WorldWideScience

Sample records for angle cutting tools

  1. Development of lathe tool dynamometer and finding cutting forces using negative and positive rake angle cutting tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeb, M.A.; Irfan, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Most output parameters in machining, such as cutting forces, temperatures, strains and the work-hardening of the chip material, are directly related to the chip formation process. The characteristics of machining processes can be well understood if the forces and strains during chip formation are known. In this research a lathe tool dynamometer was used to measure cutting forces involved in machining of Steel 1045 and Aluminum 2219 T62. High Speed Steel (HSS), cutting tools with positive and negative rake angles were used. It was observed that more cutting forces are experienced by the cutting tool with positive rake angle as compared to the forces experienced by the cutting tool with negative rake angle. For steel 1045 the cutting forces using positive rake angle cutting tool were much higher. This suggested that for harder materials using a negative rake angle is more suitable for cutting. (author)

  2. Finite Element Modelling of the effect of tool rake angle on tool temperature and cutting force during high speed machining of AISI 4340 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, S; Roshan, A; Ariffin, M K A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a Finite Element Method (FEM) based on the ABAQUS explicit software which involves Johnson-Cook material model was used to simulate cutting force and tool temperature during high speed machining (HSM) of AISI 4340 steel. In this simulation work, a tool rake angle ranging from 0° to 20° and a range of cutting speeds between 300 to 550 m/min was investigated. The purpose of this simulation analysis was to find optimum tool rake angle where cutting force is smallest as well as tool temperature is lowest during high speed machining. It was found that cutting forces to have a decreasing trend as rake angle increased to positive direction. The optimum rake angle observed between 10° and 18° due to decrease of cutting force as 20% for all simulated cutting speeds. In addition, increasing cutting tool rake angle over its optimum value had negative influence on tool's performance and led to an increase in cutting temperature. The results give a better understanding and recognition of the cutting tool design for high speed machining processes

  3. Variable angle asymmetric cut monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B.

    1993-09-01

    A variable incident angle, asymmetric cut, double crystal monochromator was tested for use on beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). For both undulator and wiggler beams the monochromator can expand area of footprint of beam on surface of the crystals to 50 times the area of incident beam; this will reduce the slope errors by a factor of 2500. The asymmetric cut allows one to increase the acceptance angle for incident radiation and obtain a better match to the opening angle of the incident beam. This can increase intensity of the diffracted beam by a factor of 2 to 5 and can make the beam more monochromatic, as well. The monochromator consists of two matched, asymmetric cut (18 degrees), silicon crystals mounted so that they can be rotated about three independent axes. Rotation around the first axis controls the Bragg angle. The second rotation axis is perpendicular to the diffraction planes and controls the increase of the area of the footprint of the beam on the crystal surface. Rotation around the third axis controls the angle between the surface of the crystal and the wider, horizontal axis for the beam and can make the footprint a rectangle with a minimum. length for this area. The asymmetric cut is 18 degrees for the matched pair of crystals, which allows one to expand the footprint area by a factor of 50 for Bragg angles up to 19.15 degrees (6 keV for Si[111] planes). This monochromator, with proper cooling, will be useful for analyzing the high intensity x-ray beams produced by both undulators and wigglers at the APS

  4. Materials selection for cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhis, Adel M.

    2008-01-01

    The selection of proper tool steel for a given application is a difficult task. So; the most important selection factors in choosing cutting tool materials are based on their tool material requirements, cutting tool design and service conditions which is mainly considered as functional requirements. The processability requirements concerns in heat treat ability of the material tool. The classification of these tool materials were discussed with their properties requirement and percent of alloying element which is added to give best properties with a little increase in cost that highly appear in comparison of the selection. The cutting tool materials were evaluated based on two cases; The first was in case of rough surface; the high speed steels is the best material and the other was the ceramic material is the highest performance in cutting of soft or high rate of metal removal. (author)

  5. Tubing and cable cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsmith, D. D.; Richardson, J. I. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hand held hydraulic cutting tool was developed which is particularly useful in deactivating ejection seats in military aircraft rescue operations. The tool consists primarily of a hydraulic system composed of a fluid reservoir, a pumping piston, and an actuator piston. Mechanical cutting jaws are attached to the actuator piston rod. The hydraulic system is controlled by a pump handle. As the pump handle is operated the actuator piston rod is forced outward and thus the cutting jaws are forced together. The frame of the device is a flexible metal tubing which permits easy positioning of the tool cutting jaws in remote and normally inaccessible locations. Bifurcated cutting edges ensure removal of a section of the tubing or cable to thereby reduce the possibility of accidental reactivation of the tubing or cable being severed.

  6. BILL MUNDY THEORY, EFFECTIVE RAKE ANGLE CUTTING TOOLS IN COPPER ALLOYS TEORIA DE BILL MUNDY Y EL ANGULO EFECTIVO DE ATAQUE DE HERRAMIENTAS DE CORTE EN ALEACIONES DE COBRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Godoy R

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Magazines like American Machinist and Manufacturing Engineering, have explained the Bill Mundy theory about the effective rake angle of cutting tools. These articles show the effective rake angle of cutting tools for carbon steel, steel , alloys, cast iron, aluminium and stainless steel. In the present work the theory is applied to cutting tools used in brass and bronze. The effective rake angle for these materials was obtained with the tensile stress test. The rake angles in the cutting tools were made in a Universal Grinding Machine Heiler. Finally, the power consumption was measured in a CNC Lathe. Tools with commercial rake angles from bibliography were compared with tools with the experimental effective rake angle obtained from the Bill Mundy Theory. The results show that the power consumption is about 10% lower for tools with the experimental effective rake angle.Revistas como American Machinist y Manufacturing Engineering, han explicado la Teoría de Bill Mundy y el ángulo efectivo de ataque en herramientas de corte utilizadas en aceros al carbono, aceros aleados, hierro fundido, aluminio y acero inoxidable. En este trabajo, esta teoría es aplicada a herramientas de corte usadas para latón y bronce y sus resultados son comparados con los ángulos de ataque recomendados por los fabricantes de herramientas de corte. El ángulo de ataque efectivo se obtiene del ensayo de tracción del material a ser mecanizado. Los ángulos de las herramientas fueron hechos en una máquina universal de afilar Heiler. El consumo de potencia fue medido en un torno CNC. El consumo de potencia con herramientas de corte comerciales con ángulos de corte recomendados por la bibliografía existente, fue comparado con las herramientas afiladas con el ángulo de corte efectivo obtenido a través de la teoría de Bill Mundy. Los resultados indican que el consumo de potencia es un 10% menor para las herramientas afiladas con el ángulo efectivo recomendado por la

  7. Sharper angle, higher risk? The effect of cutting angle on knee mechanics in invasion sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Mervin J; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2017-10-03

    Cutting is an important skill in team-sports, but unfortunately is also related to non-contact ACL injuries. The purpose was to examine knee kinetics and kinematics at different cutting angles. 13 males and 16 females performed cuts at different angles (45°, 90°, 135° and 180°) at maximum speed. 3D kinematics and kinetics were collected. To determine differences across cutting angles (45°, 90°, 135° and 180°) and sex (female, male), a 4×2 repeated measures ANOVA was conducted followed by post hoc comparisons (Bonferroni) with alpha level set at α≤0.05a priori. At all cutting angles, males showed greater knee flexion angles than females (pcutting angles with no differences in the amount of knee flexion -42.53°±8.95°, females decreased their knee flexion angle from -40.6°±7.2° when cutting at 45° to -36.81°±9.10° when cutting at 90°, 135° and 180° (pcutting towards sharper angles (pcutting angles and then stabilized compared to the 45° cutting angle (pcutting to sharper angles (pcutting angles demand different knee kinematics and kinetics. Sharper cutting angles place the knee more at risk. However, females and males handle this differently, which has implications for injury prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sharper angle, higher risk? The effect of cutting angle on knee mechanics in invasion sport athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, Mervin J.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cutting is an important skill in team-sports, but unfortunately is also related to non-contact ACL injuries. The purpose was to examine knee kinetics and kinematics at different cutting angles. Material and methods: 13 males and 16 females performed cuts at different angles (45°, 90°,

  9. Laser Cutting Tool Path Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Dewil, Reginald; Cattrysse, Dirk; Vansteenwegen, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    Given a set of irregular parts nested on a metal sheet, minimize the total non- cutting time for the cutter head, cutting all the required elements and returning to the starting location. The problem is modeled as a generalized traveling sales- person problem with special precedence constraints. An initial feasible solution is generated and improved by local moves embedded in a tabu search framework. The proposed algorithm shows promising results in comparison with a commercial...

  10. Ceramic cutting tools materials, development and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Whitney, E Dow

    1994-01-01

    Interest in ceramics as a high speed cutting tool material is based primarily on favorable material properties. As a class of materials, ceramics possess high melting points, excellent hardness and good wear resistance. Unlike most metals, hardness levels in ceramics generally remain high at elevated temperatures which means that cutting tip integrity is relatively unaffected at high cutting speeds. Ceramics are also chemically inert against most workmetals.

  11. Effects of Cutting Tool Parameters on Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince Mehmet Alper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents of the influence on vibration of Co28Cr6Mo medical alloy machined on a CNC lathe based on cutting parameters (rotational speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool tip radius. The influences of cutting parameters have been presented in graphical form for understanding. To achieve the minimum vibration, the optimum values obtained for rpm, feed rate, depth of cut and tool tip radius were respectively, 318 rpm, 0.25 mm/rev, 0.9 mm and 0.8 mm. Maximum vibration has been revealed the values obtained for rpm, feed rate, depth of cut and tool tip radius were respectively, 636 rpm, 0.1 mm/rev, 0,5 mm and 0.8 mm.

  12. An FMS Dynamic Production Scheduling Algorithm Considering Cutting Tool Failure and Cutting Tool Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiawan, A; Wangsaputra, R; Halim, A H; Martawirya, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) production rescheduling due to unavailability of cutting tools caused either of cutting tool failure or life time limit. The FMS consists of parallel identical machines integrated with an automatic material handling system and it runs fully automatically. Each machine has a same cutting tool configuration that consists of different geometrical cutting tool types on each tool magazine. The job usually takes two stages. Each stage has sequential operations allocated to machines considering the cutting tool life. In the real situation, the cutting tool can fail before the cutting tool life is reached. The objective in this paper is to develop a dynamic scheduling algorithm when a cutting tool is broken during unmanned and a rescheduling needed. The algorithm consists of four steps. The first step is generating initial schedule, the second step is determination the cutting tool failure time, the third step is determination of system status at cutting tool failure time and the fourth step is the rescheduling for unfinished jobs. The approaches to solve the problem are complete-reactive scheduling and robust-proactive scheduling. The new schedules result differences starting time and completion time of each operations from the initial schedule. (paper)

  13. Effect of the Cutting Tool Geometry on the Tool Wear Resistance When Machining Inconel 625

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Zlámal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a suitable cutting geometry of a tool for the machining of the Inconel 625 nickel alloy. This alloy is among the hard-to-machine refractory alloys that cause very rapid wear on cutting tools. Therefore, SNMG and RCMT indexable cutting insert were used to machine the alloy. The selected insert geometry should prevent notch wear and extend tool life. The alloy was machined under predetermined cutting conditions. The angle of the main edge and thus the size and nature of the wear changed with the depth of the material layer being cut. The criterion for determining a more suitable cutting geometry was the tool’s durability and the roughness of the machined surface.

  14. Effect of the Cutting Tool Geometry on the Tool Wear Resistance when Machining Inconel 625

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Zlámal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a suitable cutting geometry of a tool for the machining of the Inconel 625 nickel alloy. This alloy is among the hard-to-machine refractory alloys that cause very rapid wear on cutting tools. Therefore, SNMG and RCMT indexable cutting insert were used to machine the alloy. The selected insert geometry should prevent notch wear and extend tool life. The alloy was machined under predetermined cutting conditions. The angle of the main edge and thus the size and nature of the wear changed with the depth of the material layer being cut. The criterion for determining a more suitable cutting geometry was the tool’s durability and the roughness of the machined surface.

  15. Asymmetric-cut variable-incident-angle monochromator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, R K; Graber, T J; Fernandez, P B; Mills, D M

    2012-03-01

    A novel asymmetric-cut variable-incident-angle monochromator was constructed and tested in 1997 at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Laboratory. The monochromator was originally designed as a high heat load monochromator capable of handling 5-10 kW beams from a wiggler source. This was accomplished by spreading the x-ray beam out on the surface an asymmetric-cut crystal and by using liquid metal cooling of the first crystal. The monochromator turned out to be a highly versatile monochromator that could perform many different types of experiments. The monochromator consisted of two 18° asymmetrically cut Si crystals that could be rotated about 3 independent axes. The first stage (Φ) rotates the crystal around an axis perpendicular to the diffraction plane. This rotation changes the angle of the incident beam with the surface of the crystal without changing the Bragg angle. The second rotation (Ψ) is perpendicular to the first and is used to control the shape of the beam footprint on the crystal. The third rotation (Θ) controls the Bragg angle. Besides the high heat load application, the use of asymmetrically cut crystals allows one to increase or decrease the acceptance angle for crystal diffraction of a monochromatic x-ray beam and allows one to increase or decrease the wavelength bandwidth of the diffraction of a continuum source like a bending-magnet beam or a normal x-ray-tube source. When the monochromator is used in the doubly expanding mode, it is possible to expand the vertical size of the double-diffracted beam by a factor of 10-15. When this was combined with a bending magnet source, it was possible to generate an 8 keV area beam, 16 mm wide by 26 mm high with a uniform intensity and parallel to 1.2 arc sec that could be applied in imaging experiments.

  16. Effects of knife edge angle and speed on peak force and specific energy when cutting vegetables of diverse texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutting tool parameters such as edge-sharpness and speed of cut directly influence the shape of final samples and the required cutting force and specific energy for slicing or cutting operations. Cutting force and specific energy studies on different vegetables help to design the appropriate slicing or cutting devices. Peak cutting force and specific energy requirements for the transverse cutting of nine vegetables, differing in their textural characteristics of rind and flesh, were determined at cutting speeds of 20, 30, 40 mm min-1 and single-cut knife-edge angles of 15, 20 and 25° using a Universal Testing Machine. Low speed (20 mm min-1 cutting with a sharper knife-edge angle (15° required less peak force and specific energy than that of high-speed cutting (40 mm min-1 with a wider knife-edge angle (25°. The vegetables with the maximum and minimum variation in the average peak cutting force were aubergine, at 79.05 (for knife speed 20 mm min-1 and edge angle 150 to 285.1 N (40 mm min-1 and 250, and cucumber, at 11.61 (20 mm min-1 and 150 to 21.41 N (40 mm min-1 and 250, respectively. High speed (40 mm min-1, with a large knife-edge angle (25°, required the highest force and specific energy to cut the vegetables, however, low speed (20 mm min-1, with a small knife-edge angle (150, is preferred. Effects of cutting speed and knife-edge angle on peak force and specific energy responses were found significant (p<0.05. Linear or quadratic regressions gave a good fit of these variables. 

  17. High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools discusses the fundamentals and advances in high performance grinding processes, and provides a complete overview of newly-developing areas in the field. Topics covered are grinding tool formulation and structure, grinding wheel design and conditioning and applications using high performance grinding wheels. Also included are heat treatment strategies for grinding tools, using grinding tools for high speed applications, laser-based and diamond dressing techniques, high-efficiency deep grinding, VIPER grinding, and new grinding wheels.

  18. Effect of cutter tip angle on cutting characteristics of acrylic worksheet subjected to punch/die shearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Kojima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the effect of tool geometry on cutting characteristics of a 1.0 mm thickness acrylic worksheet subjected to a punch/die shearing. A set of side-wedge punch and side-wedge die which had the edge angle of 30°, 60° and/or 90° was prepared and used for cutting off the worksheet. A load cell and a CCD camera were installed in the cutting system to investigate the cutting load resistance and the side-view deformation of the worksheet. From experimental results, it was revealed that a cracking pattern at a sheared zone was remarkably affected by the edge angle of cutting tool. A cracking direction was almost coincident to the edge angle when considering the punch/die edge angle of 30°, while any matching of them was not observed in case of the punch/die edge angle of 60°, 90°. By using the 30° side-wedge tool, a flat-smooth sheared surface was generated. When combing the punch edge angle of 90° and the die edge angle of 60°, the cracking profile was characterized by the both edge angles for each part (die and punch. Carrying out an elasto-plastic finite element method analysis of cutter indentation with a few of symmetric and asymmetric punch/die edges, the stress distribution and deformation flow at the sheared zone were discussed with the initiation of surface cracks

  19. The Effect of Muscle Fiber Direction on the Cut Surface Angle of Frozen Fish Muscular Tissue Cut by Bending Force

    OpenAIRE

    岡本, 清; 羽倉, 義雄; 鈴木, 寛一; 久保田, 清

    1996-01-01

    We have proposed a new cutting method named "Cryo-cutting" for frozen foodstuffs by applying a bending force instead of conventional cutting methods with band saw. This paper investigated the effect of muscle fiber angle (θf) to cut surface angle (θs) of frozen tuna muscular tissue at -70, -100 and -130°C for the purpose of evaluating the applicability of the cryo-cutting method to frozen fishes. The results were as follows : (1) There were two typical cutting patterns ("across the muscle fib...

  20. Process Damping and Cutting Tool Geometry in Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. M.; Sims, N. D.; Turner, S.

    2011-12-01

    Regenerative vibration, or chatter, limits the performance of machining processes. Consequences of chatter include tool wear and poor machined surface finish. Process damping by tool-workpiece contact can reduce chatter effects and improve productivity. Process damping occurs when the flank (also known as the relief face) of the cutting tool makes contact with waves on the workpiece surface, created by chatter motion. Tool edge features can act to increase the damping effect. This paper examines how a tool's edge condition combines with the relief angle to affect process damping. An analytical model of cutting with chatter leads to a two-section curve describing how process damped vibration amplitude changes with surface speed for radiussed tools. The tool edge dominates the process damping effect at the lowest surface speeds, with the flank dominating at higher speeds. A similar curve is then proposed regarding tools with worn edges. Experimental data supports the notion of the two-section curve. A rule of thumb is proposed which could be useful to machine operators, regarding tool wear and process damping. The question is addressed, should a tool of a given geometry, used for a given application, be considered as sharp, radiussed or worn regarding process damping.

  1. Process Damping and Cutting Tool Geometry in Machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C M; Sims, N D; Turner, S

    2011-01-01

    Regenerative vibration, or chatter, limits the performance of machining processes. Consequences of chatter include tool wear and poor machined surface finish. Process damping by tool-workpiece contact can reduce chatter effects and improve productivity. Process damping occurs when the flank (also known as the relief face) of the cutting tool makes contact with waves on the workpiece surface, created by chatter motion. Tool edge features can act to increase the damping effect. This paper examines how a tool's edge condition combines with the relief angle to affect process damping. An analytical model of cutting with chatter leads to a two-section curve describing how process damped vibration amplitude changes with surface speed for radiussed tools. The tool edge dominates the process damping effect at the lowest surface speeds, with the flank dominating at higher speeds. A similar curve is then proposed regarding tools with worn edges. Experimental data supports the notion of the two-section curve. A rule of thumb is proposed which could be useful to machine operators, regarding tool wear and process damping. The question is addressed, should a tool of a given geometry, used for a given application, be considered as sharp, radiussed or worn regarding process damping.

  2. The reliability analysis of cutting tools in the HSM processes

    OpenAIRE

    W.S. Lin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article mainly describe the reliability of the cutting tools in the high speed turning by normaldistribution model.Design/methodology/approach: A series of experimental tests have been done to evaluate the reliabilityvariation of the cutting tools. From experimental results, the tool wear distribution and the tool life are determined,and the tool life distribution and the reliability function of cutting tools are derived. Further, the reliability ofcutting tools at anytime for h...

  3. Comparative assessment of several dismantling cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot, G.; Bernard, J.; Lorin, C.; Ravera, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    The research work relates to semi-industrial scale testing in air of various relevant cutting tools (plasma torch, arc-air, grinder, alternating saw) for mild steel and stainless steel with thicknesses of 10, 30 and 50 mm. Its originality is a comparison between tools in the same normalized conditions of use in order to determine the performances of the different techniques and to measure all the generated secondary solid wastes. Among the tested tools, the plasma torch is the fastest and the alternating saw the slowest. The arc-air produces the widest kerf and thus the most wastes. The electrode of the arc-air and the wheel of the grinder wear the swiftest. The alternating saw generates the least mass of aerosols. (author). 1 ref., 7 figs

  4. Tool life and surface roughness of ceramic cutting tool when turning AISI D2 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Emri Wan Abdul Rahaman

    2007-01-01

    The tool life of physical vapor deposition (PVD) titanium nitride (TiN) coated ceramic when turning AISI D2 tool steel of hardness 54-55 HRC was investigated. The experiments were conducted at various cutting speed and feed rate combinations with constant depth of cut and under dry cutting condition. The tool life of the cutting tool for all cutting conditions was obtained. The tool failure mode and wear mechanism were also investigated. The wear mechanism that is responsible for the wear form is abrasion and diffusion. Flank wear and crater wear are the main wear form found when turning AISI D2 grade hardened steel with 54-55 HRC using KY 4400 ceramic cutting tool. Additionally catastrophic failure is observed at cutting speed of 183 m/min and feed rate of 0.16 mm/ rev. (author)

  5. Study of Cutting Edge Temperature and Cutting Force of End Mill Tool in High Speed Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiprawi Mohammad Ashaari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A wear of cutting tools during machining process is unavoidable due to the presence of frictional forces during removing process of unwanted material of workpiece. It is unavoidable but can be controlled at slower rate if the cutting speed is fixed at certain point in order to achieve optimum cutting conditions. The wear of cutting tools is closely related with the thermal deformations that occurred between the frictional contact point of cutting edge of cutting tool and workpiece. This research paper is focused on determinations of relationship among cutting temperature, cutting speed, cutting forces and radial depth of cutting parameters. The cutting temperature is determined by using the Indium Arsenide (InAs and Indium Antimonide (InSb photocells to measure infrared radiation that are emitted from cutting tools and cutting forces is determined by using dynamometer. The high speed machining process is done by end milling the outer surface of carbon steel. The signal from the photocell is digitally visualized in the digital oscilloscope. Based on the results, the cutting temperature increased as the radial depth and cutting speed increased. The cutting forces increased when radial depth increased but decreased when cutting speed is increased. The setup for calibration and discussion of the experiment will be explained in this paper.

  6. Cutting tool wear monitoring with the use of impedance layers

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílek, Marek; Kratochvíl, Jiří; Petrů, Jana; Čep, Robert; Zlámal, Tomáš; Stančeková, Dana

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with problems of cutting process monitoring in real time. It is focused on tool wear by means of impedance layers applied on ceramic cutting inserts. In the experimental part the cutting process is monitored using electrical resistance measurement. The results are compared and verified using the monitored cutting temperature and tool wear. The testing of impedance layers is reasonable mainly for cutting edge diagnostics. The width of this layer determines the wear allowance ...

  7. Machining of Some Difficult-to-Cut Materials with Rotary Cutting Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Stjernstoft, Tero

    2004-01-01

    Automobile and aero industries have an increasing interestin materials with improved mechanical properties. However, manyof these new materials are classified as difficult-to-cut withconventional tools. It is obvious that tools, cutting processesand cutting models has to be devel-oped parallel to materialsscience. In this thesis rotary cutting tools are tested as analternative toexpensive diamond or cubic bore nitridetools. Metal matrix composites mostly consist of a light metalalloy (such as...

  8. Tool Indicates Contact Angles In Bearing Raceways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akian, Richard A.; Butner, Myles F.

    1995-01-01

    Tool devised for use in measuring contact angles between balls and races in previously operated ball bearings. Used on both inner and outer raceways of bearings having cross-sectional widths between approximately 0.5 and 2.0 in. Consists of integral protractor mounted in vertical plane on bracket equipped with leveling screws and circular level indicator. Protractor includes rotatable indicator needle and set of disks of various sizes to fit various raceway curvatures.

  9. Stability analysis of multipoint tool equipped with metal cutting ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksarov, V. V.; Khalimonenko, A. D.; Matrenichev, K. G.

    2017-10-01

    The article highlights the issues of determining the stability of the cutting process by a multipoint cutting tool equipped with cutting ceramics. There were some recommendations offered on the choice of parameters of replaceable cutting ceramic plates for milling based of the conducted researches. Ceramic plates for milling are proposed to be selected on the basis of value of their electrical volume resistivity.

  10. Experimental research on the durability cutting tools for cutting-off steel profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristea Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production lines used for manufacturing U-shaped profiles are very complex and they must have high productivity. One of the most important stages of the fabrication process is the cutting-off. This paper presents the experimental research and analysis of the durability of the cutting tools used for cutting-off U-shaped metal steel profiles. The results of this work can be used to predict the durability of the cutting tools.

  11. Development of thick wall welding and cutting tools for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Akou, Kentaro; Koizumi, Koichi

    1998-01-01

    The Vacuum Vessel, which is a core component of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), is required to be exchanged remotely in a case of accident such as superconducting coil failure. The in-vessel components such as blanket and divertor are planned to be exchanged or fixed. In these exchange or maintenance operations, the thick wall welding and cutting are inevitable and remote handling tools are necessary. The thick wall welding and cutting tools for blanket are under developing in the ITER R and D program. The design requirement is to weld or cut the stainless steel of 70 mm thickness in the narrow space. Tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welding, plasma cutting and iodine laser welding/cutting are selected as primary option. Element welding and cutting tests, design of small tools to satisfy space requirement, test fabrication and performance tests were performed. This paper reports the tool design and overview of welding and cutting tests. (author)

  12. Development of thick wall welding and cutting tools for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Akou, Kentaro; Koizumi, Koichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The Vacuum Vessel, which is a core component of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), is required to be exchanged remotely in a case of accident such as superconducting coil failure. The in-vessel components such as blanket and divertor are planned to be exchanged or fixed. In these exchange or maintenance operations, the thick wall welding and cutting are inevitable and remote handling tools are necessary. The thick wall welding and cutting tools for blanket are under developing in the ITER R and D program. The design requirement is to weld or cut the stainless steel of 70 mm thickness in the narrow space. Tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welding, plasma cutting and iodine laser welding/cutting are selected as primary option. Element welding and cutting tests, design of small tools to satisfy space requirement, test fabrication and performance tests were performed. This paper reports the tool design and overview of welding and cutting tests. (author)

  13. Optimization and Analysis of Cutting Tool Geometrical Parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Bassett et al.,(2012);. Kountanya et al., (2016) studied the effect of tool edge geometry and cutting conditions on the chip morphology in orthogonal hard turning of 100Cr6 steel. Their study shows that the edge radius does not influence the geometrical parameters of the chip. Moreover cutting forces decreases as the cutting.

  14. Gear cutting tools fundamentals of design and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Radzevich, Stephen P

    2010-01-01

    Presents the DG/K-based method of surface generation, a novel and practical mathematical method for designing gear cutting tools with optimal parameters. This book proposes a scientific classification for the various kinds of the gear machining meshes, discussing optimal designs of gear cutting tools.

  15. Surface dimpling on rotating work piece using rotation cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhapkar, Rohit Arun; Larsen, Eric Richard

    2015-03-31

    A combined method of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece and a tool assembly that is capable of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece are disclosed. The disclosed method includes machining portions of an outer or inner surface of a work piece. The method also includes rotating the work piece in front of a rotating cutting tool and engaging the outer surface of the work piece with the rotating cutting tool to cut dimples in the outer surface of the work piece. The disclosed tool assembly includes a rotating cutting tool coupled to an end of a rotational machining device, such as a lathe. The same tool assembly can be used to both machine the work piece and apply a surface texture to the work piece without unloading the work piece from the tool assembly.

  16. Cutting tool for removing materials from well bore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynde, G.D.; Harvey, H.H. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a cutting tool adapted to be positioned downhole in a well bore for removing a metal member from the well bore; a tool body adapted to be received within said well bore and to be supported at its upper end for rotation about a longitudinal axis; blades at spaced intervals on the body and extending outwardly therefrom, each of the blades having a base with a leading surface relative to the direction of rotation; closely spaced cutting elements of hard cutting material secured to said leading surface of the base in a plurality of transversely extending rows, each cutting element being of a predetermined size and shape and arranged in a predetermined generally symmetrical pattern on the base relative to the other elements, each of said cutting elements having an exposed from cutting face forming a cutting surface, a rear face secured to the leading surface of said base, a peripheral surface extending between said faces, and a relatively sharp edge formed at the juncture of the front face and peripheral surface; the front cutting face of each cutting element being arranged and constructed for directing an extending end portion of a turning cut form said member to effect a breaking of said turning from the member being cut in a predetermined manner to minimize interesting of the turning

  17. Development of bore tools for pipe welding and cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Takiguchi, Yuji

    1998-01-01

    In the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), in-vessel components replacement and maintenance requires that connected cooling pipes be cut and removed beforehand and that new components be installed to which cooling pipes must be rewelded. All welding must be inspected for soundness after completion. These tasks require a new task concept for ensuring shielded areas and access from narrow ports. Thus, it became necessary to develop autonomous locomotion welding and cutting tools for branch and main pipes to weld pipes by in-pipe access; a system was proposed that cut and welded branch and main pipes after passing inside pipe curves, and elemental technologies developed. This paper introduces current development in tools for welding and cutting branch pipes and other tools for welding and cutting the main pipe. (author)

  18. Development of bore tools for pipe welding and cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Takiguchi, Yuji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    In the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), in-vessel components replacement and maintenance requires that connected cooling pipes be cut and removed beforehand and that new components be installed to which cooling pipes must be rewelded. All welding must be inspected for soundness after completion. These tasks require a new task concept for ensuring shielded areas and access from narrow ports. Thus, it became necessary to develop autonomous locomotion welding and cutting tools for branch and main pipes to weld pipes by in-pipe access; a system was proposed that cut and welded branch and main pipes after passing inside pipe curves, and elemental technologies developed. This paper introduces current development in tools for welding and cutting branch pipes and other tools for welding and cutting the main pipe. (author)

  19. Multilayer composition coatings for cutting tools: formation and performance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakov, Vladimir P.; Vereschaka, Anatoly S.; Vereschaka, Alexey A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper considers the concept of a multi-layer architecture of the coating in which each layer has a predetermined functionality. Latest generation of coatings with multi-layered architecture for cutting tools secure a dual nature of the coating, in which coatings should not only improve the mechanical and physical characteristics of the cutting tool material, but also reduce the thermo-mechanical effect on the cutting tool determining wear intensity. Here are presented the results of the development of combined methods of forming multi-layer coatings with improved properties. Combined method of forming coatings using a pulsed laser allowed reducing excessively high levels of compressive residual stress and increasing micro hardness of the multilayered coatings. The results in testing coated HSS tools showed that the use of additional pulse of laser processing increases tool life up to 3 times. Using filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition for the generation of multilayer coatings based on TiAlN compound has increased the wear-resistance of carbide tools by 2 fold compared with tool life of cutting tool with commercial TiN coatings. The aim of this study was to develop an innovative methodological approach to the deposition of multilayer coatings for cutting tools with functional architectural selection, properties and parameters of the coating based on sound knowledge of coating failure in machining process.

  20. Laser beam machining of polycrystalline diamond for cutting tool manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszyński, Dominik; Ostrowski, Robert; Zwolak, Marek; Bryk, Witold

    2017-10-01

    The paper concerns application of DPSS Nd: YAG 532nm pulse laser source for machining of polycrystalline WC based diamond inserts (PCD). The goal of the research was to determine optimal laser cutting parameters for cutting tool shaping. Basic criteria to reach the goal was cutting edge quality (minimalization of finishing operations), material removal rate (time and cost efficiency), choice of laser beam characteristics (polarization, power, focused beam diameter). The research was planned and realised and analysed according to design of experiment rules (DOE). The analysis of the cutting edge was prepared with use of Alicona Infinite Focus measurement system.

  1. Radioactive wear measurements of cutting tools made of metal in cutting aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frevert, E.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of making quick checkings of the inhomogeneities of turning materials with radioactive wear measurements has been tested. After activation analysis of the long-lived radioisotopes of cutting tools made of hard metal a method for loss-free collection of the turnings has been developed. The detection limit of the abrasion is about 10 -8 g, the measuring times are 5-10 minutes. Special radiation protection measures are not necessary. An analysis of the abrasion showed that at the beginning of cutting the amount of cobalt is 6 times higher than in the normal composition of the used cutting tools. (author)

  2. Stagnant zone formation on diamond cutting tools during machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izman, S.; Tamin, M.N.; Mon, T.T.; Venkatesh, V.C.; Shaharoun, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Formation of an intact region on the rake face of cutting tool during machining is quite common phenomenon but its significance in maintaining tool edge sharpness has not been recognized by many researchers. This region is sometimes called stagnant zone. It is believed that when an intact zone present on the rake face, it delays the crater wear progress and hence maintaining the tool edge sharpness longer. This paper investigates the effect of edge radius, surface roughness of the rake face and cutting parameters on the formation of stagnant zone on two different type of diamond tools i.e. polycrystalline diamond PCD-KD100 and diamond-coated inserts when machining titanium alloy. The used inserta and post-processed chips were examined under FESEM and optical microscope after cutting at three different conditions. Experimental results show that the speed and feel, the tool edge radius, and the tool rake surface roughness significantly affect the stagnant zone formation. (author)

  3. Reliability concepts applied to cutting tool change time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patino Rodriguez, Carmen Elena, E-mail: cpatino@udea.edu.c [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia); Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems, Polytechnic School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Francisco Martha de Souza, Gilberto [Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems, Polytechnic School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    This paper presents a reliability-based analysis for calculating critical tool life in machining processes. It is possible to determine the running time for each tool involved in the process by obtaining the operations sequence for the machining procedure. Usually, the reliability of an operation depends on three independent factors: operator, machine-tool and cutting tool. The reliability of a part manufacturing process is mainly determined by the cutting time for each job and by the sequence of operations, defined by the series configuration. An algorithm is presented to define when the cutting tool must be changed. The proposed algorithm is used to evaluate the reliability of a manufacturing process composed of turning and drilling operations. The reliability of the turning operation is modeled based on data presented in the literature, and from experimental results, a statistical distribution of drilling tool wear was defined, and the reliability of the drilling process was modeled.

  4. Reliability concepts applied to cutting tool change time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino Rodriguez, Carmen Elena; Francisco Martha de Souza, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability-based analysis for calculating critical tool life in machining processes. It is possible to determine the running time for each tool involved in the process by obtaining the operations sequence for the machining procedure. Usually, the reliability of an operation depends on three independent factors: operator, machine-tool and cutting tool. The reliability of a part manufacturing process is mainly determined by the cutting time for each job and by the sequence of operations, defined by the series configuration. An algorithm is presented to define when the cutting tool must be changed. The proposed algorithm is used to evaluate the reliability of a manufacturing process composed of turning and drilling operations. The reliability of the turning operation is modeled based on data presented in the literature, and from experimental results, a statistical distribution of drilling tool wear was defined, and the reliability of the drilling process was modeled.

  5. Modeling of tool path for the CNC sheet cutting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petunin, Aleksandr A.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper the problem of tool path optimization for CNC (Computer Numerical Control) cutting machines is considered. The classification of the cutting techniques is offered. We also propose a new classification of toll path problems. The tasks of cost minimization and time minimization for standard cutting technique (Continuous Cutting Problem, CCP) and for one of non-standard cutting techniques (Segment Continuous Cutting Problem, SCCP) are formalized. We show that the optimization tasks can be interpreted as discrete optimization problem (generalized travel salesman problem with additional constraints, GTSP). Formalization of some constraints for these tasks is described. For the solution GTSP we offer to use mathematical model of Prof. Chentsov based on concept of a megalopolis and dynamic programming.

  6. Numerical modelling of tool wear in turning with cemented carbide cutting tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, P.; Estrems, M.; Faura, F.

    2007-04-01

    A numerical model is proposed for analysing the flank and crater wear resulting from the loss of material on cutting tool surface in turning processes due to wear mechanisms of adhesion, abrasion and fracture. By means of this model, the material loss along cutting tool surface can be analysed, and the worn surface shape during the workpiece machining can be determined. The proposed model analyses the gradual degradation of cutting tool during turning operation, and tool wear can be estimated as a function of cutting time. Wear-land width (VB) and crater depth (KT) can be obtained for description of material loss on cutting tool surface, and the effects of the distinct wear mechanisms on surface shape can be studied. The parameters required for the tool wear model are obtained from bibliography and experimental observation for AISI 4340 steel turning with WC-Co cutting tools.

  7. Numerical modelling of tool wear in turning with cemented carbide cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, P.; Estrems, M.; Faura, F.

    2007-01-01

    A numerical model is proposed for analysing the flank and crater wear resulting from the loss of material on cutting tool surface in turning processes due to wear mechanisms of adhesion, abrasion and fracture. By means of this model, the material loss along cutting tool surface can be analysed, and the worn surface shape during the workpiece machining can be determined. The proposed model analyses the gradual degradation of cutting tool during turning operation, and tool wear can be estimated as a function of cutting time. Wear-land width (VB) and crater depth (KT) can be obtained for description of material loss on cutting tool surface, and the effects of the distinct wear mechanisms on surface shape can be studied. The parameters required for the tool wear model are obtained from bibliography and experimental observation for AISI 4340 steel turning with WC-Co cutting tools

  8. An analytical method on the surface residual stress for the cutting tool orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueen; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Wei

    2010-03-01

    The residual stress is measured by choosing 8 kinds orientations on cutting the H13 dies steel on the HSM in the experiment of this paper. The measured data shows on that the residual stress exists periodicity for the different rake angle (β) and side rake angle (θ) parameters, further study find that the cutting tool orientations have closed relationship with the residual stresses, and for the original of the machined residual stress on the surface from the cutting force and the axial force, it can be gained the simply model of tool-workpiece force, using the model it can be deduced the residual stress model, which is feasible to calculate the size of residual stress. And for almost all the measured residual stresses are compressed stress, the compressed stress size and the direction could be confirmed by the input data for the H13 on HSM. As the result, the residual stress model is the key for optimization of rake angle (β) and side rake angle (θ) in theory, using the theory the more cutting mechanism can be expressed.

  9. Design principles of metal-cutting machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1964-01-01

    Design Principles of Metal-Cutting Machine Tools discusses the fundamentals aspects of machine tool design. The book covers the design consideration of metal-cutting machine, such as static and dynamic stiffness, operational speeds, gearboxes, manual, and automatic control. The text first details the data calculation and the general requirements of the machine tool. Next, the book discusses the design principles, which include stiffness and rigidity of the separate constructional elements and their combined behavior under load, as well as electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic drives for the op

  10. Tool post modification allows easy turret lathe cutting-tool alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouts, L.

    1966-01-01

    Modified tool holder and tool post permit alignment of turret lathe cutting tools on the center of the spindle. The tool is aligned with the spindle by the holder which is kept in position by a hydraulic lock in feature of the tool post. The tool post is used on horizontal and vertical turret lathes and other engine lathes.

  11. An ultra-precision tool nanoindentation instrument for replication of single point diamond tool cutting edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yindi; Chen, Yuan-Liu; Xu, Malu; Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, So; Matsukuma, Hiraku; Gao, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Precision replication of the diamond tool cutting edge is required for non-destructive tool metrology. This paper presents an ultra-precision tool nanoindentation instrument designed and constructed for replication of the cutting edge of a single point diamond tool onto a selected soft metal workpiece by precisely indenting the tool cutting edge into the workpiece surface. The instrument has the ability to control the indentation depth with a nanometric resolution, enabling the replication of tool cutting edges with high precision. The motion of the diamond tool along the indentation direction is controlled by the piezoelectric actuator of a fast tool servo (FTS). An integrated capacitive sensor of the FTS is employed to detect the displacement of the diamond tool. The soft metal workpiece is attached to an aluminum cantilever whose deflection is monitored by another capacitive sensor, referred to as an outside capacitive sensor. The indentation force and depth can be accurately evaluated from the diamond tool displacement, the cantilever deflection and the cantilever spring constant. Experiments were carried out by replicating the cutting edge of a single point diamond tool with a nose radius of 2.0 mm on a copper workpiece surface. The profile of the replicated tool cutting edge was measured using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The effectiveness of the instrument in precision replication of diamond tool cutting edges is well-verified by the experimental results.

  12. Tool path strategy and cutting process monitoring in intelligent machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Chengdong; An, Qinglong; Ming, Weiwei

    2018-06-01

    Intelligent machining is a current focus in advanced manufacturing technology, and is characterized by high accuracy and efficiency. A central technology of intelligent machining—the cutting process online monitoring and optimization—is urgently needed for mass production. In this research, the cutting process online monitoring and optimization in jet engine impeller machining, cranio-maxillofacial surgery, and hydraulic servo valve deburring are introduced as examples of intelligent machining. Results show that intelligent tool path optimization and cutting process online monitoring are efficient techniques for improving the efficiency, quality, and reliability of machining.

  13. Effect of Forefoot Strike on Lower Extremity Muscle Activity and Knee Joint Angle During Cutting in Female Team Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naruto; Kunugi, Shun; Mashimo, Sonoko; Okuma, Yoshihiro; Masunari, Akihiko; Miyazaki, Shogo; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Miyakawa, Shumpei

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of different strike forms, during cutting, on knee joint angle and lower limb muscle activity. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity in individuals performing cutting manoeuvres involving either rearfoot strikes (RFS) or forefoot strikes (FFS). Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to calculate changes in knee angles, during cutting, and to determine the relationship between muscle activity and knee joint angle. Force plates were synchronized with electromyography measurements to compare muscle activity immediately before and after foot strike. The valgus angle tends to be smaller during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting. Just prior to ground contact, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle activities were significantly greater during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting; tibialis anterior muscle activity was greater during RFS cutting. Immediately after ground contact, biceps femoris and lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle activities were significantly greater during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting; tibialis anterior muscle activity was significantly lower during FFS cutting. The results of the present study suggest that the hamstrings demonstrate greater activity, immediately after foot strike, during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting. Thus, FFS cutting may involve a lower risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury than does RFS cutting.

  14. 3D cutting tool-wear monitoring in the process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerce, Luka; Pusavec, Franci; Kopac Janez [University of Ljubljana, Askerceva (Slovenia)

    2015-09-15

    The tool-wear of cutting tools has a very strong impact on the product quality as well as efficiency of the machining processes. Therefore, it in-the process characterization is crucial. This paper presents an innovative and reliable direct measuring procedure for measuring spatial cutting tool-wear with usage of laser profile sensor. The technique provides possibility for determination of 3D wear profiles, as advantage to currently used 2D techniques. The influence of the orientation of measurement head on the accuracy and the amount of captured reliable data was examined and the optimal setup of the measuring system was defined. Further, a special clamping system was designed to mount the measurement device on the machine tool turret. To test the measurement system, tool-life experiment was performed. Additionally, a new tool-life criterion was developed, including spatial characteristics of the tool-wear. The results showed that novel tool-wear and tool-life diagnostic represent objective and robust estimator of the machining process. Additionally, such automation of tool-wear diagnostics on machine tool provides higher productivity and quality of the machining process.

