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Sample records for angle glaucoma oag

  1. Association of open-angle glaucoma loci with incident glaucoma in the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, Kathryn P; Mitchell, Paul; Lee, Anne; Healey, Paul R; White, Andrew J R; Rochtchina, Elena; Thomas, Peter B M; Wang, Jie Jin; Craig, Jamie E

    2015-01-01

    To determine if open-angle glaucoma (OAG)-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with incident glaucoma and if such genetic information is useful in OAG risk prediction. Case-control from within a population-based longitudinal study. study population: Individuals aged over 49 years of age living in the Blue Mountains region west of Sydney and enrolled in the Blue Mountains Eye Study. observation: Cases for this sub-study (n = 67) developed incident OAG between baseline and 10-year visits, in either eye, while controls (n = 1919) had no evidence for OAG at any visit. All participants had an ocular examination and DNA genotyped for reported OAG risk SNPs. main outcome measure: Incident OAG. Two loci also known to be associated with cup-to-disc ratio as well as OAG (9p21 near CDKN2B-AS1 and SIX1/SIX6) were both significantly associated with incident OAG in the Blue Mountains Eye Study cohort (P = .006 and P = .004, respectively). The TMCO1 locus was nominally associated (P = .012), while the CAV1/CAV2 and 8q22 loci were not associated. Multivariate logistic regression and neural network analysis both indicated that the genetic risk factors contributed positively to the predictive models incorporating traditional risk factors. This study shows that previously reported genetic variations related to OAG and cup-to-disc ratio are associated with the onset of OAG and thus may become useful in risk prediction algorithms designed to target early treatment to those most at risk of developing glaucoma. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Atherosclerosis, C-reactive protein, and risk for open-angle glaucoma : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogd, Simone; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.

    PURPOSE. To test the hypotheses that atherosclerosis and elevated serum C-reactive protein ( CRP) levels are risk factors for open-angle glaucoma ( OAG). METHODS. In a prospective, population-based cohort study, all participants 55 years and older and at risk for incident OAG underwent, at baseline

  3. Atherosclerosis, C-reactive protein, and risk for open-angle glaucoma: The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. de Voogd (Simone); R.C.W. Wolfs (Roger); N.M. Jansonius (Nomdo); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A. Hofman (Albert); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE. To test the hypotheses that atherosclerosis and elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are risk factors for open-angle glaucoma (OAG). METHODS. In a prospective, population-based cohort study, all participants 55 years and older and at risk for incident OAG underwent, at

  4. Atherosclerosis, C-reactive protein, and risk for open-angle glaucoma: the Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogd, Simone; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.

    2006-01-01

    To test the hypotheses that atherosclerosis and elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are risk factors for open-angle glaucoma (OAG). In a prospective, population-based cohort study, all participants 55 years and older and at risk for incident OAG underwent, at baseline (1990-1993) and at

  5. Changes in the Lipidomic Profile of Aqueous Humor in Open-Angle Glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrerizo, Javier; Urcola, Javier A; Vecino, Elena

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify and determine differences in lipid profiles of aqueous humor (AH) in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The lipidomic profile of 10 samples of AH of patients with OAG and 10 controls was analyzed. Patients with a history of anterior segment surgery...

  6. Novel and known MYOC exon 3 mutations in an admixed Peruvian primary open-angle glaucoma population

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Reinoso, Veronica; Patil, Teja S.; Guevara Fujita, María Luisa; Fernández, Silvia; Vargas, Enrique; Castillo Herrera, Wilder; Perez Grossmann, Rodolfo; Lizaraso Caparó, Frank; Richards, Julia E.; Fujita, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to characterize a representative sample of the Peruvian population suffering openangle glaucoma (OAG) with respect to the myocilin gene (MYOC) mutations, glaucoma phenotype, and ancestry for future glaucoma risk assessment. Methods: DNA samples from 414 unrelated Peruvian subjects, including 205 open-angle glaucoma cases (10 juvenile glaucoma [JOAG], 19 normal-tension glaucoma [NTG], and 176 POAG) and 209 randomly sampled controls, were screen...

  7. open angle glaucoma (poag)?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    there is a build up of pressure due to poor outflow of aqueous humor. The outflow obstruction could occur at the trabecular meshwork of the anterior chamber angle or subsequently in the episcleral vein due to raised venous pressure. Such build up of pressure results in glaucoma . Elevated intraocular pressure remains the ...

  8. Glaucoma, Open-Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specific Prevalence Rates for Glaucoma by Age and Race/Ethnicity The prevalence of glaucoma increases with advancing ... Race/Ethnicity 2010 Prevalence Rates of Glaucoma by Race In 2010, glaucoma affected about 1.9 percent ...

  9. Analysis combining correlated glaucoma traits identifies five new risk loci for open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharahkhani, Puya; Burdon, Kathryn P; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Hewitt, Alex W; Law, Matthew H; Pasquale, Louis R; Kang, Jae H; Haines, Jonathan L; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Zhou, Tiger; Siggs, Owen M; Landers, John; Awadalla, Mona; Sharma, Shiwani; Mills, Richard A; Ridge, Bronwyn; Lynn, David; Casson, Robert; Graham, Stuart L; Goldberg, Ivan; White, Andrew; Healey, Paul R; Grigg, John; Lawlor, Mitchell; Mitchell, Paul; Ruddle, Jonathan; Coote, Michael; Walland, Mark; Best, Stephen; Vincent, Andrea; Gale, Jesse; RadfordSmith, Graham; Whiteman, David C; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Mackey, David A; Wiggs, Janey L; MacGregor, Stuart; Craig, Jamie E

    2018-02-15

    Open-angle glaucoma (OAG) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. To identify new risk loci for OAG, we performed a genome-wide association study in 3,071 OAG cases and 6,750 unscreened controls, and meta-analysed the results with GWAS data for intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic disc parameters (the overall meta-analysis sample size varying between 32,000 to 48,000 participants), which are glaucoma-related traits. We identified and independently validated four novel genome-wide significant associations within or near MYOF and CYP26A1, LINC02052 and CRYGS, LMX1B, and LMO7 using single variant tests, one additional locus (C9) using gene-based tests, and two genetic pathways - "response to fluid shear stress" and "abnormal retina morphology" - in pathway-based tests. Interestingly, some of the new risk loci contribute to risk of other genetically-correlated eye diseases including myopia and age-related macular degeneration. To our knowledge, this study is the first integrative study to combine genetic data from OAG and its correlated traits to identify new risk variants and genetic pathways, highlighting the future potential of combining genetic data from genetically-correlated eye traits for the purpose of gene discovery and mapping.

  10. Comparison of the prevalence of plateau iris configurations between angle-closure glaucoma and open-angle glaucoma using ultrasound biomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Hideki; Takenaka, Joji; Sugimoto, Yosuke; Takamatsu, Michiya; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of plateau iris configurations in acute primary angle-closure (APAC), chronic angle-closure glaucoma (CACG), and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) eyes using ultrasound biomicroscopy. The study included fellow eyes of 27 APAC patients, 26 OAG patients, and 26 CACG patients with no history of APAC. Patients with a history of earlier intraocular surgery or argon laser peripheral iridoplasty were excluded from the study. Eyes that had not undergone laser peripheral iridotomy were excluded from APAC and CACG groups. Radial scans were carried out using ultrasound biomicroscopy in all 4 quadrants. A plateau iris configuration within a quadrant was defined by the presence of an anteriorly positioned ciliary process, a narrow ciliary sulcus, a steeply rising peripheral iris, followed by a downward angulation from the corneoscleral wall and the presence of a flat iris plane. Eyes with plateau iris configurations were defined as those having at least 2 quadrants fulfilling these criteria. Plateau iris configurations were found in fellow eyes of 10 of 27 patients with (37.0%) APAC, 9 of 26 (34.6%) patients with CACG, and 5 of 26 (19.2%) patients with OAG. No significant difference in the prevalence of plateau iris configurations was observed among the 3 groups (P=0.314, χ2 test). Eyes with OAG had a higher rate of plateau iris configurations than expected. Longitudinal studies to evaluate plateau iris height are required to determine its significance in the pathogenesis of angle-closure glaucoma.

  11. Comparison of Newly Diagnosed Ocular Hypertension and Open-Angle Glaucoma: Ocular Variables, Risk Factors, and Disease Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Yvonne M.; Harasymowycz, Paul; Gaspo, Rania; Kwok, Kenneth; Hutnik, Cindy M. L.; Blondeau, Pierre; Birt, Catherine M.; Piemontesi, Robert L. G.; Gould, Lisa F.; Lesk, Mark R.; Ahmed, Iqbal K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the distribution of ocular variables, risk factors, and disease severity in newly diagnosed ocular hypertension (OH) or open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Methods. Eligible subjects underwent a complete history and examination. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) obtained from multiple logistic regression models were used to compare OAG to OH and advanced to early/moderate OAG. Results. 405 subjects were enrolled: 292 (72.1%) with OAG and 113 (27.9%) with OH. 51.7% had early, 27.1% moderate, and 20.9% advanced OAG. The OR for OAG versus OH was 8.19 (P < 0.0001) for disc notch, 5.36 (P < 0.0001) for abnormal visual field, 1.45 (P = 0.001) for worsening mean deviation, 1.91 (P < 0.0001) for increased cupping, 1.03 for increased age (P = 0.030), and 0.36 (P = 0.010) for smoking. Conclusions. Increased age was a risk for OAG, and smoking decreased the risk of OAG compared to OH. Almost half of the OAG subjects had moderate/advanced disease at diagnosis. PMID:21869921

  12. Comparison of Newly Diagnosed Ocular Hypertension and Open-Angle Glaucoma: Ocular Variables, Risk Factors, and Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne M. Buys

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the distribution of ocular variables, risk factors, and disease severity in newly diagnosed ocular hypertension (OH or open-angle glaucoma (OAG. Methods. Eligible subjects underwent a complete history and examination. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs obtained from multiple logistic regression models were used to compare OAG to OH and advanced to early/moderate OAG. Results. 405 subjects were enrolled: 292 (72.1% with OAG and 113 (27.9% with OH. 51.7% had early, 27.1% moderate, and 20.9% advanced OAG. The OR for OAG versus OH was 8.19 (P<0.0001 for disc notch, 5.36 (P<0.0001 for abnormal visual field, 1.45 (P=0.001 for worsening mean deviation, 1.91 (P<0.0001 for increased cupping, 1.03 for increased age (P=0.030, and 0.36 (P=0.010 for smoking. Conclusions. Increased age was a risk for OAG, and smoking decreased the risk of OAG compared to OH. Almost half of the OAG subjects had moderate/advanced disease at diagnosis.

  13. Albuminuria Is Associated with Open-Angle Glaucoma in Nondiabetic Korean Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyu Ah; Park, Se Hee; Ko, Jaesang; Lee, Si Hyung; Bae, Hyoung Won; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2016-01-01

    Systemic vascular dysfunction has been suggested to contribute to glaucomatous damage. Albuminuria is a surrogate marker of endothelial injury, including vessels. However, their relationship is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the association between albuminuria and the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in nondiabetic subjects. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4186 nondiabetic participants aged 19 years or older from the 2011-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. OAG was defined based on the criteria of the International Society for Geographic and Epidemiologic Ophthalmology. Urinary albumin excretion was assessed by the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between albuminuria and OAG. Among the subjects, 124 had OAG. The weighted prevalences of microalbuminuria (UACR of 30-299 mg/g creatinine [Cr]) and macroalbuminuria (UACR ≥ 300 mg/g Cr) were 3.2 ± 0.3% and 0.4 ± 0.1%, respectively. The percentages of OAG increased in accordance with increasing UACR tertiles. Compared with subjects in the lower UACR tertile, those in the upper tertile showed an increased prevalence of OAG (odds ratio, 1.963; 95% confidence interval 1.072-3.595, P = 0.029) after adjusting for demographic factors, laboratory parameters, kidney function, and intraocular pressure. Furthermore, even after excluding 155 subjects with microalbuminuria and 19 subjects with macroalbuminuria, a positive association persisted between the upper UACR tertile (low-grade albuminuria) and an increased prevalence of OAG (odds ratio, 2.170; 95% confidence interval, 1.174-4.010, P = 0.014). Albuminuria, even low-grade, was significantly associated with OAG in nondiabetic subjects. This result implies the role of vascular endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenic mechanism of OAG and suggests that careful monitoring of OAG is required in nondiabetic subjects with

  14. Bupropion use and risk of open-angle glaucoma among enrollees in a large U.S. managed care network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Stein

    Full Text Available Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF mediates retinal ganglion cell death in glaucoma. Anti-TNF drugs are neuroprotective in an animal model of glaucoma. It is unclear whether medications with anti-TNF properties such as bupropion have an impact on the risk of developing open-angle glaucoma (OAG in humans. The purpose of this study is to determine whether bupropion use alters the risk of developing OAG.Claims data for beneficiaries age ≥35 years with no pre-existing OAG enrolled in a large nationwide U.S. managed care network continuously for ≥4 years between 2001-2011 was analyzed to identify patients who had been newly-diagnosed with OAG. The amount of bupropion use as captured from outpatient pharmacy claims over a four-year period was also quantified for each beneficiary. Multivariable Cox regression modeling assessed the impact of bupropion and other antidepressant medications on the risk of developing OAG with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics of the enrollees along with medical and ocular comorbidities.Of 638,481 eligible enrollees, 15,292 (2.4% developed OAG. After adjustment for confounding factors including use of other antidepressant medication classes, each additional month of bupropion use was associated with a 0.6% reduced risk of OAG (HR = 0.994, (95% CI: 0.989-0.998, p = 0.007. Compared to nonusers, those with 24-48 months of bupropion use had a 21% reduced hazard (HR=0.79, (CI: 0.65-0.94, p = 0.0099 of OAG. This association did not differ among persons taking bupropion for depression or for other reasons (p-interaction = 0.82. There was no significant association between use of tricyclic antidepressants (HR = 1.000, (CI: 0.997-1.004, p = 0.95 or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (HR = 0.999, (CI: 0.997-1.001, p = 0.39 and development of OAG.These findings suggest bupropion use may be beneficial in reducing the risk of OAG. If prospective studies confirm the findings of this analysis, this may identify a novel

  15. Acute angle closure glaucoma following ileostomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Meirelles Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Angle-closure glaucoma can be induced by drugs that may cause pupillary dilatation. We report a case of a patient that developed bilateral angle closure glaucoma after an ileostomy surgery because of systemic atropine injection. This case report highlights the importance of a fast ophthalmologic evaluation in diseases with ocular involvement in order to make accurate diagnoses and appropriate treatments.

  16. Medical versus surgical interventions for open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Jennifer; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto; Avenell, Alison; Tuulonen, Anja

    2012-09-12

    Open angle glaucoma (OAG) is a common cause of blindness. To assess the effects of medication compared with initial surgery in adults with OAG. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 7), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to August 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to August 2012), Biosciences Information Service (BIOSIS) (January 1969 to August 2012), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (January 1937 to August 2012), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), Zetoc, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 1 August 2012. The National Research Register (NRR) was last searched in 2007 after which the database was archived. We also checked the reference lists of articles and contacted researchers in the field. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing medications with surgery in adults with OAG. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for missing information. Four trials involving 888 participants with previously untreated OAG were included. Surgery was Scheie's procedure in one trial and trabeculectomy in three trials. In three trials, primary medication was usually pilocarpine, in one trial it was a beta-blocker.The most recent trial included participants with on average mild OAG. At five years, the risk of progressive visual field loss, based on a three unit change of a composite visual field score, was not

  17. Vascular and metabolic comorbidities in open-angle glaucoma with low- and high-teen intraocular pressure: a cross-sectional study from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Hyung; Kim, Gyu Ah; Lee, Wonseok; Bae, Hyoung Won; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2017-11-01

    To assess the associations between vascular and metabolic comorbidities and the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP) in Korea. Cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2012 were analysed. Participants diagnosed with OAG with normal IOP were further classified into low-teen IOP (IOP ≤ 15 mmHg) and high-teen IOP (15 mmHg teen IOP groups. The prevalences of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and metabolic syndrome were significantly higher among subjects with low-teen OAG compared with normal subjects, while only the prevalences of hypertension and stroke were higher among subjects with high-teen OAG compared with normal subjects. In multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for confounding factors, low-teen OAG was significantly associated with hypertension (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.30-2.18), hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.07-2.08), ischaemic heart disease (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.07-3.11), stroke (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.12-3.25) and metabolic syndrome (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.12-1.90). High-teen OAG was only associated with stroke (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.20-5.53). Various vascular and metabolic comorbidities were significantly associated with low-teen OAG, but not with high-teen OAG. These data support the hypothesis that vascular factors play a more significant role in the pathogenesis of OAG with low-teen baseline IOP. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. PRIMARY OPEN ANGLE GLAUCOMA IN THYROID DISORDER

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    Pragati Garg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE To assess the association of thyroid profile with open angle glaucoma. DESIGN Cross-sectional observational study. MATERIAL AND METHOD 128 cases of diagnosed thyroid disorder were enrolled. 5 cases dropped out. Ocular examination included applanation tonometry, stereoscopic optic disc photography, and automated perimetry. Correlative association of thyroid disorder and open angle glaucoma was assessed. RESULTS Of 123 patients of thyroid disorder, 87.8% had hypothyroidism and remaining 12.2% had hyperthyroidism. 15.74% of hypothyroidism and 20% of hyperthyroidism patients had open angle glaucoma, which was statistically significant (Pearson chi-square: Value=6.548, df=2, p=0.040. On multivariate analysis with other risk factors like female sex, family history of glaucoma, myopia, hypertension, and diabetes; it was found that hypothyroidism is an independent risk factor for open angle glaucoma. CONCLUSION All patients having thyroid disorder should be investigated for early diagnosis of open angle glaucoma so that if need be antiglaucoma treatment is started at the earliest and the eye maybe saved from any further deterioration.

  19. Glaucoma in the English-speaking Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvenor, D; Hennis, A

    2011-07-01

    The Barbados Eye Studies have provided the most comprehensive information on the major eye diseases in African origin populations to date. Black Barbadians have among the highest rates of primary open-angle glaucoma (OAG) reported to date in a population-based study (7.0%). Incidence rates of OAG over a nine-year follow-up period were 0.5% per year, and two to five times higher than reported in predominantly Caucasian populations. Risk factors for OAG included older age, male gender higher intraocular pressure, positive glaucoma family history, in addition to lean body mass and a positive cataract history. Low blood pressure to intraocular pressure relationships were also found to increase OAG risk, suggesting an aetiologic role for low vascular perfusion of the optic nerve. Recent analyses revealed a region on chromosome 2 associated with increased OAG risk, which has potential implications for early diagnosis and treatment. Approximately 50% of Barbadians with OAG were unaware of having the disease in the baseline study and this situation remained unchanged nine years later open-angle glaucoma causes painless, irreversible loss of vision and there are clear reasons why screening may be of particular public health importance in high risk African descent populations, given the benefits of early detection and appropriate treatment. There are data that suggest that it would be cost-effective to conduct open-angle glaucoma screening in Barbados and this has implications for policy and care, with the ultimate aim of reducing glaucoma-related blindness.

  20. Goniodysgenesis in familial primary open-angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbraak, F. D.; vd Berg, W.; Delleman, J. W.; Greve, E. L.

    1994-01-01

    Results of a pilot study to evaluate goniodysgenesis as a cause of familial open-angle glaucoma are reported. Patients with a familial high tension open-angle glaucoma and a goniodysgenetic chamber angle (n = 11), a number of their relatives with glaucoma (n = 12), and their relatives without

  1. Effect of Different Head Positions in Lateral Decubitus Posture on Intraocular Pressure in Treated Patients With Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Eun; Yoo, Chungkwon; Lin, Shan C; Kim, Yong Yeon

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effects of different head positions in the lateral decubitus posture on intraocular pressure (IOP) in medically treated patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Prospective observational study. setting: Institutional. Twenty patients with bilateral OAG who received only latanoprost as treatment. IOP was measured using an ICare Pro tonometer in the sitting, supine, right, and left lateral decubitus posture. In lateral decubitus posture, IOP measurements were taken with 3 different head positions (30 degrees higher than, 30 degrees lower than, and parallel to the center of the thoracic vertebra) in a randomized sequence. Comparison of the IOPs between the dependent (lower-sided) and nondependent eyes in the lateral decubitus postures with different head positions. We also analyzed the differences in IOPs between the better and worse eyes. IOP was higher in the dependent eyes than in the nondependent eyes in lateral decubitus posture, regardless of the head position (all P posture or head position were not significantly different between the better and worse eyes. Low head position elevates IOP of the dependent eyes of medically treated OAG patients compared with neutral head position in the lateral decubitus posture. Adjustment of the height of a pillow may help mitigate IOP elevations resulting from lying on the side with a low or no pillow in glaucoma patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Presentation of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) at Lions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma in Africa. We carried out a study to determine the clinical presentation pattern of patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) at a tertiary hospital in Malawi. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Lions Sight First Eye Hospital—a ...

  3. Cluster headache or narrow angle glaucoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Palimar

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47 year old man with episodes of attacks of pain, redness and mild blurring of vision was investigated for narrow angle glaucoma in view of shallow anterior chambers and a cupped optic disc. The history was reviewed following a spontaneous attack in hospital, which had features other than acute glaucoma. A diagnosis of cluster headache was made on the basis of tests. Cluster headache has been defined as unilateral intense pain, involving the eye and head on one side, usually associated with flushing, nasal congestion and lacrimation; the attacks recurring one or more times daily and lasting 20 - 120 minutes. Such attacks commonly continue for weeks or months and are separated by an asymptomatic period of months to years. This episodic nature, together with unilaterality and tendency to occur at night, closely mimics narrow angle glaucoma. Further, if patients have shallow anterior chambers and disc cupping, the differentiation becomes more difficult yet critical. Resource to provocative tests is often the only answer as the following case report demonstrates.

  4. Visual disability in Newly Diagnosed Primary open Angle Glaucoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Glaucoma remains the second leading cause of blindness worldwide and the highest cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. In Nigeria, Glaucoma accounts for 16% of blindness and primary open angle glaucoma is the most prevalent clinical type. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the visual disability ...

  5. Is angle closure glaucoma a problem in Nigeria? | Olawoye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report the characteristics of angle closure glaucoma (ACG) in eye clinic patients of University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 336 consecutive new glaucoma patients of all age groups who presented to the glaucoma clinic of UCH over a 1 year ...

  6. Compliance to Medical Therapy of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study was to determinethe rate of compliance to medical therapy of primary open angle glaucoma in Enugu with a view to improving patient care and reducing visual deterioration and loss from glaucoma. Method: One hundred and five patients were reviewed from the glaucoma patients who ...

  7. Relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation value and progression of visual field defect in open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naito T

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomoko Naito,1 Keiji Yoshikawa,2 Shiro Mizoue,3 Mami Nanno,4 Tairo Kimura,5 Hirotaka Suzumura,6 Ryuji Takeda,7 Fumio Shiraga1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama, 2Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, 4Kagurazaka Minamino Eye Clinic, 5Ueno Eye Clinic, 6Suzumura Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 7Department of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Japan Purpose: To analyze the relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation (MD value and glaucomatous visual field (VF progression in open-angle glaucoma (OAG, including primary OAG and normal tension glaucoma.Patients and methods: The subjects of the study were patients undergoing treatment for OAG who had performed VF tests at least 10 times with a Humphrey field analyzer (SITA standard, C30-2 program. The VF progression was defined by a significantly negative MD slope (MD slope worsening at the final VF test during the follow-up period. The relationship between the MD slope worsening and the consecutive deterioration of MD value were retrospectively analyzed.Results: A total of 165 eyes of 165 patients were included in the analysis. Significant progression of VF defects was observed in 72 eyes of 72 patients (43.6%, while no significant progression was evident in 93 eyes of 93 patients (56.4%. There was significant relationship between the frequency of consecutive deterioration of MD value and MD slope worsening (P<0.0001, Cochran–Armitage trend test. A significant association was observed for MD slope worsening in the eyes with three (odds ratio: 2.1, P=0.0224 and four (odds ratio: 3.6, P=0.0008 consecutive deterioration of MD value in multiple logistic regression analysis, but no significant association in the eyes with two consecutive deterioration (odds ratio: 1.1, P=0.8282. The eyes with VF progression had significantly lower intraocular pressure reduction rate (P<0

  8. Relationship between retinal lattice degeneration and open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mansour

    2005-01-01

    Patients with retinal disorders may develop glaucoma of both a primary and secondary type. Pigment may contribute to trabecular obstruction in some patients with open-angle glaucoma. Lattice degeneration of the retina in its typical form is a sharply demarcated, circumferentially oriented, degenerative process with significant alterations of retinal pigmentation. The association between myopia, open angle glaucoma and pigment dispersion is striking. Therefore, it could be postulated that there is significant prevalence of open angle glaucoma in patients with retinal lattice degeneration, especially in combination with myopia.

  9. Pattern of intraocular pressure reduction following laser trabeculoplasty in open-angle glaucoma patients: comparison between selective and nonselective treatment

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    Almeida Jr ED

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Eglailson Dantas Almeida Júnior1, Luciano Moreira Pinto1,2, Rodrigo Antonio Brant Fernandes1,2, Tiago Santos Prata1,31Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Cerpo Oftalmologia, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Hospital Medicina dos Olhos, São Paulo, BrazilObjective: To compare the pattern of intraocular pressure (IOP reduction following selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT versus argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT in open-angle glaucoma (OAG patients, and to investigate the ability of initial IOP reduction to predict mid-term success.Methods: A prospective, nonrandomized, interventional case series was carried out. Consecutive uncontrolled OAG glaucoma patients underwent SLT or ALT; the same preoperative medical regimen was maintained during follow-up. Data collected included age, type of OAG, pre- and postoperative IOP, number of glaucoma medications, and surgical complications. Post-treatment assessments were scheduled at day 1 and 7 and months 1, 3, and 6.Results: A total of 45 patients (45 eyes were enrolled [SLT group (n = 25; ALT group (n = 20]. Groups were similar for age, baseline IOP, and number of glaucoma medications (P ≥ 0.12. We found no significant differences in mean IOP reduction between SLT (5.1 ± 2.5 mmHg; 26.6% and ALT (4.4 ± 2.8 mmHg; 22.8% groups at month 6 (P = 0.38. Success rates (IOP ≤ 16 mmHg and IOP reduction ≥25% at last follow-up visit were similar for SLT (72% and ALT (65% groups (P = 0.36. Comparing the pattern of IOP reduction (% of IOP reduction at each visit between groups, we found a greater effect following SLT compared with ALT at day 7 (23.7% ± 13.7% vs 8.1% ± 9.5%; P < 0.001. No significant differences were observed at other time points (P ≥ 0.32. Additionally, the percentage of IOP reduction at day 7 and at month 6 were significantly correlated in the SLT group (R2 = 0.36; P < 0.01, but not in the ALT group (P = 0.89. Early postoperative success predicted late

  10. Prevalence of open angle glaucoma in accompanying first degree relatives of patients with glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Vegini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of open angle glaucoma in first-degree relatives accompanying POAG patients during routine examination in a reference hospital. METHOD: First-degree relatives of primary open angle glaucoma patients who accompanied their relatives to the glaucoma service of a reference hospital were screened for glaucoma. RESULTS: One-hundred and one first-degree relatives were examined, of which 56.4% had never had their intraocular pressure measured. 10.9% had previously been diagnosed with glaucoma, and 5.9% were newly diagnosed during this study. CONCLUSIONS: The eye examination of first-degree relatives identified a significant percentage of individuals with glaucoma. Despite being first-degree relatives of glaucoma patients, 56.4% of the companions had never had their eye pressure measured, demonstrating a lack of awareness about this disease.

  11. Prospective, unmasked evaluation of the iStent® inject system for open-angle glaucoma: synergy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskanyan, Lilit; García-Feijoó, Julián; Belda, Jose I; Fea, Antonio; Jünemann, Anselm; Baudouin, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    Micro-invasive glaucoma surgical implantation of trabecular micro-bypass stents, previously shown to be safe and effective for open-angle glaucoma (OAG) subjects during cataract surgery, was considered for evaluation as a sole procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy after ab interno implantation of two Glaukos Trabecular Micro-Bypass iStent inject second generation devices in subjects with OAG. This study was performed at sites in France, Germany, Italy, Republic of Armenia, and Spain. In this pan-European, multi-center prospective, post-market, unmasked study, 99 patients with OAG on at least two topical ocular hypotensive medications who required additional IOP lowering to control glaucoma disease underwent implantation of two GTS400 stents in a stand-alone procedure. Patients were qualified if they presented with preoperative mean IOP between 22 and 38 mmHg after medication washout. Postoperatively, subjects were assessed at Day 1, Months 1, 3, 6, 7, 9, and 12. IOP, medication use and safety were assessed at each visit. Sixty-six percent of subjects achieved IOP ≤18 mmHg at 12 months without medication, and 81% of subjects achieved Month 12 IOP ≤ 18 mmHg with either a single medication or no medication. Mean baseline washout IOP values decreased by 10.2 mmHg or 39.7% from 26.3 (SD 3.5) mmHg to 15.7 (SD 3.7) mmHg at Month 12. Mean IOP at 12 months was 14.7 (SD 3.1) mmHg in subjects not using ocular hypotensive medications. Reduction from preoperative medication burden was achieved in 86.9% of patients, including 15.2% with reduction of one medication and 71.7% with reduction of two or more medications. Postoperative complications occurred at a low rate and resolved without persistent effects. In this series, implantation of two trabecular micro-bypass second generation stents in subjects with OAG resulted in IOP and medication reduction and favorable safety outcomes.

  12. Research advances on multifocal electroretinogram in primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Fei Mo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma is a chronic and progressive optic neuropathy. It can lead to serious damage of visual impairment, and it is an important eye disease of blindness. Multifocal electroretinogram is a new way to measure visual electrophysiology. It can measure electroretinogram of the whole visual field of many small parts in a relatively short period of time, and it can reflect the function of regional retina. It has an extremely important value for early diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma. The research advances on multifocal electroretinogram in diagnosing primary open angle glaucoma were summarized in this paper.

  13. Comparison of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Patients in Rural and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To compare the clinical features of glaucoma patients who present at a rural hospital in North Eastern Ghana and an urban hospital in the capital city of Accra. Methods: This is a multi-center retrospective case series involving records of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients with emphasis on primary open angle ...

  14. Citalopram associated with acute angle-closure glaucoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sabit

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute angle-closure glaucoma is a rare complication in patients receiving anti-depressant treatment. In the following case, we report the development of acute angle closure glaucoma in a patient who overdosed on Citalopram, an antidepressant, and discuss the possible etiological mechanisms for the condition. Case presentation We report a 54 year old, Caucasian lady, with depression and alcohol dependence syndrome, who developed acute angle-closure glaucoma after an overdose of Citalopram, along with alcohol. She was treated with medications and had bilateral Yag laser iridotomies to correct the glaucoma and has made complete recovery. In this case, the underlying cause for glaucoma appears to be related to the ingestion of Citalopram. Conclusion The patho-physiological basis for acute angle closure glaucoma in relation to antidepressant medications remains unclear. The authors suggest Citalopram may have a direct action on the Iris or Ciliary body muscle through serotonergic or anti-cholinergic mechanisms or both. This case highlights the importance of the awareness of the underlying risks, which may predispose an individual to develop acute angle-closure glaucoma, and reminds the clinicians the significance of history taking and examination of the eye before and after starting anti-depressants. This area needs to be further researched.

  15. Novel and known MYOC exon 3 mutations in an admixed Peruvian primary open-angle glaucoma population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Reinoso, Veronica; Patil, Teja S; Guevara-Fujita, Maria L; Fernández, Silvia; Vargas, Enrique; Castillo-Herrera, Wilder; Perez-Grossmann, Rodolfo; Lizaraso-Caparó, Frank; Richards, Julia E; Fujita, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a representative sample of the Peruvian population suffering open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with respect to the myocilin gene (MYOC) mutations, glaucoma phenotype, and ancestry for future glaucoma risk assessment. DNA samples from 414 unrelated Peruvian subjects, including 205 open-angle glaucoma cases (10 juvenile glaucoma [JOAG], 19 normal-tension glaucoma [NTG], and 176 POAG) and 209 randomly sampled controls, were screened for nucleotide changes in MYOC exon 3 by conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) and mutation screening. We identified a probable causative novel MYOC missense mutation, Gly326Ser, in one POAG case and found a consistent genotype-phenotype correlation in eight of his relatives. We also found the known causative MYOC mutation Trp286Arg in one JOAG case and one POAG case. A known causative single base MYOC deletion, T1357, was found in one POAG case. Two previously reported silent polymorphisms, Thr325Thr and Tyr347Tyr, were found in both the case and the control populations. A novel missense variant, Met476Arg, was identified in two unrelated controls. The screening of exon 3 of MYOC in a representative sample of 205 independent POAG patients from Peru and 209 matched controls identified novel and previously reported mutations (both pathogenic and nonpathogenic) from other global regions. These results reflect the complex admixture of Amerindian and Old World ancestry in urban populations of Latin America, in general, and in Peru, in particular. It will be important to gather information about the ancestral origin of MYOC and other POAG gene mutations to develop screening panels and risk assessment for POAG in Peru.

  16. Economic impact of primary open-angle glaucoma in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirani, Mohamed; Crowston, Jonathan G; Taylor, Penny S; Moore, Peter T; Rogers, Sophie; Pezzullo, M Lynne; Keeffe, Jill E; Taylor, Hugh R

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is the World's leading cause of irreversible blindness, and poses serious public health and economic concerns.   Review. Published randomized trials and population-based studies since 1985. We report the economic impact of primary open-angle glaucoma and model the effect of changes in detection rates and management strategies. The cost-effectiveness of different interventions to prevent vision loss from primary open-angle glaucoma was measured in terms of financial cost (Australian dollars) and disability-adjusted life years. The prevalence of glaucoma in Australia is expected to increase from 208 000 in 2005 to 379 000 in 2025 because of the aging population. Health system costs over the same time period are estimated to increase from $AU355 million to $AU784 million. Total costs (health system costs, indirect costs and costs of loss of well-being) will increase from $AU1.9 billion to $AU4.3 billion in Australia. Primary open-angle glaucoma poses a significant economic burden, which will increase substantially by 2025. This dynamic model provides a valuable tool for ongoing policy formulation and determining the economic impact of interventions to better prevent visual impairment and blindness from glaucoma. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  17. Trabectome surgery for primary and secondary open angle glaucomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jens F; Wecker, Thomas; van Oterendorp, Christian; Anton, Alexandra; Reinhard, Thomas; Boehringer, Daniel; Neuburger, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    In most forms of open angle glaucoma, the trabecular meshwork is the main barrier for aqueous humor outflow, causing elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). The Trabectome is a minimal invasive device for the surgical treatment of open angle glaucoma, particularly eliminating the juxtacanalicular meshwork. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness and complication profile among different glaucoma subgroups. Single center prospective observational study. There were 557 consecutive eyes of 487 patients included in this study. Trabectome surgery was performed either alone or in combination with cataract surgery. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were documented systematically. Main outcome measures were IOP reduction over time and the preoperative and postoperative number of IOP-lowering medications. Due to subgroup sizes, only data from eyes with primary open angle glaucoma and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma were processed for statistical analysis. For the 261 eyes classified as primary open angle glaucoma, preoperative IOP was 24 ± 5.5 mmHg (mean ± SD) under 2.1 ± 1.3 IOP-lowering medications. After a mean follow-up of 204 ± 238 days, IOP was reduced to 18 ± 6.1 mmHg, and medication was reduced to 1.2 ± 1.1. For the 173 eyes classified as pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, after a mean follow-up of 200 ± 278 days, IOP was reduced from 25 ± 5.9 mmHg to 18 ± 8.2 mmHg, and medication was reduced from 2.0 ± 1.2 to 1.1 ± 1.1. A Cox proportional hazards model hinted forward superiority of the combined surgery cases (Trabectome + Phaco + intraocular lens) in comparison to Trabectome surgery only in phakic or pseudophakic eyes. No serious complications were observed. Minimal invasive glaucoma surgery with the Trabectome seems to be safe and effective. The subgroup analysis of different kinds of open angle glaucomas presented in this study may help in first-line patient selection. The lack of ocular surface alterations makes it a valuable addition to

  18. Research progress on related genes for primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailijiang·Aierken

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma(POAGis the main cause of blindness with visual field damage and optic nerve degeneration. In recent years, a lot of researches have been done, showing that genetic factors and gene mutation play an important role in POAG. There are more than 20 related POAG genes. Now we will review the related genes of POAG, especially the well known causative genes of MYOC, OPTN, WDR36, and CAV1/CAV2, in terms of their locations, structures, research progress, et al, and provide a reference for genetic research in primary open-angle glaucoma.

  19. Correlations between Corneal Biomechanics and Glaucoma Severity in Patients with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dascalescu, Dana; Corbu, Catalina; Constantin, Mihaela; Cristea, Miruna; Ionescu, Catalina; Cioboata, Miruna; Voinea, Liliana

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between corneal biomechanical changes and glaucoma severity in primary open angle glaucoma patients. Correlation study. Our study included 70 glaucomatous eyes; they were divided in groups using Glaucoma Staging System Based on Humphrey Visual Field. Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) was used in order to determine corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF); ultrasonic pachimetry (Ocuscan) to measure central corneal thickness (CCT) and Humphrey Visual Analyser to determine mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD) and visual field index (VFI). For statistical analysis we used descriptive analysis and linear regression using IBM SPSS Statistics Standard. Out of the 70 eyes with primary open angle glaucoma examined that had visual acuity 0,7 or better, 35 were included in stage 1 (MD 0.01dB -> -6dB), 21 in stage 2 (MD -6.01dB -> -12dB) and 14 in stage 3 (MD -12.01dB -> -20dB). A considerable statistic correlation was found between CH and VFI both in the entire group of primary open angle glaucoma patients( r=0.44, p<0.001), and in stages 1 (r=0.44, p<0.009), 2 (r=0.51, p<0.01) and 3 (r=0.52, p<0.05). The study shows a moderate correlation, statistically significant, between corneal hysteresis and visual field index in glaucoma patients. Ocular response analyzer can be considered an useful instrument in evaluation of primary open angle glaucoma patients.

  20. The treatment of open- and narrow-angle glaucoma | Sevel | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A review of the presentation and diagnosis of acute narrow- angle glaucoma and open-angle glaucoma is presented. Both medical and surgical treatment are discllssed with anevaluation of operative techniques.

  1. Visual Disability Among Juvenile Open-angle Glaucoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Viney; Ganesan, Vaitheeswaran L; Kumar, Sandip; Chaurasia, Abadh K; Malhotra, Sumit; Gupta, Shikha

    2018-04-01

    Juvenile onset primary open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) unlike adult onset primary open-angle glaucoma presents with high intraocular pressure and diffuse visual field loss, which if left untreated leads to severe visual disability. The study aimed to evaluate the extent of visual disability among JOAG patients presenting to a tertiary eye care facility. Visual acuity and perimetry records of unrelated JOAG patients presenting to our Glaucoma facility were analyzed. Low vision and blindness was categorized by the WHO criteria and percentage impairment was calculated as per the guidelines provided by the American Medical Association (AMA). Fifty-two (15%) of the 348 JOAG patients were bilaterally blind at presentation and 32 (9%) had low vision according to WHO criteria. Ninety JOAG patients (26%) had a visual impairment of 75% or more. Visual disability at presentation among JOAG patients is high. This entails a huge economic burden, given their young age and associated social responsibilities.

  2. Glaucoma: Symptoms and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of glaucoma include the following: Open-angle glaucoma Open-angle glaucoma is the most common form ... re even aware of a problem. Angle-closure glaucoma Angle-closure glaucoma, also called closed-angle glaucoma, ...

  3. THE TREATMENT OF OPEN- AND NARROW-ANGLE GLAUCOMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-04-10

    Apr 10, 1971 ... Treatment. A more realistic approach to the treatment of open-angle glaucoma is necessary. Medical therapy. The general trend of thought concern- ... sibility on the ophthalmologists because of the adequate follow-up which has become mandatory. Cupping. Although it is frequently stated that with.

  4. Hereditary primary open angle glaucoma: case study of a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To present a case of hereditary primary open angle glaucoma in a Nigerian family. Method: Six members of an Ibo family from Delta State, Nigeria were interviewed and examined by the authors. Information on age, gender, tribe, history of blindness, eye disease and other medical conditions was recorded.

  5. Determinants of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: Review of records ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) has continued to cause high disease burden globally and Zambia is no exception. We investigated the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of POAG based on records of clients attending the eye clinic at University Teaching Hospital (UTH), Lusaka. Methods: ...

  6. Impaired Saccadic Eye Movement in Primary Open-angle Glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamirel, Cédric; Milea, Dan; Cochereau, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE:: Our study aimed at investigating the extent to which saccadic eye movements are disrupted in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). This approach followed upon the discovery of differences in the eye-movement behavior of POAG patients during the exploration of complex visual...

  7. Molecular complexity of primary open angle glaucoma: current ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-12-31

    Dec 31, 2009 ... [Ray K. and Mookherjee S. 2009 Molecular complexity of primary open angle glaucoma: current concepts J. Genet. 88, 451–467]. Introduction .... cellular matrix (ECM) protein but its function is still not well elucidated. Although a large ...... ergy starvation of the nerve cells is possible. Opening of. PTPC will ...

  8. Comparative biometric study between plateau iris configuration and primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz Filho, Alberto; Cronemberger, Sebastião; Mérula, Rafael Vidal; Calixto, Nassim

    2009-01-01

    To investigate biometrically the differences between plateau iris configuration (PIC) eyes and primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes. A comparative study involving a case series with 20 eyes of 11 plateau iris configuration patients and 45 eyes of 27 primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes patients was done. The following measurements were taken: corneal curvature, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness (LT), axial length (AL), lens thickness and axial length ratio, lens position (LP) and relative lens position (RLP). The plateau iris configuration eyes presented a higher corneal cuvature value than primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes eyes but not with clinical and statistical difference (P=0.090). The plateau iris configuration eyes demonstrated a higher central corneal thickness, with statistical significance, when compared to primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes (P=0.010). Statistical significant difference between plateau iris configuration and primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes was found in axial length (21.69 +/- 0.98 vs. 22.42 +/- 0.89; P=0.003). No significant difference was found when anterior chamber depth (2.62 +/- 0.23 vs. 2.71 +/- 0.31; P=0.078), LT (4.67 +/- 0.36 vs. 4.69 +/- 0.45; P=0.975), LT/AL (2.16 +/- 0.17 vs. 2.10 +/- 0.21; P=0.569), LP (4.95 +/- 0.25 vs. 5.06 +/- 0.34; P=0.164) and RLP (0.23 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.22 +/- 0.14; P=0.348) were evaluated. The eyes with plateau iris configuration presented statistical significantly shorter axial length and higher central corneal thickness than primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes.

  9. Angle closure glaucoma secondary to psychotropic medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ross Rocke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Psychotropic medications are commonly associated anticholinergic side-effects. In susceptible patients, this can result in angle closure induced permanent loss of vision Aims To review the mechanism of angle closure and which psychotropics are most likely to precipitate this complication. Methods Literature review surrounding the mechanism of angle closure and pharmacology of various psychotropics Results Mydriasis, forward-displacement of the lens-iris diaphragm and ciliary body swelling are the mechanisms by which angle closure occurs. Anticholinergic side effects of psychotropic medications are most implicated in causing this. Conclusion Screening patients for risk factors of angle closure and either having them formally assessed or choosing psychotropics with minimal anticholinergic effects may avoid inducing angle closure.

  10. Presenting features of primary angle-closure glaucoma in patients of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    closure glaucoma depends on their ethnic background. In order to examine the presenting features and effects of primary angle-closure glaucoma in people of mixed ethnicity, we reviewed all 'coloured' patients who presented to Groote Schuur ...

  11. Effect of phacoemulsification on intraocular pressure in patients with primary open angle glaucoma and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Jimenez-Roman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the effect of phacoemulsification on intraocular pressure (IOP in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXG. METHODS: A retrospective comparative case series conducted at the Glaucoma Department at the Association to Prevent Blindness in Mexico. The study enrolled consecutive patients having phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL implantation and a diagnosis of POAG or PXG. Data about IOP values and number of glaucoma medications used was collected at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 12mo postoperatively. RESULTS: The study enrolled 88 patients (88 eyes. After phacoemulsification, there was a statistically significant reduction in IOP values and glaucoma medications use compared to baseline in both POAG and PXG patients (P<0.001. In the POAG group, a 20% decrease in IOP values was evidenced, and a 56.5% reduction in the number of medications used at the one-year follow-up. The PXG group showed a 20.39%, and a 34.46% decrease in IOP and number of medications used, respectively. A significant difference in the mean ΔIOP (postoperative changes in IOP was evidenced between groups (P=0.005. The reduction of the postsurgical IOP mean values in both groups, the POAG group showed a greater reduction in IOP values compared to the PXG group. CONCLUSION: In both types of glaucoma, phacoemulsification cataract surgery can result in a significant IOP reduction (20% over a 12mo follow-up period. The number of medications used is also significantly reduced up to 12mo after surgery, especially in the PXG group.

  12. Results of a modified non-penetrating deep sclerectomy in the treatment of open angle glaucoma with or without cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kitsos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available George Kitsos1, Miltiades Aspiotis1, Yannis Alamanos2, Konstantinos Psilas11Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece; 2Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Medical School, University of Patras, Patras, GreecePurpose: To present the technique of a modified deep sclerectomy, which we will call “reversed” deep sclerectomy (RDS and the results and our observations of its use in patients with open angle glaucoma (OAG and with or without cataract extraction (phacoemulsification.Materials and methods: This prospective study included 132 eyes which underwent RDS: 37 eyes (group A with uncontrolled OAG and 95 eyes (group B with OAG and visually significant cataract. Mean pressure preoperatively for group A was 24.48 ± 4.92 mmHg and for group B was 22.99 ± 3.00. The mean number of antiglaucoma drugs received was 2.97 ± 0.69 and 2.56 ± 0.73 for groups A and B respectively. The RDS was performed where the deep scleral stroma is prepared in 2 parts, folded and inserted under the lateral sides of the sclerectomy, and the Schlemm’s canal is opened prior to deep scleral stroma preparation. Cataract was extracted by phacoemulsification through the same scleral opening. The follow-up for group A was 22.23 ± 10.18 months and for group B, 25.36 ± 10.12 months. Results: Postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP ≤ 21 mmHg was achieved for group A in 40.5% without antiglaucoma drugs and 94.6% with antiglaucoma drugs, and for group B in 66.3% and in 94.7% respectively. Mean IOP reduction was 7.02 ± 6.35 mmHg (28.67%, P < 0.05 for group A and 5.26 ± 3.72 mmHg (25.06%, P ≤ 0.05 for group B, while mean drug reduction was 1.97 ± 1.09 (P < 0.01 and 2.14 ± 0.95 (P ≤ 0.01 respectively. 5-Fluorouracil was used in 8 eyes of group A and in 5 eyes of group B.Conclusion: In the follow-up time during which the two groups were under study, the RDS was effective with a few complications, similar to the classic deep

  13. The Ex-PRESS glaucoma shunt versus trabeculectomy in open-angle glaucoma: a prospective randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Leo A. M. S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the efficacy and safety of the Ex-PRESS (Optonol Ltd., Neve Ilan, Israel) mini glaucoma shunt in open-angle glaucoma. This was a prospective, randomized trial. Eyes from enrolled patients were randomly assigned to either Ex-PRESS implantation under a

  14. Confusion over and consideration about classification and definition of primary angle-closure glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Qin Sun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflected upon the clinical confusion over the classification and definition of primary angle-closure glaucoma proposed by International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology(ISGEO. It is pointed out that lack of unified standards for glaucoma is the root of the confusion, and a preliminary discussion is made on the definition of glaucoma.

  15. Optic nerve head morphologic characteristics in chronic angle-closure glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lin; Wu, Lingling; Wang, Xin

    2009-08-01

    To determine whether the morphometric features of the optic disk in eyes with chronic angle-closure glaucoma (CACG) are different from those with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). This is a retrospective, case-matched study. Patients with CACG or NTG in an early or moderate stage were recruited. On the basis of age, sex, and visual field mean defect, patients with CACG were matched to those with NTG on a case-by-case basis. Heidelberg retina tomography was used to evaluate the optic disk, and parameters were compared between the 2 groups. Sixty-three patients were recruited for the study. Twenty cases (eyes) with CACG were matched to 20 cases (eyes) with NTG. The total, temporal/inferior, nasal/superior, and nasal/inferior rim area of the optic disk were significantly larger (Pmorphometric features of the optic disk in eyes with CACG are different from those with NTG.

  16. Early diagnosis and research of high myopia with primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available People with high myopia are high risk populations to have primary open angle glaucoma. Clinically, we found that patients with primary open angle glaucoma and high myopia is closely related. So to understand the clinical features of high myopia with primary open angle glaucoma and the importance of early diagnosis, to avoiding missed diagnosis or lower misdiagnosed rate, can help to improve the vigilance and level of early diagnosis of the clinicians. In this paper, high myopia with clinical features of primary open angle glaucoma, and the research progress on the main points of early diagnosis were reviewed.

  17. Bilateral Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma Induced By Escitalopram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilbade Yıldız Ekinci

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Escitalopram is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor(SSRI class. In this manuscript, we report the case of a female patient who developed bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma induced by escitalopram. A 46-year-old female patient was admitted to our ophthalmology clinic with complaints of severe pain around the both eyes, headache, nausea, and vomiting for two days. In her past medical history, she was using escitalopram for depression for two years. Visual acuity was at hand movement level in both eyes. Anterior segment examination showed bilateral diffuse conjunctival hyperemia, corneal edema, shallow anterior chamber, and fixed dilated pupils. Intraocular pressure was 47 mmHg in the right and 68 mmHg in the left eye. The diagnosis was acute angle-closure glaucoma, and the escitalopram medication was discontinued. She was treated with topical and systemic antiglaucomatous medication. After the cornea become clear, bilateral peripheral laser iridotomy was done. In the following year, she did not begin escitalopram medication again and no other acute angle-closure attack was seen. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44:396-9

  18. Clinical results of Trabectome surgery for open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizoguchi T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Takanori Mizoguchi,1 Shiro Nishigaki,2 Tomoki Sato,3 Harumi Wakiyama,4 Nobuchika Ogino2 1Mizoguchi Eye Clinic, Ophthalmology, Sasebo, 2Nishigaki Eye Clinic, Ophthalmology, Nagoya, 3Sato Eye Clinic, Ophthalmology, Arao, 4Japanese Red Cross Nagasaki Genbaku Hospital, Nagasaki, Japan Background: The purpose of this study was to determine outcomes when using Trabectome surgery and to evaluate factors associated with its effects in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG and exfoliation glaucoma (EXG. Methods: This was a prospective, non-randomized, observational, comparative cohort study in which Trabectome surgery was used alone in patients with POAG or EXG. Trabectome surgery was considered to have failed when at least one of the following three criteria was fulfilled: intraocular pressure (IOP ≥21 mmHg and a <20% reduction below the baseline IOP on two consecutive follow-up visits 3 months or more after surgery; need for additional glaucoma surgery; and an increase in number of medications compared with baseline. Results: The subjects were 32 males (34 eyes and 46 females (48 eyes. POAG was observed in 43 eyes and EXG in 39 eyes. IOP after Trabectome surgery decreased significantly from 22.3±6.8 mmHg at baseline to 14.0±3.9 mmHg (23.0% reduction at month 24 in all cases (P<0.0000. The success rate at 2 years was 51.2% for all cases (POAG, 50.9%; EXG, 49.2%. There was no significant difference in success rate between POAG and EXG (P=0.91. Preoperative IOP (P=0.033 and number of medications (P=0.041 were significant factors for surgical success/failure in multivariate logistic regression. No serious complications were observed. Conclusion: Trabectome surgery achieved favorable IOP control and was equally effective in patients with POAG and those with EXG. Its effects were influenced by preoperative IOP and number of preoperative medications. Keywords: Trabectome, primary open-angle glaucoma, exfoliation glaucoma, success rate, risk factors 

  19. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Vessel Density in Healthy, Glaucoma Suspect, and Glaucoma Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmohammadi, Adeleh; Zangwill, Linda M.; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Suh, Min Hee; Manalastas, Patricia Isabel; Fatehee, Naeem; Yousefi, Siamak; Belghith, Akram; Saunders, Luke J.; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Huang, David; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) retinal vasculature measurements in healthy, glaucoma suspect, and glaucoma patients. Methods Two hundred sixty-one eyes of 164 healthy, glaucoma suspect, and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) participants from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study with good quality OCT-A images were included. Retinal vasculature information was summarized as a vessel density map and as vessel density (%), which is the proportion of flowing vessel area over the total area evaluated. Two vessel density measurements extracted from the RNFL were analyzed: (1) circumpapillary vessel density (cpVD) measured in a 750-μm-wide elliptical annulus around the disc and (2) whole image vessel density (wiVD) measured over the entire image. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) were used to evaluate diagnostic accuracy. Results Age-adjusted mean vessel density was significantly lower in OAG eyes compared with glaucoma suspects and healthy eyes. (cpVD: 55.1 ± 7%, 60.3 ± 5%, and 64.2 ± 3%, respectively; P glaucoma and healthy eyes, the age-adjusted AUROC was highest for wiVD (0.94), followed by RNFL thickness (0.92) and cpVD (0.83). The AUROCs for differentiating between healthy and glaucoma suspect eyes were highest for wiVD (0.70), followed by cpVD (0.65) and RNFL thickness (0.65). Conclusions Optical coherence tomography angiography vessel density had similar diagnostic accuracy to RNFL thickness measurements for differentiating between healthy and glaucoma eyes. These results suggest that OCT-A measurements reflect damage to tissues relevant to the pathophysiology of OAG. PMID:27409505

  20. Serous retinal detachment after trabeculectomy in angle recession glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy, Avik Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old male with 360 degree angle recession after blunt trauma in his right eye developed uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP despite four antiglaucoma medications (AGM with advancing disc damage. He underwent trabeculectomy with intraoperative mitomycin-c (MMC application. There was an intraoperative vitreous prolapse which was managed accordingly. On post-surgery day 1, he had shallow choroidal detachment superiorly with non-recordable IOP. This was deteriorated 1 week postoperatively as choroidal detachment proceeded to serous retinal detachment. He was started with systemic steroid in addition to topical route. The serous effusions subsided within 2 weeks time. At the last follow up at 3 months, he was enjoying good visual acuity, deep anterior chamber, diffuse bleb, an IOP in low teens off any AGM and attached retina. This case highlights the rare occurrence of serous retinal detachment after surgical management of angle recession glaucoma.

  1. Long-term outcomes after acute primary angle closure of Caucasian chronic angle closure glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fea, Antonio Maria; Dallorto, Laura; Lavia, Carlo; Pignata, Giulia; Rolle, Teresa; Aung, Tin

    2017-07-19

    There is a lack of information about long-term results of chronic angle closure glaucoma following an acute primary angle closure attack in Caucasian patients. The aim of the study was to report morphological and functional long-term data of chronic angle closure eyes following a monolateral primary angle closure attack and to provide a comparison with their fellow eyes. Observational retrospective case series. Fifty-seven consecutive patients (114 eyes) underwent long-term follow-up analysis. Patients underwent ophthalmic assessment more than 5 years since the angle closure attack. Intraocular pressure, best-corrected visual acuity, angle assessment, vertical C/D ratio and standard automated perimetry were the main outcome measures. Comparisons were made between angle closure attack eyes and fellow eyes and between phakic and pseudophakic eyes. Mean follow-up time was 5.86 ± 1.19 years. A significant greater damage in the angle closure eyes compared with fellow eyes in both structural (mean C/D 0.61 ± 0.16; P APAC attack to prevent potential glaucoma damage in both APAC and fellow eye. © 2017 The Authors Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  2. Tank-Binding Kinase 1 (TBK1) Gene and Open-Angle Glaucomas (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingert, John H; Robin, Alan L; Scheetz, Todd E; Kwon, Young H; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert; Alward, Wallace L M

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of TANK-binding kinase 1 ( TBK1 ) gene copy-number variations (ie, gene duplications and triplications) in the pathophysiology of various open-angle glaucomas. In previous studies, we discovered that copy-number variations in the TBK1 gene are associated with normal-tension glaucoma. Here, we investigated the prevalence of copy-number variations in cohorts of patients with other open-angle glaucomas-juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma (n=30), pigmentary glaucoma (n=209), exfoliation glaucoma (n=225), and steroid-induced glaucoma (n=79)-using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. No TBK1 gene copy-number variations were detected in patients with juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma, or steroid-induced glaucoma. A TBK1 gene duplication was detected in one (0.44%) of the 225 exfoliation glaucoma patients. TBK1 gene copy-number variations (gene duplications and triplications) have been previously associated with normal-tension glaucoma. An exploration of other open-angle glaucomas detected a TBK1 copy-number variation in a patient with exfoliation glaucoma, which is the first example of a TBK1 mutation in a glaucoma patient with a diagnosis other than normal-tension glaucoma. A broader phenotypic range may be associated with TBK1 copy-number variations, although mutations in this gene are most often detected in patients with normal-tension glaucoma.

  3. Mefenamic acid-induced bilateral transient myopia, secondary angle closure glaucoma and choroidal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwakarma Parag

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced secondary angle closure is quite common and in the majority of cases simply stopping the medication leads to rapid reversal of the condition and resolution of glaucoma. We describe here a patient who presented with secondary angle closure glaucoma and myopia following mefenamic acid ingestion which was managed successfully by stopping the medication, symptomatic treatment and reassurance.

  4. Structure-function correlations using scanning laser polarimetry in primary angle-closure glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Jung; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling; Wojciechowski, Robert; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2010-05-01

    To assess the correlations between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured with scanning laser polarimetry and visual field (VF) sensitivity in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Prospective, comparative, observational cases series. Fifty patients with POAG and 56 patients with PACG were examined using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC; Laser Diagnostic Technologies, Inc.) and Humphrey VF analyzer (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc.) between August 2005 and July 2006 at Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Correlations between RNFL thickness and VF sensitivity, expressed as mean sensitivity in both decibel and 1/Lambert scales, were estimated by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (r(s)) and multivariate median regression models (pseudo R(2)). The correlations were determined globally and for 6 RNFL sectors and their corresponding VF regions. The correlation between RNFL thickness and mean sensitivity (in decibels) was weaker in the PACG group (r(s) = 0.38; P = .004; pseudo R(2) = 0.17) than in the POAG group (r(s) = 0.51; P polarimetry. Compared with eyes with POAG, fewer RNFL sectors have significant structure-function correlations in eyes with PACG. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Large Disparities in Receipt of Glaucoma Care between Enrollees in Medicaid and Those with Commercial Health Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Angela R; Andrews, Chris; Musch, David C; Lee, Paul P; Stein, Joshua D

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether the type of health insurance a patient possesses and a patient's race/ethnicity affect receipt of common tests to monitor open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Retrospective longitudinal cohort study. A total of 21 766 persons aged ≥40 years with newly diagnosed OAG between 2007 and 2011 enrolled in Medicaid or a large United States managed care network. We determined the proportion of patients with newly diagnosed OAG who underwent visual field (VF) testing, fundus photography (FP), other ocular imaging (OOI), or none of these tests within the first 15 months after initial OAG diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the extent by which health insurance type and race/ethnicity affected the odds of undergoing glaucoma testing. Odds ratios (OR) of undergoing VF testing, FP, OOI, or none of these tests in the 15 months after initial OAG diagnosis with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 18 372 persons with commercial health insurance and 3394 Medicaid recipients met the study inclusion criteria. The proportions of persons with commercial health insurance with newly diagnosed OAG who underwent VF, FP, and OOI were 63%, 22%, and 54%, respectively, whereas the proportions were 35%, 19%, and 30%, respectively, for Medicaid recipients. Compared with those with commercial health insurance, Medicaid recipients were 234% more likely to not receive any glaucoma testing in the 15 months after initial diagnosis (OR = 3.34; 95% CI, 3.07-3.63). After adjustment for confounders, whites with OAG enrolled in Medicaid had 198% higher odds of receiving no glaucoma testing compared with whites possessing commercial health insurance (OR = 2.98; 95% CI, 2.66-3.33). Blacks with Medicaid insurance demonstrated 291% higher odds (OR = 3.91; 95% CI, 3.40-4.49) of not receiving any glaucoma testing compared with blacks with commercial health insurance. Irrespective of race/ethnicity, Medicaid recipients with OAG are receiving substantially less

  6. The Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisbourd, Michael; Pruzan, Noelle L.; Johnson, Deiana; Ugorets, Angela; Crews, John E.; Saaddine, Jinan B.; Henderer, Jeffery D.; Hark, Lisa A.; Katz, L. Jay

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the detection rates of glaucoma-related diagnoses and the initial treatments received in the Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project, a community-based initiative aimed at improving the detection, treatment, and follow-up care of individuals at risk for glaucoma. Design Retrospective analysis. Participants A total of 1649 individuals at risk for glaucoma who were examined and treated in 43 community centers located in underserved communities of Philadelphia. Methods Individuals were enrolled if they were African American aged ≥50 years, were any other adult aged ≥60 years, or had a family history of glaucoma. After attending an informational glaucoma workshop, participants underwent a targeted glaucoma examination including an ocular, medical, and family history; visual acuity testing, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, and corneal pachymetry; slit-lamp and optic nerve examination; automated visual field testing; and fundus color photography. If indicated, treatments included selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT), laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI), or IOP-lowering medications. Follow-up examinations were scheduled at the community sites after 4 to 6 weeks or 4 to 6 months, depending on the clinical scenario. Main Outcome Measures Detection rates of glaucoma-related diagnoses and types of treatments administered. Results Of the 1649 individuals enrolled, 645 (39.1%) received a glaucoma-related diagnosis; 20.0% (n = 330) were identified as open-angle glaucoma (OAG) suspects, 9.2% (n = 151) were identified as having narrow angles (or as a primary angle closure/suspect), and 10.0% (n = 164) were diagnosed with glaucoma, including 9.0% (n = 148) with OAG and 1.0% (n = 16) with angle-closure glaucoma. Overall, 39.0% (n = 64 of 164) of those diagnosed with glaucoma were unaware of their diagnosis. A total of 196 patients (11.9%) received glaucoma-related treatment, including 84 (5.1%) who underwent LPI, 13 (0.8%) who underwent SLT

  7. Cross-Examination for Angle-Closure Glaucoma Feature Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwas, Swamidoss Issac; Lin, Weisi; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Kuo, C-C Jay; Sng, Chelvin C; Aquino, Maria Cecilia; Chew, Paul T K

    2016-01-01

    Effective feature selection plays a vital role in anterior segment imaging for determining the mechanism involved in angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) diagnosis. This research focuses on the use of redundant features for complex disease diagnosis such as ACG using anterior segment optical coherence tomography images. Both supervised [minimum redundancy maximum relevance (MRMR)] and unsupervised [Laplacian score (L-score)] feature selection algorithms have been cross-examined with different ACG mechanisms. An AdaBoost machine learning classifier is then used for classifying the five various classes of ACG mechanism such as iris roll, lens, pupil block, plateau iris, and no mechanism using both feature selection methods. The overall accuracy has shown that the usefulness of redundant features by L-score method in improved ACG diagnosis compared to minimum redundant features by MRMR method.

  8. Primary open-angle glaucoma: everyone’s business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Faal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is sometimes called the ‘thief of sight’. There is no pain or discomfort, and vision loss is so gradual that people often do not notice it.POAG cannot be cured: it requires ongoing treatment for the remainder of a patient’s life. Blindness from POAG also cannot be reversed, but it can be prevented if the disease is diagnosed early and treated. Effectively addressing POAG therefore requires the careful involvement of many different people, including health workers, the patient, non-clinical staff, and health planners.As eye care practitioners, we must do more than merely diagnose and treat people with POAG; we must gain the trust of patients and show them that we are there to help.

  9. The RAND Consensus Study for Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo E.C. Dantas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To report the results of a Latin American (LA) consensus panel regarding the diagnosis and management of primary open angle glaucoma, and to compare these results with those from a similar panel in the United States (US). Design: A RAND-like appropriateness methodology was used to assess glaucoma practice in LA. Methods: The 148 polling statements created for the RAND- like analysis in the US and 10 additional statements specific to glaucoma care in LA were presented to a pa...

  10. Structure-Function Correlations using Scanning Laser Polarimetry in Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Jung; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling.; Wojciechowski, Robert; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To assess the correlations between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured with scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) and visual field (VF) sensitivity in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Design Prospective, comparative, observational cases series Methods Fifty patients with POAG and 56 with PACG were examined using SLP with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC) and Humphrey VF analyzer between August 2005 and July 2006 at Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Correlations between RNFL thickness and VF sensitivity, expressed as mean sensitivity (MS) in both decibel (dB) and 1/Lambert (L) scales, were estimated by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs) and multivariate median regression models (pseudo R2). The correlations were determined globally and for six RNFL sectors and their corresponding VF regions. Results The correlation between RNFL thickness and MS (in dB) was weaker in the PACG group (rs = 0.38, P = 0.004, pseudo R2 = 0.17) than in the POAG group (rs = 0.51, P <0.001, pseudo R2 = 0.31), but the difference in the magnitude of correlation was not significant (P = 0.42).With Bonferroni correction, the structure-function correlation was significant in the superotemporal (rs = 0.62), superonasal (rs = 0.56), inferonasal (rs = 0.53), and inferotemporal (rs = 0.50) sectors in the POAG group (all P <0.001), while it was significant only in the superotemporal (rs = 0.53) and inferotemporal (rs = 0.48) sectors in the PACG group (both P <0.001). The results were similar when MS was expressed as 1/L scale. Conclusions Both POAG and PACG eyes had moderate structure-function correlations using SLP. Compared to eyes with POAG, fewer RNFL sectors have significant structure-function correlations in eyes with PACG. PMID:20202618

  11. Efficacy of goniosynechialysis for advanced chronic angle-closure glaucoma

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    Qing G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Guoping Qing,1,2 Ningli Wang,1 Dapeng Mu11Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Key Lab, Beijing, China; 2State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, ChinaPurpose: To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering efficacy of goniosynechialysis (GSL for advanced chronic angle-closure glaucoma (CACG using a simplified slit-lamp technique.Patients and methods: Patients with CACG with one severely affected eye with best-corrected visual acuity below 20/200 and a mildly or functionally unaffected fellow eye were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent ophthalmologic examinations including measurement of visual acuity, best-corrected visual acuity, and IOP; biomicroscopy; specular microscopy; fundus examination; and gonioscopy followed by anterior chamber paracentesis and GSL for nasal peripheral anterior synechiae in the eye with severe CACG.Results: Thirty patients (18 men, 12 women were identified as having CACG with an initial mean IOP of 47.1 ± 6.7 mmHg (range 39–61 mmHg in the severely affected eye. One week after GSL, the mean IOP of the treated eyes decreased to 19.3 ± 2.8 mmHg (range 14–26 mmHg without antiglaucoma medication (average decrease 27.7 ± 6.5 mmHg; range 16–41 mmHg, which was significant (P < 0.00001 compared with baseline. After an average follow-up period of 36.6 ± 1.0 months (range 35–38 months, the mean IOP stabilized at 17.4 ± 2.2 mmHg (range 12–21 mmHg. The nasal angle recess did not close again in any one of the patients during the follow-up period. The average significant (P < 0.00001 decrease in corneal endothelial cell density in the treated eyes was 260 ± 183 cells/mm2 (range 191–328 cells/mm2.Conclusions: Anterior chamber paracentesis and GSL lowers IOP in advanced CACG, though it may lead to mild corneal endothelial cell loss

  12. Common Genetic Determinants of Intraocular Pressure and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koolwijk, Leonieke M. E.; Ramdas, Wishal D.; Ikram, M. Kamran; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Pasutto, Francesca; Hysi, Pirro G.; Macgregor, Stuart; Janssen, Sarah F.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Amin, Najaf; Despriet, Dominiek D. G.; Willemse-Assink, Jacqueline J. M.; Kramer, Rogier; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Struchalin, Maksim; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Weisschuh, Nicole; Zenkel, Matthias; Mardin, Christian Y.; Gramer, Eugen; Welge-Luessen, Ulrich; Montgomery, Grant W.; Carbonaro, Francis; Young, Terri L.; Bellenguez, Celine; McGuffin, Peter; Foster, Paul J.; Topouzis, Fotis; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Y.; Czudowska, Monika A.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Oostra, Ben A.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Mackey, David A.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.; Reis, Andre; Hammond, Christopher J.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Lemij, Hans G.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    2012-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a highly heritable risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma and is the only target for current glaucoma therapy. The genetic factors which determine IOP are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study for IOP in 11,972 participants from 4

  13. Open angle glaucoma as a manifestation of Waardenburg′s syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Viney

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Waardenburg′s syndrome is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder, with several clinical signs, each with variable penetrance. We report this case of Waardenburg′s syndrome with bilateral open-angle glaucoma with unique gonioscopic findings.

