid-solid interaction. Two widely used fluid-solid interactions: the density-based interaction and the pseudopotential-based interaction, as well as a modified pseudopotential-based interaction formulated in the present paper, are numerically investigated and compared in terms of the achievable contact angles, the maximum and the minimum densities, and the spurious currents. It is found that the pseudopotential-based interaction works well for simulating small static (liquid) contact angles, however, is unable to reproduce static contact angles close to 180 degrees. Meanwhile, it is found that the proposed modif...

  1. Effect of oblique incidence on silver nanomaterials fabricated in water via ultrafast laser ablation for photonics and explosives detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna Podagatlapalli, G. [Advanced Center of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), University of Hyderabad, Prof. C. R. Rao Road, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Hamad, Syed [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C. R. Rao Road, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Ahamad Mohiddon, Md. [Centre for Nanotechnology University of Hyderabad, Prof. C. R. Rao Road, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Venugopal Rao, S., E-mail: svrsp@uohyd.ernet.in [Advanced Center of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), University of Hyderabad, Prof. C. R. Rao Road, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: •Effect of non-zero angle of incidence on ps ablation of Ag investigated. •Ag colloids were evaluated by TEM, UV–vis absorption spectra and fs-DFWM. •30° incident angle provided Ag NPs of small size with higher yields. •FESEM, AFM, Raman data revealed the fabrication of Ag nanostructures. •Utility of Ag nanostructures surfaces for multiple SERS studies demonstrated. -- Abstract: Picosecond (ps) laser ablation of silver (Ag) substrate submerged in double distilled water was performed at 800 nm for different angles of incidence of 5°, 15°, 30° and 45°. Prepared colloidal solutions were characterized through transmission electron microscopy, UV absorption spectroscopy to explore their morphologies and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) properties. Third order nonlinear optical (NLO) characterization of colloids was performed using degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) technique with ∼40 fs laser pulses at 800 nm and the NLO coefficients were obtained. Detailed analysis of the data obtained from colloidal solutions suggested that superior results in terms of yield, sizes of the NPs, SPR peak position were achieved for ablation performed at 30° incident angle. Surface enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of Rhodamine 6G from nanostructured substrates were investigated using excitation wavelengths of 532 and 785 nm. In both the cases substrates prepared at 30° incident angle exhibited superior enhancement in the Raman signatures with a best enhancement factor achieved being >10{sup 8}. SERS of an explosive molecule 5-amino, 3-nitro, -1H-1,2,4-nitrozole (ANTA) was also demonstrated from these nanostructured substrates. Multiple usage of Ag nanostructures for SERS studies revealed that structures prepared at 30° incident angle provided superior performance amongst all.

  2. The range of options for handling plane angle and solid angle within a system of units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quincey, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The radian and steradian are unusual units within the SI, originally belonging to their own category of ‘supplementary units’, with this status being changed to dimensionless ‘derived units’ in 1995. Recent papers have suggested that angles could be handled in two different ways within the SI, both differing from the present system. The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for putting such suggestions into context, outlining the range of options that is available, together with the advantages and disadvantages of these options. Although less rigorously logical than some alternatives, the present SI approach is generally supported, but with some changes to the SI brochure to make the position clearer, in particular with regard to the designation of the radian and steradian as derived units.

  3. Measurement of the angle of superficial tension by images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez M., Javier; Alonso R., Sergio

    2006-02-01

    When a liquid is deposited on a surface, this one form a certain angle with respect to the surface, where depending on its value, it will conclude that so hard it is his adhesion with the surface. By means of the analysis of images we looked for to measure this angle of superficial tension. In order to make this measurement, we propose a technique by means of projective transformations and one method of regression to estimation parameters to conic fitting.

  4. Effects of residential radon on cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon activity concentrations of 1077 homes were surveyed in two villages of Northern Hungary to obtain the yearly averages. The distribution of indoor radon activity concentrations covered a wide range. Cancer incidences of all the 2680 inhabitants for the last 30 years were also studied in these villages in order to establish a possible correlation with radon exposure. The methods applied in the analysis allow to draw up statistically supported statements concerning the relative cancer risks of different radon level groups. The results show that among non-smoking middle-aged women the frequency of cancer, regardless to tumor types, is lower for those who live in residential radon activity concentrations of a level between 110 and 185 Bq x m-3 compared to those living in radon levels outside this range. A minimum value in the cancer frequency exists at a level of significance p<0.008 (determined with the help of Fisher's test). In general, the present study corroborates the outcome of other studies demonstrating the existence of a biopositive effect, and suggests a wider concept of radon health effects. (author)

  5. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Incidents in Peru 1973–2008: Incidence, Mortality, and Fatality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J. Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada; Luis, López; Luna, Diego; Rosales, Edmundo; Best, Pablo; Best, Pablo; Egúsquiza, Miriam; Gianella, Camila; Lema, Claudia; Ludeña, Esperanza; Miranda, J. Jaime; Huicho, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973–2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Methods and Findings Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43–5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15–0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Conclusions The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs. PMID:24927195

  6. Calculation of Triggering Angle of Thyristor Rectifiers with Evolutionary Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahri VATANSEVER

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rectifier circuits have important role in electrical energy systems. Especially in thyristor rectifiers which have capability of generating multiple voltage level, determining/calculating the optimal trigger angle and applying trigger signal at this angles are among the main process. In this study, desired level of average output voltage according to trigger angles is obtained both classically (mathematically solving of equations and using evolutionary algorithms which are genetic algorithms and differential evolutions. In this way, a software can be used in educational purposes which can calculate optimal trigger angles using both mathematically and heuristically, show results and many properties/parameters of circuit graphically and numerically is developed. Analysis/simulations performed with the designed software indicates that evolutionary algorithms can be used in this field effectively and efficiently.

  7. Evaluation of the MTBE incident in Arnhem, Netherlands; Naschrift MTBE incident Arnhem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    November 22, 2004, a train at the station Arnhem, Netherlands, loaded with the hazardous material Methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE), caused several complaints by passengers. Although it appeared that there were no leaks from the train, people who became unwell showed high concentrations of MTBE in their blood. In the end, the Public Prosecutor could not find evidence for the cause of the incident and closed the inquiry in April 2005. In this paper the incident is outlined and background information is given about MTBE. [Dutch] Op maandag 22 november 2004 raakten in het station van Arnhem enige tientallen mensen onwel. In eerste instantie leek een trein, geladen met de gevaarlijke stof Methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE), de veroorzaker van de klachten. Hierop heeft de Inspectie Verkeer en Waterstaat in samenwerking met andere diensten ter plaatse onderzoek verricht. Daaruit en uit nader onderzoek bleek de trein niet te lekken en wezen wegingen uit dat er geen lading was verdwenen. Mede omdat was gebleken dat de in Arnhem onwel geworden mensen hoge concentraties MTBE in hun bloed hadden, zette het Openbaar Ministerie het strafrechtelijke onderzoek voort. Uiteindelijk heeft het OM geen oorzaak voor het incident kunnen aanwijzen en is het onderzoek begin april afgesloten. Deze notitie schetst een achtergrondbeeld over de stof MTBE en geeft een beknopte toelichting op het incident.

  8. Incidence of mixed infection in coryza Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Rajurkar

    Full Text Available Diseases of the respiratory tract are a significant component of the overall disease incidence in poultry. In many cases, respiratory disease observed in a flock may be a component of a multi-systemic disease or it may be the predominant disease with lesser involvement of other organ systems. In some cases, such as infectious coryza the disease may be limited to the respiratory system, at least initially. Various pathogens may initiate respiratory disease in poultry, including a variety of viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Environmental factors may augment these pathogens to produce the clinically observed signs and lesions. During present study, an attempt was made to isolate H. paragallinarum from the nasal swabs, eye swabs (from live birds and caseous infra orbital sinus and tracheal exudates swabs from dead birds from commercial poultry farms Anand, Kheda and Mahuaregion of Saurashtra area of Gujrat state. During the present study 6 H. paragallinarum isolates were obtained from 109 samples suspected of Infectious coryza infection. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 462-464

  9. Incidence of Metoclopramide-induced Methemoglobinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine AKINCI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Methemoglobinemia could be a congenital or acquired condition. It causes clinical conditions ranging from simple cyanosis to hypoxia, lactic acidosis and death. Several cases of metoclopramide-induced methemoglobinemia both in infants and adults have been reported in literature. We aimed to investigate the incidence of metoclopramide-induced methemoglobinemia in our emergency department (ED. Methods: Adult patients who were admitted to the ED with renal colic, peripheral vertigo, acute gastroentiritis and vascular headache and who were given a single dose of 10 mg metoclopramide for nausea and/or vomiting were involved in the study. The total number of study sample was 270. Results: Of the 270 patients, 208 (77% were female and 62 (33% were male. Patients’ methemoglobin levels ranged between 0.5-5.20 gr/dl with an average value of 0.97 gr/dl. There has been no significant difference found between methemoglobin levels and patients’ diagnoses, sex, age, comorbid diseases, and medications taken for comorbid factors. Conclusions: Although rarely seen, possibility of development of metoclopramide-induced methemoglobinemia following metoclopramide administration should be kept in mind.

  10. Research of the Pressure Angle for Whole Cycloidal Gears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ling-tao; WANG Jian-hua

    2011-01-01

    The working profile of whole cycloidal gear is made up of epicycloid and hypocycloid entirely, according to the theory of meshing of gears and the properties of the cycloid, deals with the derivation of the pressure angle formula for the whole cycloidal gear in theory, and reveals changes of the pressure angle of whole cycloidal gear through examples, finds the application relationships between the pressure angle and other design parameters of the whole cycloidal gear, proves the possibility that the whole cycloidal gear can be used in internal parallel move gear mechanism, also provides theoretic fundament for designing internal parallel move whole cycloidal gear correctly.

  11. Measurement of critical contact angle in a microgravity space experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

    1999-06-01

    Mathematical theory predicts that small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. This phenomenon was investigated in the Interface Configuration Experiment on board the NASA USML-2 Space Shuttle flight. The experiment's double proboscis containers were designed to strike a balance between conflicting requirements of sizable volume of liquid shift (for ease of observation) and abruptness of the shift (for accurate determination of critical contact angle). The experimental results support the classical concept of macroscopic contact angle and demonstrate the role of hysteresis in impeding orientation toward equilibrium.

  12. Measurement of critical contact angle in a microgravity space experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concus, P. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.; Finn, R. [Department of Mathematics, Stanford University, CA (United States); Weislogel, M. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Mathematical theory predicts that small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. This phenomenon was investigated in the interface configuration experiment on board the NASA USML-2 Space Shuttle flight. The experiment's ''double proboscis'' containers were designed to strike a balance between conflicting requirements of sizable volume of liquid shift (for ease of observation) and abruptness of the shift (for accurate determination of critical contact angle). The experimental results support the classical concept of macroscopic contact angle and demonstrate the role of hysteresis in impeding orientation toward equilibrium. (orig.)

  13. Angular selection of incident waves by photonic crystals with position-varying Dirac points at the Brillouin zone boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changqing; Fang, Anan; Chu, Hongchen; Luo, Jie; Chan, C. T.; Hang, Zhi Hong; Lai, Yun

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate the angular selection of incident electromagnetic waves using photonic crystals (PCs) composed of a square lattice of dielectric rods which exhibit position-varying Dirac conical dispersion at the Brillouin zone boundary. At the frequency of the Dirac point, the transmittance can reach unity at a particular incident angle associated with the Dirac dispersion, while for all other incident angles the waves are reflected due to the existence of a directional photonic band gap. By changing the size of the dielectric rods, the position of the Dirac point at the Brillouin zone boundary is variable, which makes the unity transmission angle customizable. Interestingly, we show that such a scheme of angular selection is almost independent of the refractive index of the background medium, as long as it is not too large so that a diffraction effect emerges. By investigating the PC being sandwiched by two different types of media, we find it actually acts as an optical 0 or π phase modulator at that particular incident angle. By attaching a metasurface to the PC, angular selection in the reflection geometry can also be achieved. Our work establishes a systematic and efficient method to achieve angular selection of arbitrary incident waves based on Dirac dispersions.

  14. Biophysical optimality of the golden angle in phyllotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Takuya

    2015-10-01

    Plant leaves are arranged around a stem axis in a regular pattern characterized by common fractions, a phenomenon known as phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy. As plants grow, these fractions often transition according to simple rules related to Fibonacci sequences. This mathematical regularity originates from leaf primordia at the shoot tip (shoot apical meristem), which successively arise at fixed intervals of a divergence angle, typically the golden angle of 137.5°. Algebraic and numerical interpretations have been proposed to explain the golden angle observed in phyllotaxis. However, it remains unknown whether phyllotaxis has adaptive value, even though two centuries have passed since the phenomenon was discovered. Here, I propose a new adaptive mechanism explaining the presence of the golden angle. This angle is the optimal solution to minimize the energy cost of phyllotaxis transition. This model accounts for not only the high precision of the golden angle but also the occurrences of other angles observed in nature. The model also effectively explains the observed diversity of rational and irrational numbers in phyllotaxis.

  15. RESEARCH OF BASIFACIAL CONTOURING SCULPTURE BY MANDIBULAR ANGLE OSTECTOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jian-lin; DAI Chuan-chang; ZHU Guo-xian; ZHANG Ying; JIN Yu-qing; WANG Wei; QI Chuan-liang

    2006-01-01

    Objective Mandibular angle ostectomy is usually applied to the facial contouring sculpture.We evaluated the various techniques in order to enhance the precision and avoid unnecessary damage. Methods Before operation the area and quantity resected bone were designed according to facial measurement, mandible pantomography and orthophoria and lateral localized radiograph of skull. The Incises of mandibular angle ostectomy included intraoral, retroauricular or intraoral associated with retroauricular. Howerer, the sagittal resection of mandible outer table was necessary in all intraoral incise. Results Single mandibular angle ostectomy was not satisfactory for the patients having mandible hypertrophy with over-width basifacial contouring. Mandibular angle ostectomy combined with the sagittal resection of outer table of mandibular angle were required. Good symmetry and ap pearance were gained in 206 cases. One case had facial paralysis. Two patients occured mandibular fracture during the operation. Three cases complicated angled deformity at mandible body. Conclusion Reduction mandibuloplasty should be selected depends on varied types of mandibular angle hypertrophy before operation.

  16. INCIDENCE, AETIOLOGY AND PATTERN OF MANDIBULAR FRACTURES IN PONDICHERRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The mandible is the second most commonly fractured part of the maxillofacial region after nasal bones. The incidence, etiology and pattern of mandibular fractures vary considerably among the different study population, there is a need to evaluate aspects of mandibular trauma in Pondicherry. This study was undertaken to evaluate the results of mandibular fractures treated in a population of Pondicherry. PATIENT AND METHOD A total of sixty nine patients treated for mandibular fractures at the Department Of Dentistry, Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital, Pondicherry from January 2011 to December 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. The variables analyzed in the study were gender, age, aetiology, fracture site, method of treatment and complications. RESULTS This study included 106 fractures in 69 patients. The ratio of male to female was 16:1. The highest prevalence of fracture occurred in 21 to 30 years (37.7% and the minimum in patients over 61 years old. The most common cause of fractures were road traffic accident (RTA, 56.5% followed by fall. In our study most commonly reported fracture site was parasymphysis (37.7%, followed by angle (19.8% and condyle (19.8%. Mandibular fractures were generally treated by Open Reduction and Internal Fixation (ORIF in 76.4% of the patients. CONCLUSION The retrospective study of mandibular fractures has shown, road traffic accidents are main cause of fracture and young men in their 20s are predominantly affected.

  17. Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viewing angle control of a patterned vertical alignment (PVA) liquid crystal display using only one panel is investigated. In conventional PVA modes, a vertically aligned liquid crystal (LC) director tilts down in four directions making 45 deg. with respect to crossed polarizers to exhibit a wide viewing angle. In the viewing angle control device, one pixel was divided into two sub-pixels such that the LC director in the main pixel is controlled to be tilted down in multiple directions making an angle with the polarizer, playing the role of main display with the wide viewing angle, while the LC director in the sub-pixel is controlled to be tilted down to the polarizer axis, playing the role of sub-pixel to the viewing angle control for the narrow viewing angle. Using sub-pixel control, light leakage or any type of information such as characters and image can be generated in oblique viewing directions without distorting the image quality in the normal direction, which will prevent others from peeping at the displayed image by overlapping the displayed image with the made image

  18. New Insight into the Angle Insensitivity of Ultrathin Planar Optical Absorbers for Broadband Solar Energy Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Yu, Haitong; Duan, Yuanyuan; Li, Qiang; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Two challenging problems still remain for optical absorbers consisting of an ultrathin planar semiconductor film on top of an opaque metallic substrate. One is the angle-insensitive mechanism and the other is the system design needed for broadband solar energy harvesting. Here, first we theoretically demonstrates that the high refractive index, instead of the ultrathin feature as reported in previous studies, is the physical origin of the angle insensitivity for ultrathin planar optical absorbers. They exhibit omnidirectional resonance for TE polarization due to the high complex refractive index difference between the semiconductor and the air, while for TM polarization the angle insensitivity persists up to an incident angle related to the semiconductor refractive index. These findings were validated by fabricating and characterizing an 18 nm Ge/Ag absorber sample (representative of small band gap semiconductors for photovoltaic applications) and a 22 nm hematite/Ag sample (representative of large band gap semiconductors for photoelectrochemical applications). Then, we took advantage of angle insensitivity and designed a spectrum splitting configuration for broadband solar energy harvesting. The cascaded solar cell and unassisted solar water splitting systems have photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical cells that are also spectrum splitters, so an external spectrum splitting element is not needed. PMID:27582317

  19. New Insight into the Angle Insensitivity of Ultrathin Planar Optical Absorbers for Broadband Solar Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Yu, Haitong; Duan, Yuanyuan; Li, Qiang; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Two challenging problems still remain for optical absorbers consisting of an ultrathin planar semiconductor film on top of an opaque metallic substrate. One is the angle-insensitive mechanism and the other is the system design needed for broadband solar energy harvesting. Here, first we theoretically demonstrates that the high refractive index, instead of the ultrathin feature as reported in previous studies, is the physical origin of the angle insensitivity for ultrathin planar optical absorbers. They exhibit omnidirectional resonance for TE polarization due to the high complex refractive index difference between the semiconductor and the air, while for TM polarization the angle insensitivity persists up to an incident angle related to the semiconductor refractive index. These findings were validated by fabricating and characterizing an 18 nm Ge/Ag absorber sample (representative of small band gap semiconductors for photovoltaic applications) and a 22 nm hematite/Ag sample (representative of large band gap semiconductors for photoelectrochemical applications). Then, we took advantage of angle insensitivity and designed a spectrum splitting configuration for broadband solar energy harvesting. The cascaded solar cell and unassisted solar water splitting systems have photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical cells that are also spectrum splitters, so an external spectrum splitting element is not needed. PMID:27582317

  20. EYE DISEASES: INCIDENCE AND PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET OF OPHTHALMOLOGICAL DRUGS

    OpenAIRE

    Antropova, G.; Okonenko, T.