  15. IMPACT OF DEPTH OF CUT ON CHIP FORMATION IN AZ91HP MAGNESIUM ALLOY MILLING WITH TOOLS OF VARYING CUTTING EDGE GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gziut

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Safety of Mg milling processes can be expressed by means of the form and the number of fractions of chips formed during milling. This paper presents the state of the art of magnesium alloys milling technology in the aspect of chip fragmentation. Furthermore, the impact of the depth of cut ap and the rake angle γ on the number of chip fractions was analysed in the study. These were conducted on AZ91HP magnesium cast alloy and milling was performed with carbide tools of varying rake angle values (γ = 5º and γ = 30º. It was observed that less intense chip fragmentation occurs with decreasing depth of cut ap. The number of chip fractions was lower at the tool rake angle of γ = 30º. The test results were formulated as technological recommendations according to the number of generated chip fractions.

  16. Fractal characteristic in the wearing of cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Anhua; Wang, Jinghui

    1995-11-01

    This paper studies the cutting tool wear with fractal geometry. The wearing image of the flank has been collected by machine vision which consists of CCD camera and personal computer. After being processed by means of preserving smoothing, binary making and edge extracting, the clear boundary enclosing the worn area has been obtained. The fractal dimension of the worn surface is calculated by the methods called `Slit Island' and `Profile'. The experiments and calciating give the conclusion that the worn surface is enclosed by a irregular boundary curve with some fractal dimension and characteristics of self-similarity. Furthermore, the relation between the cutting velocity and the fractal dimension of the worn region has been submitted. This paper presents a series of methods for processing and analyzing the fractal information in the blank wear, which can be applied to research the projective relation between the fractal structure and the wear state, and establish the fractal model of the cutting tool wear.

  17. Performance of Process Damping in Machining Titanium Alloys at Low Cutting Speed with Different Helix Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaharun, M A; Yusoff, A R; Reza, M S; Jalal, K A

    2012-01-01

    Titanium is a strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant and transition metal with a silver color to produce strong lightweight alloys for industrial process, automotive, medical instruments and other applications. However, it is very difficult to machine the titanium due to its poor machinability. When machining titanium alloys with the conventional tools, the wear rate of the tool is rapidly accelerate and it is generally difficult to achieve at high cutting speed. In order to get better understanding of machining titanium alloy, the interaction between machining structural system and the cutting process which result in machining instability will be studied. Process damping is a useful phenomenon that can be exploited to improve the limited productivity of low speed machining. In this study, experiments are performed to evaluate the performance of process damping of milling under different tool helix geometries. The results showed that the helix of 42° angle is significantly increase process damping performance in machining titanium alloy.

  18. Analysis about diamond tool wear in nano-metric cutting of single crystal silicon using molecular dynamics method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiguo; Liang, Yingchun; Chen, Mingjun; Tong, Zhen; Chen, Jiaxuan

    2010-10-01

    Tool wear not only changes its geometry accuracy and integrity, but also decrease machining precision and surface integrity of workpiece that affect using performance and service life of workpiece in ultra-precision machining. Scholars made a lot of experimental researches and stimulant analyses, but there is a great difference on the wear mechanism, especially on the nano-scale wear mechanism. In this paper, the three-dimensional simulation model is built to simulate nano-metric cutting of a single crystal silicon with a non-rigid right-angle diamond tool with 0 rake angle and 0 clearance angle by the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation approach, which is used to investigate the diamond tool wear during the nano-metric cutting process. A Tersoff potential is employed for the interaction between carbon-carbon atoms, silicon-silicon atoms and carbon-silicon atoms. The tool gets the high alternating shear stress, the tool wear firstly presents at the cutting edge where intension is low. At the corner the tool is splitted along the {1 1 1} crystal plane, which forms the tipping. The wear at the flank face is the structure transformation of diamond that the diamond structure transforms into the sheet graphite structure. Owing to the tool wear the cutting force increases.

  19. Analyzing the effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness and tool wear when machining nickel based hastelloy - 276

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khidhir, Basim A; Mohamed, Bashir

    2011-01-01

    Machining parameters has an important factor on tool wear and surface finish, for that the manufacturers need to obtain optimal operating parameters with a minimum set of experiments as well as minimizing the simulations in order to reduce machining set up costs. The cutting speed is one of the most important cutting parameter to evaluate, it clearly most influences on one hand, tool life, tool stability, and cutting process quality, and on the other hand controls production flow. Due to more demanding manufacturing systems, the requirements for reliable technological information have increased. For a reliable analysis in cutting, the cutting zone (tip insert-workpiece-chip system) as the mechanics of cutting in this area are very complicated, the chip is formed in the shear plane (entrance the shear zone) and is shape in the sliding plane. The temperature contributed in the primary shear, chamfer and sticking, sliding zones are expressed as a function of unknown shear angle on the rake face and temperature modified flow stress in each zone. The experiments were carried out on a CNC lathe and surface finish and tool tip wear are measured in process. Machining experiments are conducted. Reasonable agreement is observed under turning with high depth of cut. Results of this research help to guide the design of new cutting tool materials and the studies on evaluation of machining parameters to further advance the productivity of nickel based alloy Hastelloy - 276 machining.

  20. Investigation of the Effect of Tool Edge Geometry upon Cutting Variables, Tool Wear and Burr Formation Using Finite Element Simulation — A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartkulvanich, Partchapol; Al-Zkeri, Ibrahim; Yen, Yung-Chang; Altan, Taylan

    2004-06-01

    This paper summarizes some of the progress made on FEM simulations of metal cutting processes conducted at the Engineering Research Center (ERC/NSM). Presented research focuses on the performance of various cutting edge geometries (hone and chamfer edges) for different tool materials and specifically on: 1) the effect of round and chamfer edge geometries on the cutting variables in machining carbon steels and 2) the effect of the edge hone size upon the flank wear and burr formation behavior in face milling of A356-T6 aluminum alloy. In the second task, an innovative design of edge preparation with varying hone size around the tool nose is also explored using FEM. In order to model three-dimensional conventional turning and face milling with two-dimensional orthogonal cutting simulations, 2D simulation cross-sections consisting of the cutting speed direction and chip flow direction are selected at different locations along the tool nose radius. Then the geometries of the hone and chamfer edges and their associated tool angles as well as uncut chip thickness are determined on these planes and employed in cutting simulations. The chip flow direction on the tool rake face are obtained by examining the wear grooves on the experimental inserts or estimated by using Oxley's approximation theory of oblique cutting. Simulation results are compared with the available experimental results (e.g. cutting forces) both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  1. Investigation of the effect of tool edge geometry upon cutting variables, tool wear and burr formation using finite element simulation - A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartkulvanich, Partchapol; Al-Zkeri, Ibrahim; Yen Yungchang; Altan, Taylan

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of the progress made on FEM simulations of metal cutting processes conducted at the Engineering Research Center (ERC/NSM). Presented research focuses on the performance of various cutting edge geometries (hone and chamfer edges) for different tool materials and specifically on: 1) the effect of round and chamfer edge geometries on the cutting variables in machining carbon steels and 2) the effect of the edge hone size upon the flank wear and burr formation behavior in face milling of A356-T6 aluminum alloy. In the second task, an innovative design of edge preparation with varying hone size around the tool nose is also explored using FEM.In order to model three-dimensional conventional turning and face milling with two-dimensional orthogonal cutting simulations, 2D simulation cross-sections consisting of the cutting speed direction and chip flow direction are selected at different locations along the tool nose radius. Then the geometries of the hone and chamfer edges and their associated tool angles as well as uncut chip thickness are determined on these planes and employed in cutting simulations. The chip flow direction on the tool rake face are obtained by examining the wear grooves on the experimental inserts or estimated by using Oxley's approximation theory of oblique cutting. Simulation results are compared with the available experimental results (e.g. cutting forces) both qualitatively and quantitatively

  2. Investigation of tool engagement and cutting performance in machining a pocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesta, E. Y. T.; Hamidon, R.; Riza, M.; Alrashidi, R. F. F. A.; Alazemi, A. F. F. S.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the variation of tool engagement for different profile of cutting. In addition, behavior of cutting force and cutting temperature for different tool engagements for machining a pocket also been explored. Initially, simple tool engagement models were developed for peripheral and slot cutting for different types of corner. Based on these models, the tool engagements for contour and zig zag tool path strategies for a rectangular shape pocket with dimension 80 mm x 60 mm were analyzed. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of tool engagements on cutting force and cutting temperature for the machining of a pocket of AISI H13 material. The cutting parameters used were 150m/min cutting speed, 0.05mm/tooth feed, and 0.1mm depth of cut. Based on the results obtained, the changes of cutting force and cutting temperature performance there exist a relationship between cutting force, cutting temperature and tool engagement. A higher cutting force and cutting temperature is obtained when the cutting tool goes through up milling and when the cutting tool makes a full engagement with the workpiece.

  3. Effect of cutting edge preparation on tool performance in hard-turning of DF-3 tool steel with ceramic tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoudinejad, A.; Noordin, M. Y.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an experimental investigation on turning hardened DF-3 tool steel (∼ 58HRC) with PVD-TiN coated mixed ceramic. We focused on the effect of chamfer and honed edge geometry on tool wear, tool life, cutting forces and surface finish of the machined work piece. The effects of the process parameters on performance characteristics were investigated using ANOVA. It was found that longer tool life was recorded with chamfered edge geometry at various cutting conditions. The typical damage observed as flank and crater wear for ceramic tools and abrasive wear was found as the main mechanism.The optimal cutting speed was 155 m/min, with which a tolerable tool life and volume of material removal was obtained for both edges geometry. Finer machined surface was left by chamfered tool with feeds and speeds in the range of 0.125-0.05 mm/rev and 155-210 m/min, respectively; also, cutting forces decrease with increased cutting speed. The obtained consequence of cutting forces shows that tool wear has a considerable effect on cutting forces and greater forces values recorded with honed tools.

  4. Effect of cutting edge preparation on tool performance in hard-turning of DF-3 tool steel with ceramic tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davoudinejad, A.; Noordin, M. Y. [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai (Malaysia)

    2014-11-15

    This study presents an experimental investigation on turning hardened DF-3 tool steel (∼ 58HRC) with PVD-TiN coated mixed ceramic. We focused on the effect of chamfer and honed edge geometry on tool wear, tool life, cutting forces and surface finish of the machined work piece. The effects of the process parameters on performance characteristics were investigated using ANOVA. It was found that longer tool life was recorded with chamfered edge geometry at various cutting conditions. The typical damage observed as flank and crater wear for ceramic tools and abrasive wear was found as the main mechanism.The optimal cutting speed was 155 m/min, with which a tolerable tool life and volume of material removal was obtained for both edges geometry. Finer machined surface was left by chamfered tool with feeds and speeds in the range of 0.125-0.05 mm/rev and 155-210 m/min, respectively; also, cutting forces decrease with increased cutting speed. The obtained consequence of cutting forces shows that tool wear has a considerable effect on cutting forces and greater forces values recorded with honed tools.

  5. Automatic NC-Data generation method for 5-axis cutting of turbine-blades by finding Safe heel-angles and adaptive path-intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao, Cheng Dao; Lee, Cheol Soo; Cho, Kyu Zong; Park, Gwang Ryeol

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient method for generating 5-axis cutting data for a turbine blade is presented. The interference elimination of 5-axis cutting currently is very complicated, and it takes up a lot of time. The proposed method can generate an interference-free tool path, within an allowance range. Generating the cutting data just point to the cutting process and using it to obtain NC data by calculating the feed rate, allows us to maintain the proper feed rate of the 5-axis machine. This paper includes the algorithms for: (1) CL data generation by detecting an interference-free heel angle, (2) finding the optimal tool path interval considering the cusp-height, (3) finding the adaptive feed rate values for each cutter path, and (4) the inverse kinematics depending on the structure of the 5-axis machine, for generating the NC data

  6. Implementation Analysis of Cutting Tool Carbide with Cast Iron Material S45 C on Universal Lathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaidi; hestukoro, Soni; yanie, Ahmad; Jumadi; Eddy

    2017-12-01

    Cutting tool is the tools lathe. Cutting process tool CARBIDE with Cast Iron Material Universal Lathe which is commonly found at Analysiscutting Process by some aspects numely Cutting force, Cutting Speed, Cutting Power, Cutting Indication Power, Temperature Zone 1 and Temperatur Zone 2. Purpose of this Study was to determine how big the cutting Speed, Cutting Power, electromotor Power,Temperatur Zone 1 and Temperatur Zone 2 that drives the chisel cutting CARBIDE in the Process of tur ning Cast Iron Material. Cutting force obtained from image analysis relationship between the recommended Component Cuting Force with plane of the cut and Cutting Speed obtained from image analysis of relationships between the recommended Cutting Speed Feed rate.

  7. MECHANISMS OF CUTTING BLADE WEAR AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON CUTTING ABILITY OF THE TOOL DURING MACHINING OF SPECIAL ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Zlámal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With increased requirements for quality and shelf life of machined parts there is also a higher share of the use of material with specific properties that are identified by the term “superalloys”. These materials differ from common steels by mechanical and physical properties that cause their worse machinability. During machining of “superalloys” worse machinability has negative influence primarily on the amount of cutting edge wear, which shortens durability of the cutting tool. The goal of experimental activity shown in this contribution is to determine individual mechanisms of the cutting edge wear and their effects on the cutting ability during high speed machining of nickel superalloy. A specific exchangeable cutting insert made from cubic boric nitride was used for machining of the 625 material according to ASM 5666F. The criteria to evaluate cutting ability and durability of the cutting tool became selected parameters of surface integrity and quality of the machined surface.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE TOOL-CHIP INTERFACE TMPERATURES ON UNCOATED CEMENTIDE CARBIDE CUTTING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasım HABALI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the temperature as the result of the heat developed during machining at the tool-chip interface has an influence on the tool life and workpiece surface guality and the methods for measuring this temperature are constantly under investigation. In this study, the measurement of tool-chip interface temperature using toolworkpiece termocouple method was investigated. The test were carried out on a AISI 1040 steel and the toolchip interface temperature variation was examined depending on the cutting speed and feed rate. The obtained groups show that cutting speed has more influence on the temperature than feedrate has.

  9. Using internally cooled cutting tools in the machining of difficult-to-cut materials based on Waspaloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Isik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-based superalloys such as Waspaloy are used for engine components and in the nuclear industry, where considerable strength and corrosion resistance at high operating temperatures are called for. These characteristics of such alloys cause increases in cutting temperature and resultant tool damage, even at low cutting speeds and low feed rates. Thus, they are classified as difficult-to-cut materials. This article presents a cooling method to be used in metal cutting based on a tool holder with a closed internal cooling system with cooling fluid circulating inside. Hence, a green cooling method that does not harm the environment and is efficient in removing heat from the cutting zone was developed. A series of cutting experiments were conducted to investigate the practicality and effectiveness of the internally cooled tool model. The developed system achieved up to 13% better surface quality than with dry machining, and tool life was extended by 12%. The results clearly showed that with the reduced cutting temperature of the internal cooling, it was possible to control the temperature and thus prevent reaching the critical cutting temperature during the turning process, which is vitally important in extending tool life during the processing of Waspaloy.

  10. Effect of cutting fluids and cutting conditions on surface integrity and tool wear in turning of Inconel 713C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikiji, R.

    2018-01-01

    The trend toward downsizing of engines helps to increase the number of turbochargers around Europe. As for the turbocharger, the temperature of the exhaust gas is so high that the parts made of nickel base super alloy Inconel 713C are used as high temperature strength metals. External turning of Inconel 713C which is used as the actual automotive parts was carried out. The effect of the cutting fluids and cutting conditions on the surface integrity and tool wear was investigated, considering global environment and cost performance. As a result, in the range of the cutting conditions used this time, when the depth of cut was small, the good surface integrity and tool life were obtained. However, in the case of the large corner radius, it was found that the more the cutting length increased, the more the tool wear increased. When the cutting length is so large, the surface integrity and tool life got worse. As for the cutting fluids, it was found that the synthetic type showed better performance in the surface integrity and tool life than the conventional emulsion. However, it was clear that the large corner radius made the surface roughness and tool life good, but it affected the size error etc. in machining the workpiece held in a cantilever style.

  11. Effect of laser incidence angle on cut quality of 4 mm thick stainless steel sheet using fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullick, Suvradip; Agrawal, Arpit Kumar; Nath, Ashish Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Fiber laser has potential to outperform the more traditionally used CO2 lasers in sheet metal cutting applications due to its higher efficiency, better beam quality, reliability and ease of beam delivery through optical fiber. It has been however, reported that the higher focusability and shorter wavelength are advantageous for cutting thin metal sheets up to about 2 mm only. Better focasability results in narrower kerf-width, which leads to an earlier flow separation in the flow of assist gas within the kerf, resulting in uncontrolled material removal and poor cut quality. However, the advarse effect of tight focusability can be taken care by shifting the focal point position towards the bottom surface of work-piece, which results in a wider kerf size. This results in a more stable flow within the kerf for a longer depth, which improves the cut quality. It has also been reported that fiber laser has an unfavourable angle of incidence during cutting of thick sections, resulting in poor absorption at the metal surface. Therefore, the effect of laser incidence angle, along with other process parameters, viz. cutting speed and assist gas pressure on the cut quality of 4 mm thick steel sheet has been investigated. The change in laser incidence angle has been incorporated by inclining the beam towards and away from the cut front, and the quality factors are taken as the ratio of kerf width and the striation depth. Besides the absorption of laser radiation, beam inclination is also expected to influence the gas flow characteristics inside the kerf, shear force phenomena on the molten pool, laser beam coupling and laser power distribution at the inclined cut surface. Design of experiment has been used by implementing response surface methodology (RSM) to study the parametric dependence of cut quality, as well as to find out the optimum cut quality. An improvement in quality has been observed for both the inclination due to the combined effect of multiple phenomena.

  12. Defining the effect of sweep tillage tool cutting edge geometry on tillage forces using 3D discrete element modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ucgul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The energy required for tillage processes accounts for a significant proportion of total energy used in crop production. In many tillage processes decreasing the draft and upward vertical forces is often desired for reduced fuel use and improved penetration, respectively. Recent studies have proved that the discrete element modelling (DEM can effectively be used to model the soil–tool interaction. In his study, Fielke (1994 [1] examined the effect of the various tool cutting edge geometries, namely; cutting edge height, length of underside rub, angle of underside clearance, on draft and vertical forces. In this paper the experimental parameters of Fielke (1994 [1] were simulated using 3D discrete element modelling techniques. In the simulations a hysteretic spring contact model integrated with a linear cohesion model that considers the plastic deformation behaviour of the soil hence provides better vertical force prediction was employed. DEM parameters were determined by comparing the experimental and simulation results of angle of repose and penetration tests. The results of the study showed that the simulation results of the soil-various tool cutting edge geometries agreed well with the experimental results of Fielke (1994 [1]. The modelling was then used to simulate a further range of cutting edge geometries to better define the effect of sweep tool cutting edge geometry parameters on tillage forces. The extra simulations were able to show that by using a sharper cutting edge with zero vertical cutting edge height the draft and upward vertical force were further reduced indicating there is benefit from having a really sharp cutting edge. The extra simulations also confirmed that the interpolated trends for angle of underside clearance as suggested by Fielke (1994 [1] where correct with a linear reduction in draft and upward vertical force for angle of underside clearance between the ranges of −25 and −5°, and between −5 and 0°. The

  13. Prediction and Control of Cutting Tool Vibration in Cnc Lathe with Anova and Ann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abuthakeer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Machining is a complex process in which many variables can deleterious the desired results. Among them, cutting tool vibration is the most critical phenomenon which influences dimensional precision of the components machined, functional behavior of the machine tools and life of the cutting tool. In a machining operation, the cutting tool vibrations are mainly influenced by cutting parameters like cutting speed, depth of cut and tool feed rate. In this work, the cutting tool vibrations are controlled using a damping pad made of Neoprene. Experiments were conducted in a CNC lathe where the tool holder is supported with and without damping pad. The cutting tool vibration signals were collected through a data acquisition system supported by LabVIEW software. To increase the buoyancy and reliability of the experiments, a full factorial experimental design was used. Experimental data collected were tested with analysis of variance (ANOVA to understand the influences of the cutting parameters. Empirical models have been developed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Experimental studies and data analysis have been performed to validate the proposed damping system. Multilayer perceptron neural network model has been constructed with feed forward back-propagation algorithm using the acquired data. On the completion of the experimental test ANN is used to validate the results obtained and also to predict the behavior of the system under any cutting condition within the operating range. The onsite tests show that the proposed system reduces the vibration of cutting tool to a greater extend.

  14. On-line Cutting Tool Condition Monitoring in Machining Processes Using Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo, Antonio J.; Morales-Menéndez, Rub&#;n; Alique, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presented new ideas for monitoring and diagnosis of the cutting tool condition with two different algorithms for pattern recognition: HMM, and ANN. The monitoring and diagnosis system was implemented for peripheral milling process in HSM, where several Aluminium alloys and cutting tools were used. The flank wear (VB) was selected as the criterion to evaluate the tool's life and four cutting tool conditions were defined to be recognized: New, half new, half worn, and worn conditio...

  15. Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cutting KidsHealth / For Teens / Cutting What's in this article? ... Getting Help Print en español Cortarse What Is Cutting? Emma's mom first noticed the cuts when Emma ...

  16. STRESS ANALYSIS IN CUTTING TOOLS COATED TiN AND EFFECT OF THE FRICTION COEFFICIENT IN TOOL-CHIP INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubilay ASLANTAŞ

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The coated tools are regularly used in today's metal cutting industry. Because, it is well known that thin and hard coatings can reduce tool wear, improve tool life and productivity. Such coatings have significantly contributed to the improvements cutting economies and cutting tool performance through lower tool wear and reduced cutting forces. TiN coatings have especially high strength and low friction coefficients. During the cutting process, low friction coefficient reduce damage in cutting tool. In addition, maximum stress values between coating and substrate also decrease as the friction coefficient decreases. In the present study, stress analysis is carried out for HSS (High Speed Steel cutting tool coated with TiN. The effect of the friction coefficient between tool and chip on the stresses developed at the cutting tool surface and interface of coating and HSS is investigated. Damage zones during cutting process was also attempted to determine. Finite elements method is used for the solution of the problem and FRANC2D finite element program is selected for numerical solutions.

  17. Research of a smart cutting tool based on MEMS strain gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Y. L.; Shao, YW; Hu, T. J.; Zhang, Q.; Ge, X. H.

    2018-03-01

    Cutting force is an important factor that affects machining accuracy, cutting vibration and tool wear. Machining condition monitoring by cutting force measurement is a key technology for intelligent manufacture. Current cutting force sensors exist problems of large volume, complex structure and poor compatibility in practical application, for these problems, a smart cutting tool is proposed in this paper for cutting force measurement. Commercial MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) strain gauges with high sensitivity and small size are adopted as transducing element of the smart tool, and a structure optimized cutting tool is fabricated for MEMS strain gauge bonding. Static calibration results show that the developed smart cutting tool is able to measure cutting forces in both X and Y directions, and the cross-interference error is within 3%. Its general accuracy is 3.35% and 3.27% in X and Y directions, and sensitivity is 0.1 mV/N, which is very suitable for measuring small cutting forces in high speed and precision machining. The smart cutting tool is portable and reliable for practical application in CNC machine tool.

  18. Analyzing the effect of tool edge radius on cutting temperature in micro-milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y. C.; Yang, K.; Zheng, K. N.; Bai, Q. S.; Chen, W. Q.; Sun, G. Y.

    2010-10-01

    Cutting heat is one of the important physical subjects in the cutting process. Cutting heat together with cutting temperature produced by the cutting process will directly have effects on the tool wear and the life as well as on the workpiece processing precision and surface quality. The feature size of the workpiece is usually several microns. Thus, the tiny changes of cutting temperature will affect the workpiece on the surface quality and accuracy. Therefore, cutting heat and temperature generated in micro-milling will have significantly different effect than the one in the traditional tools cutting. In this paper, a two-dimensional coupled thermal-mechanical finite element model is adopted to determine thermal fields and cutting temperature during the Micro-milling process, by using software Deform-2D. The effect of tool edge radius on effective stress, effective strain, velocity field and cutting temperature distribution in micro-milling of aluminum alloy Al2024-T6 were investigated and analyzed. Also, the transient cutting temperature distribution was simulated dynamically. The simulation results show that the cutting temperature in Micro-milling is lower than those occurring in conventional milling processes due to the small loads and low cutting velocity. With increase of tool edge radius, the maximum temperature region gradually occurs on the contact region between finished surfaced and flank face of micro-cutter, instead of the rake face or the corner of micro-cutter. And this phenomenon shows an obvious size effect.

  19. Development of remote pipe cutting tool for divertor cassettes in JT-60SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takao; Sakurai, Shinji; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Sakasai, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Remote pipe cutting tool accessing from inside pipe has been newly developed for JT-60SA. The tool head equips a disk-shaped cutter blade and four rollers which are subjected to the reaction force. The tool pushes out the cutter blade by decreasing the distance between two cams. The tool cuts a cooling pipe by both pushing out the cutter blade and rotating the tool head itself. The roller holder is not pushed out anymore after touching the inner wall of the pipe. In other words, only cutter blade is pushed out after bringing the tool axis into the pipe axis. Outer diameter of the cutting tool head is 44 mm. The cutting tool is able to push out the cutter blade up to 32.5 mm in radius, i.e. 65 mm in diameter, which is enough to cut the pipe having an outer diameter of 59.8 mm. The thickness and material of the cooling pipe are 2.8 mm and SUS316L, respectively. The length of the cutting tool head is about 1 m. The tool is able to cut a pipe locates about 480 mm in depth from the mounting surface on the divertor cassette. The pipe cutting system equips two cutting heads and they are able to cut two pipes at the same time in order to remove the inner target plate. Reproducibility of the cross-sectional shape of the cut pipe is required for re-welding. The degree of reproducibility is inside 0.1 mm except for burr at outside of the pipe, which is enough to re-weld the cut pipe. Some swarf is generated during cutting the double-layered pipe assuming a plug located on the top of the pipe. The swarf is deposited on the bottom of the plug and collected by pulling out the plug in the actual equipment

  20. Finite element analysis of cutting tools prior to fracture in hard turning operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakir, M. Cemal; I Sik, Yahya

    2005-01-01

    In this work cutting FEA of cutting tools prior to fracture is investigated. Fracture is the catastrophic end of the cutting edge that should be avoided for the cutting tool in order to have a longer tool life. This paper presents finite element modelling of a cutting tool just before its fracture. The data used in FEA are gathered from a tool breakage system that detects the fracture according to the variations of the cutting forces measured by a three-dimensional force dynamometer. The workpiece material used in the experiments is cold work tool steel, AISI O1 (60 HRC) and the cutting tool material is uncoated tungsten carbide (DNMG 150608). In order to investigate the cutting tool conditions in longitudinal external turning operations prior to fracture, static and dynamic finite element analyses are conducted. After the static finite element analysis, the modal and harmonic response analyses are carried on and the dynamic behaviours of the cutting tool structure are investigated. All FE analyses were performed using a commercial finite element package ANSYS

  1. Assessment of wear dependence parameters in complex model of cutting tool wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsev, A. V.; Pasko, N. I.; Antseva, N. V.

    2018-03-01

    This paper addresses wear dependence of the generic efficient life period of cutting tools taken as an aggregate of the law of tool wear rate distribution and dependence of parameters of this law's on the cutting mode, factoring in the random factor as exemplified by the complex model of wear. The complex model of wear takes into account the variance of cutting properties within one batch of tools, variance in machinability within one batch of workpieces, and the stochastic nature of the wear process itself. A technique of assessment of wear dependence parameters in a complex model of cutting tool wear is provided. The technique is supported by a numerical example.

  2. High power laser downhole cutting tools and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2015-01-20

    Downhole cutting systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser cutting operations within a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform cutting operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  3. Effect of micro-scale texturing on the cutting tool performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasumathy, D.; Meena, Anil

    2018-05-01

    The present study is mainly focused on the cutting performance of the micro-scale textured carbide tools while turning AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel under dry cutting environment. The texture on the rake face of the carbide tools was fabricated by laser machining. The cutting performance of the textured tools was further compared with conventional tools in terms of cutting forces, tool wear, machined surface quality and chip curl radius. SEM and EDS analyses have been also performed to better understand the tool surface characteristics. Results show that the grooves help in breaking the tool-chip contact leading to a lesser tool-chip contact area which results in reduced iron (Fe) adhesion to the tool.

  4. Effects of Different Cutting Patterns and Experimental Conditions on the Performance of a Conical Drag Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copur, Hanifi; Bilgin, Nuh; Balci, Cemal; Tumac, Deniz; Avunduk, Emre

    2017-06-01

    This study aims at determining the effects of single-, double-, and triple-spiral cutting patterns; the effects of tool cutting speeds on the experimental scale; and the effects of the method of yield estimation on cutting performance by performing a set of full-scale linear cutting tests with a conical cutting tool. The average and maximum normal, cutting and side forces; specific energy; yield; and coarseness index are measured and compared in each cutting pattern at a 25-mm line spacing, at varying depths of cut per revolution, and using two cutting speeds on five different rock samples. The results indicate that the optimum specific energy decreases by approximately 25% with an increasing number of spirals from the single- to the double-spiral cutting pattern for the hard rocks, whereas generally little effect was observed for the soft- and medium-strength rocks. The double-spiral cutting pattern appeared to be more effective than the single- or triple-spiral cutting pattern and had an advantage of lower side forces. The tool cutting speed had no apparent effect on the cutting performance. The estimation of the specific energy by the yield based on the theoretical swept area was not significantly different from that estimated by the yield based on the muck weighing, especially for the double- and triple-spiral cutting patterns and with the optimum ratio of line spacing to depth of cut per revolution. This study also demonstrated that the cutterhead and mechanical miner designs, semi-theoretical deterministic computer simulations and empirical performance predictions and optimization models should be based on realistic experimental simulations. Studies should be continued to obtain more reliable results by creating a larger database of laboratory tests and field performance records for mechanical miners using drag tools.

  5. Surface modification of multi-point cutting tools using ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmed, W.; Ahmed, M.

    1995-01-01

    Ion-implantation has been used to treat multi-point cutting tools using a 'systems approach' in order to improve the performance of these tools in dynamic cutting conditions. The effects of energy, species and system pressure on life and performance of circular saws have been investigated. For both nitrogen and argon ion-implantation an improvement in cutting performance has been observed as compared to untreated edges. As the energy of the nitrogen ions is increased there is a gradual improvement in the performance of the cutting edge. Ion-implanted tools were compared to those coated with TiN and these results are also presented. (author) 5 figs

  6. Investigation of Coated Cutting Tool Performance during Machining of Super Duplex Stainless Steels through 3D Wear Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassmin Seid Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the wear mechanisms and tribological performance of uncoated and coated carbide tools were investigated during the turning of super duplex stainless steel (SDSS—Grade UNS S32750, known commercially as SAF 2507. The tool wear was evaluated throughout the cutting tests and the wear mechanisms were investigated using an Alicona Infinite Focus microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Tribo-film formation on the worn rake surface of the tool was analyzed using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS. In addition, tribological performance was evaluated by studying chip characteristics such as thickness, compression ratio, shear angle, and undersurface morphology. Finally, surface integrity of the machined surface was investigated using the Alicona microscope to measure surface roughness and SEM to reveal the surface distortions created during the cutting process, combined with cutting force analyses. The results obtained showed that the predominant wear mechanisms are adhesion and chipping for all tools investigated and that the AlTiN coating system exhibited better performance in all aspects when compared with CVD TiCN + Al2O3 coated cutting insert and uncoated carbide insert; in particular, built-up edge formation was significantly reduced.

  7. Design of an instrumented smart cutting tool and its implementation and application perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Cheng, Kai; Chen, Xun; Minton, Timothy; Rakowski, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative design of a smart cutting tool, using two surface acoustic wave (SAW) strain sensors mounted onto the top and the side surface of the tool shank respectively, and its implementation and application perspectives. This surface acoustic wave-based smart cutting tool is capable of measuring the cutting force and the feed force in a real machining environment, after a calibration process under known cutting conditions. A hybrid dissimilar workpiece is then machined using the SAW-based smart cutting tool. The hybrid dissimilar material is made of two different materials, NiCu alloy (Monel) and steel, welded together to form a single bar; this can be used to simulate an abrupt change in material properties. The property transition zone is successfully detected by the tool; the sensor feedback can then be used to initiate a change in the machining parameters to compensate for the altered material properties. (paper)

  8. SOFTWARE TOOL FOR LASER CUTTING PROCESS CONTROL – SOLVING REAL INDUSTRIAL CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Madić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser cutting is one of the leading non-conventional machining technologies with a wide spectrum of application in modern industry. It order to exploit a number of advantages that this technology offers for contour cutting of materials, it is necessary to carefully select laser cutting conditions for each given workpiece material, thickness and desired cut qualities. In other words, there is a need for process control of laser cutting. After a comprehensive analysis of the main laser cutting parameters and process performance characteristics, the application of the developed software tool “BRUTOMIZER” for off-line control of CO2 laser cutting process of three different workpiece materials (mild steel, stainless steel and aluminum is illustrated. Advantages and abilities of the developed software tool are also illustrated.

  9. Decrease of FIB-induced lateral damage for diamond tool used in nano cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Centre of MicroNano Manufacturing Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xu, Zongwei, E-mail: zongweixu@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Centre of MicroNano Manufacturing Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Fang, Fengzhou, E-mail: fzfang@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Centre of MicroNano Manufacturing Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Bing; Xiao, Yinjing; Chen, Jinping [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Centre of MicroNano Manufacturing Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang, Xibin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Liu, Hongzhong [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • We mainly aim to characterize and decrease the FIB-induced damage on diamond tool. • Raman and XPS methods were used to characterize the nanoscale FIB-induced damage. • Lower energy FIB can effectively lessen the FIB-induced damage on diamond tool. • The diamond tools’ performance was greatly improved after FIB process optimization. • 6 nm chip thickness of copper was achieved by diamond tool with 22 nm edge radius. - Abstract: Diamond cutting tools with nanometric edge radius used in ultra-precision machining can be fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) technology. However, due to the nanoscale effects, the diamond tools performance and the cutting edge lifetime in nano cutting would be degraded because of the FIB-induced nanoscale lateral damage. In this study, the methods of how to effectively characterize and decrease the FIB-induced lateral damage for diamond tool are intensively studied. Based on the performance optimization diamond machining tools, the controllable chip thickness of less than 10 nm was achieved on a single-crystal copper in nano cutting. In addition, the ratio of minimum thickness of chip (MTC) to tool edge radius of around 0.3–0.4 in nano cutting is achieved. Methods for decreasing the FIB-induced damage on diamond tools and adding coolant during the nano cutting are very beneficial in improving the research of nano cutting and MTC. The nano cutting experiments based on the sharp and high performance of diamond tools would validate the nano cutting mechanisms that many molecular dynamic simulation studies have put forward and provide new findings for nano cutting.

  10. Study of the performances of nano-case treatment cutting tools on carbon steel work material during turning operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolalu, S. A.; Okokpujie, I. P.; Salawu, E. Y.; Abioye, A. A.; Abioye, O. P.; Ikumapayi, O. M.

    2018-04-01

    The degree of holding temperature and time play a major role in nano-case treatment of cutting tools which immensely contributed to its performance during machining operation. The objective of this research work is to carryout comparative study of performance of nano-case treatment tools developed using low and medium carbon steel as work piece. Turning operation was carried out under two different categories with specific work piece on universal lathe machine using HSS cutting tools 100 mm × 12mm × 12mm that has been nano-case treated under varying conditions of temperatures and timeof 800,850, 900, 950°C and 60, 90, 120 mins respectively. The turning parameters used in evaluating this experiment were cutting speed of 270, 380 and 560mm/min, feed rate of 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 mm/min, depth of cut of 2mm, work piece diameter of 25mm and rake angle of 7° each at three levels. The results of comparative study of their performances revealed that the timespent in the machining of low carbon steel material at a minimum temperature and time of 800°C, 60 mins were1.50, 2.17 mins while at maximum temperature and time of 950°C, 120 mins were 1.19, 2.02 mins. It was also observed that at a corresponding constant speed of 270,380 and 560mm/min at higher temperature and time, a relative increased in the length of cut were observed. Critical observation of the result showed that at higher case hardening temperature and time (950°C/120mins), the HSS cutting tool gave a better performance as lesser time was consumed during the turning operation.

  11. Investigation of Micro Square Structure Fabrication by Applying Textured Cutting Tool in WEDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies micro structure fabrication by means of a textured tool cutting edge, which is manufactured by applying the wire cut electrical discharge machining (WEDM. Machining performance of the square structure fabrication on the tool cutting edge is investigated in the WEDM process, and the machining accuracy is explored in experimental analyses. In this proposed method, undesired overcut comes from the discharge between the processing debris and the side wall of the target structure. Furthermore, by applying the textured cutting tool, the target square structure is directly fabricated on the alumina workpiece with just a simple turning process, which verifies the feasibility of the proposed tool cutting edge textured method by applying the WEDM. This technology is expected to become a potential method for the mass production of micro structure surfaces in the future.

  12. Faulting at Mormon Point, Death Valley, California: A low-angle normal fault cut by high-angle faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Charles; Serpa, Laura; Pavlis, Terry L.

    1993-04-01

    New geophysical and fault kinematic studies indicate that late Cenozoic basin development in the Mormon Point area of Death Valley, California, was accommodated by fault rotations. Three of six fault segments recognized at Mormon Point are now inactive and have been rotated to low dips during extension. The remaining three segments are now active and moderately to steeply dipping. From the geophysical data, one active segment appears to offset the low-angle faults in the subsurface of Death Valley.

  13. Carbon nanotube reinforced metal binder for diamond cutting tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    The potential of carbon nanotube reinforcement of metallic binders for the improvement of quality and efficiency of diamond cutting wheels is studied. The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforcement on the mechanical properties i.e. hardness, Young modulus, strength and deformation...... of grain size of the structural constituents of the binder, what in turn leads to the improved simultaneously hardness, Young modulus, plastic extension, bending strength and performances of the metallic binders. Comparing service properties of diamond end-cutting drill bits with and without MWCNT one...

  14. Influence of Cooling Lubricants on the Surface Roughness and Energy Efficiency of the Cutting Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jersák J.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Technical University of Liberec and Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg investigated the influence of cooling lubricants on the surface roughness and energy efficiency of cutting machine tools. After summarizing the achieved experimental results, the authors conclude that cooling lubricants extensively influence the cutting temperature, cutting forces and energy consumption. Also, it is recognizable that cooling lubricants affect the cutting tools lifetime and the workpiece surface quality as well. Furthermore, costs of these cooling lubricants and the related environmental burden need to be considered. A current trend is to reduce the amount of lubricants that are used, e.g., when the Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL technique is applied. The lubricant or process liquid is thereby transported by the compressed air in the form of an aerosol to the contact area between the tool and workpiece. The cutting process was monitored during testing by the three following techniques: lubricant-free cutting, cutting with the use of a lubricant with the MQL technique, and only utilizing finish-turning and finish-face milling. The research allowed the authors to monitor the cutting power and mark the achieved surface quality in relation to the electrical power consumption of the cutting machine. In conclusions, the coherence between energy efficiency of the cutting machine and the workpiece surface quality regarding the used cooling lubricant is described.

  15. Smart Cutting Tools and Smart Machining: Development Approaches, and Their Implementation and Application Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai; Niu, Zhi-Chao; Wang, Robin C.; Rakowski, Richard; Bateman, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Smart machining has tremendous potential and is becoming one of new generation high value precision manufacturing technologies in line with the advance of Industry 4.0 concepts. This paper presents some innovative design concepts and, in particular, the development of four types of smart cutting tools, including a force-based smart cutting tool, a temperature-based internally-cooled cutting tool, a fast tool servo (FTS) and smart collets for ultraprecision and micro manufacturing purposes. Implementation and application perspectives of these smart cutting tools are explored and discussed particularly for smart machining against a number of industrial application requirements. They are contamination-free machining, machining of tool-wear-prone Si-based infra-red devices and medical applications, high speed micro milling and micro drilling, etc. Furthermore, implementation techniques are presented focusing on: (a) plug-and-produce design principle and the associated smart control algorithms, (b) piezoelectric film and surface acoustic wave transducers to measure cutting forces in process, (c) critical cutting temperature control in real-time machining, (d) in-process calibration through machining trials, (e) FE-based design and analysis of smart cutting tools, and (f) application exemplars on adaptive smart machining.

  16. Laboratory versus industrial cutting force sensor in tool condition monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szwajka, K

    2005-01-01

    Research works concerning the utilisation of cutting force measures in tool condition monitoring usually present results and deliberations based on laboratory sensors. These sensors are too fragile to be used in industrial practice. Industrial sensors employed on the factory floor are less accurate, and this must be taken into account when creating a tool condition monitoring strategy. Another drawback of most of these works is that constant cutting parameters are used for the entire tool life. This does not reflect industrial practice where the same tool is used at different feeds and depths of cut in sequential passes. This paper presents a comparison of signals originating from laboratory and industrial cutting force sensors. The usability of the sensor output was studied during a laboratory simulation of industrial cutting conditions. Instead of building mathematical models for the correlation between tool wear and cutting force, an FFBP artificial neural network was used to find which combination of input data would provide an acceptable estimation of tool wear. The results obtained proved that cross talk between channels has an important influence on cutting force measurements, however this input configuration can be used for a tool condition monitoring system

  17. LASER CUTTING AS AN INNOVATIVE CREATIVITY TOOL IN TEXTILE DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Hatice Gurcum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovative technologies have become the most widespread rapid and flexible technique of cutting, welding, printing and coloring in fashion and textile sectors in a very short time. Laser systems as the most common used innovative technology engrave, cut, form, print, shade appropriated formatted drawings and sketches as well as they provide reliable placements for the lay out plans and precision cutting and the production sector rapid and qualified. The practical applications and conveniences that innovative Technologies employ, influence design process, designers can design in a more creative, rapid, precise and effective manner. Although design is a context where technology is effective, the style, mood and the background of the designer is still important. Designers while making innovative studies should take the advantage of the developing technologies in experimental processes and should combine technological opportunities with aesthetics. Textile designer as in all other domains of design, should harmonise with the change and should define his/her style with the innovative Technologies in an innovative manner and renew him/herself all the time. This study aims to classify laser cutting technology applications available in textile and fashion sector as well as to present the laser technology as a means of process, product, material innovation and explains the contributions of laser systems to creativity.

  18. Investigation of wear land and rate of locally made HSS cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolalu, S. A.; Abioye, A. A.; Dirisu, J. O.; Okokpujie, I. P.; Ajayi, O. O.; Adetunji, O. R.