  14. What’s new in glaucoma treatment?

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    Richard Wormald

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma treatment: the state of the evidenceInterventions for the treatment of different forms of glaucoma have been tried and tested for many years. The idea that lowering the pressure might be helpful was first proposed more than a hundred years ago. By the 1950s, it was established that raised intraocular pressure (IOP was glaucoma, and vice versa. However, in the mid 1960s, Fred Hollows and Peter Graham demolished that simple concept by revealing that there were many people in the population with raised IOP but no glaucoma, and people with glaucoma without raised IOP.1 Nevertheless, IOP remains an important risk factor (and the only one we can modify for a group of conditions characterised by a progressive atrophy of the optic nerve associated with typical structural and functional abnormalities.Only quite recently has robust evidence emerged regarding the effectiveness of treatment for open-angle glaucoma (OAG. There is still uncertainty about the best way to manage chronic angle closure. This discussion focuses only on the primary glaucomas in adults, open-angle and acute, and chronic angle closure.

  15. Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Glaucoma Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Glaucoma Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Glaucoma NEI ...

  16. Long-term Safety and Efficacy of Latanoprostene Bunod 0.024% in Japanese Subjects with Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension: The JUPITER Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Kazuhide; Vittitow, Jason L; Weinreb, Robert N; Araie, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    Latanoprostene bunod (LBN) is a novel nitric oxide (NO)-donating prostaglandin F2α analog. We evaluated the long-term safety and intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy of LBN ophthalmic solution 0.024% over 1 year in Japanese subjects with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT). This was a single-arm, multicenter, open-label, clinical study. Subjects aged 20 years and older with a diagnosis of OAG or OHT instilled 1 drop of LBN ophthalmic solution 0.024% in the affected eye(s) once daily in the evening for 52 weeks and were evaluated every 4 weeks. Safety assessments included vital signs, comprehensive ophthalmic exams, and treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs). Absolute and percent reductions from baseline in IOP were also determined. Of 130 subjects enrolled, 121 (93.1%) completed the study. Mean age was 62.5 years, and mean (standard deviation) baseline IOP was 19.6 (2.9) and 18.7 (2.6) mmHg in study eyes and treated fellow eyes, respectively. Overall, 76/130 (58.5%) and 78/126 (61.9%) subjects experienced ≥1 AEs in study eyes and treated fellow eyes, respectively. In both study eyes and treated fellow eyes, the most common AEs were conjunctival hyperemia, growth of eyelashes, eye irritation, and eye pain. At 52 weeks, 9% of treated eyes had an increase in iris pigmentation compared with baseline based on iris photographs. No safety concerns emerged based on vital signs or other ocular assessments. Mean reductions from baseline in IOP of 22.0% and 19.5% were achieved by week 4 in study and treated fellow eyes, respectively. These reductions were maintained through week 52 (P < 0.001 vs. baseline at all visits). Once daily LBN ophthalmic solution 0.024% was safe and well-tolerated in Japanese subjects with OAG or OHT when used for up to 1 year. Long-term treatment with LBN ophthalmic solution 0.024% provided significant and sustained IOP reduction. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01895972. Bausch & Lomb, Inc. a division of

  17. Anti-neurotrophic effects from autoantibodies in adult diabetes having primary open angle glaucoma or dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B Zimering

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To test for anti-endothelial and anti-neurotrophic effects from autoantibodies in subsets of diabetes having open- angle glaucoma, dementia or control subjects.Methods: Protein-A eluates from plasma of 20 diabetic subjects having glaucoma or suspects and 34 age-matched controls were tested for effects on neurite outgrowth in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells or endothelial cell survival. The mechanism of the diabetic glaucoma autoantibodies' neurite inhibitory effect was investigated in coincubations with the selective Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 or the sulfated proteoglycan synthesis inhibitor sodium chlorate. Stored protein-A eluates from certain diabetic glaucoma or dementia subjects which contained long-lasting, highly stable cell inhibitory substances were characterized using mass spectrometry and amino acid sequencing.Results: Diabetic primary open angle glaucoma or suspects (n=20 or diabetic dementia (n=3 autoantibodies caused significantly greater mean inhibition of neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells (p < .0001 compared to autoantibodies in control diabetic (n=24 or nondiabetic (n=10 subjects without glaucoma (p < .01. Neurite inhibition by the diabetic glaucoma autoantibodies was completely abolished by 10 µM concentrations of Y27632 (n=4. It was substantially reduced by 30 mM concentrations of sodium chlorate (n=4. Peak, long-lasting activity survived storage x 5 years at 0-4 deg C and was associated with a restricted subtype of Ig kappa light chain. Diabetic glaucoma or dementia autoantibodies (n=5 caused contraction and process retraction in quiescent cerebral cortical astrocytes effects which were blocked by 5 µM concentrations of Y27632. Conclusion: These data suggest that autoantibodies in adult diabetes having primary open angle glaucoma (glaucoma suspects and/or dementia inhibit neurite outgrowth and promote a reactive astrocyte morphology by a mechanism which may involve activation of the RhoA/p160 ROCK signaling pathway.

  18. Minimally-invasive glaucoma surgeries (MIGS) for open angle glaucoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavia, Carlo; Dallorto, Laura; Maule, Milena; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Fea, Antonio Maria

    2017-01-01

    MIGS have been developed as a surgical alternative for glaucomatous patients. To analyze the change in intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma medications using different MIGS devices (Trabectome, iStent, Excimer Laser Trabeculotomy (ELT), iStent Supra, CyPass, XEN, Hydrus, Fugo Blade, Ab interno canaloplasty, Goniscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy) as a solo procedure or in association with phacoemulsification. Randomized control trials (RCT) and non-RCT (non randomized comparative studies, NRS, and before-after studies) were included. Studies with at least one year of follow-up in patients affected by primary open angle glaucoma, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma or pigmentary glaucoma were considered. Risk of Bias assessment was performed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias and the ROBINS-I tools. The main outcome was the effect of MIGS devices compared to medical therapy, cataract surgery, other glaucoma surgeries and other MIGS on both IOP and use of glaucoma medications 12 months after surgery. Outcomes measures were the mean difference in the change of IOP and glaucoma medication compared to baseline at one and two years and all ocular adverse events. The current meta-analysis is registered on PROSPERO (reference n° CRD42016037280). Over a total of 3,069 studies, nine RCT and 21 case series with a total of 2.928 eyes were included. Main concerns about risk of bias in RCTs were lack of blinding, allocation concealment and attrition bias while in non-RCTs they were represented by patients' selection, masking of participants and co-intervention management. Limited evidence was found based on both RCTs and non RCTs that compared MIGS surgery with medical therapy or other MIGS. In before-after series, MIGS surgery seemed effective in lowering both IOP and glaucoma drug use. MIGS showed a good safety profile: IOP spikes were the most frequent complications and no cases of infection or BCVA loss due to glaucoma were reported. Although MIGS seem efficient in the

  19. Outcomes of trabeculectomy in juvenile open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daizy Pathania

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was aimed at reporting the outcomes of trabeculectomy in primary juvenile open angle glaucoma (JOAG. Design: This study was a retrospective noncomparative case series. Materials and Methods: We included 60 eyes of 41 JOAG patients who underwent primary trabeculectomy without mitomycin-C (MMC between 1995 and 2007. The primary outcome was success, defined as complete, if intraocular pressure (IOP was >5 and ≤21 mmHg without medications or qualified if IOP was >5 and ≤21 mmHg with or without antiglaucoma medications. Secondary outcome measures were mean and percentage IOP reduction, complications, and risk factors for the failure of trabeculectomy. Results: The mean (±standard deviation age at presentation was 24.1 ± 6.8 years (range, 12-35. Mean follow-up was 67 ± 41 months (range, 12-156. At 1 year, the probability of complete success was 92% (n = 56, 95% CI: 81-96%, at 3 years it was 89% (n = 47, 95% CI: 78-95%, and at the end of 5 years, it was 80% (n = 34, 95% CI: 65-89%. The probability of qualified success was 100% (n = 60 at 1 year, 98% (n = 51, 95% CI: 87-100% at 3 years, and 96% (n = 36, 95% CI: 84-99% at the end of 5 years. The mean IOP reduced from 35 ± 10 to 13 ± 2.5 mmHg (P < 0.001 after trabeculectomy. There was no serious postoperative complication. Young age was the only significant risk factor associated with the failure (odds ratio = 0.89, P = 0.03. Conclusion: Primary trabeculectomy without MMC has good success rates in JOAG.

  20. Genética del glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto Genetics of the primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunia H Labrada Rodríguez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisan los aspectos relacionados con la influencia genética en el desarrollo del glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto. El patrón exacto de herencia en el glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto no está establecido y es probablemente debido a la presencia de varios tipos de herencia los cuales son modificados por otros factores genéticos y ambientales. No está claro en qué momento se debe solo a la herencia o cuando esta se encuentra asociada a otros factoresThose aspects related to the genetic influence on the development of primary open-angle glaucoma are reviewed. The exact pattern of inheritance in primary open-angle glaucoma is not established yet and it is probably due to the presence of various types of inheritance, which are modified by other genetic and environmental factors. It is not clear when it is only a result of inheritance or when it is associated with other factors

  1. Anterior Chamber Angle Shape Analysis and Classification of Glaucoma in SS-OCT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soe Ni Ni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography is a high resolution, rapid, and noninvasive diagnostic tool for angle closure glaucoma. In this paper, we present a new strategy for the classification of the angle closure glaucoma using morphological shape analysis of the iridocorneal angle. The angle structure configuration is quantified by the following six features: (1 mean of the continuous measurement of the angle opening distance; (2 area of the trapezoidal profile of the iridocorneal angle centered at Schwalbe's line; (3 mean of the iris curvature from the extracted iris image; (4 complex shape descriptor, fractal dimension, to quantify the complexity, or changes of iridocorneal angle; (5 ellipticity moment shape descriptor; and (6 triangularity moment shape descriptor. Then, the fuzzy k nearest neighbor (fkNN classifier is utilized for classification of angle closure glaucoma. Two hundred and sixty-four swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT images from 148 patients were analyzed in this study. From the experimental results, the fkNN reveals the best classification accuracy (99.11±0.76% and AUC (0.98±0.012 with the combination of fractal dimension and biometric parameters. It showed that the proposed approach has promising potential to become a computer aided diagnostic tool for angle closure glaucoma (ACG disease.

  2. Progressive Macula Vessel Density Loss in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Takuhei; Zangwill, Linda M; Akagi, Tadamichi; Saunders, Luke J; Yarmohammadi, Adeleh; Manalastas, Patricia Isabel C; Penteado, Rafaella C; Weinreb, Robert N

    2017-10-01

    To characterize the rate of macula vessel density loss in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), glaucoma-suspect, and healthy eyes. Longitudinal, observational cohort from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. One hundred eyes (32 POAG, 30 glaucoma-suspect, and 38 healthy) followed for at least 1 year with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) imaging on at least 2 visits were included. Vessel density was calculated in the macula superficial layer. The rate of change was compared across diagnostic groups using a multivariate linear mixed-effects model. Baseline macula vessel density was highest in healthy eyes, followed by glaucoma-suspect and POAG eyes (P macula whole en face vessel density was significantly faster in glaucoma eyes (-2.23%/y) than in glaucoma-suspect (0.87%/y, P = .001) or healthy eyes (0.29%/y, P = .004). Conversely, the rate of change in ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness was not significantly different from zero in any diagnostic group, and no significant differences in the rate of GCC change among diagnostic groups were found. With a mean follow-up of less than 14 months, eyes with POAG had significantly faster loss of macula vessel density than either glaucoma-suspect or healthy eyes. Serial OCT-A measurements also detected glaucomatous change in macula vessel density in eyes without evidence of change in GCC thickness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Short-term effect of latanoprost and timolol eye drops on tear fluid and the ocular surface in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, John; Aaen, Kim; Theodorsen, F.

    2000-01-01

    ophthalmology, open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, glaucoma therapy, latanoprost, timolol, Rose-Bengal test, break-up time, Schirmer-1-test, conjunctival impression cytology......ophthalmology, open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, glaucoma therapy, latanoprost, timolol, Rose-Bengal test, break-up time, Schirmer-1-test, conjunctival impression cytology...

  4. Five-year extension of a clinical trial comparing the EX-PRESS glaucoma filtration device and trabeculectomy in primary open-angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Leo; Lafuma, Antoine; Aguadé, Anne-Sophie; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of the EX-PRESS(®) glaucoma filtration device and trabeculectomy in primary open-angle glaucoma up to five years after surgery. Patients from a previously reported randomized, open-label, parallel-arm clinical trial in which 78 patients received either the EX-PRESS

  5. The analysis of clinical effect of phacoemulsification on primary angle-closure glaucoma with cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the clinical outcomes and affected factors of prognosis of cataract extraction by phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation in eyes with primary angle-closure glaucoma(PACGand co-existing cataract.METHODS: Totally 60 cases(70 eyesof PACG with cataract, including 43 eyes with acute primary angle-closure glaucoma(APACG, 27 eyes of chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma(CPACG. The main outcome measures included: visual acuity, intraocular pressure, gonioscopy, depth of anterior chamber(ACD. Patients were examined 6 months after surgery.RESULTS: After phacoemulsification, visual acuity was improved(PPPPCONCLUSION:Phacoemulsification is more effective for acute APACG than for CPACG.

  6. Current Concepts in the Diagnosis of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESULTS: The Preferred Practice Pattern Committee of the American Academy of Ophthalmology recommends that the comprehensive initial glaucoma evaluation (history and physical examination) includes comprehensive adult eye evaluation with special attention to those factors that specifically bear on the diagnosis ...

  7. The role of ethnicity in primary angle-closure glaucoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-09-09

    Sep 9, 1994 ... 40. 20. 0. Primary. Glaucoma. Cape was governed by the Dutch East India Company.'4. Their ancestors were mainly south-east Asians (from. Indonesia and Malaysia) and indigenous Africans (Khoi-Khoi and San), and to a lesser extent east Africans (from. Madagascar and Mozambique), west Africans and.

  8. Molecular complexity of primary open angle glaucoma: current ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-12-31

    Dec 31, 2009 ... estradiol treatment. Any mutation in CYP1B1 that affects its estrogen metabolism activity could upregulate myocilin ex- pression by prolonging the presence of estrogen in the cells. Wit the help of ..... Also, subjects with ocular hypertension do not ... an epiphenomenon of glaucoma, but a global vascular dys-.

  9. Molecular complexity of primary open angle glaucoma: current ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Current concepts of glaucoma pathogenesis suggest it to be a neurodegenerative disorder which is triggered by different factors including mechanical stress due to intra-ocular pressure, reduced blood flow to retina, reperfusion injury, oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, and aberrant immune response. Here we ...

  10. RAND-like appropriateness methodology consensus for primary open-angle glaucoma in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, S Fabian; Singh, Kuldev; Susanna, Remo; Wilson, M Roy; Lee, Brian L; Maul, Eugenio

    2012-09-01

    To report the results of a Latin American consensus panel regarding the diagnosis and management of primary open-angle glaucoma and to compare these results with those from a similar panel in the United States. A RAND-like (Research and Development) appropriateness methodology was used to assess glaucoma practice in Latin America. The 148 polling statements created for the RAND- like analysis in the United States and 10 additional statements specific to glaucoma care in Latin America were presented to a panel of Latin American glaucoma experts. Panelists were polled in private using the RAND- like methodology before and after the panel meeting. Consensus agreement or disagreement among Latin American experts was reached for 51.3% of statements before the meeting and increased to 66.5% in the private, anonymous meeting after polling (79.0% agreement, 21.0% disagreement). Although there was a high degree of concordance (111 of 148 statements; 75%) between the results of this Latin American panel and the United States panel, there were some notable exceptions relating to diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. This RAND-like consensus methodology provides a perspective of how Latin American glaucoma practitioners view many aspects of glaucoma and compares these results with those obtained using a similar methodology from practitioners in the United States. These findings may be helpful to ophthalmologists providing glaucoma care in Latin America and in other regions of the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Phacoemulsification treatment of subjects with acute primary angle closure and chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Ye-Hong; Wang, Mei; Li, Ying; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Lin, Min-Kai; Fang, Min; Ge, Jian

    2009-12-01

    To investigate and compare the effects of phacoemulsification as an initial procedure to control intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes with acute primary angle closure (APAC) and chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma (CPACG) with coexisting cataracts and peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) of greater than 180 degrees. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Thirteen patients (13 eyes) with APAC and 10 patients (10 eyes) with CPACG were enrolled in the study. IOP control in the 2 groups was compared at final follow-up. Other outcome measures included visual acuity, anterior chamber depth, gonioscopic appearance, and complications. The postoperative IOP was reduced in both the APAC and CPACG groups. As assessed at last follow-up (median 6 mo), IOP in the APAC group was significantly lower than that in the CPACG group. The absolute success rate was 100% in the APAC group and 80% in the CPACG group. The number of hypotensive medications decreased in both APAC and CPACG group. The postoperative degree of PAS was relieved in 11 of 12 eyes with APAC and 5 of 9 eyes with CPACG. Initial phacoemulsification performed to provide short-term control of IOP is more efficacious in patients with APAC than in those with CPACG, especially when PAS is greater than 180 degrees.

  12. MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and homocysteine levels in primary open angle and primary closed angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micheal, S.; Qamar, R.; Akhtar, F.; Khan, M.I.; Khan, W.A.; Ahmed, A.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C genotypes and plasma concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) in Pakistani patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary closed angle glaucoma (PCAG). METHODS: This was a prospective

  13. High myopia as a risk factor in primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ju Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma, one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness in the adult population worldwide, is a progressive optic neuropathy. Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG is the most commonly reported type of glaucoma in population based prevalence studies worldwide. Elevated intraocular pressure is a well-known major risk factor for POAG. In addition, there is growing evidence that other risk factors like age, gender, race, refractive error, heredity and systemic factors may play a role in glaucoma pathogenesis. Many studies found that high myopia has been associated with POAG, however, direct and convincing evidences are still lacking. The aim of this review is to summarize the evidences implicating high myopia as a risk factor in the pathogenesis of POAG.

  14. Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaucoma is a group of diseases that can damage the eye's optic nerve. It is a leading ... no symptoms at first. Without treatment, people with glaucoma will slowly lose their peripheral, or side vision. ...

  15. [New directions in the hypotensive therapy of open-angle glaucoma (experimental and clinical research)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunin, A Ia; Ermakov, V N; Filina, A A

    1993-01-01

    Clinical use of eye drops of a hybrid beta-alpha-adrenoblocker OF-4680 to reduce intraocular pressure has shown a high efficacy of the drug, not inferior to thymolol, for local hypotensive therapy of open-angle glaucoma. A combination of thymolol with taurin helped reduce the inhibiting effect of the beta-blocker on chamber humor secretion and simultaneously enhanced its discharge. The results evidence the desirability of correcting glutathion deficiency, detected in the patients with narrow-angle glaucoma, by lipoic acid.

  16. Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Glaucoma NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia ... of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Glaucoma Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Glaucoma ...

  17. Plateau iris in Japanese patients with primary angle closure and primary angle closure glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Takanori; Ozaki, Mineo; Wakiyama, Harumi; Ogino, Nobuchika

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of plateau iris in Japanese patients with primary angle closure (PAC) and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and analyze the biometric parameters in patients with plateau iris using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). In this cross-sectional observational study, subjects aged >50 years with PAC and PACG who had previously undergone a patent laser peripheral iridotomy underwent UBM in one eye. UBM images were qualitatively analyzed using standardized criteria. Plateau iris in a quadrant was defined by anteriorly directed ciliary body, absent ciliary sulcus, steep iris root from its point of insertion followed by a downward angulation, flat iris plane, and irido-angle contact. At least two quadrants had to fulfill these UBM criteria for an eye to be classified as having plateau iris. A-scan biometry was used to measure anterior segment parameters. Ninety-one subjects with PAC (58 subjects) or PACG (33 subjects) and 68 normal controls were recruited. The mean (standard deviation) ages of PAC and PACG patients and normal controls were 73.5 (6.2) and 72.6 (7.3), respectively. Based on UBM criteria, plateau iris was found in 16 eyes (17.6%) of 91 eyes. In these 16 eyes, quadrant-wise analysis showed ten eyes (62.5%) had plateau iris in two quadrants; four eyes (25%) had plateau iris in three quadrants; and two eyes (12.5%) had plateau iris in four quadrants. Anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, axial length, lens position, and relative lens position were not statistically significant between the group having plateau iris and that not having plateau iris, respectively. Approximately 20% of Japanese subjects with PAC and PACG with a patent laser peripheral iridotomy were found to have plateau iris on UBM. No morphological difference was noted in the anterior segment of the eye between those with or without plateau iris.

  18. Levels of aqueous humor trace elements in patients with open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohberger, Bettina; Chaudhri, M Anwar; Michalke, Bernhard; Lucio, Marianna; Nowomiejska, Katarzyna; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Grieb, Pawel; Rejdak, Robert; Jünemann, Anselm G M

    2018-01-01

    Trace elements might play a role in the complex multifactorial pathogenesis of open-angle glaucoma. The aim of this study was to analyze concentrations of trace elements in aqueous humor samples of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG). Thirty-three aqueous humor samples were obtained from patients undergoing cataract surgery: 12 patients with POAG (age 65.3±10.50, female 8, male 4), 10 patients with PEXG (age 65.9±11.27, female 6, male 4) and 11 patients without glaucoma (age 69.5±13.70, female 7, male 4) serving as controls. Aqueous humor levels of cadmium, iron, manganese, cobalt, copper and zinc were measured by Flow-Injection-Inductively-Coupled-Plasma-Mass-Spectrometry (FI-ICP-MS). From the statistical evaluation, we observed that patients with POAG had significantly higher aqueous humor levels of zinc (p=0.006) compared to controls. Increased aqueous humor levels of zinc were also observed in patients with PEXG in relation to control (p=0.0006). For iron we observed a significantly reduction in PEXG compared to control (p=0.002) and a significant difference between POAG and PEXG (p=0.0091). No significant differences were observed in aqueous humor levels of manganese, cobalt, copper, cadmium between glaucoma and control patients. No differences were seen for iron (POAG vs. controls). Analysis of trace element ratios was added. Significant differences in aqueous humor levels of zinc and iron between glaucoma and control patients support the hypothesis that these trace elements are involved in the pathogenesis of open-angle glaucoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Angle closure glaucoma in the Northern Ireland Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagan, M A; O'Gallagher, M K; Johnston, S E; Hart, P M

    2016-08-01

    PurposeTo ascertain the risk of angle closure glaucoma associated with mydriasis in the Northern Ireland Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Programme.MethodsA retrospective case note review was carried out, cross referencing hospital records with those of the screening programme, to identify episodes of angle closure glaucoma, which occurred within 14 days of a retinopathy screening episode involving pharmacological mydriasis.ResultsThree cases of angle closure following mydriasis for screening were identified. The incidence of angle closure within the screening programme was calculated to be 1 in 31 755 patients dilated or 0.75 patients per year.ConclusionAngle closure is a rare complication of mydriasis used in photographic screening for diabetic retinopathy. We advocate the provision of clear instructions to patients in screening programmes on when and how to access emergency ophthalmic care following dilation to prevent loss of vision in this rare event.

  20. Drug-Induced Ocular Hypertension and Angle-Closure Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhu, Badri P; Bhattarai, Balkrishna; Sangraula, Himal P

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review the available literature on the drugs causing ocular hypertension and glaucoma. Electronic literature search was carried out using the Web sites www.pubmed.gov and www.google.com published through the year 2011. The search words were "drug induced ocular hypertension" and "drug induced glaucoma" used in combination. The articles published or translated into English were studied. Quite a significant number of drugs commonly prescribed by various physicians of different specialties can induce ocular hypertension or glaucoma. A brief account of various drugs that can induce ocular hypertension has been given in this article. Those drugs are parasympatholytics; steroids; anticholinergics, adrenergics, and antidepressants; cholinomimetics; antineoplastic agents; antipsychotic and antiparkinsonism agents; H1 and H2 receptor blockers; botulinum toxin, cardiac agents, and anticoagulants; silicone oil; sulfa drugs; and anesthetic agents. Rational use of these drugs and knowledge of their potential adverse effects can help prevent the devastating complications resulting in loss of vision and compromised quality of life.

  1. Differences in ocular blood flow in glaucoma between patients of African and European descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siesky, Brent; Harris, Alon; Racette, Lyne; Abassi, Rania; Chandrasekhar, Kaarthik; Tobe, Leslie A; Behzadi, Jennifer; Eckert, George; Amireskandari, Annahita; Muchnik, Michael

    2015-02-01

    To investigate differences in ocular blood flow in individuals of African descent (AD) and European descent (ED) with open angle glaucoma (OAG). A retrospective data analysis was performed on OAG patients of AD and ED who were previously examined for ocular blood flow within the Department of Ophthalmology at Indiana University School of Medicine. Data analysis included blood pressure, heart rate, visual fields, intraocular pressure, ocular perfusion pressure, and color Doppler imaging of retrobulbar vessels. Color Doppler imaging measurements were performed on ophthalmic, central retinal, and nasal and temporal short posterior ciliary arteries, with peak systolic (PSV) and end diastolic velocities (EDV) as well as the Pourcelot vascular resistive index calculated for each vessel. Two-sample t tests of unequal variance were performed with P values <0.05 considered statistically significant. OAG patients of AD had statistically significant lower retrobulbar blood flow values than patients of ED including lower ophthalmic artery PSV (P=0.0001), ophthalmic artery EDV (P=0.0008), central retinal artery PSV (P=0.01), temporal short posterior ciliary artery PSV (P=0.0037), and nasal short posterior ciliary artery PSV (P<0.0001). No significant differences were found in terms of intraocular pressure or visual field parameters. Significantly lower blood flow values were identified in all retrobulbar blood vessels in AD compared with ED OAG patients. These findings suggest that the contribution of ocular blood flow to the disease process may be different in AD compared with ED OAG patients.

  2. Plateau iris in Japanese patients with primary angle closure and primary angle closure glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizoguchi T

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Takanori Mizoguchi,1 Mineo Ozaki,2,3 Harumi Wakiyama,1,4 Nobuchika Ogino1,51Mizoguchi Eye Clinic, Nagasaki, Japan; 2Ozaki Eye Clinic Miyazaki, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan; 4The Japanese Red Cross Nagasaki Genbaku Hospital, Nagasaki, Japan; 5Nishigaki Eye Clinic, Nagoya, JapanPurpose: To determine the prevalence of plateau iris in Japanese patients with primary angle closure (PAC and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG and analyze the biometric parameters in patients with plateau iris using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM.Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, subjects aged >50 years with PAC and PACG who had previously undergone a patent laser peripheral iridotomy underwent UBM in one eye. UBM images were qualitatively analyzed using standardized criteria. Plateau iris in a quadrant was defined by anteriorly directed ciliary body, absent ciliary sulcus, steep iris root from its point of insertion followed by a downward angulation, flat iris plane, and irido-angle contact. At least two quadrants had to fulfill these UBM criteria for an eye to be classified as having plateau iris. A-scan biometry was used to measure anterior segment parameters.Results: Ninety-one subjects with PAC (58 subjects or PACG (33 subjects and 68 normal controls were recruited. The mean (standard deviation ages of PAC and PACG patients and normal controls were 73.5 (6.2 and 72.6 (7.3, respectively. Based on UBM criteria, plateau iris was found in 16 eyes (17.6% of 91 eyes. In these 16 eyes, quadrant-wise analysis showed ten eyes (62.5% had plateau iris in two quadrants; four eyes (25% had plateau iris in three quadrants; and two eyes (12.5% had plateau iris in four quadrants. Anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, axial length, lens position, and relative lens position were not statistically significant between the group having plateau iris and that not having plateau iris

  3. Is open-angle glaucoma associated with early menopause? The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsman, C. A.; Westendorp, I. C.; Ramrattan, R. S.; Wolfs, R. C.; Witteman, J. C.; Vingerling, J. R.; Hofman, A.; de Jong, P. T.

    2001-01-01

    The authors examined the association between age at menopause and open-angle glaucoma among women aged > or = 55 years in the population-based Rotterdam Study (1990--1993). Information on age and type of menopause was obtained by interview. Subjects (n = 3,078) were stratified into three categories

  4. Ocular Biometry in Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma Associated with Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP comprises a group of inherited disorders in which patients typically lose night vision in adolescence and then lose peripheral vision in young adulthood before eventually losing central vision later in life. A retrospective case-control study was performed to evaluate differences in ocular biometric parameters in primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG patients with and without concomitant RP to determine whether a relationship exists between PACG and RP. Methods. We used ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM to measure anterior chamber depth (ACD. A-scan biometry was carried out to measure lens thickness (LT and axial length (AL. Propensity score matching and mixed linear regression model analysis were conducted. 23 patients with chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma (CPACG associated with RP, 21 patients with acute primary angle-closure glaucoma (APACG associated with RP, 270 patients with CPACG, and 269 patients with APACG were recruited for this study. Results. There were no significant differences on ACDs, ALs, and relative lens position (RLP (P>0.05 between patients with PACG associated with RP and patients with PACG; however, patients with APACG associated with RP had a significantly greater LT than patients with APACG (P<0.05. Conclusion. Patients with PACG associated with RP had the same biometric parameter characteristic as the patients with CPACG and APACG. This may suggest that RP is a coincidental relationship with angle-closure glaucoma.

  5. Presentation of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) at Lions Sight First Eye Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayange, P C; Nkume, H B; Feyi-Waboso, A; Kalua, K; Msukwa, G; Schwering Schulze, M

    2014-09-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma in Africa. We carried out a study to determine the clinical presentation pattern of patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) at a tertiary hospital in Malawi. A cross-sectional study. Lions Sight First Eye Hospital-a major referral and teaching state eye hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Study participants were newly diagnosed POAG patients at specialist eye clinic during study period. A total of 60 POAG patients were recruited into the study. The mean age was 58.7 years (SD= 16.6, range 18 - 86). There were more male (44, 73.3%) than female (16, 27.7%) patients. The majority of patients (73%) presented one year after onset of visual symptoms. Twenty-six patients (43%) had unilateral blindness (visual acuity < 3/60; WHO classification), while nine patients (15%) presented with bilateral blindness. A vertical cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) of 0.8 or worse was seen in 92 eyes (79%). The mean intraocular pressure (IOP) reading was 35.5 mmHg (SD 13.30). Of the thirty-three eyes that successfully underwent visual field analysis, very advanced defects were recorded in 12 eyes (36%). This study demonstrates delayed presentation and male predominance among POAG patients at a tertiary eye hospital in Malawi. Glaucoma intervention programmes should aim at identifying patients with treatable glaucoma with particular attention to women.

  6. Efficacy and safety of latanoprost versus timolol for primary open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension: a Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Yang Wu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of latanoprost versus timolol for primary open angle glaucoma(POAGand ocular hypertension(OHT.METHODS: This was an evidence-based medicine science study. Pertinent studies of randomized controlled trial(RCTwere identified through searches of PubMed, Medline, CNKI and China Biology Medicine disc. The intensive searching by hand and internet was also designed. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, the study object was limited. Quality of literatures were evaluated by experienced researchers according to the Jadad Score. RevMan 5.0 offered by Cochrane was used for Meta-analysis aimed at the ratio of low intraocular tension and adverse drug reaction.RESULTS: A total of 9 RCT sadded up to 555 patients were involved. The results of meta-analysis showed that, athe difference at 2, 6, 12wk both had statistical significance, latanoprost showed greater intraocular pressure(IOPlowering efficacy compared with timolol. The weighted mean difference(WMDat 2, 6, 12wk was respectively \\〖-0.76, 95% CI(-1.32 to -0.20\\〗, \\〖-1.15, 95% CI(-1.68 to 0.63\\〗 and \\〖-1.01, 95% CI(-1.42 to -0.61\\〗. bThe difference in conjunctival congestion(OR=2.25, 95% CI 0.99 to 5.08and foreign body sensation(OR=2.48, 95% CI 1.02 to 6.03 between latanoprost and timolol group was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Latanoprost showed greater IOP lowering efficacy at 12wk compared with timolol for OAG and OH patients. The conjunctival hyperemia, foreign body sensation, iris pigmentation deepened, vision damage of latanoprost group at 12wk compared with timolol, the difference was not significant. This conclusion is not powerful enough in proof due to the medium methodology quality of the included studies, so a large number of high-quality RCTs with large sample are needed for objectively, precisely and entirely evaluating the efficacy.

  7. Adherence to treatment in patients with open-angle glaucoma and its related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedinejad, Tayebeh; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen

    2016-09-01

    Lack of adherence to medical treatments typically lead to burdensome consequences such as progressive visual impairment, blindness, and disabilities. This study aimed to determine the adherence to medication in patients with open-angle glaucoma and related factors in patients referred to the Matini Ophthalmology Hospital in Kashan, Iran. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 23 July 2015 to 20 January 2016 on all patients with open-angle glaucoma referred to the Matini Ophthalmology Hospital in Kashan, Iran. A questionnaire was used to gather data about patients' demographics and factors affecting adherence to medical treatments. The Morisky Medication Adherence Scale was used to evaluate the adherence to glaucoma medication. Results were analyzed using SPSS version 13. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and logistic regression analysis were used. In total, 130 patients with a mean age of 55.36 ± 15.54 were studied. Only 34.6% of patients completely adhered to glaucoma medications. The chi-square test showed that age (p=0.007), education (p=0.01), life entourage (p=0.04), place of residence (p=0.06), average monthly income (p=0.005), the interval between medical visits (p=0.007), problem in scheduling the medical visits (plifelong using and side-effects of medications (pproblems (pproblems in traveling and scheduling medical visits, the large number and side effects of medications, impatience, forgetting, and lack of skill in using eye drops. About two-thirds of patients with open-angle glaucoma did not adhere to their own medications. Appropriate patient education and planning a patient follow-up strategy might positively affect the patients' adherence to glaucoma medications.

  8. Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging Program ... Insufficiency Diabetic Eye Disease Dilated ...

  9. Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging Program African American Program Training and ...

  10. Small-incision cataract extraction combined trabeculectomy for primary angle-closure glaucoma with cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Wu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the curative effect of treating small-incision cataract extraction by intraocular lens implantation combined with trabeculectomy for primary angle-closure glaucoma with cataract. METHODS: Totally 44 cases(52 eyesof primary angle-closure glaucoma combined with cataract were selected to undergo the combined surgery, in order to observe the patients' pre- and postoperative eyesights, intraocular pressures and the postoperative complications.RESULTS: The postoperative eyesight was improved significantly as compared with the preoperative eyesight. The intraocular pressure was declined dramatically. The result was of statistical significance(P0.05. All the 52 cases' surgeries were performed by the same surgeon. The surgeries were processed smoothly, with 6 postoperative eyes of anterior chamber inflammation cell response, 3 eyes of anterior chamber fibrinoid exudate, 2 eyes of shallow anterior chamber through mydriasis and treatment with glucocorticoids and non-steroidal eyedrops before absorption, and no complications like malignant glaucoma, cyclodialysis, etc. were reported through mydriasis and pressure bandaging before recovery.CONCLUSION: Treating the primary angle-closure glaucoma combined with cataract through the combined surgery has high reliability and desirable curative effect. The surgical method is simple to learn and applicable for promotion on the basic level.

  11. Gonioscopic Features in Patients with Acute and Chronic Angle-Closure Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Razeghinejad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of ocular biometric parameters, iris hiotologic and anatomic characters have been suggested as inciting factors for converting patients with narrow angle to angle-closure glaucoma. This study was conducted to determine if there was any goniscopic difference between patients with acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG and chronic angle-closure glaucoma (CACG. Methods: The study is a retrospective analysis of the charts of 97 patients with asymmetric CACG and 15 patients with unilateral AACG. The age, sex, type of glaucoma, gonioscopic findings and optic nerve head cup/disc ratio were recorded for all patients. Dynamic gonioscopy and Spaeth’s convention were used to grade the drainage angle. The eyes with AACG or more optic nerve damage in CACG groups were considered as involved eye, and the contralateral eyes in the AACG and CACG groups were considered as noninvolved and less-involved, respectively. Results: There was no significant difference between patients with AACG and CACG in terms of age, gender, refraction, and laterality of the involved eyes. In intragroup analysis, no significant difference was observed for distribution of iris attachment, irido-corneal angle, iris configuration, or trabecular pigmentation. In intergroup analysis, the superior iris was attached more anterior in the involved eyes of AACG compared to that in CACG (P=0.007. Moreover, the iris root attachment was also more anterior in both the superior (P=0.001 and inferior (P=0.002 angles of the noninvolved eyes of AACG vs. than those in the less-involved eyes of CACG group. Conclusion: The findings of the study indicate that there is no significant difference between the eyes with AACG or CACG in terms of goniscopic findings. However, the superior iris attachment was located more anterior in eyes with AACG compared to that in eyes with CACG

  12. The Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project: Detection Rates and Initial Management.

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    Waisbourd, Michael; Pruzan, Noelle L; Johnson, Deiana; Ugorets, Angela; Crews, John E; Saaddine, Jinan B; Henderer, Jeffery D; Hark, Lisa A; Katz, L Jay

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the detection rates of glaucoma-related diagnoses and the initial treatments received in the Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project, a community-based initiative aimed at improving the detection, treatment, and follow-up care of individuals at risk for glaucoma. Retrospective analysis. A total of 1649 individuals at risk for glaucoma who were examined and treated in 43 community centers located in underserved communities of Philadelphia. Individuals were enrolled if they were African American aged ≥50 years, were any other adult aged ≥60 years, or had a family history of glaucoma. After attending an informational glaucoma workshop, participants underwent a targeted glaucoma examination including an ocular, medical, and family history; visual acuity testing, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, and corneal pachymetry; slit-lamp and optic nerve examination; automated visual field testing; and fundus color photography. If indicated, treatments included selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT), laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI), or IOP-lowering medications. Follow-up examinations were scheduled at the community sites after 4 to 6 weeks or 4 to 6 months, depending on the clinical scenario. Detection rates of glaucoma-related diagnoses and types of treatments administered. Of the 1649 individuals enrolled, 645 (39.1%) received a glaucoma-related diagnosis; 20.0% (n = 330) were identified as open-angle glaucoma (OAG) suspects, 9.2% (n = 151) were identified as having narrow angles (or as a primary angle closure/suspect), and 10.0% (n = 164) were diagnosed with glaucoma, including 9.0% (n = 148) with OAG and 1.0% (n = 16) with angle-closure glaucoma. Overall, 39.0% (n = 64 of 164) of those diagnosed with glaucoma were unaware of their diagnosis. A total of 196 patients (11.9%) received glaucoma-related treatment, including 84 (5.1%) who underwent LPI, 13 (0.8%) who underwent SLT, and 103 (6.2%) who were prescribed IOP

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  17. Common genetic determinants of intraocular pressure and primary open-angle glaucoma.

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    Leonieke M E van Koolwijk

    Full Text Available Intraocular pressure (IOP is a highly heritable risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma and is the only target for current glaucoma therapy. The genetic factors which determine IOP are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study for IOP in 11,972 participants from 4 independent population-based studies in The Netherlands. We replicated our findings in 7,482 participants from 4 additional cohorts from the UK, Australia, Canada, and the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium 2/Blue Mountains Eye Study. IOP was significantly associated with rs11656696, located in GAS7 at 17p13.1 (p=1.4×10(-8, and with rs7555523, located in TMCO1 at 1q24.1 (p=1.6×10(-8. In a meta-analysis of 4 case-control studies (total N = 1,432 glaucoma cases, both variants also showed evidence for association with glaucoma (p=2.4×10(-2 for rs11656696 and p=9.1×10(-4 for rs7555523. GAS7 and TMCO1 are highly expressed in the ciliary body and trabecular meshwork as well as in the lamina cribrosa, optic nerve, and retina. Both genes functionally interact with known glaucoma disease genes. These data suggest that we have identified two clinically relevant genes involved in IOP regulation.

  18. Family History in the Primary Open-Angle African American Glaucoma Genetics Study Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Joan M; Salowe, Rebecca J; Fertig, Raymond; Salinas, Julia; Pistilli, Maxwell; Sankar, Prithvi S; Miller-Ellis, Eydie; Lehman, Amanda; Murphy, Windell; Homsher, Melissa; Gordon, Katelyn; Ying, Gui-Shuang

    2018-03-16

    To determine the relationship between positive family history (FH) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) diagnosis and clinical presentation in the Primary Open-Angle African American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) cohort. FH of POAG in first-degree relatives was assessed in 2365 subjects in the POAAGG cohort. A standardized interview was used to assess FH of glaucoma, demographic characteristics, lifestyle choices, and medical and ocular comorbidities. Positive FH was associated with increased risk of POAG (age-adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval 3.4[2.8, 4.1]). In age-adjusted analysis among POAG cases, positive FH was associated with younger age (P<0.001), female gender (P<.001), hypertension (P=.006), use of hypertension medication (P=.03), and prior glaucoma surgery (P=.02). Cases with positive FH also had thicker retinal nerve fiber layers (P=.03). The risk conferred by positive FH suggests strong genetic underpinnings for some patients with this disease, which will be investigated by genome-wide association studies and whole exome sequencing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Unilateral Optic Neuropathy and Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma following Snake Envenomation

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    Osman Okan Olcaysu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We aimed to describe a unique case in which a patient developed unilateral optic neuritis and angle-closure glaucoma as a result of snake envenomation. Case Report. Approximately 18 hours after envenomation, a 67-year-old female patient described visual impairment and severe pain in her left eye (LE. The patient’s best corrected visual acuity was 10/10 in the RE and hand motion in the LE. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed signs of neuropathy in the left optic nerve. In the LE, corneal haziness, closure of the iridocorneal angle, and mild mydriasis were observed and pupillary light reflex was absent. Intraocular pressure was 25 mmHg and 57 mmHg in the RE and LE, respectively. The patient was diagnosed with acute angle-closure glaucoma in the LE. Optic neuropathy was treated with intravenous pulse methylprednisolone. Left intraocular pressure was within normal range starting on the fourth day. One month after the incident, there was no sign of optic neuropathy; relative afferent pupillary defect and optic nerve swelling disappeared. Conclusions. Patients with severe headache and visual loss after snake envenomation must be carefully examined for possible optic neuropathy and angle-closure glaucoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of these cases are necessary to prevent permanent damage to optic nerves.

  20. Distinct iris gene expression profiles of primary angle closure glaucoma and primary open angle glaucoma and their interaction with ocular biometric parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seet, Li-Fong; Narayanaswamy, Arun; Finger, Sharon N; Htoon, Hla M; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Toh, Li Zhen; Ho, Henrietta; Perera, Shamira A; Wong, Tina T

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate differences in iris gene expression profiles between primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and their interaction with biometric characteristics. Prospective study. Thirty-five subjects with PACG and thirty-three subjects with POAG who required trabeculectomy were enrolled at the Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore. Iris specimens, obtained by iridectomy, were analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction for expression of type I collagen, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, -B and -C, as well as VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) 1 and 2. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) imaging for biometric parameters, including anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV) and lens vault (LV), was also performed pre-operatively. Relative mRNA levels between PACG and POAG irises, biometric measurements, discriminant analyses using genes and biometric parameters. COL1A1, VEGFB, VEGFC and VEGFR2 mRNA expression was higher in PACG compared to POAG irises. LV, ACD and ACV were significantly different between the two subgroups. Discriminant analyses based on gene expression, biometric parameters or a combination of both gene expression and biometrics (LV and ACV), correctly classified 94.1%, 85.3% and 94.1% of the original PACG and POAG cases, respectively. The discriminant function combining genes and biometrics demonstrated the highest accuracy in cross-validated classification of the two glaucoma subtypes. Distinct iris gene expression supports the pathophysiological differences that exist between PACG and POAG. Biometric parameters can combine with iris gene expression to more accurately define PACG from POAG. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  1. [The effect of crystalline lens extraction on intraocular pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarie, S; Macarie, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    This issue presents the results of a study on patients with cataract and primary open angle glaucoma who suffered lens extraction for cataract. We analise the effects of the lens extraction on the level of intraocular pressure at this patients.

  2. Cytokine biomarkers in tear film for primary open-angle glaucoma

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    Gupta D

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Divakar Gupta,1,* Joanne C Wen,2,* Janet L Huebner,3 Sandra Stinnett,1 Virginia B Kraus,3,4 Henry C Tseng,1 Molly Walsh1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 3Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, 4Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To determine the utility of tear film cytokines as biomarkers for early primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG. Methods: Patients without POAG and eye drop-naïve patients with newly diagnosed POAG were recruited from an academic hospital-based glaucoma practice. Tear films of recruited patients were obtained and analyzed using a multiplex, high-sensitivity electrochemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for proinflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα. Results: Mean concentrations of tear film cytokines were lower in the glaucoma group for 8 of 10 cytokines tested. IL-12p70 (3.94±2.19 pg/mL in control vs 2.31±1.156 pg/mL in POAG; P=0.035 was significantly lower in the tear film of patients with newly diagnosed POAG. Conclusion: Proinflammatory cytokines were lower in eye drop-naïve newly diagnosed glaucoma patients. Tear film cytokine profiles may be used as biomarkers of early POAG. Keywords: glaucoma, biomarkers, tear film, cytokines, glaucoma diagnosis, lower limit of detection

  3. Awareness of glaucoma, and health beliefs of patients suffering primary acute angle closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, S-M; Gazzard, G; Friedman, D; Foster, P J; Devereux, J G; Wong, M L; Seah, S

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate the factors associated with lack of awareness of glaucoma and late presentation to the doctor in Singapore Chinese patients with acute angle closure (AAC) METHODS: A prospective, hospital based case series of 105 patients aged 35 years and above who presented with a first attack of AAC in a tertiary hospital in Singapore was conducted. A research assistant interviewed all patients face to face in clinic and recorded demographic factors, awareness of glaucoma, and subjective barriers to seeing a doctor. The time from onset of symptoms to presentation at the clinic was noted. Overall, 22.9% of patients had heard of glaucoma. The multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR) of unawareness of glaucoma in older people (> 60 years) was 1.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5 to 4.6), 3.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 9.2) for adults who were not working, and 13.8 (95% CI 1.3 to 146.7) for patients who had less than a pre-university education. A significant proportion (31.7%) of patients presented to the doctor 24 hours or more after symptoms occurred. In a multiple logistic regression model, the adjusted OR of late presentation was 8.5 (95% CI 1.04 to 69.5) if there was no car access, 5.0 (95% CI 1.0 to 24.6) if the patients spoke Chinese, and 3.3 (95% CI 0.9 to 11.9) if there was nobody to accompany to hospital. Glaucoma awareness among patients suffering AAC was not high. Lack of awareness was associated with increasing age, lack of formal education, and unemployment. A significant proportion of patients seek medical attention late. Risk factors for late presentation include lack of car access, nobody to accompany the patient, and speaking the Chinese language primarily. Health education programmes may help increase the knowledge and awareness of glaucoma.

  4. The effect of different criteria on the number of patients blind from open-angle glaucoma

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    Heijl Anders

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of blindness and visual impairment from glaucoma is influenced by the criteria used to define these entities, which differ between countries and regions, as well as among published reports. The objective of the present study was to ascertain the extent to which different criteria of blindness and visual impairment influence estimates of the number of patients classified as blind or visually impaired by glaucoma in a clinic-based population. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review of 914 patients with open-angle glaucoma to compare numbers of patients identified as visually impaired with and without considering visual field status. We also compared proportions classified using World Health Organisation (WHO and United States (US blindness criteria, and applying a new US Social Security Administration (SSA disability criterion: perimetric mean deviation (MD ≤ -22 dB. Results Forty patients (4.4% were bilaterally blind from glaucoma by the WHO criteria. Fifty-two (5.7% were blind by the the US criterion. Assessing only visual acuity, 14 (1.5% patients were blind by the WHO criteria and 24 (2.6% by the US definition. Eighty-five (9.3% met the US SSA disability criterion. Among those, 52 were impaired also by the WHO definition. No patients impaired according to the WHO criteria had MD values better than -22 dB. Conclusions Excluding visual field status will seriously underestimate the prevalence of glaucoma blindness. In our patient population, 30% more patients were classified as blind by the US than by the WHO definition. Also, 60% more were identified as visually impaired by the US SSA criterion than by the WHO criteria. Visual field assessment is vital to determine visual impairment caused by glaucoma.

  5. Glaucoma

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  11. The increased cost of medical services for people diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma: a decision analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymes, Steven M; Plotzke, Michael R; Li, Jim Z; Nichol, Michael B; Wu, Joanne; Fain, Joel

    2010-07-01

    Glaucoma accounts for more than 11% of all cases of blindness in the United States, but there have been few studies of economic impact. We examine incremental cost of primary open-angle glaucoma considering both visual and nonvisual medical costs over a lifetime of glaucoma. A decision analytic approach taking the payor's perspective with microsimulation estimation. We constructed a Markov model to replicate health events over the remaining lifetime of someone newly diagnosed with glaucoma. Costs of this group were compared with those estimated for a control group without glaucoma. The cost of management of glaucoma (including medications) before the onset of visual impairment was not considered. The model was populated with probability data estimated from Medicare claims data (1999 through 2005). Cost of nonocular medications and nursing home use was estimated from California Medicare claims, and all other costs were estimated from Medicare claims data. We found modest differences in the incidence of comorbid conditions and health service use between people with glaucoma and the control group. Over their expected lifetime, the cost of care for people with primary open-angle glaucoma was higher than that of people without primary open-angle glaucoma by $1688 or approximately $137 per year. Among Medicare beneficiaries, glaucoma diagnosis not found to be associated with significant risk of comorbidities before development of visual impairment. Further study is necessary to consider the impact of glaucoma on quality of life, as well as aspects of physical and visual function not captured in this claims-based analysis. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genes of the unfolded protein response pathway harbor risk alleles for primary open angle glaucoma.

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    Mary Anna Carbone

    Full Text Available The statistical power of genome-wide association (GWA studies to detect risk alleles for human diseases is limited by the unfavorable ratio of SNPs to study subjects. This multiple testing problem can be surmounted with very large population sizes when common alleles of large effects give rise to disease status. However, GWA approaches fall short when many rare alleles may give rise to a common disease, or when the number of subjects that can be recruited is limited. Here, we demonstrate that this multiple testing problem can be overcome by a comparative genomics approach in which an initial genome-wide screen in a genetically amenable model organism is used to identify human orthologues that may harbor risk alleles for adult-onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. Glaucoma is a major cause of blindness, which affects over 60 million people worldwide. Several genes have been associated with juvenile onset glaucoma, but genetic factors that predispose to adult onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG remain largely unknown. Previous genome-wide analysis in a Drosophila ocular hypertension model identified transcripts with altered regulation and showed induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR upon overexpression of transgenic human glaucoma-associated myocilin (MYOC. We selected 16 orthologous genes with 62 polymorphic markers and identified in two independent human populations two genes of the UPR that harbor POAG risk alleles, BIRC6 and PDIA5. Thus, effectiveness of the UPR in response to accumulation of misfolded or aggregated proteins may contribute to the pathogenesis of POAG and provide targets for early therapeutic intervention.

  13. Genes of the unfolded protein response pathway harbor risk alleles for primary open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Mary Anna; Chen, Yuhong; Hughes, Guy A; Weinreb, Robert N; Zabriskie, Norman A; Zhang, Kang; Anholt, Robert R H

    2011-01-01

    The statistical power of genome-wide association (GWA) studies to detect risk alleles for human diseases is limited by the unfavorable ratio of SNPs to study subjects. This multiple testing problem can be surmounted with very large population sizes when common alleles of large effects give rise to disease status. However, GWA approaches fall short when many rare alleles may give rise to a common disease, or when the number of subjects that can be recruited is limited. Here, we demonstrate that this multiple testing problem can be overcome by a comparative genomics approach in which an initial genome-wide screen in a genetically amenable model organism is used to identify human orthologues that may harbor risk alleles for adult-onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Glaucoma is a major cause of blindness, which affects over 60 million people worldwide. Several genes have been associated with juvenile onset glaucoma, but genetic factors that predispose to adult onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) remain largely unknown. Previous genome-wide analysis in a Drosophila ocular hypertension model identified transcripts with altered regulation and showed induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR) upon overexpression of transgenic human glaucoma-associated myocilin (MYOC). We selected 16 orthologous genes with 62 polymorphic markers and identified in two independent human populations two genes of the UPR that harbor POAG risk alleles, BIRC6 and PDIA5. Thus, effectiveness of the UPR in response to accumulation of misfolded or aggregated proteins may contribute to the pathogenesis of POAG and provide targets for early therapeutic intervention.

  14. Argon laser iridoplasty : A primary mode of therapy in primary angle closure glaucoma

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    Agarwal H

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Argon laser iridoplasty was performed in 40 eyes of 33 patients of primary angle closure glaucoma. There were 12 male and 21 female patients. The mean ages of the male and female patients were 51 years and 48.4 years respectively. Forty eyes were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of ten eyes of subacute angle closure glaucoma and group II included thirty eyes of chronic angle closure glaucoma. Argon laser iridoplasty was performed with Coherent 9000 model using laser settings of spot size 200 micron, duration 0.2 second and power 0.7 watt. A total of 80 spots were applied over 360 degree circumference. The intraocular pressure control (below 22 mm Hg was achieved after iridoplasty in all the eyes (100% in group I, where as in group II the intraocular pressure was controlled in 70% eyes. The follow up period varied from 3 months to one year with a mean of eight months. The success rate with iridoplasty was directly related to the extent of peripheral anterior synechiae, optic disc cupping and presence of visual field changes.

  15. Efficacy and Tolerability of Travoprost 0.004%/Timolol 0.5% Fixed-Dose Combination for the Treatment of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension Inadequately Controlled with Beta-Blocker Monotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Ho; Hubatsch, Douglas A.; Erichev, Valeriy; Paczka, Jose A.; Roberts, Timothy V.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% fixed-dose combination (TTFC) in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT) inadequately controlled on beta-blocker monotherapy. Methods. In this phase IV, open-label study, 156 patients on beta-blocker monotherapy with mean intraocular pressure (IOP) between 18 and 32 mmHg were randomized (no washout period) to receive TTFC for 8 weeks (TTFC group) or to continue beta-blocker monotherapy for 4 weeks followed by TTFC for the remaining 4 weeks (beta-blocker group). Results. The mean IOP (±standard deviation) at baseline in the TTFC and beta-blocker groups was 22.5 ± 2.5 mmHg and 22.2 ± 2.3 mmHg, respectively, and at weeks 4 and 8, was 16.7 ± 3.1 mmHg and 16.1 ± 3.1 mmHg, respectively, in TTFC group and 21.1 ± 3.1 mmHg and 16.1 ± 2.8 mmHg, respectively, in the beta-blocker group. There was a significant least squares mean difference between TTFC and beta-blocker in 8 a.m. IOP at week 4 (−4.6 mmHg; one-sided 95% confidence interval [−inf, −3.9]; p < 0.0001 [primary endpoint]); the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval was within the prespecified limit (<0). Both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion. Superior IOP control was achieved with TTFC in patients with OAG or OHT previously uncontrolled with beta-blockers. No new safety findings were identified. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02003391. PMID:28239491

  16. Clinical and epidemiological study in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma

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    Luciana dos Mares Guia Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: This is a quantitative study with cross-sectional and analytical design, which sample consisted of 425 patients treated in an unit of Specialized Care in Ophthalmology, located in the northern state of Minas Gerais, from 2004 to 2015. We collected the data using formularies that addressed demographic and clinical aspects, risk factors and the presence of undercurrent diseases. We conducted an ophthalmological examination to evaluate anatomical and functional changes. We used statistical analysis, and the results are presented by mean, standard deviation and percentiles 25, 50 and 75. Results: Females predominate (56.8%, the age group of 60 years or older (44% and mixed skin (81.7%. A minority of participants present risk factors such as high myopia (6.3% and diabetes mellitus (17.9%. Regarding the clinical examination, there is a prevalence of increased optic nerve excavation (≥ 0.8 and low thickness of the corneas (≤ 535 microns. Conclusion: Most people develop advanced glaucoma, with increased optic nerve excavation and changed visual fields. Other common risk factors are: family history of glaucoma, decreased thickness of the cornea and hypertension. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent vision loss. Primary care physicians should consider referring patients who have glaucoma risk factors, for an ophthalmologic examination.

  17. Structural brain alterations in primary open angle glaucoma: a 3T MRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieqiong; Li, Ting; Sabel, Bernhard A.; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Hongwei; Li, Jianhong; Xie, Xiaobin; Yang, Diya; Chen, Weiwei; Wang, Ningli; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is not only an eye disease but is also associated with degeneration of brain structures. We now investigated the pattern of visual and non-visual brain structural changes in 25 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients and 25 age-gender-matched normal controls using T1-weighted imaging. MRI images were subjected to volume-based analysis (VBA) and surface-based analysis (SBA) in the whole brain as well as ROI-based analysis of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), visual cortex (V1/2), amygdala and hippocampus. While VBA showed no significant differences in the gray matter volumes of patients, SBA revealed significantly reduced cortical thickness in the right frontal pole and ROI-based analysis volume shrinkage in LGN bilaterally, right V1 and left amygdala. Structural abnormalities were correlated with clinical parameters in a subset of the patients revealing that the left LGN volume was negatively correlated with bilateral cup-to-disk ratio (CDR), the right LGN volume was positively correlated with the mean deviation of the right visual hemifield, and the right V1 cortical thickness was negatively correlated with the right CDR in glaucoma. These results demonstrate that POAG affects both vision-related structures and non-visual cortical regions. Moreover, alterations of the brain visual structures reflect the clinical severity of glaucoma. PMID:26743811

  18. The influence of venous blood flow on the retinal ganglion cell complex in patients with primary open angle glaucoma

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    N. I. Kurysheva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the influence of venous blood flow on the ganglion cell complex (GCC in patients with preperimetric and perimetric open angle glaucoma.Methods: 74 patients were included in the research. 59 eyes and 62 eyes were diagnosed with preperimetric and perimetric open angle glaucoma respectively. The mean age was 56.5±10.5 years. 22 (12 female and 10 male healthy individuals constituted the control group. The ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fibre layer were evaluated with the help of optical coherence tomography (RTVue-100 OCT, Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA. Ocular blood flow was measured by Color Doppler Imaging (multifunctional VOLUSON 730 ProSystem. The statistical analysis included correlation between GCC and RNFL thickness in both glaucoma groups.Results: The results showed a statistically significant reduction of venous blood flow velocity in both glaucoma groups compared to the control group. No difference in venous blood flow parameters between two glaucoma groups was found, except resistance index, which was higher in perimetric group in comparison to preperimetric group. A correlation was also obtained between venous blood flow parameters and GCC and RNFL thickness in both glaucoma groups.Conclusion: Early GCC damage in glaucoma might occur due to venous blood flow reduction. This fact may be of great value in understanding glaucoma pathogenesis and search for novel treatment options.

  19. Evaluation of anterior chamber angle under dark and light conditions in angle closure glaucoma: An anterior segment OCT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoodi, Habibeh; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Esmaeili, Alireza; Abolbashari, Fereshteh; Ahmadi Hosseini, Seyed Mahdi

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate changes of nasal and temporal anterior chamber angle (ACA) in subjects with angle closure glaucoma using Spectralis AS-OCT (SAS-OCT) under dark and light conditions. Based on dark-room gonioscopy, 24 subjects with open angles and 86 with narrow angles participated in this study. The nasal and temporal angle opening distance at 500 μm anterior to the scleral spur (AOD500), nasal and temporal ACA were measured using SAS-OCT in light and dark conditions. In 2 groups, ACA and AOD500 in nasal and temporal quadrants were significantly greater in light compared to dark (all with p=0.000). The AOD500 and ACA were significantly higher in nasal than temporal in measured conditions for 2 groups except the ACA and AOD500 of normal group measured in light. The difference between nasal and temporal in dark (29.07 ± 65.71 μm for AOD500 and 5.7 ± 4.07° for ACA) was greater than light (24.86 ± 79.85 μm for AOD500 and 2.09 ± 7.21° for ACA) condition. But the difference was only significant for ACA (p=0.000). The correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between AOD500 and pupil diameter in temporal and nasal quadrants (both with p=0.000). While temporal AOD500 difference correlated with spherical equivalent, temporal and asal gonioscopy, nasal AOD correlated with IOP, temporal and nasal gonioscopy. Clinically important changes in ACA structure could be detected with SAS-OCT in nasal and temporal quadrants under different illumination intensity. The results could help in improvement of examination condition for better and more accurate assessment of individuals with angle closure glaucoma. Copyright © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Correlation between macular changes and the peripapillary nerve fiber layer in primary open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasia, D; Voinea, L; Vasinca, I D; Alexandrescu, C

    2014-03-15

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness and the early diagnosis is crucial for treatment and follow-up in the progression of the disease. To evaluate the changes in mean macular thickness and volume and compare them with the mean thickness of the peripapillary nerve fiber layer in primary open angle glaucoma, using Time Domain (TD) optical coherence tomography ( OCT). The examinations were conducted on 275 eyes of 138 patients, as it follows: 203 eyes of 102 patients diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma in various stages of evolution, representing the study group, and 72 normal eyes from 36 patients, representing the control group. The study was conducted from March 2010 to December 2012. All the patients gave their consent, in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration. The study group showed a decrease in mean macular thickness and volume, as well as mean thickness of the peripapillary nerve fiber layer (RNFL) compared to the control group. According to the OCT measurements, the results of the study have shown that the decrease of the mean thickness of the RNFL is a better differentiator between glaucomatous and normal eyes compared to the decrease of the mean macular thickness and volume.

  1. Lactate Dehydrogenase and Oxidative Stress Activity in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Aqueous Humour

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    Predrag Jovanović

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and lactate are some of the hypoxy biochemical parameters. Extracellular activity of this enzyme increases under the condition of oxidative stress, since the cell integrity can be disrupted during the lipid peroxidation process. Subsequently that leads to the increase level of the lactic acid and lactic acid salts. The objective of this investigation is establishing the level of LDH, LDH1 (HBDH and the lactate concentration in aqueous humour in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.Biochemical analysis have been made by enzymatic-colometric method (lactate and UV-kinetic method (LDH and HBDH in aqueous humour of 30 patients (42 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG and 30 patients (40 eyes with cataract (the control group.The increased values of lactate and the activity of LDH and HBDH enzyme in aqueous humour of POAG patients in correlation with the control group are the results not only of oxidative stress but also of hypoxy and the mitochondry oxidative function (p<0,001.The increased activity of the examined biochemical parameters in the aqueous humour of the POAG patients points to the fact that other mechanisms, besides IOP, have a role in glaucoma pathogenesis.

  2. An Analysis of 3-Year Outcomes Following Canaloplasty for the Treatment of Open-Angle Glaucoma

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    Mahmoud A. Khaimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report 3-year results investigating the safety and efficacy of canaloplasty for open-angle glaucoma. Setting. University of Oklahoma, Dean McGee Eye Institute, Oklahoma, United States of America. Design. Nonrandomized single-center retrospective chart review. Methods. Adult open-angle glaucoma eyes underwent canaloplasty or combined cataract-canaloplasty surgery. A tensioning suture was placed into Schlemm’s canal in all eyes. Primary endpoints included the mean IOP and mean number of glaucoma medications at each follow-up visit. Secondary endpoints included visual acuity and surgical/postsurgical complications. Results. The study cohort included 277 eyes (mean age, 72.8 years. Overall, the mean baseline IOP of 19.7 mmHg was reduced to 14.3 mmHg,14.0 mmHg, and 15.2 mmHg at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively (p<0.001. The average medicine use was reduced from 2.1 preoperatively to 0.4 at 12 months, and 0.5 and 0.6 at two and three years, respectively (p<0.001. The frequency of surgical and postsurgical complications was low with no serious adverse events recorded. Conclusion. Canaloplasty was safe and effective in achieving long-term IOP reductions and reduced dependence on antiglaucoma medications.

  3. Clinical study of phacoemulsification and goniosynechialysis for primary angle-closure glaucoma

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    Jing He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To discuss the clinical effect and safety of the combined surgeries of phacoemulsification and goniosynechialysis for patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma(PACG. METHODS: Eighty-three eyes of 83 patients with PACG and cataract were ranomized into two groups. Group A: 39 patients with 39 eyes of angle-closure RESULTS: The visual acuity was improved significantly in both group after operation. No significantly difference in ACD, anterior chamber angle after operation in two groups(P>0.05. The IOP in group A was lower than that in group B 3mo after operation, there was statistical significance(PCONCLUSION:Phacoemulsification and goniosynechialysis can deepen ACD significantly. This method make the anterior chamber angle open, can reduce IOP and improve the patients' visual acuity, especially in patients with PACG. It is a safe and effective approach to patients with PACG and cataract.

  4. "APOPTOSIS COLOR." SCREENING STRATEGY FOR DIAGNOSIS EARLY STAGES OF PRIMARY OPEN-ANGLE GLAUCOMA

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    M. A. Kovalevskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop a screening strategy for the early diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma.Patients and Methods: 1 group — 250 patients with suspected glaucoma (42–75 years, 2 — 250 with the 1st stage primary open-angle glaucoma (42–61, 3 — 3,000 healthy persons (35 to 50. Surveys: visometry, tonometry iCare, biomicroscopy, gonioscopy, pachymeria, ophthalmoscopy with a high dioptric lens of 60 D, standard automated perimetry of the SITA-Standard and SITA-SWAP program, assessing the color sensitivity according to the Famsworth-Munsell 100 HueTes method.Results: 1 group — SITA-SWAP: MD -2,55±0,7 dB, PSD 2,46±1,15 dB. Mansell test: TES = 58.6±18.7 (p<0.05, average level of color recognition; mild deficiency of color vision — 41–100 TES; by the RGB system: colors of the first order; tone in RGB (0–239: blue — 160; HCV: blue — 240; range of wavelengths: blue — 440–485 nm; frequency: blue — 620–680 THz. 2 group — on SITA-SWAP: MD — 5,13±1,3 dB, PSD 2,58±0,9 dB. Mansell test: TES = 86,9±21,8; average level of color recognition; mild deficiency of color vision; single deviations in the system of blue (azure, blue, blue; color I order (blue, III order (blue, azure; tone in RGB — (0–239: blue (azure, blue — 140, blue — 160; HCV — blue (azure, blue — 210, blue — 240; range of wavelengths: 450–500 nm (blue — 485–500, blue — 440–485; frequencies: 600–680 THz (blue — 600–620, blue — 620–680. Control group — SITA-SWAP within the norm, Mansell test: TES = 40,1±17,3 (p<0.05, medium level of color recognition, lack of color vision absent / mild, single deviations.Conclusion: in patients with glaucoma suspicion, the score of errors was higher than in the control group with Munsell test. In patients with glaucoma, the number of errors is greater than in patients with suspected glaucoma, and 2.2 times higher than in the control group.

  5. The Association between Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Blood Pressure: Two Aspects of Hypertension and Hypotension

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    Hye Jin Chung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Although the mechanism of the development of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is not fully understood, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is considered the most important risk factor. Several vascular factors have also been identified as risk factors and can lead to hypoperfusion of the optic nerve head and thus may play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of POAG. The results of the present study suggest that both high and low blood pressure (BP are associated with an increased risk of POAG based on a comprehensive literature review. Elevated BP is associated with elevated IOP, leading to increased risk of glaucoma, but excessive BP lowering in glaucoma patients may cause a drop in ocular perfusion pressure (OPP and subsequent ischemic injury. The relationship between IOP, OPP, and BP suggests that the relationship between BP and glaucoma progression is U-shaped.