    2011-01-01

    Incidence evaluation of eye and its appendicular apparatus diseases (EAAD) among urban population of Novgorod region has been performed. The tendencies of high incidence of ocular organs particularly in children and teenagers have been investigated. Growth of incidence leads to an increase of ophthalmological medicines (OMs) use. The analysis of OMs sale at the pharmaceutical market retail segment of Novgorod region has been carried out.

  1. Increasing efficacy of graminicides with a forward angled spray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kryger

    2012-01-01

    Control of annual grass species with vertically oriented leaves in agricultural crops by application of foliar acting herbicides with conventional hydraulic sprayers can be increased using forward angled nozzles. Changing the spray angle from the normally predominantly vertical spray towards...... efficacy on L. perenne at early growth stages using nozzles with different spray quality, at different driving speeds and in different wind conditions. Similarly graminicide efficacy was increased when nozzles were angled 60° forward controlling A. myosuroides. Experiments investigating control of the two...

  2. Kinetic simulations of the Chodura and Debye sheaths for magnetic fields with grazing incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulette, David; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    When an unmagnetized plasma comes in contact with a material surface, the difference in mobility between the electrons and the ions creates a non-neutral layer known as the Debye sheath (DS). However, in magnetic fusion devices, the open magnetic field lines intersect the structural elements of the device with near grazing incidence angles. The magnetic field tends to align the particle flow along its own field lines, thus counteracting the mechanism that leads to the formation of the DS. Recent work using a fluid model (Stangeby 2012 Nucl. Fusion 52 083012) showed that the DS disappears when the incidence angle is smaller than a critical value (around {{5}{^\\circ}} for ITER-like parameters). Here, we study this transition by means of numerical simulations of a kinetic model both in the collisionless and weakly collisional regimes. We show that the main features observed in the fluid model are preserved: for grazing incidence, the space charge density near the wall is reduced or suppressed, the ion flow velocity is subsonic, and the electric field and plasma density profiles are spread out over several ion Larmor radii instead of a few Debye lengths as in the unmagnetized case. As there is no singularity at the DS entrance in the kinetic model, this phenomenon depends smoothly on the magnetic field incidence angle and no particular critical angle arises. The simulation results and the predictions of the fluid model are in good agreement, although some discrepancies subsist, mainly due to the assumptions of isothermal closure and diagonality of the pressure tensor in the fluid model.

  3. Evaluating the impact of MEDLINE using the Critical Incident Technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, E. R.; Rapp, B A; Lindberg, D A

    1991-01-01

    An adaptation of the Critical Incident Technique for the evaluation of an online information system is described. 552 users of the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database, interviewed by telephone and responding to a highly structured set of open-ended questions, reported 1,158 incidents in which the results of a MEDLINE search was especially helpful (or not helpful) in carrying out professional activities. Systematic analysis of these "critical incidents" produced three comprehensive...

  4. Multiple regression analysis of cancer incidence around nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a multiple regression analysis of cancer incidence in the vicinity of a nuclear plant are presented. No dependence on radiation factors (natural background, radioactive releases, total dose of all types of medical examinations) is established. At the same time a relationship between general cancer incidence, turmors of lungs, trashea, bronchi and hematopoictic tissue carcimona incidence and releases of dangerous chemical substances is revealed

  5. Mixing angle of doubly heavy baryons in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the mixing angles between the spin-1/2, Ξbc-Ξbc′ and Ωbc-Ωbc′ states of doubly heavy baryons within the QCD sum rules method. It is found that the mixing angles are large and have the values φΞbc=16°±5° and φΩbc=18°±6°, respectively. The mixing angles are slightly smaller compared to the predictions of the non-relativistic quark model, φΞbc=25.5° and φΩbc=25.9°.

  6. The incidence of symptomatic malrotation post gastroschisis repair.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abdelhafeez, A

    2011-12-01

    Gastroschisis is known to be associated with abnormal bowel rotation. Currently, the broadly accepted practice is not to perform Ladd\\'s procedure routinely at the time of closure of gastroschisis defects. However the incidence of symptomatic malrotation and volvulus post gastroschisis repair is unknown; this incidence is important in view of the current practice of bedside gastroschisis closure. This study examined the incidence of symptomatic malrotation and volvulus following gastroschisis repair.

  7. Assessment of Stubborn Disease Incidence in Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus stubborn disease, caused by Spiroplasma Citri, has occured in California for more than 90 years, however, detection methods for estimating disease incidence have not been well developed. Two 8 ha plots in Kern Co. CA were established and sampled in July and August, 2006. Different tissues o...

  8. Assessment of Stubborn Disease Incidence in Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus stubborn disease (CSD) has been a problem in California for over 90 years, yet, methods for rapidly detecting its causal agent, Spiroplasma citri, for use in estimating disease incidence have not been optimized. Two 8 ha blocks within two commercial groves were sampled in July and August, 20...

  9. Incidence of second malignancies for prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Van Hemelrijck

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is a need to assess risk of second primary cancers in prostate cancer (PCa patients, especially since PCa treatment may be associated with increased risk of second primary tumours. METHODS: We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for second primary tumours comparing men diagnosed with PCa between 1980 and 2010 in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (n = 20,559, and the general male population in the Canton. RESULTS: A total of 1,718 men developed a second primary tumour after PCa diagnosis, with lung and colon cancer being the most common (15 and 13% respectively. The SIR for overall second primary cancer was 1.11 (95%CI: 1.06-1.17. Site-specific SIRs varied from 1.19 (1.05-1.34 to 2.89 (2.62-4.77 for lung and thyroid cancer, respectively. When stratified by treatment, the highest SIR was observed for thyroid cancer (3.57 (1.30-7.76 when undergoing surgery, whereas liver cancer was common when treated with radiotherapy (3.21 (1.54-5.90 and kidney bladder was most prevalent for those on hormonal treatment (3.15 (1.93-4.87. Stratification by time since PCa diagnosis showed a lower risk of cancer for men with PCa compared to the general population for the first four years, but then a steep increase in risk was observed. CONCLUSION: In the Canton of Zurich, there was an increased risk of second primary cancers among men with PCa compared to the general population. Increased diagnostic activity after PCa diagnosis may partly explain increased risks within the first years of diagnosis, but time-stratified analyses indicated that increased risks remained and even increased over time.

  10. Shrinkage and trajectory of the flat jet with inclination angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shufeng Ye; Yusheng Xie; Hongzhi Guo; Ye Huang; Shantong Jin

    2003-01-01

    The performance of the flat jet with an inclination angle was investigated by a water model. A mathematical model for theshrinkage and the trajectory of the flat jet with an inclination angle was derived theoretically and verified by experimental data of thewater model. The experimental results indicate that the inclination angle (α) has no influence on the shrinkage of the flat jet, theshrinkage of the flat jet along the width direction decreases with the increasing of the initial velocity at the exit (u0) and the initialthickness of the flat jet (t0). Enough bigger initial exit velocity (u0) and initial thickness can suppress the shrinkage of the flat jetalong the width direction and keep the flat jet stabilized. In addition, the trajectory of the flat jet with an inclination angle is parabolicand must be taking into consideration when to determine the striking distance.

  11. The Use of Horizontal and Vertical Angles in Terrestrial Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Lušić, Zvonimir

    2013-01-01

    The methods of determining a ship’s position in terrestrial navigation by using vertical and horizontal angles are nowadays rarely used. The reason is the relative complexity of the procedure and the lack of accuracy of some methods. Different methods of using horizontal and vertical angles to obtain the line of position (LOP) will be presented in this paper, as well as the occurring errors and recommendations for use. In this paper, the sextant will be considered a basic...

  12. Lundby revisited: first incidence of mental disorders 1947-1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogren, Mats; Mattisson, Cecilia; Horstmann, Vibeke;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how first incidence of various mental disorders changed between the periods of 1947-1972 to 1972-1997 in the Lundby cohort. METHOD: First-incidence rates of mental disorders were calculated for two 25 year periods and ten 5 year periods. RESULTS: From 1947-1972 to 1972......-1997 a decrease in almost all age- and sex-specific incidences of neurotic and organic brain disorders was observed, whereas incidence rates of psychotic disorders increased consistently in male subjects but decreased in most age intervals in female subjects. For both sexes the age-standardized 5 year...... period incidences of neurotic disorders decreased after 1972, fluctuated for psychotic disorders 1947-1997 and decreased steadily for organic disorders 1947-1997. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in neurotic and organic brain disorder incidences may be linked to structural changes in society and medical...

  13. On Ruby's solid angle formula and some of its generalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Friot, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Using the Mellin-Barnes representation, we show that Ruby's solid angle formula and some of its generalizations may be expressed in a compact way in terms of the Appell F4 and Lauricella Fc functions.

  14. On Ruby's solid angle formula and some of its generalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friot, Samuel

    2015-02-01

    Using the Mellin-Barnes representation, we show that Ruby's solid angle formula and some of its generalizations may be expressed in a compact way in terms of the Appell F4 and Lauricella FC functions.

  15. Setting of angles on machine tools speeded by magnetic protractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, L. B.

    1964-01-01

    An adjustable protractor facilitates transference of angles to remote machine tools. It has a magnetic base incorporating a beam which can be adjusted until its shadow coincides with an image on the screen of a projector.

  16. Measuring the impact of critical incidents on brand personality

    OpenAIRE

    Tischer, Sven

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate how occurring critical incidents change customer perceptions of brand personality, this study measures the impact on the basis of an online experiment. For this purpose, 1,132 usable responses are gathered considering the smartphone brands of Apple and Nokia as well as different critical incidents (corruption vs. product failure). Brand personality perceptions before and after these negative incidents are collected using the measurement model of Geuens, Weijters and De Wulf (2009)...

  17. Real-time Detection of Road Traffic Incidents

    OpenAIRE

    Škorput, Pero; Mandžuka, Sadko; Jelušić, Niko

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses the real-time detection of incidents in road traffic. A general model is presented of an integral road traffic incident management system. The paper presents the major incident detection methods. The detection procedure on open highway sections has been dealt with in particular. Adequate mathematical model has been defined, as the base for the realisation of the estimators of the traffic flow condition variables. The proposed method is the Extended Kalman Filter. The final ...

  18. Numerical Simulated Study on the Separation of Oblique Incident and Reflected Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵利民; 俞聿修

    2001-01-01

    The Goda's method of separating the frequency spectrum of the unidirectional incident and reflected waves is improved. The proposed method can be applied to the separation of oblique incident and reflected waves and the two wave gauges can be arranged in an arbitrary angle in front of a structure. When the projected distance of the two probes on the incident wave direction is the multiple ofthe half length of the incident waves, the singular problem will emerge by using the method. It is advised that when the projected distance of the two measured points on the incident wave direction is 0.05~0.45 times the wave length of peak frequency wave, good results can be obtained. The simulated resultant waves are separated by the method of numerical simulation and the separated wave spectra are basically corresponding to the target spectra input. The wave trains calculated by the separated incident and reflected wave frequency spectrum are approximated to the input wave trains and the reflected coefficient can be derived correctly. Therefore, the method proposed in this paper is reliable.

  19. First statistics of the isopistonic angle for long baseline interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziad, A.; Elhalkouj, T.; Petrov, R. G.; Borgnino, J.; Lazrek, M.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Martin, F.; Elazhari, Y.

    2016-06-01

    To reach a suitable limiting magnitude with a multi-aperture interferometer, we need to cophase the different telescopes using a reference source. The latter should be located in the same isopistonic domain as the science source. We developed a direct analytical expression of deducing the isopistonic angle from atmospheric optical parameters as seeing, isoplanatic angle and outer scale. All of these atmospheric turbulence parameters are measured by the Generalized Seeing Monitor (GSM). The first statistics of the isopistonic angle obtained from the GSM data are presented and comparison between the major sites over the world are discussed (La Silla, Cerro Pachon, Paranal, San Pedro, Mt Palomar, Mauna Kea, La Palma, Oukaïmeden, Maydanak, Dome C). Implications of these isopistonic angle statistics on large interferometers cophasing in terms of sky coverage and limiting magnitude are discussed.

  20. Pelvic incidence: a fundamental pelvic parameter for three-dimensional regulation of spinal sagittal curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaye, J; Duval-Beaupère, G; Hecquet, J; Marty, C

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes an anatomical parameter, the pelvic incidence, as the key factor for managing the spinal balance. Pelvic and spinal sagittal parameters were investigated for normal and scoliotic adult subjects. The relation between pelvic orientation, and spinal sagittal balance was examined by statistical analysis. A close relationship was observed, for both normal and scoliotic subjects, between the anatomical parameter of pelvic incidence and the sacral slope, which strongly determines lumbar lordosis. Taking into account the Cobb angle and the apical vertebral rotation confers a three-dimensional aspect to this chain of relations between pelvis and spine. A predictive equation of lordosis is postulated. The pelvic incidence appears to be the main axis of the sagittal balance of the spine. It controls spinal curves in accordance with the adaptability of the other parameters. PMID:9629932

  1. Electrically controlled Bragg resonances of an ambichiral electro-optic structure: oblique incidence

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, Mukul

    2007-01-01

    The Pockels effect can increase the effective birefringence of ambichiral, electro--optic rejection filters made of materials with a $\\bar{4}2m$ point group symmetry, when a dc electric field is applied parallel to the axis of nonhomogeneity. The reflectances and the transmittances of such an ambichiral structure for obliquely incident plane waves is solvable through a boundary-value problem that is formulated using the frequency-domain Maxwell equations, the constitutive equations that contain the Pockels effect, and standard algebraic techniques for handling 4x4 matrix ordinary differential equations. The Bragg resonance peaks, for different circular-polarized-incidence conditions, blueshift as the angle of incidence increases. These blueshifts are unaffected by the sign of the dc electric field.

  2. New optical scheme for differential measurements of diffraction reflection intensity on X-radiation sliding incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An X-ray optical scheme for differential measurements of X-ray diffraction under sliding incidence conditions is proposed and an attachment design realizng this scheme, using standard equipment, is described. The main feature of the scheme is the following: collimation according to the Bragg angle is carried out for the reflected beam rather than the incident one. Goniometers can be used from DRON, TRS, GS-5 and other spectrometers. The goniometer head carrying the sample is standard, it is a part of the DRON, TRS and DTS. The crystal analyzer is fixed on the attachment. The angular position of the crystal monochromator is controlled by an inductive sensor. The experimental differential curves of X-ray diffraction under conditions of sliding incidence, taken for a silicon crystal having the 111 orientation, are given as well

  3. Parameterization of ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Barney L.

    2016-03-01

    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different power functions of the arguments. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles, minimum yields, effects on half-angles and minimum yields of amorphous overlayers. The program can calculate these half-angles and minimum yields for axes and [h k l] planes up to (5 5 5). The program is open source and available at

  4. Comparison of different passive knee extension torque-angle assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have used isokinetic dynamometry to assess joint torques and angles during passive extension of the knee, often without reporting upon methodological errors and reliability outcomes. In addition, the reliability of the techniques used to measure passive knee extension torque-angle and the extent to which reliability may be affected by the position of the subjects is also unclear. Therefore, we conducted an analysis of the intra- and inter-session reliability of two methods of assessing passive knee extension: (A) a 2D kinematic analysis coupled to a custom-made device that enabled the direct measurement of resistance to stretch and (B) an isokinetic dynamometer used in two testing positions (with the non-tested thigh either flexed at 45° or in the neutral position). The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) of torque, the slope of the torque-angle curve, and the parameters of the mathematical model that were fit to the torque-angle data for the above conditions were measured in sixteen healthy male subjects (age: 21.4 ± 2.1 yr; BMI: 22.6 ± 3.3 kg m−2; tibial length: 37.4 ± 3.4 cm). The results found were: (1) methods A and B led to distinctly different torque-angle responses; (2) passive torque-angle relationship and stretch tolerance were influenced by the position of the non-tested thigh; and (3) ICCs obtained for torque were higher than for the slope and for the mathematical parameters that were fit to the torque-angle curve. In conclusion, the measurement method that is used and the positioning of subjects can influence the passive knee extension torque-angle outcome. (paper)

  5. Information Security Incident Management : An Empirical Study of Current Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hove, Cathrine; Tårnes, Marte

    2013-01-01

    An increasing use of digital solutions suggests that organizations today are more exposed to attacks than before. Recent reports show that attacks get more advanced and that attackers choose their targets more wisely. Despite preventive measures being implemented, incidents occur occasionally. This calls for effective and efficient information security incident management. Several standards and guidelines addressing incident management exist. However, few studies of current practices have bee...

  6. Applicability of available methods for incidence estimation among blood donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shtmian Zou; Edward P.Notari IV; Roger Y.Dodd

    2010-01-01

    @@ Abstract Incidence rates of major transfusion transmissible viral infections have been estimated threugh widely used sereconversion approaches and recently developed methods.A quality database for blood donors and donations with the capacity to track donation history of each donor is the basis for incidence estimation and many other epidemiological studies.Depending on available data,difierent ways have been used to determine incidence rates based on conversion from uninfected to infected status among repeat donors.