    2018-04-01

    Production technology and machining are inseparable with cutting operation playing important roles. Investigation of wear land and rate of cutting tool developed locally (C=0.56%) with an HSS cutting tool (C=0.65%) as a control was carried out. Wear rate test was carried out using Rotopol -V and Impact tester. The samples (12) of locally made cutting tools and one (1) sample of a control HSS cutting tool were weighed to get the initial weight and grit was fixed at a point for the sample to revolve at a specific time of 10 mins interval. Approach of macro transfer particles that involved mechanism of abrasion and adhesion which was termed as mechanical wear to handle abrasion adhesion processes was used in developing equation for growth wear at flank. It was observed from the wear test that best minimum wear rate of 1.09 × 10-8 and 2.053 × 10-8 for the tools developed and control were measured. MATLAB was used to simulate the wear land and rate under different conditions. Validated results of both the experimental and modeling showed that cutting speed has effect on wear rate while cutting time has predicted measure on wear land. Both experimental and modeling result showed best performances of tools developed over the control.

  19. Reducing bending stress in external spur gears by redesign of the standard cutting tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2009-01-01

    For the design of gears the stress due to bending plays a significant role. The stress from bending is largest in the root of the gear teeth, and the magnitude of the maximum stress is controlled by the nominal bending stress and stress concentration due to the geometric shape of the tooth....... In this work the bending stress of involute teeth is minimized by shape optimizing the tip of the standard cutting tool. By redesign of the tip of the standard cutting tool we achieve that the functional part of the teeth stays the same while at the same time the root shape is changed so that a reduction...... of the stresses results. The tool tip shape is described by different parameterizations that use the super ellipse as the central shape. For shape optimization it is important that the shape is given analytically. The shape of the cut tooth that is the envelope of the cutting tool is found analytically...

  20. PIXE analysis of cave sediments, prehispanic paintings and obsidian cutting tools from Baja California Sur caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, J.; Oliver, A.; Dacal, A.; Ruvalcaba, J.L.; Cruz, F.; Ortiz, M.E.; Vinas, R.

    1993-01-01

    Elemental PIXE analysis of cave sediments, minerals, pigments of the prehispanic paintings and obsidian cutting tools from caves in Baja California Sur has been carried out with a 0.7 MeV proton beam. The elements analysed in this sample set (Al to Co) provide an idea of the environment of the caves. The obsidian data analysis suggests that the human communities who made these painting used more than one obsidian source to manufacture cutting tools. (orig.)

  1. Wear monitoring of single point cutting tool using acoustic emission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    feeds are used, the coating remains intact throughout the duration of testing. Wear ... present global industrial scenario is to produce quality products at competitive price. .... Coated carbide tool was selected based on its wider application.

  2. Development and characterization of AlCrN coated Si3N4 ceramic cutting tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.V.C.; Nono, M.C.A.; Machado, J.P.B.; Silva, O.M.M.; Sa, F.C.L.

    2010-01-01

    Ceramic cutting tools are showing a growing market perspective in terms of application on machining operations due to their high hardness, wear resistance, and machining without a cutting fluid, therefore are good candidates for cast iron and Nickel superalloys machining. The objective of the present paper was the development of Si 3 N 4 based ceramic cutting insert, characterization of its physical and mechanical properties, and subsequent coating with AlCrN using a PVD method. The characterization of the coating was made using an optical profiler, XRD, AFM and microhardness tester. The results showed that the tool presented a fracture toughness of 6,43 MPa.m 1/2 and hardness of 16 GPa. The hardness reached 31 GPa after coating. The machining tests showed an improvement on work piece roughness when machining with coated insert, in comparison with the uncoated cutting tool. Probably this fact is related to hardness, roughness and topography of AlCrN. (author)

  3. Development and characterization of Si3N4 coated AlCrN ceramic cutting tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.V.C.; Nono, M.C.A.; Martins, G.V.; Machado, J.P.B.; Silva, O.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, silicon nitride based cutting tools are used to machine cast iron from the automotive industry and nickel superalloys from the aero industries. Advances in manufacturing technologies (increased cutting speeds, dry machining, etc.) induced the fast commercial growth of physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings for cutting tools, in order to increase their life time. In this work, a new composition of the Si 3 N 4 ceramic cutting tool was developed, characterized and subsequently coated, using a PVD process, with aluminum chromium nitride (AlCrN). The Si 3 N 4 substrate properties were analyzed by XRD, AFM, hardness and fracture toughness. The AlCrN coating was analyzed by AFM, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and hardness. The results showed that this PVD coating could be formed homogeneously, without cracks and promoted a higher surface hardness to the insert and consequently it can produce a better wear resistance during its application on high speed machining. (author)

  4. Wear mechanism of CBN cutting tool during high-speed machining of mold steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhat, Z.N.

    2003-01-01

    Wear behavior of cubic boron nitride (CBN) cutting tool when cutting P20 tool steel was investigated. Oblique cutting tests were performed on a CNC lathe using five speeds, namely, 240, 600 and 1000 m min -1 . The CBN cutting tools were found to be superior to tungsten carbide (WC) tools. Fourfold increase in productivity and significant reduction in chipping and cratering was achieved for CBN as compared to WC. Wear, as the width of the wear land (VB), was monitored at selected time intervals; furthermore, topography of worn surfaces was performed, using a profilometer. Wear characterization of the rake and the flank surfaces as well as of the collected chips was conducted using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered electron imaging and energy depressive X-ray (EDX). It was found that deformation in the chips occurs by localized shear deformation and the dominant wear mechanism at all speeds used was identified to be diffusive wear. At a 1000 m min -1 cutting speed, a secondary wear mechanism was identified, which is melt wear, i.e., formation of low melting point Cr and Mn compounds with the tool material and the subsequent ejection from the cutting zone

  5. Wear and breakage monitoring of cutting tools by an optical method: theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yongqing; Chen, Fangrong; Tian, Zhiren; Wang, Yao

    1996-10-01

    An essential part of a machining system in the unmanned flexible manufacturing system, is the ability to automatically change out tools that are worn or damaged. An optoelectronic method for in situ monitoring of the flank wear and breakage of cutting tools is presented. A flank wear estimation system is implemented in a laboratory environment, and its performance is evaluated through turning experiments. The flank wear model parameters that need to be known a priori are determined through several preliminary experiments, or from data available in the literature. The resulting cutting conditions are typical of those used in finishing cutting operations. Through time and amplitude domain analysis of the cutting tool wear states and breakage states, it is found that the original signal digital specificity (sigma) 2x and the self correlation coefficient (rho) (m) can reflect the change regularity of the cutting tool wear and break are determined, but which is not enough due to the complexity of the wear and break procedure of cutting tools. Time series analysis and frequency spectrum analysis will be carried out, which will be described in the later papers.

  6. Cutting force and wear evaluation in peripheral milling by CVD diamond dental tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polini, R.; Allegri, A.; Guarino, S.; Quadrini, F.; Sein, H.; Ahmed, W.

    2004-01-01

    Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) tools are currently employed in dental application for prosthesis fabrication. The deposition of a diamond coating onto WC-Co tools could allow both to increase the tool life and tool performance at higher speeds. However, at present it is very difficult to quantify the effective advantage of the application of a diamond coating onto dental tools compared to traditional uncoated tools. Therefore, in this work, we have deposited diamond coatings onto WC-Co dental tools having different geometries by Hot Filament Chemical Vapour Deposition (HFCVD). Prior to deposition, the WC-Co tools were pre-treated in order to roughen the surface and to modify the chemical surface composition. The use of the HFCVD process enabled the deposition of a uniform coating despite the complex geometries of the dental mills. For the first time, in accordance to the knowledge of the authors, we have studied and compared the cutting behaviour of both virgin and diamond-coated dental tools by measuring both wear and cutting force time evolution under milling a very hard Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy. To ensure constant cutting rate (20,000-r.p.m. cutting rate, 0.01-m/min feed rate and 0.5-mm depth of cut), a proper experimental apparatus was used. Three different mill geometries were considered in both coated and uncoated conditions. The results showed that, under the high-speed conditions employed, uncoated tools underwent to catastrophic failure within a few seconds of machining. Diamond-coated tools exhibited much longer tool lives. Lower forces were measured when the coated tool was employed due to the much lower material-mill friction. The best behaviour was observed for coated mills with the presence of a chip-breaker

  7. A new mathematical model of the surface degradation causing wear on the cutting tool`s flank land

    OpenAIRE

    Pаlmai, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Having reviewed the extensive literature on the wear of the cutting tool, we chose the theoretical description of flank wear as the subject matter of this paper. Based on the optical electron-optical and morphological studies of the physical characteristics of wear processes we came to the conclusion that the cutting distance need not only be taken into consideration in abrasive, adhesive processes but also in thermally activated diffusion, oxidation processes. Consequently, we propose the ap...

  8. Performance improvement studies for cutting tools with perforated surface in turning of titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charitha Rao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In turning process, the cutting tool is essential for shaping materials. The cutting tools with various perforated surfaces help to increase the cutting tool life. Also, advances in CNC machining technologies have enhanced the productivity of machining process. One of the best or futuristic approaches in modern manufacturing engineering is the use of FEM Simulation for the metal cutting process. FEM simulation helps in understanding the metal deformation process and also helps in the reduction of experiments. The simulation helps the researchers to predict the major influencing cutting variable values without carrying out any experiment which is time-consuming and expensive. This research presents the simulation study of the performance of micro-hole patterned Polycrystalline Diamond cutting insert in machining Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V. Micro-holes are drilled using Electrical Discharge Wire Drilling machine on the rake face of Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD cutting inserts. FEM analysis is carried out to evaluate the effect of perforations on the mechanical integrity of insert. The micro-hole patterned insert is modeled in PRO-E modeler and simulated using DEFORM-3D software. The effective stress, strain, and temperature distribution are analyzed and the results are compared with the normal insert.

  9. Metal Cutting Theory and Friction Stir Welding Tool Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Lewis N.

    2003-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a relatively new industrial process that was invented at The Weld Institute (TWI, United Kingdom) and patented in 1992 under research funded by in part by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Often quoted advantages of the process include good strength and ductility along with minimization of residual stress and distortion. Less well advertised are the beneficial effects of this solid state welding process in the field of occupational and environmental safety. It produces superior weld products in difficult to weld materials without producing any toxic fumes or solid waste that must be controlled as hazardous waste. In fact, it reduces noise pollution in the workspace as well. In the early days of FSW, most welding was performed on modified machine tools, in particular on milling machines with modified milling cutters. In spite of the obvious milling heritage of the process, the techniques and lessons learned from almost 250 years of successful metalworking with milling machines have not been applied in the field of modern Friction Stir Welding. The goal of the current research was to study currently successful FSW tools and parameterize the process in such a way that the design of new tools for new materials could be accelerated. Along the way, several successful new tooling designs were developed for current issues at the Marshall Space Flight Center with accompanying patent disclosures

  10. Advantages of the CCD camera measurements for profile and wear of cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, G; Dudas, I; Balajti, Z

    2005-01-01

    In our paper we prepared an evaluating study of which conclusions draw mainly two directions for our fields of research. On the one hand, this means the measuring of fix, standing workpieces, on the other hand this means geometrical measurement of moving tools. The first case seems to be solved in many respects (in general cases), but the second one is not completely worked out according to the relevant literature. The monitoring of tool wear, the determination of geometrical parameters (this is mainly in case of gear-generating tools) is not really widespread yet, mainly, if optical parameters have influence on the evaluating procedure (e.g. examination of profiles of grinding wheels). We show the elaboration of a process for the practical application of measuring techniques performed by image processing CCD cameras on the basis of wearing criteria of different cutting tools (drilling tool, turning tool). We have made a profile and cutting tool wear measuring program

  11. Reliable tool life measurements in turning - an application to cutting fluid efficiency evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos A.; Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    The paper proposes a method to obtain reliable measurements of tool life in turning, discussing some aspects related to experimental procedure and measurement accuracy. The method (i) allows and experimental determination of the extended Taylor's equation, with a limited set of experiments and (ii......) provides efficiency evaluation. Six cutting oils, five of which formulated from vegetable basestock, were evaluated in turning. Experiments were run in a range of cutting parameters. according to a 2, 3-1 factorial design, machining AISI 316L stainless steel with coated carbide tools. Tool life...

  12. Identifying the cutting tool type used in excavations using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonak, J.; Gajewski, J. [Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-03-15

    The paper presents results of preliminary research on utilising neural networks to identify excavating cutting tool's type used in multi-tool excavating heads of mechanical coal miners. Such research is necessary to identify rock excavating process with a given head, and construct adaptation systems for control of excavating process with such a head.

  13. Modelling and Development of a High Performance Milling Process with Monolithic Cutting Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, E.; Taylor, C. M.; Turner, S.; Devey, M.

    2011-01-01

    Critical aerospace components usually require difficult to machine workpiece materials like nickel based alloys. Moreover; there is a pressing need to maximize the productivity of machining operations. This need can be satisfied by selection of higher feed velocity, axial and radial depths. But there may be several problems during machining in this case. Due to high cutting speeds in high performance machining, the tool life may be unacceptably low. If magnitudes of cutting forces are high, out of tolerance static form errors may result; moreover in the extreme cases, the cutting tool may break apart. Forced vibrations may deteriorate the surface quality. Chatter vibrations may develop if the selected parameters result in instability. In this study, in order to deal with the tool life issue, several experimental cuts are made with different tool geometries, and the best combination in terms of tool life is selected. A force model is developed and the results of the force model are verified by experimental results. The force model is used in predicting the effect of process parameters on cutting forces. In order to account for the other concerns such as static form errors, forced and chatter vibrations, additional process models are currently under development.

  14. Wear of Cutting Tool with Excel Geometry in Turning Process of Hardened Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardžiová, Michaela

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with hard turning using a cutting tool with Xcel geometry. This is one of the new geometries, and there is not any information about Xcel wear in comparison to the conventional geometry. It is already known from cutting tools producers that using the Xcel geometry leads to higher quality of machined surface, perticularly surface roughness. It is possible to achieve more than 4 times lower Ra and Rz values after turning than after using conventional geometry with radius. The workpiece material was 100Cr6 hardened steel with hardness of 60 ± 1 HRC. The machine used for the experiment was a lathe with counter spindle DMG CTX alpha 500, which is located in the Centre of Excellence of 5-axis Machining at the Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava. The cutting tools made by CBN were obtained from Sandvik COROMANT Company. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cutting tool wear in hard turning process by the Xcel cutting tool geometry.

  15. Kinect, a Novel Cutting Edge Tool in Pavement Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, A.; Firoozi Yeganeh, S.; Golroo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pavement roughness and surface distress detection is of interest of decision makers due to vehicle safety, user satisfaction, and cost saving. Data collection, as a core of pavement management systems, is required for these detections. There are two major types of data collection: traditional/manual data collection and automated/semi-automated data collection. This paper study different non-destructive tools in detecting cracks and potholes. For this purpose, automated data collection tools, which have been utilized recently are discussed and their applications are criticized. The main issue is the significant amount of money as a capital investment needed to buy the vehicle. The main scope of this paper is to study the approach and related tools that not only are cost-effective but also precise and accurate. The new sensor called Kinect has all of these specifications. It can capture both RGB images and depth which are of significant use in measuring cracks and potholes. This sensor is able to take image of surfaces with adequate resolution to detect cracks along with measurement of distance between sensor and obstacles in front of it which results in depth of defects. This technology has been very recently studied by few researchers in different fields of studies such as project management, biomedical engineering, etc. Pavement management has not paid enough attention to use of Kinect in monitoring and detecting distresses. This paper is aimed at providing a thorough literature review on usage of Kinect in pavement management and finally proposing the best approach which is cost-effective and precise.

  16. KINECT, A NOVEL CUTTING EDGE TOOL IN PAVEMENT DATA COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmoudzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pavement roughness and surface distress detection is of interest of decision makers due to vehicle safety, user satisfaction, and cost saving. Data collection, as a core of pavement management systems, is required for these detections. There are two major types of data collection: traditional/manual data collection and automated/semi-automated data collection. This paper study different non-destructive tools in detecting cracks and potholes. For this purpose, automated data collection tools, which have been utilized recently are discussed and their applications are criticized. The main issue is the significant amount of money as a capital investment needed to buy the vehicle. The main scope of this paper is to study the approach and related tools that not only are cost-effective but also precise and accurate. The new sensor called Kinect has all of these specifications. It can capture both RGB images and depth which are of significant use in measuring cracks and potholes. This sensor is able to take image of surfaces with adequate resolution to detect cracks along with measurement of distance between sensor and obstacles in front of it which results in depth of defects. This technology has been very recently studied by few researchers in different fields of studies such as project management, biomedical engineering, etc. Pavement management has not paid enough attention to use of Kinect in monitoring and detecting distresses. This paper is aimed at providing a thorough literature review on usage of Kinect in pavement management and finally proposing the best approach which is cost-effective and precise.

  17. Cemented carbide cutting tool: Laser processing and thermal stress analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, B.S. [Mechanical Engineering Department, KFUPM, Box 1913, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa; Arif, A.F.M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, KFUPM, Box 1913, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Karatas, C. [Engineering Faculty, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Ahsan, M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, KFUPM, Box 1913, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-04-15

    Laser treatment of cemented carbide tool surface consisting of W, C, TiC, TaC is examined and thermal stress developed due to temperature gradients in the laser treated region is predicted numerically. Temperature rise in the substrate material is computed numerically using the Fourier heating model. Experiment is carried out to treat the tool surfaces using a CO{sub 2} laser while SEM, XRD and EDS are carried out for morphological and structural characterization of the treated surface. Laser parameters were selected include the laser output power, duty cycle, assisting gas pressure, scanning speed, and nominal focus setting of the focusing lens. It is found that temperature gradient attains significantly high values below the surface particularly for titanium and tantalum carbides, which in turn, results in high thermal stress generation in this region. SEM examination of laser treated surface and its cross section reveals that crack initiation below the surface occurs and crack extends over the depth of the laser treated region.

  18. Influence of Thickness of Multilayered Nano-Structured Coatings Ti-TiN-(TiCrAlN and Zr-ZrN-(ZrCrNbAlN on Tool Life of Metal Cutting Tools at Various Cutting Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Vereschaka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the influence of thickness of multilayered nano-structured coatings Ti-TiN-(TiCrAlN and Zr-ZrN-(ZrCrNbAlN on tool life of metal cutting tools at various cutting speeds (vc = 250, 300, 350 and 400 m·min−1. The paper investigates the basic mechanical parameters of coatings and the mechanism of coating failure in scratch testing depending on thickness of coating. Cutting tests were conducted in longitudinal turning of steel C45 with tools with the coatings under study of various thicknesses (3, 5, and 7 µm, with an uncoated tool and with a tool with a “reference” coating of TiAlN. The relationship of “cutting speed vc—tool life T” was built and investigated; and the mechanisms were found to determine the selection of the optimum coating thickness at various cutting speeds. Advantages of cutting tools with these coatings are especially obvious at high cutting speeds (in particular, vc = 400 m·min−1. If at lower cutting speeds, the longest tool life is shown by tools with thicker coatings (of about 7 μm, then with an increase in cutting speed (especially at vc = 400 m·min−1 the longest tool life is shown by tools with thinner coating (of about 3 μm.

  19. PIXE as a characterization technique in the cutting tool industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freemantle, C.S.; Sacks, N.; Topic, M.; Pineda-Vargas, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Two WC–Co powders have been analyzed using micro-PIXE to identify elemental concentration and distribution. A powder recycled primarily from used mining components and a powder produced exclusively from fresh raw materials was studied. Elemental mapping of major elements as well as impurities, within powder granule cross sections, was performed. Contaminants (e.g. Fe and Ni) from manufacturing processes, as well as trace impurities (e.g. Cr, Cl, Ca and S) from recycling were detected, quantified and compared. The extent of increased concentrations of impurities resulting from recycling were observed, demonstrating the potential for PIXE as a characterization tool for detecting trace elements in cemented carbides, allowing for future improvements in the manufacturing and recycling processes

  20. PIXE as a characterization technique in the cutting tool industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freemantle, C.S., E-mail: chris@freemantle.co.za [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering and DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Pilot Tools (Pty) (Ltd.), P.O. Box 27559, Benrose 2011 (South Africa); Sacks, N. [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering and DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Topic, M. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa)

    2014-01-01

    Two WC–Co powders have been analyzed using micro-PIXE to identify elemental concentration and distribution. A powder recycled primarily from used mining components and a powder produced exclusively from fresh raw materials was studied. Elemental mapping of major elements as well as impurities, within powder granule cross sections, was performed. Contaminants (e.g. Fe and Ni) from manufacturing processes, as well as trace impurities (e.g. Cr, Cl, Ca and S) from recycling were detected, quantified and compared. The extent of increased concentrations of impurities resulting from recycling were observed, demonstrating the potential for PIXE as a characterization tool for detecting trace elements in cemented carbides, allowing for future improvements in the manufacturing and recycling processes.

  1. The Influence of Tool Geometry towards Cutting Performance in Machining Aluminium 7075

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Syafik Jumali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerospace industries often use Computer Numerical Control (CNC machining in manufacturing aerospace parts. Aluminium 7075 is the most common material used as aircraft components. This research aims to produce end mill with optimum geometry in terms of the helix angle, primary radial relief angle and secondary relief angle. End mills with different geometry parameters are tested on Aluminium 7075 and data on surface roughness and tool wear were collected. The results were then analysed to determine which parameters brought the optimum result with regards to surface roughness and tool wear.

  2. Wear of Cutting Tool with Excel Geometry in Turning Process of Hardened Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžiová Michaela

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with hard turning using a cutting tool with Xcel geometry. This is one of the new geometries, and there is not any information about Xcel wear in comparison to the conventional geometry. It is already known from cutting tools producers that using the Xcel geometry leads to higher quality of machined surface, perticularly surface roughness. It is possible to achieve more than 4 times lower Ra and Rz values after turning than after using conventional geometry with radius. The workpiece material was 100Cr6 hardened steel with hardness of 60 ± 1 HRC. The machine used for the experiment was a lathe with counter spindle DMG CTX alpha 500, which is located in the Centre of Excellence of 5–axis Machining at the Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava. The cutting tools made by CBN were obtained from Sandvik COROMANT Company.

  3. Experimental and theoretical studies on stainless steel transfer onto a TiN-coated cutting tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, U., E-mail: urban.wiklund@angstrom.uu.se [Applied Materials Science, Department of Engineering Sciences, Box 534, 751 21, Uppsala University (Sweden); Rubino, S. [Electron Microscopy and Nanoengineering, Department of Engineering Sciences, Box 534, 751 21, Uppsala University (Sweden); Kadas, K. [Materials Theory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, 751 20, Uppsala University (Sweden); Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, H-1525 Budapest, PO Box 49 (Hungary); Skorodumova, N.V.; Eriksson, O. [Materials Theory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, 751 20, Uppsala University (Sweden); Hedberg, S. [Outokumpu Stainless AB, Box 74, 774 22 Avesta (Sweden); Collin, M. [AB Sandvik Tooling R and D, SE-126 80 Stockholm (Sweden); Olsson, A. [Angstroem Materials Academy, Box 534, 751 21, Uppsala University (Sweden); Leifer, K. [Electron Microscopy and Nanoengineering, Department of Engineering Sciences, Box 534, 751 21, Uppsala University (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    Stainless steel is a good example of a metal that is not easily machined. To explain such behavior an understanding of the fundamental adhesion between the workpiece and the tool is invaluable. It is a well-known fact that build-up layers form in the interface, but little attention has been given to the very first layer that adheres to the tool surface. Although this layer rapidly becomes covered by successive material transfer, this layer and its ability to stick to the tool surface control the successive material transfer and influence the cutting properties. In this work, a quick stop test is employed to interrupt the cutting of a 316L stainless steel using a TiN-coated cemented carbide cutting insert. Different analytical techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, as well as theoretical atomistic modeling, were used to study the early adhesion.

  4. Experimental and theoretical studies on stainless steel transfer onto a TiN-coated cutting tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiklund, U.; Rubino, S.; Kadas, K.; Skorodumova, N.V.; Eriksson, O.; Hedberg, S.; Collin, M.; Olsson, A.; Leifer, K.

    2011-01-01

    Stainless steel is a good example of a metal that is not easily machined. To explain such behavior an understanding of the fundamental adhesion between the workpiece and the tool is invaluable. It is a well-known fact that build-up layers form in the interface, but little attention has been given to the very first layer that adheres to the tool surface. Although this layer rapidly becomes covered by successive material transfer, this layer and its ability to stick to the tool surface control the successive material transfer and influence the cutting properties. In this work, a quick stop test is employed to interrupt the cutting of a 316L stainless steel using a TiN-coated cemented carbide cutting insert. Different analytical techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, as well as theoretical atomistic modeling, were used to study the early adhesion.

  5. Artificial Intelligence Based Selection of Optimal Cutting Tool and Process Parameters for Effective Turning and Milling Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, Kunaparaju; John Rozario Jegaraj, J.; Ramesh Kumar, Katta; Venkateshwara Rao, Ghanta

    2016-06-01

    With the increased trend in automation of modern manufacturing industry, the human intervention in routine, repetitive and data specific activities of manufacturing is greatly reduced. In this paper, an attempt has been made to reduce the human intervention in selection of optimal cutting tool and process parameters for metal cutting applications, using Artificial Intelligence techniques. Generally, the selection of appropriate cutting tool and parameters in metal cutting is carried out by experienced technician/cutting tool expert based on his knowledge base or extensive search from huge cutting tool database. The present proposed approach replaces the existing practice of physical search for tools from the databooks/tool catalogues with intelligent knowledge-based selection system. This system employs artificial intelligence based techniques such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithm for decision making and optimization. This intelligence based optimal tool selection strategy is developed using Mathworks Matlab Version 7.11.0 and implemented. The cutting tool database was obtained from the tool catalogues of different tool manufacturers. This paper discusses in detail, the methodology and strategies employed for selection of appropriate cutting tool and optimization of process parameters based on multi-objective optimization criteria considering material removal rate, tool life and tool cost.

  6. Robustness evaluation of cutting tool maintenance planning for soft ground tunneling projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Conrads

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel boring machines require extensive maintenance and inspection effort to provide a high availability. The cutting tools of the cutting wheel must be changed timely upon reaching a critical condition. While one possible maintenance strategy is to change tools only when it is absolutely necessary, tools can also be changed preventively to avoid further damages. Such different maintenance strategies influence the maintenance duration and the overall project performance. However, determine downtime related to a particular maintenance strategy is still a challenging task. This paper shows an analysis of the robustness to achieve the planned project performance of a maintenance strategy considering uncertainties of wear behavior of the cutting tools. A simulation based analysis is presented, implementing an empirical wear prediction model. Different strategies of maintenance planning are compared by performing a parameter variation study including Monte-Carlo simulations. The maintenance costs are calculated and evaluated with respect to their robustness. Finally, an improved and robust maintenance strategy has been determined. Keywords: Mechanized tunneling, Maintenance, Wear of cutting tools, Process simulation, Robustness, Uncertainty modeling

  7. Ductile cutting of silicon microstructures with surface inclination measurement and compensation by using a force sensor integrated single point diamond tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuan-Liu; Cai, Yindi; Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, So; Gao, Wei; Ju, Bing-Feng

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement and compensation method of surface inclination for ductile cutting of silicon microstructures by using a diamond tool with a force sensor based on a four-axis ultra-precision lathe. The X- and Y-directional inclinations of a single crystal silicon workpiece with respect to the X- and Y-motion axes of the lathe slides were measured respectively by employing the diamond tool as a touch-trigger probe, in which the tool-workpiece contact is sensitively detected by monitoring the force sensor output. Based on the measurement results, fabrication of silicon microstructures can be thus carried out directly along the tilted silicon workpiece by compensating the cutting motion axis to be parallel to the silicon surface without time-consuming pre-adjustment of the surface inclination or turning of a flat surface. A diamond tool with a negative rake angle was used in the experiment for superior ductile cutting performance. The measurement precision by using the diamond tool as a touch-trigger probe was investigated. Experiments of surface inclination measurement and ultra-precision ductile cutting of a micro-pillar array and a micro-pyramid array with inclination compensation were carried out respectively to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. (paper)

  8. Machining of high performance workpiece materials with CBN coated cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlmann, E.; Fuentes, J.A. Oyanedel; Keunecke, M.

    2009-01-01

    The machining of high performance workpiece materials requires significantly harder cutting materials. In hard machining, the early tool wear occurs due to high process forces and temperatures. The hardest known material is the diamond, but steel materials cannot be machined with diamond tools because of the reactivity of iron with carbon. Cubic boron nitride (cBN) is the second hardest of all known materials. The supply of such PcBN indexable inserts, which are only geometrically simple and available, requires several work procedures and is cost-intensive. The development of a cBN coating for cutting tools, combine the advantages of a thin film system and of cBN. Flexible cemented carbide tools, in respect to the geometry can be coated. The cBN films with a thickness of up to 2 μm on cemented carbide substrates show excellent mechanical and physical properties. This paper describes the results of the machining of various workpiece materials in turning and milling operations regarding the tool life, resultant cutting force components and workpiece surface roughness. In turning tests of Inconel 718 and milling tests of chrome steel the high potential of cBN coatings for dry machining was proven. The results of the experiments were compared with common used tool coatings for the hard machining. Additionally, the wear mechanisms adhesion, abrasion, surface fatigue and tribo-oxidation were researched in model wear experiments.

  9. Experimental investigation into effect of cutting parameters on surface integrity of hardened tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, K.; Alkali, A. U.; Elmunafi, M. H. S.; Yusof, N. M.

    2018-04-01

    Recent trend in turning hardened materials have gained popularity because of its immense machinability benefits. However, several machining processes like thermal assisted machining and cryogenic machining have reveal superior machinability benefits over conventional dry turning of hardened materials. Various engineering materials have been studied. However, investigations on AISI O1 tool steel have not been widely reported. In this paper, surface finish and surface integrity dominant when hard turning AISI O1 tool steel is analysed. The study is focused on the performance of wiper coated ceramic tool with respect to surface roughness and surface integrity of hardened tool steel. Hard turned tool steel was machined at varying cutting speed of 100, 155 and 210 m/min and feed rate of 0.05, 0.125 and 0.20mm/rev. The depth of cut of 0.2mm was maintained constant throughout the machining trials. Machining was conducted using dry turning on 200E-axis CNC lathe. The experimental study revealed that the surface finish is relatively superior at higher cutting speed of 210m/min. The surface finish increases when cutting speed increases whereas surface finish is generally better at lower feed rate of 0.05mm/rev. The experimental study conducted have revealed that phenomena such as work piece vibration due to poor or improper mounting on the spindle also contributed to higher surface roughness value of 0.66Ra during turning at 0.2mm/rev. Traces of white layer was observed when viewed with optical microscope which shows evidence of cutting effects on the turned work material at feed rate of 0.2 rev/min

  10. Development of pipe welding, cutting and inspection tools for the ITER blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Taguchi, Kou; Takiguchi, Yuji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tada, Eisuke

    1999-07-01

    In D-T burning reactors such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), an internal access welding/cutting of blanket cooling pipe with bend sections is inevitably required because of spatial constraint due to nuclear shield and available port opening space. For this purpose, internal access pipe welding/cutting/inspection tools for manifolds and branch pipes are being developed according to the agreement of the ITER R and D task (T329). A design concept of welding/cutting processing head with a flexible optical fiber has been developed and the basic feasibility studies on welding, cutting and rewelding are performed using stainless steel plate (SS316L). In the same way, a design concept of inspection head with a non-destructive inspection probe (including a leak-testing probe) has been developed and the basic characteristic tests are performed using welded stainless steel pipes. In this report, the details of welding/cutting/inspection heads for manifolds and branch pipes are described, together with the basic experiment results relating to the welding/cutting and inspection. In addition, details of a composite type optical fiber, which can transmit both the high-power YAG laser and visible rays, is described. (author)

  11. Quantitative analysis of inclusions in low carbon free cutting steel using small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oba, Yojiro; Koppoju, Suresh; Ohnuma, Masato; Kinjo, Yuki; Tomota, Yo; Morooka, Satoshi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Koizumi, Satoshi; Sato, Masugu; Shiraga, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    The microstructure of inclusions in low carbon free cutting steel without lead addition was investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) coupled with small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The two-dimensional (2D) SAXS pattern shows clear scattering due to inclusions composed of large elongated particles aligned along the rolling direction, and small isotropic particles. From a comparison of the simulated and experimental 2D SAXS patterns, the shapes of the inclusions are regarded as ellipsoid for the larger inclusions and spherical for the smaller inclusions. The length of the minor axis in the large inclusion is 6.9 μm, while the diameter of the small inclusion is 0.50 μm. The aspect ratio of the large inclusion is estimated to be 3.8 in the lower q region, and is reduced slightly to 3.5 in the higher q region from the azimuthal plots. The results of an alloy contrast variation (ACV) analysis using both the SAXS and SANS data indicate that the chemical composition of the inclusions is almost NaCl-type manganese sulfide, and that the amount of iron sulfide is low. The volume fractions are 1.4% for the large inclusions and 0.2% for the small inclusions. This is consistent with the area fraction estimated using an optical microscope, and indicates that nearly all of the sulfur in the steel sample forms the manganese sulfide inclusions. (author)

  12. Influence of minimum quantity of lubricant (MQL on tool life of carbide cutting tools during milling process of steel AISI 1018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Núñez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, high productivity of machining is an important issue to obtain economic benefits in the industry. This purpose could be reached with high cutting velocity and feed rate. However, the inherently behavior produce high temperatures in the interface of couple cutting tool/workpiece. Many cutting fluids have been developed to control temperature in process and increase tool life. The objective of this paper is to compare the carbide milling tool wear using different systems cutting fluids: flood and minimum quantity of lubrication (MQL. The values of carbide milling cutting tool wear was evaluate according with the standard ISO 8688-1 1989. The experimental results showed that using MQL reduces significantly (about 40% tool wear in milling AISI 1018 steel at industrial cutting conditions.

  13. Five-axis Control Processing Using NC Machine Tools : A Tool Posture Decision Using the Tangent Slope at a Cut Point on a Work

    OpenAIRE

    小島, 龍広; 西田, 知照; 扇谷, 保彦

    2003-01-01

    This report deals with the way to decide tool posture and the way to analytically calculate tool path for the work shape requiring 5-axis control machining. In the tool path calculation, basic equations are derived using the principle that the tangent slope at a cut point on a work and the one at a cutting point on a tool edge are identical. A tool posture decision procedure using the tangent slope at each cut point on a work is proposed for any shape of tool edge. The valid- ity of the way t...

  14. Detection of Cutting Tool Wear using Statistical Analysis and Regression Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Jaharah A.; Rizal, Muhammad; Nuawi, Mohd Zaki; Haron, Che Hassan Che; Ramli, Rizauddin

    2010-10-01

    This study presents a new method for detecting the cutting tool wear based on the measured cutting force signals. A statistical-based method called Integrated Kurtosis-based Algorithm for Z-Filter technique, called I-kaz was used for developing a regression model and 3D graphic presentation of I-kaz 3D coefficient during machining process. The machining tests were carried out using a CNC turning machine Colchester Master Tornado T4 in dry cutting condition. A Kistler 9255B dynamometer was used to measure the cutting force signals, which were transmitted, analyzed, and displayed in the DasyLab software. Various force signals from machining operation were analyzed, and each has its own I-kaz 3D coefficient. This coefficient was examined and its relationship with flank wear lands (VB) was determined. A regression model was developed due to this relationship, and results of the regression model shows that the I-kaz 3D coefficient value decreases as tool wear increases. The result then is used for real time tool wear monitoring.

  15. Heuristic algorithms for solving of the tool routing problem for CNC cutting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentsov, P. A.; Petunin, A. A.; Sesekin, A. N.; Shipacheva, E. N.; Sholohov, A. E.

    2015-11-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of minimizing the path of the cutting tool to shape cutting machines began. This problem can be interpreted as a generalized traveling salesman problem. Earlier version of the dynamic programming method to solve this problem was developed. Unfortunately, this method allows to process an amount not exceeding thirty circuits. In this regard, the task of constructing quasi-optimal route becomes relevant. In this paper we propose options for quasi-optimal greedy algorithms. Comparison of the results of exact and approximate algorithms is given.

  16. Modelling of tunnelling processes and rock cutting tool wear with the particle finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Josep Maria; Oñate, Eugenio; Suárez, Benjamín

    2013-09-01

    Underground construction involves all sort of challenges in analysis, design, project and execution phases. The dimension of tunnels and their structural requirements are growing, and so safety and security demands do. New engineering tools are needed to perform a safer planning and design. This work presents the advances in the particle finite element method (PFEM) for the modelling and the analysis of tunneling processes including the wear of the cutting tools. The PFEM has its foundation on the Lagrangian description of the motion of a continuum built from a set of particles with known physical properties. The method uses a remeshing process combined with the alpha-shape technique to detect the contacting surfaces and a finite element method for the mechanical computations. A contact procedure has been developed for the PFEM which is combined with a constitutive model for predicting the excavation front and the wear of cutting tools. The material parameters govern the coupling of frictional contact and wear between the interacting domains at the excavation front. The PFEM allows predicting several parameters which are relevant for estimating the performance of a tunnelling boring machine such as wear in the cutting tools, the pressure distribution on the face of the boring machine and the vibrations produced in the machinery and the adjacent soil/rock. The final aim is to help in the design of the excavating tools and in the planning of the tunnelling operations. The applications presented show that the PFEM is a promising technique for the analysis of tunnelling problems.

  17. Statistical analysis of surface roughness in turning based on cutting parameters and tool vibrations with response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Soufiane; Mekhilef, Slimane

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we present an experimental study to determine the effect of the cutting conditions and tool vibration on the surface roughness in finish turning of 32CrMoV12-28 steel, using carbide cutting tool YT15. For these purposes, a linear quadratic model in interaction of connecting surface roughness (Ra, Rz) with different combinations of cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool vibration, in radial and in tangential cutting force directions (Vy) and (Vz) is elaborated. In order to express the degree of interaction of cutting parameters and tool vibration, a multiple linear regression and response surface methodology are adopted. The application of this statistical technique for predicting the surface roughness shows that the feed rate is the most dominant factor followed by the cutting speed. However, the depth of the cut and tool vibrations have secondary effect. The presented models have some interest since they are used in the cutting process optimization.

  18. Method for Friction Force Estimation on the Flank of Cutting Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Huerta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction forces are present in any machining process. These forces could play an important role in the dynamics of the system. In the cutting process, friction is mainly present in the rake face and the flank of the tool. Although the one that acts on the rake face has a major influence, the other one can become also important and could take part in the stability of the system. In this work, experimental identification of the friction on the flank is presented. The experimental determination was carried out by machining aluminum samples in a CNC lathe. As a result, two friction functions were obtained as a function of the cutting speed and the relative motion of the contact elements. Experiments using a worn and a new insert were carried out. Force and acceleration were recorded simultaneously and, from these results, different friction levels were observed depending on the cutting parameters, such as cutting speed, feed rate, and tool condition. Finally, a friction model for the flank friction is presented.

  19. Self propagating high temperature synthesis of mixed carbide and boride powder systems for cutting tools manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallauri, D.; Cola, P.L. de; Piscone, F.; Amato, I.

    2001-01-01

    TiC-TiB 2 composites have been produced via SHS technique starting from low cost raw materials like TiO 2 , B 4 C, Mg. The influence of the diluent phase (Mg, TiC) content on combustion temperature has been investigated. The use of magnesium as the reductant phase allowed acid leaching of the undesired oxide product (MgO), leaving pure hard materials with fine particle size suitable to be employed in cutting tools manufacturing through cold pressing and sintering route. The densification has shown to be strongly dependent on the wetting additions. The influence of the metal binder and wetting additions on the sintering process has been investigated. A characterization of the obtained materials was performed by the point of view of cutting tools life (hardness, toughness, strength). (author)

  20. Correction method for the error of diamond tool's radius in ultra-precision cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Yu, Jing-chi

    2010-10-01

    The compensation method for the error of diamond tool's cutting edge is a bottle-neck technology to hinder the high accuracy aspheric surface's directly formation after single diamond turning. Traditional compensation was done according to the measurement result from profile meter, which took long measurement time and caused low processing efficiency. A new compensation method was firstly put forward in the article, in which the correction of the error of diamond tool's cutting edge was done according to measurement result from digital interferometer. First, detailed theoretical calculation related with compensation method was deduced. Then, the effect after compensation was simulated by computer. Finally, φ50 mm work piece finished its diamond turning and new correction turning under Nanotech 250. Testing surface achieved high shape accuracy pv 0.137λ and rms=0.011λ, which approved the new compensation method agreed with predictive analysis, high accuracy and fast speed of error convergence.

  1. Geometric Parameters of Cutting Tools that Can be Used for Forming Sided Surfaces with Variable Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razumov M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes machining technology of polyhedral surfaces with varying profile, which is provided by planetary motion of multiblade block tools. The features of the technology and urgency of the problem is indicated. The purpose of the study is to determine the minimum value of the clearance angle of the tool. Also, the study is carried out about changing the value of the front and rear corners during the formation of polygonal surface using a planetary gear. The scheme of calculating the impact of various factors on the value of the minimum clearance angle of the tool and kinematic front and rear corners of the instrument is provided. The mathematical formula for calculating the minimum clearance angle of the tool is given. Also, given the formula for determining the front and rear corners of the tool during driving. This study can be used in the calculation of the design operations forming multifaceted external surfaces with a variable profile by using the planetary gear.

  2. The optimization study on the tool wear of carbide cutting tool during milling Carbon Fibre Reinforced (CFRP) using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Khairusshima, M. K.; Hafiz Zakwan, B. Muhammad; Suhaily, M.; Sharifah, I. S. S.; Shaffiar, N. M.; Rashid, M. A. N.

    2018-01-01

    Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composite has become one of famous materials in industry, such as automotive, aeronautics, aerospace and aircraft. CFRP is attractive due to its properties, which promising better strength and high specification of mechanical properties other than its high resistance to corrosion. Other than being abrasive material due to the carbon nature, CFRP is an anisotropic material, which the knowledge of machining metal and steel cannot be applied during machining CFRP. The improper technique and parameters used to machine CFRP may result in high tool wear. This paper is to study the tool wear of 8 mm diameter carbide cutting tool during milling CFRP. To predict the suitable cutting parameters within range of 3500-6220 (rev/min), 200-245 (mm/min), and 0.4-1.8 (mm) for cutting speed, speed, feed rate and depth of cut respectively, which produce optimized result (less tool wear), Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used. Based on the developed mathematical model, feed rate was identified as the primary significant item that influenced tool wear. The optimized cutting parameters are cutting speed, feed and depth of cut of 3500 rev/min, 200 mm/min and 0.5 mm, respectively, with tool wear of 0.0267 mm. It is also can be observed that as the cutting speed and feed rate increased the tool wear is increasing.

  3. The impact of process variables and wear characteristics on the cutting tool performance using Finite Element Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Xiaoheng

    2016-01-01

    The frequent failure of cutting tool in the cutting process may cause a huge loss of money and time especially for hard to machine materials such as titanium alloys. Thus this study is mainly focused on the impact of wear characteristics and process variables on the cutting tool which is ignored by most of researchers. A thermo-mechanical finite element model of orthogonal metal cutting with segment chip formation is presented. This model can be used to predict the process performance in the ...