  6. BILATERAL ACUTE ANGLE CLOSURE GLAUCOMA AND MYOPIA INDUCED BY LOW DOSAGE TOPIRAMATE

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    Busra S. Arica

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Topiramate, a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of epilepsy and migraine prophylaxis. However, acute secondary angle closure glaucoma and myopia has been shown to develop, especially during the first two weeks of treatment, in a small subset of patients. Case presentation: In the current case report, a 23 year old female patient developed acute myopia and angle closure glaucoma after one week topiramate treatment (25 mg/day for prophylaxis of migraine without aura. The patient was found to have significant conjunctival hyperemia, shallow anterior chamber, and bulging iris in both eyes. Grade 1 acute angle was detected in both eyes during gonioscopic examination. There was no pupillary block and intraocular pressure was 40 mmHg in both eyes. Refraction values were measured at -7.00 and -8.00 in the right and left eye, respectively. The patient and #8217;s visual acuity was at 0.1 to 0.2. Topiramate treatment was promptly discontinued, topical antiglaucomatous treatment was initiated, and laser peripheral iridotomy was performed on each eye. Intraocular pressure has declined to normal limits, refractive values were zero in both eyes and patient and #8217;s visual acuity has restored at follow-up period at 10 days after treatment. Conclusion: Side effects associated with topiramate treatments are known to disappear without long-term damage when the discontinuation of therapy and effective interventions are started early. Therefore, patients and their physicians should be alert for symptoms associated with acute secondary angle closure glaucoma and myopia; especially in the first weeks of topiramate treatment also with low dosage. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(3.000: 168-171

  7. Glaucoma

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  8. Glaucoma

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    Full Text Available ... Jobs Fellowships NEI Summer Intern Program Diversity In Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for ... Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive ... NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on Social Media Information ...

  9. Glaucoma

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    Full Text Available ... Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract Convergence Insufficiency Diabetic Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube ...

  10. Validity and cost-effectiveness of methods for screening of primary open angle glaucoma

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    Fröschl, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: About 950,000 people are affected by glaucoma in Germany, about 50% of which are undiagnosed. The German Ophthalmological Society and the German Association of Ophthalmologists recommend a screening for glaucoma according to their guidelines. The Federal Joint Committee disapproved a glaucoma-screening program on expense of the compulsory health insurance in 2004. Scientific background: Primary open angle glaucoma is diagnosed by evaluation of the optic disc, the retinal fibre layer and the visual field. The main examinations are ophthalmoscopy, scanning laser polarimetry, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, retinal thickness analysis and optical coherence tomography. Scotomas are diagnosed by perimetry (standard automated perimetry, short wavelength automated perimetry and frequency doubling perimetry. The intraocular pressure is the most important treatable risk factor and is measured by (contact or non-contact tonometry. Research questions: The aim of this HTA-report is to investigate the diagnostic validity and cost effectiveness of diagnostic techniques or combinations of these methods with respect to the use in a screening setting in Germany. Methods: A systematic literature research was performed in 35 international databases and yielded 2602 articles. Overall 57 publications were included for assessment, according to predefined selection criteria. Results: The 55 medical articles deal mainly with frequency doubling perimetry, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and scanning laser polarimetry. Few articles cover short wavelength automated perimetry, tonometry and ophalmocopic evaluations by ophthalmologists. The quality of the papers is generally low, as far as the evidence in respect of screening is concerned. No single method exists with both, high sensitivity and high specificity for screening purpose. Data are also not sufficient to recommend combinations of methods. Only two economic models on cost

  11. Clinical Assessment of Lamina Cribrosa Curvature in Eyes with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.

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    Yong Woo Kim

    Full Text Available Quantitative evaluation of lamina cribrosa (LC posterior bowing in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG eyes using swept-source optical coherence tomography.Patients with POAG (n = 123 eyes and healthy individuals of a similar age (n = 92 eyes were prospectively recruited. Anterior laminar insertion depth (ALID was defined as the vertical distance between the anterior laminar insertion and a reference plane connecting the Bruch's membrane openings (BMO. The mean LC depth (mLCD was approximated by dividing the area enclosed by the anterior LC, the BMO reference plane, and the two vertical lines for ALID measurement by the length between those two vertical lines. The LC curvature index was defined as the difference between the mLCD and the ALID. The factors influencing the LC curvature index were evaluated.The ALID and mLCD were significantly larger in POAG eyes than in healthy controls (P -6 dB and moderate-to-advanced glaucoma (MD < -6 dB, P = 0.95.LC posterior bowing was increased in POAG eyes, and was significantly associated with structural optic nerve head (ONH changes but not with functional glaucoma severity. Quantitative evaluation of LC curvature can facilitate assessment of glaucomatous ONH change.

  12. Segmentation and Quantification for Angle-Closure Glaucoma Assessment in Anterior Segment OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huazhu; Xu, Yanwu; Lin, Stephen; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Wong, Damon Wing Kee; Liu, Jiang; Frangi, Alejandro F; Baskaran, Mani; Aung, Tin

    2017-09-01

    Angle-closure glaucoma is a major cause of irreversible visual impairment and can be identified by measuring the anterior chamber angle (ACA) of the eye. The ACA can be viewed clearly through anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), but the imaging characteristics and the shapes and locations of major ocular structures can vary significantly among different AS-OCT modalities, thus complicating image analysis. To address this problem, we propose a data-driven approach for automatic AS-OCT structure segmentation, measurement, and screening. Our technique first estimates initial markers in the eye through label transfer from a hand-labeled exemplar data set, whose images are collected over different patients and AS-OCT modalities. These initial markers are then refined by using a graph-based smoothing method that is guided by AS-OCT structural information. These markers facilitate segmentation of major clinical structures, which are used to recover standard clinical parameters. These parameters can be used not only to support clinicians in making anatomical assessments, but also to serve as features for detecting anterior angle closure in automatic glaucoma screening algorithms. Experiments on Visante AS-OCT and Cirrus high-definition-OCT data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  13. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF PHYSIOTHERAPY TREATMENT IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PRIMARY OPEN-ANGLE GLAUCOMA

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    T. G. Kamenskikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Therapeutic action of physical therapy aims at the recovery of conductibility of optic tracts, improvement of microcirculation and hemodynamics, stimulation of regulatory brain structures and improvement of psycho-neurological status of patients. Aim: To assess efficacy of transcranial magnetic therapy, contemporary transcranial magnetic therapy/electrostimulation and magnetic sympathocorrection in the treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma. Materials and methods: 397 patients (634 eyes, aged 58–76 years, with verified diagnosis of stage I, II or III primary open-angle glaucoma, received transcranial magnetic therapy (group 1, 182 eyes, contemporary transcranial magnetic  herapy/electrostimulation (group 2, 258 eyes and magnetic sympathocorrection (group 3, 194 eyes. All patients underwent routine ophthalmological examination, visual evoked potential recording and assessment of ocular circulation. Results: In patients with initial stage of glaucoma, most prominent changes of electrophysiological parameters was demonstrated in the group 2: visual evoked potential amplitude increased from 8.4 ± 0.4 to 11.3 ± 0.2 mcV, latency decreased from 77.6 ± 1.3 to 70.4 ± 2.1 ms. Maximal improvement of ocular circulation (decrease of resistance index of posterior short ciliary arteries from 0.69 ± 0.02 to 0.51 ± 0.03 was registered in the group 3. In patients with evolved glaucoma (stage II, significant increase of P100 amplitude of visual evoked potentials (from 7.5 ± 0.2 to 9.8 ± 0.3 mcV was found in the group 2; latency period decreased from 84.6 ± 1.5 to 74.8 ± 2.1 ms. In stage II glaucoma patients, prominent increase of systolic blood velocity was demonstrated in groups 3 and 2: from 11.26 ± 0.8 to 13.64 ± 0.63 cm/s and from 10.5 ± 0.2 to 13.9 ± 0.7 cm/s, respectively. Resistance index decreased from 0.76 ± 0.05 to 0.52 ± 0.02 and from 0.75 ± 0.02 to 0.65 ± 0.02 in groups 3 and 2, respectively. In advanced glaucoma

  14. Corneal hysteresis: a useful tool in the diagnosis and management of primary open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Joseph F; Dance, Donnie D

    2009-09-01

    To describe a case of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and to illustrate a new principle in detecting and managing the disease using intraocular pressure (IOP) corneal hysteresis as a clinical guide. A case report is reviewed of a white 87-year-old male who was detected with ocular hypertension (OHTN) with bilateral asymmetrical corneal stiffness and POAG. A new indicator and alternative approach to determine and manage POAG is presented using evidence-based technology for clinical care and facilitating positive outcomes for one of the leading causes of blindness in the world.

  15. The efficacy of viscocanalostomy for uncontrollable primary open-angle glaucoma in a developing country

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    Khodadad Moradian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of viscocanalostomy in the management of medically uncontrollable primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG in a developing country. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, non-randomized case series of 14 consecutive eyes with medically uncontrollable POAG, all subjected to viscocanalostomy. The main outcome measure was success rate based on the intraocular pressure (IOP level achieved post-operatively. The procedure was considered a complete success if IOP was less than 21 mmHg without any anti-glaucoma medication. Qualified success was defined as IOP of less than 21 mmHg with anti-glaucoma medication. All patients had a regular follow-up of at least 12 months. Results: IOP was reduced from a mean baseline value of 27.9 ± 7.3 mmHg (range: 21-40 mmHg to a mean final value of 16.0 ± 2.7 mmHg (range: 13-22 mmHg, which was statistically highly significant (P < 0.005. The mean number of pre-operative anti-glaucoma medications was 3.0 ± 0.4 (range: 2-4, which was reduced significantly (P < 0.0001 to 0.3 ± 0.6 (range: 0-2 at the last follow-up visit. One year post-operatively, complete success was achieved in 71% and qualified success was observed in 21.4% of patients, summing up to an overall success rate of 92.4%. There were no major complications in any of the patients. Conclusion: Viscocanalostomy could be performed effectively and safely for control of POAG in developing countries.

  16. Short-term effects of relaxation music on patients suffering from primary open-angle glaucoma

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    Bertelmann T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Bertelmann, Ilse Strempel Department of Ophthalmology, Philipps-University Marburg, Baldingerstraβe, Marburg, Germany Purpose: To evaluate whether additive relaxation music (RM has an adjuvant short-term effect on physiological and psychological parameters in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.Methods: Prospective, randomized clinical trial. Patients in the therapy group (TG received a 30-minute RM via headphones, whereas members of the control group (CG did not. Best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, visual field testing, short- and long-term mental states, and blood levels of different stress hormones were analyzed and compared.Results: A total of 25 (61%/16 (39% patients were assigned to the TG/CG. Best corrected visual acuity, daily intraocular pressure, and short-term mental state (KAB development were significantly better in the TG in comparison to controls. Visual field testing, long-term mental well-being (profile of mood states, and adrenalin, cortisol, and endothelin-I blood levels did not differ significantly between both groups.Conclusion: Additive RM applied on a daily basis can positively impact various physiological and psychological parameters in the short term. Keywords: primary open angle glaucoma, POAG, music therapy, intraocular pressure, IOP, mental health

  17. Ring melanoma of the anterior chamber angle as a mimicker of pigmentary glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadigh, Anni; Puska, Päivi; Vesti, Eija; Ristimäki, Ari; Turunen, Joni A; Kivelä, Tero T

    A 19-year-old man noticed blurred vision in his right eye. He had an intraocular pressure of 60 versus 12 mmHg in the fellow eye. He was initially diagnosed with an atypical, advanced pigmentary glaucoma. The intraocular pressure did not respond to maximal medication, deep sclerectomy, goniopuncture, and 2 cyclophotocoagulations. Sixteen months after presentation, malignancy was first suspected, and the eye was enucleated. A ring melanoma of the anterior chamber angle was confirmed by the histopathologic examination. Normal nuclear staining for breast cancer 1 gene (BRCA1)-associated protein 1 suggested that the tumor was likely of disomy 3 type with a favorable prognosis. No local or systemic recurrence has developed within 4 years. A literature review of this rare type of minimal volume diffuse uveal melanoma identified 18 additional patients. The initial diagnosis in 18 of the 19 patients with a ring melanoma of the anterior chamber angle was unilateral glaucoma with a median intraocular pressure of 40 mmHg and an age range of 16-76 years. Liver metastasis developed in 5 of 12 patients older than 45 years. This rare subtype is estimated to account for 0.05%-0.16% of all uveal melanomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Association analysis of cigarette smoking with onset of primary open-angle glaucoma and glaucoma-related biometric parameters

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    Wang Degui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, studies on the role played by cigarette smoking in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG remains controversial. The current study evaluated cigarette smoking as a risk factor of POAG and its relationships with vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR, central corneal thickness (CCT and intraocular pressure (IOP in a Chinese cohort. Methods In a total of 248 unrelated individuals including 30 juvenile-onset POAG (JOAG, 92 adult-onset POAG (AOAG and 126 sex-matched senile cataract controls, underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Their smoking was obtained and documented by questionnaire. Association of cigarette smoking with POAG was performed using logistic regression controlled for age and sex. Effects of cigarette smoking on VCDR, IOP and CCT were analyzed with multiple linear regression. Results In either JOAG or AOAG, no association of cigarette smoking was found with disease onset (P = 0.692 and 0.925 respectively. In controls and JOAG, no significant effects of smoking were found on VCDR, IOP or CCT (all P > 0.05. Smoking was found to be correlated with decreased CCT in AOAG and combined POAG (JOAG + AOAG (P = 0.009 and 0.003, but no association with VCDR or IOP was observed (P > 0.05. Conclusions Although cigarette smoking was not found to be risk factor for onset of POAG, it was correlated with CCT in AOAG, and thus might still play a role in the disease course, especially for AOAG.

  19. Prospective unmasked randomized evaluation of the iStent inject® versus two ocular hypotensive agents in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma

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    Fea AM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Antonio M Fea,1 Jose I Belda,2 Marek Rękas,3 Anselm Jünemann,4 Lydia Chang,5 Luis Pablo,6 Lilit Voskanyan,7 L Jay Katz81Università degli Studi di Torino, Clinica Oculistica, Torino, Italy; 2Hospital Torrevieja Salud, UTE, Servicio de Oftalmologia, Alicante, Spain; 3Military Institute of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Warsaw, Poland; 4Universitätsaugenklinik, Erlangen, Germany; 5Hinchingbrooke Hospital NHS Trust and Moorfields Bedford Hospital NHS Trust, United Kingdom; 6Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Servicio Oftalmologico, Zaragoza, Spain; 7SV Malayan Ophthalmological Center, Yerevan, Armenia; 8Wills Eye Institute, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA, USAPurpose: The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of subjects with open-angle glaucoma (OAG not controlled on one medication who underwent either implantation of two iStent inject® trabecular micro-bypass devices or received medical therapy consisting of a fixed combination of latanoprost/timolol.Patients and methods: Of 192 subjects who qualified for the study and were enrolled, 94 were randomized to surgery with implantation of two iStent inject® devices in the treated eye and 98 to receive medical therapy.Results: At the month 12 visit, 94.7% of eyes (89/94 in the stent group reported an unmedicated intraocular pressure (IOP reduction of ≥20% versus baseline unmedicated IOP, and 91.8% of eyes (88/98 in the medical therapy group reported an IOP reduction ≥20% versus baseline unmedicated IOP. A 17.5% between-group treatment difference in favor of the iStent inject group was statistically significant (P=0.02 at the ≥50% level of IOP reduction. An IOP ≤18 mmHg was reported in 92.6% of eyes (87/94 in the iStent inject group and 89.8% of eyes (88/98 in the medical therapy group. Mean (standard deviation IOP decreases from screening of 8.1 (2.6 mmHg and 7.3 (2.2 mmHg were reported in the iStent inject and medical therapy groups, respectively. A high

  20. Discovery and functional annotation of SIX6 variants in primary open-angle glaucoma.

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    Megan Ulmer Carnes

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is the most common subtype and is a complex trait with multigenic inheritance. Genome-wide association studies have previously identified a significant association between POAG and the SIX6 locus (rs10483727, odds ratio (OR = 1.32, p = 3.87×10(-11. SIX6 plays a role in ocular development and has been associated with the morphology of the optic nerve. We sequenced the SIX6 coding and regulatory regions in 262 POAG cases and 256 controls and identified six nonsynonymous coding variants, including five rare and one common variant, Asn141His (rs33912345, which was associated significantly with POAG (OR = 1.27, p = 4.2×10(-10 in the NEIGHBOR/GLAUGEN datasets. These variants were tested in an in vivo Danio rerio (zebrafish complementation assay to evaluate ocular metrics such as eye size and optic nerve structure. Five variants, found primarily in POAG cases, were hypomorphic or null, while the sixth variant, found only in controls, was benign. One variant in the SIX6 enhancer increased expression of SIX6 and disrupted its regulation. Finally, to our knowledge for the first time, we have identified a clinical feature in POAG patients that appears to be dependent upon SIX6 genotype: patients who are homozygous for the SIX6 risk allele (His141 have a statistically thinner retinal nerve fiber layer than patients homozygous for the SIX6 non-risk allele (Asn141. Our results, in combination with previous SIX6 work, lead us to hypothesize that SIX6 risk variants disrupt the development of the neural retina, leading to a reduced number of retinal ganglion cells, thereby increasing the risk of glaucoma-associated vision loss.

  1. Management of intermittent angle closure glaucoma with Nd: yag laser iridotomy as a primary procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and complications of Nd: YAG laser iridotomy in patients with intermittent (sub-acute) angle closure glaucoma. Twenty-five eyes of twenty-three patients with periodic (intermittent) angle closure, selected in outpatient department, were kept on pilocarpine until YAG laser iridotomy was performed. After YAG laser iridotomy oral acetazolamide and topical dexamethasone was used to control post laser rise of IOP and inflammation respectively. Patency of iridotomy was confirmed and intra-ocular pressure was measured one hour after the procedure. Immediate complication, if any, was noted. Follow-up was done for six months. Prophylactic laser iridotomy was done in fellow eye with occludable angle. Levene's test for equality of variance and t-test for equality of means were used for statistical analysis. This study revealed a significant difference in IOP before and after YAG laser iridotomy (p = .002). Complete follow-up of 6 months was possible in 25 eyes of 23 subjects. After YAG Laser iridotomy, 21 (84%) eyes showed negative provocative test, intraocular pressure below 19mm Hg without medication and anterior chamber angle no more occludable and were labeled successful. Iridotomy remained patent in 96% of eyes. Iridotomy failed to reduce IOP in 4 (16%) eyes. The complications were minimal and transient. (author)

  2. Morning glory syndrome associated with primary open angle glaucoma: Case report

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    Božić Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Morning glory syndrome (MGS is a rare congenital optic disc anomaly, first reported in 1970. MGS is a nonprogressive and untreatable condition, which usually occurs as an isolated ocular anomaly, and can be associated with the increased incidence of nonrhegmatogenous retinal detachment, and also with strabismus, afferent pupillary defect, visual field defects, presence of hyaloids artery remnants, ciliary body cyst, congenital cataract, lid hemangioma and preretinal gliosis. Case Outline. We report a clinical case of MGS associated with primary open angle glaucoma. The use of sophisticated diagnostic tools, such as retinal tomography and visual field testing is limited if multiple eye conditions are present, since optic disc does not have “usual” appearance that can be analyzed according to standard statistical databases. Conclusion. In treating and follow up of glaucoma cases associated with other diseases and conditions that affect the appearance and function of the optic nerve head, sometimes the use of modern technological methods is limited due to difficult interpretation of the obtained results.

  3. Open angle glaucoma in a case of Type IV Ehler Danlos syndrome: A rarely reported association

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    Arijit Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old male presented to us with defective vision in the left eye. He had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA of hand movement (HM in right eye and 6/9 in left eye. He had ptosis with ectropion in both eyes and relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD in right eye. Intraocular pressure (IOP was 46 and 44 mmHg in right and left eye, respectively. Fundus showed glaucomatous optic atrophy (GOA in right eye and cup disc ratio (CDR of 0.75 with bipolar rim thinning in left eye. Systemic examination showed hyperextensible skin and joints, acrogeria, hypodontia, high arched palate, and varicose veins. He gave history of easy bruising and tendency to fall and history of intestinal rupture 5 years ago for which he had undergone surgery. He was diagnosed as a case of Type IV Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS with open angle glaucoma. He underwent trabeculectomy in both eyes. This is a rare case that shows glaucoma in a patient of EDS Type IV. Very few such cases have been reported in literature.

  4. [Effect of physical and psychological stress on the course of primary open angle glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Alexandra; Stan, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing how mutch mental or physical stress influences the elevation of intraocular pressure (lOP) and therefore the influence of stress over the progress of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), monitoring the changes of the glaucoma parameters that occur either under stress or under normal life conditions. Observational analytical prospective nonexposed-exposed study that took place over a period of 18 months and reviewed 151 patients. Of the 64 patients that had mental stress before presenting to the doctor, in 47 (73%) of them, were foud increased lOP and visual field changes at regular consultation and 17 (27%) have experienced mental stress without increasing lOP values or any visual field change. Of the 69 patients that reported insomnia, 47 (68%) had elevated lOP, while 22 (32%) had unchanged IOP values. Of the 42 patients that had an increased stress score due to physical fatigue, 22 (52%) had increased lOP and visual field changes (CV) and 20 (48%) had no change in lOP or visual field. The presence of mental stress in a glaucomatous patient increases lOP values and leads to the worsening of the disease, while insomnia represents only a potential risk factor for POAG and physical exercise might even have a beneficial effect.

  5. Correlation of Papillomacular Nerve Fiber Bundle Thickness with Central Visual Function in Open-Angle Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Kobayashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the correlation of reduced retinal thickness in the central papillomacular bundle (CPB to central visual function, including central retinal sensitivity and visual acuity, in glaucoma patients. Methods. This study enrolled 50 eyes of 50 patients with open-angle glaucoma who were carefully screened for comorbid conditions that can cause decreased central visual function, such as cataracts or macular diseases. We used a novel CPB analysis comprising a program for optical coherence tomography that measured RNFL thickness and GCC thickness in the CPB and divided lengthwise into three parts (upper, middle, and lower CPB. The relationship of these parameters, including conventional macular thickness, to visual field sensitivity in four central standard automated perimetry points (the central four thresholds and BCVA was analyzed. Results. The two parameters most highly correlated with central four thresholds were macular GCCT and macular RNFLT. The two parameters most highly correlated with BCVA were middle CPB (mid-CPB GCCT and mid-CPB RNFLT. A multiple regression analysis revealed that mid-CPB GCCT was an independent factor impacting central retinal thresholds and BCVA. Conclusions. Our results suggest that mid-CPB RNFLT and GCCT, parameters of a novel papillomacular bundle analysis, are candidate biomarkers of decreased central visual function in glaucomatous eyes.

  6. Graph theoretical analysis reveals the reorganization of the brain network pattern in primary open angle glaucoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jieqiong; Li, Ting; Xian, Junfang; Wang, Ningli; He, Huiguang

    2016-01-01

    Most previous glaucoma studies with resting-state fMRI have focused on the neuronal activity in the individual structure of the brain, yet ignored the functional communication of anatomically separated structures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficiency of the functional communication change or not in glaucoma patients. We applied the resting-state fMRI data to construct the connectivity network of 25 normal controls and 25 age-gender-matched primary open angle glaucoma patients. Graph theoretical analysis was performed to assess brain network pattern differences between the two groups. No significant differences of the global network measures were found between the two groups. However, the local measures were radically reorganized in glaucoma patients. Comparing with the hub regions in normal controls' network, we found that six hub regions disappeared and nine hub regions appeared in the network of patients. In addition, the betweenness centralities of two altered hub regions, right fusiform gyrus and right lingual gyrus, were significantly correlated with the visual field mean deviation. Although the efficiency of functional communication is preserved in the brain network of the glaucoma at the global level, the efficiency of functional communication is altered in some specialized regions of the glaucoma. (orig.)

  7. Graph theoretical analysis reveals the reorganization of the brain network pattern in primary open angle glaucoma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jieqiong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Management and Control for Complex Systems, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China); Li, Ting; Xian, Junfang [Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang, Ningli [Capital Medical University, Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing (China); He, Huiguang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Management and Control for Complex Systems, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Research Center for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China)

    2016-11-15

    Most previous glaucoma studies with resting-state fMRI have focused on the neuronal activity in the individual structure of the brain, yet ignored the functional communication of anatomically separated structures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficiency of the functional communication change or not in glaucoma patients. We applied the resting-state fMRI data to construct the connectivity network of 25 normal controls and 25 age-gender-matched primary open angle glaucoma patients. Graph theoretical analysis was performed to assess brain network pattern differences between the two groups. No significant differences of the global network measures were found between the two groups. However, the local measures were radically reorganized in glaucoma patients. Comparing with the hub regions in normal controls' network, we found that six hub regions disappeared and nine hub regions appeared in the network of patients. In addition, the betweenness centralities of two altered hub regions, right fusiform gyrus and right lingual gyrus, were significantly correlated with the visual field mean deviation. Although the efficiency of functional communication is preserved in the brain network of the glaucoma at the global level, the efficiency of functional communication is altered in some specialized regions of the glaucoma. (orig.)

  8. Hypothesis-independent pathway analysis implicates GABA and acetyl-CoA metabolism in primary open-angle glaucoma and normal-pressure glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jessica N Cooke; Yaspan, Brian L; Pasquale, Louis R; Hauser, Michael A; Kang, Jae H; Loomis, Stephanie J; Brilliant, Murray; Budenz, Donald L; Christen, William G; Fingert, John; Gaasterland, Douglas; Gaasterland, Terry; Kraft, Peter; Lee, Richard K; Lichter, Paul R; Liu, Yutao; McCarty, Catherine A; Moroi, Sayoko E; Richards, Julia E; Realini, Tony; Schuman, Joel S; Scott, William K; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J; Vollrath, Douglas; Wollstein, Gadi; Zack, Donald J; Zhang, Kang; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Allingham, R Rand; Weinreb, Robert N; Haines, Jonathan L; Wiggs, Janey L

    2014-10-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Using genome-wide association single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Glaucoma Genes and Environment study and National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration comprising 3,108 cases and 3,430 controls, we assessed biologic pathways as annotated in the KEGG database for association with risk of POAG. After correction for genic overlap among pathways, we found 4 pathways, butanoate metabolism (hsa00650), hematopoietic cell lineage (hsa04640), lysine degradation (hsa00310) and basal transcription factors (hsa03022) related to POAG with permuted p metabolism pathway was also significantly associated (p metabolism pathway overall, and specifically the aspects of the pathway that contribute to GABA and acetyl-CoA metabolism, was the only pathway significantly associated with both POAG and NPG. Collectively these results implicate GABA and acetyl-CoA metabolism in glaucoma pathogenesis, and suggest new potential therapeutic targets.

  9. A cost-effectiveness analysis of fixed-combination therapies in patients with open-angle glaucoma: a European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommer, A.; Wickstrom, J.; Friis, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    /timolol. CONCLUSIONS: This cost-effectiveness analysis showed that the fixed combination of bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% administered once daily was a cost-effective treatment option for patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. This study was limited by available clinical data: without a head-to-head trial...

  10. Interactive effects of ATOH7 and RFTN1 in association with juvenile primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Gui Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To study ATOH7 and RFTN1 sequence variations in patients with juvenile primary open-angle glaucoma(JOAG. METHODS: In 298 controls(age≥60yand 52 JOAG(ageATOH7 was sequenced by direct sequencing. Additional single nucleotide polymorphisms the RFTN1 SNP(rs690037and at upstream ATOH7(rs1900004 and rs3858145were genotyped by Taqman assay. RESULTS: No any coding mutation was detected in JOAG. There were no significance in allele frequencies and haplotypes between JOAG and control group of rs7916697, rs61854782, rs1900004、rs3858145 and rs690037, so no SNP was associated with JOAG(P>0.05. CONCLUSION: Although preliminary study has showed combination of ATOH7 and RFTN1 SNPs could increase the risk of getting adult-onset primary open angle glaucoma, ATOH7 and RFTN1 are not associated with juvenile primary open-angle glaucoma in this study, so different types of open-angle glaucoma may be differences in genetic mechanism and be worthy of further study.

  11. [Effects of nootropic agents on visual functions and lacrimal antioxidative activity in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydova, N G; Kuznetsova, T P; Borisova, S A; Abdulkadyrova, M Zh

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an investigation of the effect of the nootropic agents pantogam and nooclerine on visual functions in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. These agents have been found to have a beneficial effect on the functional activity of the retina and optic nerve, light sensitivity, hemo- and hydrodynamics of the eye.

  12. Visual disability in newly diagnosed primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoyesuku, E A; Ejimadu, C S

    2012-01-01

    Glaucoma remains the second leading cause of blindness worldwide and the highes cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. In N Glaucoma accounts for 16% of blindness and primary open angle glaucoma is the most prevalent clinical type. The aim of this study is to assess the visual disability resulting from glaucoma in newly diagnosed POAG patients in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. This is a retrospective study of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients referred from the general ophthalmology clinic to the glaucoma clinic over a 12 month period (January-December 2010). All patients had a glaucoma workup includin Snellen distant visual acuity, slit lamp examination, Goldman applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, dilated fundoscopy with +78 diopter lens as well as perimetry. All examinations were carried out by both authors. Patients with other co-morbidities such as cataract and retinal/macular pathologies were excluded from the study. A total of 98 patients were reviewed. The were 34 males and 27 females, giving a male to female ratio of 1.3:1. The average age was 54.2 years and most patients (>80%) were in the 40-59 year age group. Of the 98 patients reviewed, 62.2% had POAG. 30 patients were-blind by distant visual acuity criteria while 45 patients were blind by central visual field criteria. POAG is the most prevalent clinical subtype of glaucoma in Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa Paucity of symptoms in early stages of the disease at late presentation is a characteristic finding in our clinic environment. Our study showed that POAG in our environment is associated with marked visual disability at the time of presentation.

  13. Valor de la ecobiometría en el glaucoma primario de ángulo estrecho Value of ecobiometry in the primary closed-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibis Sedeño Cruz

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúa la importancia de la ecobiometría en el sistema diagnóstico del glaucoma primario de ángulo estrecho. A manera de ensayo clínico se estudiaron 105 ojos con esta enfermedad que se agruparon gonioscópicamente. Se les realizó ecobiometría como complemento diagnóstico. Se comprobó una relación directa de la amplitud de ángulo con la distancia axil y la profundidad de la cámara anterior y una relación inversa con el grosor del cristalino. Se observó que la profundidad de la cámara anterior menor de 2 mm constituye un alto riesgo para el desarrollo de un glaucoma agudo. El análisis ecobiométrico permitió conocer mejor el estado anatómico del ojo, facilitando una orientación terapéutica oportunaThe importance of ecobiometry for diagnosing primary closed-angle glaucoma is evaluated in this paper. 105 eyes with this diseases were clinically studied and gruoped according to the results of gonioscopy. Ecobiometry was performed as a diagnostic complement. A direct relationship between the exten of the angle and the axial distance and the depth of the anterior chamber was observed. An inversa relationship between the extent of the angle and the width of the crystalline lens was found. A depth of the anterior chamber under 2 mm is a high risk for the development of acute glaucoma. The ecobiometric analysis allowed to know the anatomical state of the eye better, making possible an opportune therapeutic guidance

  14. Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the angle of the eye (gonioscopy). Photographs or laser scanning images of the inside of your eye ( ... do not work, you may need other treatment: Laser treatment uses a painless laser to open the ...

  15. Oseltamivir (Tamiflu-induced bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma and transient myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Woong Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 27-year-old woman developed bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma (AACG and transient myopia after taking oseltamivir for four days. On the fourth day, she received systemic and topical intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering agents, and IOP decreased in both eyes. However, her visual acuity was unchanged. A myopic shift of -5.25 D OD and -5.0 D OS was estimated to have occurred in the acute phase. A-scan ultrasonography and Pentacam showed markedly shallow anterior chambers and increased lens thickness. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed an annular ciliochoroidal effusion with forward displacement of the lens-iris diaphragm. Ciliochoroidal effusion and transient myopia were resolved after discontinuation of oseltamivir.

  16. Latanoprost-induced iris heterochromia and open-angle glaucoma: a clinicopathologic report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, J C; Sivak-Callcott, J A; Haik, B G; Zhang, J; McLean, I W

    2001-10-01

    To report the histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings from the iridectomy specimen of a patient with acquired unilateral iris heterochromia due to latanoprost. A 45-year-old woman with open-angle glaucoma and unilateral iris heterochromia was evaluated for uncontrolled intraocular pressure increase. Subsequently, the patient underwent trabeculectomy with mitomycin C and an iridectomy specimen was obtained for analysis. The histopathologic analysis of the iridectomy specimen did not reveal any nuclear atypia, nuclear crowding, or mitotic figures. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the iris melanocytes were negative for HMB45 and S-100, and weakly positive for Melan A. Latanoprost-associated iris color change may exhibit a diffuse, uniform, dark velvet-brown appearance, thereby simulating diffuse iris melanoma. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the benign characteristics of the affected iris melanocytes.

  17. Clinical results with the Trabectome, a novel surgical device for treatment of open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minckler, Don; Baerveldt, George; Ramirez, Marina Alfaro; Mosaed, Sameh; Wilson, Richard; Shaarawy, Tarek; Zack, Barend; Dustin, Laurie; Francis, Brian

    2006-01-01

    To describe treatment outcomes after Trabectome surgery in an initial series of 101 patients with open-angle glaucoma. A 19-gauge microelectrosurgical device enabled ab interno removal of a strip of trabecular meshwork and inner wall of Schlemm's canal under gonioscopic control with continual infusion and foot-pedal control of aspiration and electrosurgery. A smooth, pointed ceramic-coated insulating footplate was inserted into Schlemm's canal to act as a guide within the canal and to protect adjacent structures from mechanical or heat injury during ablation of a 30- to 90-degree arc of angle tissue. Mean preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) in the initial 101 patients was 27.6 +/- 7.2 mm Hg. Thirty months postoperatively, mean IOP was 16.3 +/- 3.3 mm Hg (n = 11). The mean percentage drop over the whole course of follow-up was 40%. At all times postoperatively, the absolute and percent decrease in IOP from preoperative levels were statistically significant (paired t test, P < .0001). Overall success (IOP glaucoma surgery, which spares the conjunctiva and does not preclude subsequent standard filtering procedures.

  18. Risk Factors for Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Western Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güliz Fatma Yavaş

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG in subjects aged over 40 years in Western Turkey and to quantify its association with several systemic risk factors. Ma te ri al and Met hod: The research was conducted in Afyonkarahisar, a middle Anatolian city, between November 2005 and February 2006. A total of 1533 subjects aged 40 years or more were included in the study. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerotic cardiac disease, obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and dietary habitus (meat, chicken, and fish consumption were asked. Level of blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, Vitamin B12, and thyroid-stimulating-hormone were determined. Ophthalmic examination was performed, and intraocular pressure was measured by tonopen. Subjects with an IOP of 21 mmHg or more and/or with a cupping/disc ratio of 0.3 or more were told to come to the clinic for visual field analysis and gonioscopy. Subjects with a typical glaucomatous visual field defect and an open angle were recorded as POAG. Risk factors for POAG were determined by chi-square test. Re sults: Prevalence of POAG was found to be 2% (30 subjects and the only associated risk factor was age (p=0.05. Dietary habitus was also not associated with glaucoma (p>0.05. Dis cus si on: This study provides a population-based data about the prevalence and risk factors of POAG in Turkey. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 87-90

  19. Incidence and risk factors of open-angle glaucoma : the Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. de Voogd (Simone); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2006-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Glaucoma is one of the poorest understood and defined eye diseases among those known since our era. Despite two millennia of writing about glaucoma, a straightforward and clear-cut definition is not available worldwide. In essence, glaucoma is an eye disease

  20. Novel therapeutic approaches to correct retinal metabolic abnormalities in primary open-angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2015-01-01

    Common pathogenic aspects of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), i.e., the role of free radicals inducing oxidative damage of the retina and optic nerve, are discussed. Factors that activate free radical reactions as well as multilevel antioxidant protection system are reviewed. Data derived from studies on current antioxidants that are used to treat and prevent dry AMD and glaucomatous optic nerve damage are compared. Neuroprotection for glaucoma wi...

  1. Predictors of Intraocular Pressure After Phacoemulsification in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Eyes with Wide Versus Narrower Angles (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan C; Masis, Marisse; Porco, Travis C; Pasquale, Louis R

    2017-08-01

    To assess if narrower-angle status and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) parameters can predict intraocular pressure (IOP) drop in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients after cataract surgery. This was a prospective case series of consecutive cataract surgery patients with POAG and no peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) using a standardized postoperative management protocol. Preoperatively, patients underwent gonioscopy and AS-OCT. The same glaucoma medication regimen was resumed by 1 month. Potential predictors of IOP reduction included narrower-angle status by gonioscopy and angle-opening distance (AOD500) as well as other AS-OCT parameters. Mixed-effects regression adjusted for use of both eyes and other potential confounders. We enrolled 66 eyes of 40 glaucoma patients. The IOP reduction at 1 year was 4.2±3 mm Hg (26%, P <.001) in the narrower-angle group vs 2.2±3 mm Hg (14%, P <.001) in the wide-angle group ( P =.027 for difference), as classified by gonioscopy. By AOD500 classification, the narrower-angle group had 3.4±3 mm Hg (21%, P <.001) reduction vs 2.5±3 mm Hg (16%, P <.001) in the wide-angle group ( P =.031 for difference). When the entire cohort was assessed, iris thickness, iris area, and lens vault were correlated with increasing IOP reduction at 1 year ( P <.05 for all). In POAG eyes, cataract surgery lowered IOP to a greater degree in the narrower-angle group than in the wide-angle group, and parameters relating to iris thickness and area, as well as lens vault, were correlated with IOP reduction. These findings can guide ophthalmologists in their selection of cataract surgery as a potential management option.

  2. Uteroglobin and FLRG concentrations in aqueous humor are associated with age in primary open angle glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth Briggs, Esther L; Toh, Tze'Yo; Eri, Rajaraman; Hewitt, Alex W; Cook, Anthony L

    2018-02-27

    The pathophysiological changes occurring in the trabecular meshwork in primary open angle glaucoma are poorly understood, but are thought to include increased extracellular matrix deposition, trabecular meshwork cell apoptosis, inflammation, trabecular meshwork calcification and altered protein composition of the aqueous humor. Although many proteins are present in aqueous humor, relatively few have been studied extensively, and their potential roles in primary open angle glaucoma are unknown. Analyte concentrations in aqueous humor from 19 primary open angle glaucoma and 18 cataract patients were measured using a multiplex immunoassay. Fisher's exact test was used to assess statistical significance between groups, and correlations of analyte concentrations with age, intraocular pressure, pattern standard deviation, mean deviation, cup-to-disc ratio and disease duration since commencing treatment were tested by Spearman's method. CHI3L1, FLRG, HGF, MIF, P-selectin and Uteroglobin were detected in more than 50% of samples of one or both patient groups, some of which have not previously been quantified in aqueous humor. In the glaucoma but not the cataract group, significant correlations were determined with age for Uteroglobin/SCGB1A1 (r s  = 0.805, p < 0.0001) and FLRG (r s  = 0.706, p = 0.0007). Furthermore, HGF correlated significantly with disease duration (r s  = - 0.723, p = 0.0007). There were no differences in analyte concentrations between groups, and no other significant associations with clinical descriptors that passed correction for multiple testing. The correlations of uteroglobin and FLRG with age in primary open angle glaucoma but not cataract may suggest a heightened requirement for anti-inflammatory (uteroglobin) or anti-calcification (FLRG) activity in the ageing glaucomatous trabecular meshwork.

  3. Significance of Visual Evoked Potentials in the Assessment of Visual Field Defects in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Kothari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual evoked potentials is an important visual electrophysiological tool which has been used for the evaluation of visual field defects in primary open-angle glaucoma and is an appropriate objective measure of optic nerve function. Significant correlations between the magnitude of the VEP parameters and MD of Humphrey static perimetry suggest that the impaired visual cortical responses observed in glaucoma patients can be revealed by both electrophysiological and psychophysical methods. In addition, the severity of global glaucomatous damage evidenced by reduction in MD could depend on the delay in neural conduction from retina to the visual cortex as revealed by the significant correlation between VEP latencies and MD which also supports the validity of the VEP testing in progression of glaucoma.

  4. Associations of sleep duration with open angle glaucoma in the Korea national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Ah; Han, Kyungdo; Min, Jung Ah; Choi, Jin A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between sleep duration and glaucoma, stratified by obesity status.This study was conducted using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V 2010 to 2012. Open-angle glaucoma was diagnosed according to the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Subjects were divided into subgroups based on those who were overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m or sleep duration (pattern (P for trend = 0.072). Among overweight individuals, subjects who slept exercise, education level, household income, hypertension, intraocular pressure, stress, and depression (odds ratio, 2.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-5.03). Unlike for overweight individuals, sleep duration in nonoverweight individuals was not statistically significantly associated with glaucoma.Our results reveal a U-shaped association between sleep duration and the prevalence of glaucoma. An effect of sleep duration on glaucoma was present in the subgroup of overweight patients.

  5. Health care charges for patients with ocular hypertension or primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Louis R; Dolgitser, Margarita; Wentzloff, Jeffrey N; Stern, Lee S; Doyle, John J; Chiang, Tina H; Walt, John G

    2008-04-01

    To determine the total and condition-related direct health care charges of patients with ocular hypertension (OH) or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and identify factors that affect these charges. Retrospective cohort study. Patients with OH (n = 36 767) and POAG (n = 72 412) with > or =1 year of continuous enrollment during calendar years 1998 through 2005 in a nationally representative, multimanaged health plan database (PharMetrics). First year total health care and condition-related charges were calculated. Subsequently multivariate linear regression models determined the impact of ophthalmic condition (OH or POAG), age, index year, gender, geographic region, payer mix, product type, treatment with glaucoma medication, ocular comorbidities, and systemic comorbidities on these charges. Per-person per year first-year total health care and ocular condition-related charges in United States dollars, adjusted for multiple covariates. Patients with POAG had significantly higher adjusted total and condition-related health care charges during the first year of follow-up than patients with OH in multivariable analysis ($2070 vs. $1990, Pcharges compared with males and younger patients ($586 or 28.3% more; Pcharges (P = 0.13 and P = 0.052, respectively). Index year, region, payer, and product types significantly dictated both total and disease-related charges. Patients with ocular comorbid conditions, including cataracts, cataract surgery, diabetic retinopathy, and blindness, had significantly higher total and condition-related health care charges than patients without these conditions (Pcharges are considerable for patients with OH and POAG. These data identify several factors that dictate these charges.

  6. Osteogenesis imperfecta and primary open angle glaucoma: genotypic analysis of a new phenotypic association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Dana J; Chau, Felix Y; Santiago-Turla, Cecilia; Hauser, Michael; Challa, Pratap; Lee, Paul P; Herndon, Leon W; Allingham, R Rand

    2014-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of inherited disorders characterized by bone fragility. Ocular findings include blue sclera, low ocular rigidity, and thin corneal thickness. However, there are no documented cases linking OI and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). In this report, we describe three individuals, one isolated case and two from a multiplex family, with OI type I and POAG. Available family members with OI and POAG had a complete eye examination, including visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), pachymetry, slit-lamp exam, dilated fundus exam, and visual fields. DNA from blood samples was sequenced and screened for mutations in COL1A1/2 and myocilin (MYOC). All subjects had OI type I. Findings of POAG included elevated IOP, normal gonioscopy, and glaucomatous optic disc cupping and visual field loss. POAG cosegregated with OI in the multiplex family. The multiplex family had a single nucleotide insertion (c.540_541insC) in COL1A1 resulting in a frameshift mutation and a premature termination codon. The sporadic case had a COL1A1 splice acceptor site mutation (c.2452-2A>T or IVS36-2A>T) predicted to result in a premature termination codon due to intron inclusion or a cryptic splice site. None of the glaucoma cases had mutations or sequence changes in MYOC. We identified two novel mutations in COL1A1 in individuals with OI type I and POAG. Thus, some mutations in COL1A1 may be causative for OI and POAG. Alternatively, susceptibility genes may interact with mutations in COL1A1 to cause POAG.

  7. Short-term effects of brimonidine/timolol and dorzolamide/timolol on ocular perfusion pressure and blood flow in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siesky, Brent; Harris, Alon; Ehrlich, Rita; Cantor, Louis; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Rusia, Deepam; Hollander, David A; Abrams, Leslie; Williams, Julia M; Shoshani, Yochai

    2012-01-01

    To examine the comparative short-term effects of brimonidine/timolol and dorzolamide/timolol on ocular perfusion pressure and retrobulbar blood flow in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (OAG). In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, crossover study, intraocular pressure (IOP), blood pressure (BP), ocular perfusion pressure (OPP), and retrobulbar hemodynamics were assessed in 15 patients with OAG (mean age 68.1 years, eight women) with well controlled IOP. IOP was measured by Goldman applanation tonometery and color Doppler imaging was utilized to assess the retrobulbar blood vessels before and 1 month after treatment with topical brimonidine/timolol and dorzolamide/timolol. Statistical analysis was performed by Friedman two-way analysis of variance by ranks and post-hoc Wilcoxon signed rank test for multiple comparisons with Holm's sequential Bonferroni procedure. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. The Friedman test and subsequent post-hoc analysis indicated that IOP, BP, OPP, and retrobulbar blood flow velocities did not significantly differ between brimonidine/timolol and dorzolamide/timolol after 1-month treatment administration in patients with OAG and well controlled IOP. In this cohort of patients with OAG, short-term treatment with brimonidine/timolol and dorzolamide/timolol results in similar effects on OPP and retrobulbar blood flow velocities.

  8. Trabeculoplastia selectiva con láser en glaucoma primario de ángulo cerrado Use of selective laser trabeculoplasty in primary closed angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailen Garcés Fernández

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar eficacia y seguridad de la trabeculoplastia selectiva láser en pacientes portadores de glaucoma primario de ángulo cerrado, operados de cataratas y/o glaucoma, e identificar la frecuencia de los principales efectos adversos. MÉTODOS: Investigación observacional descriptiva prospectiva en 35 pacientes (50 ojos portadores de glaucoma primario de ángulo cerrado sometidos a cirugía de cataratas y/o glaucoma, en el Instituto Cubano Oftalmológico "Ramón Pando Ferrer" entre mayo y noviembre de 2007. Se utilizó equipo Tango LT 5106-T, de Laserex. RESULTADOS: Predominaron pacientes femeninas, mayores de 60 años y piel no blanca, hipermétropes, elevada frecuencia de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. Se logró un 41,2 % de reducción de la presión intraocular a los 6 meses. La técnica en pacientes con antecedentes de cirugía filtrante previa mostró resultados muy similares a los no intervenidos. La terapia mostró efectividad en 88 % de los ojos, se logró disminuir la terapia médica hipotensora. Eventos adversos: picos tensionales, epiteliopatía corneal y dispersión de pigmentos. CONCLUSIONES: La técnica láser resultó ser eficaz para lograr control tensional y/o reducción de terapia médica antihipertensiva ocular en este tipo de pacientes.OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficiency and safety of selective laser trabeculoplasty in patients who suffered primary close angle glaucoma and were operated from cataract and/or glaucoma, and to identify the frequency of the main adverse effects. METHODS: Prospective descriptive and observational research study of 35 patients (50 eyes carrying primary close angle glaucoma, who were operated on from cataract and/or glaucoma at "Ramón Pando Ferrer" Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology from May to November 2007. The equipment called Tango LT 5106-T from Laserex was used. RESULTS: Female patients, people over 60 years-old, Caucausians, hypermetropics, high frequency of non

  9. A Small Disc Area Is a Risk Factor for Visual Field Loss Progression in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: The Glaucoma Stereo Analysis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Kitaoka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The Glaucoma Stereo Analysis Study, a cross-sectional multicenter collaborative study, used a stereo fundus camera (nonmyd WX to assess various morphological parameters of the optic nerve head (ONH in glaucoma patients. We compared the associations of each parameter between the visual field loss progression group and no-progression group. Methods. The study included 187 eyes of 187 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or normal-tension glaucoma. We divided the mean deviation (MD slope values of all patients into the progression group (<−0.3 dB/year and no-progression group (≧−0.3 dB/year. ONH morphological parameters were calculated with prototype analysis software. The correlations between glaucomatous visual field progression and patient characteristics or each ONH parameter were analyzed with Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Results. The MD slope averages in the progression group and no-progression group were −0.58 ± 0.28 dB/year and 0.05 ± 0.26 dB/year, respectively. Among disc parameters, vertical disc width (diameter, disc area, cup area, and cup volume in the progression group were significantly less than those in the no-progression group. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between the visual field progression and disc area (odds ratio 0.49/mm2 disc area. Conclusion. A smaller disc area may be associated with more rapid glaucomatous visual field progression.

  10. Predictors of success in selective laser trabeculoplasty for primary open angle glaucoma in Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JW

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jacky WY Lee,1,2 Catherine CL Liu,3 Jonathan CH Chan,4 Raymond LM Wong,5 Ian YH Wong,2 Jimmy SM Lai2 1The Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, Hong Kong, SAR, People’s Republic of China; 2The Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Applied Mathematics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, SAR, People’s Republic of China; 4The Department of Ophthalmology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, SAR, People’s Republic of China; 5The Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Hong Kong Eye Hospital, Hong Kong, SAR, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To determine the predictors of success for adjuvant selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT in Chinese primary open angle glaucoma (POAG patients. Methods: This prospective study recruited Chinese subjects with unilateral or bilateral POAG currently taking medication to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP. All subjects received a single session of 360° SLT treatment and continued their medications for 1 month. SLT success was defined as IOP reduction ≥20% at 1 month. The following covariates were analyzed in both groups via univariate and multivariate analyses: age, sex, lens status, initial IOPs, post-SLT IOPs, number and type of medications, SLT shots and energy, and pre-SLT investigations.Results: In 51 eyes of 33 POAG subjects, the success rate of SLT was 47.1%. Certain groups of patients were associated with greater success using univariate analysis. These groups included the following: older age (coefficient =0.1; OR: 1.1; P=0.0003, a higher pre-SLT IOP (coefficient =0.3; OR: 1.3; P=0.0005, using four types of antiglaucoma medication (coefficient =2.1; OR: 8.4; P=0.005, a greater degree of spherical equivalent (coefficient =2.1; OR: 8.4; P=0.005, and the use of a topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (coefficient =1.7; OR: 6.0; P=0.003. None of the covariates were significant using

  11. Incidência de glaucoma agudo primário no Serviço de Glaucoma do Hospital São Geraldo Incidence of primary angle-closure glaucoma in the Glaucoma Service of the São Geraldo Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vidal Mérula

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a incidência do glaucoma agudo primário no Serviço de Glaucoma do Hospital São Geraldo; estabelecer o perfil destes pacientes e identificar possíveis fatores de risco. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal. Período de análise: setembro/2005 a agosto/2006. Inclusão: diagnóstico de glaucoma agudo primário. Exclusão: presença de catarata que acarrete baixa acuidade visual ou miopização, glaucomas secundários, íris em platô. Foram avaliados: número de atendimentos, incidência de glaucoma agudo primário, idade, sexo, raça, história familiar de glaucoma, ceratometria, e dados biométricos. RESULTADOS: Dentre 879 pacientes atendidos, 20 (2,3% tiveram o diagnóstico de glaucoma agudo primário, desse modo, a incidência de glaucoma agudo primário foi de 22,7 por 1000 atendimentos. Dos pacientes com glaucoma agudo primário: 6 (30,0% eram do sexo masculino e 14 (70,0% feminino; a idade variou de 40 a 73 anos (média: 60,4 ± 8,1 anos; 12 (60,0% eram leucodérmicos e 8 (40,0% feodérmicos; 5 (25,0% com história familiar positiva para glaucoma. O risco relativo para o sexo feminino foi de 1,44 (IC 95%. Onze (55,0% pacientes tiveram glaucoma agudo primário no olho direito e 9 (45,0% no esquerdo. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na comparação dos parâmetros biométricos e ceratometria entre os olhos afetados e os contralaterais. CONCLUSÕES: A incidência de glaucoma agudo primário no Serviço de Glaucoma do Hospital São Geraldo foi de 22,7 por 1000 atendimentos, sendo mais freqüente em mulheres, leucodérmicas, com história familiar negativa para glaucoma e média de idade de 60,4 anos. Os olhos afetados e olhos contralaterais foram semelhantes nos parâmetros biométricos.PURPOSE: To determine the incidence of the primary angle-closure glaucoma at the Glaucoma Service of São Geraldo Hospital, to establish the profile of these patients and to identify the possible risk factors. METHODS

  12. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on compliance in primary open angle glaucoma patients with topical medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction(MBSRon anxiety, compliance and visual function in primary open angle glaucoma(POAGpatients.METHODS:Totally 64 patients, who were treated with topical medication and were diagnosed with POAG in the department of ophthalmology at Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, were randomly divided into the intervention group(n=32and the control group(n=32. Both groups received conventional mental health education while the intervention group was complemented with MBSR intervention. The patient's anxiety status, compliance rates and MD before and after the intervention were evaluated.RESULTS:After the MBSR intervention, the scores of HAMA of the intervention group were significantly lower than that of the control group(PPCONCLUSION:The MBSR intervention can effectively relieve the anxiety of patients and improve the compliance in primary open angle glaucoma patients. It can be promoted and put into clinical application.

  13. Identifying risk factors for blindness from primary open-angle glaucoma by race: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew M; Huang, Wei; Muir, Kelly W; Stinnett, Sandra S; Stone, Jordan S; Rosdahl, Jullia A

    2018-01-01

    To examine the factors associated with blindness from primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) among black and white patients at our institution. For this retrospective, case-control study, patients legally blind from POAG ("cases") were matched on age, race, and gender with non-blind POAG patients ("controls"). Thirty-seven black case-control pairs and 19 white case-control pairs were included in this study. Clinical variables were compared at initial presentation and over the course of follow-up. Black case-control pairs and white case-control pairs had similar characteristics at presentation, including cup-to-disc ratio and number of glaucoma medications. However, over the course of follow-up, black cases underwent significantly more glaucoma surgeries than matched controls (2.4 versus 1.2, p =0.001), whereas white cases and controls had no significant difference in glaucoma operations (0.9 versus 0.6, p =0.139). Our analysis found that glaucoma surgery is associated with blindness in black patients (odds ratio [OR] 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2) but not in white patients (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.2). Black and white case-control pairs with POAG shared similar risk factors for blindness at presentation. However, over the follow-up period, black cases required significantly more glaucoma surgeries compared to black controls, whereas there was no significant difference in surgery between white cases and controls. There was no difference in medication changes in either case-control set.

  14. Long-term efficacy and safety of ExPress implantation for treatment of open angle glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Geun Young; Lee, Chong Eun; Lee, Kyoo Won; Seo, Sam

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To compare the long-term efficacy and safety of ExPress implantation and standard trabeculectomy in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS: In this retrospective study, we compared 17 eyes treated by ExPress implantation with 23 eyes treated by trabeculectomy. Efficacy was assessed according to the relevant intraocular pressure (IOP) values and success rates during the first year of follow-up. Postoperative corneal endothelial cell loss was also compared. RESULTS...

  15. A New Acute Attack of Angle Closure Glaucoma Animal Model with Healon 5

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    Silvania Y. F. Lau

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute angle closure glaucoma (AACG is an ocular emergency and sight -threatening disease in which the intraocular ocular pressure (IOP rises suddenly due to blockage of aqueous humor outflow. It can cause permanent loss in visual acuity and visual field. In animal study, the well-established model to study AACG is by fluid infusion and by adjusting the bottle level, a high IOP can be induced in a few seconds. However, there is no blockage of aqueous outflow and the pressure rise is unrealistically fast. To mimic human AACG, we suggest to use Healon 5, an ophthalmic viscosurgical device, which is injected intracamerally to block the aqueous outflow. The IOP is allowed to build up naturally. We found that, with this technique, the IOP elevated at a rate of 0.57 mmHg/min before it hit 40 mmHg, which is considered as AACG in human. The maximum IOP registered was above 70 mmHg. Thinning of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL and neural cells lost were seen. Visual function evaluated by ERG showed reduction in a-wave, b-wave, photopic negative response (PhNR and oscillatory potentials (OPs activities. In conclusion, Healon 5 is effective in inducing acute transient rise in IOP which mimics human AACG.

  16. Short-term effects of relaxation music on patients suffering from primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelmann, Thomas; Strempel, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether additive relaxation music (RM) has an adjuvant short-term effect on physiological and psychological parameters in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Prospective, randomized clinical trial. Patients in the therapy group (TG) received a 30-minute RM via headphones, whereas members of the control group (CG) did not. Best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, visual field testing, short- and long-term mental states, and blood levels of different stress hormones were analyzed and compared. A total of 25 (61%)/16 (39%) patients were assigned to the TG/CG. Best corrected visual acuity, daily intraocular pressure, and short-term mental state (KAB) development were significantly better in the TG in comparison to controls. Visual field testing, long-term mental well-being (profile of mood states), and adrenalin, cortisol, and endothelin-I blood levels did not differ significantly between both groups. Additive RM applied on a daily basis can positively impact various physiological and psychological parameters in the short term.

  17. Study of biological measurement parameters of anterior segment in primary acute angle-closure glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie Bian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate biological measurement parameters of anterior segment in acute angle-closure glaucoma(AACG.METHODS: Forty-six eyes of 46 patients with AACG and 52 eyes of 52 patients with shallow anterior chamber and 50 eyes of 50 normal individuals were examined. The parameters of anterior segment including chamber crowd rate(CCR, lens thickness(LT, lens position(LPand anterior chamber depth(ACDwere measured by A-ultrasound according to different ages in each group. The data were performed statistical analysis in three groups.RESULTS: In each age range group(≥50~59 years old, ≥60~69 years old, ≥70 years old, statistically significant differences in three groups(AACG, shallow anterior chamber group and the controlswere found in CCR, LT, LP, ACD(PPP>0.05between AACG and shallow anterior chamber group in each age range group.CONCLUSION: CCR can be used as the index of evaluating crowding state of anterior segment in AACG patients and the sensitivity is better than LT and LP.

  18. Evaluation of brimonidine-timolol fixed combination in patients of primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin R Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to compare the efficacy and safety of fixed combination of brimonidine and timolol with individual components used as monotherapy in patients of primary open angle glaucoma. Patients were randomly assigned to receive brimonidine or timolol or brimonidine-timolol fixed combination, with 30 patients in each group. The mean reduction in intraocular pressure in brimonidine, timolol, and brimonidine-timolol group were 4.29 ± 1.97 mm Hg, 4.34 ± 1.21 mm Hg, and 5.54 ± 1.87 mm Hg respectively at 2 weeks and 4.86 ± 1.16 mm Hg, 5.42 ± 1.50 mm Hg, and 7.36 ± 2.58 mm Hg respectively at 6 weeks. When values of mean reduction in intraocular pressure were compared between brimonidine-timolol fixed combination with brimonidine and timolol, it was found to be statistically significant ( P < 0.05 at 2 weeks and highly significant (0.001 at 6 weeks. The overall frequency of adverse effects was similar in all three groups.

  19. Hypothyroidism as a risk factor for open angle glaucoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Zheng, Guangying

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The relationship between hypothyroidism and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) has attracted intense interest recently, but the reported results have been controversial. This meta-analysis was carried out to determine the association between hypothyroidism and POAG. Methods The literature was identified from three databases (Web of Science, Embase, and PubMed). The meta-analyses were performed using random-effects models, with results reported as adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI 95%). Results A total of 11 studies meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the final meta-analysis. The pooled OR based on 11 risk estimates showed a statistically significant increased risk of POAG prevalence among individuals with hypothyroidism (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.27–2.13). Substantial heterogeneity among these studies was detected (P hypothyroidism and POAG, which was not observed in cross-sectional studies. There was no significant publication bias in this study. Conclusions The findings of this meta-analysis indicate that individuals with hypothyroidism have an increased risk of developing POAG. PMID:29069095

  20. Factors associated with developing a fear of falling in subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Sayaka; Yuki, Kenya; Awano-Tanabe, Sachiko; Ono, Takeshi; Shiba, Daisuke; Murata, Hiroshi; Asaoka, Ryo; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2018-02-13

    To investigate the relationship between clinical risk factors, including visual field (VF) defects and visual acuity, and a fear of falling, among patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). All participants answered the following question at a baseline ophthalmic examination: Are you afraid of falling? The same question was then answered every 12 months for 3 years. A binocular integrated visual field was calculated by merging a patient's monocular Humphrey field analyzer VFs, using the 'best sensitivity' method. The means of total deviation values in the whole, superior peripheral, superior central, inferior central, and inferior peripheral VFs were calculated. The relationship between these mean VF measurements, and various clinical factors, against patients' baseline fear of falling and future fear of falling was analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Among 392 POAG subjects, 342 patients (87.2%) responded to the fear of falling question at least twice in the 3 years study period. The optimal regression model for patients' baseline fear of falling included age, gender, mean of total deviation values in the inferior peripheral VF and number of previous falls. The optimal regression equation for future fear of falling included age, gender, mean of total deviation values in the inferior peripheral VF and number of previous falls. Defects in the inferior peripheral VF area are significantly related to the development of a fear of falling.

  1. OCT-Based Quantification and Classification of Optic Disc Structure in Glaucoma Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Takada

    Full Text Available To objectively classify the optic discs of open-angle glaucoma (OAG patients into Nicolela's four disc types, i.e., focal ischemic (FI, myopic (MY, senile sclerotic (SS, and generalized enlargement (GE, with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT.This study enrolled 113 eyes of 113 OAG patients (mean age: 62.5 ± 12.6; Humphrey field analyzer-measured mean deviation: -9.4 ± 7.3 dB. Newly developed software was used to quantify a total of 20 optic disc parameters in SS-OCT (DRI OCT-1, TOPCON images of the optic disc. The most suitable reference plane (RP above the plane of Bruch's membrane opening was determined by comparing, at various RP heights, the SS-OCT-measured rim parameters and spectral-domain OCT-measured circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT, with Pearson's correlation analysis. To obtain a discriminant formula for disc type classification, a training group of 72 eyes of 72 OAG patients and a validation group of 60 eyes of 60 OAG patients were set up.Correlation with cpRNFLT differed with disc type and RP height, but overall, a height of 120 μm minimized the influence of disc type. Six parameters were most significant for disc type discrimination: disc angle (horizontal, average cup depth, cup/disc ratio, rim-decentering ratio, average rim/disc ratio (upper and lower nasal. Classifying the validation group with these parameters returned an identification rate of 80.0% and a Cohen's Kappa of 0.73.Our new, objective SS-OCT-based method enabled us to classify glaucomatous optic discs with high reproducibility and accuracy.

  2. A Review Of The Choice Of Therapy In Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We are in the midst of a therapeutic revolution and the choice of therapy in the management of glaucoma can no longer be based on long-held beliefs. The choice between medical, surgical and argon laser trabeculoplasty as primary therapy for glaucoma has been a matter of debate and research for many years.

  3. Biometric Differences between Unilateral Chronic Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma and Fellow Non-Glaucomatous Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Xinyi; Chen, Shida; Huang, Wenbin; Zhang, Xiulan

    2017-11-29

    To compare biometric differences between eyes with unilateral chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and fellow non-glaucomatous eyes in the same patient. Clinical data and imaging records of 17 patients with unilateral PACG were retrospectively reviewed. The fellow eyes with primary angle-closure (PAC) or primary angle-closure suspected (PACS) were grouped in Group 1. The PACG eyes were set as Group 2. The biometric parameters of both eyes were measured by IOL-Master, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), and swept source OCT. The iris area in Group 1 was significantly thicker than that in Group 2 (1.590 ± 0.267 versus 1.365 ± 0.352, P = 0.016). Choroidal thickness in the macular region was thicker in Group 1 than in Group 2, with statistical significance at inner temporal grid (282.7 ± 121.1 versus 191.6 ± 90.3, P = 0.036), central field (297.4 ± 130.6 versus 200.1 ± 96.3, P = 0.029), inner nasal grid (283.1 ± 128.3 versus 194.8 ± 91.8, P = 0.040), and average value (265.3 ± 105.6 versus 191.1 ± 87.0, P = 0.049). Group 1 also had thicker peripapillary choroidal thickness at 1 o'clock (141.4 ± 68.4 versus 101.8 ± 39.0, P = 0.025) and 12 o'clock (141.5 ± 82.3 versus 104.5 ± 44.6, P = 0.037) compared to Group 2. The multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that only intraocular pressure was independently associated with PACG and explained 58.3% variance of PACG. In unilateral PACG, there was significant inter-eye difference in anterior and posterior segment parameters. Longitudinal comparisons are required to further understand the differences in pathology of angle closures.

  4. A Pilot Study to Evaluate the Oral Microbiome and Dental Health in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polla, Daniel; Astafurov, Konstantin; Hawy, Eman; Hyman, Leslie; Hou, Wei; Danias, John

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate possible associations between primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), dental health, and the oral microbiome. Case-control study was conducted at SUNY Downstate. Adult subjects (40 to 87 y) were recruited as POAG cases (n=119) and controls without glaucoma (n=78) based on visual field and optic nerve criteria. Overall 74.6% were African Americans (AA). Information on medical history and oral health was collected and ophthalmologic examinations were performed. Mouthwash specimens (28 AA cases and 17 controls) were analyzed for bacterial DNA amounts. Analyses were limited to AAs as the predominant racial group. Outcome measures included number of natural teeth, self-reported periodontal health parameters, and amounts and prevalence of oral bacterial species. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associated factors and potential interactions. Cases and controls had similar age (mean: 62.2 and 60.9 y, respectively, P>0.48), and frequency of hypertension, diabetes, but cases had a higher proportion of men (Pages [eg, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) at age 55: 1.0 (0.95-1.06), P=0.98 vs. at age 85: 0.87 (0.79-0.96), P=0.007]. Amounts of Streptococci were higher in cases than controls (Poral health indicator) and alterations in the amounts of oral bacteria may be associated with glaucoma pathology. Further investigation of the association between dental health and glaucoma is warranted.

  5. Non-penetrating filtration surgery versus trabeculectomy for open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldaly, Mohamed A; Bunce, Catey; Elsheikha, Ola Z; Wormald, Richard

    2014-02-15

    Glaucoma is the second commonest cause of blindness worldwide. Non-penetrating glaucoma surgeries have been developed as a safer and more acceptable surgical intervention to patients compared to conventional procedures. To compare the effectiveness of non-penetrating trabecular surgery compared with conventional trabeculectomy in people with glaucoma. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 8), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to September 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to September 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to September 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 27 September 2013. This review included relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs on participants undergoing standard trabeculectomy for open-angle glaucoma compared to non-penetrating surgery, specifically viscocanalostomy or deep sclerectomy, with or without adjunctive measures. Two review authors independently reviewed the titles and abstracts of the search results. We obtained full copies of all potentially eligible studies and assessed each one according to the definitions in the 'Criteria for considering studies' section of this review. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included five studies with a total of 311 eyes (247 participants) of which 133 eyes (participants) were quasi-randomised. One hundred and sixty eyes which had trabeculectomy were compared to 151 eyes that had non

  6. Ametropia, retinal anatomy, and OCT abnormality patterns in glaucoma. 1. Impacts of refractive error and interartery angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Tobias; Baniasadi, Neda; Jin, Qingying; Wang, Hui; Wang, Mengyu

    2017-12-01

    Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) is widely used in clinical practice to support glaucoma diagnosis. Clinicians frequently interpret peripapillary RNFLT areas marked as abnormal by OCT machines. However, presently, clinical OCT machines do not take individual retinal anatomy variation into account, and according diagnostic biases have been shown particularly for patients with ametropia. The angle between the two major temporal retinal arteries (interartery angle, IAA) is considered a fundamental retinal ametropia marker. Here, we analyze peripapillary spectral domain OCT RNFLT scans of 691 glaucoma patients and apply multivariate logistic regression to quantitatively compare the diagnostic bias of spherical equivalent (SE) of refractive error and IAA and to identify the precise retinal locations of false-positive/negative abnormality marks. Independent of glaucoma severity (visual field mean deviation), IAA/SE variations biased abnormality marks on OCT RNFLT printouts at 36.7%/22.9% of the peripapillary area, respectively. 17.2% of the biases due to SE are not explained by IAA variation, particularly in inferonasal areas. To conclude, the inclusion of SE and IAA in OCT RNFLT norms would help to increase diagnostic accuracy. Our detailed location maps may help clinicians to reduce diagnostic bias while interpreting retinal OCT scans. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  7. Ametropia, retinal anatomy, and OCT abnormality patterns in glaucoma. 1. Impacts of refractive error and interartery angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Tobias; Baniasadi, Neda; Jin, Qingying; Wang, Hui; Wang, Mengyu

    2017-12-01

    Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) is widely used in clinical practice to support glaucoma diagnosis. Clinicians frequently interpret peripapillary RNFLT areas marked as abnormal by OCT machines. However, presently, clinical OCT machines do not take individual retinal anatomy variation into account, and according diagnostic biases have been shown particularly for patients with ametropia. The angle between the two major temporal retinal arteries (interartery angle, IAA) is considered a fundamental retinal ametropia marker. Here, we analyze peripapillary spectral domain OCT RNFLT scans of 691 glaucoma patients and apply multivariate logistic regression to quantitatively compare the diagnostic bias of spherical equivalent (SE) of refractive error and IAA and to identify the precise retinal locations of false-positive/negative abnormality marks. Independent of glaucoma severity (visual field mean deviation), IAA/SE variations biased abnormality marks on OCT RNFLT printouts at 36.7%/22.9% of the peripapillary area, respectively. 17.2% of the biases due to SE are not explained by IAA variation, particularly in inferonasal areas. To conclude, the inclusion of SE and IAA in OCT RNFLT norms would help to increase diagnostic accuracy. Our detailed location maps may help clinicians to reduce diagnostic bias while interpreting retinal OCT scans.