  7. Variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of intact cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Myung K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM is a powerful tool for observing fluorescently labeled molecules on the plasma membrane surface of animal cells. However, the utility of TIRFM in plant cell studies has been limited by the fact that plants have cell walls, thick peripheral layers surrounding the plasma membrane. Recently, a new technique known as variable-angle epifluorescence microscopy (VAEM was developed to circumvent this problem. However, the lack of a detailed analysis of the optical principles underlying VAEM has limited its applications in plant-cell biology. Results Here, we present theoretical and experimental evidence supporting the use of variable-angle TIRFM in observations of intact plant cells. We show that when total internal reflection occurs at the cell wall/cytosol interface with an appropriate angle of incidence, an evanescent wave field of constant depth is produced inside the cytosol. Results of experimental TIRFM observations of the dynamic behaviors of phototropin 1 (a membrane receptor protein and clathrin light chain (a vesicle coat protein support our theoretical analysis. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that variable-angle TIRFM is appropriate for quantitative live imaging of cells in intact tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  8. The influence of incident shock Mach number on radial incident shock wave focusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Experiments and numerical simulations were carried out to investigate radial incident shock focusing on a test section where the planar incident shock wave was divided into two identical ones. A conventional shock tube was used to generate the planar shock. Incident shock Mach number of 1.51, 1.84 and 2.18 were tested. CCD camera was used to obtain the schlieren photos of the flow field. Third-order, three step strong-stability-preserving (SSP Runge-Kutta method, third-order weighed essential non-oscillation (WENO scheme and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR algorithm were adopted to simulate the complicated flow fields characterized by shock wave interaction. Good agreement between experimental and numerical results was observed. Complex shock wave configurations and interactions (such as shock reflection, shock-vortex interaction and shock focusing were observed in both the experiments and numerical results. Some new features were observed and discussed. The differences of structure of flow field and the variation trends of pressure were compared and analyzed under the condition of different Mach numbers while shock wave focusing.

  9. The influence of incident shock Mach number on radial incident shock wave focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Tan, Sheng; He, Liming; Rong, Kang; Zhang, Qiang; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-04-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations were carried out to investigate radial incident shock focusing on a test section where the planar incident shock wave was divided into two identical ones. A conventional shock tube was used to generate the planar shock. Incident shock Mach number of 1.51, 1.84 and 2.18 were tested. CCD camera was used to obtain the schlieren photos of the flow field. Third-order, three step strong-stability-preserving (SSP) Runge-Kutta method, third-order weighed essential non-oscillation (WENO) scheme and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm were adopted to simulate the complicated flow fields characterized by shock wave interaction. Good agreement between experimental and numerical results was observed. Complex shock wave configurations and interactions (such as shock reflection, shock-vortex interaction and shock focusing) were observed in both the experiments and numerical results. Some new features were observed and discussed. The differences of structure of flow field and the variation trends of pressure were compared and analyzed under the condition of different Mach numbers while shock wave focusing.

  10. Wide-angle antireflection ZnO films on bullet-like nanostructures of multi-crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanosphere lithography and antireflection coating techniques have been applied to fabricate wide-angle antireflection structures on multicrystalline silicon substrates. Self-assembled 550-nm SiO2 nanospheres were arranged periodically to act as a mask to block the inductively coupled plasma dry etching and form bulletlike nanostructures on the surface of the multicrystalline silicon wafer. Then a 65-nm-thick zinc oxide film was deposited on the nanostructures using the atomic layer deposition method. The results show that when applying the nanostructure with a ZnO film the average reflectivity of the multicrystalline silicon wafer can be decreased from 36% to 0.65% in the wavelength range from 400 nm to 850 nm for an incident angle of 8 deg. . When the incident angle reaches 60 deg. the average reflectivity of the sample becomes less than 4.6%.

  11. Precision of incidence predictions based on Poisson distributed observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakulinen, T; Dyba, T

    1994-08-15

    Disease incidence predictions are useful for a number of administrative and scientific purposes. The simplest ones are made using trend extrapolation, on either an arithmetic or a logarithmic scale. This paper shows how approximate confidence prediction intervals can be calculated for such predictions, both for the total number of cases and for the age-adjusted incidence rates, by assuming Poisson distribution of the age and period specific numbers of incident cases. Generalizations for prediction models, for example, using power families and extra-Poisson variation, are also presented. Cancer incidence predictions for the Stockholm-Gotland Oncological Region in Sweden are used as an example. PMID:7973230

  12. The Oblique Incident Effects of Electromagnetic Wave in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yong; JIANG Zhonghe; HU Xiwei; LIU Minghai

    2008-01-01

    The propagating behaviours, i.e. phase shift, transmissivity, reflectivity and absorptivity, of an electromagnetic (EM) wave in a two-dimensional atmospheric pressure plasma layer are described by the numerical solutions of integral-differential Maxwell's equations through a generalized finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) algorithm. These propagating behaviours are found to be strongly affected by five factors: two EM wave characteristics relevan.t to the oblique incident and three dimensionless factors. The two EM wave factors are the polarization mode (TM mode or TE mode) and its incident angle. The three dimensionless factors are: the ratio of the maximum electron density to the critical density n0/ncr, the ratio of the plasma layer width to the wave length d/λ, and the ratio of the collision frequency between electrons and neutrals to the incident wave frequency ve0/f.

  13. Reduction of blade passage tone by angle modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiagbedzi, Y. A.

    1982-05-01

    Blade staggering has been used in both centrifugal and axial flow fans to reduce discrete tones. Impeller hub resilience, causing fan torsional oscillations, appears to be equivalent to blade staggering in that both lead to angle modulation of the blade passage sound. By using Jacobi-Anger expansions, the sound reductions resulting from the angle modulation effects of these two equivalent techniques are predicted. Excellent agreement is found with published data.

  14. Measurement of Strabismic Angle Using the Distance Krimsky Test

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Kwang Sic; Koo, Hyun; Moon, Nam Ju

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the correlation of the distance Krimsky test and the alternate prism cover test (APCT) for the distance deviation in patients with horizontal strabismus. Methods Forty patients with horizontal strabismus (20 esotropia and 20 exotropia) were included in this study. Patients with a variable angle of deviation, vertical angle over 5 prism diopters, impaired binocular vision, or poor cooperation were excluded. We instructed the patient to look a target 6 meters away, and appli...

  15. Neoclassical Pitch-Angle Scattering of Runaway Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong

    2015-01-01

    It is discovered that the tokamak field geometry generates a pitch-angle scattering effect for runaway electrons. This neoclassical pitch-angle scattering is much stronger than the collisional scattering and invalidates the gyro-center model for runaway electrons. As a result, the energy limit of runaway electrons is found to be larger than the prediction of the gyro-center model and to depend heavily on the background magnetic field.

  16. Advanced conduction angle control of permanent magnet brushless motor drives

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, J.; Chan, CC; Jiang, JZ; Chau, KT

    1998-01-01

    A novel advanced conduction angle control scheme for permanent magnet brushless motor drives is presented in this paper. The originality of this scheme is to employ the transformer EMF in stator windings to counteract the rotational EMF by controlling the advanced conduction angle when the motor drive operates above the base speed. Hence the constant-power operation region can be extended considerably, even though the current regulator is in saturation. The attractive feature of the proposed ...

  17. Static and Dynamic Contact Angles of Immersed Ferrofluid Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Souvick; Bhowmik, Dipanwita; Mukhopadhyay, Achintya; Ganguly, Ranjan

    2013-11-01

    Ferrofluid plug driven micro-pumps are useful for manipulating micro-volume of liquids by providing remote actuation using a localized magnetic field gradient. Inside a microchannel, the ferrofluid experiences combined actions of different relevant body forces. While the pressure, viscous and magnetic forces can be estimated using established techniques, the surface tension force requires information about the contact angle between the ferrofluid and glass capillary wall. We address this phenomenon through experimental characterization of static and dynamic contact angles of oil based ferrofluid (EFH3) droplets on glass surface immersed in pure or surfacted distilled water. The equilibrium static contact angle is found to significantly reduce in presence of a magnetic field. Dynamic contact angles are measured through high-speed imaging as the ferrofluid droplets slide along an inclined glass surface. Variation of contact angle hysteresis, which falls outside the Hoffmann Tanner equation for this case, is also investigated as a function of contact line velocity. A strong dependence is found between the contact angle hysteresis and the wetting time. Findings of the work is useful for designing ferrofluid plug-driven microfluidic plugs for different lab-on-a-chip applications.

  18. Jet opening angles and gamma-ray brightness of AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Pushkarev, A B; Lister, M L; Savolainen, T

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the differences in apparent opening angles between the parsec-scale jets of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) during its first three months of operations and those of non-LAT-detected AGN. We used 15.4 GHz VLBA observations of sources from the 2 cm VLBA MOJAVE program, a subset of which comprise the statistically complete flux density limited MOJAVE sample. We determined the apparent opening angles by analyzing transverse jet profiles from the data in the image plane and by applying a model fitting technique to the data in the (u,v) plane. Both methods provided comparable opening angle estimates. The apparent opening angles of gamma-ray bright blazars are preferentially larger than those of gamma-ray weak sources. At the same time, we have found the two groups to have similar intrinsic opening angle distributions. This suggests that the jets in gamma-ray bright AGN are oriented at preferentially smaller angles to the line of sight resulting ...

  19. Scattering of an anisotropic sphere by an arbitrarily incident Hermite-Gaussian beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Tan; Wu, Zhensen; Shang, Qingchao; Li, Zhengjun; Bai, Lu; Li, Haiying

    2016-02-01

    An analytic theory for the scattering of an off-axis Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beam obliquely incident on an anisotropic sphere is developed. Based on the complex-source-point method and coordinate rotation theory, a general expansion expression for an arbitrarily incident HG beam in terms of Spherical Vector Wave Functions (SVWFs) is derived, and its convergence is numerically discussed. By introducing the Fourier transformation, the internal field expressions of the anisotropic sphere are represented. With the continuous tangential boundary conditions applied, the unknown scattering coefficients are solved. The theory and code are verified from the comparisons between the degenerated cases using our theory and those in the references. Two eigenmodes inside the uniaxial anisotropic sphere are characterized. The influences of beam mode, oblique incident angles, permittivity and permeability tensors, and sphere radius on the scattered field are analyzed numerically. The scattering intensity distributions on uniaxial anisotropic sphere in xoz and yoz plane are enantiomorphous for on-axis oblique illumination.

  20. Combined effects of the in-plane orientation angle and the loading angle on the dynamic enhancement of honeycombs under mixed shear-compression loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounsi, R.; Markiewicz, E.; Haugou, G.; Chaari, F.; Zouari, B.

    2016-05-01

    The combined effect of the loading angle (ψ) and the in-plane orientation angle (β) on the dynamic enhancement of aluminium alloy honeycombs is investigated. Experimental results are analysed on the crushing surfaces (initial peak and average crushing forces). A significant effect of the loading angle is reported. The dynamic enhancement rate depends on the loading angle until a critical loading angle (ψcritical). Beyond, a negative dynamic enhancement rate is observed. Concerning the in-plane orientation angle β effect, it depends on the loading angle ψ under quasi-static conditions. Under dynamic conditions, a significant effect is reported independently of the loading angle ψ. Therefore, the dynamic enhancement rate depends on the combined effects of ψ and β angles. A global analysis of the buckling mechanisms allowed us to explain the combined effect of ψ and β angles on the initial peak force. The collapse mechanisms analysis explain the negative dynamic enhancement rate for large loading angles.

  1. Controlling the apex angle of carbon cone induced by 1.2 keV argon ions at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanofiber-tipped-cones with controllable apex angle were fabricated by sputtering graphite with 1.2keV Ar+ ions in different incident angles at room temperature. The density of carbon cones was estimated at 1 x 109- 1 x 1010/cm2. The cones with carbon nanofiber were oriented to the ion-beam direction. By increasing the incidence from 30 degree to 60 degree, the apex angle of cones decreased from 33 degree to 20 degree, and the aspect ratio increased from 250nm/150nm to 1200nm/400nm. The decreased apex angle, and the increased aspect ratio and density of the cones, were attributed to decreasing effective diffuse coefficient induced by the ion beam and increasing sputtering yield. By increasing the current density from 200 μA/cm2 to 800 μA/cm2, the apex angle of cones decreased from 90 degree to 20 degree and the height of cones increased from 100nm to 1200nm. The increased dose rate caused by larger current densities of the ion beam should result in the different number of the sputtered atom or cluster, which was considered as reason of the decrement of the apex angle and the increment of the height of cones. (authors)

  2. Evolution of the jet opening angle distribution in holographic plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, Krishna; van der Schee, Wilke

    2016-01-01

    We use holography to analyze the evolution of an ensemble of jets, with an initial probability distribution for their energy and opening angle as %for jets in proton-proton (pp) collisions, as they propagate through an expanding cooling droplet of strongly coupled plasma as in heavy ion collisions. We identify two competing effects: (i) each individual jet widens as it propagates; (ii) the opening angle distribution for jets emerging from the plasma within any specified range of energies has been pushed toward smaller angles, comparing to pp jets with the same energies. The second effect arises because small-angle jets suffer less energy loss and because jets with a higher initial energy are less probable in the ensemble. We illustrate both effects in a simple two-parameter model, and find that their consequence in sum is that the opening angle distribution for jets in any range of energies contains fewer narrow and wide jets. Either effect can dominate in the mean opening angle, for not unreasonable values o...

  3. Estimating the incidence of the acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten M.; Foldspang, Anders; Larsen, Mogens L.; Gerdes, Lars U.; Rasmussen, Søren; Færgeman, Ole

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estimates of incidence are crucial to the planning of public health measures, but most studies of incidence of, for example, acute myocardial infarction (MI) are troubled by methodological problems such as; (i) selection biases of the patients being included for study, (ii) lack of id...

  4. Collisions of polyatomic ions with surfaces: incident energy partitioning and chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collision of polyatomic ions with surfaces were investigated in ion-surface scattering experiments to obtain more information on energy partitioning in ion-surface collision and on chemical reactions at surfaces. Mass spectra, translation energy and angular distributions of product ions were measured in dependence on the incident energy and the incident angle of polyatomic projectiles. From these data distributions of energy fractions resulting in internal excitation of the projectile, translation energy of the product ions, and energy absorbed by the surface were determined. The surface investigated were a standard stainless steel surface, covered by hydrocarbons, carbon surfaces at room and elevated temperatures, and several surfaces covered by a self-assembled monolayers (C12-hydrocarbon SAM, C11-perfluorohydrocarbon SAM, and C11 hydrocarbon with terminal -COOH group SAM). The main processes observed at collision energies of 10 - 50 eV were: neutralization of the ions at surfaces, inelastic scattering and dissociations of the projectile ions, quasi elastic scattering of the projectile ions, and chemical reactions with the surface material (usually hydrogen-atom transfer reactions). The ion survival factor was estimated to be a few percent for even-electron ions (like protonated ethanol ion, C2H5O+, CD5+) and about 10 - 102 times lower for radical ions (like ethanol and benzene molecular ions, CD4+). In the polyatomic ion -surface energy transfer experiments, the ethanol molecular ion was used as a well-characterized projectile ion. The results with most of the surfaces studied showed in the collision energy range of 13 - 32 eV that most collisions were strongly inelastic with about 6 - 8 % of the incident projectile energy transformed into internal excitation of the projectile (independent of the incident angle) and led partially to its further dissociation in a unimolecular way after the interaction with the surface. The incident energy transformed into the

  5. Angle-Resolved Plasmonic Properties of Single Gold Nanorod Dimers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wu; Xuxing Lu; Qiannan Zhu; Junwei Zhao; Qishun Shen; Li Zhan; Weihai Ni

    2014-01-01

    Through wet-chemical assembly methods, gold nanorods were placed close to each other and formed a dimer with a gap distance*1 nm, and hence degenerated plasmonic dipole modes of individual nanorods coupled together to produce hybridized bonding and antibonding resonance modes. Previous studies using a condenser for illumination result in averaged signals over all excitation angles. By exciting an individual dimer obliquely at different angles, we demonstrate that these two new resonance modes are highly tunable and sensitive to the angle between the excitation polarization and the dimer orientation, which follows cos2u dependence. Moreover, for dimer structures with various structure angles, the resonance wavelengths as well as the refractive index sensitivities were found independent of the structure angle. Cal-culated angle-resolved plasmonic properties are in good agreement with the measurements. The assembled nanostructures investigated here are important for fundamental researches as well as potential applications when they are used as building blocks in plasmon-based optical and optoelectronic devices.

  6. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie E McFadden-Hiller

    Full Text Available Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents. We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula, primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99, with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping

  7. Incidence of inguinal hernia in children with congenital cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, J I; Latocha, J E

    1990-01-01

    The incidence of inguinal hernia among 247 children with cerebral palsy was ascertained. During the first year of life, 20 of the 153 boys developed hernia, as did one of the 94 girls. Among boys with birthweights of 1000 to 2000g the incidence was 31 per cent, which is twice the rate for normal...