  4. Influence of Cutting Fluid Flow Rate and Cutting Parameters on the Surface Roughness and Flank Wear of TiAlN Coated Tool In Turning AISI 1015 Steel Using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moganapriya C.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the influence of cutting parameters (Depth of cut, feed rate, spindle speed and cutting fluid flow rate on the surface roughness and flank wear of physical vapor deposition (PVD Cathodic arc evaporation coated TiAlN tungsten carbide cutting tool insert during CNC turning of AISI 1015 mild steel. Analysis of Variance has been applied to determine the critical influence of cutting parameters. Taguchi orthogonal test design has been employed to optimize the process parameters affecting surface roughness and tool wear. Depth of cut was found to be the most dominant factor contributing to high surface roughness (67.5% of the inserts. However, cutting speed, feed rate and flow rate of cutting fluid showed minimal contribution to surface roughness. On the other hand, cutting speed (45.6% and flow rate of cutting fluid (23% were the dominant factors influencing tool wear. The optimum cutting conditions for desired surface roughness constitutes the following parameters such as medium cutting speed, low feed rate, low depth of cut and high cutting fluid flow rate. Minimal tool wear was achieved for the following process parameters such as low cutting speed, low feed rate, medium depth of cut and high cutting fluid flow rate.

  5. Study on Surface Integrity of AISI 1045 Carbon Steel when machined by Carbide Cutting Tool under wet conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamin N. Fauzi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of surface roughness and roughness profiles when machining carbon steel under wet conditions with low and high cutting speeds. The workpiece materials and cutting tools selected in this research were AISI 1045 carbon steel and canela carbide inserts graded PM25, respectively. The cutting tools undergo machining tests by CNC turning operations and their performances were evaluated by their surface roughness value and observation of the surface roughness profile. The machining tests were held at varied cutting speeds of 35 to 53 m/min, feed rate of 0.15 to 0.50 mm/rev and a constant depth of cut of 1 mm. From the analysis, it was found that surface roughness increased as the feed rate increased. Varian of surface roughness was suspected due to interaction between cutting speeds and feed rates as well as nose radius conditions; whether from tool wear or the formation of a built-up edge. This study helps us understand the effect of cutting speed and feed rate on surface integrity, when machining AISI 1045 carbon steel using carbide cutting tools, under wet cutting conditions.

  6. ASPECTS REGARDING THE OPTIMUM CUTTING TOOL PATH IN PROCESSING FREE-FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin CHIFAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach on tool paths optimization in CAM-type software for milling free forms, with the goal to improve efficiency in processing using CNC machine tools. The methodology proposed in this paper, tackles the problem of mechanical processing in 3 axes using ball nose milling cutters of small diameters, which follows a free form profile. I will consider two cases: the first one considers the ball nose end mill route on a free form with an angle of less than 30°, the second one with a tool path greater than 30°. The main objective of this paper is to determine the optimum angle in order to obtain a better surface roughness, a shorter time of processing and also a higher tool-life, all these by considering all other factors that occurs in the manufacturing process. This will be done by indicating and editing the tool path so that the tools will the minimum entries and exits on the surface of the piece. This will lead to a 10% decrease of the working time.

  7. Real-Time Estimation for Cutting Tool Wear Based on Modal Analysis of Monitored Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjiao Chi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of literature that recognizes the importance of product safety and the quality problems during processing. The working status of cutting tools may lead to project delay and cost overrun if broken down accidentally, and tool wear is crucial to processing precision in mechanical manufacturing, therefore, this study contributes to this growing area of research by monitoring condition and estimating wear. In this research, an effective method for tool wear estimation was constructed, in which, the signal features of machining process were extracted by ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD and were used to estimate the tool wear. Based on signal analysis, vibration signals that had better linear relationship with tool wearing process were decomposed, then the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs, frequency spectrums of IMFs and the features relating to amplitude changes of frequency spectrum were obtained. The trend that tool wear changes with the features was fitted by Gaussian fitting function to estimate the tool wear. Experimental investigation was used to verify the effectiveness of this method and the results illustrated the correlation between tool wear and the modal features of monitored signals.

  8. Vibration suppression in cutting tools using collocated piezoelectric sensors/actuators with an adaptive control algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radecki, Peter P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bement, Matthew T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The machining process is very important in many engineering applications. In high precision machining, surface finish is strongly correlated with vibrations and the dynamic interactions between the part and the cutting tool. Parameters affecting these vibrations and dynamic interactions, such as spindle speed, cut depth, feed rate, and the part's material properties can vary in real-time, resulting in unexpected or undesirable effects on the surface finish of the machining product. The focus of this research is the development of an improved machining process through the use of active vibration damping. The tool holder employs a high bandwidth piezoelectric actuator with an adaptive positive position feedback control algorithm for vibration and chatter suppression. In addition, instead of using external sensors, the proposed approach investigates the use of a collocated piezoelectric sensor for measuring the dynamic responses from machining processes. The performance of this method is evaluated by comparing the surface finishes obtained with active vibration control versus baseline uncontrolled cuts. Considerable improvement in surface finish (up to 50%) was observed for applications in modern day machining.

  9. Optimization of cutting parameters in CNC turning of stainless steel 304 with TiAlN nano coated carbide cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durga Prasada Rao, V.; Harsha, N.; Raghu Ram, N. S.; Navya Geethika, V.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, turning was performed to optimize the surface finish or roughness (Ra) of stainless steel 304 with uncoated and coated carbide tools under dry conditions. The carbide tools were coated with Titanium Aluminium Nitride (TiAlN) nano coating using Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) method. The machining parameters, viz., cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate which show major impact on Ra are considered during turning. The experiments are designed as per Taguchi orthogonal array and machining process is done accordingly. Then second-order regression equations have been developed on the basis of experimental results for Ra in terms of machining parameters used. Regarding the effect of machining parameters, an upward trend is observed in Ra with respect to feed rate, and as cutting speed increases the Ra value increased slightly due to chatter and vibrations. The adequacy of response variable (Ra) is tested by conducting additional experiments. The predicted Ra values are found to be a close match of their corresponding experimental values of uncoated and coated tools. The corresponding average % errors are found to be within the acceptable limits. Then the surface roughness equations of uncoated and coated tools are set as the objectives of optimization problem and are solved by using Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm. Also the tool lives of uncoated and coated tools are predicted by using Taylor’s tool life equation.

  10. Taguchi Optimization of Cutting Parameters in Turning AISI 1020 MS with M2 HSS Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonowal, Dharindom; Sarma, Dhrupad; Bakul Barua, Parimal; Nath, Thuleswar

    2017-08-01

    In this paper the effect of three cutting parameters viz. Spindle speed, Feed and Depth of Cut on surface roughness of AISI 1020 mild steel bar in turning was investigated and optimized to obtain minimum surface roughness. All the experiments are conducted on HMT LB25 lathe machine using M2 HSS cutting tool. Ranges of parameters of interest have been decided through some preliminary experimentation (One Factor At a Time experiments). Finally a combined experiment has been carried out using Taguchi’s L27 Orthogonal Array (OA) to study the main effect and interaction effect of the all three parameters. The experimental results were analyzed with raw data ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and S/N data (Signal to Noise ratio) ANOVA. Results show that Spindle speed, Feed and Depth of Cut have significant effects on both mean and variation of surface roughness in turning AISI 1020 mild steel. Mild two factors interactions are observed among the aforesaid factors with significant effects only on the mean of the output variable. From the Taguchi parameter optimization the optimum factor combination is found to be 630 rpm spindle speed, 0.05 mm/rev feed and 1.25 mm depth of cut with estimated surface roughness 2.358 ± 0.970 µm. A confirmatory experiment was conducted with the optimum factor combination to verify the results. In the confirmatory experiment the average value of surface roughness is found to be 2.408 µm which is well within the range (0.418 µm to 4.299 µm) predicted for confirmatory experiment.

  11. Below-unitarity-threshold branch cut in the left angle anti q q right angle coefficient of the axial-vector two-current correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, V.; Univ. of Western Ontario, London, ON; Murison, J.L.; Scadron, M.D.; Steele, T.G.

    1993-01-01

    The dimension-3 quark-condensate component of the flavour-diagonal axial-vector two-current correlation function is evaluated to all orders in the quark mass m qk through use of the quark-condensate component of the nonperturbative fermion propagator. The result obtained is analytic in p 2 except for a branch cut for 0 2 qk ) 2 , corresponding to a branch cut occurring helow the anti qq kinematic threshold. The deep Euclidean region of the longitudinal component of this correlation function is utilized to obtain leading and subleading contributions to the QCD sum-rule relating m qk to . These same sum-rule results are obtained by means of an alternative derivation involving integration over the discontinuity in the correlation function along the branch cut, demonstrating the consistency of the physical-momentum-region branch cut with results obtained via standard means in the deep Euclidean region. (orig.)

  12. The role of the implementation angle of cuttings of Phyllanthus sellowianus as a reference for a soil protection measure against surface erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, H. P.; Sutili, F. J.; Aschbacher, M.; Müller, B.

    2009-04-01

    Cutting plantation is a very common method of soil bioengineering techniques. The potential of vegetative reproduction is used to install a vegetation cover on eroded slopes to prevent surface erosion. The development of above and below biomass from parts of the stock plant in a very short time and the fast and easy propagation are one of the most important advantages of this soil bioengineering type. Several handbooks (Schiechtl, 1992; Florineth, 2004 and Zeh, 2007) suggest potential plants for vegetative reproduction and describe the procedure of plantation in detail. It is recommended that the cuttings are not driven vertically into the ground. A flat implementation angle guarantees a more uniform rooting of the cutting part driven into the soil, however there are no systematically investigations of the impact of the implementation angle on the biomass performance and consequently on the performance as a surface erosion protection measure. This paper shows results from field investigations focusing on the problem of the impact of the implementation angle of cuttings. In sum 75 specimens of the species of Phyllanthus sellowianus. The plant species was recommended as a native potential soil bioengineering plant by Sutili (s. Sutili, 2006). The cuttings were planted with an average length of 50 cm and diameter of 2 cm. The implementation angle differences between 90 (vertical) 45 and 10 degree. Two months after plantation all plants were excavated and the relevant plant data sets were collected in order to analyse the biomass performance. The field investigations are part of an integrated research project of the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna and the Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil.

  13. Decontamination of a rotating cutting tool during operation by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Kusano, Yukihiro; Hansen, F.

    2010-01-01

    , is used for the experiments. A rotating knife was inoculated with L. innocua. The surface of the rotating knife was partly exposed to an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge operated in air, where the knife itself served as a ground electrode. The rotation of the knife ensures a treatment...... of the whole cutting tool. A log 5 reduction of L. innocua is obtained after 340 s of plasma operation. The temperature of the knife after treatment was found to be below 30 °C. The design of the setup allows a decontamination during slicing operation....

  14. Ropossum: An Authoring Tool for Designing, Optimizing and Solving Cut the Rope Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Mohammad; Shaker, Noor; Togelius, Julian

    2013-01-01

    We present a demonstration of Ropossum, an authoring tool for the generation and testing of levels of the physics-based game, Cut the Rope. Ropossum integrates many features: (1) automatic design of complete solvable content, (2) incorporation of designer’s input through the creation of complete...... or partial designs, (3) automatic check for playability and (4) optimization of a given design based on playability. The system includes a physics engine to simulate the game and an evolutionary framework to evolve content as well as an AI reasoning agent to check for playability. The system is optimised...

  15. Available Tools and Challenges Classifying Cutting-Edge and Historical Astronomical Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerstrom, Jill

    2015-08-01

    The STScI Library assists the Science Policies Division in evaluating and choosing scientific keywords and categories for proposals for the Hubble Space Telescope mission and the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope mission. In addition we are often faced with the question “what is the shape of the astronomical literature?” However, subject classification in astronomy in recent times has not been cultivated. This talk will address the available tools and challenges of classifying cutting-edge as well as historical astronomical documents. In at the process, we will give an overview of current and upcoming practices of subject classification in astronomy.

  16. Knowledge base technology for CT-DIMS: Report 1. [CT-DIMS (Cutting Tool - Database and Information Management System)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    This report discusses progress on the Cutting Tool-Database and Information Management System (CT-DIMS) project being conducted by the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) under contract to the Department of Energy. This project was initiated in October 1991 by UIUC. The Knowledge-Based Engineering Systems Research Laboratory (KBESRL) at UIUC is developing knowledge base technology and prototype software for the presentation and manipulation of the cutting tool databases at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). The graphical tool selection capability being developed for CT-DIMS in the Intelligent Design Environment for Engineering Automation (IDEEA) will provide a concurrent environment for simultaneous access to tool databases, tool standard libraries, and cutting tool knowledge.

  17. The leaf angle distribution of natural plant populations: assessing the canopy with a novel software tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Linow, Mark; Pinto-Espinosa, Francisco; Scharr, Hanno; Rascher, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional canopies form complex architectures with temporally and spatially changing leaf orientations. Variations in canopy structure are linked to canopy function and they occur within the scope of genetic variability as well as a reaction to environmental factors like light, water and nutrient supply, and stress. An important key measure to characterize these structural properties is the leaf angle distribution, which in turn requires knowledge on the 3-dimensional single leaf surface. Despite a large number of 3-d sensors and methods only a few systems are applicable for fast and routine measurements in plants and natural canopies. A suitable approach is stereo imaging, which combines depth and color information that allows for easy segmentation of green leaf material and the extraction of plant traits, such as leaf angle distribution. We developed a software package, which provides tools for the quantification of leaf surface properties within natural canopies via 3-d reconstruction from stereo images. Our approach includes a semi-automatic selection process of single leaves and different modes of surface characterization via polygon smoothing or surface model fitting. Based on the resulting surface meshes leaf angle statistics are computed on the whole-leaf level or from local derivations. We include a case study to demonstrate the functionality of our software. 48 images of small sugar beet populations (4 varieties) have been analyzed on the base of their leaf angle distribution in order to investigate seasonal, genotypic and fertilization effects on leaf angle distributions. We could show that leaf angle distributions change during the course of the season with all varieties having a comparable development. Additionally, different varieties had different leaf angle orientation that could be separated in principle component analysis. In contrast nitrogen treatment had no effect on leaf angles. We show that a stereo imaging setup together with the

  18. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT OF DEPOSIT WELDING AND GAS LASER CUTTING TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF THE BIMETALLIC TOOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burlachenko Oleg Vasil’evich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Deposit welding is the application of a layer of metal on the surface of a product using fusion welding. In this paper, we consider the method of improving the technology of gas laser cutting, which makes it possible to achieve a high productivity of manufacturing a bimetallic tool. The present paper is concerned with the advantages of gas laser cutting which allows to consider this particular process of separating materials as highly-productive, low-waste, and advanced method of removing allowances of weld-deposit high-speed steel on the working surfaces of bimetallic tool. Urgency of the use of deposit welding and gas laser cutting to improve the efficiency of production of bimetallic tool is shown. The comparative analysis of gas-laser cutting and other cutting methods is given according to the geometrical parameters of cutting and surface quality. Analysis of the results of experimental studies has confirmed the high technological attractiveness and economic efficiency of manufacturing composite structures of punches and matrices when applying deposit welding of cutting parts with high-speed steels. The cost of dimensional processing of the welded cutting part is reduced by 4 to 6 times, while the manufacturing time is reduced by 6 to 12 times.

  19. Fundamentals of cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J G; Patel, Y

    2016-06-06

    The process of cutting is analysed in fracture mechanics terms with a view to quantifying the various parameters involved. The model used is that of orthogonal cutting with a wedge removing a layer of material or chip. The behaviour of the chip is governed by its thickness and for large radii of curvature the chip is elastic and smooth cutting occurs. For smaller thicknesses, there is a transition, first to plastic bending and then to plastic shear for small thicknesses and smooth chips are formed. The governing parameters are tool geometry, which is principally the wedge angle, and the material properties of elastic modulus, yield stress and fracture toughness. Friction can also be important. It is demonstrated that the cutting process may be quantified via these parameters, which could be useful in the study of cutting in biology.

  20. Hydrothermal Upflow, Serpentinization and Talc Alteration Associated with a High Angle Normal Fault Cutting an Oceanic Detachment, Northern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, J.; Crispini, L.; Gaggero, L.; Shanks, W. C., III; Gulbransen, C.; Lavagnino, G.

    2017-12-01

    Normal faults cutting oceanic core complexes are observed at the seafloor and through geophysics, and may act as flow pathways for hydrothermal fluids, but we know little about such faults in the subsurface. We present bulk rock geochemistry and stable isotope data for a fault that acted as a hydrothermal upflow zone in a seafloor ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal system in the northern Apennines, Italy. Peridotites were exposed on the seafloor by detachment faulting, intruded by MORB gabbros, and are overlain by MORB lavas and pelagic sediments. North of the village of Reppia are fault shear zones in serpentinite, oriented at a high angle to the detachment surface and extending 300 m below the paleo-seafloor. The paleo-seafloor strikes roughly east-west, dipping 30˚ to the north. At depth the fault zone occurs as an anticlinal form plunging 40˚ to the west. A second fault strikes approximately north-south, with a near vertical dip. The fault rock outcrops as reddish weathered talc + sulfide in 0.1-2 m wide anastomosing bands, with numerous splays. Talc replaces serpentinite in the fault rocks, and the talc rocks are enriched in Si, metals (Fe, Cu, Pb), Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE), have variable Eu anomalies, and have low Mg, Cr and Ni contents. In some cases gabbro dikes are associated with talc-alteration and may have enhanced fluid flow. Sulfide from a fault rock has d34S=5.7‰. The mineralogy and chemistry of the fault rocks indicate that the fault acted as the upflow pathway for high-T black-smoker type fluids. Traverses away from the fault (up to 1 km) and with depth below the seafloor (up to 500 m) reveal variable influences of hydrothermal fluids, but there are no consistent trends with distance. Background serpentinites 500 m beneath the paleoseafloor have LREE depleted trends. Other serpentinites exhibit correlations of LREE with HFSE as the result of melt percolation, but there is significant scatter, and hydrothermal effects include LREE enrichment

  1. Estimation of the influence of tool wear on force signals: A finite element approach in AISI 1045 orthogonal cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equeter, Lucas; Ducobu, François; Rivière-Lorphèvre, Edouard; Abouridouane, Mustapha; Klocke, Fritz; Dehombreux, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    Industrial concerns arise regarding the significant cost of cutting tools in machining process. In particular, their improper replacement policy can lead either to scraps, or to early tool replacements, which would waste fine tools. ISO 3685 provides the flank wear end-of-life criterion. Flank wear is also the nominal type of wear for longest tool lifetimes in optimal cutting conditions. Its consequences include bad surface roughness and dimensional discrepancies. In order to aid the replacement decision process, several tool condition monitoring techniques are suggested. Force signals were shown in the literature to be strongly linked with tools flank wear. It can therefore be assumed that force signals are highly relevant for monitoring the condition of cutting tools and providing decision-aid information in the framework of their maintenance and replacement. The objective of this work is to correlate tools flank wear with numerically computed force signals. The present work uses a Finite Element Model with a Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. The geometry of the tool is changed for different runs of the model, in order to obtain results that are specific to a certain level of wear. The model is assessed by comparison with experimental data gathered earlier on fresh tools. Using the model at constant cutting parameters, force signals under different tool wear states are computed and provide force signals for each studied tool geometry. These signals are qualitatively compared with relevant data from the literature. At this point, no quantitative comparison could be performed on worn tools because the reviewed literature failed to provide similar studies in this material, either numerical or experimental. Therefore, further development of this work should include experimental campaigns aiming at collecting cutting forces signals and assessing the numerical results that were achieved through this work.

  2. Effect of cutting parameters on sustainable machining performance of coated carbide tool in dry turning process of stainless steel 316

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaber, Salem A.; Yusoff, Ahmed Razlan

    2017-04-01

    The manufacturing industry aims to produce many products of high quality with relatively less cost and time. Different cutting parameters affect the machining performance of surface roughness, cutting force, and material removal rate. Nevertheless, a few studies reported on the effects of sustainable factors such as power consumed, cycle time during machining, and tool life on the dry turning of AISI 316. The present study aims to evaluate the machining performance of coated carbide in the machining of hard steel AISI 316 under the dry turning process. The influence of cutting parameters of cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut with their five (5) levels is established by a central composite design. Highly significant parameters were determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the main effects of power consumed and time during machining, surface roughness, and tool wear were observed. Results showed that the cutting speed was proportional to power consumption and tool wear. Meanwhile, insignificant to surface roughness, feed rate most significantly affected surface roughness and power consumption followed by depth of cut.

  3. The perfection of the construction of a combined cutting tool on the basis of the results of mathematical modelling of working cutting processes in RecurDyn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poddubny Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the title implies the article describes how to optimize the construction of a combined cutting tool on the example of developed design of the face milling cutter with regulable rigidity of damping elements in order to improve the vibration resistance of the cutting process. RecurDyn is proposed, which is widely used for creating models of different mechanical systems, their analysis and optimization of construction, uses the ideology of visual object-oriented programming and computer research of volume solid-state models. Much attention is given to the description of the mechanical and mathematical model of the face milling cutter in RecurDyn and the results of mathematical modeling of the face milling cutter with damping elements, consisting of individual elements, with the possibility of program controlling its operation in the process of cutting. The applying of RecurDyn made it possible to carry out a complex assessment of influence of separate elements of a design of the combined cutting tool on quantitative and qualitative parameters of milling process and to define optimal values of the input and output parameters of technological process of machining for various damping elements.

  4. Wear resistance and electronic structure of cutting tool materials on a basis carbides of tungsten and titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhkin, A.A.; Ilyasov, V.V.; Lyulko, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    The tool materials durability problem, in particular shock and wear resistance, has allowed to formulate a set of requirements and also to stablish the dependence between physical properties and wear. However, for understanding the nature of the process, for example determining the tribological property of the cutting tool, it is necessary to consider the atom interactions in a crystal. A theoretical study of the physical properties of cutting tool materials (W-Ti-C) with varying concentration of titanium is presented. Total and partial local electronic density for each atom in such hard solutions were calculated. (nevyjel)

  5. Precision cut lung slices as an efficient tool for in vitro lung physio-pharmacotoxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Paul; Baste, Jean-Marc; Gay, Arnaud; Crochemore, Clément; Corbière, Cécile; Monteil, Christelle

    2013-01-01

    1.We review the specific approaches for lung tissue slices preparation and incubation systems and the research application fields in which lung slices proved to be a very efficient alternative to animal experimentation for biomechanical, physiological, pharmacological and toxicological approaches. 2.Focus is made on air-liquid interface dynamic organ culture systems that allow direct tissue exposure to complex aerosol and that best mimic in vivo lung tissue physiology. 3.A compilation of research applications in the fields of vascular and airway reactivity, mucociliary transport, polyamine transport, xenobiotic biotransformation, chemicals toxicology and complex aerosols supports the concept that precision cut lung slices are a very efficient tool maintaining highly differentiated functions similar to in vivo lung organ when kept under dynamic organ culture. They also have been successfully used for lung gene transfer efficiency assessment, for lung viral infection efficiency assessment, for studies of tissue preservation media and tissue post-conditioning to optimize lung tissue viability before grafting. 4.Taken all together, the reviewed studies point to a great interest for precision cut lung slices as an efficient and valuable alternative to in vivo lung organ experimentation.

  6. Cut It Up and Put It Back Together: Cut-up and Collage as Tools to Overcome Academic Deadlock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager-Elsborg, Anna; Loads, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    This ‘On the Horizon’ paper concerns creativity in the research process as a way to overcome unhelpful pre-understandings and ‘false clarity’. This paper gives an idea of how we can allow research to be as complex and messy as reality. Cut-up and collage are introduced and suggested as a way...... of letting go of rational analysis and allowing subconscious observations to come forward. The research example is from a project examining the disciplinary characteristics of academic law in a research intensive university...

  7. Angles measuring on radiographic images as a tool for the diagnosis of Blount disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Rojas, Raul

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of Blount disease has followed unknown at the present; although are described factors that could be related to the appearance of the same. Even, to make the diagnosis of this disease remains a challenge, due to it difficult to predict the behavior of the tibia varus in young children. Some measures were described in the radiographs of patients with tibia vara (the most currently used has been the Tibial Proximal Diaphyseal Goal Angle) to try to provide another tool in the diagnosis, but without be able to establish a free relationship between disruption of these measures with the pathological development of tibial varus. A new measurement (Tibial Proximal Fibular Mechanic Angle) established in the radiographs has been the purpose, taking into account the structures and concepts that are altered in patients with Blount diseases. The proximal tibial physis and the mechanical axis of the tibia are performed without to take into account in some of the measurements described above. (author) [es

  8. PVD-Alumina Coatings on Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools: A Study About the Effect on Friction and Adhesion Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Cordes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline PVD γ-alumina coatings are interesting for machining operations due to their outstanding characteristics, such as high hot hardness, high thermal stability and low tendency to adhesion. In the present work (Ti,AlN/γ-Al2O3-coatings are deposited on cemented carbide by means of MSIP. Objectives of this work are to study the effects of coating and cutting fluid regarding friction in tribological tests and to study the wear mechanisms and cutting performance of γ-Al2O3-based coated cemented carbide cutting tools in machining operations of austenitic stainless steels. Based on the remarkable properties of the coating system the performance of the cutting tools is increasing significantly.

  9. Process Optimization of EDM Cutting Process on Tool Steel using Zinc Coated Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanizam H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In WEDM machining process, surface finish quality depends on intensity and duration of spark plasma. Electrode wire diameter has significant effect on the spark intensity and yet the studies on this matter still less. Therefore, the main objectives of this studies are to compare the different diameters of zinc coated and uncoated brass electrode on H13 tool steel surface roughness. The experiments were conducted on Sodick VZ300L WEDM and work piece material of tool steel AISI H13 block. Electrode of zinc coated brass with diameters of 0.1 mm, 0.2 mm, 0.25 mm and uncoated brass 0.2 mm were used. The surface roughness of cutting was measured using the SUR-FTEST SJ-410 Mitutoyo, surface roughness tester. The results suggest that better surface roughness quality can be achieved through smaller electrode wire diameter. The zinc coated improves flushing ability and sparks intensity resulting in better surface finish of H13 tool steel. New alloys and coating materials shall be experimented to optimized the process further.

  10. DIAGNOSTICS OF WORKPIECE SURFACE CONDITION BASED ON CUTTING TOOL VIBRATIONS DURING MACHINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Józwik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents functional relationships between surface geometry parameters, feed and vibrations level in the radial direction of the workpiece. Time characteristics of the acceleration of cutting tool vibration registered during C45 steel and stainless steel machining for separate axes (X, Y, Z were presented as a function of feedrate f. During the tests surface geometric accuracy assessment was performed and 3D surface roughness parameters were determined. The Sz parameter was selected for the analysis, which was then collated with RMS vibration acceleration and feedrate f. The Sz parameter indirectly provides information on peak to valley height and is characterised by high generalising potential i.e. it is highly correlated to other surface and volume parameters of surface roughness. Test results presented in this paper may constitute a valuable source of information considering the influence of vibrations on geometric accuracy of elements for engineers designing technological processes.

  11. Effect of finite edge radius on ductile fracture ahead of the cutting tool edge in micro-cutting of Al2024-T3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbiah, Sathyan; Melkote, Shreyes N.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence of ductile fracture leading to material separation has been reported recently in ductile metal cutting [S. Subbiah, S.N. Melkote, ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 28(3) (2006)]. This paper investigates the effect of finite edge radius on such ductile fracture. The basic question of whether such ductile fracture occurs in the presence of a finite edge radius is explored by performing a series of experiments with inserts of different edge radii at various uncut chip thickness values ranging from 15 to 105 μm. Chip-roots are obtained in these experiments using a quick-stop device and examined in a scanning electron microscope. Clear evidence of material separation is seen at the interface zone between the chip and machined surface even when the edge radius is large compared to the uncut chip thickness. Failure is seen to occur at the upper, middle, and/or the lower edges of the interface zone. Based on these observations, a hypothesis is presented for the events leading to the occurrence of this failure when cutting with an edge radius tool. Finite element simulations are performed to study the nature of stress state ahead of the tool edge with and without edge radius. Hydrostatic stress is seen to be tensile in front of the tool and hence favors the occurrence of ductile fracture leading to material separation. The stress components are, however lower than those seen with a sharp tool

  12. Small angle x-ray scattering as a potential tool for cancer diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, M.; Siu, K.K.W.; Lewis, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The diagnostic potential of Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) patterns has recently been investigated for malignant breast tissues. The demonstrated systematic differences in the scattering signatures of malignant, benign and normal breast tissue specimens are believed to arise from the changes in the fibrous proteins making up the extracellular matrix (ECM) with the disease progression. The technique may also have the potential to aid in the diagnosis of gliomas, a highly aggressive type of brain tumour. Although complex and difficult to interpret, SAXS data from malignant tissues may prove to be a more effective classification tool than conventional histology techniques. Here we present the methodology of the technique, as applied to breast cancer and brain tumour specimens to date, and some directions for future investigations. We also present a novel analysis method, which employs wavelet decomposition and a naive Bayesian classifier, as a potential semi-automated classification tool

  13. TO DETERMINATION OF INFLUENCE FOR VARIATIONS IN LASER TREATMENT MODES ON TRIBOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CUTTING TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Diachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to higher durability and reliability of a cutting tool for cutting gastronomic products while using laser processing that leads to resistance increase of material operating surfaces against impact forces. Influence of laser fusion with additional doping on structure, microhardness, wear resistance for adhesive coatings of Fe–B–Cr–Si system has been studied in the paper. In order to solve a problem for selection of optimal qualitative and subsequently quantitative composition of a multi-component coating a mathematical modeling method using Scheffe’s simplex lattices has been used in the paper. Similar tendency for measuring micro-structure of all adhesive coatings fused by laser beams has been established in the paper. Increase in beam speed has caused the following microstructure changes: cast equilibrium, dendrite, supersaturated boride, carbide and boride. Response surface models have been found and they provide the possibility to assess influence quantity of laser processing parameters on microhardness of adhesive coatings obtained by laser doping and intensity of their wear under various conditions for all investigated compositions.It has been ascertained that there is no strict correlation between hardness and intensity of coating wear after laser doping used for adhesive coatings. This testifies to the fact that hardening has taken place not only due to an increase of carbide-boride phase, but also due to matrix hardening.In addition, a regression model for coating composition effect on tribological characteristics of the adhesive coatings has revealed that an optimal composition of a multicomponent coating ensuring maximum wear resistance of coatings constitutes B4C is 2/3 and 1/3 TaB. It has been determined that hardening of the adhesive coating after laser doping while using multicomponent coating occurs not only due to increase of carbide-boridnoy phase, but also due to matrix hardening.

  14. Reliability of a computer software angle tool for measuring spine and pelvic flexibility during the sit-and-reach test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Constance M; Shapiro, Belinda S

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of a computer software angle tool that measures thoracic (T), lumbar (L), and pelvic (P) angles as a means of evaluating spine and pelvic flexibility during the sit-and-reach (SR) test. Thirty adults performed the SR twice on separate days. The SR test was captured on video and later analyzed for T, L, and P angles using the computer software angle tool. During the test, 3 markers were placed over T1, T12, and L5 vertebrae to identify T, L, and P angles. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) indicated a very high internal consistency (between trials) for T, L, and P angles (0.95-0.99); thus, the average of trials was used for test-retest (between days) reliability. Mean (±SD) values did not differ between days for T (51.0 ± 14.3 vs. 52.3 ± 16.2°), L (23.9 ± 7.1 vs. 23.0 ± 6.9°), or P (98.4 ± 15.6 vs. 98.3 ± 14.7°) angles. Test-retest reliability (ICC) was high for T (0.96) and P (0.97) angles and moderate for L angle (0.84). Both intrarater and interrater reliabilities were high for T (0.95, 0.94) and P (0.97, 0.97) angles and moderate for L angle (0.87, 0.82). Thus, the computer software angle tool is a highly objective method for assessing spine and pelvic flexibility during a video-captured SR test.

  15. Mathematical Modelling and Optimization of Cutting Force, Tool Wear and Surface Roughness by Using Artificial Neural Network and Response Surface Methodology in Milling of Ti-6242S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Kilickap

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of different cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut on cutting force, surface roughness, and tool wear in the milling of Ti-6242S alloy using the cemented carbide (WC end mills with a 10 mm diameter. Data obtained from experiments were defined both Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Response Surface Methodology (RSM. ANN trained network using Levenberg-Marquardt (LM and weights were trained. On the other hand, the mathematical models in RSM were created applying Box Behnken design. Values obtained from the ANN and the RSM was found to be very close to the data obtained from experimental studies. The lowest cutting force and surface roughness were obtained at high cutting speeds and low feed rate and depth of cut. The minimum tool wear was obtained at low cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut.

  16. Effect of cutting parameters on machinability characteristics in milling of magnesium alloy with carbide tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaining Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloy has attracted more attentions due to its excellent mechanical properties. However, in process of dry cutting operation, many problems restrict its further development. In this article, the effect of cutting parameters on machinabilities of magnesium alloy is explored under dry milling condition. This research is an attempt to investigate the impact of cutting speed at multiple feed rates on cutting force and surface roughness, while a statistical analysis is adopted to determine the influential intensities accurately. The results showed that cutting force is affected by the positively constant intensity from feed rate and the increasingly negative intensity from cutting speed. In contrast, surface roughness is determined by the gradually increasing negative tendency from feed rate and the positive effect with constant intensity from cutting speed. Within the range of the experiments, feed rate is the leading contribution for cutting force while the cutting speed is the dominant factor for surface roughness according to the absolute intensity values. Meanwhile, the trends of influencing intensities between cutting force and surface roughness are opposite. Besides, it is also found that in milling magnesium alloy, chip morphology is highly sensitive to cutting speed while the chip quality mainly depends on feed rate.

  17. Automated Laser Cutting In Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Lisa T.; Yvanovich, Mark A.; Angell, Terry R.; Bishop, Patricia J.; Dai, Weimin; Dobbs, Robert D.; He, Mingli; Minardi, Antonio; Shelton, Bret A.

    1995-01-01

    Computer-controlled machine-tool system uses laser beam assisted by directed flow of air to cut refractory materials into complex three-dimensional shapes. Velocity, position, and angle of cut varied. In original application, materials in question were thermally insulating thick blankets and tiles used on space shuttle. System shapes tile to concave or convex contours and cuts beveled edges on blanket, without cutting through outer layer of quartz fabric part of blanket. For safety, system entirely enclosed to prevent escape of laser energy. No dust generated during cutting operation - all material vaporized; larger solid chips dislodged from workpiece easily removed later.

  18. Study of PVD AlCrN Coating for Reducing Carbide Cutting Tool Deterioration in the Machining of Titanium Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Natalia L; Cue-Sampedro, Rodrigo; Siller, Héctor R; Arizmendi-Morquecho, Ana M; Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Di-Nardo, Santiago

    2013-05-24

    The manufacture of medical and aerospace components made of titanium alloys and other difficult-to-cut materials requires the parallel development of high performance cutting tools coated with materials capable of enhanced tribological and resistance properties. In this matter, a thin nanocomposite film made out of AlCrN (aluminum-chromium-nitride) was studied in this research, showing experimental work in the deposition process and its characterization. A heat-treated monolayer coating, competitive with other coatings in the machining of titanium alloys, was analyzed. Different analysis and characterizations were performed on the manufactured coating by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDXS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore, the mechanical behavior of the coating was evaluated through hardness test and tribology with pin-on-disk to quantify friction coefficient and wear rate. Finally, machinability tests using coated tungsten carbide cutting tools were executed in order to determine its performance through wear resistance, which is a key issue of cutting tools in high-end cutting at elevated temperatures. It was demonstrated that the specimen (with lower friction coefficient than previous research) is more efficient in machinability tests in Ti6Al4V alloys. Furthermore, the heat-treated monolayer coating presented better performance in comparison with a conventional monolayer of AlCrN coating.

  19. Prediction of surface roughness in turning of Ti-6Al-4V using cutting parameters, forces and tool vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Neelesh Kumar; Andhare, Atul B.; Andhale, Sandip; Raju Abraham, Roja

    2018-04-01

    Present work deals with prediction of surface roughness using cutting parameters along with in-process measured cutting force and tool vibration (acceleration) during turning of Ti-6Al-4V with cubic boron nitride (CBN) inserts. Full factorial design is used for design of experiments using cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut as design variables. Prediction model for surface roughness is developed using response surface methodology with cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, resultant cutting force and acceleration as control variables. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is performed to find out significant terms in the model. Insignificant terms are removed after performing statistical test using backward elimination approach. Effect of each control variables on surface roughness is also studied. Correlation coefficient (R2 pred) of 99.4% shows that model correctly explains the experiment results and it behaves well even when adjustment is made in factors or new factors are added or eliminated. Validation of model is done with five fresh experiments and measured forces and acceleration values. Average absolute error between RSM model and experimental measured surface roughness is found to be 10.2%. Additionally, an artificial neural network model is also developed for prediction of surface roughness. The prediction results of modified regression model are compared with ANN. It is found that RSM model and ANN (average absolute error 7.5%) are predicting roughness with more than 90% accuracy. From the results obtained it is found that including cutting force and vibration for prediction of surface roughness gives better prediction than considering only cutting parameters. Also, ANN gives better prediction over RSM models.

  20. Development of remote bore tools for pipe welding/cutting by YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Kakudate, Satoshi; Tada, Eisuke; Obara, Kenjiro; Taguchi, Kou; Nakamori, Naokazu

    1996-07-01

    In D-T burning reactors such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), an internal access welding/cutting of blanket cooling pipe with bend sections is inevitably required because of spatial constraint due to nuclear shield and available port opening space. For this purpose, an internal access pipe welding/cutting using YAG laser beam is being developed according to the agreement of the ITER R and D task (T44). A design concept of welding/cutting processing head with a flexible optical fiber has been developed and the basic feasibility studies on welding, cutting and rewelding are performed using stainless steel plate (SS316L). In this report, the details of a welding/cutting head with a flexible optical fiber for YAG laser are described, together with the basic experiment results relating to the welding/cutting and rewelding. (author)

  1. Principal Angle Enrichment Analysis (PAEA): Dimensionally Reduced Multivariate Gene Set Enrichment Analysis Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Neil R; Szymkiewicz, Maciej; Wang, Zichen; Monteiro, Caroline D; Jones, Matthew R; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2015-11-01

    Gene set analysis of differential expression, which identifies collectively differentially expressed gene sets, has become an important tool for biology. The power of this approach lies in its reduction of the dimensionality of the statistical problem and its incorporation of biological interpretation by construction. Many approaches to gene set analysis have been proposed, but benchmarking their performance in the setting of real biological data is difficult due to the lack of a gold standard. In a previously published work we proposed a geometrical approach to differential expression which performed highly in benchmarking tests and compared well to the most popular methods of differential gene expression. As reported, this approach has a natural extension to gene set analysis which we call Principal Angle Enrichment Analysis (PAEA). PAEA employs dimensionality reduction and a multivariate approach for gene set enrichment analysis. However, the performance of this method has not been assessed nor its implementation as a web-based tool. Here we describe new benchmarking protocols for gene set analysis methods and find that PAEA performs highly. The PAEA method is implemented as a user-friendly web-based tool, which contains 70 gene set libraries and is freely available to the community.

  2. Tool wear of (Ti, Al) N-coated polycrystalline cubic boron nitride compact in cutting of hardened steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Tadahiro; Hanyu, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride compact (cBN) is effective tool material for cutting hardened steel. In addition to coated high speed steel and coated cemented carbide that has long been used for cutting materials, more recently, coated cBN has also been used. In this study, to verify the effectiveness of the (Ti,Al)N-coated cBN, which is formed on the substrate of cBN by the physical vapor deposition method, the hardened steel was turned with the (Ti,Al)N-coated cBN tool at a cutting speed of 3.33, 5.00 m/s, a feed rate of 0.3 mm/rev and a depth of cut of 0.1 mm. Furthermore, the uncoated cBN, which was the substrate of the (Ti,Al)N-coated, was also used. The tool wear of the cBN tools was experimentally investigated. The following results were obtained: (1) The contact area between the rake face and the chip of the (Ti,.Al)N-coated cBN tool was smaller than that of the uncoated cBN tool. (2) The tool wear of the (Ti,Al)N-coated cBN was smaller than that of uncoated cBN. (3) The wear progress of the (Ti,Al)N-coated cBN with the main element phase of the TiCN-Al, was slower than that of the (Ti,Al)N-coated cBN with the main element phase of the TiN-Al. (4) In the case of the high cutting speed of 5.00 m/s, the tool wear of the (Ti,Al)N-coated cBN was also smaller than that of uncoated cBN. The above results clarify that the (Ti,Al)N-coated cBN can be used as a tool material in high feed cutting of hardened steel.

  3. Diamond and cBN hybrid and nanomodified cutting tools with enhanced performance: Development, testing and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loginov, Pavel; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    with 25% of diamond replaced by cBN grains demonstrate 20% increased performance as compared with pure diamond machining tools, and more than two times higher performance as compared with pure cBN tools. Further, cast iron machining efficiency of the wheels modified by hBN particles was 80% more efficient......The potential of enhancement of superhard steel and cast iron cutting tool performance on the basis of microstuctural modifications of the tool materials is studied. Hybrid machining tools with mixed diamond and cBN grains, as well as machining tool with composite nanomodified metallic binder...... are developed, and tested experimentally and numerically. It is demonstrated that both combination of diamond and cBN (hybrid structure) and nanomodification of metallic binder (with hexagonal boron nitride/hBN platelets) lead to sufficient improvement of the cast iron machining performance. The superhard tools...

  4. The Applicability of Taylor’s Model to the Drilling of CFRP Using Uncoated WC-Co Tools: The Influence of Cutting Speed on Tool Wear

    OpenAIRE

    Merino Perez, J.L.; Merson, E.; Ayvar-Soberanis, S.; Hodzic, A.

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates the applicability of Taylor’s model on the drilling of CFRP using uncoated WC-Co tools, by assessing the influence of cutting speed (Vc) on tool wear. Two different resins, possessing low and high glass transition temperatures (Tg), and two different reinforcements, high strength and high modulus woven fabrics, were combined into three different systems. Flank wear rate gradient exhibited to be more reinforcement dependent, while the actual flank wear rate showed to be ...