  8. A national survey of diagnostic tests reported by UK community optometrists for the detection of chronic open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Joy; Edgar, David F; Kotecha, Aachal; Murdoch, Ian E; Lawrenson, John G

    2011-07-01

    In the UK, the majority of cases of chronic open angle glaucoma are detected by community optometrists following a routine sight test. However, there is potential for variability in case finding strategies used. The aim of this study was to carry out a national web-based survey to determine current diagnostic tests used by optometrists in glaucoma case finding. Optometrists on the Association of Optometrists (AOP) electronic database were invited to participate. The survey was open for 16 weeks between April and July 2008. A total of 1875 optometrists were eligible to enter the survey, of which 1264 answered the questions relating to diagnostic equipment. Respondents were asked to indicate their usual method of examining the optic nerve head. Direct ophthalmoscopy only was used by 25% with the majority (62%) using a combination of direct and slit-lamp binocular indirect methods. The vast majority of optometrists (78%) used non-contact tonometry to measure intraocular pressure, with only 16% routinely using a Goldmann or Perkins applanation tonometer. The perimeter most frequently used was either one of the Henson range of instruments (39%) or the Humphrey Field Analyser (22%). A smaller number of optometrists (angle glaucoma, although there is a lack of standardisation with respect to equipment used. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2011 The College of Optometrists.

  9. Histological findings of failed gold micro shunts in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnifili, Luca; Costagliola, Ciro; Figus, Michele; Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano; Carpineto, Paolo; Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Nardi, Marco; Mastropasqua, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    To describe the histological features of failed gold micro shunts (GMS) in unsuccessful implantations for refractory primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). This was an interventional case series study. Five eyes of five glaucomatous patients with unsuccessful GMS implantation underwent shunt removal. Each device was sectioned into three portions: proximal or anterior chamber (AC) portion, middle or scleral portion and distal or suprachoroidal (SC) portion. The histological analysis was performed throughout the whole extent of the shunt, describing both the inner spaces and the outer surface. At the moment of removal all devices were correctly located into the SC space and in AC, with the exception of a case presenting corneal endothelial contact. The mean intra-ocular pressure before GMS removal was 30.4 ± 5.3 mmHg, and the mean time of GMS removal after implantation was 6.8 ± 2.5 months. No significant histological differences were documented among the five analyzed devices. The main feature was the presence of a thick connective capsule-like reaction surrounding both the proximal and distal ends and invading the posterior and anterior grid holes, whereas a more loosely arranged connective tissue was observed within the inner channels. Signs of surface fibrosis of the middle-scleral portion and inflammatory cell infiltration of the device were not documented in any of the cases. Failed GMS implantations presented connective tissue filling all the inner spaces and creating a thick fibrotic capsule surrounding the ends of the device. This modification isolated the GMS from the AC and SC space, impeding aqueous flows throughout the shunt.

  10. Structure and Function Relationship of Activated Retinal Glia in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Nützi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate clinically activated retinal astrocytes and Müller cells (ARAM regarding retinal sensitivity and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG. Methods. Central visual field (VF; i.e., retinal sensitivity was measured with a custom-made macular pattern by microperimetry and correlated with the presence (ARAM+ or absence (ARAM− of ARAM on red-free fundus photography and with the corresponding RNFL by optical coherence tomography (OCT. Results. In the eyes of POAG patients, ARAM+ had overall a significantly lower retinal sensitivity (ARAM+: 7.34 dB, ARAM−: 11.9 dB; p<0.001 and lower RNFL thickness in the inferior peripapillary quadrants compared to ARAM− (RNFL superior: ARAM+ 74.2 μm, ARAM− 77.5 μm; RNFL temporal: ARAM+ 46.8 μm, ARAM− 53.0 μm, p<0.001; and RNFL inferior: ARAM+ 63.2 μm, ARAM− 73.1 μm, p<0.001. Within the same eye, ARAM+ showed a lower retinal sensitivity compared to ARAM− ([ARAM− (11.13 dB] − [ARAM+ (9.56 dB = 1.57 dB; p=0.25. The proportion of ARAM+ per eye correlated strongly with reduced retinal light sensitivity (p=0.02, corresponding lower peripapillary RNFL thickness (p=0.02, and lower RNFL temporal quadrant thickness (p<0.01, but not with greater age (p=0.45. Conclusion. ARAM was more frequently identified in the eyes with a lower retinal sensitivity and peripapillary RNFL thickness and may be a clinical sign in the macula for an advanced stage of POAG.

  11. Biomarkers of lipid peroxidation in the aqueous humor of primary open-angle glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, F J; Piñas-García, P; Lleó-Pérez, A V; Zanón-Moreno, V C; Bendala-Tufanisco, E; García-Medina, J J; Vinuesa-Silva, I; Pinazo-Durán, M D

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the lipid peroxidation (PEROX) processes in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients, and whether this mechanism may be related to disease progression. A prospective, observational, cross-sectional, non-experimental, and analytical study was conducted on a case and a comparison group, consisting of 175 surgical patients divided into: 1) POAG group (GG; n=88) and 2) comparison group of patients with cataracts (CG; n=87). Demographic data, patient characteristics, lifestyle data, as well as ophthalmological examination were registered in an Excel spreadsheet. Biochemical data were obtained by processing the aqueous humor collected at the beginning of surgery. Determination of malondialdehyde/thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (MDA/TBARS) and total antioxidant activity (AAO) was assayed using enzymatic-colorimetric methods in the aqueous humor samples. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 15.0 software. Aqueous humor MDA/TBARS levels were significantly higher (P<.001) and the AAO significantly lower (P<.001) in the GG than in the GC. The MDA/TBARS directly correlated with intraocular pressure (IOP) values and the cup-to-disc ratio (CDR). Decreased AAO activity correlated inversely with IOP and CDR. Differences between groups were noticeably higher in the GG as regards obesity, alcohol consumption, anxiety, depression, and sedentary lifestyle. In the multivariate analysis, the variables that showed a better predictive ability were: MDA/TBARS, PIO, AAO, CDR, and depression. The POAG patients have a PEROX background that is reflected in the aqueous humor by variations in MDA/TBARS and AAO. Moreover, both the MDA/TBARS and AAO correlated with IOP values and the CDR. We propose that determination of MDA/TBARS and AAO in the aqueous humor of POAG patients can be used as biomarkers for monitoring the disease, as well the changes in lifestyle and other related risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by

  12. Collagen matrix compared with mitomycin C for treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma with trabeculectomy performed

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    Lei Yu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the effectiveness and safety between trabeculectomy with collagen matrix versus trabeculectomy with mitomycin C(MMCfor patients with primary open-angle glaucoma(POAG.METHODS: In this prospective randomized comparative study from January 2015 to December 2016. Thirty-two eyes presented with POAG were included in this study, 14 eyes treated by trabeculectomy with subconjunctival implant of collagen matrix(study groupand the other 18 eyes treated by trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. Postoperative IOP, the success rate of operation, number of postoperative glaucoma medications and postoperative complications were recorded. Each patient was followed up at least 6mo. RESULTS: The mean postoperative IOP was statistically different between the study group and the control group after 1d(PP>0.05, and the mean postoperative IOP was statistically different between the two groups(PP>0.05. The IOP decreased at 1d after openations compared with before, kept stable at 1wk to 6mo. IOP of study group was lowen than control. IOP was controlled by glaucoma medications in the study group by 28% compared to control group by 33% at 6mo after operation, but there was no significant difference. There was no significant difference between the study group and the control group in complications(PCONCLUSION: Trabeculectomy with collagen matrix implant is comparable to the use of MMC with a similar success rate in open-angle glaucoma and the range in reducing intraocular pressure was significantly higher than that of MMC and it can significantly avoid the occurrence of low IOP postoperatively, transient anterior chamber, conjunctival wound leakage complications has no advantages compared with the use of MMC.

  13. Postiridotomy ultrasound biomicroscopy features in the fellow eye of Chinese patients with acute primary angle-closure and chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Jin; Wang, Xin; Yan, Yu-Jie; Wu, Ling-Ling

    2015-03-01

    To compare the features of postiridotomy ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) in Chinese patients with acute primary angle-closure (aPAC) and with chronic primary angle-closure (cPAC) glaucoma. Consecutive cases were classified into acute and chronic groups. The acute group included 77 patients with unilateral aPAC. The chronic group included 57 patients with unilateral advanced cPAC glaucoma. In both the groups, the patients' fellow eye underwent a laser iridotomy and was studied. The main outcome measures included qualitative UBM parameters such as a plateau iris, anterior iris insertion, and an anteriorly rotated ciliary process and quantitative UBM parameters such as central anterior chamber depth (ACD), basal iris thickness (IT500), and scleral ciliary process angle (SCPA). For the qualitative parameters, more eyes in the chronic group had a plateau iris (P=0.046), an anterior iris insertion (P=0.222), and an anteriorly rotated ciliary process (P=0.090) than those in the acute group. For the quantitative parameters, the eyes in the chronic group had a deeper ACD (PaPAC may have a shallower ACD. For Chinese patients, a nonpupillary block component may play a more important role in asymptomatic cPAC than in aPAC.

  14. The Efficacy of Transcorneal Electrical Stimulation for the Treatment of Primary Open-angle Glaucoma: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Yuka; Ozeki, Naoki; Yuki, Kenya; Shiba, Daisuke; Kimura, Itaru; Tsunoda, Kazushige; Shinoda, Kei; Ohde, Hisao; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2018-02-07

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of transcorneal electrical stimulation in subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma. Five eyes of four male subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma (average age: 52.25 ± 14.68 years) were enrolled. The subjects underwent transcorneal electrical stimulation every 3 months according to the following procedure. A Dawson-Trick-Litzkow electrode was placed on the cornea, and biphasic electric current pulses (10 ms, 20 Hz) were delivered using a stimulator (BPG-1,BAK Electronics) and a stimulus isolation unit (BSI-2). A current that evoked a phosphene that the subject perceived in the whole visual area was delivered continuously for 30 min. Humphrey visual field testing was performed after every third transcorneal electrical stimulation treatment. Changes in mean deviation (MD) values were evaluated with a linear regression model. Transcorneal electrical stimulation was performed 18.2 ± 9.4 times over a period of 49.8 ± 23.0 months. The average pretranscorneal electrical stimulation intraocular pressure, best corrected visual acuity, and MD values were 11.8 ± 1.79 mmHg, 0.14 ± 0.19 (logMAR) and -17.28 ± 6.24 dB, respectively. No significant differences were observed in intraocular pressure before and after transcorneal electrical stimulation. However, there was a significant positive linear relationship between changes in MD values and the number of transcorneal electrical stimulation treatments (R 2 = 0.176, P = 0.005, Spearman correlation R =0.294, P = 0.008). Transcorneal electrical stimulation treatment may improve glaucomatous visual field defects in subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma. Large-scale studies are necessary to confirm these preliminary findings.

  15. Personality assessment based on the five-factor model of personality structure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, Fumihiko; Yoshimura, Kimio; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Shioe, Kunihiko; Kanba, Shigenobu; Iijima, Hiroyuki; Tsukahara, Shigeo

    2005-01-01

    Several characteristic personality types have been reported for glaucoma patients in previous studies. However, none of the previous studies used a common structural theory of personality. In this study, we conducted a multicenter cross-sectional case-control study using the recently established five-factor model of personality structure. Personality was evaluated using the Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), which is a questionnaire specifically designed to test the five-factor model of personality: neuroticism (N), extraversion (E), openness (O), agreeableness (A), and conscientiousness (C). Eligible questionnaires were obtained from 196 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) (99 men, 97 women) and 223 reference subjects with no ocular disease except cataract (87 men, 136 women). The mean score of each NEO-FFI factor for POAG patients was compared to the scores for the reference subjects. Compared with the reference subjects, the mean N score was significantly higher (P = 0.013), the mean scores for A and C were significantly lower (P = 0.007 and P = 0.001, respectively), and the mean E score tended to be lower (P = 0.055) in male POAG patients. The mean E score was significantly lower (P = 0.023) in female POAG patients. Characteristic personality traits were noted in POAG patients, and a more significant relationship was found between personality and glaucoma in men than in women.

  16. Differences between fellow eyes of acute and chronic primary angle closure (glaucoma): An ultrasound biomicroscopy quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengwei; Chen, Yuhong; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Zhu, Wenqing; Chen, Xueli; Wang, Xiaolei; Fang, Yuan; Kong, Xiangmei; Dai, Yi; Chen, Junyi; Sun, Xinghuai

    2018-01-01

    To compare various biometric parameters between fellow eyes of acute primary angle closure (glaucoma) [APAC(G)] and fellow eyes of chronic primary angle closure (glaucoma) [CPAC(G)]. Ultrasound biomicroscopy examinations were performed on 47 patients with unilateral APAC(G) and 41 patients with asymmetric CPAC(G) before laser peripheral iridotomy and pilocarpine treatment. Anterior chamber depth and width (ACD and ACW), lens vault (LV), iris curvature (IC), iris root distance (IRD), trabecular-ciliary process distance (TCPD), iris-ciliary process distance (ICPD), trabecular-ciliary angle (TCA), and other biometric parameters were compared between fellow eyes of APAC(G) and fellow eyes of CAPC(G). Compared with fellow eyes of CPAC(G), fellow eyes of APAC(G) had smaller ACD (P APAC(G) had smaller anterior segment dimensions, higher LV, more posterior iris insertion, greater IC, and more anteriorly rotated ciliary body compared with fellow eyes of CPAC(G). ACD, ICPD, and IRD were the three most important parameters that distinguish eyes predisposed to APAC(G) or CPAC(G).

  17. Common variants near ABCA1, AFAP1 and GMDS confer risk of primary open-angle glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gharahkhani, Puya; Burdon, Kathryn P; Fogarty, Rhys; Sharma, Shiwani; Hewitt, Alex W.; Martin, Sarah; Law, Matthew H.; Cremin, Katie; Bailey, Jessica N. Cooke; Loomis, Stephanie J.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hauser, Michael A.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; McGuffin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. We performed a genome-wide association study in an Australian discovery cohort comprising 1,155 advanced POAG cases and 1,992 controls. Association of the top SNPs from the discovery stage was investigated in two Australian replication cohorts (total 932 cases, 6,862 controls) and two US replication cohorts (total 2,616 cases, 2,634 controls). Meta-analysis of all cohorts revealed three novel loci associa...

  18. Association of Myopic Deformation of Optic Disc with Visual Field Progression in Paired Eyes with Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sawada

    Full Text Available The influence of myopia on glaucoma progression remains unknown, possibly because of the multifactorial nature of glaucoma and difficulty in assessing a solo contribution of myopia. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of myopia with visual field (VF progression in glaucoma using a paired-eye design to minimize the influence of confounding systemic factors that are diverse among individuals.This retrospective study evaluated 144 eyes of 72 subjects with open-angle glaucoma, with similar intra-ocular pressure between paired eyes, spherical equivalent (SE ≤ -2 diopter (D, and axial length ≥ 24 mm. Paired eyes with faster and slower VF progression were grouped separately, according to the global VF progression rate assessed by automated pointwise linear regression analysis. The SE, axial length, tilt ratio and torsion angle of optic discs, Bruch's membrane (BM opening area, and gamma zone parapapillary atrophy (PPA width were compared between the two groups. Factors associated with faster VF progression were determined by logistic regression analysis.The mean follow-up duration was 8.9 ± 4.4 years. The mean value of SE and axial length were -6.31 ± 1.88 D and 26.05 ± 1.12 mm, respectively. The mean global visual field progression rate was -0.32 ± 0.38 dB/y. Tilt ratio, BM opening area, and gamma zone PPA width were significantly greater in the eyes with faster VF progression than those with slower progression. In multivariate analysis, these factors were significantly associated with faster VF progression (all P < 0.05, while SE and axial length were not associated with it.In myopic glaucoma subjects, tilt of the optic disc and temporal shifting and enlargement of the BM opening were associated with faster rate of VF progression between paired eyes. This suggests that myopia influences VF progression in glaucomatous eyes via optic disc deformations rather than via refractive error itself.

  19. Correlation of endothelin-1 concentration in aqueous humor with intraocular pressure in primary open angle and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choritz, Lars; Machert, Maren; Thieme, Hagen

    2012-10-23

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been found in elevated concentrations in the aqueous humor of glaucoma patients. Indirect evidence from animal studies suggests that ET-1 might directly influence intraocular pressure (IOP). The aim of this study was to determine whether ET-1 concentrations in aqueous humor of cataract and glaucoma patients correlate with IOP. Aqueous humor and blood samples from patients with either cataract (control, n = 38), primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, n = 35), or pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG, n = 21), without other ocular or systemic disease, were collected during routine cataract surgery or trabeculectomy. ET-1 concentration was determined by an ET-1 ELISA kit. IOP was measured preoperatively by standard Goldmann applanation tonometry. All statistical analysis was performed using commercial predictive analytics software. Both IOP and ET-1 concentration in aqueous humor were significantly increased in POAG (23.4 ± 6.8 mm Hg, 5.9 ± 2.9 pg/mL) and PEXG (24.3 ± 8.8 mm Hg, 7.7 ± 2.1 pg/mL) compared with control (15.0 ± 2.9 mm Hg, 4.3 ± 2.4 pg/mL). No difference was detected for plasma ET-1 concentrations. IOP and ET-1 in the aqueous humor were significantly correlated (R = 0.394, R² = 0.155, P < 0.001), although no correlation was found between IOP and ET-1 in blood plasma or between ET-1 in aqueous humor and ET-1 in plasma. In this study, a small but highly significant correlation between IOP and the ET-1 concentration in the aqueous humor was found. Although no causative relationship can be deduced from this, ocular ET-1 effects on IOP control may merit further investigation.

  20. Synthesis of novel LaOAgS-type cation-deficient bismuth oxyhalides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charkin, Dmitri O.; Moskvin, Dmitri N.; Berdonosov, Peter S.; Dolgikh, Valeri A.; Lightfoot, Philip

    2006-01-01

    Three new bismuth oxyhalides, Pb x Bi 2-x Cu x O 2 X 2 (X = Cl, x ∼ 0.35-0.70; X = Br, x ∼ 0.35-0.65; X = I, x ∼ 0.35-0.55) have been predicted and synthesized from PbO, BiOX, and CuX. All three compounds adopt a very deficient LaOAgS (stuffed PbFCl) structure. Atomic parameters have been determined for Pb 0.6 Bi 1.4 Cu 0.6 O 2 Cl 2 and Pb 0.6 Bi 1.4 Cu 0.6 O 2 Br 2 (P4/nmm, Z = 1) as well as for a structurally and compositionally related Pb 0.6 Bi 1.4 Cs 0.6 O 2 Br 2 (I4/mmm, Z = 2). Comparison of these structural data with bond distances and angles in related Pb 0.6 Bi 1.4 Q 0.6 O 2 X 2 oxyhalides (Q = Rb, Cs, Tl; X = Cl, Br) reveals that replacement of CsCl-like [Q 0.6 X 2 ] layers by anti-fluorite-like [Cu 0.6 X 2 ] has a small effect on the Pb 0.6 Bi 1.4 -O and Pb 0.6 Bi 1.4 -X distances and a larger one on bond angles. We predict existence of isostructural compounds among multinary oxyhalides of bismuth and fluorohalides of lead. It is also likely that more complicated structures involving [Cu x X 2 ] layers can be realized

  1. Comparison of the diagnostic ability of Moorfield′s regression analysis and glaucoma probability score using Heidelberg retinal tomograph III in eyes with primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindal Shveta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of the Heidelberg retinal tomograph (HRT glaucoma probability score (GPS with that of Moorfield′s regression analysis (MRA. Materials and Methods: The study included 50 eyes of normal subjects and 50 eyes of subjects with early-to-moderate primary open angle glaucoma. Images were obtained by using HRT version 3.0. Results: The agreement coefficient (weighted k for the overall MRA and GPS classification was 0.216 (95% CI: 0.119 - 0.315. The sensitivity and specificity were evaluated using the most specific (borderline results included as test negatives and least specific criteria (borderline results included as test positives. The MRA sensitivity and specificity were 30.61 and 98% (most specific and 57.14 and 98% (least specific. The GPS sensitivity and specificity were 81.63 and 73.47% (most specific and 95.92 and 34.69% (least specific. The MRA gave a higher positive likelihood ratio (28.57 vs. 3.08 and the GPS gave a higher negative likelihood ratio (0.25 vs. 0.44.The sensitivity increased with increasing disc size for both MRA and GPS. Conclusions: There was a poor agreement between the overall MRA and GPS classifications. GPS tended to have higher sensitivities, lower specificities, and lower likelihood ratios than the MRA. The disc size should be taken into consideration when interpreting the results of HRT, as both the GPS and MRA showed decreased sensitivity for smaller discs and the GPS showed decreased specificity for larger discs.

  2. A review of the risk factors in primary open angle glaucoma | Omoti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Others are diabetes, which is prone to selection bias, myopia, a history of typical migraine headaches, thinner central corneal thickness and the ability to taste phenylthiourea. If a particular patient is identified as having one or more of these risk factors, that patient is by definition, at greater risk of developing glaucoma than a ...

  3. Differences between fellow eyes of acute and chronic primary angle closure (glaucoma: An ultrasound biomicroscopy quantitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengwei Li

    Full Text Available To compare various biometric parameters between fellow eyes of acute primary angle closure (glaucoma [APAC(G] and fellow eyes of chronic primary angle closure (glaucoma [CPAC(G].Ultrasound biomicroscopy examinations were performed on 47 patients with unilateral APAC(G and 41 patients with asymmetric CPAC(G before laser peripheral iridotomy and pilocarpine treatment. Anterior chamber depth and width (ACD and ACW, lens vault (LV, iris curvature (IC, iris root distance (IRD, trabecular-ciliary process distance (TCPD, iris-ciliary process distance (ICPD, trabecular-ciliary angle (TCA, and other biometric parameters were compared between fellow eyes of APAC(G and fellow eyes of CAPC(G.Compared with fellow eyes of CPAC(G, fellow eyes of APAC(G had smaller ACD (P < 0.001, ACW (P = 0.007, TCPD (P = 0.016, ICPD (P = 0.008, and TCA (P = 0.006, as well as larger LV (P = 0.002, IC (P = 0.012, and IRD (P = 0.003. On multivariate logistic regression analyses, a 0.1 mm decrease in ACD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.705, 95%CI: 0.564-0.880, P = 0.002, ICPD (OR: 0.557, 95%CI: 0.335-0.925, P = 0.024, and a 0.1 mm increase in IRD (OR: 2.707, 95%CI: 1.025-7.149, P = 0.045, was significantly associated with occurrence of acute angle closures.Fellow eyes of APAC(G had smaller anterior segment dimensions, higher LV, more posterior iris insertion, greater IC, and more anteriorly rotated ciliary body compared with fellow eyes of CPAC(G. ACD, ICPD, and IRD were the three most important parameters that distinguish eyes predisposed to APAC(G or CPAC(G.

  4. Neuroprotection for treatment of glaucoma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Dayse F; Lindsley, Kristina

    2017-01-25

    Glaucoma is a heterogeneous group of conditions involving progressive damage to the optic nerve, deterioration of retinal ganglion cells, and ultimately visual field loss. It is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Open angle glaucoma (OAG), the most common form of glaucoma, is a chronic condition that may or may not present with increased intraocular pressure (IOP). Neuroprotection for glaucoma refers to any intervention intended to prevent optic nerve damage or cell death. The objective of this review was to systematically examine the evidence regarding the effectiveness of neuroprotective agents for slowing the progression of OAG in adults compared with no neuroprotective agent, placebo, or other glaucoma treatment. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 7), Ovid MEDLINE, Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily (January 1946 to August 2016), Embase (January 1980 to August 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to August 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 16 August 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which topical or oral treatments were used for neuroprotection in adults with OAG. Minimum follow-up time was four years. Two review authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts from the literature searches. We obtained full-text copies of potentially relevant studies and re-evaluated for inclusion. Two review authors independently extracted data related to study characteristics, risk of bias, and outcomes. We identified one trial for this review, thus we

  5. Glaucoma bilateral por fechamento angular induzido por sulfametoxazol-trimetoprima: relato de caso Bilateral angle-closure glaucoma induced by trimetoprim and sulfamethoxazole combination: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Souto Spadoni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulfametoxazol e trimetoprima (cotrimoxazol é uma combinação de drogas amplamente usada no tratamento e profilaxia de inúmeras infecções sistêmicas. Esta droga e outras derivadas da sulfa podem causar uma síndrome ocular rara caracterizada por efusão coroidal supracililar com miopização transitória e glaucoma por fechamento angular. A maioria dos autores atribui o glaucoma ao edema do corpo ciliar que leva ao deslocamento anterior do diafragma irido-cristaliniano causando fechamento do ângulo camerular. Este trabalho descreve um caso raro no qual a síndrome ocorreu após o uso desta combinação de drogas e evoluiu para um desfecho desfavorável. Paciente de 49 anos, sexo masculino, branco com diagnóstico de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida iniciou tratamento profilático para Pneumocystis carinii com cotrimoxazol. Quatro dias após, apresentou quadro de dor ocular, hiperemia e quemose conjuntival, glaucoma agudo por fechamento angular com pressões intra-oculares maiores que 50 mmHg e efusão coroidal 360º, com os achados presentes nos dois olhos. Nesse mesmo dia, a medicação foi suspensa com diminuição da pressão intra-ocular após quatro dias. O paciente evoluiu com catarata total e phthisis bulbi bilateral nos dois meses subseqüentes. Os casos já descritos mencionam a melhora clínica completa do quadro ocular após a suspensão da medicação. Este seria o primeiro caso na literatura no qual a evolução foi desfavorável apesar do diagnóstico e da suspensão precoce da medicação causadora.Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (cotrimoxazole is an antibiotic combination widely used for infections treatment and prophylaxis. These and others sulfonamides have been implicated in a rare syndrome of choroidal effusion with transient myopia and angle-closure glaucoma. Previous cases reported in literature evolved to complete resolution after drug withdrawal. In contrast, we describe a rare case in which a patient

  6. Does Helicobacter pylori Eradication Reduce the Risk of Open Angle Glaucoma in Patients With Peptic Ulcer Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Wen-Chi; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) eradication would influence the risk of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in patients with peptic ulcer disease. From the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, 6061 patients with peptic ulcer and receiving H pylori eradication therapy were recruited. The study cohort was subdivided into early (within 1 year) and late (after 1 year) eradication cohorts. The 24,244 control cohort subjects were those who without peptic ulcer and without receiving H pylori eradication therapy and were frequency-matched with the H pylori eradication cohort by age, sex, and the year of receiving H pylori eradication therapy. The higher incidence of POAG was observed in late H pylori eradication cohort and in early H pylori eradication cohort than in control cohort (1.57, 1.32, and 0.95, per 1000 person-year, respectively). However, overall risk of glaucoma was not significantly higher in the late eradication than in the early eradication (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.85, 95% confidence interval = 0.48-1.53). The POAG incidence was greater in the late H pylori eradication cohort when follow-up duration ≤ 5 years (1.59, per 1000 person-years). However, when follow-up duration >5 years, the incidence of POAG was greater in the early H pylori eradication cohort (1.68, per 1000 person-years). These relationships were not associated with a significantly increased or decreased risk of POAG in multivariable analyses. Either early or late H pylori eradication does not significantly reduce the risk of glaucoma in patients with peptic ulcer disease compared with normal control.

  7. Genetic correlations between intraocular pressure, blood pressure and primary open-angle glaucoma: a multi-cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschard, Hugues; Kang, Jae H; Iglesias, Adriana I; Hysi, Pirro; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Khawaja, Anthony P; Allingham, R Rand; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Lee, Richard K; Moroi, Sayoko E; Brilliant, Murray H; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S; Fingert, John H; Budenz, Donald L; Realini, Tony; Gaasterland, Terry; Scott, William K; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J; Igo, Robert P; Song, Yeunjoo E; Hark, Lisa; Ritch, Robert; Rhee, Douglas J; Gulati, Vikas; Haven, Shane; Vollrath, Douglas; Zack, Donald J; Medeiros, Felipe; Weinreb, Robert N; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chasman, Daniel I; Christen, William G; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Liu, Yutao; Kraft, Peter; Richards, Julia E; Rosner, Bernard A; Hauser, Michael A; Klaver, Caroline C W; vanDuijn, Cornelia M; Haines, Jonathan; Wiggs, Janey L; Pasquale, Louis R

    2017-11-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common chronic optic neuropathy worldwide. Epidemiological studies show a robust positive relation between intraocular pressure (IOP) and POAG and modest positive association between IOP and blood pressure (BP), while the relation between BP and POAG is controversial. The International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium (n=27 558), the International Consortium on Blood Pressure (n=69 395), and the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration Heritable Overall Operational Database (n=37 333), represent genome-wide data sets for IOP, BP traits and POAG, respectively. We formed genome-wide significant variant panels for IOP and diastolic BP and found a strong relation with POAG (odds ratio and 95% confidence interval: 1.18 (1.14-1.21), P=1.8 × 10 -27 ) for the former trait but no association for the latter (P=0.93). Next, we used linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression, to provide genome-wide estimates of correlation between traits without the need for additional phenotyping. We also compared our genome-wide estimate of heritability between IOP and BP to an estimate based solely on direct measures of these traits in the Erasmus Rucphen Family (ERF; n=2519) study using Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR). LD score regression revealed high genetic correlation between IOP and POAG (48.5%, P=2.1 × 10 -5 ); however, genetic correlation between IOP and diastolic BP (P=0.86) and between diastolic BP and POAG (P=0.42) were negligible. Using SOLAR in the ERF study, we confirmed the minimal heritability between IOP and diastolic BP (P=0.63). Overall, IOP shares genetic basis with POAG, whereas BP has limited shared genetic correlation with IOP or POAG.

  8. DTI analysis in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma: impact of registration on Voxel-Wise statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Manuel A; Mennecke, Angelika; Michelson, Georg; Doerfler, Arnd; Engelhorn, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) has been used to assess the integrity of the visual pathway in glaucoma patients. TBSS uses the subjects' FA data to create a mean FA skeleton of white matter tracts before running voxel-wise cross-subject statistics. We compared four different approaches of registration of FA maps to create the skeleton and evaluated alignment and subsequently the impact of the chosen registration on voxel-wise statistics. Our study comprised 69 subjects, i.e. 46 patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and a healthy, age-matched control group of 23 subjects. Mean FA skeletons were created using the following registration approaches: registration to a standard template (T), registration to the group mean (GM), registration to a group-wise atlas (GW) and registration to the most typical subject (N). Subsequently, maps of standard deviation of the 4D images were created to assess the alignment. Voxel-wise statistics for each registration approach were performed. We found distinct differences in voxel-wise statistics depending on the chosen registration approach. Best alignment results were achieved by registration to a study specific template, i.e. to the group mean (GM) or to a group-wise atlas (GW). Overall alignment did not differ between these two approaches. However, voxel-wise statistics showed clusters of significantly decreased FA values in the T and GM approach, which were not significant after GW registration. These voxels of significantly decreased FA values after T and GM registration did not represent white matter tracts and correlated with higher standard deviation in FA maps across subjects, thus implying registration errors, especially in the optic radiation. Registration to a study-specific template, i.e. to the group mean or a group-wise atlas seems to be the method of choice in TBSS-analysis of glaucoma patients as it shows better alignment of the optic radiation and helps to rule out registration errors due to

  9. Test-Retest Variability of Fundus-Tracked Perimetry at the Peripapillary Region in Open Angle Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhichao; McKendrick, Allison M; Hadoux, Xavier; Gaskin, Jennifer C Fan; Ang, Ghee Soon; Sarossy, Marc G; Crowston, Jonathan G

    2016-07-01

    To examine the association between the measured level and local gradient of visual sensitivity on the magnitude of test-retest variability of its measurements at the peripapillary region using fundus-tracked perimetry in eyes with glaucoma. A total of 30 participants with open angle glaucoma underwent three examinations in one eye on fundus-tracked perimetry using a stimulus pattern that sampled the peripapillary region densely. Factors associated with the magnitude of test-retest variability at each location were examined. There was no significant change in average pointwise sensitivity (PWS) between tests 1 and 2 (P = 0.855), but a significant reduction between tests 2 and 3 (P tests 1 and 2. Multivariate analyses revealed that the magnitude of test-retest variability at a given location was significantly associated with its average sensitivity and gradient of sensitivity relative to the immediately adjacent locations (P ≤ 0.001), meaning that locations with low levels of sensitivity (4-18 dB) with low gradients of sensitivity (test-retest limit of ±5.83 dB, compared to a limit of ±10.65 dB in areas of high gradients of sensitivity (>4 dB/location). On a pointwise basis, the test-retest variability of visual sensitivity in glaucoma is not just related to its measured level, but also its local gradient when using fundus-tracked perimetry. Locations with low sensitivity do not necessarily demonstrate very high test-retest variability, depending on the local uniformity of visual field damage.

  10. Novel therapeutic approaches to correct retinal metabolic abnormalities in primary open-angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Common pathogenic aspects of age-related macular degeneration (AMD and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, i.e., the role of free radicals inducing oxidative damage of the retina and optic nerve, are discussed. Factors that activate free radical reactions as well as multilevel antioxidant protection system are reviewed. Data derived from studies on current antioxidants that are used to treat and prevent dry AMD and glaucomatous optic nerve damage are compared. Neuroprotection for glaucoma will be considered soon as a basis for its treatment. B vitamins are generally included into therapeutic algorithms for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. While being metabolic therapeutics, they stimulate adaptive compensatory mechanisms and reduce the severity of various pathological processes, e.g., hypoxia, lipid peroxidation etc. Neurotrophic, antioxidant, and regenerative effects of B vitamins as wells as their involvement in metabolism, myelinsynthesis and other processes are of special importance for ophthalmologists. Currently, several vitamin and mineral supplements that differ in composition, dosage, and schedule are approved in Russia. SuperOptic, a biologically activeadditive, contains more free lutein (10 mg and zeaxanthin (500 μg as well as potent antioxidants (vitamin E and vitamin C, microelements (zinc and copper, and balanced vitamin B complex. These components play an important role in ocular health. SuperOptic can be recommended for the prevention and treatment of AMD and glaucomatous optic nerve damage.

  11. Novel therapeutic approaches to correct retinal metabolic abnormalities in primary open-angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Common pathogenic aspects of age-related macular degeneration (AMD and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, i.e., the role of free radicals inducing oxidative damage of the retina and optic nerve, are discussed. Factors that activate free radical reactions as well as multilevel antioxidant protection system are reviewed. Data derived from studies on current antioxidants that are used to treat and prevent dry AMD and glaucomatous optic nerve damage are compared. Neuroprotection for glaucoma will be considered soon as a basis for its treatment. B vitamins are generally included into therapeutic algorithms for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. While being metabolic therapeutics, they stimulate adaptive compensatory mechanisms and reduce the severity of various pathological processes, e.g., hypoxia, lipid peroxidation etc. Neurotrophic, antioxidant, and regenerative effects of B vitamins as wells as their involvement in metabolism, myelinsynthesis and other processes are of special importance for ophthalmologists. Currently, several vitamin and mineral supplements that differ in composition, dosage, and schedule are approved in Russia. SuperOptic, a biologically activeadditive, contains more free lutein (10 mg and zeaxanthin (500 μg as well as potent antioxidants (vitamin E and vitamin C, microelements (zinc and copper, and balanced vitamin B complex. These components play an important role in ocular health. SuperOptic can be recommended for the prevention and treatment of AMD and glaucomatous optic nerve damage.

  12. [TNF-alfa (-857C/T) polymorphism in open angle glaucoma in Romania -- results of a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simionescu, Ruxandra; Voinea, Liliana; Cornăţeanu, Roxana Sfrenţ

    2013-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy with multiple causative factors including genetic immune disregulation. TNF-alfa has pro-apoptotic effects on the retinal ganglion cells, thus being directly involved in the neurodegeneration of the optic nerve head. Our purpose was to investigate the influence on susceptibility and/or clinical and characteristics of TNF-alfa promoter polymorphism -857 C/T in Romanian patients diagnosed with POAG. We assessed 159 Romanian subjects, 61 diagnosed with glaucoma (F/M 39/22) and 98 healthy unrelated matched controls-HC for the polymorphism -857 C/T, genotyped by Real Time PCR (Taqman SNP Genotyping Assay C_2215707_10, Applied Biosystems, USA). The diagnosis and the staging of the disease in the POAG group were assessed using the current guidelines. Association tests for the SNP were performed using SPSS 11.2 (Fisher test) and p values < or = 0.05 were considered significant. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assessed using Chi-square test was respected in both studied groups- POAG and HC (p = 0.000009 and respectively p = 0.04771). There was no association found between the frequencies of alleles between studied groups (CC/CT/TT= 0.81/0.09/0.08 respectively 0.70/0.23/0.06). TNF-alfa promoter polymorphism -857 C/T doesn't seem to influence the susceptibility to POAG and the results should be confirmed on larger cohorts.

  13. Long-term efficacy and safety of ExPress implantation for treatment of open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geun Young Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the long-term efficacy and safety of ExPress implantation and standard trabeculectomy in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we compared 17 eyes treated by ExPress implantation with 23 eyes treated by trabeculectomy. Efficacy was assessed according to the relevant intraocular pressure (IOP values and success rates during the first year of follow-up. Postoperative corneal endothelial cell loss was also compared. RESULTS: The number of antiglaucoma medications and the IOP reduction were similar between the 2 groups during the follow-up period. Although the mean IOP was similar, the IOP-fluctuation rate during the early postoperative period was significantly lower in the ExPress group than in the trabeculectomy group (P=0.038. A Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis showed no significant success-rate difference between the groups (P=0.810. The corneal endothelial cell loss rate, moreover, was significantly lower in the ExPress group (P=0.05. CONCLUSION: ExPress implantation compared with trabeculectomy showed similar IOP-reduction and success rates along with lower IOP fluctuation and endothelial cell loss rates. For this reason, it can be considered to be the treatment of choice for patients with advanced glaucoma or low corneal endothelial cell density.

  14. Long-term efficacy and safety of ExPress implantation for treatment of open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geun Young; Lee, Chong Eun; Lee, Kyoo Won; Seo, Sam

    2017-01-01

    To compare the long-term efficacy and safety of ExPress implantation and standard trabeculectomy in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). In this retrospective study, we compared 17 eyes treated by ExPress implantation with 23 eyes treated by trabeculectomy. Efficacy was assessed according to the relevant intraocular pressure (IOP) values and success rates during the first year of follow-up. Postoperative corneal endothelial cell loss was also compared. The number of antiglaucoma medications and the IOP reduction were similar between the 2 groups during the follow-up period. Although the mean IOP was similar, the IOP-fluctuation rate during the early postoperative period was significantly lower in the ExPress group than in the trabeculectomy group ( P =0.038). A Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis showed no significant success-rate difference between the groups ( P =0.810). The corneal endothelial cell loss rate, moreover, was significantly lower in the ExPress group ( P =0.05). ExPress implantation compared with trabeculectomy showed similar IOP-reduction and success rates along with lower IOP fluctuation and endothelial cell loss rates. For this reason, it can be considered to be the treatment of choice for patients with advanced glaucoma or low corneal endothelial cell density.

  15. Mapping cortical thickness of the patients with unilateral end-stage open angle glaucoma on planar cerebral cortex maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bogorodzki

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To estimate and compare cerebral cortex thickness in patients with unilateral end-stage glaucoma with that of age-matched individuals with unaffected vision. METHODS: 14 patients with unilateral end-stage primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and 12 age-matched control individuals with no problems with vision were selected for the study based on detailed ophthalmic examination. For each participant 3D high-resolution structural brain T1-weighted magnetization prepared MR images were acquired on a 3.0 T scanner. Brain cortex thickness was estimated using the FreeSurfer image analysis environment. After warping of subjects' cortical surfaces to FreeSurfer common space, differences between POAG and control groups were inferred at the group analysis level with the General Linear Model. RESULTS: The analysis performed revealed local thinning in the visual cortex areas in the POAG group. Statistically significant differences form 600 mm2 clusters located in the Brodmann area BA19 in the left and right hemisphere. CONCLUSION: Unilateral vision loss due to end-stage neuropathy from POAG is associated with significant thinning of cortical areas employed in vision.

  16. Trabeculoperforation? Trabeculoretraction? Trabeculoplasty? Review of the various designations used for laser treatment in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, F; Haut, J; Abboud, E

    1985-01-01

    A historical recall and an attempt to simplify the numerous terms used to designate laser treatments for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) are presented. There are two main types of laser treatment for POAG involving two entirely different procedures. The first one, contemporary with the beginning of laser photocoagulation, imitates the action of the scalpel, namely goniotomy ab interno or trabeculotomy ab externo. The goal of this early procedure was to produce a through and through trabecular hole but instead of the cutting edge of the knife, it uses the explosive effect of the laser. This procedure has been given numerous names. Among the most frequent ones, we find: 'laser trabeculopuncture', 'laseropuncture', 'goniopuncture', 'laser trabeculectomy', 'laser trabeculotomy', 'laser trabeculopexy'. We prefer to gather them under an explicit generic term: 'laser trabeculoperforation'. The results of this procedure have been very disappointing until now, particularly with conventional lasers, e.g. continuous-wave argon laser, owing to the predominance of their thermal effect over their explosive effect and also to the great scarring property of the trabecular meshwork. In the second type of glaucoma laser treatment, instead of trying to make a patent hole in the trabecular meshwork, the surgeon seeks to reshape the inner trabecular surface by means of argon laser microscars in order to produce a reversal of the trabecular collapse, which is now considered to be one of the major etiologies of POAG.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Long-term efficacy and safety of ExPress implantation for treatment of open angle glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geun Young; Lee, Chong Eun; Lee, Kyoo Won; Seo, Sam

    2017-01-01

    AIM To compare the long-term efficacy and safety of ExPress implantation and standard trabeculectomy in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS In this retrospective study, we compared 17 eyes treated by ExPress implantation with 23 eyes treated by trabeculectomy. Efficacy was assessed according to the relevant intraocular pressure (IOP) values and success rates during the first year of follow-up. Postoperative corneal endothelial cell loss was also compared. RESULTS The number of antiglaucoma medications and the IOP reduction were similar between the 2 groups during the follow-up period. Although the mean IOP was similar, the IOP-fluctuation rate during the early postoperative period was significantly lower in the ExPress group than in the trabeculectomy group (P=0.038). A Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis showed no significant success-rate difference between the groups (P=0.810). The corneal endothelial cell loss rate, moreover, was significantly lower in the ExPress group (P=0.05). CONCLUSION ExPress implantation compared with trabeculectomy showed similar IOP-reduction and success rates along with lower IOP fluctuation and endothelial cell loss rates. For this reason, it can be considered to be the treatment of choice for patients with advanced glaucoma or low corneal endothelial cell density. PMID:28944196

  18. Goldmann applanation tonometry compared with corneal-compensated intraocular pressure in the evaluation of primary open-angle Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrlich Joshua R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To better understand the role of corneal properties and intraocular pressure (IOP in the evaluation of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG; and to determine the feasibility of identifying glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON using IOP corrected and uncorrected for corneal biomechanics. Methods Records from 1,875 eyes of consecutively evaluated new patients were reviewed. Eyes were excluded if central corneal thickness (CCT or Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA measurements were unavailable. Presence or absence of GON was determined based on morphology of the optic disc, rim and retinal nerve fiber layer at the time of clinical examination, fundus photography and Heidelberg Retinal Tomography. Goldmann-applanation tonometry (GAT in the untreated state was recorded and Goldmann-correlated (IOPg and corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc were obtained using the ORA. Glaucomatous eyes were classified as normal or high-tension (NTG, HTG using the conventional cutoff of 21 mm Hg. One eligible eye was randomly selected from each patient for inclusion. Results A total of 357 normal, 155 HTG and 102 NTG eyes were included. Among NTG eyes, IOPcc was greater than GAT (19.8 and 14.4 mm Hg; p  Conclusions IOPcc may account for measurement error induced by corneal biomechanics. Compared to GAT, IOPcc may be a superior test in the evaluation of glaucoma but is unlikely to represent an effective diagnostic test.

  19. MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and homocysteine levels in primary open angle and primary closed angle glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheal, Shazia; Qamar, Raheel; Akhtar, Farah; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Khan, Wajid Ali

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C genotypes and plasma concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) in Pakistani patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary closed angle glaucoma (PCAG). Methods This was a prospective case-control study. A total of 295 patients (173 POAG, 122 PCAG) and 143 age- and sex-matched controls were subdivided into two ethnic groups, Punjabis (Punjab province, central Pakistan) and Pathans (North-West Frontier Province, northern Pakistan). Genotypes of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the total serum homocysteine (tHcy) levels. Associations were determined by logistic regression analysis. Results Frequency distributions of genotypes and combined genotypes as well as homocysteine levels were obtained. The overall distribution of the C677T genotype was found to be significantly associated with PCAG (CC 69%, CT 21%, TT 10%; p=0.001, χ2=12.6), but not with POAG (CC 71%, CT 28%, TT 1%; p=0.98, χ2=0.02) as compared to the controls (CC 71%, CT 29%, TT 1%). The Pathan cohorts revealed no association with the disease; however, the Punjabis demonstrated a significant association with PCAG (CC 75%, CT 11%, TT 13%; pA1298C polymorphism (AA 43%, AC 54%, CC 3%; pMTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and the combined genotype TTAC were associated with PCAG in Punjabi subjects of Pakistani origin and correlated with the high serum tHcy levels seen in these patients. PMID:19936026

  20. Retinal and choroidal oxygen saturation of the optic nerve head in open-angle glaucoma subjects by multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gai-Yun; Al-Wesabi, Samer Abdo; Zhang, Hong

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether differences exist in oxygen supply to the optic nerve head (ONH) from the retinal and choroidal vascular layers in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) using multispectral imaging (MSI).This ia an observational, cross-sectional study.Multispectral images were acquired from 38 eyes of 19 patients with POAG, and 42 healthy eyes from 21 matched volunteers with Annidis' RHA multispectral digital ophthalmoscopy. Superficial and deeper oxygen saturation of the optic disc was represented by the mean gray scale values on the retinal and choroidal oxy-deoxy maps, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed to detect differences in ONH oxygen saturation between the 2 groups. Oxygen saturation levels in the eyes of POAG patients with severe glaucoma were compared to those of fellow eyes from the same subjects. Linear correlation analysis was performed to assess the association between ONH oxygen saturation and systemic and ocular parameters.No statistical difference was found in retinal and choroidal oxygen saturation between the POAG and control groups. In the glaucoma patients, retinal oxygen saturation was lower for eyes with worse visual fields than in those with good visual fields (t = 4.009, P = 0.001). In POAG patients, retinal oxygen saturation was dependent on mean defect of visual field and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) (r = 0.511, 0.504, P = 0.001, 0.001, respectively), whereas the choroid vasculature oxygen saturation was inversely related to RNFLT (r = -0.391, P = 0.015). An age-dependent increase in retinal oxygen saturation was found for both the POAG and control groups (r = 0.473, 0.410, P = 0.007, 0.003, respectively).MSI revealed a significant correlation between functional and structural impairments in glaucoma and retinal oxygen saturation. MSI could provide objective assessments of perfusion impairments of the glaucomatous ONH. This is a

  1. Two-Year COMPASS Trial Results: Supraciliary Microstenting with Phacoemulsification in Patients with Open-Angle Glaucoma and Cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vold, Steven; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K; Craven, E Randy; Mattox, Cynthia; Stamper, Robert; Packer, Mark; Brown, Reay H; Ianchulev, Tsontcho

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated 2-year safety and efficacy of supraciliary microstenting (CyPass Micro-Stent; Transcend Medical, Inc., Menlo Park, CA) for treating mild-to-moderate primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Multicenter (24 US sites), interventional randomized clinical trial (RCT) (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01085357). Subjects were enrolled beginning July 2011, with study completion in March 2015. Subjects had POAG with mean diurnal unmedicated intraocular pressure (IOP) 21-33 mmHg and were undergoing phacoemulsification cataract surgery. After completing cataract surgery, subjects were intraoperatively randomized to phacoemulsification only (control) or supraciliary microstenting with phacoemulsification (microstent) groups (1:3 ratio). Microstent implantation via an ab interno approach to the supraciliary space allowed concomitant cataract and glaucoma surgery. Outcome measures included percentage of subjects achieving ≥20% unmedicated diurnal IOP lowering versus baseline, mean IOP change and glaucoma medication use, and ocular adverse event (AE) incidence through 24 months. Of 505 subjects, 131 were randomized to the control group and 374 were randomized to the microstent group. Baseline mean IOPs in the control and microstent groups were similar: 24.5±3.0 and 24.4±2.8 mmHg, respectively (P > 0.05); mean medications were 1.3±1.0 and 1.4±0.9, respectively (P > 0.05). There was early and sustained IOP reduction, with 60% of controls versus 77% of microstent subjects achieving ≥20% unmedicated IOP lowering versus baseline at 24 months (P = 0.001; per-protocol analysis). Mean IOP reduction was ↓7.4 mmHg for the microstent group versus ↓5.4 mmHg in controls (P control versus 85% of microstent subjects were medication free. Mean medication use in controls decreased from 1.3±1.0 drugs at baseline to 0.7±0.9 and 0.6±0.8 drugs at 12 and 24 months, respectively, and in the microstent group from 1.4±0.9 to 0.2±0

  2. Associations between the deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin 1-converting enzyme gene and ocular signs of primary open-angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunce, Catey; Hitchings, Roger A.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.

    2005-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of blindness. High intraocular pressure (IOP) has been shown to be a key risk factor for POAG. Topical application of angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors has been shown to lower IOP, and angiotensin-induced increase in vascular tone

  3. New insights into the genetics of primary open-angle glaucoma based on meta-analyses of intraocular pressure and optic disc characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springelkamp, H. (Henriët); Iglesias, A.I. (Adriana); Mishra, A. (Aniket); Höhn, R. (René); Wojciechowski, R. (Robert); Khawaja, A.P. (Anthony); Nag, A. (Abhishek); Wang, Y.X. (Ya Xing); Wang, J.J. (Jie Jin); Cuellar-Partida, G. (Gabriel); Gibson, J. (Jane); Cooke Bailey, J.N. (Jessica); Vithana, E.N. (Eranga); Gharahkhani, P. (Puya); Boutin, T. (Thibaud); Ramdas, W.D. (Wishal); Zeller, T. (Tanja); Luben, R.N. (Robert); Yonova-Doing, E. (Ekaterina); Viswanathan, A.C. (Ananth); Yazar, S. (Seyhan); Cree, A.J. (Angela); Haines, J.L. (Jonathan); Koh, J.Y. (Jia Yu); Souzeau, E. (Emmanuelle); Wilson, J.F. (James); Amin, N. (Najaf); Müller, C. (Christian); Venturini, C. (Cristina); Kearns, L.S. (Lisa); Hee Kang, J. (Jae); Consortium, N. (Neighborhood); Tham, Y.C. (Yih Chung); Zhou, T. (Tiger); van Leeuwen, E.M. (Elisabeth); Nickels, S. (Stefan); Sanfilippo, P. (Paul); Liao, J. (Jiemin); Linde, H.V. (Herma van der); Zhao, W. (Wanting); van Koolwijk, L.M. (Leonieke); Zheng, L. (Li); Rivadeneira, F. (Fernando); Baskaran, M. (Mani); van der Lee, S.J. (Sven); Perera, S. (Shamira); de Jong, P.T. (Paulus); Oostra, B.A. (Ben); Uitterlinden, A.G. (André); Fan, Q. (Qiao); Hofman, A. (Albert); Shyong Tai, E. (E-); Vingerling, J.R. (Johannes); Sim, X. (Xueling); Wolfs, R.C. (Roger); Teo, Y.Y. (Yik Ying); Lemij, H.G. (Hans); Khor, C.C. (Chiea Chuen); Willemsen, R. (Rob); Lackner, K.J. (Karl); Aung, T. (Tin); Jansonius, N.M. (Nomdo); Montgomery, G. (Grant); Wild, P.S. (Philipp); Young, T.L. (Terri); Burdon, K.P. (Kathryn); Hysi, P.G. (Pirro); Pasquale, L.R. (Louis); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Yin); Klaver, C.C. (Caroline); Hewitt, A.W. (Alex); Jonas, J.B. (Jost); Mitchell, P. (Paul); Lotery, A.J. (Andrew); Foster, P.J. (Paul); Vitart, V. (Veronique); Pfeiffer, N. (Norbert); Craig, J.E. (Jamie); Mackey, D.A. (David); Hammond, C.J. (Christopher); Wiggs, J.L. (Janey); Cheng, C.Y. (Ching-Yu); van Duijn, C.M. (Cornelia); MacGregor, S. (Stuart)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPrimary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common optic neuropathy, is a heritable disease. Siblings of POAG cases have a ten-fold increase risk of developing the disease. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic nerve head characteristics are used clinically to predict POAG risk. We

  4. New insights into the genetics of primary open-angle glaucoma based on meta-analyses of intraocular pressure and optic disc characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springelkamp, Henriët; Iglesias, Adriana I; Mishra, Aniket; Höhn, René; Wojciechowski, Robert; Khawaja, Anthony P; Nag, Abhishek; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Jie Jin; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Gibson, Jane; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Vithana, Eranga N; Gharahkhani, Puya; Boutin, Thibaud; Ramdas, Wishal D; Zeller, Tanja; Luben, Robert N; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Yazar, Seyhan; Cree, Angela J; Haines, Jonathan L; Koh, Jia Yu; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Wilson, James F; Amin, Najaf; Müller, Christian; Venturini, Cristina; Kearns, Lisa S; Hee Kang, Jae; Consortium, Neighborhood; Tham, Yih Chung; Zhou, Tiger; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Nickels, Stefan; Sanfilippo, Paul; Liao, Jiemin; Linde, Herma van der; Zhao, Wanting; van Koolwijk, Leonieke M E; Zheng, Li; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Baskaran, Mani; van der Lee, Sven J; Perera, Shamira; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Oostra, Ben A; Uitterlinden, André G; Fan, Qiao; Hofman, Albert; Shyong Tai, E-; Vingerling, Johannes R; Sim, Xueling; Wolfs, Roger C W; Teo, Yik Ying; Lemij, Hans G; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Willemsen, Rob; Lackner, Karl J; Aung, Tin; Jansonius, Nomdo M; Montgomery, Grant; Wild, Philipp S; Young, Terri L; Burdon, Kathryn P; Hysi, Pirro G; Pasquale, Louis R; Wong, Tien Yin; Klaver, Caroline C W; Hewitt, Alex W; Jonas, Jost B; Mitchell, Paul; Lotery, Andrew J; Foster, Paul J; Vitart, Veronique; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Craig, Jamie E; Mackey, David A; Hammond, Christopher J; Wiggs, Janey L; Cheng, Ching-Yu; van Duijn, Cornelia M; MacGregor, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common optic neuropathy, is a heritable disease. Siblings of POAG cases have a ten-fold increase risk of developing the disease. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic nerve head characteristics are used clinically to predict POAG risk. We conducted a

  5. New insights into the genetics of primary open-angle glaucoma based on meta-analyses of intraocular pressure and optic disc characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springelkamp, Henriët; Iglesias, Adriana I.; Mishra, Aniket; Höhn, René; Wojciechowski, Robert; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Nag, Abhishek; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Jie Jin; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Gibson, Jane; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N.; Vithana, Eranga N.; Gharahkhani, Puya; Boutin, Thibaud; Ramdas, Wishal D.; Zeller, Tanja; Luben, Robert N.; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; Yazar, Seyhan; Cree, Angela J.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Koh, Jia Yu; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Wilson, James F.; Amin, Najaf; Müller, Christian; Venturini, Cristina; Kearns, Lisa S.; Kang, Jae Hee; Tham, Yih Chung; Zhou, Tiger; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Nickels, Stefan; Sanfilippo, Paul; Liao, Jiemin; van der Linde, Herma; Zhao, Wanting; van Koolwijk, Leonieke M.E.; Zheng, Li; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Baskaran, Mani; van der Lee, Sven J.; Perera, Shamira; de Jong, Paulus T.V.M.; Oostra, Ben A.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Fan, Qiao; Hofman, Albert; Tai, E. Shyong; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Sim, Xueling; C.W.Wolfs, Roger; Teo, Yik Ying; Lemij, Hans G.; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Willemsen, Rob; Lackner, Karl J.; Aung, Tin; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Montgomery, Grant; Wild, Philipp S.; Young, Terri L.; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Wong, Tien Yin; Klaver, Caroline C.W.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Jonas, Jost B.; Mitchell, Paul; Lotery, Andrew J.; Foster, Paul J.; Vitart, Veronique; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Craig, Jamie E.; Mackey, David A.; Hammond, Christopher J.; Wiggs, Janey L.; Cheng, Ching Yu; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; MacGregor, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common optic neuropathy, is a heritable disease. Siblings of POAG cases have a ten-fold increased risk of developing the disease. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic nerve head characteristics are used clinically to predict POAG risk. We conducted a

  6. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the treatment of end-stage open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Allan J

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Evidence exists that the administration of cannabinoid derivatives can lower intraocular pressure. Some patients with glaucoma believe they are being deprived of a potentially beneficial treatment. Therefore, the Research Advisory Panel of California instituted the Cannabis Therapeutic Research Program to permit compassionate access to cannabinoid derivatives. Data about the potential therapeutic usefulness and toxicity of these agents were collected. This study reviews the results of this program with the specific aim of providing further direction for these investigational efforts. METHODS: A survey of local ophthalmologists indicated an impressive interest in participating in and contributing patients with glaucoma unresponsive to treatment to this study. Appropriate patients were treated with either orally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol capsules or inhaled marijuana in addition to their existing therapeutic regimen. RESULTS: Although 20 ophthalmologists were approved as investigators, only nine patients were enrolled in the study. An initial decrease in intraocular pressure was observed in all patients, and the investigator's therapeutic goal was met in four of the nine patients. However, the decreases in intraocular pressure were not sustained, and all patients elected to discontinue treatment within 1 to 9 months for various reasons. CONCLUSIONS: This uncontrolled, unmasked, nonrandomized study does not permit definitive conclusions about the efficacy or toxicity of cannabinoids in the treatment of glaucoma. There is an impression that this treatment can lower intraocular pressure, but the development of tolerance and significant systemic toxicity appears to limit the usefulness of this potential treatment. Both patients and ophthalmologists greatly appreciated the opportunity to participate in this study. PMID:12545695

  7. Metalloproteinase 9 and TIMP-1 expression in retina and optic nerve in absolute angle closure glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Renata; Reszeć, Joanna; Kisielewski, Wojciech; Mariak, Zofia

    2016-03-01

    Glaucoma is one of the most important reason causes of the blindness, associated with retinal ganglion cells (RGC) death. This process is not fully understood, however apoptosis due to hypoxia is one of the most important processes leading to RGC death. Glaucomatous optic neuropathy is characterized by remodeling of the extracellular matrix due to metalloproteinase activation, which leads to loss of RGC and axons at the optic nerve head. The aim of the study was to evaluate metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor-1 (TIMP-1) expression in the retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve axons in 33 eyes with absolute primary glaucoma. To evaluate MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression primary polyclonal goat antibodies against MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were used. The control group was composed of 8 cases of eyes enucleated and fixed in the first day after trauma. MMP-9 expression was observed in retinal ganglion cells and in the inner nuclear layer of the retina in all the examined cases. In 28 out of 33 glaucomatous eyes, MMP-9 expression was observed in the proliferating glial cells surrounding the optic nerve axons. TIMP-1 expression was observed in 10 out of 33 glaucomatous eyes, only in retinal ganglion cells. None of the examined injured eyes showed MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression. MMP-9 activation rather than TIMP-1 may by associated with the pathomechanism of retinal ganglion cell and optic nerve damage in absolute glaucoma. Copyright © 2015 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  8. Gait parameters, functional mobility and fall risk in individuals with early to moderate primary open angle glaucoma: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Henrique de Alencar; Moreira, Bruno de Souza; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Furtado, Sheyla Rossana Cavalcanti; Cronemberger, Sebastião; Gomes, Roberto de Alencar; Kirkwood, Renata Noce

    2018-03-13

    This study investigated the influence of early to moderate primary open angle glaucoma on gait, functional mobility and fall risk. Thirty-three participants in the early and moderate stages of primary open angle glaucoma and 34 asymptomatic controls participated in the study. Spatiotemporal gait data were obtained with the GAITRite system and included: velocity, cadence, step length, base of support, swing, stance and double support times. Functional measures included the Timed Up and Go test, the Five-Repetition Sit-To-Stand test and the Dynamic Gait Index. Fall risk was measured using the Physiological Profile Assessment. The variables contrast sensitivity, proprioception and the Timed Up and Go and Dynamic Gait Index tests were significantly different between groups. In addition, the glaucoma group presented significantly higher risk of falling compared to the control group. Individuals in the early and moderate stages of primary open glaucoma presented mobility and sensory deficits that increase the risk of falling. The results of this study suggest that adding the Timed Up and Go and Dynamic Gait Index tests to routine physical therapy assessment of individuals with early glaucoma could be useful. Rehabilitation programs should focus on maintaining and/or improving mobility and balance, and prevention of falls in this population. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. The effectiveness of early lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation for the treatment of primary angle-closure glaucoma (EAGLE: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew Paul

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness. Although primary open-angle glaucoma is more common, primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG is more likely to result in irreversible blindness. By 2020, 5·3 million people worldwide will be blind because of PACG. The current standard care for PACG is a stepped approach of a combination of laser iridotomy surgery (to open the drainage angle and medical treatment (to reduce intraocular pressure. If these treatments fail, glaucoma surgery (eg, trabeculectomy is indicated. It has been proposed that, because the lens of the eye plays a major role in the mechanisms leading to PACG, early clear lens extraction will improve glaucoma control by opening the drainage angle. This procedure might reduce the need for drugs and glaucoma surgery, maintain good visual acuity, and improve quality of life compared with standard care. EAGLE aims to evaluate whether early lens extraction improves patient-reported, clinical outcomes, and cost-effectiveness, compared with standard care. Methods/Design EAGLE is a multicentre pragmatic randomized trial. All people presenting to the recruitment centres in the UK and east Asia with newly diagnosed PACG and who are at least 50 years old are eligible. The primary outcomes are EQ-5D, intraocular pressure, and incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY gained. Other outcomes are: vision and glaucoma-specific patient-reported outcomes, visual acuity, visual field, angle closure, number of medications, additional surgery (e.g., trabeculectomy, costs to the health services and patients, and adverse events. A single main analysis will be done at the end of the trial, after three years of follow-up. The analysis will be based on all participants as randomized (intention to treat. 400 participants (200 in each group will be recruited, to have 90% power at 5% significance level to detect a difference in EQ-5D score between the two groups of 0·05

  10. The NEIGHBOR Consortium Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Genome-wide Association Study: Rationale, Study design and Clinical variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggs, Janey L; Hauser, Michael A; Abdrabou, Wael; Allingham, R Rand; Budenz, Donald L; DelBono, Elizabeth; Friedman, David S; Kang, Jae H; Gaasterland, Douglas; Gaasterland, Terry; Lee, Richard K; Lichter, Paul R; Loomis, Stephanie; Liu, Yutao; McCarty, Cathy; Medeiros, Felipe A; Moroi, Sayoko E; Olson, Lana M; Realini, Anthony; Richards, Julia E; Rozsa, Frank W; Schuman, Joel S; Singh, Kuldev; Stein, Joshua D; Vollrath, Douglas; Weinreb, Robert N; Wollstein, Gadi; Yaspan, Brian L; Yoneyama, Sachiko; Zack, Don; Zhang, Kang; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Pasquale, Louis R; Haines, Jonathan L

    2012-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a common disease with complex inheritance. The identification of genes predisposing to POAG is an important step toward the development of novel gene-based methods of diagnosis and treatment. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified genes contributing to complex traits such as POAG however, such studies frequently require very large sample sizes, and thus, collaborations and consortia have been of critical importance for the GWAS approach. In this report we describe the formation of the NEIGHBOR consortium, the harmonized case control definitions used for a POAG GWAS, the clinical features of the cases and controls and the rationale for the GWAS study design. PMID:22828004

  11. Peripheral iris thickness and association with iridotrabecular contact after laser peripheral iridotomy in patients with primary angle-closure and primary angle-closure glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizoguchi T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Takanori Mizoguchi,1 Mineo Ozaki,2,3 Harumi Wakiyama,1,4 Nobuchika Ogino1,5 1Mizoguchi Eye Clinic, Sasebo, Japan; 2Ozaki Eye Clinic, Miyazaki, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan; 4Japanese Red Cross Nagasaki Genbaku Hospital, Nagasaki, Japan; 5Nishigaki Eye Clinic, Nagoya, Japan Purpose: To investigate the relation between the quantitative iris parameters and iridotrabecular contact (ITC in patients with primary angle-closure (PAC and PAC glaucoma (PACG. Materials and methods: PAC and PACG with laser peripheral iridotomy were recruited prospectively. Anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT was performed under light and dark conditions, and scans were taken along the vertical and horizontal axes. Iris thickness at 500 µm (IT500 and 750 µm (IT750 from the scleral spur, maximal iris thickness (MIT, and cross sections of the iris area (I-Area were measured by using software. ITC was defined by the ASOCT as the contact between the peripheral iris and angle wall anterior to the scleral spur. The ITC+ and ITC- groups were defined as eyes that had ITC in two or more quadrants and in no or one quadrant, respectively. Results: A total of 79 eyes of 60 patients (consisting of 48 PAC and 31 PACG were recruited. The prevalence of superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal ITC was 44 eyes (55.7%, 48 eyes (60.8%, 18 eyes (22.8%, and 16 eyes (20.2%, respectively. These iris parameters of the inferior quadrant, which had the highest prevalence of all the quadrants, were used for the analysis. After adjusting for age, sex, pupil size, and central anterior chamber depth, mean values of IT500 and IT750 were significantly greater in the ITC+ group than the ITC- group (P<0.05. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of parameters for the ITC+ group compared with the ITC- group were: IT500, 1.9 (P=0.029; IT750, 2.0 (P=0.011, MIT, 1.4 (P=0.244, and I-Area, 0.97 (P=0.406, respectively, per 0.1-unit

  12. The role of base excision repair in the development of primary open angle glaucoma in the Polish population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuchra, Magda; Markiewicz, Lukasz; Mucha, Bartosz [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz (Poland); Pytel, Dariusz [The Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Department of Cancer Biology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Szymanek, Katarzyna [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw, SPKSO Hospital, Warsaw (Poland); Szemraj, Janusz [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P. [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw, SPKSO Hospital, Warsaw (Poland); Majsterek, Ireneusz, E-mail: ireneusz.majsterek@umed.lodz.pl [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We suggested the association of XRCC1 gene with the increase risk of POAG development. • We indicated the association of clinical factor and XRCC1, MUTYH, ADPRT and APE1 genes with POAG progression. • We postulated the increase level of oxidative DNA damage in group of patients with POAG in relation to healthy controls. • We suggested the slightly decrease ability to repair of oxidative DNA damage. • This is the first data that showed the role of BER mechanism in POAG pathogenesis. - Abstract: Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in developing countries. Previous data have shown that progressive loss of human TM cells may be connected with chronic exposure to oxidative stress. This hypothesis may suggest a role of the base excision repair (BER) pathway of oxidative DNA damage in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate an association of BER gene polymorphism with a risk of POAG. Moreover, an association of clinical parameters was examined including cup disk ratio (c/d), rim area (RA) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) with glaucoma progression according to BER gene polymorphisms. Our research included 412 patients with POAG and 454 healthy controls. Gene polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Heidelberg Retinal Tomography (HRT) clinical parameters were also analyzed. The 399Arg/Gln genotype of the XRCC1 gene (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.02–1.89 p = 0.03) was associated with an increased risk of POAG occurrence. It was indicated that the 399Gln/Gln XRCC1 genotype might increase the risk of POAG progression according to the c/d ratio (OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.07–2.61 P = 0.02) clinical parameter. Moreover, the association of VF factor with 148Asp/Glu of APE1 genotype distribution and POAG progression (OR 2.25; 95% CI 1.30–3.89) was also found. Additionally, the analysis of the 324Gln/His MUTYH polymorphism gene distribution in the patient group according to RNFL factor showed that it might

  13. Functional alterations of V1 cortex in patients with primary open angle glaucoma using functional MRI retinotopic mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Linping; Cai Ping; Li Changying; Li Xueqin; Xie Bing; Li Sha; Liu Ting; Chen Xing; Shi Yanshu; Wang Jian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the functional changes of visual cortex (V1) in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) by fMRI retinotopic mapping technology. Methods: Fifteen POAG patients and 15 healthy volunteers underwent stimulations with fMRI retinotopic mapping stimulus and contrast-reversing checkerboard patterns stimulus on a Siemens Trio 3.0 T MRI whole-body scanner for functional data collection. Comparisons of V1 fMRI responses between the glaucomatous eyes and the healthy eyes of the patients were carried out using paired samples t-test, while independent samples t-test was used to compare V1 fMRI responses and activations between the healthy eyes of patients and the age-, gender- and side- matched eyes of normal people. Differences of V1 cortical functions and visual functions were analyzed by linear correlation analysis when the glaucomatous and the healthy eyes were simulated individually., Results: (1) V1 fMRI responses of the individually stimulated glaucomatous eyes [(1.24±0.72)%] were weaker than those of the healthy eyes [(2.18±0.93)%] (t=4.757, P 0.05). (2) Differences of V1 cortical functions were negatively correlated with those of visual functions in the individually stimulated glaucomatous and healthy eyes (r=-0.887, P< 0.01). (3) The activated area indexes of V1 cortexes in the healthy eyes from patients (0.72±0.12) were lower than those in the matched eyes of normal people (0.85±0.09) (t=-3.801, P<0.01) . Conclusion: Cortical function impairment was in accordance with visual function impairment in glaucoma. Located and quantified measurement with fMRI retinotopic mapping was a useful method for clinical follow-up and evaluation of functional alteration of glaucomatous visual cortex, and a potentially useful means of studying trans-synaptic degeneration of visual pathways of in vivo glaucoma. (authors)

  14. Correlation between peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and fundus autofluorescence in primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reznicek L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lukas Reznicek,* Florian Seidensticker,* Thomas Mann, Irene Hübert, Alexandra Buerger, Christos Haritoglou, Aljoscha S Neubauer, Anselm Kampik, Christoph Hirneiss, Marcus Kernt Department of Ophthalmology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To investigate the relationship between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness and retinal pigment epithelium alterations in patients with advanced glaucomatous visual field defects. Methods: A consecutive, prospective series of 82 study eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma and advanced glaucomatous visual field defects were included in this study. All study participants underwent a full ophthalmic examination followed by visual field testing with standard automated perimetry as well as spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT for peripapillary RNFL thickness and Optos wide-field fundus autofluorescence (FAF images. A pattern grid with corresponding locations between functional visual field sectors and structural peripapillary RNFL thickness was aligned to the FAF images at corresponding location. Mean FAF intensity (range: 0 = black and 255 = white of each evaluated sector (superotemporal, temporal, inferotemporal, inferonasal, nasal, superonasal was correlated with the corresponding peripapillary RNFL thickness obtained with SD-OCT. Results: Correlation analyses between sectoral RNFL thickness and standardized FAF intensity in the corresponding topographic retina segments revealed partly significant correlations with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.004 and 0.376 and were statistically significant in the temporal inferior central field (r = 0.324, P = 0.036 and the nasal field (r = 0.376, P = 0.014. Conclusion: Retinal pigment epithelium abnormalities correlate with corresponding peripapillary RNFL damage, especially in the temporal inferior sector of patients with advanced glaucomatous visual field defects. A

  15. Testosterone Pathway Genetic Polymorphisms in Relation to Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: An Analysis in Two Large Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jessica N Cooke; Gharahkhani, Puya; Kang, Jae H; Butkiewicz, Mariusz; Sullivan, David A; Weinreb, Robert N; Aschard, Hugues; Allingham, R Rand; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Lee, Richard K; Moroi, Sayoko E; Brilliant, Murray H; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S; Fingert, John H; Budenz, Donald L; Realini, Tony; Gaasterland, Terry; Scott, William K; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J; Igo, Robert P; Song, Yeunjoo E; Hark, Lisa; Ritch, Robert; Rhee, Douglas J; Vollrath, Douglas; Zack, Donald J; Medeiros, Felipe; Vajaranant, Thasarat S; Chasman, Daniel I; Christen, William G; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Liu, Yutao; Kraft, Peter; Richards, Julia E; Rosner, Bernard A; Hauser, Michael A; Craig, Jamie E; Burdon, Kathryn P; Hewitt, Alex W; Mackey, David A; Haines, Jonathan L; MacGregor, Stuart; Wiggs, Janey L; Pasquale, Louis R

    2018-02-01

    Sex hormones may be associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), although the mechanisms are unclear. We previously observed that gene variants involved with estrogen metabolism were collectively associated with POAG in women but not men; here we assessed gene variants related to testosterone metabolism collectively and POAG risk. We used two datasets: one from the United States (3853 cases and 33,480 controls) and another from Australia (1155 cases and 1992 controls). Both datasets contained densely called genotypes imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference panel. We used pathway- and gene-based approaches with Pathway Analysis by Randomization Incorporating Structure (PARIS) software to assess the overall association between a panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in testosterone metabolism genes and POAG. In sex-stratified analyses, we evaluated POAG overall and POAG subtypes defined by maximum IOP (high-tension [HTG] or normal tension glaucoma [NTG]). In the US dataset, the SNP panel was not associated with POAG (permuted P = 0.77), although there was an association in the Australian sample (permuted P = 0.018). In both datasets, the SNP panel was associated with POAG in men (permuted P ≤ 0.033) and not women (permuted P ≥ 0.42), but in gene-based analyses, there was no consistency on the main genes responsible for these findings. In both datasets, the testosterone pathway association with HTG was significant (permuted P ≤ 0.011), but again, gene-based analyses showed no consistent driver gene associations. Collectively, testosterone metabolism pathway SNPs were consistently associated with the high-tension subtype of POAG in two datasets.