  8. The incidence of gonorrhea in an abortion population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querido, L.; Haspels, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The incidence of gonorrhea was investigated in an abortion population. A total of 1021 women participated in this study. Three asymptomatic cases of gonorrhea were detected. None of these women had had gonorrhea before or had a previous abortion. No relation was found between the incidence of gonorr

  9. SU-E-P-07: Retrospective Analysis of Incident Reports at a Radiology Department: Feedback From Incident Reporting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To provide an overview of reported incidents that occurred in a radiology department and to describe the most common causal source of incidents. Methods: Incident reports from the radiology department at the University of the Ryukyus Hospital between 2008 and 2013 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The incident report form contains the following items, causal factors of the incident and desirable corrective actions to prevent recurrence of similar incidents. These items allow the institution to investigate/analyze root causes of the incidents and suggest measures to be taken to prevent further, similar incidents. The ‘causal factors of the incident’ item comprises multiple selections from among 24 selections and includes some synonymous selections. In this study, this item was re-categorized into four causal source types: (i) carelessness, (ii) lack of skill or knowledge, (iii) deficiencies in communication, and (iv) external factors. Results: There were a total of 7490 incident reports over the study period and 276 (3.7%) were identified as originating from the radiology department. The most frequent causal source type was carelessness (62%). The other three types showed similar frequencies (10–14%). The staff members involved in incidents indicate three predominant desirable corrective actions to prevent or decrease the recurrence of similar incidents. These are ‘improvement in communication’ (24%), ‘staff training/education’ (19%), and ‘daily medical procedures’ (22%), and the most frequent was ‘improvement in communication’. Even though the most frequent causal factor was related to carelessness, the most desirable corrective action indicated by the staff members was related to communication. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that the most immediate causes are strongly related to carelessness. However, the most likely underlying causes of incidents would be related to deficiencies in effective communication. At our

  10. SU-E-P-07: Retrospective Analysis of Incident Reports at a Radiology Department: Feedback From Incident Reporting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakinohana, Y; Toita, T; Heianna, J; Murayama, S [School of medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To provide an overview of reported incidents that occurred in a radiology department and to describe the most common causal source of incidents. Methods: Incident reports from the radiology department at the University of the Ryukyus Hospital between 2008 and 2013 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The incident report form contains the following items, causal factors of the incident and desirable corrective actions to prevent recurrence of similar incidents. These items allow the institution to investigate/analyze root causes of the incidents and suggest measures to be taken to prevent further, similar incidents. The ‘causal factors of the incident’ item comprises multiple selections from among 24 selections and includes some synonymous selections. In this study, this item was re-categorized into four causal source types: (i) carelessness, (ii) lack of skill or knowledge, (iii) deficiencies in communication, and (iv) external factors. Results: There were a total of 7490 incident reports over the study period and 276 (3.7%) were identified as originating from the radiology department. The most frequent causal source type was carelessness (62%). The other three types showed similar frequencies (10–14%). The staff members involved in incidents indicate three predominant desirable corrective actions to prevent or decrease the recurrence of similar incidents. These are ‘improvement in communication’ (24%), ‘staff training/education’ (19%), and ‘daily medical procedures’ (22%), and the most frequent was ‘improvement in communication’. Even though the most frequent causal factor was related to carelessness, the most desirable corrective action indicated by the staff members was related to communication. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that the most immediate causes are strongly related to carelessness. However, the most likely underlying causes of incidents would be related to deficiencies in effective communication. At our

  11. Ergonomic Evaluation of the Angle of Abduction in Laptops Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Ali Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laptops in 21st century are an integral part of every professional in vivid fields. Off late there has been emergence of several ergonomic injuries such as repetitive strain injuries (RSIs due to extensive usage of laptops, which can be closely linked with applied force and postures. This study investigated the effect of various angles of keyboard on the applied force and motor action plus response time while performing five distinct tasks. On the basis of literature two different laptops were selected for performing different tasks. For each case the three levels of platform angle were considered as 0°, 5°, and 10°. Male subjects were selected to perform five distinct tasks for each platform angle for both laptops. The force applied (in milli-volts and the motor action plus response time (milli-seconds were recorded using an oscilloscope. The data collected were analyzed through ANOVA using MINITAB software. The abduction angle with the least mean response time and applied force were considered as the best from ergonomics viewpoint. The ANOVA results showed that the angle of abduction for both laptops (small and large do have significant effect on applied force but not on motor action plus response time. The analysis of results indicate that 10° angle of abduction in case of small laptops should be applied to minimize musculoskeletal disorder and repetitive strain injuries. Research relevance: This work suggests that those responsible for the function and operation of laptops would have to redesign the system to reduce injuries, as far as musculoskeletal disorder, repetitive strain injuries and other related problems are concerned. The present work can be quite useful for the system designers of tomorrow.

  12. The incidence of symptomatic neuroma in amputation and neurorrhaphy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Avoort, D. J. J. C.; Hovius, S. E. R.; Selles, R. W.; van Neck, J. W.; Coert, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The incidence of symptomatic neuroma in finger nerve injuries varies widely in the literature. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the incidence of symptomatic neuroma after repair of digital nerve injuries (neurorrhaphy) and after amputation of one or more fingers. We also determined

  13. Incidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome after endovascular aortic repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De La Motte, L; Vogt, K; Jensen, Leif Panduro;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of the post-implantation syndrome/systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) after endovascular aortic repair.......The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of the post-implantation syndrome/systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) after endovascular aortic repair....

  14. Doppler angle correction in the measurement of intrarenal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mennitt K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Jing Gao¹, Keith Hentel¹, Qiang Zhu², Teng Ma², George Shih¹, Kevin Mennitt¹, Robert Min¹¹Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College, NY, USA; ²Division of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, ChinaBackground: The aim of this study was to assess differences in intrarenal artery Doppler parameters measured without and with Doppler angle correction.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed color duplex sonography in 30 normally functioning kidneys (20 native kidneys in 10 subjects and 10 transplanted kidneys in 10 subjects performed between January 26, 2010 and July 26, 2010. There were 10 age-matched men and10 age-matched women (mean 39.8 ± 12.2, range 21–60 years in this study. Depending on whether the Doppler angle was corrected in the spectral Doppler measurement, Doppler parameters including peak systolic velocity (PSV, end-diastolic velocity (EDV, and resistive index (RI measured at the interlobar artery of the kidney were divided into two groups, ie, initial Doppler parameters measured without Doppler angle correction (Group 1 and remeasured Doppler parameters with Doppler angle correction (Group 2. Values for PSV, EDV, and RI measured without Doppler angle correction were compared with those measured with Doppler angle correction, and were analyzed statistically with a paired-samples t-test.Results: There were statistical differences in PSV and EDV at the interlobar artery in the upper, mid, and lower poles of the kidney between Group 1 and Group 2 (all P < 0.001. PSV and EDV in Group 1 were significantly lower than in Group 2. RI in Group 1 was the same as that in Group 2 in the upper, mid, and lower poles of the kidneys.Conclusion: Doppler angle correction plays an important role in the accurate measurement of intrarenal blood flow velocity. The true flow velocity converted from the maximum Doppler velocity shift

  15. Advantages of a Grazing Incidence Monochromator in the Extreme Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Sarah; Turley, R. Steven

    2006-10-01

    One of the main goals of the BYU Thin Films group is to find optical constants for materials in the Extreme Ultraviolet. This is accomplished by taking reflection and transmission measurements. The addition of a Grazing Incidence Monochromator to our current system allows us to take reflectance measurements at wavelengths currently unavailable on the Normal Incidence Monochromator (Monarch).

  16. Prevalence and incidence of precocious pubertal development in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Grete; Pedersen, Carsten; Jensen, Tina Kold;

    2005-01-01

    To our knowledge, no population-based epidemiologic studies on the incidence and prevalence of precocious pubertal development have been published. Danish national registries provide sufficient data for estimating the prevalence and incidence of this condition. The aim of this study was to estima...

  17. Social Incidence of the General Sales Tax in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Saadia Refaqat

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the social incidence of the general sales tax (GST) in Pakistan. The main finding of the study is that contrary to widespread perception, the social incidence of the GST in Pakistan is slightly progressive. The main reason for this counterintuitive result is that most items heavily consumed by the poor are exempt from GST in Pakistan.

  18. Incidence and impact of land conflict in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Deininger, Klaus; Castagnini, Raffaella

    2004-01-01

    While there is a large, though inconclusive, literature on the impact of land titles in Africa, little attention has been devoted to the study of land conflict, despite evidence on increasing incidence of such conflicts. The authors use data from Uganda to explore who is affected by land conflicts, whether recent legal changes have helped to reduce their incidence, and to assess their impa...

  19. Scoliosis angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most commonly used methods of assessing the scoliotic deviation measure angles that are not clearly defined in relation to the anatomy of the patient. In order to give an anatomic basis for such measurements it is proposed to define the scoliotic deviation as the deviation the vertebral column makes with the sagittal plane. Both the Cobb and the Ferguson angles may be based on this definition. The present methods of measurement are then attempts to measure these angles. If the plane of these angles is parallel to the film, the measurement will be correct. Errors in the measurements may be incurred by the projection. A hypothetical projection, called a 'rectified orthogonal projection', is presented, which correctly represents all scoliotic angles in accordance with these principles. It can be constructed in practice with the aid of a computer and by performing measurements on two projections of the vertebral column; a scoliotic curve can be represented independent of the kyphosis and lordosis. (Auth.)

  20. Origin of Hinge-Like Mechanism in Single-Layer Black Phosphorus: the Angle-Angle Cross Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Jin-Wu

    2016-01-01

    The single-layer black phosphorus is characteristic for its puckered configuration that possesses the hinge-like mechanism, which leads to the highly anisotropic in-plane Poisson's ratios and the negative out-of-plane Poisson's ratio. We reveal that the hinge-like mechanism can be attributed to the angle-angle cross interaction, which, combined with the bond stretching and angle bending interactions, is able to provide a good description of the mechanical properties in the single-layer black ...

  1. Changing patterns of Hodgkin lymphoma incidence in Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, H.; Seow, A.; Rostgaard, K.;

    2008-01-01

    A bimodal age-specific incidence pattern with a relatively high proportion of cases occurring in adolescents and young adults is a hallmark of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) epidemiology in Western industrialized countries. The young adult incidence peak is believed to reflect the association between HL...

  2. Incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Marie-Louise F.; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Torp-Pedersen, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and SLE with concomitant or subsequent lupus nephritis (LN) in Denmark during 1995-2011, using data from the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR). METHODS: To assess the incidence of SLE, we identified all persons aged...

  3. The management of radiation treatment error through incident learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess efficacy of an incident learning system in the management of error in radiation treatment. Materials and methods: We report an incident learning system implementation customized for radiation therapy where any 'unwanted or unexpected change from normal system behaviour that causes or has the potential to cause an adverse effect to persons or equipment' is reported, investigated and learned from. This system thus captures near-miss (potential) and actual events. Incidents are categorized according to severity, type and origin. Results: Our analysis spans a period of 3 years with an average accrual of 11.6 incidents per week. We found a significant reduction in actual incidents of 28% and 47% in the second and third year when compared to the first year (p < 0.001), which we attribute to the many interventions prompted by the analysis of incidents reported. We also saw a similar significant reduction in incidents generated at the treatment unit correlating with the introduction of direct treatment parameter transfer and electronic imaging (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Implementation of an incident learning system has helped us to establish a just environment where all staff members report deviations from normal system behaviour and thus generate evidence to initiate safety improvements.

  4. Development and prospects of Very Small Angle Neutron Scattering (VSANS) techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuo, Tai-Sen; Cheng, He; Chen, Yuan-Bo; Wang, Fang-Wei

    2016-07-01

    Very Small Angle Neutron Scattering (VSANS) is an upgrade of the traditional Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) technique which can cover three orders of magnitude of length scale from one nanometer to one micrometer. It is a powerful tool for structure calibration in polymer science, biology, material science and condensed matter physics. Since the first VSANS instrument, D11 in Grenoble, was built in 1972, new collimation techniques, focusing optics (multi-beam converging apertures, material or magnetic lenses, and focusing mirrors) and higher resolution detectors combined with the long flight paths and long incident neutron wavelengths have been developed. In this paper, a detailed review is given of the development, principles and application conditions of various VSANS techniques. Then, beam current gain factors are calculated to evaluate those techniques. A VSANS design for the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is thereby presented. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (21474119, 11305191)

  5. Effects of the rotation angle on surface plasmon coupling of nanoprisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Miao-Hsuan; Nien, Li-Wei; Chao, Bo-Kai; Li, Jia-Han; Hsueh, Chun-Hway

    2016-02-01

    We studied the effects of relative orientation of bowtie nanostructures on the plasmon resonance both experimentally and theoretically in this work. Specifically, we fabricated gold bowtie nanoantennas with rotated nanoprisms, measured the near-field and the far-field resonance behaviors using Raman spectroscopy and scattering microspectroscopy, and simulated the effects of the rotation angle on the localized surface plasmonic resonance using finite-difference time-domain simulations. In addition to the widely-discussed dipolar resonance in regular bowtie nanostructures, defined as tip-mode resonance in the present study, the excitations of edge-mode resonance were discovered under certain rotation angles of nanoprisms. Because of the resonances of different modes at different wavelengths, two different incident laser sources were used to measure the Raman spectra to provide evidence for the evolution of different resonance modes. Also, both the tip-mode and edge-mode resonances were verified by the simulated charge density distribution and their trends were discussed. Based on the discovered trend, a plasmon protractor was created with a near-exponential decay relationship between the relative resonance wavelength shift and cosine of the rotation angle. A plasmon hybridization model was also proposed for rotated bowties to explain the coupling between nanoprisms during rotation.We studied the effects of relative orientation of bowtie nanostructures on the plasmon resonance both experimentally and theoretically in this work. Specifically, we fabricated gold bowtie nanoantennas with rotated nanoprisms, measured the near-field and the far-field resonance behaviors using Raman spectroscopy and scattering microspectroscopy, and simulated the effects of the rotation angle on the localized surface plasmonic resonance using finite-difference time-domain simulations. In addition to the widely-discussed dipolar resonance in regular bowtie nanostructures, defined as tip

  6. Automatic Analysis of Critical Incident Reports: Requirements and Use Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denecke, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, critical incident reports are used as a means to increase patient safety and quality of care. The entire potential of these sources of experiential knowledge remains often unconsidered since retrieval and analysis is difficult and time-consuming, and the reporting systems often do not provide support for these tasks. The objective of this paper is to identify potential use cases for automatic methods that analyse critical incident reports. In more detail, we will describe how faceted search could offer an intuitive retrieval of critical incident reports and how text mining could support in analysing relations among events. To realise an automated analysis, natural language processing needs to be applied. Therefore, we analyse the language of critical incident reports and derive requirements towards automatic processing methods. We learned that there is a huge potential for an automatic analysis of incident reports, but there are still challenges to be solved. PMID:27139389

  7. Incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Thomas D; Pearce, Rachel M; Raghunathan, Trivellore E; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Jouven, Xavier; Siscovick, David S

    2004-06-15

    Estimates of the incidence of out-of-hospital primary cardiac arrest (CA) have typically relied solely upon emergency medical service or death certificate records and have not investigated incidence in clinical subgroups. Overall and temporal patterns of CA incidence were investigated in clinically defined groups using systematic methods to ascertain CA. Estimates of incidence were derived from a population-based case-control study in a large health plan from 1986 to 1994. Subjects were enrollees aged 50 to 79 years who had had CA (n = 1,275). A stratified random sample of enrollees who had not had CA was used to estimate the population at risk with various clinical characteristics (n = 2,323). Poisson's regression was used to estimate incidence overall and for 3-year time periods (1986 to 1988, 1989 to 1991, and 1992 to 1994). The overall CA incidence was 1.89/1,000 subject-years and varied up to 30-fold across clinical subgroups. For example, incidence was 5.98/1,000 subject-years in subjects with any clinically recognized heart disease compared with 0.82/1,000 subject-years in subjects without heart disease. In subgroups with heart disease, incidence was 13.69/1,000 subject-years in subjects with prior myocardial infarction and 21.87/1,000 subject-years in subjects with heart failure. Risk decreased by 20% from the initial to the final time period, with a greater decrease observed in those with (25%) compared with those without (12%) clinical heart disease. Thus, CA incidence varied considerably across clinical groups. The results provide insights regarding absolute and population-attributable risk in clinically defined subgroups, information that may aid strategies aimed at reducing mortality from CA. PMID:15194012

  8. Development and prospect of Very Small Angle Neutron Scattering (VSANS) Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Zuo, Taisen; Chen, Yuan-Bo; Wang, Fang-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Very Small Angle Neutron Scattering (VSANS) is an upgrade of the traditional Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) technique which can cover three orders of magnitude of length scale from one nanometer to one micrometer. It is a powerful tool for structure calibration in polymer science, biology, material science and condensed matter physics. Since the first VSANS instrument, D11 in Grenoble, was built in 1972, new collimation techniques, focusing optics (multi-beam converging apertures, material or magnetic lenses, and focusing mirrors) and higher resolution detectors combined with the long flight paths and long incident neutron wavelengths have been developed. In this paper, a detailed review is given of the development, principles and application conditions of various VSANS techniques. Then, beam current gain factors are calculated to evaluate those techniques. A VSANS design for the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is thereby presented.

  9. Development of Grazing Incidence Optics for Neutron Imaging and Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, M. V.; Khaykovich, B.; Liu, D.; Ramsey, B. D.; Zavlin, V. E.; Kilaru, K.; Romaine, S.; Rosati, R. E.; Bruni, R.; Moncton, D. E.

    2012-01-01

    Because of their wave nature, thermal and cold neutrons can be reflected from smooth surfaces at grazing incidence angles, be reflected by multilayer coatings or be refracted at boundaries of different materials. The optical properties of materials are characterized by their refractive indices which are slightly less than unity for most elements and their isotopes in the case of cold and thermal neutrons as well as for x-rays. The motivation for the optics use for neutrons as well as for x-rays is to increase the signal rate and, by virtue of the optic's angular resolution, to improve the signal-to-noise level by reducing the background so the efficiency of the existing neutron sources use can be significantly enhanced. Both refractive and reflective optical techniques developed for x-ray applications can be applied to focus neutron beams. Typically neutron sources have lower brilliance compared to conventional x-ray sources so in order to increase the beam throughput the neutron optics has to be capable of capturing large solid angles. Because of this, the replicated optics techniques developed for x-ray astronomy applications would be a perfect match for neutron applications, so the electroformed nickel optics under development at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) can be applied to focus neutron beams. In this technique, nickel mirror shells are electroformed onto a figured and superpolished nickel-plated aluminum cylindrical mandrel from which they are later released by differential thermal contraction. Cylindrical mirrors with different diameters, but the same focal length, can be nested together to increase the system throughput. The throughput can be increased further with the use of the multilayer coatings deposited on the reflectivr surface of the mirror shells. While the electroformed nickel replication technique needs to be adopted for neutron focusing, the technology to coat the inside of cylindrical mirrors with neutron multilayers has to be

  10. Numerical study of hub taper angle on podded propeller performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently, the majority of podded propulsion systems are of the pulling type, because this type provides better hydrodynamic efficiency than the pushing type. There are several possible explanations for the better overall performance of a puller type podded propulsor. One is related to the difference in hub shape. Puller and pusher propellers have opposite hub taper angles, hence different hub and blade root shape. These differences cause changes in the flow condition and possibly influence the overall performance. The current study focuses on the variation in performance of pusher and puller propellers with the same blade sections, but different hub taper angles. A hyperboloidal low order source doublet steady/unsteady time domain panel method code was modified and used to evaluate effects of hub taper angle on the open water propulsive performance of some fixed pitch screw propellers used in podded propulsion systems. The modified code was first validated against measurements of two model propellers in terms of average propulsive performance and good agreement was found. Major findings include significant effects of hub taper angle on propulsive performance of tapered hub propellers and noticeable effects of hub taper angle on sectional pressure distributions of tapered hub propeller blades. (author)

  11. Numerical study of hub taper angle on podded propeller performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.F.; Veitch, B.; Bose, N. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)]. E-mail: Mohammed.Islam@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca; Liu, P. [National Research Council of Canada, Inst. for Ocean Technology (IOT), St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Presently, the majority of podded propulsion systems are of the pulling type, because this type provides better hydrodynamic efficiency than the pushing type. There are several possible explanations for the better overall performance of a puller type podded propulsor. One is related to the difference in hub shape. Puller and pusher propellers have opposite hub taper angles, hence different hub and blade root shape. These differences cause changes in the flow condition and possibly influence the overall performance. The current study focuses on the variation in performance of pusher and puller propellers with the same blade sections, but different hub taper angles. A hyperboloidal low order source doublet steady/unsteady time domain panel method code was modified and used to evaluate effects of hub taper angle on the open water propulsive performance of some fixed pitch screw propellers used in podded propulsion systems. The modified code was first validated against measurements of two model propellers in terms of average propulsive performance and good agreement was found. Major findings include significant effects of hub taper angle on propulsive performance of tapered hub propellers and noticeable effects of hub taper angle on sectional pressure distributions of tapered hub propeller blades. (author)

  12. Detection of incidents and events in urban networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, T.; Berkum, van E.C.