  5. Performance and characterisation of CVD diamond coated, sintered diamond and WC-Co cutting tools for dental and micromachining applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sein, Htet; Ahmed, Waqar; Jackson, Mark; Woodwards, Robert; Polini, Riccardo

    2004-01-01

    Diamond coatings are attractive for cutting processes due to their high hardness, low friction coefficient, excellent wear resistance and chemical inertness. The application of diamond coatings on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) tools was the subject of much attention in recent years in order to improve cutting performance and tool life. WC-Co tools containing 6% Co and 94% WC substrate with an average grain size 1-3 μm were used in this study. In order to improve the adhesion between diamond and WC substrates, it is necessary to etch away the surface Co and prepare the surface for subsequent diamond growth. Hot filament chemical vapour deposition with a modified vertical filament arrangement has been employed for the deposition of diamond films. Diamond film quality and purity have been characterised using scanning electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The performance of diamond coated WC-Co bur, uncoated WC-Co bur, and diamond embedded (sintered) bur have been compared by drilling a series of holes into various materials such as human teeth, borosilicate glass and porcelain teeth. Flank wear has been used to assess the wear rates of the tools. The materials subjected to cutting processes have been examined to assess the quality of the finish. Diamond coated WC-Co microdrills and uncoated microdrills were also tested on aluminium alloys. Results show that there was a 300% improvement when the drills were coated with diamond compared to the uncoated tools

  6. Design and simulation of thermal residual stresses of coatings on WC-Co cemented carbide cutting tool substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Anhai; Zhao, Jun; Zang, Jian; Zheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Large thermal residual stresses in coatings during the coating deposition process may easily lead to coating delamination of coated carbide tools in machining. In order to reduce the possibility of coating delamination during the tool failure process, a theoretical method was proposed and a numerical method was constructed for the coating design of WC-Co cemented carbide cutting tools. The thermal residual stresses of multi-layered coatings were analytically modeled based on equivalent parameters of coating properties, and the stress distribution of coatings are simulated by Finite element method (FEM). The theoretically calculated results and the FEM simulated results were verified and in good agreement with the experimental test results. The effects of coating thickness, tool substrate, coating type and interlayer were investigated by the proposed geometric and FEM model. Based on the evaluations of matchability of tool substrate and tool coatings, the basic principles of tool coating design were proposed. This provides theoretical basis for the selection and design of coatings of cutting tools in high-speed machining

  7. Automatic registration method for multisensor datasets adopted for dimensional measurements on cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, L; Mehari, F; Weckenmann, A; Ettl, S; Häusler, G

    2013-01-01

    Multisensor systems with optical 3D sensors are frequently employed to capture complete surface information by measuring workpieces from different views. During coarse and fine registration the resulting datasets are afterward transformed into one common coordinate system. Automatic fine registration methods are well established in dimensional metrology, whereas there is a deficit in automatic coarse registration methods. The advantage of a fully automatic registration procedure is twofold: it enables a fast and contact-free alignment and further a flexible application to datasets of any kind of optical 3D sensor. In this paper, an algorithm adapted for a robust automatic coarse registration is presented. The method was originally developed for the field of object reconstruction or localization. It is based on a segmentation of planes in the datasets to calculate the transformation parameters. The rotation is defined by the normals of three corresponding segmented planes of two overlapping datasets, while the translation is calculated via the intersection point of the segmented planes. First results have shown that the translation is strongly shape dependent: 3D data of objects with non-orthogonal planar flanks cannot be registered with the current method. In the novel supplement for the algorithm, the translation is additionally calculated via the distance between centroids of corresponding segmented planes, which results in more than one option for the transformation. A newly introduced measure considering the distance between the datasets after coarse registration evaluates the best possible transformation. Results of the robust automatic registration method are presented on the example of datasets taken from a cutting tool with a fringe-projection system and a focus-variation system. The successful application in dimensional metrology is proven with evaluations of shape parameters based on the registered datasets of a calibrated workpiece. (paper)

  8. Analysis of the temperature of the hot tool in the cut of woven fabric using infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Joao E.; Verderio, Leonardo A.; Gonzaga, Adilson; Ruffino, Rosalvo T.

    2001-03-01

    Textile manufacture occupies a prominence place in the national economy. By virtue of its importance researches have been made on the development of new materials, equipment and methods used in the production process. The cutting of textiles starts in the basic stage, to be followed within the process of the making of clothes and other articles. In the hot cutting of fabric, one of the variables of great importance in the control of the process is the contact temperature between the tool and the fabric. The work presents a technique for the measurement of the temperature based on the processing of infrared images. For this a system was developed composed of an infrared camera, a framegrabber PC board and software that analyzes the punctual temperature in the cut area enabling the operator to achieve the necessary control of the other variables involved in the process.

  9. PERFORMANCE STUDY ON AISI316 AND AISI410 USING DIFFERENT LAYERED COATED CUTTING TOOLS IN CNC TURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. RAJA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steel (SS is used for many commercial and industrial applications owing to its high resistance to corrosion. It is too hard to machine due to its high strength and high work hardening property. A surface property such as surface roughness (SR is critical to the function-ability of machined components. SS is generally regarded as more difficult to machine material and poor SR is obtained during machining. In this paper an attempt has been made to investigate the SR produced by CNC turning on austenitic stainless steel (AISI316 and martensitic stainless steel (AISI410 by different cases of coated cutting tool used at dry conditions. Multilayered coated with TiCN/Al2O3, multilayered coated with Ti(C, N, B and single layered coated with TiAlN coated cutting tools are used. Experiments were carried out by using Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array. The effect of cutting parameters on SR is evaluated and optimum cutting conditions for minimizing the SR are determined. Analysis of variance (ANOVA is used for identifying the significant parameters affecting the responses. Confirmation experiments are conducted to validate the results obtained from optimization.

  10. Microstructural characterization of WC-TiC-Co cutting tools during high-speed machining of P20 mold steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhat, Z.N.

    2003-01-01

    The wear behavior of tungsten carbide (WC)-TiC-Co cutting tools during cutting P20 tool steel was investigated. Orthogonal cutting tests were performed on a CNC lathe using five speeds, namely, 60, 120, 240, 380 and 600 m/min. Wear, as the width of the wear land, was monitored at five time intervals. Wear characterization of the rake and the flank surfaces as well as the collected chips was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered electron imaging and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Microhardness of collected chips was also performed to monitor strain hardening effects during cutting. Two dominant wear mechanisms were identified: at high speed (380-600 m/min), wear was found to occur by a melt wear mechanism; at low speed (60-120 m/min), adhesion (built-up edge) followed by delamination was found to be the cause of wear damage. It was also found that deformation in the chips occurred by localized shear deformation

  11. Dimensional accuracy of internal cooling channel made by selective laser melting (SLM And direct metal laser sintering (DMLS processes in fabrication of internally cooled cutting tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghani S. A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting(SLM and direct metal laser sintering(DMLS are preferred additive manufacturing processes in producing complex physical products directly from CAD computer data, nowadays. The advancement of additive manufacturing promotes the design of internally cooled cutting tool for effectively used in removing generated heat in metal machining. Despite the utilisation of SLM and DMLS in a fabrication of internally cooled cutting tool, the level of accuracy of the parts produced remains uncertain. This paper aims at comparing the dimensional accuracy of SLM and DMLS in machining internally cooled cutting tool with a special focus on geometrical dimensions such as hole diameter. The surface roughness produced by the two processes are measured with contact perthometer. To achieve the objectives, geometrical dimensions of identical tool holders for internally cooled cutting tools fabricated by SLM and DMLS have been determined by using digital vernier calliper and various magnification of a portable microscope. In the current study, comparing internally cooled cutting tools made of SLM and DMLS showed that generally the higher degree of accuracy could be obtained with DMLS process. However, the observed differences in surface roughness between SLM and DMLS in this study were not significant. The most obvious finding to emerge from this study is that the additive manufacturing processes selected for fabricating the tool holders for internally cooled cutting tool in this research are capable of producing the desired internal channel shape of internally cooled cutting tool.

  12. Prepation and Characterization of TiO2 Nanofluid by Sol-gel Method for Cutting Tools

    OpenAIRE

    BİRLİK, Işıl; AZEM, N.Funda Ak; YİĞİT, Recep; EROL, Mustafa; YILDIRIM, Serdar; YURDDAŞKAL, Metin; SANCAKOĞLU, Orkut; ÇELİK, Erdal

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades, rapid advances in nanotechnology have lead to emerging of new generation of coolants called as nanofluids. Nanofluids are defined as suspension of nanoparticles in a basefluid. Machining experiences high temperatures due to friction between the tool and workpiece, thus influencing the workpiece dimensional accuracy and surface quality. Further, the cutting fluids also incur a major portion of the total manufacturing cost. Nanofluids are containing oxides including MgO...

  13. Prepation and Characterization of TiO2 Nanofluid by Sol-gel Method for Cutting Tools

    OpenAIRE

    BİRLİK, Işıl; AZEM, N.Funda Ak; YİĞİT, Recep; EROL, Mustafa; YILDIRIM, Serdar; YURDDAŞKAL, Metin; SANCAKOĞLU, Orkut; ÇELİK, Erdal

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, rapid advances in nanotechnology have lead to emerging of new generation of coolants called as nanofluids. Nanofluids are defined as suspension of nanoparticles in a basefluid. Machining experiences high temperatures due to friction between the tool and workpiece, thus influencing the workpiece dimensional accuracy and surface quality. Further, the cutting fluids also incur a major portion of the total manufacturing cost. Nanofluids are containing oxides including MgO...

  14. Phase angle as a nutritional evaluation tool in all stages of chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, W A F; Lento, D F; Baluz, K; Ramalho, A

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition is commonly and frequently under-diagnosed in clinical settings in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) due to the limitations of nutritional evaluation methods in this population. We hypothesized that the bioelectrical impedance analysis derived phase angle (BIA-derived PhA) might be considered as a nutritional indicator in CLD since it represents either cell death or malnutrition characterized by changes in cellular membrane integrity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the BIA-derived PhA as a nutritional evaluation tool in all stages of CLD, including chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Liver-related death and survival were evaluated. A total of 66 patients were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. For the nutritional diagnosis, mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) and Subject Global Assessment (SGA) were evaluated. Biochemical and clinical evaluations were performed. Our results showed that PhA was higher in well-nourished patients, according to SGA and in the patients without hepatic encephalopathy. PhA correlated significantly with MAMC, MAC and albumin and was inversely correlated with age. No correlation was found between PhA values and the Child-Pugh score and ascites. PhA was strongly associated with survival and PhA ≤ 5.18º with relative risk increase of 2.5 for death. We conclude that the BIA-derived PhA is a relevant nutritional evaluation tool in chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and HCC and the role of PhA in the prediction of survival in CLD should be examined further in a controlled study.

  15. Effect of cutting parameters on workpiece and tool properties during drilling of Ti-6Al-4V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, Yahya Hisman; Yildiz, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of machining is to provide the dimensional preciseness together with surface and geometric quality of the workpiece to be manufactured within the desired limits. Today, it is quite hard to drill widely utilized Ti-6Al-4 V alloys owing to their superior features. Therefore, in this study, the effects of temperature, chip formation, thrust forces, surface roughness, burr heights, hole diameter deviations and tool wears on the drilling of Ti-6Al-4 V were investigated under dry cutting conditions with different cutting speeds and feed rates by using tungsten carbide (WC) and high speed steel (HSS) drills. Moreover, the mathematical modeling of thrust force, surface roughness, burr height and tool wear were formed using Matlab. It was found that the feed rate, cutting speed and type of drill have a major effect on the thrust forces, surface roughness, burr heights, hole diameter deviations and tool wears. Optimum results in the Ti-6Al-4 V alloy drilling process were obtained using the WC drill.

  16. Effect of cutting parameters on workpiece and tool properties during drilling of Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, Yahya Hisman; Yildiz, Hakan [Batman Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Oezek, Cebeli [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey)

    2016-08-01

    The main aim of machining is to provide the dimensional preciseness together with surface and geometric quality of the workpiece to be manufactured within the desired limits. Today, it is quite hard to drill widely utilized Ti-6Al-4 V alloys owing to their superior features. Therefore, in this study, the effects of temperature, chip formation, thrust forces, surface roughness, burr heights, hole diameter deviations and tool wears on the drilling of Ti-6Al-4 V were investigated under dry cutting conditions with different cutting speeds and feed rates by using tungsten carbide (WC) and high speed steel (HSS) drills. Moreover, the mathematical modeling of thrust force, surface roughness, burr height and tool wear were formed using Matlab. It was found that the feed rate, cutting speed and type of drill have a major effect on the thrust forces, surface roughness, burr heights, hole diameter deviations and tool wears. Optimum results in the Ti-6Al-4 V alloy drilling process were obtained using the WC drill.

  17. The DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure as a Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaens, Leo; Galus, James

    2018-03-01

    The DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure was developed to aid clinicians with a dimensional assessment of psychopathology; however, this measure resembles a screening tool for several symptomatic domains. The objective of the current study was to examine the basic parameters of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive power of the measure as a screening tool. One hundred and fifty patients in a correctional community center filled out the measure prior to a psychiatric evaluation, including the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview screen. The above parameters were calculated for the domains of depression, mania, anxiety, and psychosis. The results showed that the sensitivity and positive predictive power of the studied domains was poor because of a high rate of false positive answers on the measure. However, when the lowest threshold on the Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure was used, the sensitivity of the anxiety and psychosis domains and the negative predictive values for mania, anxiety and psychosis were good. In conclusion, while it is foreseeable that some clinicians may use the DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure as a screening tool, it should not be relied on to identify positive findings. It functioned well in the negative prediction of mania, anxiety and psychosis symptoms.

  18. Investigation of wear and tool life of coated carbide and cubic boron nitride cutting tools in high speed milling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Twardowski, P.; Legutko, S.; Krolczyk, G.; Hloch, Sergej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2015), s. 1-9 ISSN 1687-8132 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : hardened steels * milling tools * high speed machining * tool life * wear Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.640, year: 2015 http://ade.sagepub.com/content/7/6/1687814015590216.full.pdf+html

  19. A comparative investigation of bone surface after cutting with mechanical tools and Er:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kyung-Won; Deibel, Waldemar; Marinov, Dilyan; Griessen, Mathias; Dard, Michel; Bruno, Alfredo; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Cattin, Philippe; Juergens, Philipp

    2015-07-01

    Despite of the long history of medical application, laser ablation of bone tissue became successful only recently. Laser bone cutting is proven to have higher accuracy and to increase bone healing compared to conventional mechanical bone cutting. But the reason of subsequent better healing is not biologically explained yet. In this study we present our experience with an integrated miniaturized laser system mounted on a surgical lightweight robotic arm. An Erbium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Er:YAG) laser and a piezoelectric (PZE) osteotome were used for comparison. In six grown up female Göttingen minipigs, comparative surgical interventions were done on the edentulous mandibular ridge. Our laser system was used to create different shapes of bone defects on the left side of the mandible. On the contralateral side, similar bone defects were created by PZE osteotome. Small bone samples were harvested to compare the immediate post-operative cut surface. The analysis of the cut surface of the laser osteotomy and conventional mechanical osteotomy revealed an essential difference. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed biologically open cut surfaces from the laser osteotomy. The samples from PZE osteotomy showed a flattened tissue structure over the cut surface, resembling the "smear layer" from tooth preparation. We concluded that our new finding with the mechanical osteotomy suggests a biological explanation to the expected difference in subsequent bone healing. Our hypothesis is that the difference of surface characteristic yields to different bleeding pattern and subsequently results in different bone healing. The analyses of bone healing will support our hypothesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Side Flow Effect on Surface Generation in Nano Cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feifei; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    The side flow of material in nano cutting is one of the most important factors that deteriorate the machined surface quality. The effects of the crystallographic orientation, feed, and the cutting tool geometry, including tool edge radius, rake angle and inclination angle, on the side flow are investigated employing molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that the stagnation region is formed in front of tool edge and it is characterized by the stagnation radius R s and stagnation height h s . The side flow is formed because the material at or under the stagnation region is extruded by the tool edge to flow to the side of the tool edge. Higher stagnation height would increase the size of the side flow. The anisotropic nature of the material which partly determines the stagnation region also influences the side flow due to the different deformation mechanism under the action of the tool edge. At different cutting directions, the size of the side flow has a great difference which would finally affect the machined surface quality. The cutting directions of {100} , {110} , and {110}  are beneficial to obtain a better surface quality with small side flow. Besides that, the side flow could be suppressed by reducing the feed and optimizing the cutting tool geometry. Cutting tool with small edge radius, large positive rake angle, and inclination angle would decrease the side flow and consequently improve the machined surface quality.

  1. Response Surface Methodology Approach on Effect of Cutting Parameter on Tool Wear during End Milling of High Thermal Conductivity Steel -150 (HTCS-150)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hadzley, A B; Wan Mohd Azahar, W M Y; Izamshah, R; Mohd Shahir, K; Mohd Amran, A; Anis Afuza, A

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study of development the tool life's mathematical model during the milling process on High Thermal Conductivity Steel 150 (HTCS-150) 56 HRC. Using response surface methodology, the mathematical models for tool life have been developed in terms of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Box-Behnken techniques is a part of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used to carry out the work plan to predict, the tool wear and generate the numerical equation in relation to independent variable parameters by Design Expert software. Dry milling experiments were conducted by using two levels of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. In this study, the variable for the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were in the range of 484-553 m/min, 0.31-0.36 mm/tooth, and 0.1-0.5 mm, width of cut is constantly 0.01mm per passes. The tool wear was measured using tool maker microscope. The effect of input factors that on the responds were identified by using mean of ANOVA. The responds of tool wear then simultaneously optimized. The validation of the test reveals the model accuracy 5% and low tool wear under same experimental condition. (paper)

  2. Response Surface Methodology Approach on Effect of Cutting Parameter on Tool Wear during End Milling of High Thermal Conductivity Steel -150 (HTCS-150)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Hadzley, A. B.; Mohd Azahar, W. M. Y. Wan; Izamshah, R.; Mohd Shahir, K.; Mohd Amran, A.; Anis Afuza, A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a study of development the tool life's mathematical model during the milling process on High Thermal Conductivity Steel 150 (HTCS-150) 56 HRC. Using response surface methodology, the mathematical models for tool life have been developed in terms of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Box-Behnken techniques is a part of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used to carry out the work plan to predict, the tool wear and generate the numerical equation in relation to independent variable parameters by Design Expert software. Dry milling experiments were conducted by using two levels of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. In this study, the variable for the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were in the range of 484-553 m/min, 0.31-0.36 mm/tooth, and 0.1-0.5 mm, width of cut is constantly 0.01mm per passes. The tool wear was measured using tool maker microscope. The effect of input factors that on the responds were identified by using mean of ANOVA. The responds of tool wear then simultaneously optimized. The validation of the test reveals the model accuracy 5% and low tool wear under same experimental condition.

  3. Wear protection in cutting tool applications by PACVD (Ti,Al)N and Al2O3 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathrein, M.; Heiss, M.; Rofner, R.; Schleinkofer, U.; Schintlmeister, W.; Schatte, J.; Mitterer, C.

    2001-01-01

    Various (Ti,Al)N-, Al 2 O 3 -, and (Ti,Al)N/Al 2 O 3 multilayer coatings were deposited onto cemented carbide cutting tool inserts by a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) technique. Al 2 O 3 coatings were deposited using the gaseous mixture AlCl 3 , Ar, H 2 , and O 2 . (Ti,Al)N intermediate layers were deposited in the same device using the process mentioned and the gases AICl 3 , Ar, H 2 , TiCl 4 and N 2 . The unique properties of (Ti,Al)N/Al 2 O 3 multilayer coatings result in superior wear protection for cutting inserts applied in severe multifunction cutting processes. The influence of different deposition temperatures an structure and properties of the coatings like crystallographic phases, chemical composition, mechanical and technological properties is shown. PACVD (Ti,Al)N/Al 2 O 3 coated cutting inserts with fine grained crystalline α/κ-Al 2 O 3 offer performance advantages which are superior with respect to coatings deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) due to the low deposition temperature applied. (author)

  4. Development of a Metal Cutting Tool Fase in Order to Create the Conditions of Ringed Chips Wrapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchuganova, M.; Syrbakov, A.; Chernysheva, T.; Ivanov, G.; Korchuganov, M.

    2016-08-01

    When processing ductile metals with high cutting speed, there is a need to take additional measures for a comfortable and safe formation and removal of chips. In the conditions of large-scale manufacture, it is recommended to produce flow chips in the form of short fragments, while in the conditions of small-lot and single-piece manufacture, it is reasonable to wrap the chips spirally with a rather small turn radius. Such way of chips formation reduces the time of its removal from the working area as well as facilitates its transportation and processing. In order to solve the problem of chip wrapping and breakage, almost all modern manufacturers of tools with replaceable many-sided plates (RMSP) followed the way of complication of tool faces and determination of the areas of effective chip breaking. On the one hand, the suggested solution turns out to be effective; however, as showed the analysis of recommended cutting modes for complex forms of RMSP made by leading manufacturers, they all correspond to the definite cross section of the cut-layer S/t=0.1.

  5. Reliability and reproducibility analysis of the Cobb angle and assessing sagittal plane by computer-assisted and manual measurement tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weifei; Liang, Jie; Du, Yuanli; Tan, Xiaoyi; Xiang, Xuanping; Wang, Wanhong; Ru, Neng; Le, Jinbo

    2014-02-06

    Although many studies on reliability and reproducibility of measurement have been performed on coronal Cobb angle, few results about reliability and reproducibility are reported on sagittal alignment measurement including the pelvis. We usually use SurgimapSpine software to measure the Cobb angle in our studies; however, there are no reports till date on its reliability and reproducible measurements. Sixty-eight standard standing posteroanterior whole-spine radiographs were reviewed. Three examiners carried out the measurements independently under the settings of manual measurement on X-ray radiographies and SurgimapSpine software on the computer. Parameters measured included pelvic incidence, sacral slope, pelvic tilt, Lumbar lordosis (LL), thoracic kyphosis, and coronal Cobb angle. SPSS 16.0 software was used for statistical analyses. The means, standard deviations, intraclass and interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. There was no notable difference between the two tools (P = 0.21) for the coronal Cobb angle. In the sagittal plane parameters, the ICC of intraobserver reliability for the manual measures varied from 0.65 (T2-T5 angle) to 0.95 (LL angle). Further, for SurgimapSpine tool, the ICC ranged from 0.75 to 0.98. No significant difference in intraobserver reliability was found between the two measurements (P > 0.05). As for the interobserver reliability, measurements with SurgimapSpine tool had better ICC (0.71 to 0.98 vs 0.59 to 0.96) and Pearson's coefficient (0.76 to 0.99 vs 0.60 to 0.97). The reliability of SurgimapSpine measures was significantly higher in all parameters except for the coronal Cobb angle where the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Although the differences between the two methods are very small, the results of this study indicate that the SurgimapSpine measurement is an equivalent measuring tool to the traditional manual in coronal Cobb angle, but is advantageous in spino

  6. Active control of residual tool marks for freeform optics functionalization by novel biaxial servo assisted fly cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; To, Suet; Zhang, Shaojian

    2015-09-01

    The inherent residual tool marks (RTM) with particular patterns highly affect optical functions of the generated freeform optics in fast tool servo or slow tool servo (FTS/STS) diamond turning. In the present study, a novel biaxial servo assisted fly cutting (BSFC) method is developed for flexible control of the RTM to be a functional micro/nanotexture in freeform optics generation, which is generally hard to achieve in FTS/STS diamond turning. In the BSFC system, biaxial servo motions along the z-axis and side-feeding directions are mainly adopted for primary surface generation and RTM control, respectively. Active control of the RTM from the two aspects, namely, undesired effect elimination or effective functionalization, are experimentally demonstrated by fabricating a typical F-theta freeform surface with scattering homogenization and two functional microstructures with imposition of secondary phase gratings integrating both reflective and diffractive functions.

  7. ANALYSIS OF CUTTING FORCE AND CHIP MORPHOLOGY DURING HARD TURNING OF AISI D2 STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. M. ANTHONY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research work AISI D2 tool steel at a hardness of 55 HRC is being used for experimental investigation. Cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut are the cutting parameters considered for the experimentation along with tool geometry namely, nose radius, clearance angle and rake angle. Three different cutting tool materials are used for experimentation namely multicoated carbide, cermet and ceramic inserts. The cutting force generated during the machining process is being measured using Kistler dynamometer and recorded for further evaluation. The chips produced during the machining process for every experimental trail is also collected for understanding the chip morphology. Based on the experimental data collected Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was conducted to understand the influence of all cutting parameters and tool geometry on cutting force.

  8. Pneumatically-powered hand tool used for cutting bolts during bone-fixing in surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cool, J.C.; Rijnsaardt, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract of NL 1000849 (C2) The tool has at least one pneumatic motor (1a, 1b), transmission (2) and regulator. The motor(s) can be of the piston and cylinder type producing reciprocating motion or of the rotary type. The tool is powered by a commercially-available gas cylinder containing 16g of CO2

  9. Technics Research on Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride Cutting Tools Dry Turning Ti-6AL-4V Alloy Based on Orthogonal Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yunhai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti-6Al-4V components are the most widely used titanium alloy products not only in the aerospace industry, but also for bio-medical applications. The machine-ability of titanium alloys is impaired by their high temperature chemical reactivity, low thermal conductivity and low modulus of elasticity. Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride represents a substitute tool material for turning titanium alloys due to its high hardness, wear resistance, thermal stability and hot red hardness. For determination of suitable cutting parameters in dry turning Ti-6AL-4V alloy by Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride cutting tools, the samples, 300mm in length and 100mm in diameter, were dry machined in a lathe. The turning suitable parameters, such as cutting speed, feed rate and cut depth were determined according to workpieces surface roughness and tools flank wear based on orthogonal experimental design. The experiment showed that the cutting speed in the range of 160~180 m/min, the feed rate is 0.15 mm/rev and the depth of cut is 0.20mm, ideal workpiece surface roughness and little cutting tools flank wear can be obtained.

  10. Tool life and cutting speed for the maximum productivity at the drilling of the stainless steel X22CrMoV12-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlase, A.; Blăjină, O.; Iacob, M.; Darie, V.

    2015-11-01

    Two addressed issues in the research regarding the cutting machinability, establishing of the optimum cutting processing conditions and the optimum cutting regime, do not yet have sufficient data for solving. For this reason, in the paper it is proposed the optimization of the tool life and the cutting speed at the drilling of a certain stainless steel in terms of the maximum productivity. For this purpose, a nonlinear programming mathematical model to maximize the productivity at the drilling of the steel is developed in the paper. The optimum cutting tool life and the associated cutting tool speed are obtained by solving the numerical mathematical model. Using this proposed model allows increasing the accuracy in the prediction of the productivity for the drilling of a certain stainless steel and getting the optimum tool life and the optimum cutting speed for the maximum productivity. The results presented in this paper can be used in the production activity, in order to increase the productivity of the stainless steels machining. Also new research directions for the specialists in this interested field may come off from this paper.

  11. Disk Rock Cutting Tool for the Implementation of Resource-Saving Technologies of Mining of Solid Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manietyev, Leonid; Khoreshok, Aleksey; Tsekhin, Alexander; Borisov, Andrey

    2017-11-01

    The directions of a resource and energy saving when creating a boom-type effectors of roadheaders of selective action with disc rock cutting tools on a multi-faceted prisms for the destruction of formation of minerals and rocks pricemax are presented. Justified reversing the modes of the crowns and booms to improve the efficiency of mining works. Parameters of destruction of coal and rock faces by the disk tool of a biconical design with the unified fastening knots to many-sided prisms on effectors of extraction mining machines are determined. Parameters of tension of the interfaced elements of knots of fastening of the disk tool at static interaction with the destroyed face of rocks are set. The technical solutions containing the constructive and kinematic communications realizing counter and reverse mode of rotation of two radial crowns with the disk tool on trihedral prisms and cases of booms with the disk tool on tetrahedral prisms in internal space between two axial crowns with the cutter are proposed. Reserves of expansion of the front of loading outside a table of a feeder of the roadheader of selective action, including side zones in which loading corridors by blades of trihedral prisms in internal space between two radial crowns are created are revealed.

  12. Study on the separation effect of high-speed ultrasonic vibration cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyu; Sui, He; Zhang, Deyuan; Jiang, Xinggang

    2018-07-01

    High-speed ultrasonic vibration cutting (HUVC) has been proven to be significantly effective when turning Ti-6Al-4V alloy in recent researches. Despite of breaking through the cutting speed restriction of the ultrasonic vibration cutting (UVC) method, HUVC can also achieve the reduction of cutting force and the improvements in surface quality and cutting efficiency in the high-speed machining field. These benefits all result from the separation effect that occurs during the HUVC process. Despite the fact that the influences of vibration and cutting parameters have been discussed in previous researches, the separation analysis of HUVC should be conducted in detail in real cutting situations, and the tool geometry parameters should also be considered. In this paper, three situations are investigated in details: (1) cutting without negative transient clearance angle and without tool wear, (2) cutting with negative transient clearance angle and without tool wear, and (3) cutting with tool wear. And then, complete separation state, partial separation state and continuous cutting state are deduced according to real cutting processes. All the analysis about the above situations demonstrate that the tool-workpiece separation will take place only if appropriate cutting parameters, vibration parameters, and tool geometry parameters are set up. The best separation effect was obtained with a low feedrate and a phase shift approaching 180 degrees. Moreover, flank face interference resulted from the negative transient clearance angle and tool wear contributes to an improved separation effect that makes the workpiece and tool separate even at zero phase shift. Finally, axial and radial transient cutting force are firstly obtained to verify the separation effect of HUVC, and the cutting chips are collected to weigh the influence of flank face interference. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Si3N4 ceramic cutting tool sintered with CeO2 and Al2O3 additives with AlCrN coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vitor Candido Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic cutting tools are showing a growing market perspective in terms of application on machining operations due to their high hardness, wear resistance, and machining without a cutting fluid, therefore are good candidates for cast iron and Nickel superalloys machining. The objective of the present paper was the development of Si3N4 based ceramic cutting insert, characterization of its physical and mechanical properties, and subsequent coating with AlCrN using a PVD method. The characterization of the coating was made using an optical profiler, XRD, AFM and microhardness tester. The results showed that the tool presented a fracture toughness of 6.43 MPa.m½ and hardness of 16 GPa. The hardness reached 31 GPa after coating. The machining tests showed a decrease on workpiece roughness when machining with coated insert, in comparison with the uncoated cutting tool. Probably this fact is related to hardness, roughness and topography of AlCrN.

  14. Tool for cutting locking cups from guide tube mounting screws in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nee, J.D.; Hahn, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for freeing a socket-head screw from a locking cup therefor in a reactor cavity, wherein the locking cup includes a fixed cylindrical side wall encircling the side surface of the screw head and an annular end wall overlying the outer end surface of the screw head. The apparatus consists of: frame means, cylindrical cutter means having a longitudinal axis and having a frustoconical cutting surface with an inner diameter less than the inner diameter of the locking cup side wall and with an outer diameter greater than the outer diameter of the locking cup side wall, and drive means carried by the frame means and coupled to the cutter means for effecting rotation thereof about the axis, the rotating cutter means are operable for severing the locking cup end wall from the locking cup side wall at the junction therebetween when the cutter means is moved against the locking cup substantially coaxially therewith

  15. Experimental Investigation on Tool Wear Behavior and Cutting Temperature during Dry Machining of Carbon Steel SAE 1030 Using KC810 and KC910 Coated Inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tamerabet

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The removal of cutting fluids and lubrication in dry machining operations requires a good knowledge and full control of all the mechanisms that lead to tool damage. In order to optimize dry machining operations, it is necessary to clearly identify the wear patterns, determine the contact conditions and define the relationship between the contact parameters and the operating conditions. The idea is to choose optimal cutting conditions which lead to the best contact conditions limiting the triggering or aggravation of wear phenomena. The purpose of this paper is to determine the impact multilayer coatings and cutting parameters on tool wear and temperature at the tool-chip interface for two types of coated carbides (KC810 and KC910 Commercialized inserts during dry turning operation of carbon steel SAE 1030, in order to determine the ideal parameters and guarantee the best performances of the cutting tools. Cutting temperature, Crater and Flank wear have been systematically recorded in order to determine their influence on tool life time. To ensure the optimum choice of machining conditions; the TAGUCHI method associated to multi-factorial method were applied to plan the experiments. It has been noted that cutting speed was the most influential factor on temperature and wear evolution. We noted also that the KC810 insert was more suitable for machining of SAE 1030 Carbon Steel; where The best life time was registered (T=228 min. The KC810 inserts offer 30 min of additional machining time for the same work conditions.

  16. An Experimental Investigation of Cutting Temperature and Tool Wear in 2 Dimensional Ultrasonic Vibrations Assisted Micro-Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mohd Rasidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional Ultrasonic vibration assisted milling (2D UVAM well knows process that involved in high tech system to generate ultra range of frequency applied to the milling process. More industries nowadays become aware taking this opportunity to improve their productivity without decreasing their product accuracies. This paper investigate a comparative machining between UVAM and conventional machining (CM in tool wear and cutting temperature in milling process. Micro amplitude and sine wave frequency will be generate into the workpiece jig by piezo-actuator. Thus, creating a micro gap that allow heat remove effectively with the chip produces. A more complex tool trajectory mechanics of 2D UVAM has been found during this research. The approaching the tool tip into the workpiece surfaces is affected by the amplitude displacement along the frequency applied. It is found that the tool wear was reduce and surface roughness improvement by applying the 2D UVAM compared to the CM when choosing the optimum amplitude and appropriate frequency.

  17. Framework for utilizing angling as a tourism development tool in rural areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Josef; Martinát, Stanislav; Kallabová, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 10 (2009), s. 508-518 ISSN 0139-570X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300860902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : rural areas * development * angling Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.716, year: 2009 http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-72349089553&origin=resultslist&sort

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF THE TOOL POINT ANGLE AND FEED RATE ON THE DYNAMIC PARAMETERS AT DRILLING COATED PARTICLEBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai ISPAS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pre-laminated (coated particleboards (PB are wood-based composites intensively used in the furniture industry. In order to prepare the PB for joining, drilling is the most commonly applied machining process. The surface quality and the dynamic parameters (thrust force and torque are significantly influenced by the tools characteristics and the machining parameters. The point/tip angle of the drill bit and the feed speed during drilling play a major role in gaining a good surface quality and minimizing the dynamic parameters. The objective of this study was to measure and analyze the influence of both the geometric and cinematic parameters on the dynamic parameters at drilling with twist (helical drills. The experiments were performed based on a factorial design. The results show that, a low feed rate generally minimizes both the drilling torque and the thrust force, while a small tip angle increases the drilling torque and minimizes the thrust force.

  19. Cutting zone area and chip morphology in high-speed cutting of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Qing Chan; Xu, Daochun; Xiong, Dan Ping

    2017-01-01

    The titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V has superior properties but poor machinability, yet is widely used in aerospace and biomedical industries. Chip formation and cutting zone area are important factors that have received limited attention. Thus, we propose a high-speed orthogonal cutting model for serrated chip formation. The high speed orthogonal cutting of Ti-6Al-4V was studied with a cutting speed of 10-160 m/min and a feed of 0.07-0.11 mm/r. Using theoretical models and experimental results, parameters such as chip shape, serration level, slip angle, and shear slip distance were investigated. Cutting zone boundaries (tool-chip contact length, length of shear plane, and critical slip plane) and cutting zone area were obtained. The results showed that discontinuous, long-curling, and continuous chips were formed at low, medium, and high speeds, respectively. Serration level, shear slip distance, and slip angle rose with increasing cutting speed. The length of shear plane, tool-chip contact, and critical slip plane varied subtly with increased cutting speed, and rose noticeably with increased feed. Cutting zone area grew weakly with increased cutting speed, levelling off at high cutting speed; however, it rose noticeably with increased feed. This study furthers our understanding of the shear slip phenomenon and the mechanism of serrated chip formation

  20. Cutting zone area and chip morphology in high-speed cutting of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Qing Chan; Xu, Daochun; Xiong, Dan Ping [School of Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing (China)

    2017-01-15

    The titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V has superior properties but poor machinability, yet is widely used in aerospace and biomedical industries. Chip formation and cutting zone area are important factors that have received limited attention. Thus, we propose a high-speed orthogonal cutting model for serrated chip formation. The high speed orthogonal cutting of Ti-6Al-4V was studied with a cutting speed of 10-160 m/min and a feed of 0.07-0.11 mm/r. Using theoretical models and experimental results, parameters such as chip shape, serration level, slip angle, and shear slip distance were investigated. Cutting zone boundaries (tool-chip contact length, length of shear plane, and critical slip plane) and cutting zone area were obtained. The results showed that discontinuous, long-curling, and continuous chips were formed at low, medium, and high speeds, respectively. Serration level, shear slip distance, and slip angle rose with increasing cutting speed. The length of shear plane, tool-chip contact, and critical slip plane varied subtly with increased cutting speed, and rose noticeably with increased feed. Cutting zone area grew weakly with increased cutting speed, levelling off at high cutting speed; however, it rose noticeably with increased feed. This study furthers our understanding of the shear slip phenomenon and the mechanism of serrated chip formation.

  1. Aplicaciones extraorales del bisturí piezoeléctrico Extraoral uses of a piezoelectric surgical cutting tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. González Lagunas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos nuestra experiencia con el empleo de un bisturí piezoeleéctrico con el fin de efectuar diferentes osteotomias extraorales, Estas indicaciones no se han presentado previamente en la literatura. En los últimos 6 meses hemos utilizado este intrumento para efectuar osteotomías en el cóndilo y en la eminencia articular, para tomar injerto de calota craneal y para realizar las osteotomias de la rinoplastia. Este instrumento permite una inea de osteotomia precisa sin el riesgo de lesionar los tejidos blandos vecinos. Se discuten las ventajas e inconvenientes del instrumento según el procedimiento realizado.We report our experience with the use of a piezoelectric surgical cutting tool in performing extraoral osteotomies. These indications have not been reported previously in the literature. In the last 6 months we have used this instrument to perform osteotomy on the temporomandibular condyle and articular eminence, to obtain grafts from the skull, and to perform osteotomy for rhinoplasty. This instrument can be used to makes an osteotomy cut without risk of injuring adjacent soft tissues. Its advantages and disadvantages are discussed in accordance with the procedure performed.

  2. Experimental and numerical investigations on the temperature distribution in PVD AlTiN coated and uncoated Al2O3/TiCN mixed ceramic cutting tools in hard turning of AISI 52100 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sateesh Kumar, Ch; Patel, Saroj Kumar; Das, Anshuman

    2018-03-01

    Temperature generation in cutting tools is one of the major causes of tool failure especially during hard machining where machining forces are quite high resulting in elevated temperatures. Thus, the present work investigates the temperature generation during hard machining of AISI 52100 steel (62 HRC hardness) with uncoated and PVD AlTiN coated Al2O3/TiCN mixed ceramic cutting tools. The experiments were performed on a heavy duty lathe machine with both coated and uncoated cutting tools under dry cutting environment. The temperature of the cutting zone was measured using an infrared thermometer and a finite element model has been adopted to predict the temperature distribution in cutting tools during machining for comparative assessment with the measured temperature. The experimental and numerical results revealed a significant reduction of cutting zone temperature during machining with PVD AlTiN coated cutting tools when compared to uncoated cutting tools during each experimental run. The main reason for decrease in temperature for AlTiN coated tools is the lower coefficient of friction offered by the coating material which allows the free flow of the chips on the rake surface when compared with uncoated cutting tools. Further, the superior wear behaviour of AlTiN coating resulted in reduction of cutting temperature.

  3. Prediction of the wear and evolution of cutting tools in a carbide / titanium-aluminum-vanadium machining tribosystem by volumetric tool wear characterization and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttolamadom, Mathew Abraham

    The objective of this research work is to create a comprehensive microstructural wear mechanism-based predictive model of tool wear in the tungsten carbide / Ti-6Al-4V machining tribosystem, and to develop a new topology characterization method for worn cutting tools in order to validate the model predictions. This is accomplished by blending first principle wear mechanism models using a weighting scheme derived from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of tools worn under different operational conditions. In addition, the topology of worn tools is characterized through scanning by white light interferometry (WLI), and then application of an algorithm to stitch and solidify data sets to calculate the volume of the tool worn away. The methodology was to first combine and weight dominant microstructural wear mechanism models, to be able to effectively predict the tool volume worn away. Then, by developing a new metrology method for accurately quantifying the bulk-3D wear, the model-predicted wear was validated against worn tool volumes obtained from corresponding machining experiments. On analyzing worn crater faces using SEM/EDS, adhesion was found dominant at lower surface speeds, while dissolution wear dominated with increasing speeds -- this is in conformance with the lower relative surface speed requirement for micro welds to form and rupture, essentially defining the mechanical load limit of the tool material. It also conforms to the known dominance of high temperature-controlled wear mechanisms with increasing surface speed, which is known to exponentially increase temperatures especially when machining Ti-6Al-4V due to its low thermal conductivity. Thus, straight tungsten carbide wear when machining Ti-6Al-4V is mechanically-driven at low surface speeds and thermally-driven at high surface speeds. Further, at high surface speeds, craters were formed due to carbon diffusing to the tool surface and

  4. Comparison of tool life and surface roughness with MQL, flood cooling, and dry cutting conditions with P20 and D2 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senevirathne, S. W. M. A. I.; Punchihewa, H. K. G.

    2017-09-01

    Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) is a cutting fluid (CF) application method that has given promising results in improving machining performances. It has shown that, the performance of cutting systems, depends on the work and tool materials used. AISI P20, and D2 are popular in tool making industry. However, the applicability of MQL in machining these two steels has not been studied previously. This experimental study is focused on evaluating performances of MQL compared to dry cutting, and conventional flood cooling method. Trials were carried out with P20, and D2 steels, using coated carbides as tool material, emulsion cutting oil as the CF. Tool nose wear, and arithmetic average surface roughness (Ra) were taken as response variables. Results were statistically analysed for differences in response variables. Although many past literature has suggested that MQL causes improvements in tool wear, and surface finish, this study has found contradicting results. MQL has caused nearly 200% increase in tool nose wear, and nearly 11-13% increase in surface roughness compared flood cooling method with both P20 and D2. Therefore, this study concludes that MQL affects adversely in machining P20, and D2 steels.

  5. Investigation of surface roughness and tool wear length with varying combination of depth of cut and feed rate of Aluminium alloy and P20 steel machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varmma Suparmaniam, Madan; Yusoff, Ahmad Razlan

    2016-01-01

    High-speed milling technique is often used in many industries to boost productivity of the manufacturing of high-technology components. The occurrence of wear highly limits the efficiency and accuracy of high- speed milling operations. In this paper, analysis of high-speed milling process parameters such as material removal rate, cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut carried out by implemented to conventional milling. This experiment investigate the effects of varying combination of depth of cut and feed rate to tool wear rate length using metallurgical microscope and surface roughness using portable surface roughness tester after end milling of Aluminium and P20 steel. Results showed that feed rate significantly influences the surface roughness value while depth of cut does not as the surface roughness value keep increasing with the increase of feed rate and decreasing depth of cut. Whereas, tool wear rate almost remain unchanged indicates that material removal rate strongly contribute the wear rate. It believe that with no significant tool wear rate the results of this experiment are useful by showing that HSM technique is possible to be applied in conventional machine with extra benefits of high productivity, eliminating semi-finishing operation and reducing tool load for finishing. (paper)

  6. Effect of cutting edge radius on surface roughness in diamond tool turning of transparent MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaobin; Xu, Min; Du, Wenhao; Chu, Chong

    2017-09-01

    Transparent magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) ceramic is one of an important optical materials. However, due to its pronounced hardness and brittleness, the optical machining of this material is very difficult. Diamond turning has advantages over the grinding process in flexibility and material removal rate. However, there is a lack of research that could support the use of diamond turning technology in the machining of MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic. Using brittle-ductile transition theory of brittle material machining, this work provides critical information that may help to realize ductile-regime turning of MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic. A characterization method of determination the cutting edge radius is introduced here. Suitable diamond tools were measured for sharpness and then chosen from a large number of candidate tools. The influence of rounded cutting edges on surface roughness of the MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic is also investigated. These results indicate that surface quality of MgAl2O4 spinel is relate to the radius of diamond tool's cutting edge, cutting speed, and feed rate. Sharp diamond tools (small radius of cutting edge) facilitated ductile-regime turning of MgAl2O4 spinel and shows great potential to reduce surface roughness and produce smoother final surface.