  16. Diagnostic capability of optic nerve head rim width and retinal nerve fiber thickness in open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Staso, Silvio; Agnifili, Luca; Di Staso, Federico; Climastone, Hilary; Ciancaglini, Marco; Scuderi, Gian Luca

    2018-03-01

    This study was performed to test the diagnostic capability of the minimum rim width compared to peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with glaucoma. A case control, observer masked study, was conducted. Minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness were assessed using the patient-specific axis traced between fovea-to-Bruch's membrane opening center axis. For both minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, the regionalization in six sectors (nasal, superior-nasal, superior-temporal, temporal, inferior-temporal, and inferior-nasal) was analyzed. Eyes with at least one sector with value below the 5% or 1% normative limit of the optical coherence tomography normative database were classified as glaucomatous. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive positive and negative values were calculated for both minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. A total of 118 eyes of 118 Caucasian subjects (80 eyes with open-angle glaucoma and 38 control eyes) were enrolled in the study. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 79.7%, 77.5%, and 84.2%, respectively, for minimum rim width and 84.7%, 82.5%, and 89.5% for retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. The positive predictive values were 0.91% and 0.94% for minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, respectively, whereas the negative predictive values were 0.64% and 0.70%. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.892 for minimum rim width and 0.938 for retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. Our results indicated that the sector analysis based on Bruch's membrane opening and fovea to disk alignment is able to detect glaucomatous defects, and that Bruch's membrane opening minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness showed equivalent diagnostic ability.

  17. ABCC5, a gene that influences the anterior chamber depth, is associated with primary angle closure glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monisha E Nongpiur

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anterior chamber depth (ACD is a key anatomical risk factor for primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS on ACD to discover novel genes for PACG on a total of 5,308 population-based individuals of Asian descent. Genome-wide significant association was observed at a sequence variant within ABCC5 (rs1401999; per-allele effect size =  -0.045 mm, P = 8.17 × 10(-9. This locus was associated with an increase in risk of PACG in a separate case-control study of 4,276 PACG cases and 18,801 controls (per-allele OR = 1.13 [95% CI: 1.06-1.22], P = 0.00046. The association was strengthened when a sub-group of controls with open angles were included in the analysis (per-allele OR = 1.30, P = 7.45 × 10(-9; 3,458 cases vs. 3,831 controls. Our findings suggest that the increase in PACG risk could in part be mediated by genetic sequence variants influencing anterior chamber dimensions.

  18. Confirmation of the presence of uveal effusion in Asian eyes with primary angle closure glaucoma: an ultrasound biomicroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh S; Quek, Desmond; Lee, Kelvin Y; Oen, Francis T; Sakai, Hiroshi; Koh, Victor T; Mohanram, Lakshmana S; Baskaran, Mani; Wong, Tina T; Aung, Tin

    2008-12-01

    To confirm the presence of uveal effusion in the eyes of Asian patients with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). In this observational case series, 70 patients with PACG (28 untreated patients with newly diagnosed PACG and 42 patients who had undergone previous laser iridotomy and were being monitored) and 12 patients with acute primary angle closure (APAC) were recruited. Eyes of patients with newly diagnosed PACG and APAC underwent UBM before and after laser iridotomy, whereas eyes of patients with treated PACG underwent UBM at enrollment. Uveal effusion was defined as a clear space between the choroid and sclera and was graded as follows: grade 0, none; grade 1, slitlike; grade 2, bandlike; and grade 3, obvious. Overall, uveal effusion was found in 11 of 70 eyes with PACG (15.7%; 95% confidence interval, 8.8%-26.2%) and in 3 of 12 eyes with APAC (25%; 95% confidence interval, 8.0%-53.4%). For patients with newly diagnosed PACG, uveal effusion was found in 4 of 28 eyes (14.2%; 95% confidence interval, 5.1%-32.1%) before laser iridotomy; 2 eyes had effusion after laser iridotomy. When present, the effusion was grade 1 in PACG eyes and grade 2 or 3 in APAC eyes. Uveal effusion was present in a significant proportion of Asian eyes with PACG and APAC, confirming a recent report of this finding.

  19. Ocular characteristics associated with the location of focal lamina cribrosa defects in open-angle glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H-Yl; Hwang, Y S; Park, C K

    2017-04-01

    PurposeTo investigate the clinical characteristics according to the location of focal lamina cribrosa (LC) defects and its associated ocular features.Patients and methodsA total of 139 open-angle glaucoma patients underwent Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) with enhanced depth imaging. Alterations in the contour of the LC were investigated to find focal LC defects. The location of the visible LC defect from the neural canal wall (far-peripheral and mid-peripheral) and clock-hour position (superotemporal, temporal and inferotemporal) were classified. Disc ovality ratio and disc-foveal angle were measured from disc and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) photographs. The disc tilt degree was measured using a Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) III system. The en face OCT image of the disc scans was registered to the disc and RNFL photographs, to determine whether the focal LC defects corresponded spatially to the glaucomatous damage location.ResultsEyes with far-peripheral LC defects were significantly myopic and had a higher disc ovality ratio. The disc tilt degree obtained by HRT revealed significant temporal disc tilt in eyes with temporal LC defects (Plocation of glaucomatous damage in 81.6%; however, only 46.2% of eyes with a superotemporal LC defect and 3.2% of eyes with a temporal LC defect corresponded spatially with the glaucomatous damage location.ConclusionsThe clinical characteristics and association with glaucomatous damage location were different according to the location of focal LC defect.

  20. Comparative study of the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness performed with optical coherence tomography and GDx scanning laser polarimetry in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.

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    Wasyluk, Jaromir T; Jankowska-Lech, Irmina; Terelak-Borys, Barbara; Grabska-Liberek, Iwona

    2012-03-01

    We compared the parameters of retinal nerve fibre layer in patients with advanced glaucoma with the use of different OCT (Optical Coherence Tomograph) devices in relation to analogical measurements performed with GDx VCC (Nerve Fiber Analyzer with Variable Corneal Compensation) scanning laser polarimetry. Study subjects had advanced primary open-angle glaucoma, previously treated conservatively, diagnosed and confirmed by additional examinations (visual field, ophthalmoscopy of optic nerve, gonioscopy), A total of 10 patients were enrolled (9 women and 1 man), aged 18-70 years of age. Nineteen eyes with advanced glaucomatous neuropathy were examined. 1) Performing a threshold perimetry Octopus, G2 strategy and ophthalmoscopy of optic nerve to confirm the presence of advanced primary open-angle glaucoma; 2) performing a GDx VCC scanning laser polarimetry of retinal nerve fibre layer; 3) measuring the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness with 3 different optical coherence tomographs. The parameters of the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness are highly correlated between the GDx and OCT Stratus and 3D OCT-1000 devices in mean retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in the upper sector, and correlation of NFI (GDx) with mean retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in OCT examinations. Absolute values of the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (measured in µm) differ significantly between GDx and all OCT devices. Examination with OCT devices is a sensitive diagnostic method of glaucoma, with good correlation with the results of GDx scanning laser polarimetry of the patients.

  1. Resident compliance with the american academy of ophthalmology preferred practice pattern guidelines for primary open-angle glaucoma.

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    Ong, Sally S; Sanka, Krishna; Mettu, Priyatham S; Brosnan, Thomas M; Stinnett, Sandra S; Lee, Paul P; Challa, Pratap

    2013-12-01

    To examine resident adherence to preferred practice pattern (PPP) guidelines set up by the American Academy of Ophthalmology for follow-up care of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. Retrospective chart review. One hundred three charts were selected for analysis from all patients with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code of open-angle glaucoma or its related entities who underwent a follow-up evaluation between July 2, 2003, and December 15, 2004, at the resident ophthalmology clinic in the Durham Veteran Affairs Medical Center. Follow-up visits of POAG patients were evaluated for documentation of 19 elements in accordance to PPP guidelines. Compliance rates for the 19 elements of PPP guidelines first were averaged in all charts, and then were averaged per resident and were compared among 8 residents between their first and second years of residency. The overall mean compliance rate for all 19 elements was 82.6% for all charts (n = 103), 78.8% for first-year residents, and 81.7% for second-year residents. The increase from first to second year of residency was not significant (P>0.05). Documentation rates were high (>90%) for 14 elements, including all components of the physical examination and follow-up as well as most components of the examination history and management plan. Residents documented adjusting target intraocular pressure downward, local or systemic problems with medications, and impact of visual function on daily living approximately 50% to 80% of the time. Documentation rates for components of patient education were the lowest, between 5% and 16% in all charts. Residents' compliance with PPP guidelines for a POAG follow-up visit was very high for most elements, but documentation rates for components of patient education were poor. Adherence rates to PPP guidelines can be used as a tool to evaluate and improve resident performance during training. However, further studies are needed to establish the advantages of

  2. Primary angle-closure glaucomas disturb regional spontaneous brain activity in the visual pathway: an fMRI study

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    Chen W

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wei Chen, Li Zhang, Yong-gen Xu, Kai Zhu, Man Luo Department of Ophthalmology, Shaoxing People’s Hospital, Shaoxing, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Objective: To explore the underlying regional brain activity deficits in the visual cortex in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG relative to normal controls (NCs using regional homogeneity (ReHo method, and its relationship with behavioral performances. Patients: Twenty PACG patients (10 females, 10 males; mean age ± standard deviation [SD]: 54.42±9.46 years and 20 age-, and sex status-matched NCs (10 females, 10 males; mean age ± SD: 53.75±9.16 years were included in this study. Measurements and results: Compared with NCs, patients with PACG showed significant atrophic peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL and neuroretinal rim area, increased optic disk cup-to-disc ratio (CDR and optic disk volume (P<0.05, higher ReHo value in the left fusiform gyrus, left cerebellum anterior lobe, right frontal-temporal space, and right insula, and lower ReHo value in the bilateral middle occipital gyrus, left claustrum, and right paracentral lobule lobe. The receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed these different areas with high value of area under curve, and high degree of sensitivity and specificity. The mean beta values of these different areas were extracted. In PACG, the duration of disease showed a negative correlation with the mean beta value of left cerebellum anterior lobe (r=-0.453, P=0.045 and a positive correlation with right middle occipital gyrus (r=0.586, P=0.007; left middle occipital gyrus showed positive correlations with duration of disease (r=0.562, P=0.01 and left pRNFL (r=0.49, P=0.028; left claustrum had a positive correlation with left CDR (r=0.515, P=0.02; and right paracentral lobule lobe demonstrated a positive correlation with left pRNFL (r=0.623, P=0.003. Conclusion: PACG is involved in abnormal spontaneous brain activity in multiple

  3. Evaluación de los factores de riesgo en el glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto Assessment of the risk factors in primary open angle glaucoma

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    Yunia Herbania Labrada Rodríguez

    2008-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio analítico, a través de una pesquisa activa de glaucoma en la población del municipio Las Tunas, en el período comprendido desde enero/2003 hasta enero/2006, con la finalidad de identificar los factores de riesgo en la población estudiada. Se examinaron 2 901 pacientes. Los pacientes con diagnóstico positivo de glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto constituyeron los casos; se escogió aleatoriamente 201 controles con diagnóstico negativo. Se estableció una relación de 1:3. E...

  4. Development of Dorzolamide Loaded 6-O-Carboxymethyl Chitosan Nanoparticles for Open Angle Glaucoma

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    Ujwala Shinde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan (CS is a biodegradable, biocompatible, and mucoadhesive natural polymer soluble in acidic pH only and can be irritating to the eye. Objective of the study was to synthesize water soluble 6-O-carboxymethyl (OCM-CS derivative of CS, and to develop CS and OCM-CS nanoparticles (NPs loaded with dorzolamide hydrochloride (DRZ. CS was reacted with monochloroacetic acid (MCA for OCM-CS synthesis and was characterized by FT-IR, DSC, and 13C NMR. CS and OCM-CS NPs were prepared by ionic gelation method. Ocular irritation potential were evaluated and therapeutic efficacy was measured by reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP in normotensive rabbits. Maximum yield was obtained when the ratio of water/isopropyl alcohol was 1/4 at 55°C. The FT-IR, DSC and 13C NMR confirmed the formation of an ether linkage between hydroxyl groups of CS and MCA. The particle size and zeta potential of optimised CSNPs was 250.3 ± 2.62 nm and +33.47 ± 0.723 mV, whereas those for OCM-CSNPs were 187.1 ± 2.72 nm and 30.87 ± 0.86 mV. The entrapment efficiency was significantly improved for OCM-CSNPs, compared to CSNPs. OCM-CSNPs had tailored drug release and improved bioavailability with reduction in pulse entry as compared to CSNPs. Hence, it can be concluded that DRZ loaded OCM-CSNPs would be better alternative option to available eye drops for glaucoma treatment.

  5. La herencia en el glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto en la provincia Las Tunas Heredity in primary open-angle glaucoma in the province of Las Tunas

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    Yunia H Labrada Rodríguez

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentaron los resultados de un estudio realizado en 72 pacientes con glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto y sus familiares. Las familias se agruparon según patrón de herencia y se relacionó el tipo de herencia con antecedentes patológicos personales, edad y sexo. Se obtuvo el 50 % de familias con patrón de herencia no definido, el 25 % con patrón autosómico dominante y el 25 % con patrón autosómico recesivoResults of a study carried out in 72 patients presenting with open-angle primary glaucoma and their relatives are presented. Families were grouped according to inheritance pattern, and type of inheritance with personal pathologic backgrounds, age and sex were related. There was 50 % of families with indefinite inheritance pattern, 25 % with autosomal dominant pattern, and 25 % with autosomal recessive

  6. The p53 codon 72 PRO/PRO genotype may be associated with initial central visual field defects in caucasians with primary open angle glaucoma.

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    Janey L Wiggs

    Full Text Available Loss of vision in glaucoma is due to apoptotic retinal ganglion cell loss. While p53 modulates apoptosis, gene association studies between p53 variants and glaucoma have been inconsistent. In this study we evaluate the association between a p53 variant functionally known to influence apoptosis (codon 72 Pro/Arg and the subset of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG patients with early loss of central visual field.Genotypes for the p53 codon 72 polymorphism (Pro/Arg were obtained for 264 POAG patients and 400 controls from the U.S. and in replication studies for 308 POAG patients and 178 controls from Australia (GIST. The glaucoma patients were divided into two groups according to location of initial visual field defect (either paracentral or peripheral. All cases and controls were Caucasian with European ancestry.The p53-PRO/PRO genotype was more frequent in the U.S. POAG patients with early visual field defects in the paracentral regions compared with those in the peripheral regions or control group (p=2.7 × 10(-5. We replicated this finding in the GIST cohort (p  =7.3 × 10(-3, and in the pooled sample (p=6.6 × 10(-7 and in a meta-analysis of both the US and GIST datasets (1.3 × 10(-6, OR 2.17 (1.58-2.98 for the PRO allele.These results suggest that the p53 codon 72 PRO/PRO genotype is potentially associated with early paracentral visual field defects in primary open-angle glaucoma patients.

  7. The Role of Low-frequency TRANS-orbital Magnetic Stimulation in Normalization of Intraocular Pressure in Patients with Primary Open-angle Glaucoma

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    I. A. Makarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Assessment of the effectiveness of low-frequency magnetic therapy on the dynamics of intraocular pressure in the treatment of primary and uncompensated medical means of open-angle glaucoma. Patients and Methods. 46 patients with uncompensated open-angle glaucoma. The first group: 24 patients (42 eyes with open-angle glaucoma (I, II, III stages during 2–13 years. The second group: 22 patients (22 eyes with newly diagnosed elevated intraocular pressure in one eye. The age of patients ranged from 43 to 59 years. Treatment included antiglaucoma hypotensive eye drops and TRANS-orbital magnetic stimulation on the domestic device“Polus-2”. Results. Intraocular pressure before treatment ranged from 25 to 32 mm Hg. (average of 28.9±1.4 mm Hg. in the first group . After magnetic stimulation IOP decreased within 2–5 days in all patients to 18 to 21 mm Hg (average of 17.9±1.1 mm Hg, reaching values “pressure goal.” Second group: in the primary treatment in patients IOP was 28–39 mm Hg (average of 32.6±1.8 mm Hg on one of the eyes. IOP decreased to 16–21 mm Hg in the period from 3 to 9 days in all patients of study group after daily magnetic stimulation and instillation of xalatan and timolol. In the control subgroup of patients with uncompensated openangle glaucoma loweringof the IOP to “pressure goal,” noted only in 7 patients (70,0% 11–14 days after instillation of anti-hypertensive glaucoma eye drops only. Conclusion. Low-frequency TRANS-orbital magnetic stimulation in enhanced hypotensive effect antiglaucomatous eye drops and makes it easier to achieve compensation of IOP to values “pressure goals” in patients with uncompensated open-angle glaucoma. The marked dependence of the efficiency of reduction of IOP from biotropic parameters of the magnetic field. The pulsed mode with a higher amplitude value of the magnetic induction has a more pronounced effect and makes it easier to achieve the reduction of IOP.

  8. Comparative analysis of the results of various physical therapy techniques in the treatment of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma with chronic cerebral ischemia

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    Lazarev М.S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Aim of the study: to evaluate the effectiveness of the techniques of dynamic simultaneous transcranial magnetic therapy and resonance, and electrical stimulation, transcranial magnetic therapy and dynamic laser stimulation, magnetic simpatokorrektsii in the treatment of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma with chronic cerebral ischemia. Techniques. We observed 184 patients diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma who received different physical therapy techniques. Results. Patients treated with transcranial magnetic therapy and electrical stimulation or laser stimulation, in addition to improving visual function and improve the bioelectrical activity of the visual cortex, more pronounced than in other groups also observed the activation of the intraocular blood fow. Application of magnetic simpatokorrektsii allows for improvement of basic functional, electrophysiological and hemodynamic performance by reducing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and reduce the vasopressor effect. Conclusion. Transcranial magnetic therapy in combination with electrical stimulation or laser stimulation is effective in the treatment of patients with POAG. In patients with primary open-angle glaucoma with chronic cerebral ischemia technique of magnetic sim-patokorrektsii compared with traditional methods of vasoactive therapy is more effective, which is manifested not only increase the visual functions, but also a decrease in cognitive impairment.

  9. Timolol maleate 0.5% versus timolol maleate in gel forming solution 0.5% (timolol GFS in open angle glaucoma in India. Preliminary safety and efficacy study

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    Kumar Harsh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the efficacy and safety profile of Timolol maleate 0.5% versus Timolol gel forming solution (GFS 0.5% in open angle glaucoma in Indian eyes.Methods: In a prospective crossover study 52 patients of open angle glaucoma, well controlled intraocular pressure (IOP on 0.5% timolol maleate solution were switched over to timolol GFS once a day, after a washout period of one month. A diurnal IOP measurement was done after 6 weeks and compared with patients on timolol maleate 0.5% twice a day. In addition, side effects reported or observed were compared.Results: Statistically significant difference was not observed in ocular hypotensive effect of the two treatments .The side-effects in both the treatment groups were similar except for higher incidence of blurring of vision in patients on timolol GFS.The compliance was better with timolol GFS, but was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the more convenient 0.5% timolol in gel forming solution can be offered as an equally efficacious and well-tolerated alternative to twice daily 0.5% timolol solution in open angle glaucoma.

  10. Validity of code based algorithms to identify primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in Veterans Affairs (VA) administrative databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggerstaff, K S; Frankfort, B J; Orengo-Nania, S; Garcia, J; Chiao, E; Kramer, J R; White, D

    2018-04-01

    The validity of the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9) code for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) electronic medical record has not been examined. We determined the accuracy of the ICD-9 code for POAG and developed diagnostic algorithms for the detection of POAG. We conducted a retrospective study of abstracted data from the Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center's medical records of 334 unique patients with at least one visit to the Eye Clinic between 1999 and 2013. Algorithms were developed to validly identify POAG using ICD-9 codes and pharmacy data. The positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity, specificity and percent agreement of the various algorithms were calculated. For the ICD-9 code 365.1x, the PPV was 65.9%, NPV was 95.2%, sensitivity was 100%, specificity was 82.6%, and percent agreement was 87.8%. The algorithm with the highest PPV was 76.3%, using pharmacy data in conjunction with two or more ICD-9 codes for POAG, but this algorithm also had the lowest NPV at 88.2%. Various algorithms for identifying POAG in the VA administrative databases have variable validity. Depending on the type of research being done, the ICD-9 code 365.1x can be used for epidemiologic or health services database research.

  11. Common variants near ABCA1, AFAP1 and GMDS confer risk of primary open-angle glaucoma.

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    Gharahkhani, Puya; Burdon, Kathryn P; Fogarty, Rhys; Sharma, Shiwani; Hewitt, Alex W; Martin, Sarah; Law, Matthew H; Cremin, Katie; Bailey, Jessica N Cooke; Loomis, Stephanie J; Pasquale, Louis R; Haines, Jonathan L; Hauser, Michael A; Viswanathan, Ananth C; McGuffin, Peter; Topouzis, Fotis; Foster, Paul J; Graham, Stuart L; Casson, Robert J; Chehade, Mark; White, Andrew J; Zhou, Tiger; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Landers, John; Fitzgerald, Jude T; Klebe, Sonja; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Goldberg, Ivan; Healey, Paul R; Mills, Richard A; Wang, Jie Jin; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; RadfordSmith, Graham; Whiteman, David C; Brown, Matthew A; Wiggs, Janey L; Mackey, David A; Mitchell, Paul; MacGregor, Stuart; Craig, Jamie E

    2014-10-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. We performed a genome-wide association study in an Australian discovery cohort comprising 1,155 cases with advanced POAG and 1,992 controls. We investigated the association of the top SNPs from the discovery stage in two Australian replication cohorts (932 cases and 6,862 controls total) and two US replication cohorts (2,616 cases and 2,634 controls total). Meta-analysis of all cohorts identified three loci newly associated with development of POAG. These loci are located upstream of ABCA1 (rs2472493[G], odds ratio (OR) = 1.31, P = 2.1 × 10(-19)), within AFAP1 (rs4619890[G], OR = 1.20, P = 7.0 × 10(-10)) and within GMDS (rs11969985[G], OR = 1.31, P = 7.7 × 10(-10)). Using RT-PCR and immunolabeling, we show that these genes are expressed within human retina, optic nerve and trabecular meshwork and that ABCA1 and AFAP1 are also expressed in retinal ganglion cells.

  12. Evidence-based practice guideline of Chinese herbal medicine for primary open-angle glaucoma (qingfeng -neizhang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingxin; Ma, Qiu-Yan; Yang, Yue; He, Yu-Peng; Ma, Chao-Ting; Li, Qiang; Jin, Ming; Chen, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a chronic, progressive optic neuropathy. The aim was to develop an evidence-based clinical practice guideline of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for POAG with focus on Chinese medicine pattern differentiation and treatment as well as approved herbal proprietary medicine. The guideline development group involved in various pieces of expertise in contents and methods. Authors searched electronic databases include CNKI, VIP, Sino-Med, Wanfang data, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, as well as checked China State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) from the inception of these databases to June 30, 2015. Systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine treating adults with POAG were evaluated. Risk of bias tool in the Cochrane Handbook and evidence strength developed by the GRADE group were applied for the evaluation, and recommendations were based on the findings incorporating evidence strength. After several rounds of Expert consensus, the final guideline was endorsed by relevant professional committees. CHM treatment principle and formulae based on pattern differentiation together with approved patent herbal medicines are the main treatments for POAG, and the diagnosis and treatment focusing on blood related patterns is the major domain. CHM therapy alone or combined with other conventional treatment reported in clinical studies together with Expert consensus were recommended for clinical practice.

  13. [Is there a need for a therapeutic education with patients suffering with open-angle glaucoma? Preliminary inquiry regarding knowledge and patient adherence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugast, P; Thiboust, P; Blumen-Ohana, E; Nordmann, J-P

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the knowledge and compliance of patients with open-angle glaucoma in order to propose an approach by therapeutic education, validated for other chronic pathologies. A questionnaire-based interview of all patients in the waiting room of the glaucoma center is performed by the same health care professional. Out of 200 patients, 73% know they will need to be treated throughout their lives and 95% are aware of the risk of blindness in the absence of appropriate treatment. However, 16% respond that they can be cured, and 54% believe that treatment can save their eyesight. Knowledge increases with the length of follow-up of patients at the glaucoma center beyond one year, but the progress is still insufficient in their confidence that treatment can save their eyesight (36% to 57%), and in the decrease in the number of patients who forget their treatment (56% to 30%). Cognitive knowledge is insufficient to encourage the patient to comply with treatment. It is necessary to consider therapeutic patient education (TPE) techniques, such as described by WHO, in group and/or individual sessions, aimed at building the patient's confidence that treatment can delay the progression of the disease and blindness, strengthening his/her capacity to properly administer the eye drops, managing his/her treatment and coping with frequent side effects. Within this framework, our knowledge of the patients' representations of their glaucoma and its treatment must improve. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Optic Nerve Traction During Adduction in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma With Normal Intraocular Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demer, Joseph L.; Clark, Robert A.; Suh, Soh Youn; Giaconi, JoAnn A.; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros; Law, Simon K.; Bonelli, Laura; Coleman, Anne L.; Caprioli, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to ascertain effects of optic nerve (ON) traction in adduction, a phenomenon proposed as neuropathic in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods Seventeen patients with POAG and maximal IOP ≤ 20 mm Hg, and 31 controls underwent MRI in central gaze and 20° to 30° abduction and adduction. Optic nerve and sheath area centroids permitted computation of midorbital lengths versus minimum paths. Results Average mean deviation (±SEM) was −8.2 ± 1.2 dB in the 15 patients with POAG having interpretable perimetry. In central gaze, ON path length in POAG was significantly more redundant (104.5 ± 0.4% of geometric minimum) than in controls (102.9 ± 0.4%, P = 2.96 × 10−4). In both groups the ON became significantly straighter in adduction (28.6 ± 0.8° in POAG, 26.8 ± 1.1° in controls) than central gaze and abduction. In adduction, the ON in POAG straightened to 102.0% ± 0.2% of minimum path length versus 104.5% ± 0.4% in central gaze (P = 5.7 × 10−7), compared with controls who straightened to 101.6% ± 0.1% from 102.9% ± 0.3% in central gaze (P = 8.7 × 10−6); and globes retracted 0.73 ± 0.09 mm in POAG, but only 0.07 ± 0.08 mm in controls (P = 8.8 × 10−7). Both effects were confirmed in age-matched controls, and remained significant after correction for significant effects of age and axial globe length (P = 0.005). Conclusions Although tethering and elongation of ON and sheath are normal in adduction, adduction is associated with abnormally great globe retraction in POAG without elevated IOP. Traction in adduction may cause mechanical overloading of the ON head and peripapillary sclera, thus contributing to or resulting from the optic neuropathy of glaucoma independent of IOP. PMID:28829843

  15. Risk Factors for Motor Vehicle Collisions in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study.

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    Kenya Yuki

    Full Text Available To identify the incidence rate of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs in patients with no ocular pathology other than primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG and determine the putative risk factors for MVCs in this group of patients.We designed a prospective cohort study across three centers utilizing a consecutive sampling method to identify all patients with POAG between the ages of 40 and 80 years old. Patients with glaucoma were consecutively screened for eligibility. All study participants answered a questionnaire about motor vehicle collisions at baseline, and answered the questionnaire again every 12 months (± 1 month after baseline for three years. A binocular integrated visual field was calculated for each patient by merging a patient's monocular Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA visual fields (VFs, using the 'best sensitivity' method. Patients with incident MVCs were defined as the "MVC+" group and patients without incident MVCs were defined as the "MVC-" group. Adjusted odds ratios for the incidence of MVCs were estimated with a logistic regression model.One hundred and ninety-one Japanese POAG patients were analyzed in this study. The age of the participants was 63.7 ± 10.2 [mean ± standard deviation]. A total of 28 participants experienced a MVC during the follow up period of three years (4.9% per year. Ten patients (5.2% experienced a MVC in the first year, 13 patients (6.8% in the second year, and 11 patients (5.8% in the third year (some patients experienced multiple MVCs over different years. Best corrected visual acuity in the worst eye was significantly worse in the MVC+ group (0.03 ± 0.01, mean ± standard deviation, LogMar compared with the MVC- group (0.01 ± 0.003, p = 0.01, and was the only variable identified as a significant predictor of future MVCs in the multiple logistic regression model [odds ratio: 1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.1 to 1.4].Deterioration in visual acuity in the worst eye is a risk factor for future MVCs in

  16. UBM-guided chamber angle surgery for glaucoma management: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietlein, T S; Engels, B F; Jacobi, P C; Krieglstein, G K

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the potential of ultrasound bimicroscopy (UBM)-guided chamber angle surgery as an alternative or supplement to gonioscopy and intraocular microendoscopy for intraoperative control. In 15 porcine cadaver eyes, mechanical goniopuncture or punctual Er:YAG laser trabecular ablation was performed without operating microscope or gonioscopy, but with real-life ultrasound biomicroscopy monitoring with a 50 MHz transducer. Intraoperative localization of the microsurgical instruments and tissue-instrument contact were qualitatively evaluated. The instruments could be clearly visualized within the chamber angle and disturbing artefacts were only minimal when using mechanically fixed instruments in slow motion. Topographic localization, tissue contact, and penetration depth of the instruments entering the scleral were well illustrated as far as the technical resolution limits of UBM would allow. UBM can be used intraoperatively to monitor the correct manoeuvring of microsurgical instruments in selected ab interno procedures. Some adaptations and further modifications of the technique presented here will be necessary before UBM-guided surgery can be considered for clinical use in humans.

  17. A retrospective survey of childhood glaucoma prevalence according to Childhood Glaucoma Research Network classification.

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    Hoguet, Ambika; Grajewski, Alana; Hodapp, Elizabeth; Chang, Ta Chen Peter

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the Childhood Glaucoma Research Network (CGRN) classification system and describe the prevalence of each subtype according to this classification. Retrospectively, the medical records of 205 consecutive childhood glaucoma and glaucoma suspect patients at an urban tertiary care center were reviewed. The initial diagnosis and new diagnosis according to CGRN classification were recorded. All patients fit one of the seven categories of the new classification. Seventy-one percent of diagnoses were changed upon reclassification. Twenty-three percent of patients had primary glaucoma (juvenile open-angle glaucoma and primary congenital glaucoma [PCG]); 36% had secondary glaucoma (glaucoma associated with nonacquired ocular anomalies; glaucoma associated with nonacquired systemic disease or syndrome; glaucoma associated with acquired condition; and glaucoma following cataract surgery); and 39% were glaucoma suspect. Of the patients diagnosed with glaucoma, PCG was the most common diagnosis, seen in 32% of patients. The CGRN classification provides a useful method of classifying childhood glaucoma.

  18. Changes in the lamina and prelamina after intraocular pressure reduction in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and acute primary angle-closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Shin, Hye-Young; Jung, Kyoung In; Park, Chan Kee

    2014-01-09

    To compare changes in the prelamina and lamina of patients with POAG and acute primary angle-closure (APAC) after IOP reduction. We analyzed 20 patients with POAG who were scheduled to undergo glaucoma surgery and 17 patients with APAC scheduled for laser peripheral iridoplasty. Horizontal B-scans of the optic nerve head were obtained using Heidelberg Spectralis optical coherence tomography. The prelaminar position (PLP), laminar position (LP), and prelaminar thickness (PLT) were measured. Scans were obtained before and at 1 month after the intervention. Regression analysis was used to evaluate factors related to the changes in PLP, LP, and PLT. Mean IOP reduction after the intervention was 21.69 ± 4.26 mm Hg in the POAG group and 23.06 ± 4.54 mm Hg in the APAC group (P = 0.746). After IOP reduction, the mean changes in the PLP were 21.92 ± 13.16 μm in the POAG group and 47.84 ± 28.05 μm in the APAC group (comparison between two groups, P APAC group (comparison between two groups, P APAC group exhibited a significantly greater increase in PLT than the POAG group (comparison between two groups, P APAC were significantly related to the changes in the prelamina and lamina in regression analysis. IOP reduction leads to different responses of the prelamina and lamina between POAG and APAC patients. Anterior movement of the prelamina and lamina and thickening of the prelamina were more pronounced in the optic nerve head of APAC patients.

  19. Meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of combined surgery in the management of eyes with coexisting cataract and open angle glaucoma

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    Nan Jiang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To conduct a systematic review and quantitative Meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of combined surgery for the eyes with coexisting cataract and open angle glaucoma. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the related literature in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science databases, CNKI, CBM and Wan Fang databases, with no limitations on language or publication date. The primary efficacy estimate was identified by weighted mean difference of the percentage of intraocular pressure reduction (IOPR% from baseline to end-point, the percentage of number of glaucoma medications reduction from pre- to post-operation, and the secondary efficacy evaluations were performed by odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI for complete and qualified success rate. Besides, ORs were applied to assess the tolerability of adverse incidents. Meta-analyses of fixed or random effect models were performed using RevMan software 5.2 to gather the consequences. Heterogeneity was evaluated by Chi2 test and the I2 measure. RESULTS: Ten studies enrolling 3108 patients were included. The combined consequences indicated that both glaucoma and combined cataract and glaucoma surgery significantly decreased IOP. For deep sclerectomy vs deep sclerectomy plus phacoemulsification and canaloplasty vs phaco-canaloplasty, the differences in IOPR% were not all statistically significant while trabeculotomy was detected to gain a quantitatively greater IOPR% compared with trabeculotomy plus phacoemulsification. Furthermore, there was no statistical significance in the complete and qualified success rate, and the rates of adverse incidents for trabeculotomy vs trabeculotomy plus phacoemulsification. CONCLUSION: Compared with trabeculotomy plus phacoemulsification, trabeculectomy alone is more effective in lowering IOP and the number of glaucoma medications, while the two surgeries can not demonstrate statistical differences in the complete success rate

  20. Meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of combined surgery in the management of eyes with coexisting cataract and open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Zhao, Gui-Qiu; Lin, Jing; Hu, Li-Ting; Che, Cheng-Ye; Wang, Qian; Xu, Qiang; Li, Cui; Zhang, Jie

    2018-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review and quantitative Meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of combined surgery for the eyes with coexisting cataract and open angle glaucoma. We performed a systematic search of the related literature in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science databases, CNKI, CBM and Wan Fang databases, with no limitations on language or publication date. The primary efficacy estimate was identified by weighted mean difference of the percentage of intraocular pressure reduction (IOPR%) from baseline to end-point, the percentage of number of glaucoma medications reduction from pre- to post-operation, and the secondary efficacy evaluations were performed by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for complete and qualified success rate. Besides, ORs were applied to assess the tolerability of adverse incidents. Meta-analyses of fixed or random effect models were performed using RevMan software 5.2 to gather the consequences. Heterogeneity was evaluated by Chi 2 test and the I 2 measure. Ten studies enrolling 3108 patients were included. The combined consequences indicated that both glaucoma and combined cataract and glaucoma surgery significantly decreased IOP. For deep sclerectomy vs deep sclerectomy plus phacoemulsification and canaloplasty vs phaco-canaloplasty, the differences in IOPR% were not all statistically significant while trabeculotomy was detected to gain a quantitatively greater IOPR% compared with trabeculotomy plus phacoemulsification. Furthermore, there was no statistical significance in the complete and qualified success rate, and the rates of adverse incidents for trabeculotomy vs trabeculotomy plus phacoemulsification. Compared with trabeculotomy plus phacoemulsification, trabeculectomy alone is more effective in lowering IOP and the number of glaucoma medications, while the two surgeries can not demonstrate statistical differences in the complete success rate, qualified success rate, or incidence of adverse

  1. [Interrelation between parameters of thickness of cornea in its optical part and thickness of nerve fibre layer of amphiblestrodes in case of primary open angle glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroedov, A V; Ogorodnikova, V Iu; Gorodnichiĭ, V V; Aleksandrov, A S; Diordiĭchuk, S V; Sol'nov, N M; Kushim, Z P; Kuznetsov, K V

    2012-04-01

    61 patient was checked-up (113 eyes) with the help of optical coherence tomography for the purpose of determination of the interrelation between thickness of cornea in its optical part and thickness of nerve fibre layer of amphiblestrodes in case of primary open angle glaucoma. The average age of patients was 63,9 +/- 10,4 years. Direct moderate interrelation between parameters of thickness of cornea in its central zone and thickness of nerve fibre layer of amphiblestrodes in its temporal part discus nervi optici (r=0,46 u r=0,26, pfibre layer of amphiblestrodes in its upper part of discus nervi optici (r=0,35 u r=0,43, pfibre layer of amphiblestrodes (r=0,25, poptic neuropathy in patients with progressive glaucoma.

  2. Comparative studies of RNFL thickness measured by OCT with global index of visual fields in patients with ocular hypertension and early open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergios Taliantzis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sergios Taliantzis, Dimitris Papaconstantinou, Chrysanthi Koutsandrea, Michalis Moschos, Michalis Apostolopoulos, Gerasimos GeorgopoulosAthens University Medical School, Department of Ophthalmology, Athens, GreecePurpose: To compare the functional changes in visual fields with optical coherence tomography (OCT findings in patients with ocular hypertension, open angle glaucoma, and suspected glaucoma. In addition, our purpose is to evaluate the correlation of global indices with the structural glaucomatous defect, to assess their statistical importance in all the groups of our study, and to estimate their validity to the clinical practice.Methods: One hundred sixty nine eyes (140 patients were enrolled. The patients were classified in three groups. Group 1 consisted of 54 eyes with ocular hypertension, group 2 of 42 eyes with preperimetric glaucoma, and group 3 of 73 eyes with chronic open angle glaucoma. All of them underwent ophthalmic examination according to a prefixed protocol, OCT exam (Stratus 3000 for retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness measurement with fast RNFL thickness protocol and visual fields (VF examination with Octopus perimeter (G2 program, central 30–2 threshold strategy. Pearson correlation was calculated between RNFL thickness and global index of VF.Results: A moderate correlation between RNFL thickness and indices mean sensitivity (MS, mean defect (MD and loss variance (LV of VF (0.547, -0.582, -0.527, respectively; P < 0.001 was observed for all patients. Correlations of the ocular hypertension and preperimetric groups are weak. Correlation of RNFL thickness with global indices becomes stronger as the structural alterations become deeper in OCT exam. Correlation of RNFL thickness with the global index of VF, in respective segments around optic disk was also calculated and was found significant in the nasal, inferior, superior, and temporal segments.Conclusion: RNFL average thickness is not a reliable index for early

  3. Long-Term Outcomes of Primary Trabeculectomy in Diabetic Patients without Retinopathy with Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma

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    Jian Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate primary trabeculectomy with adjunctive mitomycin-C (MMC in diabetic patients without retinopathy with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG. Design. This is a retrospective case series comparison. Participants. This retrospective trial compared outcomes of 88 eyes that underwent trabeculectomy in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM without retinopathy and in 97 patients without DM. Methods. In this study, the intraocular pressure (IOP, visual acuity, visual field, and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. Qualified surgical success is defined as an IOP between 6 and 18 mmHg with or without topical antiglaucoma medication. Results. After a follow-up of 5 years, the IOP decreased from a mean basal IOP of 27.8±7.3 mmHg to 15.0±5.6 mmHg in the DM group and from 27.3±6.0 mmHg to 12.4±5.3 mmHg in the control group. The mean number of antiglaucoma medications was 3.4±1.3 and 3.3±1.2 preoperatively (P=0.587 whereas it was 1.7±1.5 and 1.1±1.4 at the 5-year follow-up (P=0.049. The 5-year qualified surgical success rates were 42.9% and 65.4% for both groups (P=0.046; log-rank test. Encysted blebs were seen in 21 (23.9% patients in the DM group and in 12 (12.4% patients in the control group (P=0.041. Conclusion. PACG patients with DM without retinopathy undergoing primary trabeculectomy with MMC may have a lower long-term surgical survival rate compared with patients without DM.

  4. GALC deletions increase the risk of primary open-angle glaucoma: the role of Mendelian variants in complex disease.

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    Yutao Liu

    Full Text Available DNA copy number variants (CNVs have been reported in many human diseases including autism and schizophrenia. Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG is a complex adult-onset disorder characterized by progressive optic neuropathy and vision loss. Previous studies have identified rare CNVs in POAG; however, their low frequencies prevented formal association testing. We present here the association between POAG risk and a heterozygous deletion in the galactosylceramidase gene (GALC. This CNV was initially identified in a dataset containing 71 Caucasian POAG cases and 478 ethnically matched controls obtained from dbGAP (study accession phs000126.v1.p1. (p = 0.017, fisher's exact test. It was validated with array comparative genomic hybridization (arrayCGH and realtime PCR, and replicated in an independent POAG dataset containing 959 cases and 1852 controls (p = 0.021, OR (odds ratio = 3.5, 95% CI -1.1-12.0. Evidence for association was strengthened when the discovery and replication datasets were combined (p = 0.002; OR = 5.0, 95% CI 1.6-16.4. Several deletions with different endpoints were identified by array CGH of POAG patients. Homozygous deletions that eliminate GALC enzymatic activity cause Krabbe disease, a recessive Mendelian disorder of childhood displaying bilateral optic neuropathy and vision loss. Our findings suggest that heterozygous deletions that reduce GALC activity are a novel mechanism increasing risk of POAG. This is the first report of a statistically-significant association of a CNV with POAG risk, contributing to a growing body of evidence that CNVs play an important role in complex, inherited disorders. Our findings suggest an attractive biomarker and potential therapeutic target for patients with this form of POAG.

  5. Variants in Nebulin (NEB Are Linked to the Development of Familial Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma in Basset Hounds.

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    Dina F Ahram

    Full Text Available Several dog breeds are susceptible to developing primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG, which suggests a genetic basis for the disease. We have identified a four-generation Basset Hound pedigree with characteristic autosomal recessive PACG that closely recapitulates PACG in humans. Our aim is to utilize gene mapping and whole exome sequencing approaches to identify PACG-causing sequence variants in the Basset. Extensive clinical phenotyping of all pedigree members was conducted. SNP-chip genotyping was carried out in 9 affected and 15 unaffected pedigree members. Two-point and multipoint linkage analyses of genome-wide SNP data were performed using Superlink-Online SNP-1.1 and a locus was mapped to chromosome 19q with a maximum LOD score of 3.24. The locus contains 12 Ensemble predicted canine genes and is syntenic to a region on chromosome 2 in the human genome. Using exome-sequencing analysis, a possibly damaging, non-synonymous variant in the gene Nebulin (NEB was found to segregate with PACG which alters a phylogenetically conserved Lysine residue. The association of this variants with PACG was confirmed in a secondary cohort of unrelated Basset Hounds (p = 3.4 × 10-4, OR = 15.3 for homozygosity. Nebulin, a protein that promotes the contractile function of sarcomeres, was found to be prominently expressed in the ciliary muscles of the anterior segment. Our findings may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie PACG. The phenotypic similarities of disease presentation in dogs and humans may enable the translation of findings made in this study to patients with PACG.

  6. Comparison of Optic Nerve Head Topographic Parameters in Patients With Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma With and Without Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Serkan; Can, Ertuğrul; Öztürk, Faruk

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the optic nerve head (ONH) parameters of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients with and without diabetes and to investigate the effect of the metabolic control of diabetes on ONH topography. A study group of 60 eyes of 60 POAG patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a control group of 41 eyes of 41 POAG patients without diabetes were recruited for the study. Complete ophthalmic examinations of all patients were performed and the quantitative optic disc parameters were evaluated with Heidelberg retina tomography (HRT) III. HbA1c measurements of diabetic patients were assessed on the same day when the ophthalmic assessments were performed. Mean rim area and rim volume of the study group was statistically higher than the control group (P=0.04 for rim area and P=0.02 for rim volume). The difference in other parameters of the HRT between the groups were insignificant (P>0.05). In the study group, the duration of the diabetes was not significantly correlated to rim area and rim volume (r=0.03, P=0.81 for rim area; r=0.03, P=0.79 for rim volume). Analysis of covariance showed insignificant effects of age, sex, MD, and PSD values over rim area and rim volume (P>0.05). There were weak but statistically significant correlations between HbA1c levels and some HRT parameters including disc area, cup area, cup volume, and cup shape measure (r=0.35 and P=0.006 for disc area; r=0.35 and P=0.006 for cup area; r=0.32 and P=0.01 for cup volume; r=0.32 and P=0.01 for cup shape measure). The results of this study imply the protective effect of diabetes over glaucomatous optic nerve damage in POAG patients. However, larger and controlled studies are warranted to confirm those findings.

  7. A recurrent G367R mutation in MYOC associated with juvenile open angle glaucoma in a large Chinese family

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    Yi-Hua Yao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify the mutations of MYOC, OPTN, CYP1B1 and WDR36 in a large Chinese family affected by juvenile open angle glaucoma (JOAG. METHODS: Of 114 members of one family were recruited in this study. Blood samples from twelve members of this pedigree were collected for further research. As a control, 100 unrelated subjects were recruited from the same hospital. The exon and flanking intron sequences of candidate genes were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing. RESULTS: The proband (III:10 was a seventy-three years old woman with binocular JOAG at the age of 31. A recurrent heterozygous mutation (c.1099G>A of MYOC was identified in the three JOAG patients and another suspect. This transition was located in the first base pair of codon 367 (GGA>AGA in exon 3 of MYOC and was predicted to be a missense substitution of glycine to arginine (p.G367R in myocilin. Mutations in OPTN, CYP1B1 or WDR36 were not detected in this study. The G367R mutation was not present in unaffected family members or in 100 ethnically matched controls. Other variants of the coding regions of candidate genes were not detected in all participants. To date, this family was the largest to have been identified as carrying a certain MYOC mutation in China, further evidence of a founder effect for the G367R MYOC mutant was provided by our data. CONCLUSION: A MYOC c.1099G>A mutation in an autosomal dominant JOAG family is identified and the characteristic phenotypes among the patients are summarized. Genetic testing could be utilized in high-risk populations and be helpful not only for genetic counseling, but also for early diagnosis and treatment of affected patients or carriers of inherited JOAG.

  8. Pseudophakic Macular Edema in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Prospective Study Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Eun Ji; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Hyunjoong

    2017-07-01

    To determine the incidence of and risk factors for pseudophakic macular edema (PME) after uncomplicated cataract surgery in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). Cohort study. Macular retinal thickness was evaluated using SDOCT at 1 week before surgery and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, in 70 POAG and 68 control eyes. Forty-three healthy subjects without impaired vision or cystoid PME were recruited separately as pilot samples to define significant PME. Significant PME was defined as an increase in the average thickness exceeding the mean + 3 standard deviations of the increase shown in the pilot samples. Significant PME (increase in the foveal 3-mm zone thickness of >19.5 μm) was observed in 31 (44%) eyes with POAG and in 14 (21%) control eyes (P = .003). The extent of PME was maximal at 3 months postoperatively and decreased gradually until 12 months. Regression tree analysis revealed that the risk of PME was the greatest in the POAG group using prostaglandin analogue (PGA) (odds ratio [OR] = 5.51), followed by POAG not using PGA (OR = 1.70), and control group (OR = 1.0). Risk factors for PME were younger age in all groups (OR = 1.07), systemic hypertension in PGA users (OR = 6.42), higher untreated IOP in PGA nonusers (OR = 1.09) and male sex (OR = 14.06) and diabetes mellitus (OR = 16.71) in the control group. The incidence of PME as observed by SDOCT was higher than previously reported after uncomplicated cataract surgery. Eyes with POAG were at greater risk for PME, which was mainly associated with perioperative PGA use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Are glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms (GSTM1, GSTT1) associated with primary open angle glaucoma? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Shi, Yuhua; Yin, Jie; Huang, Zhenping

    2013-09-15

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) variants have been considered as risk factors for the pathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). However, the results have been inconsistent. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes and the risk for POAG. Published literature from PubMed and EMBASE databases was retrieved. All studies evaluating the association between GSTM1/GSTT1 variants and POAG were included. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects model. 14 studies (1711 POAG cases and 1537 controls) were included in the meta-analysis of GSTM1 genotypes and 10 studies (1306 POAG cases and 1114 controls) were included in the meta-analysis of GSTT1 genotypes. The overall result showed that the association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes and risk for POAG was not statistically significant (GSTM1: OR=1.19, 95% CI=0.82-1.73, p=0.361; GSTT1: OR=1.26, 95% CI=0.77-2.06, p=0.365). The results by ethnicity showed that the association between the GSTM1 null genotype and risk for POAG is statistically significant in East Asians (OR=1.41, 95% CI=1.04-1.90, p=0.026), but not in Caucasians (OR=1.13, 95% CI=0.69-1.84, p=0.638) and Latin-American (OR=1.09, 95% CI=0.62-1.92, p=0.767). In addition, there was no significant association of GSTT1 null genotype with risk for POAG in either ethnic population. The present meta-analysis suggested that there might be a significant association of GSTM1 null genotype with POAG risk in East Asians. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolución del glaucoma primario de ángulo estrecho postiridotomía periférica con Nd: YAG láser Evolution of primary narrow-angle glaucoma after peripheral Nd YAG: laser iridotomy

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    Francisco García González

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Con este trabajo se evaluó la evolución del glaucoma primario de ángulo estrecho (GPAE en sus distintos estadios evolutivos después de realizada una iridotomía periférica profiláctica o terapéutica con Nd: YAG láser. Se seleccionaron 50 pacientes con GPAE, de ellos se estudiaron 94 ojos. Se realizó iridotomía profiláctica en 38 ojos y terapéutica en 56. Entre las iridotomías, 72,4 % tenía entre 2 y 7 años de evolución al momento de la evaluación. La presión intraocular disminuyó después de la iridotomía: La relación excavación/ papila se mantuvo igual, la mayoría no tuvo modificaciones en la agudeza visual, el campo visual se mantuvo igual en 59,6 %, el ángulo de la cámara anterior preiridotomía era estrecho o muy estrecho en 92,6 % de los ojos y postiridotomía 70,4 % presentaba ángulo abierto. Se controlaron solo con la iridotomía 44 ojos (46,8 %, 19 (20,2 % requirieron tratamiento médico adicional y 31 (33 %, tratamiento quirúrgico o medico-quirúrgico para el control del glaucoma. La complicación más frecuente fue el sangrado ligero del iris con 71,2 %This paper made an evaluation of primary narrow-angle glaucoma at its different evolutionary stages after either prophylactic or therapeutic peripheral Nd YAG laser iridotomy. Fifty patients presenting with primary narrow angle glaucoma were selected, of whom 94 eyes were really studied. Prophylactic iridotomy was performed in 38 eyes and therapeutical iridotomy in the other 56. Of the total amount of iridotomies, 92,4% showed 2 to 7 years of evolution at the time of evaluation. Intraocular pressure diminished after iridotomy. Excavation /papilla ratio kept the same, most of the patients had no change in their visual acuity, the visual field remained unchanged in 59,6% of cases. The anterior chamber angle was narrow or very narrow in 92,6% of eyes but after iridotomy 70,4% showed open angle. Primary glaucoma was under control only with iridotomy in 44 eyes (46

  11. OCT Glaucoma Staging System: a new method for retinal nerve fiber layer damage classification using spectral-domain OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusini, P

    2018-01-01

    PurposeTo describe a new method, the Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) Glaucoma Staging System, for classifying retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) damage assessed with OCT.Patients and methodsThe OCT Glaucoma Staging System was created based on data obtained from Nidek RS 3000 spectral-domain (sd)-OCT. This system uses the superior and inferior quadrant RNFL thickness values, plotted on an x-y diagram for staging structural damage severity in glaucoma. A non-linear equation and two regression lines describe the boundary lines which separate the different sectors of the diagram. These mathematical formulas have been used to create a software, which provides a quick classification of the RNFL damage. Sensitivity and specificity of the system were assessed in a different cohort including 64 patients with early OAG, and 62 normal subjects.ResultsThree hundred and two OCT tests from 98 healthy controls and 284 patients affected by either ocular hypertension or chronic open-angle glaucoma were considered in order to design the new classification system. The OCT Glaucoma Staging System classifies RNFL defects into 6 stages of increasing severity ranging from borderline to stage 5, and 3 groups according to defect localization (superior, inferior, or diffuse). Sensitivity and specificity in discriminating between healthy and glaucomatous eyes were 95.2 and 91.9%, respectively, considering borderline results as abnormal.ConclusionsThe OCT Glaucoma Staging System appears to provide a standardized and objective classification of glaucomatous RNFL damage. It can be used in day-to-day clinical practice for an easy and fast interpretation of RNFL measurements obtained with OCT.

  12. Efficacy and safety of benzalkonium chloride-free fixed-dose combination of latanoprost and timolol in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

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    Bhagat P

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purvi Bhagat,1 Kalyani Sodimalla,2 Chandrima Paul,3 Surinder S Pandav,4 Ganesh V Raman,5 Rengappa Ramakrishnan,6 Abhijeet Joshi,7 Atul Raut7 1Glaucoma Clinic, M & J Western Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India; 2Glaucoma Department, PBMA’s H.V. Desai Eye Hospital, Maharashtra, India; 3Glaucoma Service, B B Eye Foundation, Kolkata, India; 4Advanced Eye Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India; 5Glaucoma Clinic, Aravind Eye Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India; 6Glaucoma Clinic, Aravind Eye Hospital, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India; 7Clinical Research Department, Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Ltd, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Background: Benzalkonium chloride (BAK is a common preservative in topical ocular preparations; however, prolonged use may lead to deleterious effects on the ocular surface, affecting quality of life and reducing adherence to treatment and overall outcomes. This study compared the intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering efficacy and safety of a novel once-daily, BAK-free, fixed-dose combination of latanoprost plus timolol with latanoprost or timolol administered as monotherapy or concomitantly. Methods: This was a 6-week, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, active-controlled study in patients aged ≥18 years with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. A total of 227 patients were randomized to either a once-daily, BAK-free, fixed-dose combination of latanoprost 0.005%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution or concomitant administration of once-daily latanoprost 0.005% plus twice-daily timolol 0.5% or once-daily latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy, or twice-daily timolol 0.5% monotherapy. Efficacy end points were assessed at three time points on visits at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6 versus baseline. Results: The IOP-lowering efficacy of the fixed-dose combination of latanoprost/timolol was similar to that of latanoprost plus timolol administered

  13. Spontaneous, late, in-the-bag intraocular lens subluxation in a patient with a previous acute angle-closure glaucoma attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Wen; Chang, Shirley H L

    2004-08-01

    Cataract surgery was performed in a 49-year-old woman 16 months after an acute angle-closure glaucoma attack. Zonular dialysis was observed during surgery, but the intraocular lens (IOL) was implanted in the capsular bag uneventfully. At 4 1/2 months, 1 IOL loop wrapped in the bag herniated into the anterior chamber. The patient had no history of trauma. The IOL loop remained in the anterior chamber for 9 months, until the subluxated IOL spontaneously returned to its original position. Six months later, the IOL again dislocated into the anterior chamber.

  14. An unusual case of acute angle-closure glaucoma following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using the “big bubble” technique

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    Samir Jabbour

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions and importance: Inability to recognize stroma from Descemet membrane during the dissection of the “big bubble technique” can result in failure to evacuate the high-pressure Descemet membrane detachment, putting the patient at risk for acute angle closure glaucoma from occlusion of the pupil. Proper dissection of stroma from underlying DM is a challenging and crucial step in the “big bubble” technique. Several methods, such as the injection of small bubbles in the anterior chamber or the use of intra-operative anterior segment OCT could be employed to prevent such a complication.

  15. Flat Anterior Chamber after Trabeculectomy in Secondary Angle-Closure Glaucoma with BEST1 Gene Mutation: Case Series.

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    Yimin Zhong

    Full Text Available Trabeculectomy has been regarded as a mainstay of initial treatment in eyes of angle closure glaucoma (ACG with peripheral anterior synechia > 180° in the Chinese population while its efficacy in secondary ACG with BEST1 gene mutation remains unclear. We set out to investigate the treatment outcome of trabeculectomy for secondary ACG in a group of patients with autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB.In this retrospective case series study, 8 secondary ACG patients with ARB and their 4 recruited family members underwent a thorough ophthalmic examination including best-corrected visual acuity, Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and fundus examinations. Ultrasound biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT, ultrasound A-scan, B-scan, electro-oculography (EOG, Humphrey perimetry, fundus photography, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA were also performed. Blood samples were obtained in the patients and their available family members to analyze the variants of the BEST1 gene. Trabeculectomy was performed in the 8 patients (15 eyes.The age of onset varied from 13 to 38 years. The average axial length (AL of the affected eyes was 21.82 ± 0.92 mm and the average anterior chamber depth (ACD was 2.19 ± 0.29 mm. There was marked axial shallowing of the anterior chamber in all 15 eyes after trabeculectomy, and was not improved with potent mydriatics. The IOP was elevated in 3 eyes. Variable degree of yellowish subretinal deposits was observed in the posterior retina. The FFA showed punctuate or patched hyperfluorescence suggesting retinal pigment epithelium impairment. The ICGA demonstrated dilatation of choroidal vessels. The OCT revealed diffused neuroretinal detachment in the posterior and midperipheral retina, with intraretinal fluid collections, and hyperreflective subretinal accumulations. The average subfoveal choroidal thickness of the patients was 382.36 ± 80.09 μm. All the patients and

  16. Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and silently clouds vision, without any pain. Photo courtesy of NEI Glaucoma Symptoms At first, open-angle ... steady rate for up to a month. Photo courtesy of: Peter Mallen, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Laboratory/ ...

  17. A European perspective on costs and cost effectiveness of ophthalmic combinations in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommer, A.; Thygesen, J.; Ferreras, A.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Efficacy, safety, and cost implications are important considerations when choosing an ophthalmic treatment. Fixed-combination glaucoma medications containing brimonidine 0.2% and timolol 0.5%, or dorzolamide 2% and timolol 0.5%, were compared with brimonidine 0.2% and dorzolamide 2...

  18. Comparative biometric study between plateau iris configuration and primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle Estudo biométrico comparativo entre configuração da íris em platô e glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto com seio camerular estreito

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    Alberto Diniz Filho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate biometrically the differences between plateau iris configuration (PIC eyes and primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes. METHODS: A comparative study involving a case series with 20 eyes of 11 plateau iris configuration patients and 45 eyes of 27 primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes patients was done. The following measurements were taken: corneal curvature, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness (LT, axial length (AL, lens thickness and axial length ratio, lens position (LP and relative lens position (RLP. RESULTS: The plateau iris configuration eyes presented a higher corneal cuvature value than primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes eyes but not with clinical and statistical difference (P=0.090. The plateau iris configuration eyes demonstrated a higher central corneal thickness, with statistical significance, when compared to primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes (P=0.010. Statistical significant difference between plateau iris configuration and primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes was found in axial length (21.69 ± 0.98 vs. 22.42 ± 0.89; P=0.003. No significant difference was found when anterior chamber depth (2.62 ± 0.23 vs. 2.71 ± 0.31; P=0.078, LT (4.67 ± 0.36 vs. 4.69 ± 0.45; P=0.975, LT/AL (2.16 ± 0.17 vs. 2.10 ± 0.21; P=0.569, LP (4.95 ± 0.25 vs. 5.06 ± 0.34; P=0.164 and RLP (0.23 ± 0.01 vs. 0.22 ± 0.14; P=0.348 were evaluated. CONCLUSION: The eyes with plateau iris configuration presented statistical significantly shorter axial length and higher central corneal thickness than primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes.OBJETIVO: Comparar, biometricamente, olhos portadores de configuração da íris em platô (CIP e olhos portadores de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto com seio camerular estreito. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo comparativo envolvendo 20 olhos de 11 pacientes portadores de íris em plat

  19. First-line latanoprost therapy in ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma patients: a 3-month efficacy analysis stratified by initial intraocular pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouland Jean

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-masked trials have shown latanoprost instilled once daily to be at least as effective as and generally superior to timolol administered twice daily and to be as effective as other frequently prescribed prostaglandin analogues. This study prospectively assessed the efficacy of latanoprost monotherapy in a large cohort of treatment-naive patients with a broad range of baseline intraocular pressure (IOP levels treated in actual clinical practice settings. Methods This prospective, open-label, multicenter, uncontrolled, phase IV study included treatment-naive ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma subjects initiating latanoprost once daily (evening. IOP levels were measured at baseline and after 1 and 3 months. The primary efficacy outcome was mean change in IOP from baseline to month 3. Analyses were stratified by baseline IOP: ≥ 20 and vs ≥ 24 mmHg. Results Efficacy analyses (intent to treat included 572 subjects: 20 to vs -9.2 ± 3.7 mmHg, respectively; -28.0 ± 10.6% vs -34.1 ± 11.9%, respectively. An IOP reduction of ≥ 30% from baseline to month 3 was noted in 48.4% and 65.6% of subjects, respectively (p Conclusions This "real world" study found once-daily latanoprost to be effective and safe in treatment-naive ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma patients. Patients with baseline IOP levels of 20 to Trial Registration Trial Registration Number: NCT00647101

  20. Clinical effectiveness of brinzolamide 1%–brimonidine 0.2% fixed combination for primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sourabh Sharma,1 Sameer Trikha,1 Shamira A Perera,1 Tin Aung1,2 1Glaucoma Department, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore Abstract: The main first-line treatment strategy for glaucoma is to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP by topical ocular hypotensive medications, but many patients require multiple medications for adequate IOP control. Fixed-combination therapies provide several benefits, including simplified treatment regimens, theoretical improved treatment adherence, elimination of the potential for washout of the first drug by the second, and the reduction in ocular exposure to preservatives. β-Adrenoceptor antagonists (particularly 0.5% timolol are the most commonly used agents in combination with other classes of drugs as fixed-combination eyedrops, but they are contraindicated in many patients, owing to local allergy or systemic side effects. A fixed-combination preparation without a β-blocker is therefore warranted. This paper reviews the clinical effectiveness of brinzolamide 1% and brimonidine 0.2% fixed combination (BBFC for use in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. We searched PubMed and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry, and identified three randomized controlled trials comparing BBFC vs its constituents (brimonidine vs brinzolamide, and one comparing BBFC with unfixed brimonidine and brinzolamide. All of the studies demonstrated mean diurnal IOP to be statistically significantly lower in the BBFC group compared with constituent groups and noninferior to that with the concomitant group using two separate bottles. The safety profile of BBFC was consistent with that of its individual components, the most common ocular adverse events being ocular hyperemia, visual disturbances, and ocular allergic reactions. Common systemic adverse effects included altered taste

  1. Sensory stimulation for lowering intraocular pressure, improving blood flow to the optic nerve and neuroprotection in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Edith

    2013-12-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma is a group of optic neuropathies that can lead to irreversible blindness. Sensory stimulation in the form of acupuncture or ear acupressure may contribute to protecting patients from blindness when used as a complementary method to orthodox treatment in the form of drops, laser or surgery. The objective of this article is to provide a narrative overview of the available literature up to July 2012. It summarises reported evidence on the potential beneficial effects of sensory stimulation for glaucoma. Sensory stimulation appears to significantly enhance the pressure-lowering effect of orthodox treatments. Studies suggest that it may also improve blood flow to the eye and optic nerve head. Furthermore, it may play a role in neuroprotection through regulating nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and their receptors, thereby encouraging the survival pathway in contrast to the pathway to apoptosis. Blood flow and neuroprotection are areas that are not directly influenced by orthodox treatment modalities. Numerous different treatment protocols were used to investigate the effect of sensory stimulation on intraocular pressure, blood flow or neuroprotection of the retina and optic nerve in the animal model and human pilot studies. Objective outcomes were reported to have been evaluated with Goldmann tonometry, Doppler ultrasound techniques and electrophysiology (pattern electroretinography, visually evoked potentials), and supported with histological studies in the animal model. Taken together, reported evidence from these studies strongly suggests that sensory stimulation is worthy of further research.