    2009-01-01

    Events and incidents are relatively rare, but they often have a negative impact on traffic. Reliable travel demand predictions during events and incident detection algorithms are thus essential. The authors study link flows that were collected throughout the Dutch city of Almelo. We show that reliab

  13. Mandible osteoradionecrosis. Incidence and clinical evaluation of its therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence and the efficiency of mandible osteoradionecrosis in patients with oral neoplasms and submitted to radiotherapy were studied. The osteoradionecrosis incidence in mandible was 6,67%. The treatment with sodium iodide 2% and hydrogen peroxide 10 v was the best treatment for mandible osteoradionecrosis. (L.M.J.)

  14. Multi angle view of lung using optical coherence tomography (OCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabchi, Ali; DiMarzio, Charles A.; Gouldstone, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    Lung imaging, visualization and measurement of alveolar volume has great importance in determining lung health. However, the heterogeneity of lung tissue complicates this task. In this paper multi angle Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is used to overcome this problem. One of the limitations of utilizing OCT in lung is the speckle noise and artifacts that originate from the refraction at the tissue-air interface inside the lung. Multi angle view of lung using OCT is incoherent summation of multiple angle-diverse images. Utilizing image registration of multi angle OCT scans of the lung helps reduce the speckle noise and refraction artifacts. This technique helps extract more information from the images which improves visualization and the ability to measure the geometry of alveoli. The other diculty of utilizing OCT is interpreting the images due to the low numerical aperture (NA) on the OCT. The multi angle view of the lung increases NA, which increase the imaging resolution through synthetic aperture imaging. In this paper in ated excised lung tissue and lung phantom are presented.

  15. Epidemiological characterization of primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Rosario Díaz Alfonso

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary open-angle glaucoma is a problem for public health all over the world. It is a silent and slowly progressive disease leading to blindness. In most patients this can be prevented if the risk factors leading to the disease are detected in time. Objective: To describe some epidemiological factors of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: Clinical, epidemiological, prospective and longitudinal study in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma who attended the glaucoma consultation of the Provincial General University Hospital "Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima" of Cienfuegos, from January to February 2009. The following variables were analyzed: age, sex, family and personal medical history, toxic habits and time of diagnosis of the disease. Results: There was prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (87, 5% mostly in females (53, 6% and patients over 61 years old as well as in white skinned patients (52 and 62% respectively. Hypertension was the leading entity referred to as pathological personal and family antecedent (62 and 42% respectively. Glaucoma and myopia predominated as previous eye history. The most frequent toxic habits were the consumption of more than 2 cups of coffee a day (53% and smoking (32%. The largest amount of patients had more than 5 years evolution of the disease. Conclusions: Primary open-angle glaucoma occurred mainly in female patients and those with a history

  16. Angle-Resolved Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of Gyroid Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabiboulline, Emil T.; Peng, Siying; Hon, Philip; Zhang, Runyu; Chen, Hongjie; Sweatlock, Luke A.; Braun, Paul; Atwater, Harry A.

    Photonic topological insulators form a new class of materials with exciting properties. Theory has indicated that gyroid photonic crystals are photonic topological insulators. In this paper, we experimentally characterize the photonic properties of gyroid photonic crystals at mid-infrared wavelengths, using angle-resolved spectroscopy with coherent light from a quantum cascade laser tuned from 7.7 μm to 11.1 μm and focused onto a 100 μm × 100 μm spot. From measurements of reflection and transmission spectra over incidence angles, we construct the band structure of the photonic crystals. In this study, the photonic crystals are single and double gyroid made of amorphous silicon, with unit cell size of 5 μm, sitting on an intrinsic silicon substrate. Simulations predict band gaps for the single gyroid and Weyl points for the double gyroid. We compare results of angle-resolved spectroscopy experiments with simulations for nanofabricated gyroid structures and discuss the topological features observable in angle-resolved scattering.

  17. Scattering-angle based filtering of the waveform inversion gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-11-22

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach to maneuver the complex non-linearity associated with the problem of velocity update. In anisotropic media, the non-linearity becomes far more complex with the potential trade-off between the multiparameter description of the model. A gradient filter helps us in accessing the parts of the gradient that are suitable to combat the potential non-linearity and parameter trade-off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which the low scattering angle of the gradient update is initially muted out in the FWI implementation, in what we may refer to as a scattering angle continuation process. The result is a low wavelength update dominated by the transmission part of the update gradient. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce vertically near-zero wavenumber updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Relaxing the filtering at a later stage in the FWI implementation allows for smaller scattering angles to contribute higher-resolution information to the model. The benefits of the extended domain based filtering of the gradient is not only it\\'s ability in providing low wavenumber gradients guided by the scattering angle, but also in its potential to provide gradients free of unphysical energy that may correspond to unrealistic scattering angles.

  18. Rings of quotients of incidence algebras and path algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esparza, Eduardo Ortega

    2006-01-01

    We compute the maximal right/left/symmetric rings of quotients of finite dimensional incidence and graph algebras. We show that these rings of quotients are Morita equivalent to incidence algebras and path algebras respectively, with respect to simpler, well determined partially ordered sets and...... finite quivers, respectively. The geometric background of these algebras gives us an intuitive idea of the construction of their maximal ring of quotients....

  19. Automated measurement of diagnostic angles for hip dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Raedt, Sepp; Mechlenburg, Inger; Stilling, Maiken; Rømer, Lone; Søballe, Kjeld; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2013-03-01

    A fully automatic method for measuring diagnostic angles of hip dysplasia is presented. The method consists of the automatic segmentation of CT images and detection of anatomical landmarks on the femur and acetabulum. The standard angles used in the diagnosis of hip dysplasia are subsequently automatically calculated. Previous work in automating the measuring of angles required the manual segmentation or delineation of the articular joint surface. In the current work automatic segmentation is established using graph-cuts with a cost function based on a sheetness score to detect the sheet-like structure of the bone. Anatomical landmarks are subsequently detected using heuristics based on ray-tracing and the distance to the approximated acetabulur joint surface. Standard diagnositic angles are finally calculated and presented for interpretation. Experiments using 26 patients, showed a good agreement with gold standard manual measurements by an expert radiologist as performed in daily practice. The mean difference for the five angles was between -1:1 and 2:0 degrees with a concordance correlation coefficient between 0:87 and 0:93. The standard deviation varied between 2:3 and 4:1 degrees. These values correspond to values found in evaluating interobserver and intraobserver variation for manual measurements. The method can be used in clinical practice to replace the current manual measurements performed by radiologists. In the future, the method will be integrated into an intraoperative surgical guidance system.

  20. Communicability Angle and the Spatial Efficiency of Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the concept of communicability angle between a pair of nodes in a graph. We provide strong analytical and empirical evidence that the average communicability angle for a given network accounts for its spatial efficiency on the basis of the communications among the nodes in a network. We determine characteristics of the spatial efficiency of more than a hundred real-world complex networks that represent complex systems arising in a diverse set of scenarios. In particular, we find that the communicability angle correlates very well with the experimentally measured the relative packing efficiency of proteins that are represented as residue networks. We finally show how we can modulate the spatial efficiency of a network by tuning the weights of the edges of the networks. This allows us to predict effects of external stresses on the spatial efficiency of a network as well as to design strategies to improve important parameters in real-world complex systems.

  1. Determination of small tilt angles of short GaSb nanopillars using UV–visible Mueller matrix ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate that small tilts away from the substrate normal, of short (30–40 nm high) nanopillars, may be detected and modeled by spectroscopic UV–Visible Mueller Matrix Ellipsometry (MME). The pillars were produced by sputtering a GaSb substrate with a low energy unfocused ion beam. It has previously been found that the pillars will point in the direction of the ion flux. For both samples reported here, the ion-incidence was unintentionally tilted away from the substrate normal by 2.8 and 4.8°. The MME measurements were performed using both multiple angles of incidence, and 360° rotation of the incidence plane. Graded uniaxial effective medium models were fitted to the experimental data, and through Euler angle rotations of the dielectric tensor, the tilt angle and the orientation of the pillar direction, were obtained. The UV part of the spectrum enhanced the tilt angle sensitivity down to 0.02–0.05°. A data presentation that enhances the understanding of the symmetry in the crystallographic information obtained from spectroscopic MME is proposed. The off block diagonal Mueller matrix elements are more sensitive to the in-plane anisotropy, whereas for small tilt angles m14 scales approximately with θsin(ϕ). - Highlights: ► Mueller Matrix Ellipsometry used to detect small tilt angles of GaSb nanopillars ► Modeled as a graded anisotropic Bruggeman effective medium ► Two different gradient profiles; linear in diameter and linear in fill factor ► The off-diagonal elements allow for high sensitivity to the in plane anisotropies

  2. Incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Bahrain, 2002–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Ebtisam K Al Alawi; Mohamed Shaker Al Omran; Al Bahrana, Ebtihal H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to determine the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Bahrain. Designs and Methods: premature infants (gestation age ≤32 weeks, birth weight ≤1500 g) admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Salmaniya Medical Complex were examined based on a predetermined screening protocol. The first examination was performed at 4-6 weeks of age, from January 1, 2002 to December 3, 2011. Data were collected on the type and incidence of each of ROP, birth weight...

  3. Yaw Control At High Angles Of Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Rao, Dhanvada M.

    1988-01-01

    Hinged, conformal forebody strakes provide control when rudders become ineffective. Device consists of symmetric pair of longitudinally hinged strakes designed to fold completely into forebody contour. Strakes rotate individually out into external flow. Asymmetric flow produced by deployed strake generates sideward force causing aircraft to yaw.

  4. Oscillations of Relative Inclination Angles in Compact Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Juliette C

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Mission has detected dozens of compact planetary systems with more than four transiting planets. This sample provides a collection of close-packed planetary systems with relatively little spread in the inclination angles of the inferred orbits. A large fraction of the observational sample contains limited multiplicity, begging the question whether there is a true diversity of multi transiting systems, or if some systems merely possess high mutual inclinations, allowing them to appear as single-transiting systems in a transit-based survey. This paper begins an exploration of the effectiveness of dynamical mechanisms in exciting orbital inclination within exoplanetary systems of this class. For these tightly packed systems, we determine that the orbital inclination angles are not spread out appreciably through self-excitation. In contrast, the two Kepler multi-planet systems with additional non-transiting planets are susceptible to oscillations of their inclination angles, which means their currently...

  5. Trends in the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Denmark 1978-2007: Rapid incidence increase among young Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Johansen, Fatima; Jensen, Allan; Mortensen, Lone;

    2010-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Caucasian populations worldwide, and incidence rates are increasing. However, NMSC data are not routinely collected by cancer registries, but Denmark has extensive registration of NMSC in two nationwide population-based registries. We...... assessed incidence trends of NMSC in Denmark from 1978 to 2007. Data for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Registry of Pathology. For both genders, age-specific incidence rates and overall incidence rates, age...

  6. Rotational Angle Measurement of Bridge Support Using Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Soo Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring a very small rotational angle accurately and dynamically is indeed a challenging issue, especially in the case of bridge support. Also, existing inclinometers do not have sufficient resolution and accuracy to measure a bridge’s rotational angle. In this study, a new measurement system was developed to provide a practical means for measuring dynamic rotational angle of a bridge support. It features high resolution and accuracy compared with the available systems on the market. By the combinational use of a laser pointer and a vision-based displacement measurement system, the measurement accuracy was significantly increased. The accuracy and applicability were investigated through laboratory tests. From the laboratory tests, it has been found that the developed system can be applicable to bridge support with very small rotational angle. The effectiveness of the developed system was verified through field tests on real bridges. From the full-scale implementation on two PSC girder bridges, it is observed that the proposed system can measure the rotational angle with a high accuracy and reliability.

  7. The optimal angle of Release in Shot Put

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We determine the optimal angle of release in shot put. The simplest model - mostly used in textbooks - gives a value of $45^\\circ$, while measurements of top athletes cluster around $37 - 38^\\circ$. Including simply the height of the athlete the theory prediction goes down to about $42^\\circ$ for typical parameters of top athletes. Taking further the correlations of the initial velocity of the shot, the angle of release and the height of release into account we predict values around $37 - 38^\\circ$, which coincide perfectly with the measurements.

  8. Angle of Arrival Detection with Fifth Order Phase Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Khmou, Youssef

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a fifth order propagator operators are proposed for estimating the Angles Of Arrival (AOA) of narrowband electromagnetic waves impinging on antenna array when its number of sensors is larger than the number of radiating sources. The array response matrix is partitioned into five linearly dependent phases to construct the noise projector using five different propagators from non diagonal blocks of the spectral matrice of the received data; hence, five different estimators are proposed to estimate the angles of the sources. The simulation results proved the performance of the proposed estimators in the presence of white noise comparatively to high resolution eigen based spectra.

  9. Study of breast cancer incidence in patients of lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nuñez, Olivier; Román, Antonio; Johnson, Simon R.; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Hirose, Masaki; Casanova, Álvaro; de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Herranz, Carmen; Bueno-Moreno, Gema; Boni, Jacopo; Mateo, Francesca; Petit, Anna; Climent, Fina; Soler, Teresa; Vidal, August

    2016-01-01

    Molecular evidence has linked the pathophysiology of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) to that of metastatic breast cancer. Following on this observation, we assessed the association between LAM and subsequent breast cancer. An epidemiological study was carried out using three LAM country cohorts, from Japan, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The number of incident breast cancer cases observed in these cohorts was compared with the number expected on the basis of the country-specific incidence rate...

  10. Surface morphology and sputtering yield of SiO2 with oblique-incidence gas cluster ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependence of surface morphology and sputtering yield of SiO2 thin films on the incident angle of gas cluster ion beams (GCIBs) was studied. When the incident angles (θ) were either 0° or 30° ripples did not form on the surface of SiO2, and the sputtering depth increased linearly with increasing ion fluence. When θ = 45°, ripples formed in the direction perpendicular to that of the incident beam. The ripple pattern became shaper and wider with increasing θ–60°. When θ = 60°, the ripple wavelength and amplitude increased linearly with increasing ion fluence. However when θ = 80°, ripples formed in the direction parallel to that of the GCIB. When θ = 60°, the etching depth decreased with increasing ion fluence. This change in the sputtering rate can be associated with the change in the structure of the ripples

  11. Effect of attack angle on flow characteristic of centrifugal fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Dou, H. S.; Wei, Y. K.; Chen, X. P.; Chen, Y. N.; Cao, W. B.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, numerical simulation is performed for the performance and internal flow of a centrifugal fan with different operating conditions using steady three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the RNG k-e turbulent model. The performance curves, the contours of static pressure, total pressure, radial velocity, relative streamlines and turbulence intensity at different attack angles are obtained. The distributions of static pressure and velocity on suction surface and pressure surface in the same impeller channel are compared for various attack angles. The research shows that the efficiency of the centrifugal fan is the highest when the attack angle is 8 degree. The main reason is that the vortex flow in the impeller is reduced, and the jet-wake pattern is weakened at the impeller outlet. The pressure difference between pressure side and suction side is smooth and the amplitude of the total pressure fluctuation is low along the circumferential direction. These phenomena may cause the loss reduced for the attack angle of about 8 degree.

  12. Orientation angle and the adhesion of single gecko setae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ginel C; Soto, Daniel R; Peattie, Anne M; Full, Robert J; Kenny, T W

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the effects of orientation angle on the adhesion of single gecko setae using dual-axis microelectromechanical systems force sensors to simultaneously detect normal and shear force components. Adhesion was highly sensitive to the pitch angle between the substrate and the seta's stalk. Maximum lateral adhesive force was observed with the stalk parallel to the substrate, and adhesion decreased smoothly with increasing pitch. The roll orientation angle only needed to be roughly correct with the spatular tuft of the seta oriented grossly towards the substrate for high adhesion. Also, detailed measurements were made to control for the effect of normal preload forces. Higher normal preload forces caused modest enhancement of the observed lateral adhesive force, provided that adequate contact was made between the seta and the substrate. These results should be useful in the design and manufacture of gecko-inspired synthetic adhesives with anisotropic properties, an area of substantial recent research efforts. PMID:21288955

  13. Experimental investigation of synthetic aperture flow angle estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Niels; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2005-01-01

    Currently synthetic aperture flow methods can find the correct velocity magnitude, when the flow direction is known. To make a fully automatic system, the direction should also be estimated. Such an approach has been suggested by Jensen (2004) based on a search of the highest cross-correlation as a...... function of velocity and angle. This paper presents an experimental investigation of this velocity angle estimation method based on a set of synthetic aperture flow data measured using our RASMUS experimental ultrasound system. The measurements are performed for flow angles of 60, 75, and 90 deg. with...... respect to the axial direction, and for constant velocities with a peak of 0.1 m/s and 0.2 m/s. The implemented synthetic aperture imaging method uses virtual point sources in front of the transducer, and recursive imaging is used to increase the data rate. A 128 element linear array transducer is used...