  7. EUV-angle resolved scatter (EUV-ARS): a new tool for the characterization of nanometre structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Herrero, Analía.; Mentzel, Heiko; Soltwisch, Victor; Jaroslawzew, Sina; Laubis, Christian; Scholze, Frank

    2018-03-01

    The advance of the semiconductor industry requires new metrology methods, which can deal with smaller and more complex nanostructures. Particularly for inline metrology a rapid, sensitive and non destructive method is needed. Small angle X-ray scattering under grazing incidence has already been investigated for this application and delivers significant statistical information which tracks the profile parameters as well as their variations, i.e. roughness. However, it suffers from the elongated footprint at the sample. The advantage of EUV radiation, with its longer wavelengths, is that larger incidence angles can be used, resulting in a significant reduction of the beam footprint. Targets with field sizes of 100 μm and smaller are accessible with our experimental set-up. We present a new experimental tool for the measurement of small structures based on the capabilities of soft X-ray and EUV scatterometry at the PTB soft X-ray beamline at the electron storage ring BESSY II. PTB's soft X-ray radiometry beamline uses a plane grating monochromator, which covers the spectral range from 0.7 nm to 25 nm and was especially designed to provide highly collimated radiation. An area detector covers the scattered radiation from a grazing exit angle up to an angle of 30° above the sample horizon and the fluorescence emission can be detected with an energy dispersive X-ray silicon drift detector. In addition, the sample can be rotated and linearly moved in vacuum. This new set-up will be used to explore the capabilities of EUV-scatterometry for the characterization of nanometre-sized structures.

  8. MGDS: Free, on-line, cutting-edge tools to enable the democratisation of geoscience data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwillie, A. M.; Ryan, W. B.; O'Hara, S.; Ferrini, V.; Arko, R. A.; Coplan, J.; Chan, S.; Carbotte, S. M.; Nitsche, F. O.; Bonczkowski, J.; Morton, J. J.; Weissel, R.; Leung, A.

    2010-12-01

    The availability of user-friendly, effective cyber-information resources for accessing and manipulating geoscience data has grown rapidly in recent years. Based at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory the MGDS group has developed a number of free tools that have wide application across the geosciences for both educators and researchers. A simple web page (http://www.marine-geo.org/) allows users to search for and download many types of data by key word, geographical region, or published citation. The popular Create Maps and Grids function and the downloadable Google Earth-compatible KML files appeal to a wide user base. MGDS MediaBank galleries (http://media.marine-geo.org/) enable users to view and download compelling images that are purposefully selected for their educational value from NSF-funded field programs. GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org), a free map-based interactive tool that works on any machine, is increasingly being adopted across a broad suite of users from middle school students to university researchers. GeoMapApp allows users to plot, manipulate and present data in an intuitive geographical reference frame. GeoMapApp offers a convenient way to explore the wide range of built-in data sets, to quickly generate maps and images that aid visualisation and, when importing their own gridded and tabular data sets, to access the same rich built-in functionality. A user guide, short multi-media tutorials, and webinar are available on-line. The regularly-updated Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) Synthesis is used as the default GeoMapApp base map and is an increasingly popular means to rapidly create location maps. Additionally, the layer manager offers a fast way to overlay and compare multiple data sets and is augmented by the ability to alter layer transparency so that underlying layers become visible. Examples of GeoMapApp built-in data sets include high-resolution land topography and ocean floor bathymetry derived from satellite and multi

  9. Mechanisms, Prediction, and Prevention of ACL Injuries: Cut Risk With Three Sharpened and Validated Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Paterno, Mark V.; Quatman, Carmen E.

    2017-01-01

    Economic and societal pressures influence modern medical practice to develop and implement prevention strategies. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury devastates the knee joint leading to short term disability and long term sequelae. Due to the high risk of long term osteoarthritis in all treatment populations following ACL injury, prevention is the only effective intervention for this life-altering disruption in knee health. The “Sequence of Prevention” Model provides a framework to monitor progress towards the ultimate goal of preventing ACL injuries. Utilizing this model, our multidisciplinary collaborative research team has spent the last decade working to delineate injury mechanisms, identify injury risk factors, predict which athletes are at-risk for injury, and develop ACL injury prevention programs. Within this model of injury prevention, modifiable factors (biomechanical and neuromuscular) related to injury mechanisms likely provide the best opportunity for intervention strategies aimed to decrease the risk of ACL injury, particularly in female athletes. Knowledge advancements have led to the development of potential solutions that allow athletes to compete with lowered risk of ACL injury. Design and integration of personalized clinical assessment tools and targeted prevention strategies for athletes at high risk for ACL injury may transform current prevention practices and ultimately significantly reduce ACL injury incidence. This 2016 OREF Clinical Research Award focuses on the authors' work and contributions to the field. The author's acknowledge the many research groups who have contributed to the current state of knowledge in the fields of ACL injury mechanisms, injury risk screening and injury prevention strategies. PMID:27612195

  10. Numerical simulation of rock cutting using 2D AUTODYN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldemichael, D E; Rani, A M Abdul; Lemma, T A; Altaf, K

    2015-01-01

    In a drilling process for oil and gas exploration, understanding of the interaction between the cutting tool and the rock is important for optimization of the drilling process using polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutters. In this study the finite element method in ANSYS AUTODYN-2D is used to simulate the dynamics of cutter rock interaction, rock failure, and fragmentation. A two-dimensional single PDC cutter and rock model were used to simulate the orthogonal cutting process and to investigate the effect of different parameters such as depth of cut, and back rake angle on two types of rocks (sandstone and limestone). In the simulation, the cutting tool was dragged against stationary rock at predetermined linear velocity and the depth of cut (1,2, and 3 mm) and the back rake angles(-10°, 0°, and +10°) were varied. The simulation result shows that the +10° back rake angle results in higher rate of penetration (ROP). Increasing depth of cut leads to higher ROP at the cost of higher cutting force. (paper)

  11. On the closed form mechanistic modeling of milling: Specific cutting energy, torque, and power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoumi, A. E.; Yücesan, G.; Hutton, D. V.

    1994-02-01

    Specific energy in metal cutting, defined as the energy expended in removing a unit volume of workpiece material, is formulated and determined using a previously developed closed form mechanistic force model for milling operations. Cutting power is computed from the cutting torque, cutting force, kinematics of the cutter, and the volumetric material removal rate. Closed form expressions for specific cutting energy were formulated and found to be functions of the process parameters: pressure and friction for both rake and flank surfaces and chip flow angle at the rake face of the tool. Friction is found to play a very important role in cutting torque and power. Experiments were carried out to determine the effects of feedrate, cutting speed, workpiece material, and flank wear land width on specific cutting energy. It was found that the specific cutting energy increases with a decrease in the chip thickness and with an increase in flank wear land.

  12. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....

  13. Kinematics of the AM-50 heading machine cutting head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Bak, K; Klich, R [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Mechanizacji Gornictwa

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes motion of the cutter head of the AM-50 heading machine. Two types of head motion are comparatively evaluated: planar motion and spatial motion. The spatial motion consists of the head rotational motion and horizontal or vertical feed motion, while planar motion consists of rotational motion and vertical feed motion. Equations that describe head motion under conditions of cutter vertical or horizontal feed motion are derived. The angle between the cutting speed direction and working speed direction is defined. On the basis of these formulae variations of cutting speed depending on the cutting tool position on a cutter head are calculated. Calculations made for 2 extreme cutting tools show that the cutting speed ranges from 1,205 m/s to 3,512 m/s. 4 refs.

  14. The structure and properties of ZrN-Ni-Co-coatings on the edges steel knives of wood-cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaevskij, V.V.; Grishkevich, A.A.; Zhilinskij, V.V.; Kuleshov, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Modes were selected and formed electroplated Ni-Co-coatings, ion-plasma Zr N-coatings as well as combined Zr N-Ni-Co-coating on the edges steel (type R6M5) knives of wood-cutting milling tools. Formed electroplated Ni-Co-layers are not mixed with the steel substrate and the Zr N-coating. Microhardness of combined Zr N-Ni-Co-coatings is to 1,2-1,5 times more than microhardness of steel base and bare steel. When cutting laminated chipboard by steel knives of milling tool with a Ni-Co- and Zr N-Ni-Co-coatings under laboratory conditions, abrasive surface wear type of edges knives is observed. Calculating bulk wear of edges knives with Zr N-Ni-Co-coatings showed reduction of more than 3 times value in comparison with knives with Ni-Co-coatings. Pilot testing of tool modified with combined Zr N-Ni-Co-coatings at OJSC 'Minskdrev' when cutting pine confirmed relevance of the tests carried out, as well as showed an increase in durability period of cutters to 30% compared with bare tool. (authors)

  15. CONTROL DE CALIDAD DE HERRAMIENTAS DE CORTE CON REMOCIÓN MÍNIMA DE MATERIAL QUALITY CONTROL OF CUTTING TOOLS WITH MINIMUM MATERIAL REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandrey Maldaner

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la mejora de las tecnologías de mecanizado, es necesario que las herramientas satisfagan las demandas requeridas. Una condición especial, para poder describir con seguridad el corte con remoción mínima de material, es el conocimiento de los valores característicos de la superficie y de la geometría. Las herramientas poseen una influencia substancial en la calidad de las piezas producidas, así como en la estabilidad y en la seguridad del proceso de mecanizado. Aunque hay una gran cantidad de herramientas para el corte con remoción mínima de material, se presenta como ejemplo la investigación con medición óptica y la obtención de los valores característicos para dientes de sierras de cinta.Due to improved machine cutting technologies it is necessary that tools fulfil the required performance. A special condition, for minimal machine cutting removal, is the knowledge of surface and geometry characteristic values. These tools represent both a substantial influence on the quality of the manufactured pieces and on stability and working safety of the cutting process. Since there is a large number of tools for minimal removal of material, examples of optical measurement and examination of characteristic values by the belt saw teeth are presented.

  16. Study of AFM-based nanometric cutting process using molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Pengzhe; Hu Yuanzhong; Ma Tianbao; Wang Hui

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are conducted to investigate the atomic force microscope (AFM)-based nanometric cutting process of copper using diamond tool. The effects of tool geometry, cutting depth, cutting velocity and bulk temperature are studied. It is found that the tool geometry has a significant effect on the cutting resistance. The friction coefficient (cutting resistance) on the nanoscale decreases with the increase of tool angle as predicted by the macroscale theory. However, the friction coefficients on the nanoscale are bigger than those on the macroscale. The simulation results show that a bigger cutting depth results in more material deformation and larger chip volume, thus leading to bigger cutting force and bigger normal force. It is also observed that a higher cutting velocity results in a larger chip volume in front of the tool and bigger cutting force and normal force. The chip volume in front of the tool increases while the cutting force and normal force decrease with the increase of bulk temperature.

  17. Influence of Fiber Orientation on Single-Point Cutting Fracture Behavior of Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy Prepreg Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Wei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate the influences of carbon fibers on the fracture mechanism of carbon fibers both in macroscopic view and microscopic view by using single-point flying cutting method. Cutting tools with three different materials were used in this research, namely, PCD (polycrystalline diamond tool, CVD (chemical vapor deposition diamond thin film coated carbide tool and uncoated carbide tool. The influence of fiber orientation on the cutting force and fracture topography were analyzed and conclusions were drawn that cutting forces are not affected by cutting speeds but significantly influenced by the fiber orientation. Cutting forces presented smaller values in the fiber orientation of 0/180° and 15/165° but the highest one in 30/150°. The fracture mechanism of carbon fibers was studied in different cutting conditions such as 0° orientation angle, 90° orientation angle, orientation angles along fiber direction, and orientation angles inverse to the fiber direction. In addition, a prediction model on the cutting defects of carbon fiber reinforced plastic was established based on acoustic emission (AE signals.

  18. Influence of Fiber Orientation on Single-Point Cutting Fracture Behavior of Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy Prepreg Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yingying; An, Qinglong; Cai, Xiaojiang; Chen, Ming; Ming, Weiwei

    2015-10-02

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the influences of carbon fibers on the fracture mechanism of carbon fibers both in macroscopic view and microscopic view by using single-point flying cutting method. Cutting tools with three different materials were used in this research, namely, PCD (polycrystalline diamond) tool, CVD (chemical vapor deposition) diamond thin film coated carbide tool and uncoated carbide tool. The influence of fiber orientation on the cutting force and fracture topography were analyzed and conclusions were drawn that cutting forces are not affected by cutting speeds but significantly influenced by the fiber orientation. Cutting forces presented smaller values in the fiber orientation of 0/180° and 15/165° but the highest one in 30/150°. The fracture mechanism of carbon fibers was studied in different cutting conditions such as 0° orientation angle, 90° orientation angle, orientation angles along fiber direction, and orientation angles inverse to the fiber direction. In addition, a prediction model on the cutting defects of carbon fiber reinforced plastic was established based on acoustic emission (AE) signals.

  19. The relationships between ceramic tool life and different machining parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Axir, M.H.; El-Masry, A.A.; Mashal, Y.A.H.

    2001-01-01

    With the increasing use of ceramic tool materials in applications, has come an increasing need for experimental data to assign the behavior of the life of these tool materials. Experimental results during turning operation show that it is possible to increase cutting tool life substantially by a proper variation of the cutting parameters used in this work. The tool lives (tool flank wear land length) of three different ceramic materials, namely; Silicon carbide (SiC), Alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) and partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) in addition to, Titanium carbide and high speed steel tools are investigated in this work. Also, The effect of varying the cutting speed, feed rate and tool rake angle on tool life of each tool material is studied. The experimental work was carried out utilizing one of the experimental design techniques based on response surface methodology. It was found that the SiC cutting tool showed the highest tool life among all materials tested in this work. It was also noticed that increasing the cutting speed has led to an increase in tool life for ceramic tools only. However, increasing the feed rate and tool rake angle resulted in a reduction in tool life in all materials examined in the present study. Further analysis conducted on SiC tool material to examine the effect of the interaction of cutting parameters on the tool life. (author)

  20. Lathe tool bit and holder for machining fiberglass materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, L. E. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A lathe tool and holder combination for machining resin impregnated fiberglass cloth laminates is described. The tool holder and tool bit combination is designed to accommodate a conventional carbide-tipped, round shank router bit as the cutting medium, and provides an infinite number of cutting angles in order to produce a true and smooth surface in the fiberglass material workpiece with every pass of the tool bit. The technique utilizes damaged router bits which ordinarily would be discarded.

  1. Development of flank wear model of cutting tool by using adaptive feedback linear control system on machining AISI D2 steel and AISI 4340 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orra, Kashfull; Choudhury, Sounak K.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to build an adaptive feedback linear control system to check the variation of cutting force signal to improve the tool life. The paper discusses the use of transfer function approach in improving the mathematical modelling and adaptively controlling the process dynamics of the turning operation. The experimental results shows to be in agreement with the simulation model and error obtained is less than 3%. The state space approach model used in this paper successfully check the adequacy of the control system through controllability and observability test matrix and can be transferred from one state to another by appropriate input control in a finite time. The proposed system can be implemented to other machining process under varying range of cutting conditions to improve the efficiency and observability of the system.

  2. Determining the cut-off point of osteoporosis based on the osteoporosis self-assessment tool, body mass index and weight in Taiwanese young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu Fang; Yang, Rong Sen

    2014-09-01

    To examine the cut-off point of the osteoporosis self-assessment tool, age, weight and body mass index for osteoporosis among young adult Taiwanese women, using a large-scale health examination database containing bone mineral density tests. The cut-off points of osteoporosis risk factors identified earlier focus on menopausal or senior Caucasian and Asian women. However, young adult Asian women have seldom been identified. A retrospective historical cohort study. Using the 2009-2011 health examination database of a large-scale medical centre in northern Taiwan, this study investigated young adult Asian women (i.e. range in age from 30-49 years) in Taiwan who had received dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry test. This study also explored the cut-off point, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of receiver operating characteristics of osteoporosis among young adult females in Taiwan. This study collected 2454 young adult Asian women in Taiwan. Cochran-Armitage analysis results indicated that the prevalence of osteoporosis increased with decreasing weight, body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment method quartiles. According to the results of receiver operating characteristics, weight, body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment tool approaches can generally be used as indicators to predict osteoporosis among young adult Asian women. Results of this study demonstrate that Taiwanese women contracting osteoporosis tend to be young and underweight, as well as having a low body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment scores. Those results further suggest that the assessment indicators for cut-off points are appropriately suitable for young adult women in Taiwan. Early detection is the only available means of preventing osteoporosis. Professional nurses should apply convenient and accurate assessment procedures to help young adult women to adopt preventive strategies against osteoporosis early, thus eliminating the probability of osteoporotic

  3. The effects of cutting parameters on cutting forces and heat generation when drilling animal bone and biomechanical test materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseke, Akos; Heinemann, Robert

    2018-01-01

    The research presented in this paper investigated the effects of spindle speed and feed rate on the resultant cutting forces (thrust force and torque) and temperatures while drilling SawBones ® biomechanical test materials and cadaveric cortical bone (bovine and porcine femur) specimens. It also investigated cortical bone anisotropy on the cutting forces, when drilling in axial and radial directions. The cutting forces are only affected by the feed rate, whereas the cutting temperature in contrast is affected by both spindle speed and feed rate. The temperature distribution indicates friction as the primary heat source, which is caused by the rubbing of the tool margins and the already cut chips over the borehole wall. Cutting forces were considerably higher when drilling animal cortical bone, in comparison to cortical test material. Drilling direction, and therewith anisotropy, appears to have a negligible effect on the cutting forces. The results suggest that this can be attributed to the osteons being cut at an angle rather than in purely axial or radial direction, as a result of a twist drill's point angle. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Subjectivity Inherent In By-Eye Symmetry Judgements and the Large Cutting Tools at the Cave of Hearths, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Underhill

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The Stone Age of South Africa is an area of study due for a renaissance, and there is a real need for unification of the extant evidence. As a beginning to this, new methodologies have been proposed. This paper tackles the issue of symmetry, specifically the subjectivity involved in by-eye judgements. Assumptions of subjectivity, however, are not proof: presented here is a critical analysis of the inherent bias of by-eye symmetry judgements. Ultimately it is clear that the method contains a level of subjectivity which strips it of any analytical value. The by-eye judgement of symmetry is replaced by the more robust Flip Test computer program, and a brief study is made of the Large Cutting Tools (LCT at a vitally important, yet often overlooked, site dating from the Pleistocene in South Africa, the Cave of Hearths, Limpopo province. The corollary is that the symmetry present in the Cave of Hearths Large Cutting Tools can be studied with some measure of confidence: suggestions are made regarding the nature of tool typologies and the knappers’ ultimate focus on tip shape and utility.

  5. Development of a Metal Cutting Tool Fase in Order to Create the Conditions of Ringed Chips Wrapping

    OpenAIRE

    Korchuganova, Mariya Anatolievna; Syrbakov, Andrey Pavlovich; Chernysheva, Tatiana Yurievna; Ivanov, G.; Korchuganov, Maksim Anatolievich

    2016-01-01

    When processing ductile metals with high cutting speed, there is a need to take additional measures for a comfortable and safe formation and removal of chips. In the conditions of large-scale manufacture, it is recommended to produce flow chips in the form of short fragments, while in the conditions of small-lot and single-piece manufacture, it is reasonable to wrap the chips spirally with a rather small turn radius. Such way of chips formation reduces the time of its removal from the working...

  6. Reliability and criterion validity of measurements using a smart phone-based measurement tool for the transverse rotation angle of the pelvis during single-leg lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung-Hoon; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Jeon, In-Cheol; Hwang, Ui-Jae; Weon, Jong-Hyuck

    2018-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the intra-rater test-retest reliability of a smart phone-based measurement tool (SBMT) and a three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis system for measuring the transverse rotation angle of the pelvis during single-leg lifting (SLL) and the criterion validity of the transverse rotation angle of the pelvis measurement using SBMT compared with a 3D motion analysis system (3DMAS). Seventeen healthy volunteers performed SLL with their dominant leg without bending the knee until they reached a target placed 20 cm above the table. This study used a 3DMAS, considered the gold standard, to measure the transverse rotation angle of the pelvis to assess the criterion validity of the SBMT measurement. Intra-rater test-retest reliability was determined using the SBMT and 3DMAS using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) [3,1] values. The criterion validity of the SBMT was assessed with ICC [3,1] values. Both the 3DMAS (ICC = 0.77) and SBMT (ICC = 0.83) showed excellent intra-rater test-retest reliability in the measurement of the transverse rotation angle of the pelvis during SLL in a supine position. Moreover, the SBMT showed an excellent correlation with the 3DMAS (ICC = 0.99). Measurement of the transverse rotation angle of the pelvis using the SBMT showed excellent reliability and criterion validity compared with the 3DMAS.

  7. Forecasting grain size distribution of coal cut by a shearer loader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Chodura, J; Siwiec, J

    1983-02-01

    Analyzed are effects of shearer loader design on grain size distribution of coal, particularly on proportion of the finest size group and proportion of largest coal grains. The method developed by the IGD im. A.A. Skochinski Institute in Moscow is used. Effects of cutting tool design and mechanical coal properties are analyzed. Of the evaluated factors, two are of decisive importance: thickness of the coal chip cut by a cutting tool and coefficient of coal disintegration which characterizes coal behavior during cutting. Grain size distribution is also influenced by cutting tool geometry. Two elements of cutting tool design are of major importance: dimensions of the cutting edge and angle of attack. Effects of cutting tool design and coal mechanical properties on grain size distribution are shown in 12 diagrams. Using the forecasting method developed by the IGD im. A.A. Skochinski Institute in Moscow grain size distribution of coal cut by three shearer loaders is calculated: the KWB-3RDU with a drum 1600 mm in diameter, the KWB-6W with a drum 2500 mm in diameter, and a shearer loader being developed with a 1550 mm drum. The results of comparative evaluations are shown in two tables. 5 references.

  8. Mechanical properties and oxidation behaviour of (Al,Cr)N and (Al,Cr,Si)N coatings for cutting tools deposited by HPPMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobzin, K.; Bagcivan, N.; Immich, P. [Surface Engineering Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Augustinerbach 4-22, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Bolz, S. [Surface Engineering Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Augustinerbach 4-22, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: info1@iot.rwth-aachen.de; Cremer, R.; Leyendecker, T. [CemeCon AG, Wuerselen (Germany)

    2008-12-01

    Hard coatings with high hardness, high oxidation resistance and thermal stability are used for economical machining. In this regard nanostructured (Cr,Al)N and nc-(Cr,Al)N/a-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} films were sputtered on tungsten carbide tools and WC/Co samples by using the HPPMS (High Power Pulse Magnetron Sputtering) technology. The relationship between coating composition, microstructure and mechanical properties was investigated by using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Nanoindentation. The maximum hardness value was about 40 GPa. For the coatings the Al-content was varied from 10-90 at.% while the silicon content was about 5 at.% for the (Cr,Al,Si)N. As this study focuses on oxidation behaviour of the deposited coatings, annealing tests were carried out in air at 1000 deg. C . HPPMS is a promising technology to ensure a uniform coating distribution, especially for complex shaped substrates like cutting tools or moulds. SEM pictures of the cross section have been taken around the cutting edge to determine the deposition rate and the film growth. The coatings morphology has been compared to m. f. (middle frequency)- and d. c. (direct current)-sputtered nanocomposite (Cr,Al,Si)N films indicating enhanced properties due to the application of the HPPMS-technology with regard to denser structure, higher hardness, favourable surface topography and better thickness uniformity.

  9. Influence of the microstructure of a diamond-containing composite material on the tool cutting ability when grinding a diamond single crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kuzei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the methods of electronic scanning microstructure and X-ray analysis, the influence of the structure of diamond-containing composite materials on the cutting ability of the tool for circular grinding of diamond single crystals has been studied. It is shown that the use of an oxide-hydroxide glass with a spreading temperature of 570–590 K as a precursor of the binder leads to the formation of melt films on the surface of silicon carbide and diamond particles at 600–630 K and the glass content in the batch is 10 vol. %. The conversion of oxidehydroxide glass films to oxide films proceeds at 700–775 K during the sintering of the composite material. Depending on the volume content of the glass in the charge, the porosity of the compact, three types of structure of composite materials are distinguished: a volumetric skeleton of glass-clad diamond particles and silicon carbide with pores at the sites of multiple compounds; a frame made of glass-clad diamond particles and silicon carbide with glass pores in places of multiple connections; a matrix of glass and the particles of diamond, silicon carbide and pores located in it. The maximum cutting ability of the tool for circular grinding of diamond is provided by a composite material with a structure of the first type.

  10. Impact of heat treatment on HSS cutting tool (ASTM A600) and its behaviour during machining of mild steel (ASTM A36)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolalu, S. A.; Abioye, O. P.; Salawu, E. Y.; Okokpujie, I. P.; Abioye, A. A.; Omotosho, O. A.; Ajayi., O. O.

    2018-04-01

    Carburization is one the best heat treatment that responded well to hardening with Palm Kernel Shell giving the best hardness value. This work studied the influence of carburization on HSStool(ASTM A600) and its behaviour during machining of mild steel (ASTM A36). Composition of the samples (12 pieces of 180 × 12 × 12 mm) HSS tools were checked using UV-VIS spectrometer and the tools were carburized with PKS at holding temperatures and time of 800, 850, 900, 950 °C and 60,90 120 minutes using muffle furnance. The micro structural analysis, surface and core hardnessof the treated samples gave better results than the untreated samples when checked withsoft driven and optical microscope. It wasalso observed that increase in the feed rate and depth for length of cut of 50 mm significantly reduces the wear progression and thereby gave best machining time at maximum carburizing temperature and time(950 °C / 120 minutes) when it was used to cut mild steelon the lathe machine.

  11. Modelling the cutting edge radius size effect for force prediction in micro milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Jan, Slunsky

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model for cutting force prediction in micro milling, taking into account the cutting edge radius size effect, the tool run out and the deviation of the chip flow angle from the inclination angle. A parameterization according to the uncut chip thickness to cutting...... edge radius ratio is used for the parameters involved in the force calculation. The model was verified by means of cutting force measurements in micro milling. The results show good agreement between predicted and measured forces. It is also demonstrated that the use of the Stabler's rule...... is a reasonable approximation and that micro end mill run out is effectively compensated by the deflections induced by the cutting forces....

  12. Experimental investigation of piercing of high-strength steels within a critical range of slant angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, S.; Liewald, M.

    2017-09-01

    Deep drawn parts often do have complex designs and, therefore, must be trimmed or punched subsequently in a second stage. Due to the complex part geometry, most punching areas do reveal critical slant angle (angle between part surface and ram movement direction) different to perpendicular direction. Piercing within a critical range of slant angle may lead to severe damage of the cutting tool. Consequently, expensive cam units are required to transform the ram moving direction in order to perform the piercing process perpendicularly to the local part surface. For modern sheet metals, however, the described critical angle of attack has not been investigated adequately until now. Therefore, cam units are used in cases in which regular piercing with high slant angle wouldn’t be possible. Purpose of this study is to investigate influencing factors and their effect on punch damage during piercing of high strength steels with slant angles. Therefore, a modular shearing tool was designed, which allows to simply switch die parts to vary cutting clearance and cutting angle. The target size of the study is to measure the lateral deviation of the punch which is monitored by an eddy current sensor. The sensor is located in the downholder and measures the lateral punch deviation in-line during manufacturing. The deviation is mainly influenced by slant angle of workpiece surface. In relation to slang angle and sheet thickness the clearance has a small influence on the measured punch deflection.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF THE TOOL POINT ANGLE AND FEED RATE ON THE DELAMINATION AT DRILLING OF PRE-LAMINATED PARTICLEBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai ISPAS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pre-laminated particleboard is a wood based composite extensively used in the furniture industry. Drilling is the most common machining process which prepares the panels for joining using twist/helical drills in the absolute majority of cases. The point angle of the drill bit and the feed speed during drilling play a major role in gaining a good surface quality and minimizing the delamination tendency of the pre-laminated particleboard. The objective of this study was to measure and analyze the influence of the two above-mentioned factors on the processing quality, evaluated by de size of delaminations, both, at the entrance side and the exit side of the drill bit. To assess the defect, two parameters were used: the delamination factor and the effective area of delamination. The results showed that, in general, the combination of small point angle with low feed rate minimizes the delamination of pre-laminated particleboard panels at drilling.

  14. Flux cutting in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes experiments and theories of flux cutting in superconductors. The use of the flux line picture in free space is discussed. In superconductors cutting can either be by means of flux at an angle to other layers of flux, as in longitudinal current experiments, or due to shearing of the vortex lattice as in grain boundaries in YBCO. Experiments on longitudinal currents can be interpreted in terms of flux rings penetrating axial lines. More physical models of flux cutting are discussed but all predict much larger flux cutting forces than are observed. Also, cutting is occurring at angles between vortices of about one millidegree which is hard to explain. The double critical state model and its developments are discussed in relation to experiments on crossed and rotating fields. A new experiment suggested by Clem gives more direct information. It shows that an elliptical yield surface of the critical state works well, but none of the theoretical proposals for determining the direction of E are universally applicable. It appears that, as soon as any flux flow takes place, cutting also occurs. The conclusion is that new theories are required. (perspective)

  15. Cutting forces during turning with variable depth of cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadílek

    2016-03-01

    The proposed research for the paper is an experimental work – measuring cutting forces and monitoring of the tool wear on the cutting edge. It compares the turning where standard roughing cycle is used and the turning where the proposed roughing cycle with variable depth of cut is applied.

  16. Cut-loading: a useful tool for examining the extent of gap junction tracer coupling between retinal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Joo; Ribelayga, Christophe P; Mangel, Stuart C

    2012-01-12

    neurons with small somata in intact neural retinal tissue, but it can be difficult to adequately control the illumination conditions during the electrophysiological study of single retinal neurons to avoid light-induced changes in gap junction conductance. Here, we present a straightforward method of determining the extent of gap junction tracer coupling between retinal neurons under different illumination conditions and at different times of the day and night. This cut-loading technique is a modification of scrape loading(9-12), which is based on dye loading and diffusion through open gap junction channels. Scrape loading works well in cultured cells, but not in thick slices such as intact retinas. The cut-loading technique has been used to study photoreceptor coupling in intact fish and mammalian retinas(7, 8,13), and can be used to study coupling between other retinal neurons, as described here.

  17. Drilling of metal matrix composites: cutting forces and chip formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Songmene, V.; Balout, B.; Masounave, J.

    2002-01-01

    Particulate metal matrix composites (MMCs) are known for their low weight and their high wear resistance, but also for the difficulties encountered during their machining. New aluminium MMCs containing with both soft lubricating graphite particles and hard particles (silicon carbide or alumina) with improved machinability were developed. This study investigates the drilling of these composites as compared to non-reinforced aluminium. The microstructure of chip, the cutting forces, the shear angles and the friction at tool-chip interface are used to compare the machinability of these composites. It was found that, during drilling of this new family of composites, the feed rate, and the nature of reinforcing particles govern the cutting forces. The mathematical models established by previous researchers for predicting the cutting forces when drilling metals were validated for these composites. The reinforcing particles within the composite help for chip segmentation, making the composite more brittle and easy to shear during the cutting process. (author)

  18. Effects of sintering processes on mechanical properties and microstructure of TiB2–TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni composite ceramic cutting tool material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Bin; Huang Chuanzhen; Song Jinpeng; Liu Ziye; Liu Lin; Zhao Yan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► TiB 2 –TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni ceramic tool material was sintered by six processes. ► The properties of material depended mainly on the holding stages and duration. ► SP1 process was involved with the multiple holding stages and longer duration. ► SP1 process led to many pores, and coarsening and brittle rupture of grains. ► Tool material sintered by SP6 process exhibited the optimum mechanical properties. - Abstract: TiB 2 –TiC composite powder was prepared by ball-milled with ethanol and vacuum dry, and TiB 2 –TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni composite ceramic cutting tool material was sintered using vacuum hot-pressed sintering technique by six processes which included the different holding stages and times. The effects of sintering processes on the mechanical properties and microstructure were investigated. The polished surface and fracture surface of TiB 2 –TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni ceramics sintered by the different sintering processes were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and the relationships between mechanical properties and microstructure were discussed. The mechanical properties and microstructure depended mainly on the total holding time and the different holding stages. The longer holding time and multiple holding stages led to coarsening of TiB 2 and TiC grains, formation of pores and the brittle rupture of grains, which deteriorated the mechanical properties of TiB 2 –TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni ceramic. TiB 2 –TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni composite ceramic cutting tool material sintered by SP6 process exhibited the optimum resultant mechanical properties because of its finer microstructure and higher relative density, and its flexural strength, fracture toughness and hardness were 916.8 MPa, 7.80 MPa m 1/2 and 22.54 GPa, respectively.

  19. Survival and Growth of Cottonwood Clones After Angle Planting and Base Angle Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.K. Randall; Harvey E. Kennedy

    1976-01-01

    Presently, commercial cottonwood plantations in the lower Mississippi Valley are established using vertically planted, unrooted cuttings with a flat (90°) base. Neither survival nor first-year growth of a group of six Stoneville clones was improved by angle planting or cutting base angles diagonally. For one clone, survival was significantly better when base angle was...

  20. Identification of leaky steam generators by iodine mapping technique and development of tools for cutting of tubes of steam generators of Indian PHWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subba Rao, D.

    2006-01-01

    Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (2X220 MWe) located in Mandvi Taluka of Surat District in the state of Gujarat is the fifth Nuclear Power Station of the country. It has got an excellent record in the field of operation, safety, public awareness and emergency preparedness. KAPS Unit -1 achieved first criticality in Sep-1992 and was declared for commercial operation in may-1993. KAPS Unit -2 achieved first criticality in Jan-1995 and was declared for commercial operation in Sep-1995. So far station has generated about 30 billion units.Unit-1 achieved 98.4% and was graded as a world's No.1 in year 2002 amongst all CANDU type reactors. KAPS Unit -1 has made another record of operating continuously for more than 300 days in Indian PHWR s operating history. This paper mainly deals with the Indian PHWRs Steam Generators (SG) tube leaks, leaky steam generator identification by Iodine mapping, and development of special tool for cutting, removal and plugging of leaky tubes. These Steam Generators are designed by M/s Kraft Werke Union (KWU) of Siemens Group, West Germany, and Manufactured by M/s ENSA, SPAIN for Unit- 1 and by M/s MAN-GHH, Germany for Unit- 2. First time in October-2002 one of the Steam Generators of Unit-1 developed tube leak. To identify leaky Steam Generator, KAPS has established a method of Iodine mapping. With that the leaky SG was identified in very short time and corrective actions were taken immediately. Total three tube leaks (two in SG-4 of Unit-1 and one in SG-1 of unit-2) were experienced in both Units'. Following observations were made on SG tubes failure: All failures were in cold leg side; All Failures / deterioration locations were in front of main feed water nozzle; All Failures / deterioration locations were observed to be just above tube support plate (TSP) number 4 or 5; Deterioration ( i.e. wall thinning) observed from OD side and these tubes were adjacent to failed tubes; In all the three incidents, failed / deteriorated tubes were

  1. Effect of Rake Angle During Machining of Micro Grooves on Electroless Nickel Plated Die Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaur Rahman, K.M.; Rahman, M.

    2005-01-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the performance of two single crystal diamond tools with different rake angle (0 0 and -15 0 ) during micro grooving on electroless nickel plated die materials. It was found that the 0 0 rake diamond tool has superior performance compared to the -15 0 rake angle tool. The negative rake tool experienced very high thrust force, and severe chipping on the flank face was evident after a short cutting distance of 3.13 km. On the other hand, the 0 0 rake tool machined satisfactorily up to 50 km without any significant tool wear. While machining with the -15 0 rake tool, significant change in surface roughness with spindle speed was observed compared to the 0 0 rake tool. With increasing infeed rate variation in surface roughness was evident only with the -15 0 rake tool. Steep change in roughness with machining distance was also observed while machining with the negative rake tool. (authors)

  2. search.bioPreprint: a discovery tool for cutting edge, preprint biomedical research articles [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie L. Iwema

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The time it takes for a completed manuscript to be published traditionally can be extremely lengthy. Article publication delay, which occurs in part due to constraints associated with peer review, can prevent the timely dissemination of critical and actionable data associated with new information on rare diseases or developing health concerns such as Zika virus. Preprint servers are open access online repositories housing preprint research articles that enable authors (1 to make their research immediately and freely available and (2 to receive commentary and peer review prior to journal submission. There is a growing movement of preprint advocates aiming to change the current journal publication and peer review system, proposing that preprints catalyze biomedical discovery, support career advancement, and improve scientific communication. While the number of articles submitted to and hosted by preprint servers are gradually increasing, there has been no simple way to identify biomedical research published in a preprint format, as they are not typically indexed and are only discoverable by directly searching the specific preprint server websites. To address this issue, we created a search engine that quickly compiles preprints from disparate host repositories and provides a one-stop search solution. Additionally, we developed a web application that bolsters the discovery of preprints by enabling each and every word or phrase appearing on any web site to be integrated with articles from preprint servers. This tool, search.bioPreprint, is publicly available at http://www.hsls.pitt.edu/resources/preprint.

  3. Cutting cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsen, R.P.H. van; Smits, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a long term field test of the Cutting Cleaner, which is used for the treatment of wet oil contaminated cuttings (WOCC) produced when drilling with Oil Based Mud (OBM). It was concluded that it is possible to reduce the oil content of cuttings to an average of 1 - 2%. The recovered base oil can be reused to make new oil based mud

  4. Ultra small angle neutron scattering : a tool to study packing of relatively monodisperse small polymer spheres and their binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Philip A.; McGillivray, Duncan J.; White, John W.; Jackson, Andrew J.; University of Maryland, College Paerk, Maryland, USA

    2009-01-01

    Full text: We measured ultra small angle neutron scattering (USANS) from polymethylmethacrylate spheres tamped down in air. Two slightly polydisperse pure sphere sizes (1.5/-lm and 7.5/-lm diameter) and five mixtures of these were used. All were loose packed (packing fractions 0.3 to 0.6) with nongravitational forces (e.g., friction) important, preventing close packing. The USANS data is rich in information on powder packing. A modified Percus-Yevick fluid model was used to parametrise the data - adequately but not well. The modifications required introduction of small voids, less than the sphere size, and a parameter reflecting substantial deviation from the Percus-Yevick prediction of the sphere-sphere correlation function. The mixed samples fitted less well, and two further modifying factors were necessary. These were local inhomogeneities, where the concentration of same-size spheres, both large and small, deviated from the mean packing, and a factor accounting for the presence within these 'clusters' of self avoidance of the large spheres (that is large spheres coated with more small spheres than Percus-Yevick would predict). The overall deviations from the hardsphere Percus-Yevick model that we find here suggests fluid models of loose packed powders are unlikely to be successful, but lay the groundwork for future theoretical and computational work.

  5. SoftWAXS: a computational tool for modeling wide-angle X-ray solution scattering from biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Jaydeep; Park, Sanghyun; Makowski, Lee

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes a computational approach to estimating wide-angle X-ray solution scattering (WAXS) from proteins, which has been implemented in a computer program called SoftWAXS. The accuracy and efficiency of SoftWAXS are analyzed for analytically solvable model problems as well as for proteins. Key features of the approach include a numerical procedure for performing the required spherical averaging and explicit representation of the solute-solvent boundary and the surface of the hydration layer. These features allow the Fourier transform of the excluded volume and hydration layer to be computed directly and with high accuracy. This approach will allow future investigation of different treatments of the electron density in the hydration shell. Numerical results illustrate the differences between this approach to modeling the excluded volume and a widely used model that treats the excluded-volume function as a sum of Gaussians representing the individual atomic excluded volumes. Comparison of the results obtained here with those from explicit-solvent molecular dynamics clarifies shortcomings inherent to the representation of solvent as a time-averaged electron-density profile. In addition, an assessment is made of how the calculated scattering patterns depend on input parameters such as the solute-atom radii, the width of the hydration shell and the hydration-layer contrast. These results suggest that obtaining predictive calculations of high-resolution WAXS patterns may require sophisticated treatments of solvent.

  6. The Best Cut-Off Value for HbA1c as a Screening Tool in Iranian Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Neda Mousavi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a prevalent disorder which increases maternal and fetal complications. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT is a traditional, time -consuming and intensive test which is poorly tolerated by pregnant women. To date, increasing evidence considered HbA1c as a screening tool and reported various cut-off values in different populations. In alignment with existing literature, we determined for the first time, the optimal cut-off value for HbA1c in Iranian women with GDM.Materials and methods: This case-control study was conducted in Valie-Asr hospital between June 2015 and March 2016. A total of 200 pregnant women who were diagnosed with GDM were selected as study cases. For the control group, 200 healthy women were randomly selected. Fasting blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis, and OGTT was done in all participants. Demographic and anthropometric indexes were measured. Performance of the HbA1c test was analyzed by the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, and the sensitivity and specificity for different HbA1c cut-off points were calculated subsequently.Results: Analysis showed that the mean age (p < 0.001 and BMI (p < 0.001 were significantly higher in the GDM group compared to those in non-GDM pregnant women. GDM participants reported positive family- and previous history of GDM more than healthy pregnant women (p = 0.04 and p < 0.001, respectively. All the markers for Lipid profile were significantly different between the two groups (p = <0.001 except for total cholesterol. The rate of Caesarean section and neonate’s Apgar score were not significantly different between the two groups. The best equilibrium between sensitivity (80% and specificity (76% for HbA1c was 5.05%.Conclusion: Our results suggest that pregnant women with HbA1c of ≥ 5.05% should proceed with an OGTT. Further investigations with larger sample size are needed to provide more robust evidence for the

  7. Remote Laser Cutting of CFRP: Improvements in the Cut Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Johannes; Zaeh, Michael F.; Conrad, Markus

    In the automotive industry carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) are considered as a future key material to reduce the weight of the vehicle. Therefore, capable production techniques are required to process this material in mass industry. E.g., state of the art methods for cutting are limited by the high tool wear or the feasible feed rate. Laser cutting processes are still under investigation. This paper presents detailed new studies on remote laser cutting of CFRP focusing on the influence of the material properties and the quality of the cut surface. By adding light absorbing soot particles to the resin of the matrix, the cutting process is improved and fewer defects emerge.