  2. Glaucoma de ângulo fechado secundário à inflamação orbitária inespecífica: relato de caso Angle-closure glaucoma secondary to nonspecific orbital inflammatory: case report

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    Luciano Sólia Násser

    2007-12-01

    ópica.The nonspecific orbital inflammatory presents several clinical forms. When it evolves the posterior segment of the eye, usually by contiguity, it can lead to serious damage to vision functions. Posterior scleritis causes permanent damage to the vision and rarely progresses to acute glaucoma. CASE REPORT: E.N., a 24-year-old black man, complained of pain in the left eye (OS for ten days, with low visual acuity, malaise, nauseas and vomiting. On ophthalmologic examination, he presented proptosis, restricted eye movements and edema on the upper left eyelid. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in OD and counting fingers at 1.5m in OS. The intraocular pressure was 14mmHg in OD and 34 mmHg in OS. The biomicroscopy presented in OS conjunctival hyperemia cornea with keratic precipitates, shallow anterior chamber with cells and flare 2+. Gonioscopy in OS showed angle-closure of 360º. The ophthalmoscopic examination revealed increased vascular tortuosity and posterior pole edema. Treatment for acute glaucoma was initiated and complementary tests were ordered. Ocular ultrasonography and orbit computerized tomography showed a diffuse thickening of the ocular wall and extrinsic muscles. Other tests were normal. The presumptive diagnosis was acute nonspecific orbital inflammation affecting the ocular bulb posterior segment together with acute glaucoma. He initiated on prednisone 60 mg/day PO. After two weeks of systemic corticotherapy, the patient was asymptomatic, with evident regression of proptosis and scleritis and normal intraocular pressure (11 mmHg in AU. Although not very frequent, acute glaucoma may be present in orbital inflammatory process and should be treated with systemic corticotherapy and topical medication.

  3. Diode laser trans - scleral cyclo - ablation as a primary surgical treatment for primary open - angle glaucoma after maximum tolerated medical therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, K.; Khan, M.T.; Butt, J.B.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence rate and prevalence of glaucoma in Pakistan is similar to that of other dark - colored population countries. Primary trabeculectomy is still a preferred surgical approach. Diode laser is widely accepted as the therapy of choice in severe glaucoma cases. The purpose of this study was to deter-mine the role of Diode Laser Transscleral Cyclo-ablation as a primary surgical treatment option in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma after maximum tolerated medical therapy. This quasi - experimental study was con-ducted at Layton Rahmatullah Benevolent Trust Free Eye Care and Cancer Hospital, Lahore. Sixty patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected from the Glaucoma unit for this study. 25 - 30 burns of Diode Laser were applied to 270 degrees avoiding 3 and 9 O clock positions, 1.5 mm posterior to the limbus. Laser was set at duration of 1 second and power between 1000 and 1500 mw. Patients were followed up for a period of one year. Results: Out of a total of 60 eyes with mean age 52.73 +- 7.40 years, 36 (60%) were male and 24 (40%) were female. The mean pre-operative Intra Ocular Pressure IOP was 41.0 +- 7.0 mmHg (The pre-operative IOP ranged from 28 mmHg to 60 mmHg). The mean post-operative IOP was 18.97 mmHg on day one, 16.75 mmHg at 1 week, 15.68 mmHg at 1 month, 15.00 mmHg at 6 months and by the end of a year it was about 14.15 mmHg (The post-operative IOP ranged from 6 mmHg to 52 mmHg). There was a significant drop of more than 50% of post-operative IOP as compared to pre-operative IOP. Conclusion: Diode Laser Transscleral Cycloablation is a practical, rapid, well - tolerated procedure that provides a significant lowering of intraocular pressure with few complications and can considered as alternative treatment in POAG if medical therapy fails. (author)

  4. CORRELATION BETWEEN STRUCTURAL RETINAL NERVE FIBRE LAYER THICKNESS AND FUNCTIONAL VISUAL FIELD LOSS IN PRIMARY OPEN ANGLE GLAUCOMA

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    A. Arun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glaucoma is characterized by progressive degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and their axons that leads to nerve fiber layer loss, optic disc cupping, and consecutive glaucomatous visual field changes. Study is done in Department of ophthalmology, S.V.R.R Government General Hospital, S.V.Medical College Tirupati. A total of 52 eyes of 29 patients were included in the study. Mean age of the patients included in the study is 64.14+/- 11.43 years. Majority were male patients (68.96%. Female patients were only 31.04%.

  5. Tensional results of non-penetrating deep sclerectomy in the treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes, Ricardo Augusto Paletta; Guedes, Vanessa Maria Paletta

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O presente estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a eficácia, por meio da análise de seus resultados pressóricos, da esclerectomia profunda não penetrante para tratamento cirúrgico do glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 104 olhos operados pela técnica de esclerectomia profunda não penetrante de 1999 a 2002. Nos casos em que havia risco para falência da bolsa filtrante (idade inferior a 45 anos, negros, cirurgia ocular prévia) a mitomicina C foi utilizada. ...

  6. Long-chain unsaturated fatty acids as possible important metabolites for primary angle-closure glaucoma based on targeted metabolomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Shengzhong; Li, Yang; Guan, Yue; Zhu, Lili; Zhou, Qiang; Gao, Mucong; Pan, Hongzhi; Zou, Lina; Chang, Dong

    2017-09-01

    Primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is a severe chronic neurodegenerative disease in Asia. Identification of important metabolites associated with PACG is crucial for early intervention and advancing knowledge of the disease mechanism. We applied gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for targeted metabolomic analysis on serum samples from 38 newly diagnosed PACG patients and 48 controls. Palmitoleic acid (PA), linoleic acid (LA), γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) were identified as important metabolites associated with PACG. PA and GLA were significantly elevated (p fatty acid metabolic profiles between PACG patients and control subjects. Furthermore, PA, LA, ARA and GLA appear to have clinical applications for the screening of PACG. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Localization of a locus (GLC1B) for adult-onset primary open angle glaucoma to the 2cen-q13 region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilova, D; Child, A; Trifan, O C; Crick, R P; Coakes, R L; Sarfarazi, M

    1996-08-15

    Primary open angle glaucoma (GLC1) is a common ocular disorder with a characteristic degeneration of the optic nerve and visual field defects that is often associated with an elevated intraocular pressure. The severe but rare juvenile-onset type has previously been mapped to 1q21-q31, and its genetic heterogeneity has been established. Herein, we present a new locus (GLC1B) for one form of GLC1 on chromosome 2cen-q13 with a clinical presentation of low to moderate intraocular pressure, onset in late 40s, and a good response to medical treatment. Two-point and haplotype analyses of affected and unaffected meioses in six families provided maximum linkage information with D2S417, GATA112EO3, D2S113, D2S373, and D2S274 (lod scores ranging from 3.11 to 6.48) within a region of 8.5 cM that is flanked by D2S2161 and D2S2264. Analysis of affected meioses alone revealed no recombination with an additional two markers (D2S2264 and D2S135) in a region of 11.2 cM that is flanked by D2S2161 and D2S176. Analysis of unaffected meioses identified only one healthy 86-year-old male who has inherited the entire affected haplotype and, hence, is a gene carrier for this condition. Eight additional families with similar and/or different clinical presentation did not show any linkage to this region and, therefore, provided evidence for genetic heterogeneity of adult-onset primary open angle glaucoma.

  8. Análise morfométrica comparativa entre olhos com glaucoma agudo primário e olhos contralaterais Comparative morphometric assessment between eyes with acute primary angle-closure glaucoma and contralateral eyes

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    Rafael Vidal Mérula

    2008-06-01

    üência os seios camerulares fechados quando comparados com os OCLs. Os olhos com GAP apresentaram: K médio de 45,21 ± 1,96 D, ECC média de 534,46 ± 34,15 mm, PCCA média de 2,43 ± 0,28 mm; AXL médio de 21,68 ± 0,96 mm, CR média de 4,85 ± 0,32 mm, e a relação CR/AXL de 2,24 ± 0,16. Os OCLs apresentaram: K médio de 44,92 ± 1,86 D, ECC média de 533,18 ± 31,41 mm, PCCA média de 2,51 ± 0,29 mm; AXL médio de 21,82 ± 0,92 mm, CR média de 4,85 ± 0,36 mm, e a relação CR/AXL de 2,23 ± 0,18. Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa apenas na comparação de K e PCCA, entre os olhos que tiveram GAP e os OCLs. CONCLUSÕES: A incidência de GAP foi de 20,8/1000, sendo mais freqüente em mulheres, leucodérmicas, com história familiar negativa para glaucoma e média de idade de 59,6 anos. Os olhos com GAP apresentaram, de modo estatisticamente significativo, pior acuidade visual, menor equivalente esférico hipermetrópico, maior escavação do disco óptico, maior K médio e menor PCCA que os OCLs.PURPOSE: To establish the profile of patients with acute primary angle-closure glaucoma (APACG and to assess comparatively clinical and morphometric parameters between eyes with APACG and contralateral eyes (CLEs. METHODS: Prospective study including patients attended from September 2005 to March 2007. Inclusion criteria: diagnosis of APACG. Exclusion criteria: presence of cataract (except for "glaukomflecken" that may cause low visual acuity or myopization, secondary glaucoma, previous APAGC or surgical procedure in the (CLE, no possibility to control the acute crisis of glaucoma clinically, plateau iris. The following were evaluated: incidence of APACG, age, gender, race, family history of glaucoma, corrected visual acuity (CVA and uncorrected visual acuity (UVA, spherical equivalent (SE, cup/disc ratio (C/D, gonioscopy, keratometry (K, central corneal thickness (CCT, and echobiometric data [anterior central chamber depth (ACCD, axial length (AL, lens

  9. Snoring and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya Xing; Xu, Liang; Li, Jian Jun; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Ya Qin; Jonas, Jost B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine a potential association between snoring and glaucoma in a population-based setting. Methods The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 subjects with an age of 50+ years. The participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination. Glaucoma was determined according to the ophthalmoscopic appearance of the optic nerve head. Snoring assessed in an interview was graded into “severe snoring”, “moderate snoring”, and “no snoring”. Results Data on snoring and glaucoma were available for 3146 subjects. Snoring was reported for 1787 (66.8%) subjects, with moderate snoring reported for 1384 (44.0%) subjects and severe snoring for 403 (12.8%) subjects. In multivariate analysis, prevalence of severe snoring was significantly associated with male gender (P = 0.002; regression coefficient B: 0.36; Odds ratio (OR): 1.44 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 1.81)), higher body mass index (Psnoring was neither significantly associated with the prevalence of angle-closure glaucoma (P = 0.65), retinal vein occlusions (P = 0.24), neuroretinal rim area (P = 0.19), retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (P = 0.16) nor vertical cup/disc ratio (P = 0.64). Conclusions Severe snoring was not significantly associated with the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma, angle-closure glaucoma or retinal vein occlusions after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and cognitive function score. Our population-based study did not reveal that snoring was a risk factor for glaucoma and thus did not provide a reason to assess or to treat snoring in patients with glaucoma. PMID:24551196

  10. Pharmacoepidemiological assessment of adherence and influencing co-factors among primary open-angle glaucoma patients-An observational cohort study.

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    Stefanie Frech

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the adherence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG patients to medication, and to determine co-factors influencing adherence, using a representative sample of members of the largest German public health insurer. The observational cohort study was based on a longitudinal data set from 2010-2013 and included 250,000 insured persons aged 50 and older with 10,120 diagnosed POAG patients. Uni- and multivariate analysis was performed to investigate several aspects of glaucoma, such as prevalence, adherence, and co-factors influencing adherence. The main outcome measured adherence with prescriptions filled within a year. Multivariate panel regression analysis was used to determine the co-factors influencing this adherence. Prevalence of POAG was 3.36% [CI: 3.28-3.43%], with 2.91% [CI: 2.81-3.01%] for males and 3.71% [CI: 3.61-3.81%] for females, increasing with age. The mean level of adherence in terms of prescriptions filled was 66.5% [CI: 65.50-67.60%]. The results of this analysis revealed a significant influence of age, duration of the disease, care need, distance to death, and multimorbidity as co-factors of non-adherence, whereas gender had no influence. The analysis provided detailed information about POAG health care aspects concerning prevalence and adherence. The most endangered risk groups for non-adherence were patients aged 50-59, patients older than 80 years, patients with a longer duration of POAG, patients with care needs, and patients with three or more severe diseases in addition to glaucoma. To know the predictors responsible for an increased risk to develop POAG is of importance for all persons involved in health care management. Therefore effective strategies to increase awareness of patients and medical care personnel about non-adherence and the importance of a regular and continuous medication to avoid further nerve fiber damage and possible blindness have to be developed.

  11. Age at natural menopause genetic risk score in relation to age at natural menopause and primary open-angle glaucoma in a US-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Louis R; Aschard, Hugues; Kang, Jae H; Bailey, Jessica N Cooke; Lindström, Sara; Chasman, Daniel I; Christen, William G; Allingham, R Rand; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Lee, Richard K; Moroi, Sayoko E; Brilliant, Murray H; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S; Fingert, John; Budenz, Donald L; Realini, Tony; Gaasterland, Terry; Gaasterland, Douglas; Scott, William K; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J; Igo, Robert P; Song, Yeunjoo E; Hark, Lisa; Ritch, Robert; Rhee, Douglas J; Gulati, Vikas; Havens, Shane; Vollrath, Douglas; Zack, Donald J; Medeiros, Felipe; Weinreb, Robert N; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Liu, Yutao; Kraft, Peter; Richards, Julia E; Rosner, Bernard A; Hauser, Michael A; Haines, Jonathan L; Wiggs, Janey L

    2017-02-01

    Several attributes of female reproductive history, including age at natural menopause (ANM), have been related to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). We assembled 18 previously reported common genetic variants that predict ANM to determine their association with ANM or POAG. Using data from the Nurses' Health Study (7,143 women), we validated the ANM weighted genetic risk score in relation to self-reported ANM. Subsequently, to assess the relation with POAG, we used data from 2,160 female POAG cases and 29,110 controls in the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration Heritable Overall Operational Database (NEIGHBORHOOD), which consists of 8 datasets with imputed genotypes to 5.6+ million markers. Associations with POAG were assessed in each dataset, and site-specific results were meta-analyzed using the inverse weighted variance method. The genetic risk score was associated with self-reported ANM (P = 2.2 × 10) and predicted 4.8% of the variance in ANM. The ANM genetic risk score was not associated with POAG (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.002; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.998, 1.007; P = 0.28). No single genetic variant in the panel achieved nominal association with POAG (P ≥0.20). Compared to the middle 80 percent, there was also no association with the lowest 10 percentile or highest 90 percentile of genetic risk score with POAG (OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.47, 1.21; P = 0.23 and OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.69; P = 0.65, respectively). A genetic risk score predicting 4.8% of ANM variation was not related to POAG; thus, genetic determinants of ANM are unlikely to explain the previously reported association between the two phenotypes.

  12. Investigating the usefulness of a cluster-based trend analysis to detect visual field progression in patients with open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Shuichiro; Murata, Hiroshi; Fujino, Yuri; Matsuura, Masato; Miki, Atsuya; Tanito, Masaki; Mizoue, Shiro; Mori, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Yamashita, Takehiro; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Hirasawa, Kazunori; Shoji, Nobuyuki; Asaoka, Ryo

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the usefulness of the Octopus (Haag-Streit) EyeSuite's cluster trend analysis in glaucoma. Ten visual fields (VFs) with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (Carl Zeiss Meditec), spanning 7.7 years on average were obtained from 728 eyes of 475 primary open angle glaucoma patients. Mean total deviation (mTD) trend analysis and EyeSuite's cluster trend analysis were performed on various series of VFs (from 1st to 10th: VF1-10 to 6th to 10th: VF6-10). The results of the cluster-based trend analysis, based on different lengths of VF series, were compared against mTD trend analysis. Cluster-based trend analysis and mTD trend analysis results were significantly associated in all clusters and with all lengths of VF series. Between 21.2% and 45.9% (depending on VF series length and location) of clusters were deemed to progress when the mTD trend analysis suggested no progression. On the other hand, 4.8% of eyes were observed to progress using the mTD trend analysis when cluster trend analysis suggested no progression in any two (or more) clusters. Whole field trend analysis can miss local VF progression. Cluster trend analysis appears as robust as mTD trend analysis and useful to assess both sectorial and whole field progression. Cluster-based trend analyses, in particular the definition of two or more progressing cluster, may help clinicians to detect glaucomatous progression in a timelier manner than using a whole field trend analysis, without significantly compromising specificity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Research into Glaucoma and Ethnicity (ReGAE) 8: is there a relationship between social deprivation and acute primary angle closure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessim, Maged; Denniston, Alastair Keith; Nolan, Winifred; Holder, Roger; Shah, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Social deprivation as measured by the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) and Townsend scores has been shown to be associated with advanced presentation of primary open angle glaucoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the putative association of social deprivation as a risk factor for acute primary angle closure (APAC) in a UK urban population. Case notes of 139 consecutive patients presenting with APAC at the Birmingham and Midland Eye Centre, Birmingham, UK, were examined. Deprivation was scored using the IMD 2004 and Townsend scores. These score were compared with the West Midlands reference population. The level of deprivation in patients with APAC was graded according to the IMD quintiles, in which quintile 1 represents the highest level of deprivation and quintile 5 represents the lowest level of deprivation. Of the patients studied, 66.1% (n=90) were from quintiles 1 or 2 (most deprived) whereas 9% (n=12) came from quintile 5 (least deprived), compared with predicted frequencies of 40% and 20%, respectively. Deprivation levels measured by frequency within each IMD quintile were significantly higher in the APAC group compared with the reference population (χ(2), pAPAC were more likely to come from areas with a high level of social deprivation.

  14. [OCT and neovascular glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, A; Labbé, A; Fayol, N; El Mahtoufi, A; Baudouin, C

    2007-06-01

    Neovascular glaucoma is a chronic and sight-threatening disease. Four different grades have been described. Anterior chamber optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new imaging technique allowing the visualization of the anterior segment. The purpose of our study was to describe the appearance of the different neovascular glaucoma grades with the OCT in order to refine the clinical analysis of this disease. Eleven patients (nine men and two women) with different grades of neovascular glaucoma were analyzed in this study. Neovascular glaucoma complicated central retinal vein occlusion in seven patients and diabetic retinopathy in four patients. All patients had bilateral biomicroscopical examination and OCT analysis. OCT images and clinical examination were then compared. No modifications could be observed using OCT in patients with grade 1 neovascular glaucoma. For grade 2, a slightly hyper-reflective linear iris secondary to neovascularization was observed. For grade 3, OCT images showed a thickened hyper-reflective iridocorneal angle with possible iridocorneal synechiae. For grade 4, the iridocorneal angle was closed and associated with iris contraction and uveae ectropion. OCT is a new promising technique for the precise analysis of different grades of neovascular glaucoma. It certainly helps in the management of such cases.

  15. Glaucoma in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the background and strategy required for the prevention of blindness from glaucoma in developing countries. Materials and Methods: Extrapolation of existing data and experience in eye care delivery and teaching models in an unequally developed country (India are used to make recommendations. Results: Parameters like population attributable risk percentage indicate that glaucoma is a public health problem but lack of simple diagnostic techniques and therapeutic interventions are barriers to any effective plan. Case detection rather than population-based screening is the recommended strategy for detection. Population awareness of the disease is low and most patients attending eye clinics do not receive a routine comprehensive eye examination that is required to detect glaucoma (and other potentially blinding eye diseases. Such a routine is not taught or practiced by the majority of training institutions either. Angle closure can be detected clinically and relatively simple interventions (including well performed cataract surgery can prevent blindness from this condition. The strategy for open angle glaucoma should focus on those with established functional loss. Outcomes of this proposed strategy are not yet available. Conclusions: Glaucoma cannot be managed in isolation. The objective should be to detect and manage all potential causes of blindness and prevention of blindness from glaucoma should be integrated into existing programs. The original pyramidal model of eye care delivery incorporates this principle and provides an initial starting point. The routine of comprehensive eye examination in every clinic and its teaching (and use in residency programs is mandatory for the detection and management of potentially preventable blinding pathology from any cause, including glaucoma. Programs for detection of glaucoma should not be initiated unless adequate facilities for diagnosis and surgical intervention are in place and

  16. Efficacy and safety of prostaglandin analogues in patients with predominantly primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oghenowede Eyawo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Oghenowede Eyawo1, Jean Nachega2,3, Pierre Lefebvre4, David Meyer5, Beth Rachlis6, Chia-Wen Lee7, Steven Kelly7, Edward Mills81Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada; 2Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 3Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, United Kingdom; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; 6Department of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; 7Outcome Research and Evidence Based Medicine, Pfizer Ltd UK. Tadworth, UK; 8Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, CanadaBackground: First-line therapy for primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension generally involves prostaglandin analogue therapy. The relative efficacy of differing prostaglandin therapy is disputed.Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted of head-to-head randomized trials of prostaglandin therapies. We included randomized trials assessing head-to-head evaluations of prostaglandin analogues travoprost, latanoprost and bimatoprost in patients with predominantly primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Findings were interpreted in light of equivalence margins.Results: Our search identified 16 eligible trials, of which 15 were included in the meta-analysis. Trials were, in general, poorly reported. We pooled 9 trials assessing IOP-lowering effects of travoprost vs latanoprost (total n = 1098, weighted mean difference [WMD], –0.24 mmHg, 95% CI, –0.87 to 0.38, P = 0.45, I2 = 56%, 95% CI, 0 to 0.77, heterogeneity P = 0.01. Eight trials assessed travoprost vs bimatoprost (total n = 714, WMD, 0.88 mmHg, 95% CI, 0.13 to 1.63, P = 0.02, I2 = 56%, 95% CI, 0% to 78%, heterogeneity P = 0.02. And 8 trials assessed latanoprost vs bimatoprost (total n = 943, WMD, 0.73 mmHg, 95% CI, 0.10 to 1

  17. Selective laser trabeculoplasty compared with medical treatment for the initial management of open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

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    Efraín Pérez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available La trabeculoplastía láser selectiva es una alternativa terapéutica relativamente reciente para el manejo del glaucoma de ángulo abierto y la hipertensión ocular. Por otro lado, el tratamiento médico es de efectividad probada, e incluso ha mejorado en las últimas décadas con la introducción de los análogos de prostaglandinas. Buscamos la evidencia que compara ambos tratamientos utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos. Identificamos cuatro revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen cuatro estudios aleatorizados y un estudio no aleatorizado y realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que la trabeculoplastía láser selectiva produce una reducción absoluta de presión intraocular de menor magnitud que el tratamiento médico. Sin embargo, no está claro si existen diferencias en la tasa de éxito del tratamiento o la necesidad de intervenciones antiglaucomatosas adicionales porque la certeza de la evidencia es muy baja.

  18. Glaucoma (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaucoma is a condition of increased fluid pressure inside the eye. The increased pressure causes compression of ... nerve which can eventually lead to nerve damage. Glaucoma can cause partial vision loss, with blindness as ...

  19. Glaucoma Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Options: SIZE CONTRAST Search Home About TGF About Glaucoma About Exfoliation Syndrome Research Center Contact Us Get ... tear glands, and a common preservative in many glaucoma medications can worsen the symptoms. The main treatment ...

  20. Disturbed spontaneous brain activity pattern in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation: a fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang X

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Xin Huang,1,* Yu-Lin Zhong,1,* Xian-Jun Zeng,2 Fuqing Zhou,2 Xin-Hua Liu,1 Pei-Hong Hu,1 Chong-Gang Pei,1 Yi Shao,1 Xi-Jian Dai21Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nangchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: The aim of this study is to use amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF as a method to explore the local features of spontaneous brain activity in patients with primary angle -closure glaucoma (PACG and ALFFs relationship with the behavioral performances.Methods: A total of twenty one patients with PACG (eight males and 13 females, and twenty one healthy subjects (nine males and twelve females closely matched in age, sex, and education, each underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. The ALFF method was used to assess the local features of spontaneous brain activity. The correlation analysis was used to explore the relationships between the observed mean ALFF signal values of the different areas in PACG patients and the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL. Results: Compared with the healthy subjects, patients with PACG had significant lower ALFF areas in the left precentral gyrus, bilateral middle frontal gyrus, bilateral superior frontal gyrus, right precuneus, and right angular gyrus, and higher areas in the right precentral gyrus. In the PACG group, there were significant negative correlations between the mean ALFF signal value of the right middle frontal gyrus and the left mean RNFL thickness (r=-0.487, P=0.033, and between the mean ALFF signal value of the left middle frontal gyrus and the right mean RNFL thickness (r=-0.504, P=0.020. Conclusion: PACG mainly involved in the dysfunction in the frontal lobe, which may reflect the underlying pathologic mechanism of PACG.Keywords: angle-closure glaucoma, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, functional

  1. Is Episcleritis Associated to Glaucoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikkel, Joseph; Chassid, Otzem; Srour, Ward; Busool, Yumna; Vainer, Larisa; Epstein, Irena; Beiran, Itzchak

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to show possible connection between episcleritis and open-angle glaucoma. This was a retrospective study. Data on 21 patients who suffered from episcleritis and had no previous attack of episcleritis or glaucoma were collected for a period of 8 years (from 2004 to 2011). Six of the 21 patients of the study group (28.6%) were diagnosed as suffering from glaucoma. Four patients had a diffuse conjunctival congestion, 1 had sectoral congestion, and for 1 patient there was no record of conjunctival congestion. Two of the 6 patients with episcleritis and glaucoma experienced recurrent episcleritis events during the follow-up period. This study suggests an association between episcleritis and open-angle glaucoma.

  2. Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) susceptibility gene PLEKHA7 encodes a novel Rac1/Cdc42 GAP that modulates cell migration and blood-aqueous barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Chin; Shei, William; Chan, Anita S; Chua, Boon-Tin; Goh, Shuang-Ru; Chong, Yaan-Fun; Hilmy, Maryam H; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Baskaran, Mani; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Aung, Tin; Hunziker, Walter; Vithana, Eranga N

    2017-10-15

    PLEKHA7, a gene recently associated with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG), encodes an apical junctional protein expressed in components of the blood aqueous barrier (BAB). We found that PLEKHA7 is down-regulated in lens epithelial cells and in iris tissue of PACG patients. PLEKHA7 expression also correlated with the C risk allele of the sentinel SNP rs11024102 with the risk allele carrier groups having significantly reduced PLEKHA7 levels compared to non-risk allele carriers. Silencing of PLEKHA7 in human immortalized non-pigmented ciliary epithelium (h-iNPCE) and primary trabecular meshwork cells, which are intimately linked to BAB and aqueous humor outflow respectively, affected actin cytoskeleton organization. PLEKHA7 specifically interacts with GTP-bound Rac1 and Cdc42, but not RhoA, and the activation status of the two small GTPases is linked to PLEKHA7 expression levels. PLEKHA7 stimulates Rac1 and Cdc42 GTP hydrolysis, without affecting nucleotide exchange, identifying PLEKHA7 as a novel Rac1/Cdc42 GAP. Consistent with the regulatory role of Rac1 and Cdc42 in maintaining the tight junction permeability, silencing of PLEKHA7 compromises the paracellular barrier between h-iNPCE cells. Thus, downregulation of PLEKHA7 in PACG may affect BAB integrity and aqueous humor outflow via its Rac1/Cdc42 GAP activity, thereby contributing to disease etiology. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Influence of BAK-preserved prostaglandin analog treatment on the ocular surface health in patients with newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Martina; Kaštelan, Snježana; Soldo, Kata Metež; Salopek-Rabatić, Jasminka

    2013-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), a chronic, degenerative optic neuropathy, requires persistent decrease of intraocular pressure so as to prevent visual impairment and blindness. However, long-term use of topical ocular medications may affect ocular surface health. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of BAK-preserved prostaglandin analog treatment on the ocular surface health in patients with newly diagnosed POAG. 40 newly diagnosed POAG patients were included in this prospective study. Intraocular pressure (IOP), tear break-up time (TBUT), and ocular surface disease index (OSDI) were assessed at baseline and 3-month after starting treatment with BAK-preserved travoprost 0.004%. IOP decreased in all patients from baseline to 3-month final visit (23.80 ± 1.73 mmHg versus 16.78 ± 1.27 mmHg; P preserved travoprost 0.004% is an effective medication in newly diagnosed POAG patients, but its long-term use may negatively influence ocular surface health by disrupting the tear film stability. Further studies are needed to better understand the clinical effects of different preservative types and concentrations on the ocular surface.

  4. Mapping of the disease locus and identification of ADAMTS10 as a candidate gene in a canine model of primary open angle glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kuchtey

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, with elevated intraocular pressure as an important risk factor. Increased resistance to outflow of aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork causes elevated intraocular pressure, but the specific mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we used genome-wide SNP arrays to map the disease gene in a colony of Beagle dogs with inherited POAG to within a single 4 Mb locus on canine chromosome 20. The Beagle POAG locus is syntenic to a previously mapped human quantitative trait locus for intraocular pressure on human chromosome 19. Sequence capture and next-generation sequencing of the entire canine POAG locus revealed a total of 2,692 SNPs segregating with disease. Of the disease-segregating SNPs, 54 were within exons, 8 of which result in amino acid substitutions. The strongest candidate variant causes a glycine to arginine substitution in a highly conserved region of the metalloproteinase ADAMTS10. Western blotting revealed ADAMTS10 protein is preferentially expressed in the trabecular meshwork, supporting an effect of the variant specific to aqueous humor outflow. The Gly661Arg variant in ADAMTS10 found in the POAG Beagles suggests that altered processing of extracellular matrix and/or defects in microfibril structure or function may be involved in raising intraocular pressure, offering specific biochemical targets for future research and treatment strategies.

  5. Exome Sequencing Identifies a Missense Variant in EFEMP1 Co-Segregating in a Family with Autosomal Dominant Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna S Mackay

    Full Text Available Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is a clinically important and genetically heterogeneous cause of progressive vision loss as a result of retinal ganglion cell death. Here we have utilized trio-based, whole-exome sequencing to identify the genetic defect underlying an autosomal dominant form of adult-onset POAG segregating in an African-American family. Exome sequencing identified a novel missense variant (c.418C>T, p.Arg140Trp in exon-5 of the gene coding for epidermal growth factor (EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1 that co-segregated with disease in the family. Linkage and haplotype analyses with microsatellite markers indicated that the disease interval overlapped a known POAG locus (GLC1H on chromosome 2p. The p.Arg140Trp substitution was predicted in silico to have damaging effects on protein function and transient expression studies in cultured cells revealed that the Trp140-mutant protein exhibited increased intracellular accumulation compared with wild-type EFEMP1. In situ hybridization of the mouse eye with oligonucleotide probes detected the highest levels of EFEMP1 transcripts in the ciliary body, cornea, inner nuclear layer of the retina, and the optic nerve head. The recent finding that a common variant near EFEMP1 was associated with optic nerve-head morphology supports the possibility that the EFEMP1 variant identified in this POAG family may be pathogenic.

  6. The medical management of glaucoma | Marais | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. The main characteristic features include optic disc cupping, visual field loss, and in most instances a raised intraocular pressure. Primary open angle glaucoma accounts for nearly two thirds of all cases, while angle closure glaucoma contributes the majority of ...

  7. [Corneal endothelium in glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, C; Nicolae, Miruna; Pop, Adina

    2012-01-01

    It is a clinical, observational, retrospective, randomised study, performed on 34 eyes with hipertensive primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) drug equilibrated and 18 eyes with normotensive POAG. We have evaluated the endothelial cells number variation in the hypertensive POAG and normotensive POAG.

  8. Network Meta-analysis for Clinical Practice Guidelines: A Case Study on First-Line Medical Therapies for Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Benjamin; Cipriani, Andrea; Shi, Qiyuan; Coleman, Anne L.; Dickersin, Kay; Li, Tianjing

    2016-01-01

    Background Network meta-analysis compares multiple treatment options for the same condition and may be useful for developing clinical practice guidelines. Purpose To compare treatment recommendations for first-line medical therapy for primary open angle-glaucoma (POAG) from major updates of American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) guidelines with the evidence available at the time, using network meta-analysis. Data Sources MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched on 11 March 2014 for randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) of glaucoma monotherapies compared with placebo, vehicle, or no treatment or other monotherapies. The AAO Web site was searched in August 2014 to identify AAO POAG guidelines. Study Selection Eligible RCTs were selected by 2 independent reviewers, and guidelines were selected by 1 person. Data Extraction One person abstracted recommendations from guidelines and a second person verified. Two people independently abstracted data from included RCTs. Data Synthesis Guidelines were grouped together on the basis of literature search dates, and RCTs that existed at 1991, 1995, 1999, 2004, and 2009 were analyzed. The outcome of interest was intraocular pressure (IOP) at 3 months. Only the latest guideline made a specific recommendation: prostaglandins. Network meta-analyses showed that all treatments were superior to placebo in decreasing IOP at 3 months. The mean reductions (95% credible intervals [CrIs]) for the highest-ranking class compared with placebo were as follows: 1991: β-blockers, 4.01 (CrI, 0.48 to 7.43); 1995: α2-adrenergic agonists, 5.64 (CrI, 1.73 to 9.50); 1999: prostaglandins, 5.43 (CrI, 3.38 to 7.38); 2004: prostaglandins, 4.75 (CrI, 3.11 to 6.44); 2009: prostaglandins, 4.58 (CrI, 2.94 to 6.24). Limitation When comparisons are informed by a small number of studies, the treatment effects and rankings may not be stable. Conclusion For timely recommendations when multiple treatment options are available, guidelines developers

  9. Global variations and time trends in the prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Chan, Michelle P Y; Foster, Paul J; Cook, Derek G; Owen, Christopher G; Rudnicka, Alicja R

    2016-01-01

    Systematic review of published population based surveys to examine the relationship between primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) prevalence and demographic factors. A literature search identified population-based studies with quantitative estimates of POAG prevalence (to October 2014). Multilevel binomial logistic regression of log-odds of POAG was used to examine the effect of age and gender among populations of different geographical and ethnic origins, adjusting for study design factors. Eighty-one studies were included (37 countries, 216 214 participants, 5266 POAG cases). Black populations showed highest POAG prevalence, with 5.2% (95% credible interval (CrI) 3.7%, 7.2%) at 60 years, rising to 12.2% (95% CrI 8.9% to 16.6%) at 80 years. Increase in POAG prevalence per decade of age was greatest among Hispanics (2.31, 95% CrI 2.12, 2.52) and White populations (1.99, 95% CrI 1.86, 2.12), and lowest in East and South Asians (1.48, 95% CrI 1.39, 1.57; 1.56, 95% CrI 1.31, 1.88, respectively). Men were more likely to have POAG than women (1.30, 95% CrI 1.22, 1.41). Older studies had lower POAG prevalence, which was related to the inclusion of intraocular pressure in the glaucoma definition. Studies with visual field data on all participants had a higher POAG prevalence than those with visual field data on a subset. Globally 57.5 million people (95% CI 46.4 to 73.1 million) were affected by POAG in 2015, rising to 65.5 million (95% CrI 52.8, 83.2 million) by 2020. This systematic review provides the most precise estimates of POAG prevalence and shows omitting routine visual field assessment in population surveys may have affected case ascertainment. Our findings will be useful to future studies and healthcare planning. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. [Translaminar Gradient and Glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čmelo, J

    2017-01-01

    The cribriform plate is a threshold of the intraocular pressure (VOT) and of the intracranial pressure (IKT). The difference between the VOT and IKT is referred to as translaminar gradient (TLG). The goal was to evaluate the Glaucoma progression (visual field, fundus examination, HRT) with / without topical anti-glaucomatous therapy) in relation to the TLG. the significance of TLG has been studied in two groups. I. Group: 57 patients diagnosed and treatment of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma (PGOU), 10 patients with Ocular hypertension (OH), 7 patients with Normal-Tension Glaucoma (NTG), and 75 healthy without glaucoma. The examinations of TLG were carried out once and retrospectively. In II. group there were prospectively studied 14 patients with OH and 24 patients with newly detected PGOU without local therapy. The examinations were performed 4 times at intervals of 10 to 11 months. All tests included a basic eye examination, ORA tonometry, HRT examination, gonioscopy, Color Doppler sonography of blood vessels of the eye and orbit. Venous pulsation pressure (VPT) has been recorded by the Ophthalmodynamometer Meditron (D-ODM). In case of spontaneous retinal venous pulsation, VPT was considered as the same pressure as the VOT. The TLG was calculated with formula of Querfurth: ICT = 0.29 + 0.74 (VOT / PI (AO)). [PI(AO) - Pulsatility index of the Ophthalmic artery (AO)]. I. group: TLG was in the control group without Glaucoma: 12.2 ± 2.0 torr. The NTG group: 9.0 ± 1.70 mm Hg. PGOU: 11.1 ± 1.91 mm Hg. OH: 12.6 ± 0.85 mm Hg. IKT alone does not show a significant relationship to the presence of glaucoma, ocular hypertension. II. Group: The average TLG in Ocular Hypertension (14 patients) has been 3.8 ± 1.2 torr. 2 patients (OH) had TLG 10 torr. and 15 torr. After 4 years in one of them (TLG = 15 torr.) there was recorded Glaucoma progression. In the PGOU group before antiglaucoma therapy, TLG was 15.0 ± 4.8 torr for all patients. After setting up local anti-glaucoma

  11. Effects of preservative-free tafluprost on tear film osmolarity, tolerability, and intraocular pressure in previously treated patients with open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janulevičienė I

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingrida Januleviciene, Irmante Derkac, Lina Grybauskiene, Ruta Paulauskaite, Ruta Gromnickaite, Loreta KuzmieneEye Clinic of Kaunas Medical Academy of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, LithuaniaPurpose: To compare the effects on tolerability, tear osmolarity, and intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering effect of switching from benzalkonium chloride (BAK containing prostaglandin analog (PGA latanoprost to preservative-free tafluprost.Patients and methods: Thirty patients with open-angle glaucoma (N = 60 eyes, 26 women (87% and four men (13% aged 64.1 (SD 14.1 years, showing abnormal values of tear osmolarity, corneal fluorescein staining, tear film break-up time (TBUT, or subjective discomfort with current latanoprost treatment were included. After tear osmolarity (TearLab™ Osmolarity System, TBUT, corneal fluorescein staining, and baseline IOP (Goldmann tonometer measurements and the completion of Ocular Surface Disease Index and Ocular Surface Symptoms in Glaucoma Scale questionnaires, patients were assigned to preservative-free tafluprost treatment. Measurements were repeated 2, 6 and 12 weeks after change of medication.Results: No statistically significant differences in IOP were observed 2, 6, and 12 weeks after switching to preservative-free tafluprost. Mean IOP at baseline was 16.4 mmHg (SD 2.9, after 2 weeks 16.2 mmHg (2.8, after 6 weeks 16.2 (2.6, and after 12 weeks 16.3 mmHg (2.3. Mean tear osmolarity decreased significantly from 315.7 mOsm/L (SD 15.1 at baseline to 308.0 ± 14.4 mOsm/L (P = 0.002, 301.7 ± 14.5 mOsm/L (P < 0.001, and 302.0 ± 9.9 mOsm/L (P < 0.001 2, 6, and 12 weeks after changing medication to preservative-free tafluprost, respectively. Tear osmolarity was lower in 37 eyes (61.7% after 2 weeks, in 46 eyes (76.7% after 6 weeks, and in 49 eyes (81.7% after 12 weeks (P < 0.005; t-test. At baseline corneal fluorescein staining was observed in 43 eyes (71.7%, after 2 weeks in 34 eyes (56.7%, after 6 weeks

  12. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) evaluation of the metabolite concentration of optic radiation in primary open angle glaucoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidek, Sabrilhakim [University of Malaya, Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (UMRIC), Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Universiti Teknologi MARA, Medical Imaging Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Sg Buloh, Selangor (Malaysia); Ramli, Norlisah; Rahmat, Kartini; Kuo, Tan Li [University of Malaya, Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (UMRIC), Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ramli, Norlina Mohd; Abdulrahman, Fadzlina [University of Malaya, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-12-15

    To compare the metabolite concentration of optic radiation in glaucoma patients with that of healthy subjects using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS). 1H-MRS utilising the Single-Voxel Spectroscopy (SVS) technique was performed using a 3.0Tesla MRI on 45 optic radiations (15 from healthy subjects, 15 from mild glaucoma patients, and 15 from severe glaucoma patients). A standardised Volume of Interest (VOI) of 20 x 20 x 20 mm was placed in the region of optic radiation. Mild and severe glaucoma patients were categorised based on the Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson (HPA) classification. Mean and multiple group comparisons for metabolite concentration and metabolite concentration ratio between glaucoma grades and healthy subjects were obtained using one-way ANOVA. The metabolite concentration and metabolite concentration ratio between the optic radiations of glaucoma patients and healthy subjects did not demonstrate any significant difference (p > 0.05). Our findings show no significant alteration of metabolite concentration associated with neurodegeneration that could be measured by single-voxel 1H-MRS in optic radiation among glaucoma patients. (orig.)

  13. Endothelin and its suspected role in the pathogenesis and possible treatment of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, Yochai Z; Harris, Alon; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Rusia, Deepam; Siesky, Brent; Arieli, Yoel; Wirostko, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    To review the role of endothelin in intraocular pressure control, its effect on the trabecular meshwork (TM) and the outflow facility, effect on ocular blood flow and vascular regulation and the potential role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) antagonism in the therapeutic paradigm of glaucoma. A thorough review of the medical literature and a meta-analysis on the level of ET-1 in OAG patients in an attempt to demonstrate the evolving importance of endothelin in glaucoma. ET-1 has been identified in the plasma in concentrations that are markedly increased in a number of systemic as well as ocular pathologies such as glaucoma where underlying vascular dysfunction and pathology play a role. It has been shown that ET-1 induces human TM cell contraction in culture and that it can affect the outflow facility. Evidence indicates that systemic ET-1 regulatory mechanisms and vascular responses to it are also altered in glaucoma. Recently, several endothelin antagonists have been shown to have a potential role in glaucoma therapy. In our meta-analysis, only patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) (as opposed to patients with high tension glaucoma (HTG)) had significantly higher plasma ET-1 levels compared to non-glaucomatous control. High tension glaucomaHTG patients had significant higher levels of ET-1 in the aqueous humor. The potential role of ET-1 antagonism in the therapeutic paradigm of glaucoma is an exciting possible new approach in the treatment of OAG patients. In NTG, ET-1 may have both a local and systemic component of vascular dysregulation, while whereas in HTG, the role of ET-1 may be dominantly localized to ocular tissue.

  14. Brimonidine 0.2% given two or three times daily versus timolol maleate 0.5% in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstas, A G; Stewart, W C; Topouzis, F; Tersis, I; Holmes, K T; Stangos, N T

    2001-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of brimonidine 0.2% two or three times daily versus timolol maleate 0.5% solution twice daily. Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma were randomized by Latin square technique to one of the three treatment sequences in this crossover, prospective double-masked trial. Each treatment period consisted of 6 weeks of chronic dosing followed by a diurnal curve for the intraocular pressure measured at 08:00, 10:00, 16:00, 18:00, 20:00, 22:00, and 24:00 hours. Intraocular pressure was measured by applanation tonometry. Thirty patients completed this trial. The average diurnal intraocular pressures in the trial were measured for timolol maleate (17.7 +/- 2.7 mm Hg), brimonidine given three times daily (18.0 +/- 2.2 mm Hg), and brimonidine given twice daily (19.2 +/- 2.4 mm Hg). There was a statistical difference between groups (P <.005). When groups were compared by pairs, three times daily dosing with brimonidine and timolol maleate both reduced the pressure more than twice daily brimonidine at every time point past 10:00 hours and for the diurnal curve (P <.05). In contrast, three times daily brimonidine and timolol maleate were statistically similar for the diurnal pressure, and each time point, except timolol maleate, decreased the pressure more at 16:00 (P =.042). Safety was similar between groups. This study demonstrated that both timolol maleate twice daily and brimonidine three times daily provide a similar intraocular pressure reduction to each other. Timolol maleate twice daily and brimonidine three times daily provide a greater decrease in pressure in the late afternoon and nighttime hours, compared with brimonidine twice daily.

  15. Prospective Evaluation of Two iStent® Trabecular Stents, One iStent Supra® Suprachoroidal Stent, and Postoperative Prostaglandin in Refractory Glaucoma: 4-year Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jonathan S; Masood, Imran; Hornbeak, Dana M; Belda, Jose I; Auffarth, Gerd; Jünemann, Anselm; Giamporcaro, Jane Ellen; Martinez-de-la-Casa, Jose M; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K; Voskanyan, Lilit; Katz, L Jay

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluates long-term outcomes of two trabecular micro-bypass stents, one suprachoroidal stent, and postoperative prostaglandin in eyes with refractory open angle glaucoma (OAG). Prospective ongoing 5-year study of 80 eligible subjects (70 with 4-year follow-up) with OAG and IOP ≥ 18 mmHg after prior trabeculectomy and while taking 1-3 glaucoma medications. Subjects received two iStent ® trabecular micro-bypass stents, one iStent Supra ® suprachoroidal stent, and postoperative travoprost. Postoperative IOP was measured with medication and annually following medication washouts. Performance was measured by the proportion of eyes with ≥ 20% IOP reduction on one medication (the protocol-specified prostaglandin) versus preoperative medicated IOP (primary outcome); and the proportion of eyes with postoperative IOP ≤ 15 and ≤ 18 mmHg on one medication (secondary outcome). Additional clinical and safety data included medications, visual field, pachymetry, gonioscopy, adverse events, visual acuity, and slit-lamp and fundus examinations. Preoperatively, mean medicated IOP was 22.0 ± 3.1 mmHg on 1.2 ± 0.4 medications, and mean unmedicated IOP was 26.4 ± 2.4 mmHg. Postoperatively, among eyes without later cataract surgery, mean medicated IOP at all visits through 48 months was ≤ 13.7 mmHg (≥ 37% reduction), and annual unmedicated IOP was ≤ 18.4 mmHg (reductions of ≥ 30% vs. preoperative unmedicated IOP and ≥ 16% vs. preoperative medicated IOP). At all postoperative visits among eyes without additional surgery or medication, ≥ 91% of eyes had ≥ 20% IOP reduction on one medication versus preoperative medicated IOP. At month 48, 97 and 98% of eyes achieved IOP ≤ 15 and ≤ 18 mmHg, respectively, on one medication. Six eyes required additional medication, no eyes required additional glaucoma surgery, and safety measurements were favorable throughout follow-up. IOP control was achieved safely with two

  16. Pediatric glaucoma: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchini G

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Giorgio Marchini, Marco Toscani, Francesca Chemello Eye Clinic, Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy Abstract: “Childhood glaucoma” is a heterogeneous group of severe pediatric conditions often associated with significant visual loss and characterized by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP and optic-disk cupping. Successful IOP control is crucial but challenging and most often achieved surgically, with medical therapy playing a supportive role. There are many classifications of childhood glaucoma, but they can simply be divided into primary, in which a developmental abnormality of the anterior chamber angle only exists, and secondary, in which aqueous outflow is reduced due to independent mechanisms that secondarily impair the function of the filtration angle. The worldwide prevalence of childhood blindness ranges from 0.03% in high-income countries to 0.12% in undeveloped countries. The majority of cases do not have an identified genetic mutation and, where the mutation is known, the genes often account for only a small proportion of cases. Several pathogenetic mechanisms are known to contribute to the development of childhood glaucoma. Whatever the cause, it results in a reduced aqueous outflow at the level of the trabecular meshwork. Age of onset and magnitude of the elevated IOP largely determine the clinical manifestation the high variability of clinical manifestations. Glaucoma from any cause in a neonate and infant is characterized by the classic triad of epiphora, photophobia, and blepharospasm, and could be associated with eye enlargement (buphthalmos and Haab striae. The eye examination, usually performed under general anesthesia, includes: tonometry, anterior-segment examination, gonioscopy, corneal diameter and axial length measurement, dilated fundoscopy with optic-nerve-head evaluation. Medical therapy, considering the high frequency of side effects, is generally used as

  17. 24-Hour Efficacy and Ocular Surface Health with Preservative-Free Tafluprost Alone and in Conjunction with Preservative-Free Dorzolamide/Timolol Fixed Combination in Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients Insufficiently Controlled with Preserved Latanoprost Monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstas, Anastasios-Georgios; Boboridis, Konstadinos G; Kapis, Paraskevas; Marinopoulos, Konstantinos; Voudouragkaki, Irini C; Panayiotou, Dimitrios; Mikropoulos, Dimitrios G; Pagkalidou, Eirini; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Katsanos, Andreas; Quaranta, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the 24-h efficacy, tolerability, and ocular surface health with preservative-free (PF) tafluprost and a PF triple drug regimen comprising tafluprost and dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination (DTFC) in open-angle glaucoma patients who were insufficiently controlled with preserved branded or generic latanoprost monotherapy and who exhibited signs or symptoms of ocular surface disease (OSD). Prospective, observer-masked, crossover, comparison. Eligible consecutive open-angle glaucoma patients were randomized to either PF tafluprost or the triple PF regimen for 3 months. They were then crossed over to the opposite therapy for another 3 months. At the end of the latanoprost run-in period and after each PF treatment period, patients underwent habitual 24-h intraocular pressure (IOP) monitoring with Goldmann tonometry in the sitting position (at 10:00, 14:00, 18:00, and 22:00) and Perkins tonometry in the supine position (at 02:00 and 06:00). Tolerability and selected ocular surface parameters were evaluated at baseline and the end of each treatment period. Forty-three open-angle glaucoma patients completed the trial. Mean 24-h IOP on preserved latanoprost was 22.2 ± 3.9 mmHg. Compared with latanoprost monotherapy, PF tafluprost obtained a greater reduction in mean, peak, and fluctuation of 24-h IOP including the 02:00 and 06:00 time points (P preserved latanoprost baseline (all P preserved latanoprost. The combination of PF tafluprost and PF dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination was statistically and clinically more efficacious than both monotherapies and demonstrated similar ocular surface characteristics to preserved latanoprost monotherapy. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02802137). Santen.

  18. Glaukos iStent inject® Trabecular Micro-Bypass Implantation Associated with Cataract Surgery in Patients with Coexisting Cataract and Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension: A Long-Term Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Arriola-Villalobos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of the iStent inject device (Glaukos Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA combined with phacoemulsification in patients with coexistent cataract and open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT. Methods. A prospective, uncontrolled, nonrandomized, interventional case series study was conducted in patients with both mild or moderate open-angle glaucoma or OHT and cataract. Patients underwent cataract surgery along with the implant of two iStent inject devices. Outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP, topical hypotensive medications required, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA. Results. 20 patients were enrolled. Mean follow-up was 47.4±18.46 months. Mean baseline IOP was 19.95±3.71 mmHg with medication and 26±3.11 mmHg after washout. Mean end-follow-up IOP was 16.25±1.99 mmHg, representing an IOP decrease of 36.92%, 9.74±3.14 mmHg (P<0.001, from baseline washout IOP. The mean number of medications was significantly reduced from 1.3±0.66 to 0.75±0.79 (P=0.017. 45% of patients were medication-free by the end of follow-up. Mean log⁡MAR BCVA improved significantly from 0.42±0.16 to 0.18±0.16 (P<0.001. No complications of surgery were observed. Conclusion. The iStent inject device combined with cataract surgery served to significantly reduce both IOP and medication use in the long term in patients with coexistent open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT and cataract.

  19. Comparison of diagnostic capability of macular ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer among primary open angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, and normal population using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography and determining their functional correlation in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Barua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Analysis of diagnostic ability of macular ganglionic cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL in glaucoma. Aim: To correlate functional and structural parameters and comparing predictive value of each of the structural parameters using Fourier-domain (FD optical coherence tomography (OCT among primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and ocular hypertension (OHT versus normal population. Setting and Design: Single centric, cross-sectional study done in 234 eyes. Materials and Methods: Patients were enrolled in three groups: POAG, ocular hypertensive and normal (40 patients in each group. After comprehensive ophthalmological examination, patients underwent standard automated perimetry and FD-OCT scan in optic nerve head and ganglion cell mode. The relationship was assessed by correlating ganglion cell complex (GCC parameters with mean deviation. Results were compared with RNFL parameters. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed with SPSS, analysis of variance, t-test, Pearson′s coefficient, and receiver operating curve. Results: All parameters showed strong correlation with visual field (P 0.5 when compared with other parameters. None of the parameters showed significant diagnostic capability to detect OHT from normal population. In diagnosing early glaucoma from OHT and normal population, only inferior GCC had statistically significant AUC value (0.715. Conclusion: In this study, GCC and RNFL parameters showed equal predictive capability in perimetric versus normal group. In early stage, inferior GCC was the best parameter. In OHT population, single day cross-sectional imaging was not valuable.

  20. A single-blind randomised trial comparing adrenaline 1.0% with dipivalyl epinephrine (propine) 0.1% in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, K B; Jacobs, N A

    1988-01-01

    The results of this single-blind randomised trial comparing adrenaline 1% with dipivalyl epinephrine (Propine) 0.1% confirm that both have a significant effect in lowering the intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension, but it is generally insufficient to warrant their use as the first line medical treatment of these two conditions. There was no significant difference between the intraocular lowering effect of the two preparations, and 60% of patients receiving Propine and 66% of those receiving adrenaline noted side effects. PMID:3291940

  1. Late-stage, primary open-angle glaucoma in Europe: social and health care maintenance costs and quality of life of patients from 4 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, J.; Aagren, M.; Arnavielle, S.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate costs and quality of life (QoL) of late-stage glaucoma patients in 4 European countries. METHODS: Retrospective review of medical charts of patients with POAG who were followed in a low-vision or vision rehabilitation center in one of 4 countries...... maintenance costs of late-stage glaucoma amounted to euro830 (+/-445) on average. Average home help costs were more than 3 times higher. QoL, on average, was 0.65 (+/-0.28). QoL was positively correlated with the level of visual acuity in the patients' best eye. On the other hand, visual acuity was also...... positively correlated to health care costs, but negatively correlated to costs of home help. CONCLUSIONS: The study was limited by its observational, uncontrolled design. The finding that late-stage glaucoma is associated with higher home help costs than health care maintenance costs suggests that potential...

  2. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of fixed combination travoprost/timolol and dorzolamide/timolol in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Combining two medications in one bottle may improve compliance by reducing the time required to administer drops and the frequency of the total number of medication bottles. Objective. To compare the efficacy of reduced intraocular pressure (IOP and safety of fixed combination travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% vs. fixed combination dorzolamide 2%/timolol 0.5% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods. Prospective randomized clinical study included 60 patients divided into 2 groups. Follow-up was done at day 14 and 45 and month 3. IOP measurements were taken at each follow-up examination at 8 am, 10 am and 4 pm. Results. Both fixed combinations reduced IOP significantly compared to initial values at all follow-ups (p<0.001. Mean pooled IOP at all visits and time points was slightly lower in the travoprost/timolol group compared with the dorzolamide/timolol group (16.13 mmHg vs. 16.15 mmHg. Mean IOP reduction from baseline ranged from -7.46 mmHg to -9.92 mmHg in the travoprost/timolol group and from -6.93 mmHg to -8.93 mmHg for the dorzolamide/timolol group. Mean (±standard error of the mean reduction in diurnal IOP from baseline to 3rd month was 8.96±2.79 in the travoprost/timolol group versus 8.07±2.91 in patients receiving dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination (p=0.196. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were conjunctival hyperemia in the travoprost/timolol group, and dry eye and foreign body sensation in the dorzolamide/timolol group. Conclusion. Travoprost/timolol fixed combination was slightly more effective than dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination in reducing mean diurnal IOP. Travoprost/timolol group resulted in an IOP reduction for up to 1.07 mmHg higher than dorzolamide/timolol group. Both fixed combinations were well tolerated and safe.

  3. Prospective Study of Oral Health and Risk of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Men: Data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Louis R; Hyman, Leslie; Wiggs, Janey L; Rosner, Bernard A; Joshipura, Kaumudi; McEvoy, Mark; McPherson, Zachary E; Danias, John; Kang, Jae H

    2016-11-01

    Tooth loss or periodontal disease is associated with systemic endothelial dysfunction, which has been implicated in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The relationship between oral health and POAG has received limited attention. Thus, we evaluated the association between oral health history and risk of POAG and POAG subtypes. Prospective cohort study. Health Professionals Follow-up Study participants (40 536 men) followed biennially from 1986 to 2012. At each 2-year risk period, eligible participants were aged 40+ years, were free of POAG, and reported eye examinations. By using validated questions, we updated participants' status on number of natural teeth, teeth lost, periodontal disease with bone loss, and root canal treatments. During follow-up, 485 incident cases of POAG were confirmed with medical records and classified into subtypes defined by intraocular pressure (IOP; ≥ or <22 mmHg) or visual field (VF) loss pattern at diagnosis (peripheral loss only or early paracentral loss). Multivariable relative risks (MVRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Number of natural teeth, periodontal disease, and root canal treatment were not associated with POAG. However, compared with no report of tooth loss, a report of losing teeth within the past 2 years was associated with a 1.45-fold increased risk of POAG (95% CI, 1.06-1.97); in particular, a report within the past 2 years of both losing teeth and having a prevalent diagnosis of periodontal disease was associated with a 1.85-fold increased risk of POAG (95% CI, 1.07-3.18). The associations with recent tooth loss were not significantly different for the POAG subtypes (P for heterogeneity ≥0.36), although associations were strongest in relation to the POAG subtypes with IOP <22 mmHg (MVRR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.09-3.43) and early paracentral VF loss (MVRR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.32-3.88). Although the number of natural teeth was not associated with risk of POAG, recent tooth loss was associated with an

  4. Retinal nerve fiber layer in primary open-angle glaucoma with high myopia determined by optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-en; Wang, Xiao-yu; Gu, Yang-shun; Huang, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Fundus changes associated with high myopia (HM) may mask those associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). This study aim to determine the characteristics of RNFL thickness changes in patients with both POAG and HM and compare these to changes in patients with only HM. The diagnostic capabilities of both OCT and GDxVCC in this subset of patients are also evaluated. Twenty-two eyes with POAG and HM (spherical equivalent (SE) between -6.0 and -12.0 D) were evaluated, and 22 eyes with HM were used for comparison. Characteristic retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness profiles in patients with POAG and HM were examined using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDxVCC), and the diagnostic capabilities of these imaging modalities were compared. RNFL parameters evaluated included superior average (Savg-GDx), inferior average (Iavg-GDx), temporal-superior-nasal- inferior-temporal (TSNIT) average, and nerve fiber indicator (NFI) on GDxVCC and superior average (Savg-OCT), inferior average (Iavg-OCT), nasal average (Navg-OCT), temporal average (Tavg-OCT), and average thickness (AvgThick-OCT) on OCT (fast RNFL scan). Visual field testing was performed and defects were evaluated using mean defect (MD) and pattern standard deviation (PSD). The RNFL parameters (P < 0.05) significantly different between groups included Savg-GDx, Iavg-GDx, TSNIT average, NFI, Savg-OCT, Iavg-OCT, Tavg-OCT, and AvgThick-OCT. Significant correlations existed between TSNIT average and AvgThick-OCT (r = 0.778), TSNIT average and MD (r = 0.749), AvgThick-OCT and MD (r = 0.647), TSNIT average and PSD (r = -0.756), and AvgThick-OCT and PSD (r = -0.784). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values of TSNIT average, Savg-GDx, Iavg-GDx, NFI, Savg-OCT, Iavg-OCT, Navg-OCT, Tavg-OCT, and AvgThick-OCT were 0.947, 0.962, 0.973, 0.994, 0.909, 0.917, 0.511, 0.906, and 0.913, respectively. The NFI AUROC was the

  5. Monitoring dynamics of aqueous humor in glaucoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyborny, P.; Hornova, J.

    1985-01-01

    Aqueous humor dynamics was observed in patients treated for glaucoma. Aqueous flow was measured using the radionuclide method of contact application of 22 NaCl and the detection of gamma radiation with external detectors. The sample of 184 eyes was divided into three groups: open-angle glaucoma with therapy, open-angle glaucoma without therapy and angle-closure glaucoma 47 eyes were used as controls. Changes were observed in 22 Na outflow half-time in dependence on the duration of the disease, therapy, intraocular pressUre and changes in the perimeter. The new technique has been fully proven in practice, is a contribution to the diagnosis of glaucoma and an indicator of the compensation of the disease. (author)

  6. Glaucoma in Africa: size of the problem and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Colin

    2009-02-01

    To obtain an estimate of the magnitude of the problem of glaucoma in sub-Saharan Africa, and to evaluate the existing evidence for including glaucoma as a priority disease in our Vision 2020 programs in Africa. A Pubmed search was carried out using "glaucoma prevalence Africa," "glaucoma presentation Africa," "glaucoma blindness Africa," "glaucoma screening Africa," and "glaucoma treatment Africa" as key words. Most glaucoma in Africa is primary chronic open angle glaucoma, it may occur at an earlier age, it may be associated with a higher intraocular pressure, it may be more rapidly progressive, and it may present late. The prevalence of glaucoma in East, Central, and Southern Africa can be conservatively estimated to be 10,000 people for every 1 million population. This prevalence may be higher in West Africa. The annual incidence of glaucoma can be conservatively estimated to be 400 new cases for every 1 million population. Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness after cataract, responsible for up to 30% of blindness. Case detection of glaucoma could be carried out at both the primary and secondary level. Primary trabeculectomy with mitomycin C or beta irradiation adjunct may be a suitable treatment. Cases could be followed up after surgery by mid-level eye care workers, using the intraocular pressure as the indicator for adequacy of control, and using a glaucoma register to identify and trace defaulters. Glaucoma should be included as a priority disease in Vision 2020 programs in Africa.

  7. Glaucoma Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difference. Support glaucoma research to help find a cure. Give Now About Research Programs Leadership Partners Accountability Careers Research Research We Fund Alzheimer’s Disease Research Program Macular Degeneration Research Program National ...

  8. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome in Ethiopian glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedri, A; Alemu, B

    1999-05-01

    Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXS) has variable prevalence rates in the glaucoma population depending on geographic location and racial composition of the population studied. There is no data available on this subject in Ethiopia. To determine the prevalence of PXS among Ethiopian glaucoma clinic population. A prospective study. The Glaucoma Clinic of Menelik-II-Hospital, which is a tertiary eye care centre in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. All new patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension (ocular HPN) seen during the study period from 1st April to 30th September 1996 were included in the study. Our of the 432 new patients of glaucoma or ocular HPN seen during the study, 108 patients (25%) had PXS. The age of PXS cases ranged from 32 years to 86 years (mean 62.3 years). There were 80 males and 28 females. Of the PXS patients, 104 (96.3%) were cases of chronic open angle glaucoma, while angle closure glaucoma and ocular HPN were rare comprising only two patients (1.85%) each. The relatively high prevalence rate of PXS among Ethiopian glaucoma clinic population found in this study stresses the need for further community-based research in order to prevent blindness due to glaucoma associated with PXS.

  9. Avaliação dos tipos de glaucoma no serviço de oftalmologia da UNICAMP Evaluation of glaucoma types at the sector of ophthalmology - UNICAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Peltier Urbano

    2003-01-01

    treatment were analyzed. RESULTS: There were 329 patients examined at the Glaucoma Service: 132 (40.1% were referred to the service as glaucoma suspects and 197 (59.9% as glaucoma patients. Ninety of the 132 glaucoma suspects had glaucoma (68.2% and 42 are still under investigation (31.8%. Among the 329 patients, 283 (86% had glaucoma, 42 (12.8% were glaucoma suspects, 2 (0.6% had ocular hypertension and 2 (0.6% did not have glaucoma. There were 530 eyes with glaucoma: 298 (56.2% with primary open angle glaucoma, 108 (20.4% with chronic angle closure glaucoma, 21 (4% with glaucoma following cataract surgery, 19 (3.6% congenital glaucoma and 16 (3% with low-tension glaucoma. All patients received initial clinical treatment with IOP-lowering medication. After a mean follow up of 10.5 months, 89 (16.8% underwent laser therapy: 72 (13.6% iridotomy, 7 (1.3% trabeculoplasty and 10 (1.9% panphotocoagulation. A hundred and seventy nine (33% eyes required surgical treatment. CONCLUSION: The most frequent types of glaucoma were primary open angle and angle closure glaucoma. Low tension glaucoma and glaucoma associated with exfoliation syndrome were uncommon in this population.

  10. BaFAlSi and BaFAlGe: First transition metal-free LaOAgS-type fluoride tetrelides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charkin, Dmitri O., E-mail: charkin@inorg.chem.msu.ru; Plokhikh, Igor V.; Kuznetsov, Alexey N.; Kazakov, Sergey M.

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • Two first tetrelide fluorides with the LaOAgS structure have been prepared. • They are also the first transition metal-free representatives of the structure type. • Contrary to pnictides, hydride tetrelides are predicted to have different structures. - Abstract: Studies of the LaOAgS-type compounds among alkaline earth – Al (Ga) fluoride tetrelides revealed the existence of two new compounds BaFAlSi and BaFAlGe which are the first representatives of fluoride tetrelides; they also are the first representatives of the structure type not involving transition metals. No compound of the structure type is formed for strontium and gallium. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that only these two compounds are thermodynamically stable; the structure is probably stabilized by ionic interactions in the FeSe-like anionic slabs, which are relatively weak for bonds formed between triels and tetrels that are close in electronegativity.

  11. Clinical Features Of Primary Glaucoma In Ibadan | Ashaye | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Severe cupping and atrophy of optic nerve heads, severe field loss and high intraocular pressure were the typical presentations. Eyes examined with a gonioscope revealed that 15% had closed, 26.2% had narrow and 58.8% had wide open angle glaucomas. Angle closure glaucoma did not present with acute features in ...

  12. Generation of reactive oxygen species in the anterior eye segment. Synergistic codrugs of N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops and mitochondria-targeted antioxidant act as a powerful therapeutic platform for the treatment of cataracts and primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Babizhayev

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondrial targeting of compounds with universal types of antioxidant activity represents a promising approach for treating a number of ROS-related ocular diseases of the aging eye and can be implicated in the management of cataracts and primary open-angle glaucoma.