  14. Analysis of a Low-Angle Annular Expander Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyll Schomberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical analysis of a low-angle annular expander nozzle is presented to observe the variance in shock structure within the flow field. A RANS-based axisymmetric numerical model was used to evaluate flow characteristics and the model validated using experimental pressure readings and schlieren images. Results were compared with an equivalent converging-diverging nozzle to determine the capability of the wake region in varying the effective area of a low-angle design. Comparison of schlieren images confirmed that shock closure occurred in the expander nozzle, prohibiting the wake region from affecting the area ratio. The findings show that a low angle of deflection is inherently unable to influence the effective area of an annular supersonic nozzle design.

  15. Study of magnetic anisotropy and magnetoresistance effects in ferromagnetic Co/Au multilayer films prepared by oblique incidence evaporation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of e-beam evaporated [Co10 A/Aut A]20 multilayers has been deposited on 1.69 mm2 glass substrates. The samples were examined with vibrating sample magnetometer, low angle X-ray diffraction, and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. The effects of oblique incidence evaporation and magnetic annealing on the anisotropy, microstructure, and different components of MR are examined. After magnetic annealing, the multilayer [Co10 A/Au20 A]20 produced at the incidence angle of 45o showed a strong anisotropy and the easy axis of the anisotropy is along the perpendicular (x-axis; along the film plane) to the incidence of evaporation. MR at room temperature has two components: isotropic and anisotropic. The magnetoresistance effects are found to be larger in the uniaxial films, with both anisotropic and giant magnetoresistance peaking at around 20 A Au layer thickness

  16. Determination of the mixing angle between new charmonium states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the pictures for X(3872) as a mixture of charmonium and molecular D∗0D0 states; Y(3940) as a mixture of χc0 and D∗D′∗ states, and Y(4260) as a mixture of the tetra-quark state with charmonium states, the corresponding mixing angles are estimated within the QCD sum rules. We find that our predictions for the mixing angles of the X(3872), Y(4260), and Y(3940) states are considerably smaller compared to work in which the mixing angles are estimated from the condition in reproducing the mass of these states. Our conclusion is that the considered pictures for the X(3872), Y(4260), and Y(3940) states are not successful in describing these states

  17. Determination of the mixing angle between new charmonium states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the pictures for X(3872) as a mixture of charmonium and molecular D*0D0 states; Y(3940) as a mixture of χc0 and D*D'* states, and Y(4260) as a mixture of the tetra-quark state with charmonium states, the corresponding mixing angles are estimated within the QCD sum rules. We find that our predictions for the mixing angles of the X(3872), Y(4260), and Y(3940) states are considerably smaller compared to work in which the mixing angles are estimated from the condition in reproducing the mass of these states. Our conclusion is that the considered pictures for the X(3872), Y(4260), and Y(3940) states are not successful in describing these states. (orig.)

  18. LONG-TERM MEASUREMENTS OF SUNSPOT MAGNETIC TILT ANGLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jing [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Ulrich, Roger K., E-mail: jli@igpp.ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States)

    2012-10-20

    Tilt angles of close to 30,600 sunspots are determined using Mount Wilson daily averaged magnetograms taken from 1974 to 2012, and SOHO/MDI magnetograms taken from 1996 to 2010. Within a cycle, more than 90% of sunspots have a normal polarity alignment along the east-west direction following Hale's law. The median tilts increase with increasing latitude (Joy's law) at a rate of {approx}0.{sup 0}5 per degree of latitude. Tilt angles of spots appear largely invariant with respect to time at a given latitude, but they decrease by {approx}0.{sup 0}9 per year on average, a trend that largely reflects Joy's law following the butterfly diagram. We find an asymmetry between the hemispheres in the mean tilt angles. On average, the tilts are greater in the Southern than in the Northern Hemisphere for all latitude zones, and the differences increase with increasing latitude.

  19. LONG-TERM MEASUREMENTS OF SUNSPOT MAGNETIC TILT ANGLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilt angles of close to 30,600 sunspots are determined using Mount Wilson daily averaged magnetograms taken from 1974 to 2012, and SOHO/MDI magnetograms taken from 1996 to 2010. Within a cycle, more than 90% of sunspots have a normal polarity alignment along the east-west direction following Hale's law. The median tilts increase with increasing latitude (Joy's law) at a rate of ∼0.05 per degree of latitude. Tilt angles of spots appear largely invariant with respect to time at a given latitude, but they decrease by ∼0.09 per year on average, a trend that largely reflects Joy's law following the butterfly diagram. We find an asymmetry between the hemispheres in the mean tilt angles. On average, the tilts are greater in the Southern than in the Northern Hemisphere for all latitude zones, and the differences increase with increasing latitude.

  20. Long-Term Measurements of Sunspot Magnetic Tilt Angles

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Tilt angles of close to 30,600 sunspots are determined using Mount Wilson daily averaged magnetograms taken from 1974 to 2012, and MDI/SoHO magnetograms taken from 1996 to 2010. Within a cycle, more than 90% of sunspots have a normal polarity alignment along the east-west direction following Hale's law. The median tilts increase with increasing latitude (Joy's law) at a rate of ~0.5 degree per degree of latitude. Tilt angles of spots appear largely invariant with respect to time at a given latitude, but they decrease by ~0.9degree per year on average, a trend which largely reflects Joy's law following the butterfly diagram. We find an asymmetry between the hemispheres in the mean tilt angles. On average, the tilts are greater in the southern than in the northern hemisphere for all latitude zones, and the differences increase with increasing latitude.

  1. Determination of the mixing angle between new charmonium states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, T.M. [Middle East Technical University, Physics Department, Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Physics, Baku (Azerbaijan); Savci, M. [Middle East Technical University, Physics Department, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-04-01

    Using the pictures for X(3872) as a mixture of charmonium and molecular D{sup *0}D{sup 0} states; Y(3940) as a mixture of χ{sub c0} and D{sup *}D{sup '*} states, and Y(4260) as a mixture of the tetra-quark state with charmonium states, the corresponding mixing angles are estimated within the QCD sum rules. We find that our predictions for the mixing angles of the X(3872), Y(4260), and Y(3940) states are considerably smaller compared to work in which the mixing angles are estimated from the condition in reproducing the mass of these states. Our conclusion is that the considered pictures for the X(3872), Y(4260), and Y(3940) states are not successful in describing these states. (orig.)

  2. Determination of the mixing angle between new charmonium states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, T. M., E-mail: taliev@metu.edu.tr [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University, 06800, Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Physics, Baku (Azerbaijan); Savcı, M., E-mail: savci@metu.edu.tr [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University, 06800, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-04-28

    Using the pictures for X(3872) as a mixture of charmonium and molecular D{sup ∗0}D{sup 0} states; Y(3940) as a mixture of χ{sub c0} and D{sup ∗}D{sup ′∗} states, and Y(4260) as a mixture of the tetra-quark state with charmonium states, the corresponding mixing angles are estimated within the QCD sum rules. We find that our predictions for the mixing angles of the X(3872), Y(4260), and Y(3940) states are considerably smaller compared to work in which the mixing angles are estimated from the condition in reproducing the mass of these states. Our conclusion is that the considered pictures for the X(3872), Y(4260), and Y(3940) states are not successful in describing these states.

  3. BIPHASIC TREATMENT OF 2ND CLASS ANGLE ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Romanec

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Our approach aims at presenting, based on clinical observations and complementary examinations, the effects of a treatment’s setting up during the mixed dentition period. The objectives include the identification of the optimal time of treatment of II/1, II/2 Angle malocclusions, as well as the therapeutic possibilities for the treatment of 2nd class Angle malocclusion during the period of mixed and permanent dentition. The study is based on data collected from 114 clinical cases (69 girls and 45 boys with an age span between 7 and 18 years.

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SIZE OF PONTOCEREBELLAR ANGLE TUMOR AND AUDIOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the size ofpontocerebellar angle tumor and audiology.Methods: Retrospective analysis of accoustically evoked brainstem response (ABR) waveforms and pure tone threshold in 27 subjects with tumor of pontocerebellar angle.Results: ABR wave forms and pure tone threshold were significantly affected statistically by the size of tumors,especially those tumor larger than 3 cm in diameter.Conclusion: The primary symptom of the patient was unilateral hearing loss.Early discovery of the lesion is important and ABR is a sensitive tool for early diagnose of the tumor.

  5. Structure and Inclination Angle of the Spiral Galaxy M31

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun

    2001-01-01

    The mathematical form, the symmetry of the spiral structure, and the projection of the galactic disc on the image of the spiral galaxy M31 have been directly studied. It is found that M31 has two symmetric arms, i.e. the pitch angles of the two arms are nearly equal; these are 7.7° and 8.0°, respectively. Using the method proposed in this letter, the inclination angle of the galactic disc ofM31 is also obtained, which is 77.5° and is in good agreement with previously published results.

  6. Analysis and design of wide-angle foveated optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatu, George

    2009-12-01

    The development of compact imaging systems capable of transmitting high-resolution images in real-time while covering a wide field-of-view (FOV) is critical in a variety of military and civilian applications: surveillance, threat detection, target acquisition, tracking, remote operation of unmanned vehicles, etc. Recently, optical foveated imaging using liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulators (SLM) has received considerable attention as a potential approach to reducing size and complexity in fast wide-angle lenses. The fundamental concept behind optical foveated imaging is reducing the number of elements in a fast wide-angle lens by placing a phase SLM at the pupil stop to dynamically compensate aberrations left uncorrected by the optical design. In the recent years, considerable research and development has been conducted in the field of optical foveated imaging based on the LC SLM technology, and several foveated optical systems (FOS) prototypes have been built. However, most research has been focused so far on the experimental demonstration of the basic concept using off-the-shelf components, without much concern for the practicality or the optical performance of the systems. Published results quantify only the aberration correction capabilities of the FOS, often claiming diffraction-limited performance at the region of interest (ROI). However, these results have continually overlooked diffraction effects on the zero-order efficiency and the image quality. The research work presented in this dissertation covers the methods and results of a detailed theoretical research study on the diffraction analysis, image quality, design, and optimization of fast wide-angle FOSs based on the current transmissive LC SLM technology. The amplitude and phase diffraction effects caused by the pixelated aperture of the SLM are explained and quantified, revealing fundamental limitations imposed by the current transmissive LC SLM technology. As a part of this study, five

  7. Empirical analysis of the effects of cyber security incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ginger; Garcia, Alfredo; Zhang, Weide

    2009-09-01

    We analyze the time series associated with web traffic for a representative set of online businesses that have suffered widely reported cyber security incidents. Our working hypothesis is that cyber security incidents may prompt (security conscious) online customers to opt out and conduct their business elsewhere or, at the very least, to refrain from accessing online services. For companies relying almost exclusively on online channels, this presents an important business risk. We test for structural changes in these time series that may have been caused by these cyber security incidents. Our results consistently indicate that cyber security incidents do not affect the structure of web traffic for the set of online businesses studied. We discuss various public policy considerations stemming from our analysis. PMID:19558397

  8. Evolution of the Jet Opening Angle Distribution in Holographic Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Krishna; Sadofyev, Andrey V; van der Schee, Wilke

    2016-05-27

    We use holography to analyze the evolution of an ensemble of jets, with an initial probability distribution for their energy and opening angle as in proton-proton (pp) collisions, as they propagate through an expanding cooling droplet of strongly coupled plasma as in heavy ion collisions. We identify two competing effects: (i) each individual jet widens as it propagates and (ii) because wide-angle jets lose more energy, energy loss combined with the steeply falling perturbative spectrum serves to filter wide jets out of the ensemble at any given energy. Even though every jet widens, jets with a given energy can have a smaller mean opening angle after passage through the plasma than jets with that energy would have had in vacuum, as experimental data may indicate. PMID:27284647

  9. Contact angles of drops on curved superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanadam, Goutham; Chase, George G

    2012-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have contact angles that exceed 150 degrees and are known to reduce surface fouling, protect surfaces, and improve liquid-liquid separations. Electrospun sub-micron fiber mats can perform as superhydrophobic surfaces. Superhydrophobic behavior is typically measured on planar surfaces, whereas applications may require curved surfaces. This paper discuses the measurement of water contact angles of fiber mats formed on cylindrical surfaces to create superhydrophobic behavior on curved surfaces. Equations are derived that relate the radius of curvature of spherical and cylindrical surfaces and drop size to the observed contact angle on the curved surfaces. Calculations from the equations agree well with experimental observations on spherical surfaces reported in literature and on cylindrical surfaces created in our lab. PMID:22129634

  10. Measurement of the CKM angle $\\gamma$ at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Gersabeck, M

    2009-01-01

    The precise measurement of the CKM unitarity triangle angle $\\gamma$ is a key goal of the LHCb physics programme. The uncertainty on $\\gamma$, the currently least-well known of the three angles, will be reduced dramatically. Complementary measurements will be made in tree-level processes, and modes where loop diagrams play an important role. The tree-level measurements will cover time-integrated as well as time- dependent measurements in both the $B^0_d$ and the $B^0_s$ sectors. The ensemble of these measurements will provide a powerful test of whether new physics phases contribute to heavy-flavour transitions.

  11. Long-Term Measurements of Sunspot Magnetic Tilt Angles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jing; Ulrich, Roger K.

    2012-01-01

    Tilt angles of close to 30,600 sunspots are determined using Mount Wilson daily averaged magnetograms taken from 1974 to 2012, and MDI/SoHO magnetograms taken from 1996 to 2010. Within a cycle, more than 90% of sunspots have a normal polarity alignment along the east-west direction following Hale's law. The median tilts increase with increasing latitude (Joy's law) at a rate of ~0.5 degree per degree of latitude. Tilt angles of spots appear largely invariant with respect to time at a given la...

  12. Incidence of congenital heart disease in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xue-yong; LI Xiao-feng; L(U) Xiao-dong; LIU Ying-long

    2009-01-01

    Background The incidence of congenital heart disease has been studied in developed countries for many years, but rarely in the mainland of China. Fetal echocardiographic screening for congenital heart disease was first performed in Beijing in the early 2000s, but the impact was not clear. The current study was undertaken to determine the incidence of congenital heart disease in Beijing, China and to estimate the impact of fetal echocardiography on the incidence of liveborn congenital heart disease.Methods The study involved all infants with congenital heart disease among the 84 062 total births in Beijing during the period of January 1 and December 31, 2007. An echocardiographic examination was performed on every baby suspected to have congenital heart disease, prenatally or/and postnatally.Results A total of 686 infants were shown to have congenital heart disease among 84 062 total births. The overall incidence was 8.2/1000 total births. Mothers of 128 of 151 babies diagnosed prenatally were chosen to terminate the pregnancy. Two of the 151 infants died in utero. A specific lesion was identified for each infant and the frequencies of lesions were determined for each class of infants (total births, stillbirths and live births). The incidence of congenital heart disease in stillbirths and live births was 168.8/1000 and 6.7/1000, respectively. The difference between the incidence of total birth and the incidence of live birth was statistically significant (P<0.001).Conclusions The incidence of liveborn congenital heart disease in Beijing is within the range reported in developed countries. Fetal echocardiography reduce significantly the incidence of livebom congenital heart disease.

  13. Incidence and predicting factors of falls of older inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Cristina de Almeida Abreu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence and predicting factors associated with falls among older inpatients. METHODS Prospective cohort study conducted in clinical units of three hospitals in Cuiaba, MT, Midwestern Brazil, from March to August 2013. In this study, 221 inpatients aged 60 or over were followed until hospital discharge, death, or fall. The method of incidence density was used to calculate incidence rates. Bivariate analysis was performed by Chi-square test, and multiple analysis was performed by Cox regression. RESULTS The incidence of falls was 12.6 per 1,000 patients/day. Predicting factors for falls during hospitalization were: low educational level (RR = 2.48; 95%CI 1.17;5.25, polypharmacy (RR = 4.42; 95%CI 1.77;11.05, visual impairment (RR = 2.06; 95%CI 1.01;4.23, gait and balance impairment (RR = 2.95; 95%CI 1.22;7.14, urinary incontinence (RR = 5.67; 95%CI 2.58;12.44 and use of laxatives (RR = 4.21; 95%CI 1.15;15.39 and antipsychotics (RR = 4.10; 95%CI 1.38;12.13. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of falls of older inpatients is high. Predicting factors found for falls were low education level, polypharmacy, visual impairment, gait and balance impairment, urinary incontinence and use of laxatives and antipsychotics. Measures to prevent falls in hospitals are needed to reduce the incidence of this event.

  14. Reflection and absorption of electromagnetic waves obliquely incident on a half-space relativistic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reflection and absorption characteristics of electromagnetic waves obliquely incident upon a half-space relativistic Vlasov plasma are investigated. Numerical results comparing the properties of the s- and p-polarized waves are given. It is shown that the response of plasma can be best understood by studying the locations of the roots kappa/sub t/ and kappa/sub l/ of the transversal and longitudinal dispersion functions in the complex wavenumber plane. In general, s-polarized waves are reflected and p-polarized waves are absorbed more efficiently by the plasma. Total reflection occurs when kappa/sub t/ becomes zero for the case of s-polarization and when kappa/sub l/ becomes zero for the case of p-polarization. Total penetration of p-waves is obtained for sufficiently large frequencies at the Brewster angle theta/sub B/. These waves exhibit a sharp absorption peak at the characteristic angle theta/sub c/ at which the transversal transmission terminates. For a given temperature, p-waves are totally absorbed in the plasma at a specific frequency at which theta/sub B/=theta/sub c/. Absorption peaks are broader at higher temperatures. If both transversal and longitudinal modes propagate undamped at some value of angle of incidence theta, there exists a secondary smooth and broad absorption peak at larger values of theta for the p-waves. The magnitude of the secondary peak can also be appreciable at the ultrarelativistic temperatures

  15. Competition of terrace and step-edge sputtering under oblique-incidence ion impact on a stepped Pt(1 1 1) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosandi, Yudi [Fachbereich Physik, Technische Universitaet, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Redinger, Alex; Michely, Thomas [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Urbassek, Herbert M. [Fachbereich Physik, Technische Universitaet, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)], E-mail: urbassek@rhrk.uni-kl.de

    2009-08-15

    Using molecular-dynamics simulation, we study the sputtering of a Pt(1 1 1) surface under oblique and glancing incidence 5 keV Ar ions. For incidence angles larger than a critical angle {theta}{sub c}, the projectile is reflected off the surface and the sputter yield is zero. We discuss the azimuth dependence of the critical angle {theta}{sub c} with the help of the surface corrugation felt by the impinging ion. If a step exists on the surface, sputtering occurs also for glancing incidence {theta}>{theta}{sub c}. We demonstrate that for realistic step densities, the total sputtering of a stepped surface may be sizable even at glancing incidence.