  8. Paper Cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Lisa A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how to create paper cuts and suggests the most appropriate materials for young children that give good quality results. Describes the methods the author, a professional artist, uses to assemble her own paper cuts and how these can be adopted by older students. (KM)

  9. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining...... tests feature repeatability, reproducibility and sensitivity to cutting fluids, and ii) to what extent results of one test ensure relevance to a wider set of machining situations. The present work is aimed at assessing the range of validity of the different testing methods, investigating correlation...... within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity...

  10. Numerical modelling of orthogonal cutting: application to woodworking with a bench plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, John A

    2016-06-06

    A numerical model for orthogonal cutting using the material point method was applied to woodcutting using a bench plane. The cutting process was modelled by accounting for surface energy associated with wood fracture toughness for crack growth parallel to the grain. By using damping to deal with dynamic crack propagation and modelling all contact between wood and the plane, simulations could initiate chip formation and proceed into steady-state chip propagation including chip curling. Once steady-state conditions were achieved, the cutting forces became constant and could be determined as a function of various simulation variables. The modelling details included a cutting tool, the tool's rake and grinding angles, a chip breaker, a base plate and a mouth opening between the base plate and the tool. The wood was modelled as an anisotropic elastic-plastic material. The simulations were verified by comparison to an analytical model and then used to conduct virtual experiments on wood planing. The virtual experiments showed interactions between depth of cut, chip breaker location and mouth opening. Additional simulations investigated the role of tool grinding angle, tool sharpness and friction.

  11. Computer-aided analysis of cutting processes for brittle materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorodnikov, A. I.; Tikhonov, I. N.

    2017-12-01

    This paper is focused on 3D computer simulation of cutting processes for brittle materials and silicon wafers. Computer-aided analysis of wafer scribing and dicing is carried out with the use of the ANSYS CAE (computer-aided engineering) software, and a parametric model of the processes is created by means of the internal ANSYS APDL programming language. Different types of tool tip geometry are analyzed to obtain internal stresses, such as a four-sided pyramid with an included angle of 120° and a tool inclination angle to the normal axis of 15°. The quality of the workpieces after cutting is studied by optical microscopy to verify the FE (finite-element) model. The disruption of the material structure during scribing occurs near the scratch and propagates into the wafer or over its surface at a short range. The deformation area along the scratch looks like a ragged band, but the stress width is rather low. The theory of cutting brittle semiconductor and optical materials is developed on the basis of the advanced theory of metal turning. The fall of stress intensity along the normal on the way from the tip point to the scribe line can be predicted using the developed theory and with the verified FE model. The crystal quality and dimensions of defects are determined by the mechanics of scratching, which depends on the shape of the diamond tip, the scratching direction, the velocity of the cutting tool and applied force loads. The disunity is a rate-sensitive process, and it depends on the cutting thickness. The application of numerical techniques, such as FE analysis, to cutting problems enhances understanding and promotes the further development of existing machining technologies.

  12. Wet cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hole, B. [IMC Technical Services (United Kingdom)

    1999-08-01

    Continuous miners create dust and methane problems in underground coal mining. Control has usually been achieved using ventilation techniques as experiments with water based suppression have led to flooding and electrical problems. Recent experience in the US has led to renewed interest in wet head systems. This paper describes tests of the Hydraphase system by IMC Technologies. Ventilation around the cutting zone, quenching of hot ignition sources, dust suppression, the surface trial gallery tests, the performance of the cutting bed, and flow of air and methane around the cutting head are reviewed. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 photos.

  13. Cutting assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.; Bencloski, William A.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    A cutting apparatus includes a support table mounted for movement toward and away from a workpiece and carrying a mirror which directs a cutting laser beam onto the workpiece. A carrier is rotatably and pivotally mounted on the support table between the mirror and workpiece and supports a conduit discharging gas toward the point of impingement of the laser beam on the workpiece. Means are provided for rotating the carrier relative to the support table to place the gas discharging conduit in the proper positions for cuts made in different directions on the workpiece.

  14. Solution small-angle x-ray scattering as a screening and predictive tool in the fabrication of asymmetric block copolymer membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Dorin, Rachel Mika; Marques, Debora S.; Sai, Hiroaki; Vainio, Ulla; Phillip, William A.; Peinemann, Klaus; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Wiesner, Ulrich B.

    2012-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis of the diblock copolymer poly(styrene-b-(4-vinyl)pyridine) in a ternary solvent system of 1,4-dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, and N,N-dimethylformamide, and the triblock terpolymer poly(isoprene-b-styrene-b-(4-vinyl)-pyridine) in a binary solvent system of 1,4-dioxane and tetrahydrofuran, reveals a concentration-dependent onset of ordered structure formation. Asymmetric membranes fabricated from casting solutions with polymer concentrations at or slightly below this ordering concentration possess selective layers with the desired nanostructure. In addition to rapidly screening possible polymer solution concentrations, solution SAXS analysis also predicts hexagonal and square pore lattices of the final membrane surface structure. These results suggest solution SAXS as a powerful tool for screening casting solution concentrations and predicting surface structure in the fabrication of asymmetric ultrafiltration membranes from self-assembled block copolymers. (Figure presented) © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. Wavelet-based feature extraction applied to small-angle x-ray scattering patterns from breast tissue: a tool for differentiating between tissue types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falzon, G; Pearson, S; Murison, R; Hall, C; Siu, K; Evans, A; Rogers, K; Lewis, R

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the application of wavelet decomposition to small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) patterns from human breast tissue produced by a synchrotron source. The pixel intensities of SAXS patterns of normal, benign and malignant tissue types were transformed into wavelet coefficients. Statistical analysis found significant differences between the wavelet coefficients describing the patterns produced by different tissue types. These differences were then correlated with position in the image and have been linked to the supra-molecular structural changes that occur in breast tissue in the presence of disease. Specifically, results indicate that there are significant differences between healthy and diseased tissues in the wavelet coefficients that describe the peaks produced by the axial d-spacing of collagen. These differences suggest that a useful classification tool could be based upon the spectral information within the axial peaks

  16. Solution small-angle x-ray scattering as a screening and predictive tool in the fabrication of asymmetric block copolymer membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Dorin, Rachel Mika

    2012-05-15

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis of the diblock copolymer poly(styrene-b-(4-vinyl)pyridine) in a ternary solvent system of 1,4-dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, and N,N-dimethylformamide, and the triblock terpolymer poly(isoprene-b-styrene-b-(4-vinyl)-pyridine) in a binary solvent system of 1,4-dioxane and tetrahydrofuran, reveals a concentration-dependent onset of ordered structure formation. Asymmetric membranes fabricated from casting solutions with polymer concentrations at or slightly below this ordering concentration possess selective layers with the desired nanostructure. In addition to rapidly screening possible polymer solution concentrations, solution SAXS analysis also predicts hexagonal and square pore lattices of the final membrane surface structure. These results suggest solution SAXS as a powerful tool for screening casting solution concentrations and predicting surface structure in the fabrication of asymmetric ultrafiltration membranes from self-assembled block copolymers. (Figure presented) © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. Force Relations and Dynamics of Cutting Knife in a Vertical Disc Mobile Wood Chipper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun R. BELLO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The force relations and dynamics of cutting knife in a vertical disc wood chipper were investigated. The tool geometry determined include: rake angle (20 deg C; Shear angle, (fi= 52.15 deg C; the mean frictional angle, (t = 5.71 deg C. The analysis and comparison of the cutting forces has shown that the chips separated from the wood are being formed by off cutting, since normal applied force N is compressive in nature, the magnitude of the forces used by the knife on the wood is expected to increase as the cutting edge of the knife goes deeper into the wood until the value of the resisting force acting against the cut wood Ff is reached and exceeded. The evaluated forces acting on the knife and the chip are: F = 3.63Nmm^-1; N = 34.7 Nmm^-1; Fs= 27.45Nmm^-1; Fn =31.92 Nmm^-1; Ft = -8.46Nmm^-1; Fc = 33.85Nmm^-1. The resultant force acting on the tool face, Pr = 34.89Nmm^-1. The specific cutting pressure, Pc and cutting force needed to cut the timber, Fc, are 1.79 × 10^6 N/m2 and 644.84N respectively. The energy consumed in removing a unit volume of material is 69.96kJ/mm^-3 and the maximum power developed in cutting the chip is 3591.77W (4.82hp. The chipper efficiency (86.6% was evaluated by the highest percentage of accepted chip sizes.

  18. The Cutting Process, Chips and Cutting Forces in Machining CFRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koplev, A.; Lystrup, Aage; Vorm, T.

    1983-01-01

    The cutting of unidirectional CFRP, perpendicular as well as parallel to the fibre orientation, is examined. Shaping experiments, ‘quick-stop’ experiments, and a new chip preparation technique are used for the investigation. The formation of the chips, and the quality of the machined surface...... is discussed. The cutting forces parallel and perpendicular to the cutting direction are measured for various parameters, and the results correlated to the formation of chips and the wear of the tool....

  19. Cutting agents for special metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugito, Seiji; Sakakibara, Fumi

    1979-01-01

    The quantity of use of special metals has increased year after year in the Plasma Research Institute, Nagoya University, with the development of researches on plasma and nuclear fusion. Most of these special metals are hard to cut, and in order to secure the surface smoothness and dimensional accuracy, considerable efforts are required. The method of experiment is as follows: cutting agents salt water and acetone, rape-seed oil, sulfide and chloride oil and water soluble cutting oil W grade 3; metals to be cut niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, titanium and tungsten; cutting conditions cutting speed 4.7 to 90 m/min, feed 0.07 to 0.2 mm/rev, depth of cut 0.1 to 0.4 mm, tool cemented carbide bit. Chemicals such as tetrachloromethane and trichloroethane give excellent cutting performance, but the toxicity is intense and the stimulative odor exists, accordingly they are hard to use practically. Cutting was easier when the salt water added with acetone was used than the case of rape-seed oil, but salt water is corrosive. Recently, the machining of molybdenum has been often carried out, and the water soluble cutting oil was the best. It is also good for cutting stainless steel, and its lubricating property is improved by adding some additives such as sulfur, chlorine, phosphorus and molybdenum disulfide. However after cutting with it, washing is required. (Kako, I.)

  20. A thermo-electro-mechanical simulation model for hot wire cutting of EPS foam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkov, Kiril; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    A one-dimensional thermo-electro-mechanical mathematical model describing the effects taking place within a Ni-Cr20% wire used in a hot-wire cutting process for free forming and rapid prototyping of expanded polystyrene (EPS) is investigated and simulated. The model implements and solves three semi...... cutting of EPS in contact with a cutting tool made of an electrically heated metal wire attached to a robot device. The finite difference method is used to solve the coupled equations in the two environments (domains) in which the hot-wire operates, namely air and EPS. The model is calibrated against...... experimentally obtained data. Novel findings are a transient temperature-dependent kerfwidth prediction and a relation between kerfwidth and the cutting angle as measured from the horizontal direction. These are important relations in the aim for higher geometrical accuracy of the hot-wire cutting process. (C...

  1. Abrasive water jet cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leist, K.J.; Funnell, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the process of selecting a failed equipment cut-up tool for the process facility modifications (PFM) project, a system using an abrasive water jet (AWJ) was developed and tested for remote disassembly of failed equipment. It is presented in this paper

  2. Quality Analysis of Cutting Steel Using Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Markovič

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the quality dependence of the edge surface of steel C45 LST EN 10083-1 obtained cutting the material using laser on different cutting regimes and variations in the thickness of trial steel. The paper presents the influence of the main modes of laser cutting equipment Trulaser 3030, including cutting speed, pressure, angle and the thickness of the surface on the quality characteristics of the sample. The quality of the edge after laser cutting is the most important indicator influencing such technological spread in industry worldwide. Laser cutting is the most popular method of material cutting. Therefore, the article focuses on cutting equipment, cutting defects and methods of analysis. Research on microstructure, roughness and micro-toughness has been performed with reference to edge samples. At the end of the publication, conclusions are drawn.Article in Lithuanian

  3. Quality Analysis of Cutting Steel Using Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Markovič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the quality dependence of the edge surface of steel C45 LST EN 10083-1 obtained cutting the material using laser on different cutting regimes and variations in the thickness of trial steel. The paper presents the influence of the main modes of laser cutting equipment Trulaser 3030, including cutting speed, pressure, angle and the thickness of the surface on the quality characteristics of the sample. The quality of the edge after laser cutting is the most important indicator influencing such technological spread in industry worldwide. Laser cutting is the most popular method of material cutting. Therefore, the article focuses on cutting equipment, cutting defects and methods of analysis. Research on microstructure, roughness and micro-toughness has been performed with reference to edge samples. At the end of the publication, conclusions are drawn.Article in Lithuanian

  4. High-frequency video capture and a computer program with frame-by-frame angle determination functionality as tools that support judging in artistic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omorczyk, Jarosław; Nosiadek, Leszek; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Nosiadek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to verify the usefulness of selected simple methods of recording and fast biomechanical analysis performed by judges of artistic gymnastics in assessing a gymnast's movement technique. The study participants comprised six artistic gymnastics judges, who assessed back handsprings using two methods: a real-time observation method and a frame-by-frame video analysis method. They also determined flexion angles of knee and hip joints using the computer program. In the case of the real-time observation method, the judges gave a total of 5.8 error points with an arithmetic mean of 0.16 points for the flexion of the knee joints. In the high-speed video analysis method, the total amounted to 8.6 error points and the mean value amounted to 0.24 error points. For the excessive flexion of hip joints, the sum of the error values was 2.2 error points and the arithmetic mean was 0.06 error points during real-time observation. The sum obtained using frame-by-frame analysis method equaled 10.8 and the mean equaled 0.30 error points. Error values obtained through the frame-by-frame video analysis of movement technique were higher than those obtained through the real-time observation method. The judges were able to indicate the number of the frame in which the maximal joint flexion occurred with good accuracy. Using the real-time observation method as well as the high-speed video analysis performed without determining the exact angle for assessing movement technique were found to be insufficient tools for improving the quality of judging.

  5. Cutting Cosmos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard

    For the first time in over 30 years, a new ethnographic study emerges on the Bugkalot tribe, more widely known as the Ilongot of the northern Philippines. Exploring the notion of masculinity among the Bugkalot, Cutting Cosmos is not only an experimental, anthropological study of the paradoxes...... around which Bugkalot society revolves, but also a reflection on anthropological theory and writing. Focusing on the transgressive acts through which masculinity is performed, this book explores the idea of the cosmic cut, the ritual act that enables the Bugkalot man to momentarily hold still the chaotic...

  6. Cutting method and cutting device for spent fuel rod of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Masahiko; Ose, Toshihiko.

    1996-01-01

    A control rod transferred under water in a vertically suspended state is postured horizontally at such a water depth that radiations can be shielded, and then it is cut to a dropping speed limiting portion and a cross-like main body. The separated cross-like main body portion is further cut in the longitudinal direction and separated into a pair of cut pieces each having an L-shaped cross section. A disk like metal saw is used as a cutting tool. Alternatively, a plasma jet cutter or a melting-type water jet cutter is used as a cutting tool. Then, since the spent control rod to be cut is postured horizontally under water, the water depth for the cutting position can be reduced. As a result, the cutting state using the cutting tool can be observed by naked eyes from the position above the water surface thereby enabling to perform the cutting operation reliably. (N.H.)

  7. Unzip instabilities: Straight to oscillatory transitions in the cutting of thin polymer sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, P. M.; Kumar, A.; Shattuck, M. D.; Roman, B.

    2008-06-01

    We report an experimental investigation of the cutting of a thin brittle polymer sheet with a blunt tool. It was recently shown that the fracture path becomes oscillatory when the tool is much wider than the sheet thickness. Here we uncover two novel transitions from straight to oscillatory fracture by varying either the tilt angle of the tool or the speed of cutting, respectively. We denote these by angle and speed unzip instabilities and analyze them by quantifying both the dynamics of the crack tip and the final shapes of the fracture paths. Moreover, for the speed unzip instability, the straight crack lip obtained at low speeds exhibits out-of-plane buckling undulations (as opposed to being flat above the instability threshold) suggesting a transition from ductile to brittle fracture.

  8. Cutting temperature measurement and material machinability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Bogdan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.

  9. PHYSICAL-MATEMATICALSCIENCE MECHANICS SIMULATION CHALLENGES IN OPTIMISING THEORETICAL METAL CUTTING TASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasul V. Guseynov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives In the article, problems in the optimising of machining operations, which provide end-unit production of the required quality with a minimum processing cost, are addressed. Methods Increasing the effectiveness of experimental research was achieved through the use of mathematical methods for planning experiments for optimising metal cutting tasks. The minimal processing cost model, in which the objective function is polynomial, is adopted as a criterion for the selection of optimal parameters. Results Polynomial models of the influence of angles φ, α, γ on the torque applied when cutting threads in various steels are constructed. Optimum values of the geometrical tool parameters were obtained using the criterion of minimum cutting forces during processing. The high stability of tools having optimal geometric parameters is determined. It is shown that the use of experimental planning methods allows the optimisation of cutting parameters. In optimising solutions to metal cutting problems, it is found to be expedient to use multifactor experimental planning methods and to select the cutting force as the optimisation parameter when determining tool geometry. Conclusion The joint use of geometric programming and experiment planning methods in order to optimise the parameters of cutting significantly increases the efficiency of technological metal processing approaches. 

  10. Experimental and analytical combined thermal approach for local tribological understanding in metal cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artozoul, Julien; Lescalier, Christophe; Dudzinski, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Metal cutting is a highly complex thermo-mechanical process. The knowledge of temperature in the chip forming zone is essential to understand it. Conventional experimental methods such as thermocouples only provide global information which is incompatible with the high stress and temperature gradients met in the chip forming zone. Field measurements are essential to understand the localized thermo-mechanical problem. An experimental protocol has been developed using advanced infrared imaging in order to measure temperature distribution in both the tool and the chip during an orthogonal or oblique cutting operation. It also provides several information on the chip formation process such as some geometrical characteristics (tool-chip contact length, chip thickness, primary shear angle) and thermo-mechanical information (heat flux dissipated in deformation zone, local interface heat partition ratio). A study is carried out on the effects of cutting conditions i.e. cutting speed, feed and depth of cut on the temperature distribution along the contact zone for an elementary operation. An analytical thermal model has been developed to process experimental data and access more information i.e. local stress or heat flux distribution. - Highlights: • A thermal analytical model is proposed for orthogonal cutting process. • IR thermography is used during cutting tests. • Combined experimental and modeling approaches are applied. • Heat flux and stress distribution at the tool-chip interface are determined. • The decomposition into sticking and sliding zones is defined.

  11. Technological development of machine tools using less energy in fiscal 2000. Achievement report on research and development of cutting process replacing electric discharge processing; 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika kosaku kikai nado gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hoden kako wo chikansuru sessaku kakoho no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development has been made with an objective to replace the electric discharge processing consuming a large amount of energy and having environmental load, with the cutting process consuming less energy while maintaining the equivalent processing precision. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. Development of cutting tools has made three times or more as many multi-aspect utilization as compared to conventional tools possible by researching the tip shapes. In addition, ultra hard end mill suitable for cutting very hard materials using an ultrasonic cutting head was fabricated on the trial basis, and its cutting capability was verified. In developing the cutting processing heard, a vibration mode possible of cutting with the ultra hard tool was generated, ATC has become possible, and the possibility of cutting hard-to-cut materials was verified. For processing a narrow and deep part, an improved type tool was developed, whereas the practical cutting performance suppressing wear of the blade tip was obtained. To deal with the environment, development and prototype fabrication were performed on a unit having a grease lubricated high-speed main shaft that is considered to be the mainstream in the future. In the operation test at 20,000 min-L, know-how was acquired in relation with the basic performance, manufacture and use of the unit. (NEDO)

  12. Combination of Ultrasonic Vibration and Cryogenic Cooling for Cutting Performance Improvement of Inconel 718 Turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S. Y.; Chung, C. T.; Cheng, Y. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop a thermo-elastic-plastic coupling model, based on a combination skill of ultrasonically assisted cutting and cryogenic cooling, under large deformation for Inconel 718 alloy machining process. The improvement extent on cutting performance and tool life promotion may be examined from this investigation. The critical value of the strain energy density of the workpiece will be utilized as the chip separation and the discontinuous chip segmentation criteria. The forced convection cooling and a hydrodynamic lubrication model will be considered and formulated in the model. Finite element method will be applied to create a complete numerical solution for this ultrasonic vibration cutting model. During the analysis, the cutting tool is incrementally advanced forward with superimposed ultrasonic vibration in a back and forth step-by-step manner, from an incipient stage of tool-workpiece engagement to a steady state of chip formation, a whole simulation of orthogonal cutting process under plane strain deformation is thus undertaken. High shear strength induces a fluctuation phenomenon of shear angle, high shear strain rate, variation of chip types and chip morphology, tool-chip contact length variation, the temperature distributions within the workpiece, chip and tool, periodic fluctuation in cutting forces can be determined from the developed model. A complete comparison of machining characteristics between some different combinations of ultrasonically assisted cutting and cryogenic cooling with conventional cutting operation can be acquired. Finally, the high-speed turning experiment for Inconel 718 alloy will be taken in the laboratory to validate the accuracy of the model, and the progressive flank wear, crater wear, notching and chipping of the tool edge can also be measured in the experiments.

  13. Analytical Modelling Of Milling For Tool Design And Selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, M.; Devillez, A.; Dudzinski, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient analytical model which allows to simulate a large panel of milling operations. A geometrical description of common end mills and of their engagement in the workpiece material is proposed. The internal radius of the rounded part of the tool envelope is used to define the considered type of mill. The cutting edge position is described for a constant lead helix and for a constant local helix angle. A thermomechanical approach of oblique cutting is applied to predict forces acting on the tool and these results are compared with experimental data obtained from milling tests on a 42CrMo4 steel for three classical types of mills. The influence of some tool's geometrical parameters on predicted cutting forces is presented in order to propose optimisation criteria for design and selection of cutting tools

  14. Scoliosis angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, T.

    1978-01-01

    The most commonly used methods of assessing the scoliotic deviation measure angles that are not clearly defined in relation to the anatomy of the patient. In order to give an anatomic basis for such measurements it is proposed to define the scoliotic deviation as the deviation the vertebral column makes with the sagittal plane. Both the Cobb and the Ferguson angles may be based on this definition. The present methods of measurement are then attempts to measure these angles. If the plane of these angles is parallel to the film, the measurement will be correct. Errors in the measurements may be incurred by the projection. A hypothetical projection, called a 'rectified orthogonal projection', is presented, which correctly represents all scoliotic angles in accordance with these principles. It can be constructed in practice with the aid of a computer and by performing measurements on two projections of the vertebral column; a scoliotic curve can be represented independent of the kyphosis and lordosis. (Auth.)

  15. Cutting Itch

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Cutting Itch” is a curatorial project by artists-duo Baltensperger-Siepert. An exhibition project about the essential need of art to be an active system that reflects, investigates social, cultural and political issues. It is about an existential necessity to shape ones environment, to think about relations, regulating structures and about how we can locate ourselves in a more and more globalised world. (from press material). \\ud \\ud Baltensperger & Siepert identified seven artists from Mexi...

  16. Cutting to the chase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snieckus, D.

    2001-01-01

    This article reports on the development of the cost effective abrasive cutting Sabre system which came as a result of UWG's work on the decommissioning of the Phillips' Maureen wells and adds to UWG's 'total severance solution' tools. The advantages of the system are highlighted and include the ability to operate from a platform or diving support vessel, to cut internal cases, and to eliminate the use of environmentally damaging explosives and the need to operate from a rig. The new Mark II version of the Sabre designed to work at greater depths of water, the range of the severance tools, UWG's well abandonment hole assembly system, and its aim to enter the Gulf of Mexico market are discussed. Details are given of the decommissioning of the Schwedeneck-See platforms in Kiel Bay off Germany and the Phillips' UK decommissioning plans for the Maureen platform

  17. FY 2000 report on the results of the technology development of energy use reduction of machine tools. Development of dry cutting use abrasion resistant/lubricous coated tools; 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika kosaku kikai nado gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Dry sessakuyo taimamo junkatsusei hifuku kogu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of energy conservation and reduction of environmental loads of machine tools, study was conducted on the dry cutting which is the cutting with no use of cutting oil, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. The study was made on dry cutting use abrasion resistance/lubricous coated tools coated with the composite membrane of which the cutting life become little lower than that of existing tools using coolant. In the survey of abrasion resistant/lubricous films, it was found out that in the adhesion to ultra-hard substrates, the DLC single-layer film consisting only of carbon indicated the same excellent adhesion as intermediate-layer inserts. As to the synthesis of abrasion resistant/lubricous films, the synthesis of the composite membrane (WC/C membrane) consisting of tungsten carbide (WC) and carbon (C) was made using arc ion plating device. The WC/C membrane is composed of W and C and has the structure in which at nm levels the layer with much W and the layer with less W were alternately piled. Study was made of devices necessary for the development of abrasion resistant/lubricous films and the film formation for drill. (NEDO)

  18. Machinability study of steels in precision orthogonal cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Roberto Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The miniaturization of components and systems is advancing steadily in many areas of engineering. Consequently, micro-machining is becoming an important manufacture technology due to the increasing demand for miniaturized products in recent years. Precision machining aims the production of advanced components with high dimensional accuracy and acceptable surface integrity. This work presents an experimental study based on Merchant and Lee & Shaffer theories applied to precision radial turning of AISI D2 cold work tool and AISI 1045 medium carbon steels with uncoated carbide tools ISO grade K15. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of feed rate on chip compression ratio (Rc, chip deformation (ε, friction angle (ρ, shear angle (Φ, normal stress (σ and shear stress (• for both work materials. The results indicated that the shear angle decreased and chip deformation increased as the chip compression ratio was elevated without significant differences between both materials. Additionally, higher cutting and thrust forces and normal and shear stresses were observed for the tool steel. Finally, the Lee & Shaffer model gave shear plane angle values closer to the experimental data.

  19. Comportamiento del acabado superficial de la pieza y el desgaste de la herramienta al fresar aluminio con altas velocidades de corte en fresadoras cnc convencionales. // Superficial finish behavior and tool wear in aluminium milling with high cutting spee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martínez Aneiro

    2006-05-01

    mechanical components of high quality and great accuracy for systems of high performance isincreasing considerably in the last years at world level. This fact has caused the development of new appliedtechnologies in cutting processes.The development of machine tools (control, high-speed spindle, the cutting tools (new materials, substrata and layers andthe technology of machining, facilitated the application of cut with high cutting speed (High speed Cutting HSC. Theincrease of cutting speeds increases the efficiency of the productive processes through the reduction of the manufacturingtimes. The reduction in several times of the manufacturing process, is not achieved alone for the time of machining but alsofor the substitution of other elaboration processes that are part of the productive chain that are relatively slow in occasionsas the electroerosion (spark erosion, the manual finishing in molds and dies production as well as the changes of spareoperations. Being a relatively new process introduced starting from the decade of the 90’s; many technological questionsare still without answer. This paper presents the benefit of the high cutting speeds HSC on the tool useful life and thesuperficial finishing in spares, working in conventional milling machines of CNC. The results stated, that within the studiedparameters, that the durability of the tool and the surface roughness improve and that the behavior of the machine is stablein spite of not being conceived for high speeds.Keywords: High speed cutting, HSC, HSM, Wear, surface roughness.

  20. Sanitation Can Be A Foundation Disease Management Tool: Potential Of Spreading Binucleate Rhizoctonia from Nursery Propagation Floors To Trays Containing Azalea Stem Cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binucelate Rhizoctonia spp. (BNR), the cause of web blight, are present all year on container-grown azaleas in the southern U.S. BNR can be eliminated during vegetative propagation by submerging stem cuttings in 50°C water for 21 minutes. The objective was to evaluate risk of rooting trays being con...

  1. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  2. Laser Cutting of Thin Nickel Bellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    Laser cutting technique produces narrow, precise, fast, and repeatable cuts in thin nickel-allow bellows material. Laser cutting operation uses intense focused beam to melt material and assisting gas to force melted material through part thickness, creating void. When part rotated or moved longitudinally, melting and material removal continuous and creates narrow, fast, precise, and repeatable cut. Technique used to produce cuts of specified depths less than material thickness. Avoids distortion, dents, and nicks produced in delicate materials during lathe trimming operations, which require high cutting-tool pressure and holding-fixture forces.

  3. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Glatz, Andreas; Welp, Ulrich; Kwok, Wai-K.

    2015-03-01

    Unlike illusive magnetic field lines in vacuum, magnetic vortices in superconductors are real physical strings, which interact with the sample surface, crystal structure defects, and with each other. We address the complex and poorly understood process of vortex cutting via a comprehensive set of magneto-optic experiments which allow us to visualize vortex patterns at magnetization of a nearly twin-free YBCO crystal by crossing magnetic fields of different orientations. We observe a pronounced anisotropy in the flux dynamics under crossing fields and the filamentation of induced supercurrents associated with the staircase vortex structure expected in layered cuprates, flux cutting effects, and angular vortex instabilities predicted for anisotropic superconductors. At some field angles, we find formation of the vortex domains following a type-I phase transition in the vortex state accompanied by an abrupt change in the vortex orientation. To clarify the vortex cutting scenario we performed time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau simulations, which confirmed formation of sharp vortex fronts observed in the experiment and revealed a left-handed helical instability responsible for the rotation of vortices. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  4. Inner tubes cutting method by electrical arc saw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, P.

    1990-01-01

    The research program deals on the definition of tools used for dismantling steam generator tubes bundle of PWR and on tool used for cutting pipes of great diameter by using the process of cutting by electrical arc saw. The remote tools are used for cutting by the interior pipes of contamined circuits [fr

  5. Preset pivotal tool holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmanes, Charles

    1979-01-01

    A tool fixture is provided for precise pre-alignment of a radiused edge cutting tool in a tool holder relative to a fixed reference pivot point established on said holder about which the tool holder may be selectively pivoted relative to the fixture base member to change the contact point of the tool cutting edge with a workpiece while maintaining the precise same tool cutting radius relative to the reference pivot point.

  6. Mechanisms of de cohesion in cutting aluminium matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichosz, Piotr; Karolczak, Pawel; Kuzinovski, Mikolaj

    2008-01-01

    In this paper properties and applications of aluminium matrix composites are presented with a composite reinforced with saffil fibres selected for topical study. Behavior of matrix and reinforcement during machining with a cutting tool is analyzed. The paper presents an explosive quick-stop device designed to obtain undisturbed machined surface for examination. Meso hardness measurements of deformed structure, resultant chips and built-up-edge were carried out. Scanning micrographs of machined surface are presented with morphology and types of chips analysed. Values of the fibrousness angle ψ and thickening index k h of chip are evaluated. The research performed has enabled the authors to define mechanisms of e cohesion during cutting aluminium matrix composites. The results received for composite material are compared with those pertinent to aluminum alloys.

  7. Angle Performance on Optima XE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Jonathan; Satoh, Shu

    2011-01-01

    Angle control on high energy implanters is important due to shrinking device dimensions, and sensitivity to channeling at high beam energies. On Optima XE, beam-to-wafer angles are controlled in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In the horizontal direction, the beam angle is measured through a series of narrow slits, and any angle adjustment is made by steering the beam with the corrector magnet. In the vertical direction, the beam angle is measured through a high aspect ratio mask, and any angle adjustment is made by slightly tilting the wafer platen during implant.Using a sensitive channeling condition, we were able to quantify the angle repeatability of Optima XE. By quantifying the sheet resistance sensitivity to both horizontal and vertical angle variation, the total angle variation was calculated as 0.04 deg. (1σ). Implants were run over a five week period, with all of the wafers selected from a single boule, in order to control for any crystal cut variation.

  8. LASER CUTTING MACHINES FOR 3-D THIN SHEET PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav RADOVANOVIC

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Laser cutting machines are used for precise contour cutting thin sheet. In industrial application nowadays various types and construction of laser cutting machines can be met. For contour cutting 3-D thin sheet parts laser cutting machines with rotation movements and laser robots are used. Laser generates the light beam, that presents a tool in working process. Application of laser cutting machines made possible good quality of products, flexibility of production and enlargement of economy

  9. The cutting edge - Micro-CT for quantitative toolmark analysis of sharp force trauma to bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, D G; Watson, D G; Burnett, B; Fenne, P M; Williams, M A

    2018-02-01

    Toolmark analysis involves examining marks created on an object to identify the likely tool responsible for creating those marks (e.g., a knife). Although a potentially powerful forensic tool, knife mark analysis is still in its infancy and the validation of imaging techniques as well as quantitative approaches is ongoing. This study builds on previous work by simulating real-world stabbings experimentally and statistically exploring quantitative toolmark properties, such as cut mark angle captured by micro-CT imaging, to predict the knife responsible. In Experiment 1 a mechanical stab rig and two knives were used to create 14 knife cut marks on dry pig ribs. The toolmarks were laser and micro-CT scanned to allow for quantitative measurements of numerous toolmark properties. The findings from Experiment 1 demonstrated that both knives produced statistically different cut mark widths, wall angle and shapes. Experiment 2 examined knife marks created on fleshed pig torsos with conditions designed to better simulate real-world stabbings. Eight knives were used to generate 64 incision cut marks that were also micro-CT scanned. Statistical exploration of these cut marks suggested that knife type, serrated or plain, can be predicted from cut mark width and wall angle. Preliminary results suggest that knives type can be predicted from cut mark width, and that knife edge thickness correlates with cut mark width. An additional 16 cut marks walls were imaged for striation marks using scanning electron microscopy with results suggesting that this approach might not be useful for knife mark analysis. Results also indicated that observer judgements of cut mark shape were more consistent when rated from micro-CT images than light microscopy images. The potential to combine micro-CT data, medical grade CT data and photographs to develop highly realistic virtual models for visualisation and 3D printing is also demonstrated. This is the first study to statistically explore simulated

  10. Nicotine cut-off value in human hair as a tool to distinguish active from passive smokers: A cross-sectional study in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Masayoshi; Kanda, Hideyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Mori, Yayoi; Ito, Teruna; Hidaka, Tomoo; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kawazoe, Miki; Sato, Sei; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2017-07-19

    Nicotine concentration in hair is a useful marker of tobacco exposure. Detection of nicotine in the hair of non-smokers indicates passive smoking. Accurate measurement of nicotine among active and passive smokers can help in smoking cessation programs or programs designed to prevent secondhand smoke exposure. To establish, using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV), a hair nicotine cut-off value to distinguish active from passive smokers. Hair samples were collected from randomly chosen Japanese men (n= 192) between 2009 and 2011. Nicotine and cotinine levels in hair were measured using HPLC/UV with column-switching. T-tests and chi-square tests were performed to compare active and passive smokers, while receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the cut-off value. There were 69 active smokers and 123 passive smokers. The nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair were significantly higher in active than in passive smokers (psmokers. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair clearly distinguished active from passive smokers.

  11. Calculating Parameters of Chip Formation and Cutting Forces of Plastic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V Grubyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the kinematics and geometric parameters of the tool, parameters of chip formation and cutting forces lay the groundwork for theoretical analysis of various types of machining.The objective of research activities is to develop a calculation technique to evaluate parameters of chip formation and cutting forces when machining such plastic materials as structural carbon and alloy steels, and aluminum alloys. The subject of research activities is directly a cutting process, algorithms and calculation methods in the field under consideration. A theoretical (calculated method to analyse parameters was used. The results of qualitative and quantitative calculations were compared with the published experimental data.As to the chip formation and cutting forces, a model with a single shear plane is analyzed, which allows a quantitative evaluation of the parameters and of the process factors. Modern domestic and foreign authors’ publications of cutting metals use this model on the reasonable grounds. The novelty of the proposed technique is that calculation of parameters and cutting forces does not require experimental research activities and is based on using the known mechanical characteristics of machined and tool materials. The calculation results are parameters, namely the shear angle, velocity factor of the chip, relative shift, friction coefficient at the front surface, cutting forces, etc. Calculation of these parameters will allow us to pass on to the thermo-physical problems, analysis of tool wear and durability, accuracy, quality and performance rate.The sequence of calculations is arranged in the developed user program in an algorithmic programming language with results in graphical or tabulated view. The calculation technique is a structural component of the cutting theory and is to be used in conducting research activities and engineering calculations in this subject area.

  12. Material testing of copper by extrusion-cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Segalina, F.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    was developed and implemented on a CNC lathe. An investigation was carried out extrusion-cutting copper discs using high-speed-steel cutting tools at 100 m/min cutting speed. Flow stress values for copper under machining-relevant conditions were obtained from measurement of the extrusion-cutting force...

  13. Precision Machining When Cutting with Leading Plastic Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Yaroslavtseva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Keeping up the product competitiveness continually requires solving the problems of reducing time for product creation and material costs for its production and ensuring the maximum conformity of the product quality with the individual requirements of a particular consumer. It is especially difficult to implement these tasks in product manufacturing from the hard-to-machine steels and alloys with extremely low production rate in machining (often 10-20 times lower than when cutting the ordinary structural steels.Currently, one of the promising ways to improve the cutting process of hard-to-machine materials and quality of parts made from these materials is development and application of combined processing methods, which use additional energy sources to act on the machined material in the cutting zone. A BMSTU-developed cutting method with leading plastic deformation (LPD, which acts to raise the production rate, gain the cutting tool-life, reduce the surface roughness, improve the accuracy of processing and the performance characteristics of products, ensure the reliable flow chip control, and improve the labor conditions, belongs to such sort of methods.One of the most important indicators of processing quality that has a great impact on the operation and cost characteristics of the product and on the machining rate as well is the accuracy of processing. In cutting, the processing errors largely arise from the elastic deformations of a technological system when the cutting force, and, in particular, the radial component of the cutting force, acts on it.The deforming devices, used in cutting with LPD, being located as a rule, on the diametrically opposite side with respect to the cutting zone, act on the technological system as vibration dampers. In addition, as studies have shown, the choice of a rational direction for applying LPD load helps to compensate partially or completely the cutting force radial component effect on the technological

  14. Plasma arc cutting: speed and cut quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemchinsky, V A; Severance, W S

    2009-01-01

    When cutting metal with plasma arc cutting, the walls of the cut are narrower at the bottom than at the top. This lack of squareness increases as the cutting speed increases. A model of this phenomenon, affecting cut quality, is suggested. A thin liquid layer, which separates the plasma from the solid metal to be melted, plays a key role in the suggested model. This layer decreases heat transfer from the plasma to the solid metal; the decrease is more pronounced the higher the speed and the thicker the liquid metal layer. Since the layer is thicker at the bottom of the cut, the heat transfer effectiveness is lower at the bottom. The decrease in heat transfer effectiveness is compensated by the narrowness of the cut. The suggested model allows one to calculate the profile of the cut. The result of the calculations of the cutting speeds for plates of various thicknesses, at which the squareness of the cut is acceptable, agrees well with the speeds recommended by manufacturers. The second effect considered in the paper is the deflection of the plasma jet from the vertical at a high cutting speed. A qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is given. We believe the considerations of this paper are pertinent to other types of cutting with moving heat sources.

  15. Modern trends in increasing the quality of the steels intended for cutting and metal-working tools: I. Improvement of granule metallurgy processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyanchikov, L. N.

    2008-12-01

    The following new technological processes for producing fine gas-atomized powders of tool and high-speed steels with a low content of nonmetallic inclusions are considered: the process designed by Böhler Uddeholm Powder Technology (Austria) and processes involving a heated gas. In the former process, a metal is poured from a ladle with electroslag heating, and the atomizing unit consists of three injectors. A new process of producing tools from fine powders by three-dimensional printing, i.e., so-called 3D-printing, is described.

  16. Experimental test of theory for the stability of partially saturated vertical cut slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Michael M.; Lu, N.; Wayllace, Alexandra; Godt, Jonathan W.; Take, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends Culmann's vertical-cut analysis to unsaturated soils. To test the extended theory, unsaturated sand was compacted to a uniform porosity and moisture content in a laboratory apparatus. A sliding door that extended the height of the free face of the slope was lowered until the vertical cut failed. Digital images of the slope cross section and upper surface were acquired concurrently. A recently developed particle image velocimetry (PIV) tool was used to quantify soil displacement. The PIV analysis showed strain localization at varying distances from the sliding door prior to failure. The areas of localized strain were coincident with the location of the slope crest after failure. Shear-strength and soil-water-characteristic parameters of the sand were independently tested for use in extended analyses of the vertical-cut stability and of the failure plane angle. Experimental failure heights were within 22.3% of the heights predicted using the extended theory.

  17. Precision-Cut Liver Slices of Salmo salar as a tool to investigate the oxidative impact of CYP1A-mediated PCB 126 and 3-methylcholanthrene metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Beck, Michaël; Jaspart, Mélanie; Debier, Cathy; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Rees, Jean-François

    2011-02-01

    Fish isolated cell systems have long been used to predict in vivo toxicity of man-made chemicals. In present study, we tested the suitability of Precision-Cut Liver Slices (PCLS) as an alternative to these models that allows the evaluation of a global tissue response to toxicants, to investigate oxidative stress response to cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) induction in fish liver. PCLS of Salmo salar were exposed for 21 h to increasing doses of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and Polychlorobiphenyl 126 (PCB 126). 3-MC (25 μM) strongly induced CYP1A transcription. In dose-response analysis (25-100 μM), EROD activity was strongly increased at intermediate 3-MC concentrations. We found the counter-intuitive decline of EROD at the highest 3-MC doses to result from reversible competition with ethoxyresorufin. No increases of H(2)O(2) production, antioxidant enzymes activities or oxidative damage to lipids were found with 3-MC treatments. PCLS subjected to PCB 126 (2-200 nM) showed increased contamination levels and a parallel increased CYP1A mRNA synthesis and EROD activity. H(2)O(2) production tended to increase but no oxidative damage to lipids was found. As antioxidant enzymes activities declined at the highest PCB 126 dose, it is suggested that longer incubation periods could be required to generate oxidative stress in PCLS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Laser cutting - trends in the development,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2002-01-01

    Since the laser was invented in 1960, the industrial applications of this tool has grown and grown. And - since the beginning of the 1980'ies, the major industrial application of lasers in production has been laser cutting. In this paper a short review of the development of the laser cutting...

  19. Finite element simulation of laser cutting process of steel sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meško Jozef

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lasers are widely used in industry as cutting tools due to ultra flexibility of the cutting conditions, obtaining high quality end product, quick set up, non-mechanical contact between the workpiece and the tool, and small size of the heat affected zone. In the present study, laser gas assisted cutting process is examined. The laser cutting sheet solution is practically always very convenient compared to conventional technologies and brings the greatest cost savings in the manufacturing process.