  13. Efficacy and safety of combination therapy with latanoprost after a change in therapeutic regimen from timolol to brinzolamide in Japanese adult patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension: open, non-randomized 12-week study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shusaku Ishikawa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Shusaku Ishikawa1, Yoshimi Nakamura1, Yuko Nakamura1, Hiroshi Sakai1, Shoichi Sawaguchi1, Kazuo Terashima2, Makoto Kanno2, Hidetoshi Yamashita21Department of Ophthalmology, University of the Ryukyus Faculty of Medicine, Okinawa, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata, JapanPurpose: To compare the efficacy of brinzolamide in Japanese patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG or ocular hypertension (OH after a change from timolol in combination therapy with latanoprost.Methods: A 12-week, prospective, open-label, comparative study was performed in 20 patients [11 males and 9 females, mean age of 64.5 ± 11.0 (SDy] with POAG or OH treated with both latanoprost once daily and timolol 0.5% twice daily. During the study brinzolamide was substituted for timolol. Intraocular pressure (IOP was measured at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Blood pressure (BP, pulse rate (PR, and adverse events were also recorded.Results: IOPs at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks were 18.6 ± 2.1 mmHg, 17.8 ± 2.6 mmHg, 17.4 ± 2.5 mmHg, and 17.3 ± 3.5 mmHg, respectively. IOP reduction at 4 and 8 weeks was statistically significant (p < 0.05. The PR was significantly increased at 12 weeks (p < 0.01, but BP was not significantly affected. Four ocular adverse events were noted, but all were mild and transient.Conclusions: Substituting brinzolamide 1% for timolol 0.5% in combination therapy with latanoprost 0.005% demonstrated significant IOP reduction with improvement in PR with POAG or OH. Combination therapy using latanoprost and brinzolamide may be recommended for better IOP control with fewer systemic adverse events.Keywords: open-angle glaucoma, brinzolamide/latanprost combination therapy, timolol/latanoprost combination therapy, intraocular pressure

  14. A multicenter, retrospective chart review study comparing index therapy change rates in open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension patients newly treated with latanoprost or travoprost-Z monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Joel M; Kotak, Sameer; Mardekian, Jack; Bacharach, Jason; Edward, Deepak P; Rauchman, Steven; Brevetti, Teresa; Fox, Janet L; Lovelace, Cherie

    2011-06-13

    Because latanoprost and the original formulation of travoprost that included benzalkonium chloride (BAK) have been shown to be similar with regard to tolerability, we compared initial topical intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering medication change rates in patients newly treated with latanoprost or travoprost-Z monotherapy. At 14 clinical practice sites, medical records were abstracted for patients with a diagnosis of open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and who were ≥40 years of age, had a baseline and at least one follow-up visit, and had no prior history of ocular prostaglandin use. Data regarding demographics, ocular/systemic medical histories, clinical variables, therapy initiations and reasons for changes, adverse events, and resource utilization were recorded from randomly chosen eligible charts. Primary outcomes were rates of and reasons for changing from the initial therapy within six months and across the full study period (1000 days). Data from 900 medical charts (latanoprost, 632; travoprost-Z, 268) were included. For both cohorts, average follow-up was >1 year. Cohorts were similar with regard to age (median ~67 years), gender distribution (>50% female), and diagnosis (~80% with open-angle glaucoma). Within six months, rates of index therapy change for latanoprost versus travoprost-Z were 21.2% (134/632) and 28.7% (77/268), respectively (p = 0.0148); across the full study period, rates were 34.5% (218/632) and 45.2% (121/268), respectively (p = 0.0026). Among those who changed their index therapy, insufficient IOP control was the most commonly reported reason followed by adverse events; hyperemia was the most commonly reported adverse event at index therapy change. In this "real world" study of changes in therapy in patients prescribed initial monotherapy with latanoprost with BAK or travoprost-Z with SofZia, medication changes were common in both treatment groups but statistically significantly more frequent with travoprost-Z.

  15. A multicenter, retrospective chart review study comparing index therapy change rates in open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension patients newly treated with latanoprost or travoprost-Z monotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Deepak P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because latanoprost and the original formulation of travoprost that included benzalkonium chloride (BAK have been shown to be similar with regard to tolerability, we compared initial topical intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering medication change rates in patients newly treated with latanoprost or travoprost-Z monotherapy. Methods At 14 clinical practice sites, medical records were abstracted for patients with a diagnosis of open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and who were ≥40 years of age, had a baseline and at least one follow-up visit, and had no prior history of ocular prostaglandin use. Data regarding demographics, ocular/systemic medical histories, clinical variables, therapy initiations and reasons for changes, adverse events, and resource utilization were recorded from randomly chosen eligible charts. Primary outcomes were rates of and reasons for changing from the initial therapy within six months and across the full study period (1000 days. Results Data from 900 medical charts (latanoprost, 632; travoprost-Z, 268 were included. For both cohorts, average follow-up was >1 year. Cohorts were similar with regard to age (median ~67 years, gender distribution (>50% female, and diagnosis (~80% with open-angle glaucoma. Within six months, rates of index therapy change for latanoprost versus travoprost-Z were 21.2% (134/632 and 28.7% (77/268, respectively (p = 0.0148; across the full study period, rates were 34.5% (218/632 and 45.2% (121/268, respectively (p = 0.0026. Among those who changed their index therapy, insufficient IOP control was the most commonly reported reason followed by adverse events; hyperemia was the most commonly reported adverse event at index therapy change. Conclusions In this "real world" study of changes in therapy in patients prescribed initial monotherapy with latanoprost with BAK or travoprost-Z with SofZia, medication changes were common in both treatment groups but statistically

  16. Get Tested for Glaucoma!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Glaucoma Get Tested for Glaucoma! Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Taylor ... aoa.org/ When were you finally diagnosed with glaucoma? Not until 1969, after a game of basketball. ...

  17. Voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging of the optic pathway in primary open-angle glaucoma: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikou, A K; Kitsos, G; Tzarouchi, L C; Astrakas, L; Alexiou, G A; Argyropoulou, M I

    2012-01-01

    Neuropathologic studies in experimental and human glaucoma have demonstrated degenerative changes in the optic pathway. The purpose of this study was to assess the optic pathway in POAG by using VBM and DTI. Eighteen patients 57.05 ± 11.38 years of age with POAG of 8.30 ± 5.14 years' duration and 18 control subjects underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including quantification of the RNFLT by using Stratus OCT 3, and brain imaging. The imaging protocol consisted of a T1-weighted high-resolution 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence and a multisection spin-echo- planar diffusion-weighted sequence. Data preprocessing and analysis were performed by using Matlab 7.0 and SPM 5. Left temporal and right nasal RNFLTs were significantly thinner than right temporal and left nasal RNFLTs. In patients, VBM revealed a significant reduction in the left visual cortex volume, the left lateral geniculate nucleus, and the intracranial part of the ONs and the chiasma. In addition, a significant decrease of FA was observed in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the longitudinal and inferior frontal fasciculi, the putamen, the caudate nucleus, the anterior and posterior thalamic radiations, and the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule of the left hemisphere (P < .05). Neurodegenerative changes of the optic pathway and several brain areas associated with the visual system can be observed by using VBM and DTI in patients with POAG, suggesting that glaucoma is a complex neurologic disease.

  18. Childhood glaucoma surgery in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, M; Edmunds, B; Fenerty, C; Khaw, P T

    2014-01-01

    Most children with glaucoma will require surgery in their lifetime, often in their childhood years. The surgical management of childhood glaucoma is however challenging, largely because of its greater potential for failure and complications as compared with surgery in adults. The available surgical repertoire for childhood glaucoma has remained relatively unchanged for many years with most progress owing to modifications to existing surgery. Although the surgical approach to childhood glaucoma varies around the world, angle surgery remains the preferred initial surgery for primary congenital glaucoma and a major advance has been the concept of incising the whole of the angle (circumferential trabeculotomy). Simple modifications to the trabeculectomy technique have been shown to considerably minimise complications. Glaucoma drainage devices maintain a vital role for certain types of glaucoma including those refractory to other surgery. Cyclodestruction continues to have a role mainly for patients following failed drainage/filtering surgery. Although the prognosis for childhood glaucoma has improved significantly since the introduction of angle surgery, there is still considerable progress to be made to ensure a sighted lifetime for children with glaucoma all over the world. Collaborative approaches to researching and delivering this care are required, and this paper highlights the need for more high-quality prospective surgical trials in the management of the childhood glaucoma. PMID:24924446

  19. Late-stage, primary open-angle glaucoma in Europe: social and health care maintenance costs and quality of life of patients from 4 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, J.; Aagren, M.; Arnavielle, S.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate costs and quality of life (QoL) of late-stage glaucoma patients in 4 European countries. METHODS: Retrospective review of medical charts of patients with POAG who were followed in a low-vision or vision rehabilitation center in one of 4 countries......) and use of resources including: the number of visits to rehabilitation centers, visits to hospital and non-hospital specialists, the use of low-vision devices, medication, tests, and the use of hired home help. The costs associated with resource use were calculated from the perspective of a third......-party payer of health and social care based on resource usage and unit costs in each country. RESULTS: Patients undergoing visual rehabilitation in France (n=21), Denmark (n=59), Germany (n=60), and the United Kingdom (n=22) were identified, interviewed and had their medical charts reviewed. Annual...

  20. Comparisons of the Tono-Pen® and Goldmann Applanation Tonometer in the Measurement of Intraocular Pressure of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Patients in a Hospital Population in Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onochie, Chizoba; Okoye, Obiekwe; Ogunro, Adunola; Aribaba, Tade; Hassan, Kunle; Onakoya, Adeola

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare intraocular pressure (IOP) measured with the Tono-Pen® to that measured using the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) in patients with primary open angle glaucoma attending a glaucoma clinic. A comparative clinic-based observational study was conducted involving 75 patients (39 men and 36 women) attending a glaucoma clinic in Southwest Nigeria. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data. The Tono-Pen and the GAT were used to measure the IOP in each patient. Central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured with an ultrasonic pachymeter, and the corrected GAT value was calculated for each patient. The Tono-Pen readings were compared with the uncorrected and corrected GAT readings. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed. Values for p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The mean age of the participants was 60.39 ± 16.71 years. The mean IOP using the Tono-Pen was 21.1 ± 6.8 mm Hg versus the mean uncorrected GAT value of 17.1 ± 6.9 mm Hg and the corrected GAT value of 18.9 ± 7.5 mm Hg. The mean CCT was 510.5 ± 29.6 µm. The mean differences between the Tono-Pen reading and uncorrected and corrected GAT readings were 3.9 ± 2.6 and 2.1 ± 3.5 mm Hg, respectively. Gender (Tono-Pen vs. GAT; p = 0.981 vs. 0.437) and corneal thickness (p = 0.057) did not significantly affect the IOP value. Of the 75 patients, 68 (90.7%) preferred the Tono-Pen to the GAT. In this study, the Tono-Pen gave a higher value for IOP than the uncorrected and corrected GAT values. Gender and corneal thickness did not significantly affect the measurements. Most patients found the Tono-Pen more acceptable than the GAT. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Efficacy and tolerability of fixed-combination brinzolamide/timolol in Latin American patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension previously on brimonidine/timolol fixed combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alezzandrini, Arturo; Hubatsch, Douglas; Alfaro, Rene

    2014-09-01

    Fixed-combination glaucoma medications are commonly used to achieve target intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction in patients uncontrolled with monotherapy; however, ocular discomfort associated with eye drops can decrease adherence. This study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of twice-daily fixed-combination brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% (BRINZ/TIM-FC) in Latin American patients transitioned from fixed-combination brimonidine 0.2%/timolol 0.5% (BRIM/TIM-FC) because of insufficient IOP control or treatment intolerance. This 8-week, open-label, prospective study was conducted at six sites in Argentina, Chile, and Mexico. Enrolled patients were aged ≥18 years with open-angle glaucoma (including primary, exfoliative, or pigment-dispersion glaucoma) or ocular hypertension with IOP of 19-35 mmHg in ≥1 eye at baseline (on BRIM/TIM-FC). Patients self-administered BRINZ/TIM-FC to both eyes at 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. daily for 8 weeks. The primary and secondary efficacy endpoints were mean IOP change from baseline at week 8 and percentage of patients achieving target IOP (≤18 mmHg) at week 8, respectively. Exploratory endpoints included patient and investigator preference for treatment at week 8. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed as the safety endpoint. Fifty patients (mean ± SD age, 66.7 ± 11.5 years) received BRINZ/TIM-FC, and 49 were included in the intent-to-treat population. Mean ± SD IOP was significantly reduced from baseline after 8 weeks of treatment with BRINZ/TIM-FC (-3.6 ± 3.0 mmHg; P < 0.0001, Wilcoxon signed-rank test; 17.1% reduction). Overall, 55.3% of patients achieved IOP ≤18 mmHg at week 8. Significantly more patients (89.4%) and investigators (95.7%) preferred BRINZ/TIM-FC to BRIM/TIM-FC (both P < 0.0001, exact binomial test). Of the 13 AEs observed, 8 were related to BRINZ/TIM-FC; the most common treatment-related AEs were eye irritation (n = 4) and abnormal sensation in the eye (n = 2). BRINZ/TIM-FC provides an

  2. Practice Preferences for Glaucoma Surgery: A Survey of the American Glaucoma Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, Kateki; Gedde, Steven J; Feuer, William J; Panarelli, Joseph F; Chang, Ta C; Chen, Philip P; Parrish, Richard K

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess surgical practice patterns among the American Glaucoma Society (AGS) membership. An anonymous online survey evaluating the use of glaucoma surgeries in various clinical settings was redistributed to AGS members. Survey responses were compared with prior results from 1996, 2002, and 2008 to determine shifts in surgical practice patterns. Questions were added to assess the preferred approach to primary incisional glaucoma surgery and phacoemulsification combined with glaucoma surgery. A total of 252 of 1091 (23%) subscribers to the AGS-net participated in the survey. Percentage use (mean±SD) of trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC), glaucoma drainage device (GDD), and minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) as an initial surgery in patients with primary open angle glaucoma was 59%±30%, 23%±23%, and 14%±20%, respectively. Phacoemulsification cataract extraction alone was the preferred surgical approach in 44%±32% of patients with primary open angle glaucoma and visually significant cataract, and phacoemulsification cataract extraction was combined with trabeculectomy with MMC in 24%±23%, with MIGS in 22%±27%, and with GDD in 9%±14%. Although trabeculectomy was selected most frequently to surgically manage glaucoma in 8 of 8 clinical settings in 1996, GDD was preferred in 7 of 8 clinical settings in 2016. The use of GDD has increased and that of trabeculectomy has concurrently decreased over the past 2 decades. Trabeculectomy with MMC is the most popular primary incisional surgery when performed alone or in combination with phacoemulsification cataract extraction. Surgeons frequently manage coexistent cataract and glaucoma with cataract extraction alone, rather than as a combined cataract and glaucoma procedure.

  3. A comparison of the sensitivity of EQ-5D, SF-6D and TTO utility values to changes in vision and perceived visual function in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozzani Fiammetta Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic viability of treatments for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG should be assessed objectively to prioritise health care interventions. This study aims to identify the methods for eliciting utility values (UVs most sensitive to differences in visual field and visual functioning in patients with POAG. As a secondary objective, the dimensions of generic health-related and vision-related quality of life most affected by progressive vision loss will be identified. Methods A total of 132 POAG patients were recruited. Three sets of utility values (EuroQoL EQ-5D, Short Form SF-6D, Time Trade Off and a measure of perceived visual functioning from the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25 were elicited during face-to-face interviews. The sensitivity of UVs to differences in the binocular visual field, visual acuity and visual functioning measures was analysed using non-parametric statistical methods. Results Median utilities were similar across Integrated Visual Field score quartiles for EQ-5D (P = 0.08 whereas SF-6D and Time-Trade-Off UVs significantly decreased (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively. The VFQ-25 score varied across Integrated Visual Field and binocular visual acuity groups and was associated with all three UVs (P ≤ 0.001; most of its vision-specific sub-scales were associated with the vision markers. The most affected dimension was driving. A relationship with vision markers was found for the physical component of SF-36 and not for any dimension of EQ-5D. Conclusions The Time-Trade-Off was more sensitive than EQ-5D and SF-6D to changes in vision and visual functioning associated with glaucoma progression but could not measure quality of life changes in the mildest disease stages.

  4. The Pathophysiology and Treatment of Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, Robert N.; Aung, Tin; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Glaucoma is a worldwide leading cause of irreversible vision loss. Because it may be asymptomatic until a relatively late stage, diagnosis is frequently delayed. A general understanding of the disease pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment may assist primary care physicians in referring high-risk patients for comprehensive ophthalmologic examination and in more actively participating in the care of patients affected by this condition. OBJECTIVE To describe current evidence regarding the pathophysiology and treatment of open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma. EVIDENCE REVIEW A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and manuscript references for studies published in English between January 2000 and September 2013 on the topics open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma. From the 4334 abstracts screened, 210 articles were selected that contained information on pathophysiology and treatment with relevance to primary care physicians. FINDINGS The glaucomas are a group of progressive optic neuropathies characterized by degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and resulting changes in the optic nerve head. Loss of ganglion cells is related to the level of intraocular pressure, but other factors may also play a role. Reduction of intraocular pressure is the only proven method to treat the disease. Although treatment is usually initiated with ocular hypotensive drops, laser trabeculoplasty and surgery may also be used to slow disease progression. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Primary care physicians can play an important role in the diagnosis of glaucoma by referring patients with positive family history or with suspicious optic nerve head findings for complete ophthalmologic examination. They can improve treatment outcomes by reinforcing the importance of medication adherence and persistence and by recognizing adverse reactions from glaucoma medications and surgeries. PMID:24825645

  5. Five Common Glaucoma Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glaucoma Research Foundation www.glaucoma.org 251 Post Street, Suite 600 San Francisco , CA 94108 (415) 986-3162 (800) 826-6693 question@ glaucoma.org Informacion en Español Accessibility Statement Privacy Policy Terms & Conditions of Use Photography Credits What is Glaucoma? Care and Treatment Research ...

  6. Glaucoma Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glaucoma Research Foundation www.glaucoma.org 251 Post Street, Suite 600 San Francisco , CA 94108 (415) 986-3162 (800) 826-6693 question@ glaucoma.org Informacion en Español Accessibility Statement Privacy Policy Terms & Conditions of Use Photography Credits What is Glaucoma? Care and Treatment Research ...

  7. Daily Life with Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glaucoma Research Foundation www.glaucoma.org 251 Post Street, Suite 600 San Francisco , CA 94108 (415) 986-3162 (800) 826-6693 question@ glaucoma.org Informacion en Español Accessibility Statement Privacy Policy Terms & Conditions of Use Photography Credits What is Glaucoma? Care and Treatment Research ...

  8. Mecanismo de acción local de la ozonoterapia y su combinación con el campo magnético en pacientes con glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto estadio inicial Mechanism of local action of ozone therapy and its combination with the magnetic field in patients with initial stage primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes A. Ferrer Mahojo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1989 en el Hospital Carlos J. Finlay se iniciaron estudios en la aplicación del ozono y campo electromagnético en la rehabilitación del paciente portador de glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto con el objetivo de disminuir la presión intraocular y mejorar la función visual y nerviosa deteriorada. Teniendo en cuenta que los resultados obtenidos estuvieron dirigidos fundamentalmente a las alteraciones en la hemodinamia ocular se propuso con este trabajo estudiar el mecanismo de acción de estas técnicas en la hidrodinamia ocular. Se estudiaron 220 pacientes (308 ojos portadores de glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto estadio inicial, donde se evaluó la función visual y la hidrodinamia ocular. Los resultados en la función visual plantean mejoría en la agudeza visual de un 68 % en los casos tratados con ozono y de un 92 % en la terapia combinada. El campo visual mejoró en el 100 % de los casos. En la hidrodinamia ocular se observó mejoría en ambos esquemas de tratamiento. No hubo variación biológica en los valores de C y F en los esquemas terapéuticos empleados cuando los parámetros hidrodinámicos iniciales fueron normales. La respuesta en la hidrodinamia ocular con las técnicas empleadas fue satisfactoria tanto con el empleo de tratamiento local o sin él. Estas técnicas deben aplicarse en estadio latente de la enfermedad cuando aún no existan manifestaciones clínicas evidentes y no sea necesario el tratamiento local.Studies on the application of ozone and electromagnetic field in the rehabilitation of the patient carrier of primary open-angle glaucoma were started at "Carlos J. Finlay" Hospital in 1989 aimed at reducing the intraocular pressure and improving the deteriorated visual and nervous function. Taking into account that the results obtained were mainly directed to the alterations in the ocular hemodynamics, we proposed ourselves with this paper to study the mechanism of action of these techniques in the ocular

  9. Clinical observation of 3 minutes dark-room provocative test in patients with laser peripheral iridectomy in the fellow eyes of acute angle-closure glaucoma

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    Tao Liang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe related biological parameters of 3 minutes dark-room provocative test in patients with laser peripheral iridectomy(LPIin the fellow eyes of acute primary angle-closure(APACby ultrasound biomicroscopy(UBM. To explore the risk factors in primary angle closure suspect(PACSpatients with progressive angle closure after LPI. METHODS: Seventy-eight eyes of APAC patients without peripheral anterior synechia were selected. Each eye underwent 3 minutes dark-room provocative test after LPI. Anterior segment parameters, including anterior chamber depth(ACD, anterior chamber angle open distance500(AOD500, peripheral iris thickness(PIT, iris convex(IC, the position of iris insertion and trabecular-ciliary process distance(TCPD, and the number of positional angle closure(NPACwere observed and analyzed by statistic methods. RESULTS:Patients with APAC were examined by UBM after LPI and 26 eyes(33%occurs at least one positional angle closure,19 eyes(24%were positive in 3 minutes dark-room provocative test among them. It occurs a positive relationship between the elevation intraocular pressure and the number of positional angle closure in dark-room provocative test(r=0.84, P500, IT and IC were significantly changed from normal light to darkroom between positional angle closure positive group and positional angle closure negative group(all P500(P=0.003, IT(P=0.012, IC(P=0.043, TPCD(P=0.015, the position of iris insertion(P=0.024were correlative factors of positive results. In multiple-factor analysis, only IT(P=0.011, TPCD(P=0.009, iris root attachment points(P=0.02were independent risk factors of positive results. CONCLUSION:A certain proportion of patients with PACS after LPI appeared positional angle closure in a dark room. Peripheral iris hypertrophy, anterior displacement of the ciliary body and iris root attachment points are vital risk factors. Long-term follow-up study and intervention treatment are required in these patients after LPI.

  10. Analysis of the Expression and Polymorphism of APOE, HSP, BDNF, and GRIN2B Genes Associated with the Neurodegeneration Process in the Pathogenesis of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Nowak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is characterized by optic neuropathy of the RGC or retinal nerve fiber. The aim of this study was to evaluate a relationship between the neurodegenerative genes’ polymorphisms of the APOE (rs449647, BDNF (rs2030324, GRIN2B (rs3764028, and HSP70-1 (rs1043618 and the occurrence risk of POAG and to investigate its effect on allele-specific gene expression. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood. Analysis of the genes’ polymorphisms was performed using PCR-RFLP. The level of mRNA expression was determined by QRT-PCR. We showed a statistically significant association of BDNF and APOE genes’ polymorphisms with a risk of POAG occurrence. There was a statistically significant association of the rs2030324 polymorphism with progression of POAG based on cup disc ratio value and rs1043618 polymorphism based on nerve fiber index and rim area. Furthermore, we found that mean HSP70-1 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the case of individuals with the G/G genotype than in the case of minor allele carriers, that is, G/C and C/C. We also found that BDNF and HSP70-1 expression level are associated with the progression of POAG based on rim area value. In conclusion, our results suggest that BDNF, APOE, and HSP70-1 genes might be associated with a risk of POAG occurrence in the Polish population.

  11. The efficacy of NHIS-listed anti-glaucoma drugs in the management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana is the most affected country in Africa as far as glaucoma is concerned. This study therefore aims at determining the efficacy of the National Health Insurance Scheme listed anti-glaucoma drugs in the management of primary open-angle glaucoma in Ghana. This retrospective survey was carried out at the Golden ...

  12. Anterior lamina cribrosa surface position in idiopathic intracranial hypertension and glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villarruel, Jenni Martinez; Li, Xiao Q.; Bach-Holm, Daniella

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the anterior lamina cribrosa (LC) surface position in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), primary open-angle glaucoma (high-tension glaucoma [HTG] and normal-tension glaucoma [NTG]), and healthy controls using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical...

  13. Clinical Features of Primary Glaucoma in South East Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The clinical course of glaucoma depends on the type, onset, severity and response to treatment. The intraocular pressure and heredity also play a role in its presentation as members of the same family tend to have the same type of glaucoma. This paper seeks to address the problem of primary open angle ...

  14. Relation between Glaucoma and Sensorineural Hearing Loss

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    A Mollasadeghi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness throughout the world. Some studies have suggested a relationship between glaucoma and sensorineural hearing loss, while others have found no evidence of an association. We performed a study to determine whether there is a significant difference in hearing of patients with glaucoma and a match control population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, from February, 2005 till April, 2006, 44 patients with glaucoma were studied. The age range was between 15 to 60 years. After taking a complete medical history, those suffering from presbycusis, history of exposure to ototoxic drugs and substances and history of ear surgery were excluded from the study. All of the patients were cases of open-angle glaucoma, and were surveyed separately for normal-pressure glaucoma. Then complete audiometric tests (PTA, SDS, SRT, Impedance were conducted for all of them, and the results compared with a control group. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the case group and control group in PTA, SDS, and SRT, except for Normal Tension Glaucoma (NTG. There wasn't any statistically significant difference between two groups with respect to age, gender, and history of diseases. In the NTG group, significant difference was seen only in high frequencies. Conclusion: As mentioned, there was a statistically significant difference between NTG group and control group. It is therefore recommended to conduct complete audiometric tests and histopathologic examinations in this group for early detection of hearing loss and application of rehabilitative measures.

  15. Management of neovascular glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajvazi, Halil; Goranci, Ilhami; Lutaj, Pajtim

    2013-01-01

    Neovascular glaucoma is an atrophic optic neuropathy resulting from the neovascularization of the iridocorneal angle increasing the intraocular pressure. To show the incidence of NVG in comparison to the other types of glaucoma and to compare with the relevant literature data and other referent clinics. In this study were included 116 patients with NVG, of whom 75 or 64.7% male and 41 or 35.3% female, treated from January 2003 until February 2013. Visual acuity damages from NVG, were classified as big damages with 84.7% of cases and minor damages with 15.3% of cases. Cases with heavy damages were the cases with blindness, L+P+/- up to V = 0.3 and cases with slightly damages with V = 0.4-1.0. NVG caused by PDR with 52 cases or 44.8% and CRVO with 12 cases or 10.3%. We should be focused on prevention of diabetic retinopathy which requires interdisciplinary cooperation. In cases when diabetic retinopathy is present, we have to advise patients to undergo PRP as soon as possible, since it is the only way to prevent NVG and heavy consequences.

  16. Size of the Optic Nerve Head and Its Relationship with the Thickness of the Macular Ganglion Cell Complex and Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Patients with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

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    Nobuko Enomoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the relationships among the optic nerve head (ONH area, macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC thickness, circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL thickness, and visual field defects in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. Methods. This retrospective study included 90 eyes of 90 patients with POAG. The ONH area, rim area, mGCC thickness, and cpRNFL thickness were measured using optical coherence tomography. Mean deviation (MD was measured using standard automated perimetry. The relationships among clinical factors including age, refraction, the ONH area, the rim area, the mGCC thickness, the cpRNFL thickness, and MD were evaluated using correlation coefficients and multiple regression analyses. Results. The significant correlation of the ONH area with refraction (r=0.362, P<0.001, the mGCC thickness (r=0.225, P=0.033, and the cpRNFL thickness (r=0.253, P=0.016 was found. Multiple regression analysis showed that the ONH area, rim area, and MD were selected as significant contributing factors to explain the mGCC thickness and cpRNFL thickness. No factor was selected to explain MD. Conclusions. The ONH area, in other words, the disc size itself may affect the mGCC thickness and cpRNFL thickness in POAG patients.

  17. Management of exfoliative glaucoma: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holló, Gábor; Katsanos, Andreas; Konstas, Anastasios Gp

    2015-01-01

    Exfoliative glaucoma is the most common type of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide. It is characterized by high intraocular pressure (IOP) and worse 24-hour IOP characteristics. In order to minimize progression, treatment of exfoliative glaucoma has to provide a low long-term mean IOP and good 24-hour IOP control. To achieve these goals, fixed-dose combination eye drops, argon and selective laser trabeculoplasty, and various forms of surgery (trabeculectomy, deep sclerectomy, viscocanalostomy, ab interno trabeculotomy, trabecular aspiration, and cataract surgery) all need to be considered during the long-term management of the disease. Since exfoliative glaucoma is a disease of the elderly, and is frequently associated with systemic vascular disease, interdisciplinary consultations are of great clinical importance. These management aspects and the current medical, laser, and surgical results are covered in this review, with a special focus on the needs of the general ophthalmologist.

  18. Resultados pressóricos da esclerectomia profunda não penetrante no tratamento do glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto Tensional results of non-penetrating deep sclerectomy in the treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma

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    Ricardo Augusto Paletta Guedes

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a eficácia, por meio da análise de seus resultados pressóricos, da esclerectomia profunda não penetrante para tratamento cirúrgico do glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 104 olhos operados pela técnica de esclerectomia profunda não penetrante de 1999 a 2002. Nos casos em que havia risco para falência da bolsa filtrante (idade inferior a 45 anos, negros, cirurgia ocular prévia a mitomicina C foi utilizada. A análise dos resultados foi feita avaliando-se a pressão intra-ocular final. A taxa de sucesso foi calculada para toda a população e separando os grupos com e sem utilização de mitomicina C. RESULTADO: Para uma pressão intra-ocular pré-operatória média de 22,57±4,92 mmHg, os autores encontraram uma pressão intra-ocular pós-operatória média de 14,22±2,89 mmHg com tempo médio de acompanhamento de 19,4 meses. A mitomicina C foi utilizada em 80 olhos. O sucesso absoluto (pressão PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy, of the non-penetrating procedure for surgical treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma, by the analysis of its tensional results. METHODS: Retrospective study of 104 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma submitted to a non-penetrating deep sclerectomy from 1999 to 2002. Mitomycin C was used in cases with high risk for bleb failure, such as, age under 45 years, blacks, previous ocular surgery. Final mean intraocular pressure was observed and success rate was calculated for the whole population and for each group (with and without mitomycin C RESULTS: For a mean preoperative intraocular pressure of 22.57±4.92 mmHg, the authors found a mean final intraocular pressure of 14.22±2.89 mmHg. Mitomycin C was used in 80 eyes. Absolute success (intraocular pressure <18mmHg without medication for the entire group was 82.7%, with a follow-up of 19.4 months on average. Success rate after 3 years of follow-up, by

  19. Autotaxin-Lysophosphatidic Acid Pathway in Intraocular Pressure Regulation and Glaucoma Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Megumi; Igarashi, Nozomi; Kurano, Makoto; Yatomi, Yutaka; Igarashi, Koji; Kano, Kuniyuki; Aoki, Junken; Weinreb, Robert N; Aihara, Makoto

    2018-02-01

    To compare the levels of autotaxin (ATX), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) in the aqueous humor (AH) of healthy control subjects with those of patients with different subtypes of glaucoma, and also to investigate the relationship of the ATX-LPA pathway with IOP and subtype of glaucoma. This study included 164 eyes of 164 consecutive cases of cataract and glaucoma surgery (37 healthy, 31 normal tension glaucoma, 49 primary open angle glaucoma, 28 secondary open angle glaucoma, and 19 exfoliation glaucoma). Aqueous levels of LPA, LPC, and ATX were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and a two-site immunoenzymetric assay. The association between aqueous levels of ATX/LPA/LPC and IOP elevation in different glaucoma subtypes was investigated. The diagnostic values of indices of the ATX-LPA pathway were compared using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Notable increases in ATX/LPA/LPC levels in glaucoma patients were observed. The ATX-LPA pathway was significantly related to IOP elevation and the subtype of glaucoma, especially in SOAG and XFG patients, and the area under the curve was significant for discriminating glaucoma eyes from healthy eyes. Bioactive ATX/LPA/LPC concentrations were present in aqueous humor, and higher ATX and LPA concentrations were significantly correlated with IOP in all study subjects. Furthermore, the ATX-LPA pathway was significantly related to glaucoma subtype. These results reveal the potentially important role of the ATX-LPA pathway for IOP regulation in healthy subjects and glaucoma patients.

  20. Alternative therapy in glaucoma management: Is there any role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikh Rajul

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Various randomized controlled clinical trials have shown that lowering intraocular pressure (IOP does reduce progression of primary open-angle glaucoma. However, there is lots of interest in nonpharmacological options that includes lifestyle adjustment and alternative and complementary therapy (ACT. At least 5% glaucoma population uses ACT. Various lifestyle activities like exercise and alcohol can reduce IOP by 1 to 2 mm Hg but would have small effect on glaucoma. The psychological stress can increase IOP. Hypothetically and few studies do show neuroprotective effect (or effect on ocular blood flow of alcohol, Gingko biloba, bilberry, but the current evidence is weak for its routine use. We must also remember the side effects of ′medications′ (e.g., marijuana, alcohol before promoting as remedy for glaucoma. In current armamentarium of glaucoma management, ACT cannot substitute the conventional treatment available to lower IOP.

  1. Estudio de la eficacia clínica de la brimonidina vs. timolol en el tratamiento del glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto Study of the clinical efficiency of briomonidine vs. timolol in the treatment of open-angle primary glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibis Sedeño Cruz

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 36 pacientes con diagnóstico de glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto (GPAA, sin tratamiento previo, a los que se les indicó durante 2 meses, timolol 0,5 % (1 gota 2 veces al día, y seguidamente, previo lavado de hipotensor, brimonidina 0,2 %; se evaluó la presión intraocular (PIO y las reacciones adversas en la consulta inicial, 1ra semana, 1er mes y 2do mes de iniciado el tratamiento. Los resultados mostraron un descenso de la PIO media con respecto a la inicial (sin tratamiento con ambos medicamentos durante los 2 meses de tratamiento; obteniéndose con el timolol una PIO media de 17,1 mm Hg y con la brimonidina de 16,1 mm Hg, lo que corresponde a un descenso de 7,7 mm Hg y de 6,9 mm Hg, respectivamente. Las reacciones adversas sistémicas más frecuentes con el uso de la brimonidina fueron: sequedad bucal y cefalea, mientras que las locales fueron: prurito ocular e hiperemia ocular. La intensidad de estos síntomas fue de leve a moderada. El estudio mostró que la brimonidina tiene una efectividad similar a la del timolol en la reducción de la presión intraocular, con buena tolerabilidad.36 patients with diagnosis of open-angle primary glaucoma (OAPG without previous treatment were studied. They were indicated timolol 0.5 % (1 drop twice a day and after that, previous lavage with hypotensor, brimonidine 0.2 %. The intraocular pressure (IOP and the adverse reactions were evaluated on the initial visit and on the first week, the first month and the second month. The results showed a decrease of the mean IOP compared with the initial (without treatment with both drugs during the 2 months of treatment. A mean IOP of 17.1 mm Hg was obtained with timolol and 16.1 mm Hg with brimonidine. It represents a reduction of 7.7 mm Hg and 6.9 mm Hg, respectively. The most frequent systemic adverse reactions with the administration of brimonidine were dry mouth and headache, whereas the local adverse reactions were ocular pruritus and

  2. Level of agreement among Latin American glaucoma subspecialists on the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma: results of an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigera, Daniel E; Mello, Paulo Augusto Arruda; Barbosa, Wilma Lelis; Casiraghi, Javier Fernando; Grossmann, Rodolfo Perez; Peyret, Alejo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the level of agreement among glaucoma experts in Latin America on key practices related to treatment and diagnosis of glaucoma. An online questionnaire was sent to a multinational panel of glaucoma experts. The questionnaire contained 107 statements on the medical treatment (Part 1) and diagnosis (Part 2) of glaucoma, and was developed in Spanish and translated into English. Agreement was defined as >70% of respondents. Fifty participants from 14 countries completed the questionnaire. For the medical treatment of glaucoma, nearly all respondents (98% or greater) confirmed that medical treatment as first-line therapy is preferred to surgery, prostaglandin analogs are the medication of first choice for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), longitudinal monitoring of efficacy should include intraocular pressure, structural and functional status, as well as if patients' quality of life is impaired by the high cost of medication. For the diagnosis of glaucoma section, all respondents confirmed that, after initial examination, gonioscopy should be repeated over time, standard automated perimetry is the most important functional examination for diagnosis and monitoring of primary open-angle glaucoma, central corneal thickness is important in assessment of glaucoma, and computerized imaging tests help in clinical evaluation of optic disc. This survey shows a high level of agreement on most aspects of glaucoma diagnosis and treatment among Latin American glaucoma experts. Areas of disagreement highlight the need for further evidence or education. These findings will be useful for guiding future efforts to optimize glaucoma practice by clinicians in Latin America.

  3. Level of agreement among Latin American glaucoma subspecialists on the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma: results of an online survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Grigera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this research was to assess the level of agreement among glaucoma experts in Latin America on key practices related to treatment and diagnosis of glaucoma. METHODS: An online questionnaire was sent to a multinational panel of glaucoma experts. The questionnaire contained 107 statements on the medical treatment (Part 1 and diagnosis (Part 2 of glaucoma, and was developed in Spanish and translated into English. Agreement was defined as >70% of respondents. RESULTS: Fifty participants from 14 countries completed the questionnaire. For the medical treatment of glaucoma, nearly all respondents (98% or greater confirmed that medical treatment as first-line therapy is preferred to surgery, prostaglandin analogs are the medication of first choice for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, longitudinal monitoring of efficacy should include intraocular pressure, structural and functional status, as well as if patients' quality of life is impaired by the high cost of medication. For the diagnosis of glaucoma section, all respondents confirmed that, after initial examination, gonioscopy should be repeated over time, standard automated perimetry is the most important functional examination for diagnosis and monitoring of primary open-angle glaucoma, central corneal thickness is important in assessment of glaucoma, and computerized imaging tests help in clinical evaluation of optic disc. CONCLUSIONS: This survey shows a high level of agreement on most aspects of glaucoma diagnosis and treatment among Latin American glaucoma experts. Areas of disagreement highlight the need for further evidence or education. These findings will be useful for guiding future efforts to optimize glaucoma practice by clinicians in Latin America.

  4. Efficacy of complex treatment of glaucoma optical neuropathy by Cortexin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbinina I.V.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of efficacy of intranasal and intramuscular application of cortexin in combination with transcranial magnetotherapy in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma was conducted. 102 patients (182 eyes took part in research with primary open-angle glaucoma of I, II, III stages. The most considerable improvement of visual functions resulted from intramuscular and endonasal introductions of cortexin in combination with transcranial magnetotherapy; and longer stabilization of functional indicators was marked in this group

  5. Costs of a community-based glaucoma detection programme: analysis of the Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Laura T; Waisbourd, Michael; Hark, Lisa; Sembhi, Harjeet; Lee, Paul; Crews, John E; Saaddine, Jinan B; Steele, Deon; Katz, L Jay

    2018-02-01

    Glaucoma is the foremost cause of irreversible blindness, and more than 50% of cases remain undiagnosed. Our objective was to report the costs of a glaucoma detection programme operationalised through Philadelphia community centres. The analysis was performed using a healthcare system perspective in 2013 US dollars. Costs of examination and educational workshops were captured. Measures were total programme costs, cost/case of glaucoma detected and cost/case of any ocular disease detected (including glaucoma). Diagnoses are reported at the individual level (therefore representing a diagnosis made in one or both eyes). Staff time was captured during site visits to 15 of 43 sites and included time to deliver examinations and workshops, supervision, training and travel. Staff time was converted to costs by applying wage and fringe benefit costs from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Non-staff costs (equipment and mileage) were collected using study logs. Participants with previously diagnosed glaucoma were excluded. 1649 participants were examined. Mean total per-participant examination time was 56 min (SD 4). Mean total examination cost/participant was $139. The cost/case of glaucoma newly identified (open-angle glaucoma, angle-closure glaucoma, glaucoma suspect, or primary angle closure) was $420 and cost/case for any ocular disease identified was $273. Glaucoma examinations delivered through this programme provided significant health benefit to hard-to-reach communities. On a per-person basis, examinations were fairly low cost, though opportunities exist to improve efficiency. Findings serve as an important benchmark for planning future community-based glaucoma examination programmes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Glaucoma associated with the management of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangouritsas G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available George Mangouritsas, Spyridon Mourtzoukos, Dimitra M Portaliou, Vassilios I Georgopoulos, Anastasia Dimopoulou, Elias Feretis Eye Clinic, General Hospital "Hellenic Red Cross", Athens, Greece Abstract: Transient or permanent elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP is a common complication following vitreoretinal surgery. Usually secondary glaucoma, which develops after scleral buckling procedures, or pars plana vitrectomy for repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, is of multifactorial origin. It is essential, for appropriate management, to detect the cause of outflow obstruction. An exacerbation of preexisting open-angle glaucoma or a steroid-induced elevation of IOP should also be considered. Scleral buckling may be complicated by congestion and anterior rotation of the ciliary body resulting in secondary angle closure, which can usually resolve with medical therapy. The use of intravitreal gases may also induce secondary angle-closure with or without pupillary block. Aspiration of a quantity of the intraocular gas may be indicated. Secondary glaucoma can also develop after intravitreal injection of silicone oil due to pupillary block, inflammation, synechial angle closure, or migration of emulsified silicone oil in the anterior chamber and obstruction of the aqueous outflow pathway. In most eyes medical therapy is successful in controlling IOP; however, silicone oil removal with or without concurrent glaucoma surgery may also be required. Diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation and glaucoma drainage devices constitute useful treatment modalities for long-term IOP control. Cooperation between vitreoretinal and glaucoma specialists is necessary to achieve successful management. Keywords: retinal detachment, intraocular pressure elevation, glaucoma, vitrectomy, intravitreal gas, silicone oil

  7. The role of matricellular proteins in glaucoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wallace, Deborah M

    2014-07-01

    Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy affecting approximately 60million people worldwide and is the second most common cause of irreversible blindness. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the main risk factor for developing glaucoma and is caused by impaired aqueous humor drainage through the trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm\\'s canal (SC). In primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), this elevation in IOP in turn leads to deformation at the optic nerve head (ONH) specifically at the lamina cribrosa (LC) region where there is also a deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules such as collagen and fibronectin. Matricellular proteins are non-structural secreted glycoproteins that help cells communicate with their surrounding ECM. This family of proteins includes connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), also known as CCN2, thrombospondins (TSPs), secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), periostin, osteonectin, and Tenascin-C and -X and other ECM proteins. All members appear to play a role in fibrosis and increased ECM deposition. Most are widely expressed in tissues particularly in the TM and ONH and deficiency of TSP1 and SPARC have been shown to lower IOP in mouse models of glaucoma through enhanced outflow facility. The role of these proteins in glaucoma is emerging as some have an association with the pathophysiology of the TM and LC regions and might therefore be potential targets for therapeutic intervention in glaucoma.

  8. The 24-hour intraocular pressure control by tafluprost/timolol fixed combination after switching from the concomitant use of tafluprost and timolol gel-forming solution, in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamoto K

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Nakamoto,1 Masahiko Takeshi,2 Toshihiko Hiraoka,2,3 Mayuko Eguchi,2,4 Yuichiro Nakano,1,2 Naomi Otsuka,5 Hiroko Hizaki,5 Hiromi Akai,5 Masayo Hashimoto5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan; 2Shinanozaka Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 3Hiraoka Eye Clinic, Saitama, Japan; 4Musashiurawa Eye Clinic, Saitama, Japan; 5Japan Medical Affairs, Global R&D, Santen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP-control effect of the tafluprost/timolol fixed combination (TAF/TIM-FC in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma after they switched from the concomitant use of tafluprost and timolol gel-forming solution. Patients and methods: Twenty patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (12 male and 8 female; mean ± SD age, 57.0±7.1 years were included in this study. The patients were treated for 8 weeks with the concomitant administration of tafluprost and timolol gel-forming solution (evening dosing. At the end of this period, the patients underwent 24-hour IOP monitoring (measured at 21:00, 01:00, 05:00, 09:00, 13:00 and 17:00. IOP was measured with Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT and Icare PRO at sitting position at all timepoints and additionally, at supine position with Icare PRO tonometer at 01:00 and 05:00. The patients were then all switched to TAF/TIM-FC treatment (evening dosing. After 8 weeks, the 24-hour IOP monitoring was repeated. Results: Nineteen patients completed the study. The mean 24-hour IOPs in the concomitant and TAF/TIM-FC phases were 13.8±2.7 vs 13.3±2.8 mmHg (P=0.0033 with the GAT in the sitting position and 13.96±2.56 vs 13.48±2.56 mmHg (P=0.0120 with the Icare PRO in habitual positions. In comparison with the concomitant phase, significantly lower IOP was observed for the TAF/TIM-FC phase at 21:00 and 01:00 with the GAT and at 01:00 with the Icare PRO. In addition, the maximum IOP and fluctuations in IOP in

  9. PREVALENCE OF GLAUCOMA IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING CATARACT SURGERY IN RURAL SET UP IN SOUTHERN INDIA

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    Bharathi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and types of glaucoma in rural patients posted for cataract surgery under eye camps at a tertiary care hospital . BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in the adult pop ulation in India. The global prevalence of glaucoma for population aged 40 to 80 years is estimated to be 3.54% and the projected number of people with glaucoma worldwide will increase to 111.8 million in 2040. This creates a need for early diagnosis and p rompt management of glaucomas especially in the underprivileged rural areas that lack awareness and facilities. METHODOLOGY: A cross - sectional study was conducted at a regional ophthalmic center for all the patients posted for cataract surgery under eye ca mps. Study was carried out for duration of one year and included 1400 patients. The patients underwent detailed workup to detect the presence of glaucomas and were treated accordingly if the disease was detected. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of glaucoma in our study population was 2.14%. Amongst them, 0.78% had primary open angle glaucoma, 0.14% had primary angle closure glaucoma and 1.21% of them had pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. The prevalence of glaucomas increased with increasing age. CONCLUSION: With increasing life expectancy the number of glaucoma patients is constantly growing large in our country. Early case detection rate is of utmost importance to reduce the disease burden in the rural population where awareness in terms of routine eye screening is very low

  10. Power prediction for one-piece and three-piece intraocular lens implantation after cataract surgery in patients with chronic angle-closure glaucoma: a prospective, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhiu, Soolienah; Lee, Eun Suk; Kim, Tae-im; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Chan Yun

    2012-12-01

    To assess the accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) power prediction for cataract surgery in chronic angle-closure glaucoma (CACG) patients with different IOLs' implantation. This prospective randomized clinical trial included 45 eyes with CACG and 48 eyes with normal controls undergoing cataract surgery. In the CACG group, 23 eyes (51%) had three-piece IOL implantation and 22 eyes (49%) had one-piece IOL implantation. In the normal control group, 25 eyes (52%) had three-piece IOL implantation and 23 eyes (48%) had one-piece IOL implantation. Using the SRK/T formula, the mean difference between the predicted and actual postoperative spherical equivalent [mean absolute error (MAE)] was obtained and converted to natural logarithm (ln) for statistical analysis. The power of the implanted IOL was calculated to predict postoperative SE using three formulas: SRK II, Holladay II and Hoffer Q by post hoc analysis in each group. The predictive accuracy of each formula was analysed by comparing the lnMAE. In the one-piece IOL group, there was no difference in lnMAE between the CACG and normal control group (p = 0.314). In the three-piece IOL group, the lnMAE of the CACG group was larger than that of the normal control group (p one-piece IOL group. Implantation of one-piece IOLs provides similar power prediction accuracy comparable to normal cataract patients; this result may be explained by the IOL haptic configuration or design. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  11. A Multi-Locus Genetic Risk Score for Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma (POAG Variants Is Associated with POAG Risk in a Mediterranean Population: Inverse Correlations with Plasma Vitamin C and E Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Zanon-Moreno

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. The genetics of POAG are complex, and population-specific effects have been reported. Although many polymorphisms associated with POAG risk have been reported, few studies have analyzed their additive effects. We investigated, in a southern European Mediterranean population, the association between relevant POAG polymorphisms, identified by initial genome-wide association studies (GWASs and POAG risk, both separately and as an aggregated multi-locus genetic risk score (GRS. Also, bearing in mind that oxidative stress is a factor increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis of POAG, we analyzed the potential association of the GRS with plasma concentrations of antioxidant vitamins (C and E. We carried out a case–control study including 391 POAG cases and 383 healthy controls, and analyzed four genetic polymorphisms (rs4656461-TMCO1, rs4236601-CAV1/CAV2, rs2157719-CDKN2B-AS1 and rs3088440-CDKN2A. An unweighted GRS including the four non-linked polymorphisms was constructed. A strong association between the GRS and POAG risk was found. When three categories of the GRS were considered, subjects in the top category of the GRS were 2.92 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.79–4.77 times more likely to have POAG compared with participants in the bottom category (p < 0.001. Moreover, the GRS was inversely correlated with plasma vitamin C (p = 0.002 and vitamin E (p = 0.001 concentrations, even after additional adjustment for POAG status. In conclusion, we have found a strong association between the GRS and POAG risk in this Mediterranean population. While the additional correlation found between GRS and low levels of vitamins C and E does not indicated a causal relationship, it does suggest the need for new and deeper research into the effects of oxidative stress as a potential mechanism for those associations.

  12. GENDER AND AGE FEATURES OF GLAUCOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Makarenk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, the definition “glaucoma” combines a number of eye pathologies that lead to irreversible blindness, and therefore is difficult disabling disease. Glaucoma occurs in people of working age, so this problem is not only medical, but also social, because it causes disability in substantial economic costs not only for individual patients, but also for the whole country – patients become unable to work. Gender features of glaucoma are also contradictory. In European literature the basic idea is that men are more likely to suffer from glaucoma than women. Such studies have not been conducted in the Podillya region of Ukraine, that makes impossible to design a reliable global data to estimate the prevalence of glaucoma in different age groups for persons living in Vinnitsa region. Therefore, the aim of the study was a retrospective analysis of medical records of patients in Eye Microsurgery Department of Vinnitsa Regional Clinical Hospital for the period 2008-2012 years for determining the gender and age characteristics. Materials and methods 1418 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (841 men and 577 women aged 14 to 92 years (mean age 67,12 ± 7,64, which were treated in the Eye Microsurgery Department, took part in the study. For the purpose of the study they were divided into two groups: I – male patients with glaucoma, II – female patients with glaucoma. Each group was divided into 7 subgroups according to the ontogenesis scheme: A – teens, B – youth, C – I adulthood age, D – II adulthood age, E – elderly age, F – senily age and G – centenarians. Thus was allocated 12 research groups. Results The structure of the incidence of glaucoma is 59.31% in men and 40.69% in women. Incidence of glaucoma is highest in the IE group and is 34.98%. The group IIE incidence is lower – 35.32%. In the group D the incidence of glaucoma among men and women was very different (13.89% and 2.89%, respectively. It should also be noted

  13. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN GLAUCOMA AND BLOOD GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ghannadi R. Varmazyar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available There are reports from different countries that some types of glaucoma are associated with blood groups. This cross-sectional study was performed on 400 glaucomatous patients [100 patients in each group of Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, chronic angle closure glaucoma (CACG, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEXG and primary congenital glaucoma (PCG] and 400 blood donors as control group to assess the association between blood groups and glaucoma. All patients underwent ABO and Rh blood group testing. The prevalence of blood group A was 30% in the control group, 27% in POAG, 33% in CACA, 38% in PEXG and 36% in PCG. The prevalence of blood group B was 24% in the control group, 19% in POAG, 20% in CACG, 15% in PEXG and 34% in PCG (P < 0.025. The prevalence of blood group AB was 8% in the control group, 9% in POAG, 5% in CACG, 12% in PEXG, and 8% in PCG. The prevalence of blood group O was 38% in the control group, 45% in POAC, 42% in CACG, 35% in PEXG and 22% in PCG (P < 0.001. The prevalence of Rh+ was 88% in the control group, 84% in POAG, 87% in CACG, 86% in PEXG and 87% in PCG. Compared to control group, blood group B was more prevalent and blood group O was less prevalent in PCG. There was no association between other types of blood groups (ABO and Rh and PCG. There was no association between blood groups (ABO and Rh and other types of glaucoma.

  14. Glaucoma Surgery in Pregnancy: A Case Series and Literature Review

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    Mohammad Reza Razeghinejad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma management in pregnant patients is a real challenge, especially when the glaucoma is not controlled with medications. We report the results of 6 incisional glaucoma surgeries for the management of medically uncontrolled glaucoma patients during pregnancy. This retrospective, case series was conducted on the 6 eyes of 3pregnant patients with uncontrolled glaucoma using maximum tolerable medications. Details of the glaucoma surgical management of these patients as well as their postoperative care and pregnancy and clinical outcomes on longitudinal follow-up are discussed. All 3 patients had juvenile open-angle glaucoma and were on various anti-glaucoma medications, including oral acetazolamide. The first case described underwent trabeculectomy without antimetabolites in both eyes because of uncontrolled intraocular pressure with topical medications. The surgery was done with topical lidocaine jelly and subconjunctival lidocaine during the second and third trimesters. The second patient had an Ahmed valve implantation in both eyes during the second and third trimesters because of uncontrolled IOP with topical medications and no response to selective laser trabeculoplasty. Surgery was done with topical tetracaine and subconjunctival and sub-Tenon’s lidocaine. The third case had a Baerveldt valve implantation under general anesthesia in the second trimester. In selected pregnant glaucoma patients with medically uncontrolled intraocular pressure threatening vision, incisional surgery may lead to good outcomes for the patient with no risk for the fetus.

  15. Systems genetics identifies a role for Cacna2d1 regulation in elevated intraocular pressure and glaucoma susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chintalapudi, S.R. (Sumana R.); Maria, D. (Doaa); Di Wang, X. (Xiang); Bailey, J.N.C. (Jessica N. Cooke); Allingham, R. (Rand); M.H. Brilliant (Murray H.); D.L. Budenz (Donald L.); J. Fingert (John); D. Gaasterland (Douglas); T. Gaasterland (Terry); J.L. Haines (Jonathan); Hark, L. (Lisa); M.A. Hauser (Michael); R.P. Igo Jr. (Robert); Hee Kang, J. (Jae); P. Kraft (Peter); R.K. Lee (Richard K.); P.A. Lichter (Paul A.); Liu, Y. (Yutao); Moroi, S. (Syoko); L.R. Pasquale (Louis); M.A. Pericak-Vance (Margaret); A. Realini (Anthony); Rhee, D. (Doug); Richards, J.R. (Julia R.); Ritch, R. (Robert); J.S. Schuman (Joel S.); W.K. Scott (William); K. Singh (Kuldev); A.J. Sit (Arthur J.); D. Vollrath (Douglas); G. Wollstein (Gadi); D.J. Zack (Donald); T. Aung (Tin); Bonnemaijer, P. (Peter); Cheng, C.-Y. (Cheng-Yu); J.E. Craig (Jamie); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); P. Gharahkhani (Puya); Iglesias Gonzalez, A. (Adriana); Hammond, C.J. (Christopher J.); Hewitt, A. (Alex); Hoehn, R. (Rene); Jonansson, F. (Fridbert); A.P. Khawaja (Anthony); Chuen Khor, C. (Chiea); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); A.J. Lotery (Andrew); D.A. Mackey (David); MacGregor, S. (Stuart); Pang, C. (Calvin); F. Pasutto (Francesca); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); Thorsteinsdottir, U. (Unnar); V. Vitart (Veronique); E.N. Vithana (Eranga); T.L. Young (Terri L.); T. Zeller (Tanja); P.G. Hysi (Pirro); J.L. Wiggs (Janey L.); R.W. Williams (Robert W.); Jablonski, M.M. (Monica M.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractGlaucoma is a multi-factorial blinding disease in which genetic factors play an important role. Elevated intraocular pressure is a highly heritable risk factor for primary open angle glaucoma and currently the only target for glaucoma therapy. Our study helps to better understand

  16. Telemedicine model to prevent blindness from familial glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffieri, Sandra E; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Kearns, Lisa S; Barbour, Julie M; Edwards, Thomas L; Paul, Padma; Mackey, David A

    2011-11-01

    To develop, implement and evaluate a telemedicine model to reduce glaucoma blindness through the early detection of undiagnosed glaucoma in high-risk individuals. Prospective study, private ophthalmology practice and public outpatient clinics in Tasmania. One hundred and thirty-three individuals with primary open-angle glaucoma were invited to enrol their first-degree relatives (FDRs) to undergo an eye examination. Within the study period, 211 FDRs were available for examination. A registered nurse was trained to perform the required assessments. Clinical data were entered into a purpose-built database, converted to a portable document format and graded offsite by an ophthalmologist to determine the presence, absence or risk of developing glaucoma. Participants were notified of the grading result and recommendations for review. Incidence of undiagnosed glaucoma in a high-risk population. Previously undiagnosed glaucoma was identified in 5% of those examined. For every 19 participants screened, one new case of previously undiagnosed case of glaucoma was identified. Additionally 15% of participants showed suspicious signs of glaucoma, and 6% had ocular hypertension. A telemedicine model is an efficient method for screening, grading and notifying participants of examination results. Nurses can be adequately trained to undertake the initial screening examinations, with grading of the results performed offsite by a suitably qualified ophthalmologist. Targeted screening for glaucoma increases the yield of identifying individuals with undiagnosed glaucoma or those at greatest risk. Cost efficiencies for this model of glaucoma screening should be further explored and implemented to prevent blindness from familial glaucoma. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  17. [Implication of the measurement of central corneal thickness in management of glaucoma patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun-hua; Zhao, Jia-liang

    2009-02-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a elementary data in diagnosis and therapy of glaucoma. Many studies have confirmed that most tonometry, including Goldmann applanation tonometry, are influenced by central corneal thickness (CCT) and CCT varies greatly among the general population. As a result, the measurement of CCT has a great implication in management of glaucoma. Further, CCT is confirmed a risk factor for progression from ocular hypertension to primary open angle glaucoma. The idea of that CCT may bear an inverse relation with the risk for developing glaucoma damage is in debating. Many specialists bring forward that CCT measurement should be one of the regular examinations in treatment of glaucoma patients.

  18. Glaucoma Medication Preferences among Glaucoma Specialists in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Lazcano-Gomez, Gabriel; Alvarez-Ascencio, Daniela; Haro-Zuno, Cindy; Turati-Acosta, Mauricio; Garcia-Huerta, Magdalena; Jimenez-Arroyo, Jesus; Castañeda-Diez, Rafael; Castillejos-Chevez, Armando; Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto; Dominguez-Dueñas, Francisca; Jimenez-Roman, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Aim To determine the glaucoma specialists’ preferences for the different brands of topical glaucoma medications available in Mexico. Materials and methods A web-based survey was sent to 150 board-certified glaucoma specialists in Mexico, with 14 questions related to brand preferences for all glaucoma medications available in Mexico. Participants were asked to select each glaucoma medication class by brand and to state the factors leading to their choice. Results Data from 111 (74%) glaucoma s...

  19. Correlação e correspondência topográfica entre espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina e campo visual no glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto Correlation and topographic match between nerve fiber layer thickness and visual field in primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Boturão de Almeida

    2001-04-01

    classificados como discretos: SF e SN. Nos olhos classificados como moderados: SF e SI. Nos olhos classificados como graves: MD e SN; MD e EM; MD e S; CPSD e EM. 4- DN t e TD t; DN s e TD ni; DN i e TD ns. 5- Encontramos correspondência positiva (+ em 36 olhos (51,43% dos casos e correspondência negativa (- em 34 olhos (48,57% dos casos. Conclusões: Concluiu-se que houve poucas correlações significantes entre esses dois exames, e que as existentes foram muito fracas. Conclui-se, também, que houve correspondência topográfica, na análise dos setores mais comprometidos, em 51,43% dos casos.Purpose: To determine the relationship between nerve fiber layer thickness detected by scanning laser polarimetry (GDx and visual field function measured by automated conventional white-on-white perimetry. Methods: 82 eyes of 48 open angle glaucoma patients were studied. The following correlations were inves-tigated: 1- Correlation between mean sensitivity of 4 quadrants plus the fixation point, in dBs, and the mean of the nerve fiber layer thickness of the correspondent retina, in micra. 2- Correlation between mean sensitivity of 4 quadrants plus the fixation point, in dBs, and the mean of the nerve fiber layer thickness of the correspondent retina, in micra, in the patients classified according to the amount of visual field loss. 3- Correlation between the global indices of visual field and the numeric indices of GDx. 4- Correlation between the mean of "total deviation" of visual field and the "deviation from normal" of GDx. 5- Topographic match between visual field and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness changes. Statistical analysis was performed using the Spearmann coeficient correlation test. Results: We observed a very poor correlation regarding: 1- total GDx and VF total; superior GDx and nasal inferior VF; inferior GDx and nasal superior VF; nasal GDx and temporal VF; superior GDx and inferior VF; inferior GDx and superior VF. 2- inferior GDx and nasal superior VF (severe eyes

  20. Update on normal tension glaucoma

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    Jyotiranjan Mallick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal tension glaucoma (NTG is labelled when typical glaucomatous disc changes, visual field defects and open anterior chamber angles are associated with intraocular pressure (IOP constantly below 21 mmHg. Chronic low vascular perfusion, Raynaud's phenomenon, migraine, nocturnal systemic hypotension and over-treated systemic hypertension are the main causes of normal tension glaucoma. Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography and visual field analysis are the main tools of investigation for the diagnosis of NTG. Management follows the same principles of treatment for other chronic glaucomas: To reduce IOP by a substantial amount, sufficient to prevent disabling visual loss. Treatment is generally aimed to lower IOP by 30% from pre-existing levels to 12-14 mmHg. Betaxolol, brimonidine, prostaglandin analogues, trabeculectomy (in refractory cases, systemic calcium channel blockers (such as nifedipine and 24-hour monitoring of blood pressure are considered in the management of NTG. The present review summarises risk factors, causes, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of NTG.

  1. Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY) for adults at risk for glaucoma: study rationale and design

    OpenAIRE

    Owsley, Cynthia; Rhodes, Lindsay A.; McGwin, Gerald; Mennemeyer, Stephen T.; Bregantini, Mary; Patel, Nita; Wiley, Demond M.; LaRussa, Frank; Box, Dan; Saaddine, Jinan; Crews, John E.; Girkin, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary open angle glaucoma is a chronic, progressive eye disease that is the leading cause of blindness among African Americans. Glaucoma progresses more rapidly and appears about 10?years earlier in African Americans as compared to whites. African Americans are also less likely to receive comprehensive eye care when glaucoma could be detected before irreversible blindness. Screening and follow-up protocols for managing glaucoma recommended by eye-care professional organizations a...

  2. The prevalence and types of glaucoma in malay people: the Singapore Malay eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sunny Y; Wong, Tien Y; Foster, Paul J; Loo, Jing-Liang; Rosman, Mohamad; Loon, Seng-Chee; Wong, Wan Ling; Saw, Seang-Mei; Aung, Tin

    2008-09-01

    To assess the prevalence and types of glaucoma in an Asian Malay population. The Singapore Malay Eye Study is a population-based, cross-sectional survey that examined 3280 (78.7% response) persons aged 40 to 80 years. Participants underwent a standardized clinical examination including slit-lamp biomicroscopy, Goldmann applanation tonometry, and dilated optic disc assessment. Participants who were suspected to have glaucoma also underwent visual field examination (24-2 SITA standard, Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer II), gonioscopy, and repeat applanation tonometry. Glaucoma was defined according to International Society for Geographical and Epidemiologic Ophthalmology criteria. Of the 3280 participants, 150 (4.6%) had diagnosed glaucoma, giving an age- and sex-standardized prevalence of 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3%-3.5%). The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma was 2.5% (95% CI, 2.4%-2.6%), primary angle-closure glaucoma 0.12% (95% CI, 0.10%-0.14%), and secondary glaucoma 0.61% (95% CI, 0.59%-0.63%). Of the 150 glaucoma cases, only 12 (8%) had a previous known history of glaucoma. Twenty-seven (18%) eyes had low vision (based on best corrected visual acuity logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution [logMAR] >0.30 to /=1.00). The prevalence of glaucoma among Malay persons 40 years of age and older in Singapore is 3.4%, comparable to ethnic Chinese people in Singapore and other racial/ethnic groups in Asia. As in Chinese, Caucasians, and African people, primary open-angle glaucoma was the main form of glaucoma in this population. More than 90% of glaucoma cases were previously undetected.

  3. A pharmacoeconomic analysis to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of bimatoprost 0.03% eye drops and brimonidine 0.2% eye drops in patients of primary open-angle glaucoma/ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navreet Kaur Natt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to compare efficacy and cost-effectiveness of bimatoprost 0.03% and brimonidine 0.2% in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG/ocular hypertension (OHT. Settings and Design: Open, randomized, cross-over, comparative study. Materials and Methods: Forty patients of POAG or OHT with intraocular pressure (IOP <30 mm Hg were included in the study after a written informed consent. The patients were divided randomly into two groups of 20 patients each. Patients of group A were administered bimatoprost 0.03% eye drops once daily, and those of group B brimonidine 0.2% eye drops twice daily for a period of 4 weeks. After a washout period of 4 weeks, the patients were crossed over that is, group A was administered brimonidine 0.2% and group B bimatoprost 0.03%. Fall in IOP at 4 weeks was recorded. The daily cost of each drug was calculated by maximum retail price and the average number of drops per bottle. The cost-effectiveness was then calculated as the cost of drug/mm Hg fall in IOP. Statistics: Independent samples t-test was used to compare the efficacy of both drugs. Results: IOP lowering with bimatoprost (8.9 ± 1.598 mm Hg was significantly (P < 0.0001 higher than brimonidine (6.55 ± 1.26 mm Hg. The number of drops/ml were 33.43 ± 0.52 and 25.49 ± 0.26, respectively, for bimatoprost and brimonidine. Treatment with bimatoprost was costlier than brimonidine with daily costs/eye Rs. 4.02 ± 0.06 and 3.14 ± 0.03, yearly costs/eye Rs. 1467.46 ± 20.74 and 1147.75 ± 11.15, respectively. Bimatoprost was more cost-effective than brimonidine with the cost-effectiveness ratio (CER respectively Rs. 13.10 ± 2.61/mm Hg and Rs. 13.96 ± 2.86/mm Hg. Incremental CER Rs. 10.43/mm Hg implies lower costs/mm Hg extra IOP lowering by bimatoprost than Rs. 13.96 for brimonidine. Conclusion: In spite of being costlier, bimatoprost is more efficacious and cost-effective than brimonidine.

  4. Intra-ocular pressure-lowering effects of a Rho kinase inhibitor, ripasudil (K-115), over 24 hours in primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension: a randomized, open-label, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanihara, Hidenobu; Inoue, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Kuwayama, Yasuaki; Abe, Haruki; Suganami, Hideki; Araie, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the intra-ocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effects of a selective Rho kinase inhibitor, ripasudil (K-115), over 24 hr in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT). In this multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label, 3-period, Latin-square crossover clinical study, 28 patients with POAG or OHT whose IOP level was 21 mmHg or higher were subdivided into three groups. Each patient was treated with placebo and ripasudil in concentrations of 0.2 and 0.4%, at 9:00 and 21:00 on day 1 through a total of 3 periods separated by washout periods. IOP was measured at 9:00, 10:00, 11:00, 13:00, 16:00, 19:00, 21:00, 22:00 and 23:00 on day 1, and 1:00, 4:00, 7:00 and 9:00 on day 2 in sitting position using Goldmann applanation tonometer. Main outcome measure was the IOP reduction of placebo and ripasudil from baseline. The mean IOP reduction was -5.2 mmHg for 0.2%, -6.4 mmHg for 0.4% and -2.0 mmHg for placebo at 2 hr after the first instillation. Also, the corresponding values were -6.8 mmHg for 0.2%, -7.3 mmHg for 0.4% and -4.1 mmHg for placebo at 2 hr after the second instillation. Statistically significant IOP reduction, compared with placebo, was found for both 0.2 and 0.4% from 1 through 7 hr after each instillation. In safety, conjunctival hyperaemia was observed in 22 patients (79%) for 0.2%, 27 patients (96%) for 0.4% and three patients (11%) for placebo. Ripasudil is a promising new topical medication to lower IOP for at least 7 hr after instillations in patients with POAG or OHT. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Glaucoma Patients' Trust in the Physician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly W. Muir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe glaucoma patients' trust in the physician and to test the hypothesis that increased interpersonal trust is associated with increased medication adherence. Methods. One hundred ninety-five subjects with open-angle glaucoma seen by multiple glaucoma subspecialists participated in a cross-sectional patient survey and concomitant chart review which included a test of health literacy and the Trust in Physician Scale (TPS, a scale from 1–100, with 100 indicating greatest trust. Charts were reviewed for visual acuity and visual field results. Subjects' pharmacies were contacted to ascertain medication refill rates over the preceding six months. Results. TPS scores ranged from 57.5 to 100, 78.7±8.4 (mean±SD, median 75.0. When age, race, gender, baseline visual acuity and visual field status, education level, and literacy status were considered, only race was associated with TPS. Caucasians expressed slightly higher levels of trust (n=108; TPS 80.1±8.2 than non-Caucasians, (n=87 (82 Africans Americans; TPS 77.1±8.4; P=.012. TPS score was not associated with refill rates (P=.190. Conclusions. Trust in physician is generally high in this group of glaucoma patients but varies slightly by race. Trust in physician was not associated with glaucoma medication adherence in this tertiary care population.