  16. Contact Angles and Surface Tension of Germanium-Silicon Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croell, A.; Kaiser, N.; Cobb, S.; Szofran, F. R.; Volz, M.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Precise knowledge of material parameters is more and more important for improving crystal growth processes. Two important parameters are the contact (wetting) angle and the surface tension, determining meniscus shapes and surface-tension driven flows in a variety of methods (Czochralski, EFG, floating-zone, detached Bridgman growth). The sessile drop technique allows the measurement of both parameters simultaneously and has been used to measure the contact angles and the surface tension of Ge(1-x)Si(x) (0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1.3) alloys on various substrate materials. Fused quartz, Sapphire, glassy carbon, graphite, SiC, carbon-based aerogel, pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN), AIN, Si3N4, and polycrystalline CVD diamond were used as substrate materials. In addition, the effect of different cleaning procedures and surface treatments on the wetting behavior were investigated. Measurements were performed both under dynamic vacuum and gas atmospheres (argon or forming gas), with temperatures up to 1100 C. In some experiments, the sample was processed for longer times, up to a week, to investigate any changes of the contact angle and/or surface tension due to slow reactions with the substrate. For pure Ge, stable contact angles were found for carbon-based substrates and for pBN, for Ge(1-x)Si(x) only for pBN. The highest wetting angles were found for pBN substrates with angles around 170deg. For the surface tension of Ge, the most reliable values resulted in gamma(T) = (591- 0.077 (T-T(sub m)) 10(exp -3)N/m. The temperature dependence of the surface tension showed similar values for Ge(1-x)Si(x), around -0.08 x 10(exp -3)N/m K, and a compositional dependence of 2.2 x 10(exp -3)N/m at%Si.

  17. CORRELATION OF CERVICAL LORDOSIS MEASUREMENT WITH INCIDENCE OF MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Dorothy L.; Tuchin, Peter J.

    1996-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of 500 patient radiographs was conducted to measure the clinical correlation of cervical lordosis measurements and incidence of motor vehicle accident (MVA). Five hundred lateral cervical radiographs were selected at random from the practice of one of the authors (DLM). The C1-7 angle of the cervical curve was then measured by two blinded examiners. Inter-examiner reliability had a confidence interval of 95%. Eighty-two percent of patients who have had a MVA had an ab...

  18. Demonstration of angle-dependent Casimir force between corrugations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banishev, A A; Wagner, J; Emig, T; Zandi, R; Mohideen, U

    2013-06-21

    The normal Casimir force between a sinusoidally corrugated gold coated plate and a sphere was measured at various angles between the corrugations using an atomic force microscope. A strong dependence on the orientation angle of the corrugation is found. The measured forces were found to deviate from the proximity force approximation and are in agreement with the theory based on the gradient expansion including correlation effects of geometry and material properties. We analyze the role of temperature. The obtained results open new opportunities for control of the Casimir effect in micromechanical systems. PMID:23829717

  19. Race-specific geography of prostate cancer incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samociuk Holly

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated geographic distribution of race-specific prostate cancer incidence in Connecticut and Massachusetts. This cross-sectional analysis of census and cancer registry data included records of 29,040 Whites and 1,647 African Americans diagnosed with incident prostate cancer between 1994 and 1998. A spatial scan statistic was used to detect and test significance of the geographic variation in race-specific incidence rates within the two-state area. Results Significant geographic variation in age-adjusted incidence rates among both White and African American men was observed, with little overlap noted between distributions. Identified locations reflected patterns of residential segregation and socio-economic conditions. Among Whites, places with higher than expected incidence had higher socioeconomic status than places with lower than expected incidence. No discernable relationship between social indicators and rate variation among African Americans was evident. Conclusion Differences in race-specific geographic distribution of prostate cancer incidence do not suggest a shared environmental etiology. Furtherstudyof genetic, behavioral and health carefactors affecting the occurrence and/or reporting of the disease is warranted. This study highlights the need for race- and geographic-specific interventions to better control disease within at-risk communities and for on-going analysis into social and contextual factors that contribute to observed disparities between African Americans and Whites in the occurrence of cancer.

  20. Optimization of sharp and viewing-angle-independent structural color

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Johnson, Steven G; Soljačić, Marin

    2014-01-01

    Structural coloration produces some of the most brilliant colors in nature and has many applications. However, sharp color (narrow frequency response) and wide viewing angle (broad angular response) are competing properties and have not been achieved simultaneously in previous studies. Here, we use numerical optimization to discover geometries where the structural color is sharp, yet the hue, saturation, and brightness all remain the same over broad viewing angles (0-90$^\\circ$) under directional illumination. Our model system consists of dipole scatterers arranged into several rings; interference among the scattered waves is optimized to yield the wavelength-selective and angle-insensitive response. Such designs can be useful for display, painting, and biosensing applications.

  1. Incidence estimates of hand and upper extremity injuries in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giustini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation is to estimate the incidence rates of upper extremity injuries and to give an overview of the most frequent diagnoses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two population databases were queried for all injuries in the upper extremities, the SINIACA-IDB (S-IDB: Emergency Department Injury Database in Italy and the Hospital Discharge Register (HDR. The diagnoses codes of hand trauma were selected from both databases in order to estimate the national incidence rate. RESULTS: According to the S-IDB data of year 2011, total 1 479 510 ED attendances per year in Italy were estimated with an upper extremity injury (incidence rate: 2491 per 100 000 persons/year. About 880 816 Emergency Department (ED attendances per year are due to hand injuries, while over 653 336 attendances per year concern arm injuries. The incidence rates are 1483 and 1100 per 100 000 person/year respectively. About 201 940 hospitalizations are observed in the HDR because of upper extremity injuries (incidence rate: 340 per 100 000 persons/year. Males have higher incidence rate (387 vs 280 per 100 000 persons per year. The trend in the incidence rates for the age group of inpatients shows two peaks: at age 12 (400 cases per 100 000 persons/year, and in the older age groups (700 cases per 100 000 persons/year.

  2. Mathematical simulation of gamma-radiation angle distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed mathematical model of the facility for gamma-radiation angle distribution measurement and calculated response functions for gamma-radiation intensities. We developed special software for experimental data processing, the 'Shelter' object radiation spectra unfolding and Sphere detector (ShD) angle resolution estimation. Neuronet method using for detection of the radiation directions is given. We developed software based on the neuronet algorithm, that allows obtaining reliable distribution of gamma-sources that make impact on the facility detectors at the measurement point. 10 refs.; 15 figs.; 4 tab

  3. Oblique incidence properties of locally resonant sonic materials with resonance and Bragg scattering effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Bo; Wen Ji-Hong; Wen Xi-Sen

    2013-01-01

    A locally resonant sonic material (LRSM) is an elastic matrix containing a periodic arrangement of identical local resonators (LRs),which can reflect strongly near their natural frequencies,where the wavelength in the matrix is still much larger than the structural periodicity.Due to the periodic arrangement,an LRSM can also display a Bragg scattering effect,which is a characteristic of phononic crystals.A specific LRSM which possesses both local resonance and Bragg scattering effects is presented.Via the layered-multiple-scattering theory,the complex band structure and the transmittance of such LRSM are discussed in detail.Through the analysis of the refraction behavior at the boundary of the composite,we find that the transmittance performance of an LRSM for oblique incidence depends on the refraction of its boundary and the transmission behaviors of different wave modes inside the composite.As a result,it is better to use some low-speed materials (compared with the speed of waves in surrounding medium) as the LRSM matrix for designing sound blocking materials in underwater applications,since their acoustic properties are more robust to the incident angle.Finally,a gapcoupled LRSM with a broad sub-wavelength transmission gap is studied,whose acoustic performance is insensitive to the angle of incidence.

  4. Angling for ecological effects of marine protection (SW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Tavares

    2015-10-01

    Multivariate analyses of the abundance of fish caught by size class found significant effects of protection in shore angling total weight (higher values in MPA. Lack of significant effects of protection may be due to the fact that MPAs are still recent. Replication in time, within a monitoring programme, is recommended to assess the ecological effects of these conservation measures.

  5. Small angle elastic scattering of electrons by noble gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, measurements are carried out to obtain small angle elastic differential cross sections in order to check the validity of Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations for electrons scattered by noble gas atoms. First, total cross sections are obtained for argon, krypton and xenon. Next, a parallel plate electrostatic energy analyser for the simultaneous measurement of doubly differential cross section for small angle electron scattering is described. Also absolute differential cross sections are reported. Finally the forward dispersion relation for electron-helium collisions is dealt with. (Auth.)

  6. Precise predictions of neutrino mixing angles and $CP$ phase

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Gauhar

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino mixing parameters are studied using renormalization-group evolution of Dirac neutrinos with recently proposed parameterization of the neutrino mixing angles referred as `high-scale mixing relations'. The correlations among all neutrino mixing and $CP$ violating parameters are investigated. The predictions for the neutrino mixing angles and the $CP$ phase are precise and could be easily tested by ongoing and future experiments. We observe that the high scale mixing unification hypothesis is incompatible with Dirac neutrinos due to updated experimental data.

  7. Investigation of Brazed Plate Heat Exchangers With Variable Chevron Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Muthuraman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available - Experiments to measure the condensation heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop in brazed plate heat exchangers (BPHEs were performed with the refrigerants R410A and R22. Brazed plate heat exchangers with different chevron angles of 45°, 35°, and 20° were used. Varying the mass flux, the condensation temperature, and the vapor quality of the refrigerant, we measured the condensation heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drops. Both the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop increased proportionally with the mass flux and the vapor quality and inversely with the condensation temperature and the chevron angle.

  8. Triangulations of hyperbolic 3-manifolds admitting strict angle structures

    CERN Document Server

    Hodgson, Craig D; Segerman, Henry

    2011-01-01

    It is conjectured that every cusped hyperbolic 3-manifold has a decomposition into positive volume ideal hyperbolic tetrahedra (a "geometric" triangulation of the manifold). Under a mild homology assumption on the manifold we construct topological ideal triangulations which admit a strict angle structure, which is a necessary condition for the triangulation to be geometric. In particular, every knot or link complement in the 3-sphere has such a triangulation. We also give an example of a triangulation without a strict angle structure, where the obstruction is related to the homology hypothesis, and an example illustrating that the triangulations produced using our methods are not generally geometric.

  9. Simultaneous measurement of X-ray small angle scattering, absorption and reactivity: A continuous flow catalysis reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungsik; Lee, Byeongdu; Seifert, Soenke [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Vajda, Stefan [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Yale University, 9 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Winans, Randall E., E-mail: rewinans@anl.gov [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    A fixed-bed, continuous flow catalysis reactor is described, in which GISAXS (grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering)/GIXAS (grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy) and TPR (temperature-programmed reaction) can be measured simultaneously on samples with low metal coverage. The capabilities offered by this setup are illustrated in the example of the dehydrogenation of cyclohexene, where the size, oxidation state and reactivity of supported cobalt clusters were investigated under ambient pressure conditions. The GIXAS data reveal an evolution of the oxidation state of the catalytic particles with temperature. Simultaneously recorded GISAXS data show stable clusters, without any indication of sintering under employed reaction conditions.

  10. Multiple scattering of a zero-order Bessel beam with arbitrary incidence by an aggregate of uniaxial anisotropic spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z. J.; Wu, Z. S.; Qu, T.; Shang, Q. C.; Bai, L.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the generalized multiparticle Mie theory, multiple scattering of an aggregate of uniaxial anisotropic spheres illuminated by a zero-order Bessel beam (ZOBB) with arbitrary propagation direction is investigated. The particle size and configuration are arbitrary. The arbitrary incident Bessel beam is expanded in terms of spherical vector wave functions (SVWFs). Utilizing the vector addition theorem of SVWFs, interactive and total scattering coefficients are derived through the continuous boundary conditions on which the interaction of the particles is considered. The accuracy of the theory and codes are verified by comparing results with those obtained for arbitrary plane wave incidence by CST simulation, and for ZOBB incidence by a numerical method. The effects of angle of incidence, pseudo-polarization angle, half-conical angle, beam center position, and permittivity tensor elements on the radar cross sections (RCSs) of several types of collective uniaxial anisotropic spheres, such as a linear chain, a 4×4×4 cube-shaped array, and other periodical structures consisting of massive spheres, are numerically analyzed. Selected results on the properties of typical particles such as TiO2, SiO2, or other particle lattices are calculated. This investigation could provide an effective test for further research on the scattering characteristics of an aggregate of anisotropic spheres by a high-order Bessel vortex beam. The results have important application in optical tweezers and particle manipulation.

  11. Overview of Neutrino Mixing Models and Their Mixing Angle Predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, Carl H.

    2009-11-01

    An overview of neutrino-mixing models is presented with emphasis on the types of horizontal flavor and vertical family symmetries that have been invoked. Distributions for the mixing angles of many models are displayed. Ways to differentiate among the models and to narrow the list of viable models are discussed.

  12. Combined surgical management of mandibular angle prominence and microgenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin play a very important role in facial aesthetics. Different deformities of volume and of position may occur at this level and it is the microgenia one of the more frequent. Treatment options include the use of silicone, alloplasty materials and autologous bone graft. Authors report the use of the bone removed from mandibular angle to increase the chin. This is the case of a white female patient aged 18 seen by the Orthognathics Multidisciplinary Staff of 'V. I. Lenin' Hospital due to its uncommon face width. The corresponding physical examination as well as the complementary ones diagnosed a bilateral prominence of mandibular angle associated with a microgenia. Surgery carried out was of remodeling type of both mandibular angles and genioplasty of height increase and a discrete advancement using the bone removed from the gonion. There were satisfactory aesthetic results without evidence of bone reabsorption. We conclude that use of autologous graft of mandibular angle is an effective treatment alternative for correction of microgenia. (author)

  13. Oscillations of relative inclination angles in compact extrasolar planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Juliette C.; Adams, Fred C.

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler mission has detected dozens of compact planetary systems with more than four transiting planets. This sample provides a collection of close-packed planetary systems with relatively little spread in the inclination angles of the inferred orbits. A large fraction of the observational sample contains limited multiplicity, begging the question whether there is a true diversity of multitransiting systems, or if some systems merely possess high mutual inclinations, allowing them to appear as single-transiting systems in a transit-based survey. This paper begins an exploration of the effectiveness of dynamical mechanisms in exciting orbital inclination within exoplanetary systems of this class. For these tightly packed systems, we determine that the orbital inclination angles are not spread out appreciably through self-excitation. In contrast, the two Kepler multiplanet systems with additional non-transiting planets are susceptible to oscillations of their inclination angles, which means their currently observed configurations could be due to planet-planet interactions alone. We also provide constraints and predictions for the expected transit duration variations for each planet. In these multiplanet compact Kepler systems, oscillations of their inclination angles are remarkably hard to excite; as a result, they tend to remain continually mutually transiting (CMT-stable). We study this issue further by augmenting the planet masses and determining the enhancement factor required for oscillations to move the systems out of transit. The oscillations of inclination found here inform the recently suggested dichotomy in the sample of Solar systems observed by Kepler.

  14. The incidence of hepatic hamartomas in tuberous sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our series of tuberous sclerosis patients consisted of 23 children between 6 and 16 years of age and of 13 patients between 16 and 48 years of age. In the former group the incidence of multiple hepatic haemangiomas, estimated by greyscale ultrasonography, is 13%, whereas this incidence is 23% in the group of older patients. The sign might be important for genetic counselling in formes frustes. (orig.)

  15. Effects of the rotation angle on surface plasmon coupling of nanoprisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Miao-Hsuan; Nien, Li-Wei; Chao, Bo-Kai; Li, Jia-Han; Hsueh, Chun-Hway

    2016-02-14

    We studied the effects of relative orientation of bowtie nanostructures on the plasmon resonance both experimentally and theoretically in this work. Specifically, we fabricated gold bowtie nanoantennas with rotated nanoprisms, measured the near-field and the far-field resonance behaviors using Raman spectroscopy and scattering microspectroscopy, and simulated the effects of the rotation angle on the localized surface plasmonic resonance using finite-difference time-domain simulations. In addition to the widely-discussed dipolar resonance in regular bowtie nanostructures, defined as tip-mode resonance in the present study, the excitations of edge-mode resonance were discovered under certain rotation angles of nanoprisms. Because of the resonances of different modes at different wavelengths, two different incident laser sources were used to measure the Raman spectra to provide evidence for the evolution of different resonance modes. Also, both the tip-mode and edge-mode resonances were verified by the simulated charge density distribution and their trends were discussed. Based on the discovered trend, a plasmon protractor was created with a near-exponential decay relationship between the relative resonance wavelength shift and cosine of the rotation angle. A plasmon hybridization model was also proposed for rotated bowties to explain the coupling between nanoprisms during rotation. PMID:26809737

  16. Contrast-enhanced CISS imaging of cerebellopontine angle tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tozaki, Mitsuhiro; Toyoda, Keiko; Hata, Yuichi; Fukuda, Yasushi; Fukuda, Kunihiko [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Katano, Shuichi

    1999-10-01

    Our purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of contrast-enhanced CISS-3DFT MR imaging for the diagnosis of CP angle tumors. CISS-3DFT MR imaging is expected for screening procedure of acoustic schwannoma because of excellent spatial resolution. Recently, we discovered contrast enhancement effect on CISS sequence in spite of heavily T{sub 2}-weighted images. Fourteen patients with CP angle tumors were performed on a 1.0 T MR unit. Transaxial CISS-3DFT MRI was obtained both before and after intravenous injections of Gd-DTPA. Multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs) were performed in all cases. Contrast enhancement effect of CP angle tumors, and the relationship between tumors and the adjacent cranial nerves were evaluated. Contrast enhancement effect of the tumors was present in all cases in spite of heavily T{sub 2}-weighted images of CISS sequences. In the internal auditory canal, relationship between the tumors and the cranial nerves was demonstrated in 6 cases (6/9). In the cerebellopontine cistern, all cases were demonstrated (11/11). Contrast-enhanced CISS-3DFT MR imaging with a good contrast resolution and an excellent spatial resolution is useful for the diagnosis of CP angle tumors. (author)

  17. Ultra Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study of Porous Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compacts of silica micro-spheres prepared for different times at sintering temperatures of 640 deg. C and 740 deg. C have been studied by Ultra Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (USANS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Stress versus strain measurements display several breakage points related to a range of nearest neighbour coordination around each microsphere.

  18. An Analysis of the Morris Loe Angle Trisection Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Farhad,; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents the Morris Loe Angle Trisection Approximation Method to introduce students to areas of mathematics where approximations are used when exact answers are difficult or impossible to obtain. Examines the accuracy of the method using the laws of sines and cosines and a BASIC computer program that is provided. (MDH)

  19. Non-linear Flight Dynamics at High Angles of Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granasy, P.; Sørensen, C.B.; Mosekilde, Erik; Thomasson, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    The methods of nonlinear dynamics are applied to the longitudinal motion of a vectored thrust aircraft, in particular the behavior at high angles of attack. Our model contains analytic nonlinear aerodynamical coefficients based on NASA windtunnel experiments on the F-18 high-alpha research vehicle...

  20. Progress Report of Small Angle Neutron Scattering on CARR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The project of small angle neutron scattering spectrometer (SANS) belongs to "building up the center for neutron scattering". It's one of the project "national science & technology infrastructure center". The building parts are already done in 2010. By the proposal one of

  1. Non-linear Flight Dynamics at High Angles of Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granasy, P.; Sørensen, C.B.; Mosekilde, Erik;

    1998-01-01

    The methods of nonlinear dynamics are applied to the longitudinal motion of a vectored thrust aircraft, in particular the behavior at high angles of attack. Our model contains analytic nonlinear aerodynamical coefficients based on NASA windtunnel experiments on the F-18 high-alpha research vehicl...

  2. On Applicability of Automated Planning for Incident Management

    OpenAIRE

    Chrpa, Lukáš; Thorisson, Kristinn

    2015-01-01

    Incident management aims to save human lives, mitigate the effect of accidents, prevent damages, to mention a few of their benefits. Efficient coordination of rescue team members, allocation of available resources, and appropriate responses to the realtime unfolding of events is critical for managing incidents successfully. Coordination involves a series of decisions and event monitoring, usually made by human coordinators, for instance task definition, task assignment, risk assessment, et...

  3. Incidence and management of posteriorly dislocated nuclear fragments following phacoemulsification.

    OpenAIRE

    Mathai Annie; Thomas Ravi

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report the incidence, management and complications of nucleus dislocation into the vitreous during phacoemulsification. METHODS: Retrospective review of 1250 consecutive phacoemulsification performed by consultants and residents in a teaching hospital. RESULTS: The incidence of nucleus drops was 0.8% (10 out of 1250). Loss of nuclear fragments occurred during phacoemulsification in 9 patients. In one, the dislocation was caused by hydro-dissection. All except one patient (w...

  4. The Initial Incidence of a Carbon Tax across US States

    OpenAIRE

    Roberton C. Williams III; Gordon, Hal; Burtraw, Dallas; Carbone, Jared C.; Richard D. Morgenstern

    2014-01-01

    Carbon taxes introduce potentially uneven cost burdens across the population. The distribution of these costs is especially important in affecting political outcomes. This paper links dynamic overlapping-generations and microsimulation models of the United States to estimate the initial incidence of a carbon tax across states. Geographic differences in incidence are driven primarily by differences in sources of income. Differing patterns of energy use also matter but are relatively less impor...

  5. Effect of Air Outlet Angle on Air Distribution Performance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isbeyeh W. Maid

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available       In this paper a numerical study of velocity and temperature distribution in air conditioned space have been made. The computational model consists of the non-isothermal 3-D turbulent with (k-ε model. The numerical study is made to conduct air distribution in a room air-conditioned space with real interior dimensions (6×4×3m and to analyze the effect of changing angle of grille vanes on the flow pattern, velocity, and temperature distribution in the room under a set of different condition, and under a supply air temperature of 16˚C to examine the final result on air distribution performance index (ADPI.The results show a significant effect within the change of supply air angle, the maximum air distribution performance index (ADPI is 52% when air change per hour (ACH is equal to 10 at 16˚C inlet temperature with angle ( 15˚ down, and the minimum value of (ADPI is 20% when ACH is equal to 15 at 16˚C inlet temperature and angle ( degree. 

  6. Installation of NA62 Large Angle Veto detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    In May 2012, the NA62 collaboration has installed the first eight (out of 12) Large Angle Veto detectors for the accurate identification of photons. These subdetectors will re-use 3000 lead glass crystals with attached photomultipliers from the OPAL experiment at LEP – CERN’s former accelerator.

  7. Incidence of rheumatoid arthritis from 1995 to 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens; Kjær, Niels; Svendsen, Anders; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the mean incidence rate of rheumatoid arthritis over a 7-year period from 1995 to 2001 in a population in the southern part of Denmark, using the data from several sources. Cases fulfilling the 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria for rheumatoid...... from general practice and referral centres, the estimated incidence was 35/100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval 32-38). We suggest that the estimated rate should be viewed as a plausible upper limit for the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in the southern part of Denmark....... arthritis were identified at hospitals and private practising rheumatologists (referral centres), and in general practice. The observed incidence was 32/100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval 29-35). Using the ratio between the number of cases known only from general practice and the number known...

  8. The effect of antibacterial soap on impetigo incidence, Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Stephen; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Schnell, Beverly M; Hoekstra, Robert M; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Keswick, Bruce H

    2002-10-01

    We conducted a study to determine if soap containing 1.2% triclocarban would be effective in reducing the incidence of impetigo. We randomized 162 households in a low-income neighborhood of Karachi, Pakistan, to receive a regular supply of 1.2% triclocarban-containing soap (n = 81) or an identically appearing placebo (n = 81); 79 households in a nearby neighborhood were enrolled as standard practice controls. After adjustment for household clustering and covariates, the incidence of impetigo among children living in households receiving triclocarban-containing soap (1.10 episodes per 100 person-weeks) was 23% lower than in households receiving placebo soap (P = 0.28) and 43% lower than the standard habit and practice controls (P = 0.02). The routine use of triclocarban-containing soap by children living in a community with a high incidence of impetigo was associated with a reduced incidence of impetigo. PMID:12452499

  9. Incidence of Neonatal Hyperphenylalaninemia in Fars Province South Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah Karamifar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Phenylalanine hydroxylase or its cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4, deficiency causes accumulation of phenylalanine in body fluids and central nervous system. Considering the fact that hyperphenylalaninemia is a preventable cause of mental retardation in infants, the objective of this study was to determine the incidence of congenital hyperphenylalaninemia in Fars province, south of Iran.Methods:In a period of one year from November 2007 to November 2008 blood samples were withdrawn from all newborns born in Fars province for measurement of serum phenylalanine. The samples with a serum level of � 2 mg/dl were referred to pediatric endocrine clinic for confirmation and determination of the type of hyperphenylalaninemia by quantitive serum phenylalanine measurements by using High-Pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC method.Findings:Nine out of 76966 newborns had a serum phenylalanine level �2mg/dl, of which 8 cases were confirmed by HPLC. The incidence of the disease was 1:10000. The incidence of mild hyperphenylalaninemia and phenylketonuria (PKU among the patients was 62.5% and 37.5% respectively and the incidence of BH4 deficiency was 1/76966.Conclusion:These findings indicate a high incidence of hyperphenylalaninemia, in the newborns from Fars province. The high incidence makes a comprehensive screening program for management of the disease necessary.

  10. Estimating the angle of inclination of the Earth's rotational axis: a potentially meaningful practical activity for astronomy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Danda de Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a practical activity to estimate the angle of inclination of the Earth's rotation axis as a teaching resource with potential to promote the meaningful learning on topics related to astronomy and Earth science. Some topics of interest for carrying out the activity as the apparent movement of the sun, the angle of incidence of sunlight throughout the year and the seasons are discussed. The procedures and materials used in measuring the length of the shadow of a gnomon, the collected data, and the estimating of the angle of inclination of the rotation axis are presented. The article ends with a reflection on the implementation of this activity in elementary and high school level.

  11. Estimation of National Colorectal-Cancer Incidence Using Claims Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Quantin, C.; Benzenine, E.; M. Hägi; Auverlot, B.; Abrahamowicz, M.; J. Cottenet; Fournier, E; Binquet, C.; Compain, D.; Monnet, E; Bouvier, A. M.; Danzon, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of the colorectal-cancer incidence estimated from administrative data. Methods. We selected potential incident colorectal-cancer cases in 2004-2005 French administrative data, using two alternative algorithms. The first was based only on diagnostic and procedure codes, whereas the second considered the past history of the patient. Results of both methods were assessed against two corresponding local cancer registries, acting as “gold...

  12. General practitioner reported incidence of Lyme carditis in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Hofhuis, A.; Arend, S.M.; Davids, C.J.; Tukkie, R.; van Pelt, W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Between 1994 and 2009, incidence rates of general practitioner (GP) consultations for tick bites and erythema migrans, the most common early manifestation of Lyme borreliosis, have increased substantially in the Netherlands. The current article aims to estimate and validate the incidence of GP-reported Lyme carditis in the Netherlands. Methods We sent a questionnaire to all GPs in the Netherlands on clinical diagnoses of Lyme borreliosis in 2009 and 2010. To validate and adjust the...

  13. Reflectivity Model of Low Grazing Angle Radar Sea Clutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Sheng; CHEN Jie; CAI Tao; TU Xu-yan

    2005-01-01

    The commonly used reflectivity models of radar sea clutter are summarized. Among these models, the adjusted Barton model and the adjusted Morchin model are compared. From the analysis result, the γ-p reflectivity model is presented for low grazing angle radar sea clutter by the adjustment of the original Barton reflectivity model. The model takes into account radar frequency, grazing angle, sea condition, and polarization property. The influences of these factors on the proposed model are analyzed. The model absorbs the merits from commonly used reflectivity models for sea clutter. It introduces several researchers' opinions, and extends them. And it accounts for the reflectivity at arbitrary radar frequency from VHF to X-band, arbitrary low grazing angle, arbitrary sea condition and different polarization property. One of the main results is the proposed γ-p reflectivity model can reflect the influence of polarization on sea clutter reflectivity to some extent. The proposed γ-p reflectivity model of low-angle radar-sea clutter is validated by comparing the simulated and statistically experimental data.

  14. High incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shintani, Takahiro; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine] [and others

    1999-03-01

    Since the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, high incidences of leukemia, thyroid cancer and other tumors have been reported as atomic bomb-induced tumors. We investigated the incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. Sixty-eight patients surgically treated for meningioma who had been within 2.0 km of the hypocenter of the explosion were identified. Six hundred and seven non-exposed patients with meningioma were also studied. Treatment dates were from 1975 to 1992. The incidences of meningioma among 68 subjects within 2.0 km and 607 non-exposed patients were 8.7 and 3.0 cases per 10{sup 5} persons per year, respectively. The incidences of meningioma among the survivors of Hiroshima in 5-year intervals since 1975 were 5.3, 7.4, 10.1, and 14.9, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by distances from the hypocenter of 1.5-2.0 km, 1.0-1.5 km and less than 1.0 km were 6.3, 7.6 and 20.0, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by doses to the brain of 0-0.099 Sv, 0.1-0.99 Sv and more than 1.0 Sv were 7.7, 9.2 and 18.2, respectively. The incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors has increased since 1975. There was a significant correlation between the incidence and the dose of radiation to the brain. The present findings strongly suggest that meningioma is one of the tumors induced by atomic bombing in Hiroshima. (author)

  15. High incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, T; Hayakawa, N; Hoshi, M; Sumida, M; Kurisu, K; Oki, S; Kodama, Y; Kajikawa, H; Inai, K; Kamada, N

    1999-03-01

    Since the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, high incidences of leukemia, thyroid cancer and other tumors have been reported as atomic bomb-induced tumors. We investigated the incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. Sixty-eight patients surgically treated for meningioma who had been within 2.0 km of the hypocenter of the explosion were identified. Six hundred and seven non-exposed patients with meningioma were also studied. Treatment dates were from 1975 to 1992. The incidences of meningioma among 68 subjects within 2.0 km and 607 non-exposed patients were 8.7 and 3.0 cases per 10(5) persons per year, respectively. The incidences of meningioma among the survivors of Hiroshima in 5-year intervals since 1975 were 5.3, 7.4, 10.1, and 14.9, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by distances from the hypocenter of 1.5-2.0 km, 1.0-1.5 km and less than 1.0 km were 6.3, 7.6 and 20.0, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by doses to the brain of 0-0.099 Sv, 0.1-0.99 Sv and more than 1.0 Sv were 7.7, 9.2 and 18.2, respectively. The incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors has increased since 1975. There was a significant correlation between the incidence and the dose of radiation to the brain. The present findings strongly suggest that meningioma is one of the tumors induced by atomic bombing in Hiroshima. PMID:10408177

  16. High incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, high incidences of leukemia, thyroid cancer and other tumors have been reported as atomic bomb-induced tumors. We investigated the incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. Sixty-eight patients surgically treated for meningioma who had been within 2.0 km of the hypocenter of the explosion were identified. Six hundred and seven non-exposed patients with meningioma were also studied. Treatment dates were from 1975 to 1992. The incidences of meningioma among 68 subjects within 2.0 km and 607 non-exposed patients were 8.7 and 3.0 cases per 105 persons per year, respectively. The incidences of meningioma among the survivors of Hiroshima in 5-year intervals since 1975 were 5.3, 7.4, 10.1, and 14.9, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by distances from the hypocenter of 1.5-2.0 km, 1.0-1.5 km and less than 1.0 km were 6.3, 7.6 and 20.0, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by doses to the brain of 0-0.099 Sv, 0.1-0.99 Sv and more than 1.0 Sv were 7.7, 9.2 and 18.2, respectively. The incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors has increased since 1975. There was a significant correlation between the incidence and the dose of radiation to the brain. The present findings strongly suggest that meningioma is one of the tumors induced by atomic bombing in Hiroshima. (author)

  17. An empirical study on the relation between the critical angle for bullet ricochet and the properties of wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Wim; Alberink, Ivo; Mattijssen, Erwin J A T

    2015-05-01

    The properties of a bullet, an object, and the incidence angle determine whether the bullet will penetrate, perforate, or ricochet. In this study, the critical angle for ricochet was established for .32 Auto and 9 mm Luger bullets on Abachi, Southern Yellow Pine, Beech, and Ipe wooden boards. Results show that the critical angle differs depending on caliber and wood type. The critical angle is higher for .32 Auto bullets than for 9 mm Luger bullets and increases with increasing wood density and Janka hardness. The established critical angles for ricochet on the lightest and softest wood (Abachi) are 10.4° and 10.3° for .32 Auto and 9 mm Luger, respectively. For the heaviest and hardest wood (Ipe), the angles were 45.0° and 33.4°, respectively. The combined results on the four tested woods show a strong linear relationship between both the density and the hardness and the critical angle for both calibers. PMID:25675942

  18. Surface rippling by oblique ion incidence during plasma etching of silicon: Experimental demonstration using sheath control plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazaki, Nobuya; Matsumoto, Haruka; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi

    2015-09-01

    In the microfabrication of 3D transistors (e.g. Fin-FET), the sidewall roughness, such as LER and LWR caused by off-normal or oblique ion incidence during plasma etching, is a critical issue to be resolved, which in turn requires a better understanding of the effects of ion incidence angle θi on surface roughening. This paper presents surface roughening and rippling by oblique ion incidence during inductively coupled plasma etching of Si in Cl2, using the experimental setup as in our previous study. The oblique ion incidence was achieved by sheath control plates, which were placed on and electrically connected to the wafer stage. The plates had slits to vary the sheath structure thereon and to extract ions from plasma to samples on the bottom and/or side of the slits. The results indicated that at θi ~ 40° or oblique incidence; ripple structures were formed on surfaces perpendicularly to the direction of ion incidence, on the other hand, at θi ~ 80° or grazing incidence, small ripples or slit like grooves were formed on surfaces parallel to the direction of ion incidence, as predicted in our previous numerical investigations.

  19. Video analysis of injuries and incidents in Norwegian professional football

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, T.; Tenga, A; Engebretsen, L.; Bahr, R

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: This study describes the characteristics of injuries and high risk situations in the Norwegian professional football league during one competitive season using Football Incident Analysis (FIA), a video based method.

  20. Statement of incidents at nuclear installations fourth quarter 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three incidents which are reported for the fourth quarter of 1985 occurred at Transfynydd and Hinkley Point-B reactors (operated by CEGB) and there is a follow-up report on an earlier incident at Hunterston A reactor (operated by the South of Scotland Electricity Board). The Transfynydd incident concerned a fire in conventional plant and although the reactor was shut down as a precaution, the damage was limited to conventional plant and there was no radiation hazard. The two incidents at Hinkley Point-B concerned a boiler tube leak which allowed high pressure steam into the coolant gas circuit and a leakage of reactor coolant gas which caused the site emergency arrangements to be invoked but which caused no contamination outside the reactor building. The Hunterston-A report concerns the replacement of an active effluent discharge pipeline which had been found to have a leak. (UK)