  6. Clinical Factors Associated with Lamina Cribrosa Thickness in Patients with Glaucoma, as Measured with Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Omodaka

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of various risk factors on thinning of the lamina cribrosa (LC, as measured with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT; Topcon.This retrospective study comprised 150 eyes of 150 patients: 22 normal subjects, 28 preperimetric glaucoma (PPG patients, and 100 open-angle glaucoma patients. Average LC thickness was determined in a 3 x 3 mm cube scan of the optic disc, over which a 4 x 4 grid of 16 points was superimposed (interpoint distance: 175 μm, centered on the circular Bruch's membrane opening. The borders of the LC were defined as the visible limits of the LC pores. The correlation of LC thickness with Humphrey field analyzer-measured mean deviation (MD; SITA standard 24-2, circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT, the vertical cup-to-disc (C/D ratio, and tissue mean blur rate (MBR was determined with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The relationship of LC thickness with age, axial length, intraocular pressure (IOP, MD, the vertical C/D ratio, central corneal thickness (CCT, and tissue MBR was determined with multiple regression analysis. Average LC thickness and the correlation between LC thickness and MD were compared in patients with the glaucomatous enlargement (GE optic disc type and those with non-GE disc types, as classified with Nicolela's method.We found that average LC thickness in the 16 grid points was significantly associated with overall LC thickness (r = 0.77, P < 0.001. The measurement time for this area was 12.4 ± 2.4 minutes. Average LC thickness in this area had a correlation coefficient of 0.57 with cpRNFLT (P < 0.001 and 0.46 (P < 0.001 with MD. Average LC thickness differed significantly between the groups (normal: 268 ± 23 μm, PPG: 248 ± 13 μm, OAG: 233 ± 20 μm. Multiple regression analysis showed that MD (β = 0.29, P = 0.013, vertical C/D ratio (β = -0.25, P = 0.020 and tissue MBR (β = 0.20, P = 0.034 were independent variables significantly

  7. The Ahmed Glaucoma Valve in Refractory Glaucoma: Experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The management of refractory glaucoma is a challenging task for any glaucoma surgeon. This study is aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation in refractory glaucomas in South-West Ethiopia. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted on the charts of consecutive ...

  8. Atypical Intrapapillary Hemorrhage in a Patient with Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirel Gür Güngör

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 73-year-old man presented for routine follow-up. There were primary open-angle glaucoma, diabetes mellitus, and usage of acetylsalicylic acid in patient’s history. Dilated fundus examination demonstrated cup hemorrhage in the right eye. Because of the progression of the superotemporal retinal nerve fiber layer defect in the last seven months, we think that the disk hemorrhage could be associated with glaucoma. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 77-8

  9. Screening for Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... African Americans and older adults, talk to their primary care clinician or eye care specialist for advice about glaucoma screening. Glaucoma is a serious disease that affects the health and quality of life of millions of Americans. The Task Force encourages ...

  10. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is expected to become an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ... of all cases of blindness from glaucoma in China. There is great racial diversity among Asian populations, and these differences are represented in the presentation ...

  11. [Music and Glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plange, N

    2017-02-01

    Music may have multiple influences on the human organism. A possible therapeutic effect for patients with glaucoma has been postulated, aside from the known impact of music on the cardiovascular system, psychogenic effects and a short-term improvement in mental performance (Mozart effect). The higher level of mental stress in patients with glaucoma and type-A personality behaviour may be related to higher intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma. Relaxing music may have a positive impact in these patients, related to a reduction in intraocular pressure or its fluctuations. However, only limited data exist on the effects of music on intraocular pressure. No clinical studies have yet been performed to investigate the effect of music or music therapy on glaucoma progression. The music of Mozart may influence visual field examinations, possibly due to a positive short term effect on mental performance. This factor needs to be addressed in studies dealing with the effect of music in glaucoma. The relevance of intraocular pressure increases in professional wind instrument players is controversial. An increased level of care might be advisable in patients with advanced glaucoma. The influences of music on humans, altered personality profiles in patients with glaucoma and the studies showing some effect of stress on intraocular pressure stress the relevance of psychological support for glaucoma patients, who are confronted with a disease with a high longterm risk of blindness. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Does Your Child Have Glaucoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glaucoma Research Foundation www.glaucoma.org 251 Post Street, Suite 600 San Francisco , CA 94108 (415) 986-3162 (800) 826-6693 question@ glaucoma.org Informacion en Español Accessibility Statement Privacy Policy Terms & Conditions of Use Photography Credits What is Glaucoma? Care and Treatment Research ...

  13. New Tool to Predict Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glaucoma Research Foundation www.glaucoma.org 251 Post Street, Suite 600 San Francisco , CA 94108 (415) 986-3162 (800) 826-6693 question@ glaucoma.org Informacion en Español Accessibility Statement Privacy Policy Terms & Conditions of Use Photography Credits What is Glaucoma? Care and Treatment Research ...

  14. Diabetes and Your Eyesight (Glaucoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glaucoma Research Foundation www.glaucoma.org 251 Post Street, Suite 600 San Francisco , CA 94108 (415) 986-3162 (800) 826-6693 question@ glaucoma.org Informacion en Español Accessibility Statement Privacy Policy Terms & Conditions of Use Photography Credits What is Glaucoma? Care and Treatment Research ...

  15. Animal Models of Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachida A. Bouhenni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a heterogeneous group of disorders that progressively lead to blindness due to loss of retinal ganglion cells and damage to the optic nerve. It is a leading cause of blindness and visual impairment worldwide. Although research in the field of glaucoma is substantial, the pathophysiologic mechanisms causing the disease are not completely understood. A wide variety of animal models have been used to study glaucoma. These include monkeys, dogs, cats, rodents, and several other species. Although these models have provided valuable information about the disease, there is still no ideal model for studying glaucoma due to its complexity. In this paper we present a summary of most of the animal models that have been developed and used for the study of the different types of glaucoma, the strengths and limitations associated with each species use, and some potential criteria to develop a suitable model.

  16. Investigation on the mechanism of peripheral axonal injury in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun- Hong Zhao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the angles of longitudinal section of sclera around optic nerve heads and the never fiber layer changes in healthy adults and patients with glaucoma, and to investigate the mechanism of peripheral retinal axonal injury, with the combined knowledge of biomechanics. METHODS: The optical nerves and their peripheral tissue specimen in the 12 eyes from health adult donators and 12 eyes from glaucoma patient donators were dyed by Glees' method to compare the angles of longitudinal section of sclera around optic nerve heads(through optic nerve center, and to observe the anatomical features of the peripheral retinal axons. RESULTS: The mean angle of longitudinal section of sclera around optic nerve in healthy adults was 73.3°, while that in patients with absolute glaucoma was 75.6°. The difference showed no significance(t=1.44, P>0.05. There was a sharp bend in the course of peripheral optical fiber in healthy adults. However, the optic nerve fiber disappeared completely in patients with glaucoma end stage. CONCLUSION: The angle between the medial edge and leading edge of sclera(around optic nerve headsis an acute angle. The optical fiber in glaucoma end stage disappeared completely. The phenomenon may be related to high intraocular pressure, the sclera shape, the shear modulus of sclera and axons, and “axonal bending-injury” mechanism.

  17. Secondary glaucoma in CAPN5-associated neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cham A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abdourahman Cham,1,2 Mayank Bansal,3 Himanshu K Banda,4 Young Kwon,1 Paul S Tlucek,1 Alexander G Bassuk,5 Stephen H Tsang,6,7 Warren M Sobol,8 James C Folk,1 Steven Yeh,4 Vinit B Mahajan1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 2Omics Laboratory, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 3Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 5Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 6Barbara and Donald Jonas Laboratory of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine and Bernard and Shirlee Brown Glaucoma Laboratory, Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Institute of Human Nutrition, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 7Edward S Harkness Eye Institute, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, 8Retina Physicians & Surgeons, Inc., Dayton, OH, USA Objective: The objective of this study was to review the treatment outcomes of patients with secondary glaucoma in cases of autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV, a hereditary autoimmune uveitis due to mutations in CAPN5. Patients and methods: A retrospective, observational case series was assembled from ADNIV patients with secondary glaucoma. The main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP, visual acuity, use of antiglaucoma medications, ocular surgeries, and adverse outcomes. Perimetry and optic disk optical coherence tomography (OCT were also analyzed. Results: Nine eyes of five ADNIV patients with secondary glaucoma were reviewed. Each received a fluocinolone acetonide (FA implant for the management of posterior uveitis. Following implantation, no eyes developed neovascular glaucoma. Five eyes (in patients 1, 2, and 5 required Ahmed glaucoma valve surgery for the management of steroid-responsive glaucoma. Patient 2 also developed angle closure with iris bombe and underwent laser

  18. The prevalence of glaucoma in the Melbourne Visual Impairment Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensor, M D; McCarty, C A; Stanislavsky, Y L; Livingston, P M; Taylor, H R

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of glaucoma in Melbourne, Australia. All subjects were participants in the Melbourne Visual Impairment Project (Melbourne VIP), a population-based prevalence study of eye disease that included residential and nursing home populations. Each participant underwent a standardized eye examination, which included a Humphrey Visual Field test, applanation tonometry, fundus examination including fundal photographs, and a medical history interview. Glaucoma status was determined by a masked assessment and consensus adjudication of visual fields, optic disc photographs, intraocular pressure, and glaucoma history. A total of 3271 persons (83% response rate) participated in the residential Melbourne VIP. The overall prevalence rate of definite primary open-angle glaucoma in the residential population was 1.7% (95% confidence limits = 1.21, 2.21). Of these, 50% had not been diagnosed previously. Only two persons (0.1%) had primary angle-closure glaucoma and six persons (0.2%) had secondary glaucoma. The prevalence of glaucoma increased steadily with age from 0.1% at ages 40 to 49 years to 9.7% in persons aged 80 to 89 years. There was no relationship with gender. The authors examined 403 (90.2% response rate) nursing home residents. The age standardized rate for this component was 2.36% (95% confidence limits = 0, 4.88). The rate of glaucoma in Melbourne rises significantly with age. With only half of patients being diagnosed, glaucoma is a major eye health problem and will become increasingly important as the population ages.

  19. The STARflo glaucoma implant: preliminary 12 months results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fili, Sofia; Wölfelschneider, Peter; Kohlhaas, Markus

    2018-04-01

    The STARflo glaucoma implant is a drainage-free system designed for the operative treatment of refractory open-angle glaucoma. The purpose of this study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of the STARflo implant. The results of 12 months follow-up are presented in patients with open-angle glaucoma, PEX-glaucoma, and congenital glaucoma. A prospective study with a total of over 29 patients (36 eyes), in which the suprachoroidal implantation of the STARflo was indicated for long-term intraocular pressure reduction, is still in process and evaluation. The reduction of intraocular pressure was satisfying after 12 months with an average intraocular pressure of 15.0 (± 2.5) mmHg in comparison to 21.08 (± 7.29) mmHg preoperatively. There was a significant 66.7% reduction in local glaucoma drops 12 months postoperatively (p < 0.001). Twenty-five percent of the eyes needed further surgery to regulate the intraocular pressure. No intraoperative complications have been reported after the implantation of STARflo. Postoperative complications include hyphema and fibrin formation in the anterior chamber, which were completely resorbed after the first postoperative month. A postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation was the most common complication after the first 3 months. The STARflo implant appears to be a safe and effective alternative treatment method for patients with refractory open-angle glaucoma compared to conventional glaucoma surgery.

  20. The Association of Refractive Error with Glaucoma in a Multiethnic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ling; Melles, Ronald B; Metlapally, Ravikanth; Barcellos, Lisa; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil; Herrinton, Lisa J; Wildsoet, Christine; Jorgenson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the association between refractive error and the prevalence of glaucoma by race or ethnicity. Cross-sectional study. Kaiser Permanente Northern California Health Plan members with refractive error measured at 35 years of age or older between 2008 and 2014 and with no history of cataract surgery, refractive surgery, or a corneal disorder. We identified 34 040 members with glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHTN; cases) and 403 398 members without glaucoma (controls). Glaucoma cases were classified as primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG); 1 of the 4 forms of open-angle glaucoma: primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), pigmentary glaucoma (PIGM), and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEX); or OHTN. Refractive error, expressed as spherical equivalent (SE), was coded as a continuous trait and also as categories. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the association between refractive error and the prevalence of glaucoma overall and in specific racial or ethnic groups. The association between refractive error and glaucoma subtypes evaluated as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In controls, the mean SE was -0.59 diopters (D) (standard deviation, 2.62 D). Each 1-D reduction in SE was associated with a 22% decrease in the odds of PACG (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.77-0.80) and with increases in the odds of open-angle glaucoma ranging from 1.23 (95% CI, 1.20-1.26) for PIGM, to 1.07 (95% CI, 1.03-1.11) for PEX, and to 1.05 (95% CI, 1.04-1.06) for OHTN. In addition, we observed a stronger association between myopia and POAG among non-Hispanic whites (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.11-1.13) and NTG among Asians (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.15-1.20) and non-Hispanic whites (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.15-1.22). Myopia was associated with an increased prevalence of all forms of open-angle glaucoma and OHTN, whereas hyperopia was associated with a substantially increased prevalence of PACG. Although high myopia is a strong risk factor for glaucoma

  1. Glaucoma: Screening Can Save Your Sight!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Glaucoma Glaucoma: Screening Can Save Your Sight! Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents People with glaucoma see the world through a tunnel. Glaucoma is ...

  2. Efficacy and tolerability of fixed-combination bimatoprost/timolol versus fixed-combination dorzolamide/brimonidine/timolol in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension: a multicenter, prospective, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, Alfonso; Paczka, José A; Jiménez-Román, Jesús; Hartleben, Curt

    2014-12-19

    Fixed-combination ocular hypotensives have multiple advantages, but triple-therapy dorzolamide/brimonidine/timolol (dorz/brim/tim) is only available in Latin and South America, and information on its relative efficacy is limited. This study compares the efficacy and tolerability of fixed-combination bimatoprost/timolol (bim/tim) and dorz/brim/tim in Mexican patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. In this investigator-masked, crossover study, patients with unmet target intraocular pressure (IOP) on once-daily bim/tim or twice-daily dorz/brim/tim received the opposite medication for 3 months before returning to their pre-baseline medication for 3 months. IOP was evaluated before and after morning instillation at months 2, 3, 5 and 6. Primary endpoints were mean IOP change and Ocular Surface Disease Index© (OSDI) score at each visit. The intent-to-treat population was the a priori analysis population, but due to the number of discontinuations, the per-protocol and intent-to-treat populations were used for the primary efficacy and sensitivity analyses, respectively. Seventy-eight and 56 patients were included in the intent-to-treat and per-protocol populations, respectively. At month 3, statistically significant IOP reductions from baseline were observed in the bim/tim (P < 0.01) and dorz/brim/tim (P < 0.0001) groups, regardless of assessment time. At month 6, patients returned to bim/tim exhibited no significant IOP increase (regardless of assessment time), but patients returned to dorz/brim/tim exhibited a statistically significant IOP increase (P < 0.001) when assessed before instillation of study treatment. Results were similar in both intent-to-treat and per-protocol analysis populations. In the per-protocol analysis, 70% of patients on bim/tim at month 3 had an IOP <14 mm Hg, which declined to 58% (P = 0.0061) at month 6 (ie, after 3 months of dorz/brim/tim treatment). In patients receiving dorz/brim/tim at month 3

  3. Ocular pulse amplitude in different types of glaucoma using dynamic contour tonometry: Diagnosis and follow-up of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lingyan; Ding, Yuzhi; Duan, Xuanchu; Wu, Zhifeng

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) in patients with different types of glaucoma using dynamic contour tonometry (DCT), to evaluate ocular and systemic factors associated with the OPA and to verify whether OPA measured by DCT is an independent predictor for glaucoma diagnosis. A total of 217 eyes of 217 participants in the following five groups were included in this cross-sectional study: Chronic angle closure glaucoma (CACG), primary open angle glaucoma, normal tension glaucoma (NTG), suspected open angle glaucoma (SOAG) and normal control (NC). The following tests were simultaneously performed during a single visit: Intra-ocular pressure (IOP), OPA, cup-to-disk (C/D) ratio, mean damage (MD) and loss variance (LV). OPAs were compared in each group. The association between OPA and IOP, age, C/D ratio, MD and LV was detected. OPA analysis prior to and after trabeculectomy was also performed to assess its prognostic value. Among the 217 individuals, the OPA was consistent with the IOP, both measured by DCT, along with the MD and LV. Patients with CACG and SOAG had higher OPA values than those with NTG and normal controls. Compared with patients aged >30 years, the OPA was significantly lower in younger patients, while they may not have been affected by different C/D ratios. After trabeculectomy, the OPA had significantly decreased compared with the values prior to surgery. In conclusion, the present study showed that the OPA is correlated with the IOP determined by DCT. CACG and SOAG patients had higher OPA values than patients with other types of glaucoma. OPA measured by DCT may be a predictor for glaucoma diagnosis and prognosis.

  4. [The denominations cataract and glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornquist, R

    1997-01-01

    Since ancient times a grey or white pupil in an nearly blind eye was thought to be caused by a mucous substance in front of the lens. It was called "hypochysis" or "hypochyma" in Greece and "suffusio" in Rome. Later the term "cataract" (=waterfall) was the most popular denomination. A surgical method was tried very early with usually good effect, when with a thin needle, introduced into the eye, the opaque material was removed from the pupillary area. In the middle of the 17th century more careful investigations showed that there was no membrane in front of the lens, but the lens itself was opaque. The final proof was delivered when an extraction of the lens was performed with good effect. In ancient times incurable blindness, which was called glaucoma, was thought to be located to the lens, which probably had a very important role in the seeing process. The name (of Greek orgin) is translated "green" or "blue-green", which was sometimes notified to be the color of the lens, seen through the pupil, in these cases. A period of great confusion followed when the removal of this very important part of the eye did not lead to blindness but rather an improved vision. As there were significant difficulties in identifying the specific color of the pupil the name glaucoma seemed to be very inadequate. In the beginning of the 19th century a disease entity (which is to-day called acute closed-angle glaucoma) seemed to eventually fullfill the demand of a greenlooking pupil. The most characteristic symptoms are pain and a high intraocular pressure causing a corneal edema and a change of the blackness of the pupil to hazy grey (and maybe a little green?).

  5. Efficacy and Tolerability of Fixed-Combination Brinzolamide/Timolol in Latin American Patients with Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension Previously on Brimonidine/Timolol Fixed Combination

    OpenAIRE

    Alezzandrini, Arturo; Hubatsch, Douglas; Alfaro, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Fixed-combination glaucoma medications are commonly used to achieve target intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction in patients uncontrolled with monotherapy; however, ocular discomfort associated with eye drops can decrease adherence. This study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of twice-daily fixed-combination brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% (BRINZ/TIM-FC) in Latin American patients transitioned from fixed-combination brimonidine 0.2%/timolol 0.5% (BRIM/TIM-FC) because of insuffi...

  6. Complicações pós-operatórias precoces de trabeculectomia com mitomicina, em pacientes portadores de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto Precocious postoperative complications of mitomicina trabeculectomy, in carrying patients with primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavvo Carneiro Vilasboas Gutemberg

    2010-04-01

    ção, diminuindo assim a morbidade e a chance de falência cirúrgica a longo prazo.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the joined precocious complications in surgeries of mitomycin trabeculectomy, carried through in residence service-school, aiming at better perfectioning in the technique and postoperative accompaniment of the patients. METHODS: Retrospective study by means of record analysis. The patients evaluated amount sex, age and race. Was included patients with primary of angle open glaucoma and submitted the mitomycin trabeculectomy. A total of 43 patients had been analyzed, 25 were male and 18 female; 19 were black, and the age ranged of 51 the 82 years (average 68 years. The patients were evaluated in first and seventh postoperative days, or if necessary before first week. The complications in had been registered it and were: bleb leaking, shallow anterior chamber, atalamy; hifema, choroidal detachment. RESULTS: The age average was of 68 years, 58.1% of the patients (25 in the total was male and 44.1% were black. The Bleb leaking was the most frequent complication, representing 25.56% of surgeries and 36.66% of all the complications (11 patients. Shallow anterior chamber was observed in 17.5% of surgeries and 22.5% of complications (seven patients. Choroidal detachment was present in 14.6% of patients and 19.3% of the complications in 1a week ( seven patients. Atalamy was found in three patients, represented of 6.97% of patients and 9.67% of the complications. Hifema also was observed in three patients, being all found they in the Immediate Postoperative CONCLUSION: The frequency of complications found in this work this inside of the limits observed in literature. Quantify the percentage of postoperative complications during the first week is of fundamental importance for improvements in intra operative and standardization of the behaviors front to each complication, standardization of behavior in response to each complication, thus reducing the morbidity and chance of surgical

  7. WHITE ANNULAR RETINAL DYSTROPHY WITH SEVERE GLAUCOMA A New Autosomal Dominant Condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morizot, Rodrigo; van Schooneveld, Mary J.; Morizot, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:To report a family with a previously unreported characteristic retinal dystrophy and glaucoma.Methods:Seven family members were diagnosed with an atypical retinal dystrophy and open-angle glaucoma with rapid evolution. Ophthalmic examination, fluorescein angiography, color photography, optic

  8. Clinical characterization and proposed mechanism of juvenile glaucoma--a patient with a chromosome 4p deletion, Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Jeremy; Moloney, Greg; Grigg, John; Sharota Franzco, Dorian

    2010-09-01

    The case presented is that of a 22-year-old male with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome who was referred with glaucoma refractory to medical treatment. Six other patients have been described with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) and glaucoma, most being congenital glaucoma with diagnosis in infancy. We describe the first case of juvenile onset glaucoma in this syndrome. Our patient had narrow angles on gonioscopy, with ultrasound biomicroscopy revealing ciliary body cysts. We alert others to the possibility of this mechanism of secondary narrow angle glaucoma associated with this chromosomal deletion syndrome.

  9. Diagnostic Capability of Peripapillary Retinal Volume Measurements in Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simavli, Huseyin; Poon, Linda Yi-Chieh; Que, Christian J; Liu, Yingna; Akduman, Mustafa; Tsikata, Edem; de Boer, Johannes F; Chen, Teresa C

    2017-06-01

    To determine the diagnostic capability of spectral domain optical coherence tomography peripapillary retinal volume (RV) measurements. A total of 156 patients, 89 primary open-angle glaucoma and 67 normal subjects, were recruited. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography peripapillary RV was calculated for 4 quadrants using 3 annuli of varying scan circle diameters: outer circumpapillary annuli of circular grids 1, 2, and 3 (OCA1, OCA2, OCA3). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves and pairwise comparisons of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to determine which quadrants were best for diagnosing primary open-angle glaucoma. The pairwise comparisons of the best ROC curves for RV and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) were performed. The artifact rates were analyzed. Pairwise comparisons showed that the smaller annuli OCA1 and OCA2 had better diagnostic performance than the largest annulus OCA3 (Pglaucoma patients but also a subset of early glaucoma patients. The inferior quadrant of peripapillary annulus OCA1 demonstrated the best diagnostic capability for both glaucoma and early glaucoma. The diagnostic ability of RV is comparable with that of RNFL parameters in glaucoma but with lower artifact rates.

  10. Detection of Glaucoma Using Image Processing Techniques: A Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B Naveen; Chauhan, R P; Dahiya, Nidhi

    2018-01-01

    The primary objective of this article is to present a summary of different types of image processing methods employed for the detection of glaucoma, a serious eye disease. Glaucoma affects the optic nerve in which retinal ganglion cells become dead, and this leads to loss of vision. The principal cause is the increase in intraocular pressure, which occurs in open-angle and angle-closure glaucoma, the two major types affecting the optic nerve. In the early stages of glaucoma, no perceptible symptoms appear. As the disease progresses, vision starts to become hazy, leading to blindness. Therefore, early detection of glaucoma is needed for prevention. Manual analysis of ophthalmic images is fairly time-consuming and accuracy depends on the expertise of the professionals. Automatic analysis of retinal images is an important tool. Automation aids in the detection, diagnosis, and prevention of risks associated with the disease. Fundus images obtained from a fundus camera have been used for the analysis. Requisite pre-processing techniques have been applied to the image and, depending upon the technique, various classifiers have been used to detect glaucoma. The techniques mentioned in the present review have certain advantages and disadvantages. Based on this study, one can determine which technique provides an optimum result.

  11. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Americans are still unknown. However, research shows that African Americans are genetically more at risk for glaucoma, making early detection and treatment all the more important. In studies such as the Baltimore Eye Survey and the ...

  12. Changes to the Aqueous Humor Proteome during Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeslin, Martha Andrea; Killer, Hanspeter Ezriel; Fuhrer, Cyril Adrian; Zeleny, Nauke; Huber, Andreas Robert; Neutzner, Albert

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the aqueous humor proteome in patients with glaucoma and a control group. Aqueous humor was obtained from five human donors diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and five age- and sex-matched controls undergoing cataract surgery. Quantitative proteome analysis of the aqueous humor by hyper reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (HRM-MS) based on SWATH technology was performed. Expression levels of 87 proteins were found to be different between glaucomatous and control aqueous humor. Of the 87 proteins, 34 were significantly upregulated, whereas 53 proteins were downregulated in the aqueous humor from glaucoma patients compared to controls. Differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cholesterol-related, inflammatory, metabolic, antioxidant as well as proteolysis-related processes. Glaucoma leads to profound changes to the aqueous humor proteome consistent with an altered metabolic state, an inflammatory response and impaired antioxidant defense.

  13. Changes to the Aqueous Humor Proteome during Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Andrea Kaeslin

    Full Text Available To investigate the aqueous humor proteome in patients with glaucoma and a control group.Aqueous humor was obtained from five human donors diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and five age- and sex-matched controls undergoing cataract surgery. Quantitative proteome analysis of the aqueous humor by hyper reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (HRM-MS based on SWATH technology was performed.Expression levels of 87 proteins were found to be different between glaucomatous and control aqueous humor. Of the 87 proteins, 34 were significantly upregulated, whereas 53 proteins were downregulated in the aqueous humor from glaucoma patients compared to controls. Differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cholesterol-related, inflammatory, metabolic, antioxidant as well as proteolysis-related processes.Glaucoma leads to profound changes to the aqueous humor proteome consistent with an altered metabolic state, an inflammatory response and impaired antioxidant defense.

  14. Clinical Metabolomics and Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Breda, João; Himmelreich, Uwe; Ghesquière, Bart; Rocha-Sousa, Amândio; Stalmans, Ingeborg

    2018-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness worldwide. However, there are no biomarkers that accurately help clinicians perform an early diagnosis or detect patients with a high risk of progression. Metabolomics is the study of all metabolites in an organism, and it has the potential to provide a biomarker. This review summarizes the findings of metabolomics in glaucoma patients and explains why this field is promising for new research. We identified published studies that focused on metabolomics and ophthalmology. After providing an overview of metabolomics in ophthalmology, we focused on human glaucoma studies. Five studies have been conducted in glaucoma patients and all compared patients to healthy controls. Using mass spectrometry, significant differences were found in blood plasma in the metabolic pathways that involve palmitoylcarnitine, sphingolipids, vitamin D-related compounds, and steroid precursors. For nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, a high glutamine-glutamate/creatine ratio was found in the vitreous and lateral geniculate body; no differences were detected in the optic radiations, and a lower N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was observed in the geniculocalcarine and striate areas. Metabolomics can move glaucoma care towards a personalized approach and provide new knowledge concerning the pathophysiology of glaucoma, which can lead to new therapeutic options. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Neuroprotection in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Doozandeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a degenerative optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC loss and visual field defects. It is known that in some glaucoma patients, death of RGCs continues despite intraocular pressure (IOP reduction. Neuroprotection in the field of glaucoma is defined as any treatment, independent of IOP reduction, which prevents RGC death. Glutamate antagonists, ginkgo biloba extract, neurotrophic factors, antioxidants, calcium channel blockers, brimonidine, glaucoma medications with blood regulatory effect and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors are among compounds with possible neuroprotective activity in preclinical studies. A few agents (such as brimonidine or memantine with neuroprotective effects in experimental studies have advanced to clinical trials; however the results of clinical trials for these agents have not been conclusive. Nevertheless, lack of compelling clinical evidence has not prevented the off-label use of some of these compounds in glaucoma practice. Stem cell transplantation has been reported to halt experimental neurodegenerative disease processes in the absence of cell replacement. It has been hypothesized that transplantation of some types of stem cells activates multiple neuroprotective pathways via secretion of various factors. The advantage of this approach is a prolonged and targeted effect. Important concerns in this field include the secretion of unwanted harmful mediators, graft survival issues and tumorigenesis. Neuroprotection in glaucoma, pharmacologically or by stem cell transplantation, is an interesting subject waiting for broad and multidisciplinary collaborative studies to better clarify its role in clinical practice.

  16. Awareness and Knowledge of Glaucoma Among Adult Patients at the Eye Clinic of a Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkum, G; Lartey, S; Frimpong, C; Micah, F; Nkum, B

    2015-09-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is an irreversible blinding disease that often presents late because it is symptomless in the early stages. Prognosis depends on early diagnosis and treatment and patient understanding of their condition. Many patients present late because of poor awareness and knowledge. This study was conducted to assess patient's awareness and knowledge of glaucoma in a referral Teaching Hospital. Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among glaucoma patients aged 40 years and above attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH). Patients were selected by simple random sampling. They were recruited after informed consent had been given. A questionnaire on demographics, socio-economics and awareness of glaucoma was administered. There were a total of 117 participants, 61 males and 56 females. The median and modal age group was 50 and 59 years. Amongst the participants, 74% were aware of glaucoma. There were no significant statistical difference in the various age groups, sex, ethnic group or religion and their awareness of glaucoma (P > 0.05).There were statistically significant differences between those who had higher education and their awareness of glaucoma (P < 0.001). Yet only 27% of these had accurate knowledge of glaucoma. Glaucoma awareness in patients attending Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital is high. Higher education was associated with higher awareness yet this was not translated into accurate knowledge as there were significant misconceptions. There is the need to review the contents of health education with the aim of reducing dangerous misconception of glaucoma and targeting the lower socioeconomic population.

  17. Improving Access to Eye Care among Persons at High-Risk of Glaucoma in Philadelphia--Design and Methodology: The Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark, Lisa; Waisbourd, Michael; Myers, Jonathan S; Henderer, Jeffrey; Crews, John E; Saaddine, Jinan B; Molineaux, Jeanne; Johnson, Deiana; Sembhi, Harjeet; Stratford, Shayla; Suleiman, Ayman; Pizzi, Laura; Spaeth, George L; Katz, L Jay

    2016-01-01

    The Wills Eye Glaucoma Research Center initiated a 2-year demonstration project to develop and implement a community-based intervention to improve detection and management of glaucoma in Philadelphia. The glaucoma detection examination consisted of: ocular, medical, and family history; visual acuity testing; corneal pachymetry; biomicroscopy of the anterior segment; intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement; gonioscopy; funduscopy; automated visual field testing; and fundus-color photography. Treatment included laser surgery and/or IOP-lowering medication. A cost analysis was conducted to understand resource requirements. Outcome measures included; prevalence of glaucoma-related pathology and other eye diseases among high-risk populations; the impact of educational workshops on level of knowledge about glaucoma (assessed by pre- and post-test evaluation); and patient satisfaction of the glaucoma detection examinations in the community (assessed by satisfaction survey). Treatment outcome measures were change in IOP at 4-6 weeks and 4-6 months following selective laser trabeculoplasty treatment, deepening of the anterior chamber angle following laser-peripheral iridotomy treatment, and rate of adherence to recommended follow-up examinations. Cost outcomes included total program costs, cost per case of glaucoma detected, and cost per case of ocular disease detected. This project enrolled 1649 participants (African Americans aged 50+ years, adults 60+ years and individuals with a family history of glaucoma). A total of 1074 individuals attended a glaucoma educational workshop and 1508 scheduled glaucoma detection examination appointments in the community setting. The Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project aimed to improve access and use of eye care and to provide a model for a targeted community-based glaucoma program.

  18. WHITE ANNULAR RETINAL DYSTROPHY WITH SEVERE GLAUCOMA: A New Autosomal Dominant Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizot, Rodrigo; van Schooneveld, Mary J; Morizot, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    To report a family with a previously unreported characteristic retinal dystrophy and glaucoma. Seven family members were diagnosed with an atypical retinal dystrophy and open-angle glaucoma with rapid evolution. Ophthalmic examination, fluorescein angiography, color photography, optic coherence tomography, central visual-field examination, and ultrasonography were performed. Of the 7 patients, 3 had 360° of peripheral white retina and a broad white ring around the optic disc. In three others, it was not possible to observe the peripheral retina, but they also showed a white retinal ring around the optic disc. One patient showed posterior synechiae and iris neovascularization in one eye. The 37-year-old uncle of the proband had a probably related maculopathy. Five patients had severe glaucoma, and the youngest showed borderline intraocular pressure. The authors report a new dominant retinal dystrophy associated with open-angle glaucoma. The early onset and rapidly progressive glaucoma of the patients is atypical.

  19. Glaucoma in Asia: regional prevalence variations and future projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Errol Wei'en; Li, Xiang; Tham, Yih-Chung; Liao, Jiemin; Wong, Tien Yin; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate glaucoma prevalence and disease burden across Asian subregions from 2013 to 2040. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 23 population-based studies of 1318 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) cases in 66,800 individuals and 691 primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) cases in 72,767 individuals in Asia. Regions in Asia were defined based on United Nations' (UN) classification of macro-geographic regions. PubMed, Medline and Web of Science databases were searched for population-based glaucoma prevalence studies using standardised criteria published to 31 December 2013. Pooled glaucoma prevalence for individuals aged 40-80 years was calculated using hierarchical Bayesian approaches. Prevalence differences by geographic subregion, subtype and habitation were examined with random effects meta-regression models. Estimates of individuals with glaucoma from 2013 to 2040 were based on the UN World Population Prospects. In 2013, pooled overall glaucoma prevalence was 3.54% (95% credible interval (CrI) 1.83 to 6.28). POAG (2.34%, 95% CrI 0.96 to 4.55) predominated over PACG (0.73%, 95% CrI 0.18 to 1.96). With age and gender adjustment, PACG prevalence was higher in East than South East Asia (OR 5.55, 95% CrI 1.52 to 14.73), and POAG prevalence was higher in urban than rural populations (OR 2.11, 95% CrI 1.57 to 2.38). From 2013 to 2040, South Central Asia will record the steepest increase in number of glaucoma individuals from 17.06 million to 32.90 million compared with other Asian subregions. In 2040, South-Central Asia is also projected to overtake East Asia for highest overall glaucoma and POAG burden, while PACG burden remains highest in East Asia. Across the Asian subregions, there was greater glaucoma burden in South-Central and East Asia. Sustainable public health strategies to combat glaucoma in Asia are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  20. Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Marijuana Sections Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Why Eye ... Don't Recommend Marijuana for Glaucoma Infographic Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Leer en Español: La marihuana ...

  1. Epidemiology of glaucoma in sub-saharan Africa: prevalence, incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyari, Fatima; Abdull, Mohammed M; Bastawrous, Andrew; Gilbert, Clare E; Faal, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the epidemiology of different types of glaucoma relevant to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and to discuss the evidence regarding the risk factors for onset and progression of glaucoma, including risk factors for glaucoma blindness. Electronic databases (PubMed, MedLine, African Journals Online- AJOL) were searched using the full text, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, author(s) and title to identify publications since 1982 in the following areas: population-based glaucoma prevalence and incidence studies in SSA and in African-derived black populations outside Africa; population-based prevalence and incidence of blindness and visual impairment studies in SSA including rapid assessment methods, which elucidate the glaucoma-specific blindness prevalence; studies of risk factors for glaucoma; and publications that discussed public health approaches for the control of glaucoma in Africa. Studies highlighted that glaucoma in SSA is a public health problem and predominantly open-angle glaucoma. It is the second-leading cause of blindness, has a high prevalence, an early onset and progresses more rapidly than in Caucasians. These factors are further compounded by poor awareness and low knowledge about glaucoma even by persons affected by the condition. Glaucoma care needs to be given high priority in Vision 2020 programs in Africa. Many questions remain unanswered and there is a need for further research in glaucoma in SSA in all aspects especially epidemiology and clinical care and outcomes involving randomized controlled trials. Genetic and genome-wide association studies may aid identification of high-risk groups. Social sciences and qualitative studies, health economics and health systems research will also enhance public health approaches for the prevention of blindness due to glaucoma.

  2. Epidemiology of Glaucoma in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prevalence, Incidence and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyari, Fatima; Abdull, Mohammed M.; Bastawrous, Andrew; Gilbert, Clare E.; Faal, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review the epidemiology of different types of glaucoma relevant to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and to discuss the evidence regarding the risk factors for onset and progression of glaucoma, including risk factors for glaucoma blindness. Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed, MedLine, African Journals Online- AJOL) were searched using the full text, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, author(s) and title to identify publications since 1982 in the following areas: population-based glaucoma prevalence and incidence studies in SSA and in African-derived black populations outside Africa; population-based prevalence and incidence of blindness and visual impairment studies in SSA including rapid assessment methods, which elucidate the glaucoma-specific blindness prevalence; studies of risk factors for glaucoma; and publications that discussed public health approaches for the control of glaucoma in Africa. Results: Studies highlighted that glaucoma in SSA is a public health problem and predominantly open-angle glaucoma. It is the second-leading cause of blindness, has a high prevalence, an early onset and progresses more rapidly than in Caucasians. These factors are further compounded by poor awareness and low knowledge about glaucoma even by persons affected by the condition. Conclusion: Glaucoma care needs to be given high priority in Vision 2020 programs in Africa. Many questions remain unanswered and there is a need for further research in glaucoma in SSA in all aspects especially epidemiology and clinical care and outcomes involving randomized controlled trials. Genetic and genome-wide association studies may aid identification of high-risk groups. Social sciences and qualitative studies, health economics and health systems research will also enhance public health approaches for the prevention of blindness due to glaucoma. PMID:23741130

  3. Diffuse brain damage in normal tension glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgio, Antonio; Zhang, Jian; Costantino, Francesco; De Stefano, Nicola; Frezzotti, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    Brain changes within and beyond the visual system have been demonstrated in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common type of glaucoma. These changes have been often interpreted as a neurodegenerative process due, at least partially, to the raised intraocular pressure (IOP). In this context, normal tension glaucoma (NTG), a form of POAG with IOP acquired multimodal brain MRI in NTG patients (n = 17) and compared them with demographically matched groups of POAG patients with raised IOP (n = 17) and normal controls (NC, n = 29). Voxelwise statistics was performed with nonparametric permutation testing. Both NTG and POAG patients showed, compared to NC, significantly more gray matter atrophy in both the visual system and in nonvisual brain regions and altered diffusion tensor imaging-derived anatomical connectivity (AC; lower fractional anisotropy and/or higher diffusivities). Compared with NTG, POAG had both more atrophic visual cortex and higher axial diffusivity in nonvisual regions. Functional connectivity (FC) with respect to NC was altered in NTG at short-range level [visual network (VN), ventral attention network] and in POAG at long-range level (between secondary VN and limbic network). FC of POAG was higher than NTG in both VN and executive network. This study provides further evidence that diffuse structural and functional abnormalities across glaucoma brain may be, at least partially, independent of raised IOP and the consequent retinal degeneration. This further defines glaucoma as a condition with neurodegeneration spreading. Hum Brain Mapp 39:532-541, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Investigation of the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection using the {sup 14}C-urea breath test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzcu, Esra Ayhan; Aydogan, Fusun; Motor, Vicdan Koksaldi; Ilhan, Ozgur; Daglioglu, Mutlu Cihan; Coskun, Mesut; Parlakfikirer, Nihan; Keskin, Ugurcan, E-mail: drayhant@hotmail.com [Medical Faculty, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: to investigate the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection by evaluating for the presence of H. pylori infection in patients with glaucoma using the 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT). Methods: Using 14C-UBT, H. pylori infection positivity was compared between a group of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and a control group with normal intraocular pressure and a normal optic disc or normal perimetry. Results: the 14C-UBT was positive in 18 (51.42%) out of 35 patients in the glaucoma group and in 15 (42.85%) out of 35 patients in the control group. H. pylori infection positivity rates were similar between the glaucoma and control groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: according to the 14C-UBT, there is no association between primary open-angle glaucoma and H. pylori infection. (author)

  5. Prognosis of different glaucomas seen at a tertiary center: A 10-year overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanjit Sihota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to determine treatment patterns, long-term intraocular pressure (IOP and perimetric control in different glaucomas seen at a tertiary eye center. Settings and Design: Hospital-based, cross-sectional chart review of patients routinely following up at an outpatient glaucoma service. Methods: Patients with a follow-up of at least 10 years were evaluated. Their mean IOP, visual field (VF status, and medications/surgery required at final assessment were noted. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, and range were used for all parameters. Results: A total of 230 patients met our inclusion and exclusion criteria, 79 having ocular hypertension with open angles or primary angle closure (PAC, 35 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, 50 PAC glaucoma (PACG, 20 primary congenital glaucoma (PCG, 46 secondary glaucoma patients. Ocular hypertensives with open angles showed progression to POAG in 3.7%, those with PAC in 5.2%, at a mean IOP of 17.3 ± 3.37 mmHg and 17.13 ± 4.41 mmHg, respectively. A progression on Humphrey Field Analyzer was seen in 11% of POAG and PACG eyes at a mean IOP of 13.50 ± 5.07 and 13.09 ± 3.95 mmHg, respectively. Fifteen percent of primary congenital glaucomas (PCGs showed a glaucomatous VF defect after 10 years. In secondary glaucoma eyes, the mean IOP at last follow-up visit was 12.38 ± 3.74 mmHg, with progression noted in 7.69% of eyes. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that routine delivery of care can provide well controlled IOP in glaucomas, both primary and secondary, and the VF stabilized in about 90% of patients over a period of 10 years, with the currently available glaucoma medications and trabeculectomy.

  6. Evaluation of the anterior chamber angle in pseudoexfoliation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, Małgorzata; Turno-Kręcicka, Anna; Tomczyk-Socha, Martyna; Kaczorowski, Kamil; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta

    2017-08-01

    Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) is the most frequently identifiable cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma, known as pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. The exact pathophysiology and etiology of PEX and associated glaucoma remains obscure. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the morphology of the anterior chamber angle in people with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma compared to a control group. We also evaluated the correlation between intraocular pressure (IOP) and pigmentation of the angle with the amount of exfoliated material in the anterior segment. The study group was composed of 155 eyes from 103 patients aged between 43 and 86 years. Each patient underwent a complete ophthalmological examination. Some difference was found in intraocular pressure between the PEX group and the control group and between the pseudoexfoliation glaucoma group and the control group, but no significant difference was found between the 2 study groups. There was a significant difference in the incidence of some degree of pigmentation in the anterior chamber angle and no difference in the widths of the angle between each group. A significant positive relationship was observed between intraocular pressure and the degree of pigmentation of the anterior chamber angle in both the PEX group and the pseudoexfoliation glaucoma group. The results of this study indicate that the amount of pigmentation and exfoliation material in the anterior segment significantly correlates with the level of IOP and possibly with the degree of trabecular dysfunction. It seems that for clear identification of PEX and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma factors, clinical assessment appears to be insufficient.

  7. Role of lens extraction and laser peripheral iridotomy in treatment of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pose-Bazarra, Sara; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto

    2018-01-01

    Lens extraction in people with coexisting cataract and open angle glaucoma is associated with a reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP). In primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), lens extraction and laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) can be used to open the anterior chamber angle, increase the outflow through the trabecular meshwork and reduce the IOP. The present review will summarize the recent available literature regarding the role of both interventions for the treatment of glaucoma. Recent articles have confirmed the effect of cataract surgery as an IOP-lowering procedure in people with coexisting cataract and glaucoma, and highlight that the most important predictor for a greater decrease is a higher preoperative IOP. The probability for achieving a significant IOP reduction is highest in PACG and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. Clear lens extraction (CLE) is associated with better clinical and quality of life outcomes than laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in patients with early or moderate PACG and those with primary angle closure and IOP over 30 mmHg. There is no high-quality evidence to support LPI in the treatment of pigmentary glaucoma. Evidence from the assessed period supports the IOP-lowering effect of cataract surgery in people with coexisting cataract and glaucoma. CLE is an option in the initial treatment of some patients with PACG as its superiority has been demonstrated against LPI.

  8. Systems genetics identifies a role for Cacna2d1 regulation in elevated intraocular pressure and glaucoma susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Chintalapudi, Sumana R.; Maria, Doaa; Di Wang, Xiang; Bailey, Jessica N. Cooke; Hysi, Pirro G.; Wiggs, Janey L.; Williams, Robert W.; Jablonski, Monica M.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractGlaucoma is a multi-factorial blinding disease in which genetic factors play an important role. Elevated intraocular pressure is a highly heritable risk factor for primary open angle glaucoma and currently the only target for glaucoma therapy. Our study helps to better understand underlying genetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate intraocular pressure, and identifies a new candidate gene, Cacna2d1, that modulates intraocular pressure and a promising therapeutic, pregabalin, ...

  9. Glaucoma-related adverse events in the first five years after unilateral cataract removal in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Sharon F.; Lynn, Michael J.; Beck, Allen D.; Bothun, Erick D.; Orge, Faruk H.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Glaucoma-related adverse events constitute major sight-threatening complications of cataract removal in infancy, yet their relationship to aphakia versus primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation remains unsettled. Objective To identify and characterize cases of glaucoma and glaucoma-related adverse events (glaucoma+glaucoma suspect) among children in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) by the age of five years. Design, Setting, and Participants A multicenter randomized controlled trial of 114 infants with unilateral congenital cataract who were between age 1–6 months at surgery. Interventions Participants were randomized at cataract surgery to either primary IOL, or no IOL implantation (contact lens [CL]). Standardized definitions of glaucoma and glaucoma suspect were created for IATS and applied for surveillance and diagnosis. Main Outcome Measures Development of glaucoma and glaucoma+glaucoma suspect in operated eyes up to age five years, plus intraocular pressure, visual acuity, and axial length at age five years. Results Product limit estimates of the risk of glaucoma and glaucoma+glaucoma suspect at 4.8 years after surgery were 17% (95%CI=11%–25%) and 31% (95%CI=24%–41%), respectively. The CL and IOL groups were not significantly different for either outcome: glaucoma (hazard ratio(HR)=0.8[95%CI=0.3–2.0],p=0.62); glaucoma+glaucoma suspect: (HR=1.3[95%CI=0.6–2.5],p=0.58). Younger (versus older) age at surgery conferred increased risk of glaucoma (26% versus 9%, respectively at 4.8 years after surgery (HR=3.2[95%CI=1.2–8.3]), and smaller (versus larger) corneal diameter showed increased risk for glaucoma+glaucoma suspect (HR=2.5[95%CI=1.3–5.0]). Age and corneal diameter were significantly positively correlated. Glaucoma was predominantly open angle (19/20 cases, 95%), most eyes received medication (19/20, 95%), and 8/20 (40%) eyes had surgery. Conclusions and Relevance These results suggest that glaucoma-related adverse events

  10. Awareness and knowledge of glaucoma among adult patients at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is an irreversible blinding disease that often presents late because it is symptomless in the early stages. Prognosis depends on early diagnosis and treatment and patient understanding of their condition. Many patients present late because of poor awareness and ...

  11. A novel missense mutation in ADAMTS10 in Norwegian Elkhound primary glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saija J Ahonen

    Full Text Available Primary glaucoma is one of the most common causes of irreversible blindness both in humans and in dogs. Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy affecting the retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve, and elevated intraocular pressure is commonly associated with the disease. Glaucoma is broadly classified into primary open angle (POAG, primary closed angle (PCAG and primary congenital glaucoma (PCG. Human glaucomas are genetically heterogeneous and multiple loci have been identified. Glaucoma affects several dog breeds but only three loci and one gene have been implicated so far. We have investigated the genetics of primary glaucoma in the Norwegian Elkhound (NE. We established a small pedigree around the affected NEs collected from Finland, US and UK and performed a genome-wide association study with 9 cases and 8 controls to map the glaucoma gene to 750 kb region on canine chromosome 20 (praw = 4.93×10-6, pgenome = 0.025. The associated region contains a previously identified glaucoma gene, ADAMTS10, which was subjected to mutation screening in the coding regions. A fully segregating missense mutation (p.A387T in exon 9 was found in 14 cases and 572 unaffected NEs (pFisher = 3.5×10-27 with a high carrier frequency (25.3%. The mutation interrupts a highly conserved residue in the metalloprotease domain of ADAMTS10, likely affecting its functional capacity. Our study identifies the genetic cause of primary glaucoma in NEs and enables the development of a genetic test for breeding purposes. This study establishes also a new spontaneous canine model for glaucoma research to study the ADAMTS10 biology in optical neuropathy.

  12. Glaucoma Monitoring in a Clinical Setting Glaucoma Progression Analysis vs Nonparametric Progression Analysis in the Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, Christiaan; Heeg, Govert P.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    Objective: To compare prospectively 2 perimetric progression detection algorithms for glaucoma, the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial algorithm (glaucoma progression analysis [GPA]) and a nonparametric algorithm applied to the mean deviation (MD) (nonparametric progression analysis [NPA]). Methods:

  13. Pesquisaje de glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sigler Villanueva

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un pesquisaje de glaucoma mediante un chequeo masivo al 92,1 % (210 pacientes de la población mayor de 40 años de edad atendida en un consultorio del médico de la familia del municipio Morón. Se encontró que el 9,6 % (20 pacientes presentaban cifras de tensión ocular por encima de los valores normales, así como 3 pacientes que tenían tensión ocular normal, pero con excavaciones de papilas sospechosas y 2 pacientes con antecedentes familiares de glaucoma, los cuales se enviaron a la consulta especializada del Hospital General Provincial Docente de Moron para confirmar o no el diagnóstico.The 92,1 % (210 patients of the population over 40 years treated at a family physician's office in Morón municipality took part in a glaucoma mass screening. It was found that 9,6 % (20 patients showed figures of ocular tension exceeding normal values and that 3 patients had normal ocular tension but presented suspicious excavation of the optic disc. Two patients having glaucoma family history were referred to the specialist at the Provincial General Teaching Hospital of Moron in order to confirm the diagnosis.

  14. Glaucomas in Africas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Murdoch

    happens in all secondary glaucomas. There was confusion some years ago in our understanding of the disease, since intraocular pressure was included in the definition of the disease. With the advent of population studies it became apparent that, in some populations, a significant proportion of those with the characteristic ...

  15. Challenges in Glaucoma Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    James Standefer

    is urban oriented, leaving millions in the countryside without ophthalmic care. The utilization of the public health model is not only appropriate but also necessary in these situations. Reluctance to Treat. Many ophthalmologists, even those with good clinical skills, are reluctant to care for glaucoma patients. Surgical treatment ...

  16. Telemedicine screening of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H K; Tang, R A; Oschner, K; Koplos, C; Grady, J; Crump, W J

    1999-01-01

    Glaucoma is a major cause of blindness. More than 80,000 Americans suffer permanent vision loss from the disease. Widespread screening is fundamental in limiting the incidence of glaucoma-associated blindness. This pilot study explored the use of stereo digital images taken at a primary care center for telemedicine review by an off-site specialist as a means of screening for glaucoma. Thirty-two diabetic patients were screened at a family medicine clinic. None had previously been diagnosed with glaucoma. A senior optometry student took stereoscopic digital and 35-mm optic disc photographs with a nonmydriatic retinal camera. The digital images were forwarded to a remote ophthalmologist for review. The conventional color stereo slide pairs of the same eyes were subsequently reviewed for comparison. Agreement on signs of glaucomatous disc changes between the two imaging systems was analyzed. Twenty-six of 32 eyes' digital and 35-mm photographs were analyzed. Six of 32 eyes (18.8%) could not be compared due to lack of matching 35-mm slides or digital images. Out of 26 eyes, lamina cribosa visibility was undeterminable in 8 eyes' digital images and 3 other eyes' 35-mm slides. Agreement among digital images and 35-mm slides of the remaining eyes was: 100%-vertical elongation, barring of vessels, bayoneting of vessels, and drance hemorrhage; 96.2%-focus notching of rim and rim pallor; 93.3%-lamina cribosa visability; 92. 3%-overpass cupping; 88.5%-focal enlargement; 84.6%-parapapillary halo; 80%-nerve fiber visibility; 65.4%-parapapillary atrophy. Parapapillary halo (p = 0.046) and nerve fiber layer visibility (p = 0.18) were detected on some 35-mm slides but not seen on matching digital views. Evaluations of cup-to-disc ratio (C/D) using both methods were in general agreement. However, some digital images were noted as too dark for assessing fine glaucomatous disc changes. Stereo digital images taken with a nonmydriatic camera by nonophthalmic photographers is a

  17. Prevalence, types and awareness of glaucoma in a multi-ethnic population in rural China: the Yunnan Minority Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Zhao, Chun-Hua; Yu, Min-Bin; Cun, Qing; Chen, Qin; Shen, Wei; Li, Jun; Xu, Jian-Gang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Zhong, Hua

    2016-11-01

    To determine the prevalence, types and awareness of glaucoma in a rural community in China and to examine possible ethnic variations. The Yunnan Minority Eye Study was a multi-ethnic community-based eye survey using random cluster sampling strategies. 2133 Bai, 2205 Han and 2208 Yi Chinese aged 50 years or older participated in this study. Glaucoma including primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and secondary glaucoma was defined based on the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. The overall age-standardized prevalence of all glaucoma was 2.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2-3.1%) in this population. It was 1.8% (95% CI: 1.1-1.9%) for POAG and 0.5% (95% CI: 0.9-1.6%) for PACG, respectively. Among 29 people with secondary glaucoma, 27 (93%) were blind in at least one eye. The presence of primary open-angle glaucoma was associated with male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 2.94; comparing men with women), Yi ethnicity (OR = 2.27; comparing Yi with Han people), higher IOP (OR = 1.09 per mmHg increase), and the presence of myopia (OR = 1.84). Of the 212 participants with glaucoma, only 38 (18%) were aware of the disease and had been diagnosed previously as having glaucoma or suspected glaucoma. Patients who were better educated tended to be aware of the disease. Significant ethnic difference in the prevalence of POAG was observed in this study. The low awareness of glaucoma highlights the pressing need to increase public awareness of this potentially blinding condition in rural China. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  18. Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Glaucoma Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest Research Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Symptoms and Diagnosis Glaucoma can develop in one or both eyes. Often ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Early-onset glaucoma Early-onset glaucoma Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Glaucoma is a group of eye disorders in which ...

  20. What was Glaucoma Called Before the 20th Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, Christopher T.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Giliberti, Francesca M.; Young, Matthew T.; Bermudez, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma involves a characteristic optic neuropathy, often with elevated intraocular pressure. Before 1850, poor vision with a normal eye appearance, as occurs in primary open-angle glaucoma, was termed amaurosis, gutta serena, or black cataract. Few observers noted palpable hardness of the eye in amaurosis. On the other hand, angle-closure glaucoma can produce a green or gray pupil, and therefore was called, variously, glaucoma (derived from the Greek for glaucous, a nonspecific term connoting blue, green, or light gray) and viriditate oculi. Angle closure, with palpable hardness of the eye, mydriasis, and anterior prominence of the lens, was described in greater detail in the 18th and 19th centuries. The introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850 permitted the visualization of the excavated optic neuropathy in eyes with a normal or with a dilated greenish-gray pupil. Physicians developed a better appreciation of the role of intraocular pressure in both conditions, which became subsumed under the rubric “glaucoma”. PMID:26483611

  1. Relationship Between Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Surface Tilt and Glaucoma Development in Myopic Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jung; Han, Jong Chul; Kee, Changwon

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the anterior lamina cribrosa (LC) surface tilt angle in myopic eyes and associate it with glaucoma development. In this retrospective study, medical records of myopic patients referred for glaucoma examination from July 1, 2012 to March 30, 2016 were reviewed. Comprehensive ophthalmic examination including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were performed. We measured the angle of anterior LC surface tilt against Bruch's membrane opening from optical coherence tomography images at the center of the clinical optic disc margin. In horizontal and vertical sections, the angles were defined as α and β, respectively. Patients were grouped according to the presence of glaucomatous damage and factors including optic nerve head morphologic parameters and LC tilt angles were compared between the 2 groups. Among 138 patients originally enrolled, 102 patients were finally analyzed. One eye from 1 patient was randomly chosen. Fifty-five eyes had glaucoma and 47 were normal. The degree of myopia and all optic nerve head morphologic parameters were not significantly different between the 2 groups. However, |α| and |β| were significantly larger in the glaucoma group (all Pglaucoma in normal-pressure myopic eyes. Angulation of the LC against Bruch's membrane opening plane might be associated with increased glaucoma susceptibility in myopic eyes. Further investigations are warranted before clinical utilization of LC tilt as glaucoma susceptibility biomarker.

  2. Areas and factors associated with patients’ dissatisfaction with glaucoma care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foo VH

    2017-10-01

    satisfied patients (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution =0.41±0.43 vs 0.27±0.49, p=0.005, whereas mean IOP remained well-controlled in both the groups (13.55±2.46 mmHg vs 14.82±2.86 mmHg, p=0.014. In adjusted models, factors associated with overall dissatisfaction with glaucoma care included a pre-university education and above (odds ratio [OR] =8.06, 95% CI =1.57–41.27 and lower IOP (OR =0.83, 95% CI =0.71–0.98. Conclusion: Although less than one tenth of glaucoma patients were dissatisfied with the overall glaucoma service, one in four patients were dissatisfied with three specific aspects of care. A lower IOP, ironically, and education level were associated with overall dissatisfaction. Improving patients’ understanding of glaucoma test results, glaucoma complications, and disease management may increase patient satisfaction levels. Keywords: physician-patient relations, perception, attitude to health, surveys and questionnaires, quality of health care

  3. Neuroprotection in glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Sushil K; Gupta, Viney; Crowston, Jonathan G

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Recent evidence suggests that intraocular pressure (IOP) is only one of the many risk factors for this disease. Current treatment options for this disease have been limited to the reduction of IOP; however, it is clear now that the disease progression continues in many patients despite effective lowering of IOP. In the search for newer modalities in treating this disease, much data have emerged from experimental research the world over, suggesting various pathological processes involved in this disease and newer possible strategies to treat it. This review article looks into the current understanding of the pathophysiology of glaucoma, the importance of neuroprotection, the various possible pharmacological approaches for neuroprotection and evidence of current available medications. PMID:21150020

  4. Comparative evaluation of RetCam vs. gonioscopy images in congenital glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj V Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare clarity, exposure and quality of anterior chamber angle visualization in congenital glaucoma patients, using RetCam and indirect gonioscopy images. Design: Cross-sectional study Participants. Congenital glaucoma patients over age of 5 years. Materials and Methods: A prospective consecutive pilot study was done in congenital glaucoma patients who were older than 5 years. Methods used are indirect gonioscopy and RetCam imaging. Clarity of the image, extent of angle visible and details of angle structures seen were graded for both methods, on digitally recorded images, in each eye, by two masked observers. Outcome Measures: Image clarity, interobserver agreement. Results: 40 eyes of 25 congenital glaucoma patients were studied. RetCam image had excellent clarity in 77.5% of patients versus 47.5% by gonioscopy. The extent of angle seen was similar by both methods. Agreement between RetCam and gonioscopy images regarding details of angle structures was 72.50% by observer 1 and 65.00% by observer 2. Conclusions: There was good agreement between RetCam and indirect gonioscopy images in detecting angle structures of congenital glaucoma patients. However, RetCam provided greater clarity, with better quality, and higher magnification images. RetCam can be a useful alternative to gonioscopy in infants and small children without the need for general anesthesia.

  5. Ocular pulse amplitude measurement using pascal dynamic contour tonometer in glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsimpris, J M; Theoulakis, P E; Papadopoulos, G E; Katsimpris, A; Lepidas, J; Petropoulos, I K

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to measure and compare the ocular pulse amplitude using Pascal dynamic contour tonometry in normal persons and in glaucoma patients. 20 patients (40 eyes) with primary open angle glaucoma (Group A), 8 patients (16 eyes) with normal tension glaucoma (Group B), and 12 patients (24 eyes) with ocular hypertension (Group C) were included in the study. Control group (Group D) comprised 25 normal volunteers (50 eyes). Intraocular pressure was measured using both Goldmann applanation tonometry in the slit-lamp and Pascal dynamic contour tonometry. Ocular pulse amplitude was evaluated with Pascal dynamic contour tonometry. Statistical evaluation of the differences in ocular pulse amplitude and intraocular pressure among the different groups was performed using Student's t-test. Mean ocular pulse amplitude values expressed in mmHg were 3.66 ± 1.00, 2.46 ± 0.60, 4.04 ± 1.47, and 2.52 ± 0.52, for Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. The ocular pulse amplitude was significantly higher in Group A (primary open angle glaucoma) and Group C (ocular hypertension) when compared with Group D (control group) and Group B (normal tension glaucoma). No statistically significant difference was detected between Group D (control group) and Group B (normal tension glaucoma). Although we can measure the intraocular pressure with Goldmann applanation tonometry, no information can be derived regarding the ocular pulse amplitude. The use of Pascal dynamic contour tonometry in intraocular pressure estimation provides useful clinical information also about the magnitude of the ocular pulse amplitude in different types of glaucoma. Pascal dynamic contour tonometry discloses an elevation of ocular pulse amplitude in primary open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension patients. On the contrary, the ocular pulse amplitude is within normal limits in normal tension glaucoma patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Glaucoma and Cytochrome P4501B1 Gene Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Tanwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental anomalies of the ocular anterior chamber angle may lead to an incomplete development of the structures that form the conventional aqueous outflow pathway. Thus, disorders that present with such dysfunction tend to be associated with glaucoma. Among them, Axenfeld-Rieger (ARS malformation is a rare clinical entity with an estimated prevalence of one in every 200,000 individuals. The changes in eye morphogenesis in ARS are highly penetrant and are associated with 50% risk of development of glaucoma. Mutations in the cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1 gene have been reported to be associated with primary congenital glaucoma and other forms of glaucoma and mutations in pituitary homeobox 2 (PITX2 gene have been identified in ARS in various studies. This case was negative for PITX2 mutations and compound heterozygote for CYP1B1 mutations. Clinical manifestations of this patient include bilateral elevated intraocular pressure (>40 mmHg with increased corneal diameter (>14 mm and corneal opacity. Patient also had iridocorneal adhesions, anteriorly displaced Schwalbe line, anterior insertion of iris, broad nasal bridge and protruding umbilicus. This is the first study from north India reporting CYP1B1 mutations in Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome with bilateral buphthalmos and early onset glaucoma. Result of this study supports the role of CYP1B1 as a causative gene in ASD disorders and its role in oculogenesis.

  7. Ceratoplastia penetrante e glaucoma Penetrating keratoplasty and glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Eulálio Barreto Soares

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir os conhecimentos atuais sobre a abordagem clínica e terapêutica da ceratoplastia penetrante e do glaucoma a ela associado.The aim of this article is to make a review about glaucoma associated with penetrating keratoplasty, describing since its incidence and risk factors until the different options for treatment.

  8. Contact trans-scleral laser cyclophotocoagulation treatment for refractory glaucomas in the Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Viney

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of contact diode trans-scleral cyclophotocoagulation (TSCPC for treatment of refractory glaucomas. Method: Fifty two eyes of 52 patients, (post-penetrating keratoplasty glaucoma: 16 eyes; adherent leucoma with secondary glaucoma: 8 eyes; aphakic glaucoma: 6 eyes; neovascular glaucoma: 6 eyes; narrow angle glaucoma: 6 eyes; and other secondary glaucomas: 10 eyes were followed up from 3.5 -18 months (average 12 months after TSCPC. The treatment parameters using the contact G probe were - energy: 3-4J; area: 40 spots spread over 360°; site: 1.2-1.5 mm posterior to limbus. Retreatments (22 eyes; 42% were given whenever intraocular pressure (IOP exceeded 22 mmHg despite maximum tolerable topical therapy. Results: IOP decreased from a baseline of 44.7 (± 7.3 mmHg to 15 (± 3.7 mmHg at first week and was 15.2 ± (8.2 mmHg at the last follow up. Successful control of IOP (<22mmHg occurred in 30 (58% eyes after a single treatment and in 48 (92% eyes following retreatment. Complications included reduction in visual acuity from light perception (LP only to no light perception (NLP in two eyes and phthisis bulbi in one eye. Conclusion: Contact trans-scleral diode laser cyclophotocoagulation is effective in lowering IOP in eyes with intractable glaucoma with few side effects in Indian subjects.

  9. Heterochromia iridis and pertinent clinical findings in patients with glaucoma associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Nalini K; Gandham, Sai B; Weinstein, Rebecca; Saltzmann, Robert; Walton, David S

    2010-01-01

    To examine the clinical and gonioscopic findings in patients with glaucoma associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome. Retrospective review of clinical findings of all patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome who presented between January 1978 and December 2003. Koeppe gonioscopy was performed under general anesthesia and findings were photographed when feasible. Iris color was documented by color sketch or photograph at initial presentation. Fisher exact test was used to determine whether the presence of heterochromia was statistically higher in the glaucomatous group. Fifty-five patients who met inclusion criteria were identified, of whom 44 (80%) had glaucoma. Unilateral glaucoma was diagnosed in 30 eyes and bilateral glaucoma in 14 eyes, yielding 58 eyes with glaucoma and 52 eyes without. Gonioscopic examination revealed distinct anatomic abnormalities in the anterior chamber angle in 32 (55%) of the glaucomatous eyes in contrast to the normal fellow eyes in patients with unilateral glaucoma and to the patients without glaucoma. Heterochromia iridis with darker iris on the glaucomatous side was present in 11 of the 30 patients with unilateral glaucoma (37%, P heterochromia iridis may be judicious in these patients. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Glaucoma Medication Preferences among Glaucoma Specialists in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Gomez, Gabriel; Alvarez-Ascencio, Daniela; Haro-Zuno, Cindy; Turati-Acosta, Mauricio; Garcia-Huerta, Magdalena; Jimenez-Arroyo, Jesus; Castañeda-Diez, Rafael; Castillejos-Chevez, Armando; Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto; Dominguez-Dueñas, Francisca; Jimenez-Roman, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    To determine the glaucoma specialists' preferences for the different brands of topical glaucoma medications available in Mexico. A web-based survey was sent to 150 board-certified glaucoma specialists in Mexico, with 14 questions related to brand preferences for all glaucoma medications available in Mexico. Participants were asked to select each glaucoma medication class by brand and to state the factors leading to their choice. Data from 111 (74%) glaucoma specialists were collected. Imot (timolol 0.5%; Sophia, Mexico) was the preferred brand for the beta-blockers (BB) class by 71% (n = 79) of the participants. Azopt (brinzolamide 1%; Alcon Lab, US) was the preferred carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI) by 54% (n = 60) of the glaucoma specialists. Lumigan (bimatoprost 0.01% and 0.03%; Allergan Inc., U.S.) was the first choice for the prostaglandin analogues (PGAs) in 62% (n = 70) of the answers. The most frequently prescribed alpha-agonist (AA) was Agglad (brimonidine 0.2%; Sophia Lab, Mexico) in 44% (n = 49) of the answers. Medication accessibility (31%), cost (29%), and recommended dose (23%) were the three main factors influencing the glaucoma specialists' preferences. Medication cost and accessibility, as well as posology, remain the main factors influencing brand preferences among glaucoma doctors. In our professional opinion, the therapeutic effect must be the leading factor when prescribing topical medications in the daily practice, so that patients receive the best treatment option. This survey provides an understanding of the decision-making process when prescribing glaucoma medications by glaucoma specialists in a Latin American developing country. Ideally, patient treatment should be individualized and aimed to achieve the best results possible for their specific condition. How to cite this article: Lazcano-Gomez G, Alvarez-Ascencio D, Haro-Zuno C, Turati-Acosta M, Garcia-Huerta M, Jimenez-Arroyo J, Castañeda-Diez R, Castillejos-Chevez A, Gonzalez

  11. Applying Transpalpebral Rheoophthalmography to Monitor Effectiveness of the Treatment of Patients with Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry M. Shamaev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of ocular hemodynamics is an important element in diagnosis of all forms of glaucoma. Existing methods, unlike the transpalpebral rheoophthalmography (TP-ROG, evaluate only the posterior eye segment. This study evaluates the opportunities of new TP-ROG technology to assess the effectiveness of the glaucoma treatment. The proposed TP-ROG method is characterized by ease of use and the lack of direct contact between the surface of the eyeball and the electrodes; this method is highly informative and quite accurate, which allows us to objectively assess the state of ocular hemodynamics in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.

  12. Mucogenic glaucoma in a child

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    Ta C. Chang

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions and importance: This is the first reported case of mucogenic glaucoma in a pediatric patient. This rare entity should remain on the differential diagnoses of childhood glaucoma associated with nonacquired ocular anomalies. Surgical excision of the iris cyst may be curative.