  20. Identifying Key Features, Cutting Edge Cloud Resources, and Artificial Intelligence Tools to Achieve User-Friendly Water Science in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Decision making for groundwater systems is becoming increasingly important, as shifting water demands increasingly impact aquifers. As buffer systems, aquifers provide room for resilient responses and augment the actual timeframe for hydrological response. Yet the pace impacts, climate shifts, and degradation of water resources is accelerating. To meet these new drivers, groundwater science is transitioning toward the emerging field of Integrated Water Resources Management, or IWRM. IWRM incorporates a broad array of dimensions, methods, and tools to address problems that tend to be complex. Computational tools and accessible cyberinfrastructure (CI) are needed to cross the chasm between science and society. Fortunately cloud computing environments, such as the new Jetstream system, are evolving rapidly. While still targeting scientific user groups systems such as, Jetstream, offer configurable cyberinfrastructure to enable interactive computing and data analysis resources on demand. The web-based interfaces allow researchers to rapidly customize virtual machines, modify computing architecture and increase the usability and access for broader audiences to advanced compute environments. The result enables dexterous configurations and opening up opportunities for IWRM modelers to expand the reach of analyses, number of case studies, and quality of engagement with stakeholders and decision makers. The acute need to identify improved IWRM solutions paired with advanced computational resources refocuses the attention of IWRM researchers on applications, workflows, and intelligent systems that are capable of accelerating progress. IWRM must address key drivers of community concern, implement transdisciplinary methodologies, adapt and apply decision support tools in order to effectively support decisions about groundwater resource management. This presentation will provide an overview of advanced computing services in the cloud using integrated groundwater management case

  1. ANALYSIS OF CUTTING FORCES ON CNC LATHES EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Koç

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study is to make use easy programming of CNC lathes and to achieve the optimization of part program prepared considering the limiting parameters of the machine. In the present study, a BOXFORD 250 B CNC lathe has been used for experiment and optimization process. The measurement of cutting forces exerted on the cutting tool of CNC lathe has been performed. The cutting forces occurring during the turning operation have been determined for different depth of" cut, feed rate and cutting speed as well as different cutting tools and related data base has been obtained.

  2. Load modeling for sharp V-cutter cutting litchi ( Litchi chinensis Sonn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    harvesting. Cutting load is a key parameter for 'hand-held auto-picker' operation. However, there is still no suitable model for cutting load setting. Hence, a model describing the relationship among cutting load, blade angle and friction coefficient was developed for cutting operation by sharp V-cutters. The model was based ...

  3. Multibeam Fibre Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fibre laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating cutting laser, the CO2-laser. However, quality problems in fibre......-laser cutting have until now limited its application in metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multi beam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from 2 single mode fibre lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single...

  4. Multibeam fiber laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber......-laser cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...

  5. Adjustable Tooling for Bending Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Deep metal boxes and other parts easily fabricated. Adjustable tooling jig for bending brake accommodates spacing blocks and either standard male press-brake die or bar die. Holds spacer blocks, press-brake die, bar window die, or combination of three. Typical bending operations include bending of cut metal sheet into box and bending of metal strip into bracket with multiple inward 90 degree bends. By increasing free space available for bending sheet-metal parts jig makes it easier to fabricate such items as deep metal boxes or brackets with right-angle bends.

  6. CO2 laser cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, John

    1998-01-01

    The laser has given manufacturing industry a new tool. When the laser beam is focused it can generate one of the world's most intense energy sources, more intense than flames and arcs, though similar to an electron beam. In fact the intensity is such that it can vaporise most known materials. The laser material processing industry has been growing swiftly as the quality, speed and new manufacturing possibilities become better understood. In the fore of these new technologies is the process of laser cutting. Laser cutting leads because it is a direct process substitu­ tion and the laser can usually do the job with greater flexibility, speed and quality than its competitors. However, to achieve these high speeds with high quality con­ siderable know how and experience is required. This information is usually carefully guarded by the businesses concerned and has to be gained by hard experience and technical understanding. Yet in this book John Powell explains in lucid and almost non­ technical language many o...

  7. Skin Cut Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    projects - among others - from ARC are included: Soft Structures builds upon of a series of experimental use of EPS hot wire cutting, where the EPS eventually act as formwork for concrete casting. The processing of the EPS is distinct and delimited by the behaviour and form of both the robot and tool...... of steel and concrete makes it a reliable approach to many challenges in the realisation of buildings. Rebar Inside Out attempts to rethink the possibilities of the reinforced concrete composite starting from its inside. This means starting with the reinforcing steel, the production and shaping of this......, and then through that process build a workflow for the production of the concrete composite. It also means letting the steel out of the concrete, thereby positioning the two materials in a transnational relationship between steel construction and concrete composite....

  8. Ann modeling of kerf transfer in Co2 laser cutting and optimization of cutting parameters using monte carlo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Madić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a mathematical model in order to study the relationship between laser cutting parameters such as laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure and focus position, and kerf taper angle obtained in CO2 laser cutting of AISI 304 stainless steel. To this aim, a single hidden layer artificial neural network (ANN trained with gradient descent with momentum algorithm was used. To obtain an experimental database for the ANN training, laser cutting experiment was planned as per Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array with three levels for each of the cutting parameters. Statistically assessed as adequate, ANN model was then used to investigate the effect of the laser cutting parameters on the kerf taper angle by generating 2D and 3D plots. It was observed that the kerf taper angle was highly sensitive to the selected laser cutting parameters, as well as their interactions. In addition to modeling, by applying the Monte Carlo method on the developed kerf taper angle ANN model, the near optimal laser cutting parameter settings, which minimize kerf taper angle, were determined.

  9. Laser circular cutting of Kevlar sheets: Analysis of thermal stress filed and assessment of cutting geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Akhtar, S. S.; Karatas, C.

    2017-11-01

    A Kevlar laminate has negative thermal expansion coefficient, which makes it difficult to machine at room temperaures using the conventional cutting tools. Contararily, laser machining of a Kevlar laminate provides advantages over the conventional methods because of the non-mechanical contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece. In the present study, laser circular cutting of Kevlar laminate is considered. The experiment is carried out to examine and evaluate the cutting sections. Temperature and stress fields formed in the cutting section are simulated in line with the experimental study. The influence of hole diameters on temperature and stress fields are investigated incorporating two different hole diameters. It is found that the Kevlar laminate cutting section is free from large size asperities such as large scale sideways burnings and attachemnt of charred residues. The maximum temperature along the cutting circumference remains higher for the large diameter hole than that of the small diameter hole. Temperature decay is sharp around the cutting section in the region where the cutting terminates. This, in turn, results in high temperature gradients and the thermal strain in the cutting region. von Mises stress remains high in the region where temperature gradients are high. von Mises stress follows similar to the trend of temperature decay around the cutting edges.

  10. Cutting state identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.; Rokni, M.

    1997-01-01

    Cutting states associated with the orthogonal cutting of stiff cylinders are identified through an analysis of the singular values of a Toeplitz matrix of third order cumulants of acceleration measurements. The ratio of the two pairs of largest singular values is shown to differentiate between light cutting, medium cutting, pre-chatter and chatter states. Sequences of cutting experiments were performed in which either depth of cut or turning frequency was varied. Two sequences of experiments with variable turning frequency and five with variable depth of cut, 42 cutting experiments in all, provided a database for the calculation of third order cumulants. Ratios of singular values of cumulant matrices find application in the analysis of control of orthogonal cutting

  11. Experimental study of the process of cutting of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzolaa, Nelson; Garcia, Joyner

    2015-01-01

    Biomass densification has encouraged significant interest around the world as a technique for utilization of agro and forest residues as an energy source, and pellets/briquettes production has grown rapidly in last few years. The cutting process is one of the most important steps for biomass preparation prior densification. This stage helps to homogenize the raw material and therefore facilitate handling, feeding and filling in the briquetting equipment. The aim of this work was to study the behavior of sugarcane bagasse submitted to cutting, as a function of its moisture content, angle of the blade edge and cutting speed. The specific cutting energy and peak cutting force were measure using an experimental facility developed for this series of experiments. An analysis of the results of the full factorial experimental design using a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. The response surfaces and empirical models for the specific cutting energy and peak cutting force were obtained using statistical analysis system software. Low angle of the blade edge and low moisture content are, in this order, the most important experimental factors in determining a low specific cutting energy and a low peak cutting force respectively. The best cutting conditions are achieved for an angle of blade edge of 20.8° and a moisture content of 10% w. b. The results of this work could contribute to the optimal design of sugarcane bagasse pre-treatment systems. (full text)

  12. Experimental evaluation of tool run-out in micro milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Aldo; Ceretti, Elisabetta

    2018-05-01

    This paper deals with micro milling cutting process focusing the attention on tool run-out measurement. In fact, among the effects of the scale reduction from macro to micro (i.e., size effects) tool run-out plays an important role. This research is aimed at developing an easy and reliable method to measure tool run-out in micro milling based on experimental tests and an analytical model. From an Industry 4.0 perspective this measuring strategy can be integrated into an adaptive system for controlling cutting forces, with the objective of improving the production quality, the process stability, reducing at the same time the tool wear and the machining costs. The proposed procedure estimates the tool run-out parameters from the tool diameter, the channel width, and the phase angle between the cutting edges. The cutting edge phase measurement is based on the force signal analysis. The developed procedure has been tested on data coming from micro milling experimental tests performed on a Ti6Al4V sample. The results showed that the developed procedure can be successfully used for tool run-out estimation.

  13. Welding and cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drews, P.; Schulze Frielinghaus, W.

    1978-01-01

    This is a survey, with 198 literature references, of the papers published in the fields of welding and cutting within the last three years. The subjects dealt with are: weldability of the materials - Welding methods - Thermal cutting - Shaping and calculation of welded joints - Environmental protection in welding and cutting. (orig.) [de

  14. An Experimental Study of the Cutting Forces in Metal Turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Iosif Korka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutting forces are classified among the most important technological parameters in machining process. Cutting forces are the background for the evaluation of the necessary machining power, as well as for dimensioning of the tools. Cutting forces are also having a major influence on the deformation of the work piece machined, its dimensional accuracy, and machining system stability.

  15. Study of Effect of Impacting Direction on Abrasive Nanometric Cutting Process with Molecular Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junye; Meng, Wenqing; Dong, Kun; Zhang, Xinming; Zhao, Weihong

    2018-01-11

    Abrasive flow polishing plays an important part in modern ultra-precision machining. Ultrafine particles suspended in the medium of abrasive flow removes the material in nanoscale. In this paper, three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the effect of impacting direction on abrasive cutting process during abrasive flow polishing. The molecular dynamics simulation software Lammps was used to simulate the cutting of single crystal copper with SiC abrasive grains at different cutting angles (0 o -45 o ). At a constant friction coefficient, we found a direct relation between cutting angle and cutting force, which ultimately increases the number of dislocation during abrasive flow machining. Our theoretical study reveal that a small cutting angle is beneficial for improving surface quality and reducing internal defects in the workpiece. However, there is no obvious relationship between cutting angle and friction coefficient.

  16. HIGH PERFORMANCE TAPS FOR CUTTING THREADS IN DIFFICULT TO MACHINE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Akhmedova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This article explores in detail questions of instrument operation function of tapping internal threads in hard materials. The existing relationship between vibration system amplitude and tool durability is indicated; on this basis, it is determined that the best course for improving the durability performance is increasing vibratory resistance. Based on a critical analysis of existing designs with consideration of their flaws, the development of new technological designs of taps is tasked with ensuring stable operation when handling hard materials. Methods. It is noteworthy that one of the main vibration resistance improvement methods of the tool is to reduce the contact area of the tool with the work piece in the cutting zone. Methods are proposed for improving the vibration resistance of taps, considering the correlation adjustment of tap teeth in order to completely eliminate friction at the sides of the thread cutting surface and uneven implementation flute cutting steps. Results. The idea of increasing vibration resistance has seen the new development of vibration-proof tap designs, heralded as innovations due to the accuracy of thread cutting and durability achieved by reducing the thread contact area with the work piece in the cutting zone. Increased vibration resistance is achieved in the modified taps through high correction by means of thread side downgrading of the coarse tap cone by an additional angle of 30º. In another design, the stylus provided with uneven angular spacing. Test results of designed taps machined in corrosion-resistant 1Kh18N9T steel. A manifold increase in tool durability was achieved due to its high vibration resistance. Conclusions. The redesigned taps have a number of advantages, characterised by a high resistance when processing difficult materials and an insignificant increase in the complexity of their manufacture compared with standard taps. Therefore they can be recommended for large

  17. Tool grinding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Sr., Charles E.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved tool grinding mechanism for grinding single point diamond cutting tools to precise roundness and radius specifications. The present invention utilizes a tool holder which is longitudinally displaced with respect to the remainder of the grinding system due to contact of the tool with the grinding surface with this displacement being monitored so that any variation in the grinding of the cutting surface such as caused by crystal orientation or tool thickness may be compensated for during the grinding operation to assure the attainment of the desired cutting tool face specifications.

  18. Improved tool grinding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, C.E. Sr.

    The present invention relates to an improved tool grinding mechanism for grinding single point diamond cutting tools to precise roundness and radius specifications. The present invention utilizes a tool holder which is longitudinally displaced with respect to the remainder of the grinding system due to contact of the tool with the grinding surface with this displacement being monitored so that any variation in the grinding of the cutting surface such as caused by crystal orientation or tool thicknesses may be compensated for during the grinding operation to assure the attainment of the desired cutting tool face specifications.

  19. Fractal characteristic study of shearer cutter cutting resistance curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. [Heilongjiang Scientific and Technical Institute, Haerbin (China). Dept of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-02-01

    The cutting resistance curve is the most useful tool for reflecting the overall cutting performance of a cutting machine. The cutting resistance curve is influenced by many factors such as the pick structure and arrangement, the cutter operation parameters, coal quality and geologic conditions. This paper discusses the use of fractal geometry to study the properties of the cutting resistance curve, and the use of fractal dimensions to evaluate cutting performance. On the basis of fractal theory, the general form and calculation method of fractal characteristics are given. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Design and development of remotely operated coolant channel cutting machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suthar, R.L.; Sinha, A.K.; Srikrishnamurty, G.

    1994-01-01

    One of the coolant tubes of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) reactor needs to be removed. To remove a coolant tube, four cutting operations, (liner tube cutting, end-fitting cutting, machining of seal weld of bellow ring and finally coolant tube cutting) are required to be carried out. A remotely operated cutting machine to carry out all these operations has been designed and developed by Central Workshops. This machine is able to cut at the exact location because of numerically controlled axial and radial travel of tool. Only by changing the tool head and tool holder, same machine can be used for various types of cutting/machining operations. This report details the design, manufacture, assembly and testing work done on the machine. (author). 4 figs

  1. Advances in Cross-Cutting Ideas for Computational Climate Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Esmond [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Evans, Katherine J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Caldwell, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hoffman, Forrest M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Charles [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Kerstin, Van Dam [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Leung, Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Martin, Daniel F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ostrouchov, George [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tuminaro, Raymond [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ullrich, Paul [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Wild, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Williams, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    enabling breakthrough climate simulation advancements also need the "glue" of outreach and learning across the scientific domains to be successful. The workshop identified several strategies to allow productive, continuous engagement across those who have a broad knowledge of the various angles of the problem. Specific ideas to foster education and tools to make material progress were discussed. Examples include follow-on cross-cutting meetings that enable unstructured discussions of the types this workshop fostered. A concerted effort to recruit undergraduate and graduate students from all relevant domains and provide them experience, training, and networking across their immediate expertise is needed. This will broaden and expand their exposure to the future needs and solutions, and provide a pipeline of scientists with a diversity of knowledge and know-how. Providing real-world experience with subject matter experts from multiple angles may also motivate the students to attack these problems and even come up with the missing solutions.

  2. Advances in Cross-Cutting Ideas for Computational Climate Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, E.; Evans, K.; Caldwell, P.; Hoffman, F.; Jackson, C.; Van Dam, K.; Leung, R.; Martin, D.; Ostrouchov, G.; Tuminaro, R.; Ullrich, P.; Wild, S.; Williams, S.

    2017-01-01

    breakthrough climate simulation advancements also need the "glue" of outreach and learning across the scientific domains to be successful. The workshop identified several strategies to allow productive, continuous engagement across those who have a broad knowledge of the various angles of the problem. Specific ideas to foster education and tools to make material progress were discussed. Examples include follow-on cross-cutting meetings that enable unstructured discussions of the types this workshop fostered. A concerted effort to recruit undergraduate and graduate students from all relevant domains and provide them experience, training, and networking across their immediate expertise is needed. This will broaden and expand their exposure to the future needs and solutions, and provide a pipeline of scientists with a diversity of knowledge and know-how. Providing real-world experience with subject matter experts from multiple angles may also motivate the students to attack these problems and even come up with the missing solutions.

  3. Device for cutting protrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M [Knoxville, TN

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  4. Laser cutting - from 200 Watt to 12 Kilowatt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2004-01-01

    Laser cutting is the most widespread industrial application of high power lasers. The development of this process was initiated around 1970, when scientists at TWI first demonstrated laser cutting with coaxial gas assistance. 10 years later, the polarisation problem was solved and the technology ...... got its breakthrough. Since then some 30,000 laser cutting systems have been installed worldwide, making the laser an important cutting tool in modern industry....

  5. Experimental Investigation on Cutting Characteristics in Nanometric Plunge-Cutting of BK7 and Fused Silica Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qinglong; Ming, Weiwei; Chen, Ming

    2015-03-27

    Ductile cutting are most widely used in fabricating high-quality optical glass components to achieve crack-free surfaces. For ultra-precision machining of brittle glass materials, critical undeformed chip thickness (CUCT) commonly plays a pivotal role in determining the transition point from ductile cutting to brittle cutting. In this research, cutting characteristics in nanometric cutting of BK7 and fused silica glasses, including machined surface morphology, surface roughness, cutting force and specific cutting energy, were investigated with nanometric plunge-cutting experiments. The same cutting speed of 300 mm/min was used in the experiments with single-crystal diamond tool. CUCT was determined according to the mentioned cutting characteristics. The results revealed that 320 nm was found as the CUCT in BK7 cutting and 50 nm was determined as the size effect of undeformed chip thickness. A high-quality machined surface could be obtained with the undeformed chip thickness between 50 and 320 nm at ductile cutting stage. Moreover, no CUCT was identified in fused silica cutting with the current cutting conditions, and brittle-fracture mechanism was confirmed as the predominant chip-separation mode throughout the nanometric cutting operation.

  6. Material Behavior At The Extreme Cutting Edge In Bandsawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, Mohammed; Haider, Julfikar; Persson, Martin; Hellbergh, Haakan

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, bandsawing has been widely accepted as a favourite option for metal cutting off operations where the accuracy of cut, good surface finish, low kerf loss, long tool life and high material removal rate are required. Material removal by multipoint cutting tools such as bandsaw is a complex mechanism owing to the geometry of the bandsaw tooth (e.g., limited gullet size, tooth setting etc.) and the layer of material removed or undeformed chip thickness or depth of cut (5 μm-50 μm) being smaller than or equal to the cutting edge radius (5 μm-15 μm). This situation can lead to inefficient material removal in bandsawing. Most of the research work are concentrated on the mechanics of material removal by single point cutting tool such as lathe tool. However, such efforts are very limited in multipoint cutting tools such as in bandsaw. This paper presents the fundamental understanding of the material behaviour at the extreme cutting edge of bandsaw tooth, which would help in designing and manufacturing of blades with higher cutting performance and life. ''High Speed Photography'' has been carried out to analyse the material removal process at the extreme cutting edge of bandsaw tooth. Geometric model of chip formation mechanisms based on the evidences found during ''High Speed Photography'' and ''Quick Stop'' process is presented. Wear modes and mechanism in bimetal and carbide tipped bandsaw teeth are also presented.

  7. Operation of the AM-50 cutting head under different cutting conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Kusz, F; Fels, M

    1988-02-01

    Presents results of investigations into operation of the AM-50 heading machine. About 50% of headings, i.e. about 800 km/a, are driven by about 400 heading machines. It has been found that energy consumption depends on compression strength of rock and is 6 times higher for sandstone than for clayey shale. Power consumed by cutting heads depends mainly on the web used (30-150 mm depending on rock strength). Wear of cutting tools is 1-30 pieces per meter of heading advance at a working cross-section area of 15 m/sup 2/. The AM-50 machine uses cutting speeds of 1.1-3.5 m/s. Higher speeds negatively affect the resistance to cutting. Nonuniform tool wear on the cutting head circumference is an indication of improper head design that requires remedying.

  8. Designing for hot-blade cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Clausen, Kenn

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for the generation of doubly-curved, architectural design surfaces using swept Euler elastica and cubic splines. The method enables a direct design to production workflow with robotic hot-blade cutting, a novel robotic fabrication method under development......-trivial constraints of blade-cutting in a bottom-up fashion, enabling an exploration of the unique architectural potential of this fabrication approach. The method is implemented as prototype design tools in MatLAB, C++, GhPython, and Python and demonstrated through cutting of expanded polystyrene foam design...

  9. Cutting of Two Marble Dummy Crystals in Industrial Prototype Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    De Forni, Armando; Limia-Conde, Francisco; Morino, René

    1997-01-01

    Two marble samples were cut to specified conditions with the tooling set designed for the mass processing of the 110'000 PbWO4 crystals of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter. We wanted to test in particular the reproducibility of the electrical contact on the reference sphere, the accuracy of the new positioning tools at each cutting operation in their respective positions

  10. Extension without Cut

    OpenAIRE

    Straßburger , Lutz

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In proof theory one distinguishes sequent proofs with cut and cut-free sequent proofs, while for proof complexity one distinguishes Frege-systems and extended Frege-systems. In this paper we show how deep inference can provide a uniform treatment for both classifications, such that we can define cut-free systems with extension, which is neither possible with Frege-systems, nor with the sequent calculus. We show that the propositional pigeon-hole principle admits polyno...

  11. Orthogonal cutting of laser beam melted parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, Elisa; Zanger, Frederik; Schulze, Volker

    2018-05-01

    The finishing process of parts manufactured by laser beam melting is of high concern due to the lack of surface accuracy. Therefore, the focus of this work lies on the influence of the build-up direction of the parts and their effect on the finishing process. The orthogonal cutting reveals findings in the fields of chip formation, involved forces and temperatures appearing during machining. In the investigations, the cutting depth was varied between 0.05 and 0.15 mm representing a finishing process and the cutting velocity ranges from 30 to 200 m/min depending on the material. The experiments contain the materials stainless steel (AISI 316L), titanium (Ti6Al4V) and nickel-base alloy (IN718). The two materials named latter are of high interest in the aerospace sector and at the same time titanium is used in the medical field due to its biocompatibility. For the materials IN718 and Ti6Al4V a negative rake angle of -7.5° and for stainless steel a rake angle of 12.5° are chosen for the cutting experiments. The results provide the base for processing strategies. Therefore, the specimens were solely laser beam melted without post-processing like heat treatment. The evaluation of the experiments shows that an increase in cutting speed has different effects depending on the material. For stainless steel the measured forces regarding the machining direction to the layers approach the same values. In contrast, the influence of the layers regarding the forces appearing during orthogonal cutting of the materials IN718 and Ti6Al4V differ for lower cutting speeds.

  12. Development and characterization of AlCrN coated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic cutting tool; Desenvolvimento e caracterizacao de ferramentas ceramicas de Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} revestidas com AlCrN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, J.V.C.; Nono, M.C.A.; Machado, J.P.B., E-mail: vitor@las.inpe.b [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, O.M.M. [Centro Tecnico de Aeronautica (CTA-IAE/AMR), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Aeronautica e Espaco. Div. de Materiais; Pimenta, M. [Balzers, Jundiai, SP (Brazil); Sa, F.C.L. [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UNIFOA), RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Ceramic cutting tools are showing a growing market perspective in terms of application on machining operations due to their high hardness, wear resistance, and machining without a cutting fluid, therefore are good candidates for cast iron and Nickel superalloys machining. The objective of the present paper was the development of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} based ceramic cutting insert, characterization of its physical and mechanical properties, and subsequent coating with AlCrN using a PVD method. The characterization of the coating was made using an optical profiler, XRD, AFM and microhardness tester. The results showed that the tool presented a fracture toughness of 6,43 MPa.m{sup 1/2} and hardness of 16 GPa. The hardness reached 31 GPa after coating. The machining tests showed an improvement on work piece roughness when machining with coated insert, in comparison with the uncoated cutting tool. Probably this fact is related to hardness, roughness and topography of AlCrN. (author)

  13. Underwater cutting techniques developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, F.-W.

    1990-01-01

    The primary circuit structures of different nuclear powerplants are constructed out of stainless steels, ferritic steels, plated ferritic steels and alloys of aluminium. According to the level of the specific radiation of these structures, it is necessary for dismantling to work with remote controlled cutting techniques. The most successful way to protect the working crew against exposure of radiation is to operate underwater in different depths. The following thermal cutting processes are more or less developed to work under water: For ferritic steels only - flame cutting; For ferritic steels, stainless steels, cladded steels and aluminium alloys - oxy-arc-cutting, arc-waterjet-cutting with a consumable electrode, arc-saw-cutting, plasma-arc-cutting and plasma-arc-saw. The flame cutting is a burning process, all the other processes are melt-cutting processes. This paper explains the different techniques, giving a short introduction of the theory, a discussion of the possibilities with the advantages and disadvantages of these processes giving a view into the further research work in this interesting field. (author)

  14. Investigating the Effect of Approach Angle and Nose Radius on Surface Quality of Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Dilbag; Kalsi, Nirmal S.

    2017-11-01

    This experimental work presents a surface quality evaluation of a Nickel-Cr-Fe based Inconel 718 superalloy, which has many applications in the aero engine and turbine components. However, during machining, the early wear of tool leads to decrease in surface quality. The coating on cutting tool plays a significant role in increasing the wear resistance and life of the tool. In this work, the aim is to study the surface quality of Inconel 718 with TiAlN-coated carbide tools. Influence of various geometrical parameters (tool nose radius, approach angle) and machining variables (cutting velocity, feed rate) on the quality of machined surface (surface roughness) was determined by using central composite design (CCD) matrix. The mathematical model of the same was developed. Analysis of variance was used to find the significance of the parameters. Results showed that the tool nose radius and feed were the main active factors. The present experiment accomplished that TiAlN-coated carbide inserts result in better surface quality as compared with uncoated carbide inserts.

  15. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIAL CUTTING SYSTEM FOR SWEET SORGHUM HARVESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OMID GHAHRAE

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sweet Sorghum is similar to racemose maize with about 3m height and 0.5-3cm thickness of stalk. Sweet Sorghum has sweet flavor stalk, which is used for sugar production. Developed cutting mechanism in this research has a rotary disk with 50 cm diameter and four cutting blades that spin clockwise. The stalks are cut with the impact and inertia forces at the linear velocity of 27 m/s, by cutting blades. This system has a simple bar mechanism guiding the whole-stalk to one side. The cutting quality tests were achieved by two series of blades with 30°and 45° blade angles on the stalk. The results showed that the stalk cutting surface with 30° blade angle was smooth and without fracture on filaments and vasculums, compared to that of 45° blade angle. Blade penetration was accomplished very well with 30° blade angle.

  16. Glaucoma, Open-Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Statistics and Data » Glaucoma, Open-angle Listen Glaucoma, Open-angle Open-angle Glaucoma Defined In open-angle glaucoma, the fluid passes ... 2010 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Glaucoma by Age and Race/Ethnicity The prevalence of ...

  17. Theoretical aspects of fibre laser cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahrle, A; Beyer, E, E-mail: achim.mahrle@iws.fraunhofer.d [University of Technology Dresden, Institute for Surface and Manufacturing Technology, PO Box, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-09-07

    Fibre lasers offer distinct advantages over established laser systems with respect to power efficiency, beam guidance and beam quality. Consequently, the potential of these new laser beam sources will be increasingly exploited for laser cutting applications that are conventionally carried out with CO{sub 2} lasers. However, theoretical estimates of the effective absorptivity at the cut front suggest that the shorter wavelength of the fibre laser in combination with its high focusability seems to be primarily advantageous for thin sheet metal cutting whereas the CO{sub 2} laser is probably still capable of cutting thicker materials more efficiently. This surprising result is a consequence of the absorptivity behaviour of metals that shows essential quantitative differences for the corresponding wavelengths of both laser sources as a function of the angle of incidence between the laser beam and the material to be cut. In evaluation of the revealed dependences, solution strategies for an improvement of the efficiency of fibre laser cutting of thicker metal sheets are suggested.

  18. Effects of superfine refractory carbide additives on microstructure and mechanical properties of TiB2–TiC+Al2O3 composite ceramic cutting tool materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Bin; Ji, Wenbin; Huang, Chuanzhen; Wang, Jun; Li, Shasha; Xu, Kaitao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The superfine carbides determined the mechanical properties of composites. • Superfine HfC or TaC caused some oxide impurities in composites. • Superfine VC or NbC refined and homogenized the microstructure. • Failure of composites containing HfC or TaC was produced by larger grains. • Composite containing VC exhibited more bridging and transcrystalline failure. -- Abstract: A study to increase the mechanical properties of TiB 2 –TiC+Al 2 O 3 composite ceramic cutting tool material by using superfine refractory carbide additives is presented. Four superfine refractory carbides are considered to investigate their effects on the phase composition, element distribution, grain size, fracture surface, crack propagation of the metal ceramic. The physicochemical properties of superfine carbides, such as chemical activities and atom radius, were found to have the significant effects on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the metal ceramic. Hafnium carbide (HfC) and Tantalum carbide (TaC) reduced the mechanical properties of the metal ceramic because of their poor solubility with the Ni binder phase and the formation of oxides. The mechanical properties of the metal ceramic were increased by the addition of superfine niobium carbide (NbC) and vanadium carbide (VC), and their optimum values were a flexural strength of 1100 ± 62 MPa, fracture toughness of 8.5 ± 0.8 MPa.m1/2 and hardness of 21.53 ± 0.36 GPa, respectively, when 3.2 wt% superfine VC was used

  19. Nanometric mechanical cutting of metallic glass investigated using atomistic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cheng-Da, E-mail: nanowu@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li District, Taoyuan City 32023, Taiwan (China); Fang, Te-Hua, E-mail: fang.tehua@msa.hinet.net [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Su, Jih-Kai, E-mail: yummy_2468@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A nanoscale chip with a shear plane of 135° is extruded by the tool. • Tangential force and normal force increase with increasing tool nose radius. • Resistance factor increases with increasing cutting depth and temperature. - Abstract: The effects of cutting depth, tool nose radius, and temperature on the cutting mechanism and mechanics of amorphous NiAl workpieces are studied using molecular dynamics simulations based on the second-moment approximation of the many-body tight-binding potential. These effects are investigated in terms of atomic trajectories and flow field, shear strain, cutting force, resistance factor, cutting ratio, and pile-up characteristics. The simulation results show that a nanoscale chip with a shear plane of 135° is extruded by the tool from a workpiece surface during the cutting process. The workpiece atoms underneath the tool flow upward due to the adhesion force and elastic recovery. The required tangential force and normal force increase with increasing cutting depth and tool nose radius; both forces also increase with decreasing temperature. The resistance factor increases with increasing cutting depth and temperature, and decreases with increasing tool nose radius.

  20. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  1. Investigation of Cutting Quality of Remote DOE Laser Cutting in 0.5 mm Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villumsen, Sigurd Lazic; Kristiansen, Morten

    It has previously been shown that the stability of the remote fusion cutting (RFC) process can be increased by modifying the intensity profile of the laser by means of a diffractive optical element (DOE). This paper investigates the quality of remote DOE cutting (RDC) conducted with a 3 kW single mode fiber laser in 0.5 mm stainless steel. An automatic measurement system is used to investigate how the travel speed, focus offset and angle of incidence effect the kerf width and kerf variance. The study shows that the RDC process has a very low kerf width variance, and that the kerf width decreases with cutting speed. Furthermore, selected etched samples show a significant increase in the perpendicularity of the cuts when compared to RFC. Also, on average, the depth of the layer of molten material for RFC is 83% deeper than for RDC.

  2. Operational dynamics of the cutting head of the AM-50 heading machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Bak, K; Klich, R [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Mechanizacji Gornictwa

    1987-01-01

    Operation of the cutter head of an AM-50 heading machine is influenced by a large number of factors, many of them of a random character. Forces acting on each of the cutting tools participating in coal or rock cutting are determined and summed up. The total cutting force is then calculated and on that basis the turning moment is derived. Cutting tool operation also is analyzed as a stochastic process. Cutting forces of each cutting tool change from 0 to maximum. However these forces are distributed in cutting time and the total cutting force is not the sum of the average cutting forces, nor is it the sum of maximum cutting forces. Using calculus of probability, the probable force distribution was determined. This distribution is compared to force distribution calculated on the basis of power consumption of the cutter motors. The differences between the two force distributions are, among others, caused by insufficient investigation into operation of conic cutters. 10 refs.

  3. Anisotropy of single-crystal 3C–SiC during nanometric cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, Saurav; Stukowski, Alexander; Luo, Xichun; Agrawal, Anupam; Reuben, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    3C–SiC (the only polytype of SiC that resides in a diamond cubic lattice structure) is a relatively new material that exhibits most of the desirable engineering properties required for advanced electronic applications. The anisotropy exhibited by 3C–SiC during its nanometric cutting is significant, and the potential for its exploitation has yet to be fully investigated. This paper aims to understand the influence of crystal anisotropy of 3C–SiC on its cutting behaviour. A molecular dynamics simulation model was developed to simulate the nanometric cutting of single-crystal 3C–SiC in nine (9) distinct combinations of crystal orientations and cutting directions, i.e. (1 1 1) 〈−1 1 0〉, (1 1 1) 〈−2 1 1〉, (1 1 0) 〈−1 1 0〉, (1 1 0) 〈0 0 1〉, (1 1 0) 〈1 1 −2〉, (0 0 1) 〈−1 1 0〉, (0 0 1) 〈1 0 0〉, (1 1 −2) 〈1 −1 0〉 and (1 −2 0) 〈2 1 0〉. In order to ensure the reliability of the simulation results, two separate simulation trials were carried out with different machining parameters. In the first trial, a cutting tool rake angle of −25°, d/r (uncut chip thickness/cutting edge radius) ratio of 0.57 and cutting velocity of 10 m s −1 were used whereas a second trial was done using a cutting tool rake angle of −30°, d/r ratio of 1 and cutting velocity of 4 m s −1 . Both the trials showed similar anisotropic variation. The simulated orthogonal components of thrust force in 3C–SiC showed a variation of up to 45%, while the resultant cutting forces showed a variation of 37%. This suggests that 3C–SiC is highly anisotropic in its ease of deformation. These results corroborate with the experimentally observed anisotropic variation of 43.6% in Young's modulus of 3C–SiC. The recently developed dislocation extraction algorithm (DXA) [1, 2] was employed to detect the nucleation of dislocations in the MD simulations of varying cutting orientations

  4. Laser cutting of various materials: Kerf width size analysis and life cycle assessment of cutting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Shaukat, Mian Mobeen; Ashraf, Farhan

    2017-08-01

    Laser cutting of various materials including Ti-6Al-4V alloy, steel 304, Inconel 625, and alumina is carried out to assess the kerf width size variation along the cut section. The life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impact of the laser cutting in terms of the material waste during the cutting process. The kerf width size is formulated and predicted using the lump parameter analysis and it is measured from the experiments. The influence of laser output power and laser cutting speed on the kerf width size variation is analyzed using the analytical tools including scanning electron and optical microscopes. In the experiments, high pressure nitrogen assisting gas is used to prevent oxidation reactions in the cutting section. It is found that the kerf width size predicted from the lump parameter analysis agrees well with the experimental data. The kerf width size variation increases with increasing laser output power. However, this behavior reverses with increasing laser cutting speed. The life cycle assessment reveals that material selection for laser cutting is critical for the environmental protection point of view. Inconel 625 contributes the most to the environmental damages; however, recycling of the waste of the laser cutting reduces this contribution.

  5. Cutting work in thick section cryomicrotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saubermann, A J; Riley, W D; Beeuwkes, R

    1977-09-01

    The forces during cryosectioning were measured using miniature strain gauges attached to a load cell fitted to the drive arm of the Porter-Blum MT-2 cryomicrotome. Work was calculated and the data normalized to a standard (1 mm X 1 mm X 0.5 micrometer) section. Thermal energy generated was also calculated. Five parameters were studied: cutting angle, thickness, temperature, hardness, and block shape. Force patterns could be divided into three major groups thought to represent cutting (Type I), large fracture planes greater than 10 micrometer in length (Type II), and small fracture planes less than 10 micrometer in length (Type III). Type I and Type II produced satisfactory sections. Work in cutting ranged from an average of 78.4 muJ to 568.8 muJ. Cutting angle and temperature had the greatest effect on sectioning. Heat generated would be sufficient to cause through-section melting for 0.5 micrometer thick sections assuming the worst possible case, namely that all heat went into the section without loss. Presence of a Type II pattern (large fracture pattern) is thought to be presumptive evidence against thawing.

  6. Apparatus and method for variable angle slant hole collimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Joon; Kross, Brian J.; McKisson, John E.

    2017-07-18

    A variable angle slant hole (VASH) collimator for providing collimation of high energy photons such as gamma rays during radiological imaging of humans. The VASH collimator includes a stack of multiple collimator leaves and a means of quickly aligning each leaf to provide various projection angles. Rather than rotate the detector around the subject, the VASH collimator enables the detector to remain stationary while the projection angle of the collimator is varied for tomographic acquisition. High collimator efficiency is achieved by maintaining the leaves in accurate alignment through the various projection angles. Individual leaves include unique angled cuts to maintain a precise target collimation angle. Matching wedge blocks driven by two actuators with twin-lead screws accurately position each leaf in the stack resulting in the precise target collimation angle. A computer interface with the actuators enables precise control of the projection angle of the collimator.

  7. The results of cutting disks testing for rock destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoreshok Aleksey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the rational order of disk tools placement on the working body is necessary to know the maximum amount of rock, destroyed by the disk tool in benching cutting mode depending on the tool geometry parameters, physical and mechanical parameters of rocks. The article contains the definition of rational parameters of cutting disk tools as well as power and energy parameters of the destruction process by cutting disks and by executive body of the coal cutter. The rational geometric parameters of cutting discs are specified. It was found that each step of cutting with a minimum depth of penetration has its own maximum height of bench outcrop. The dependence of the volumes of large items destroyed by the disk tool on the cutting step height was determined. The existence of the cyclic alternation of destruction phases, regardless the fracture parameters, the height of the ledge outcrop, and tools like free cutting geometry were found. In contrast to the free cutting in benching mode of destruction two large fragments of rocks in one cycle were observed. Consequently, the cyclical nature of the destruction process in the benching mode will be characterized by two chips and crushing, and this cycling repeats throughout the destruction process with the same parameters of destruction.

  8. Advanced cutting techniques: laser and fissuration cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliorati, B.; Gay, P.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental tests have been performed using CO 2 laser with output power 1 to 15 kW to evaluate the effect of varying the following parameters: material (carbon steel Fe 42 C, stainless steel AISI 304, concrete), laser power, beam characteristics, work piece velocity, gas type and distribution on the laser interaction zone. In the case of concrete, drilling depths of 80 mm were obtained in a few seconds using a 10 kW laser beam. Moreover pieces of 160 mm were cut at 0.01 meters per minute. Results with carbon steel indicated maximum thicknesses of 110 mm, cut at 0.01 meters per minute with 10 kW, depths about 20% lower were obtained with the AISI 304 stainless steel. A parallel investigation was aimed at characterizing particulate emission during the laser cutting process. At the end of the research it was possible to elaborate a preliminary proposal concerning a laser based dismantling system for the application to a typical Nuclear Power Station. (author)

  9. Laser Cutting, Development Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...... of 3-dimensional shapes.The CO2-laser will also in the near future be the dominating laser source in the market, although the new developments in ND-YAG-lasers opens for new possibilities for this laser type....

  10. Influence of cutting parameters on the depth of subsurface deformed layer in nano-cutting process of single crystal copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanlong; Bai, Qingshun; Chen, Jiaxuan; Su, Hao; Wang, Zhiguo; Xie, Wenkun

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulation is performed to study the nano-cutting process of single crystal copper realized by single-point diamond cutting tool in this paper. The centro-symmetry parameter is adopted to characterize the subsurface deformed layers and the distribution and evolution of the subsurface defect structures. Three-dimensional visualization and measurement technology are used to measure the depth of the subsurface deformed layers. The influence of cutting speed, cutting depth, cutting direction, and crystallographic orientation on the depth of subsurface deformed layers is systematically investigated. The results show that a lot of defect structures are formed in the subsurface of workpiece during nano-cutting process, for instance, stair-rod dislocations, stacking fault tetrahedron, atomic clusters, vacancy defects, point defects. In the process of nano-cutting, the depth of subsurface deformed layers increases with the cutting distance at the beginning, then decreases at stable cutting process, and basically remains unchanged when the cutting distance reaches up to 24 nm. The depth of subsurface deformed layers decreases with the increase in cutting speed between 50 and 300 m/s. The depth of subsurface deformed layer increases with cutting depth, proportionally, and basically remains unchanged when the cutting depth reaches over 6 nm.

  11. A Study on Ultrasonic Elliptical Vibration Cutting of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconel 718 is a kind of nickel-based alloys that are widely used in the aerospace and nuclear industry owing to their high temperature mechanical properties. Cutting of Inconel 718 in conventional cutting (CC is a big challenge in modern industry. Few researches have been studied on cutting of Inconel 718 using single point diamond tool applying the UEVC method. This paper shows an experimental study on UEVC of Inconel 718 by using polycrystalline diamond (PCD coated tools. Firstly, cutting tests have been carried out to study the effect of machining parameters in the UEVC in terms of surface finish and flank wear during machining of Inconel 718. The tests have clearly shown that the PCD coated tools in cutting of Inconel 718 by the UEVC have better performance at 0.1 mm depth of cut as compared to the lower 0.05 mm depth of cut and the higher 0.12 or 0.15 mm depth of cut. Secondly, like CC method, the cutting performance in UEVC increases with the decrease of the feed rate and cutting speed. The CC tests have also been carried out to compare performance of CC with UEVC method.

  12. Failure mechanisms of superhard materials when cutting superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focke, A.E.; Westermann, F.E.; Ermi, A.; Yavelak, J.; Hoch, M.

    1975-01-01

    The present research studies the reasons for the failure of tungsten carbide tools while cutting superalloys. There is a continuous layer of the superalloy in the bottom of the crater which from time to time is torn away locally, taking tungsten carbide crystal with it. Under recommended cutting conditions a plateau (unworn cutting surface) separates the crater from the cutting edge of the tool when cutting AISI 4340. This plateau is totally absent in all cutting of Inconel 718, even in short, two-minute tests. The crater intersects the cutting edge--only a thin wedge of carbide is left which either breaks off or deforms and wears very rapidly. Temperature measurements carried out by use of an infrared detector aimed on the corner of the tungsten carbide indicate at recommended speeds a sharp rise of the temperature at the beginning of the cutting operation, then a steady-state very slow increase as the cutting continues, and finally just before tool failure a very rapid increase in the temperature again. Scanning and replica electron microscopy through the crater and flank face shows that both under the crater and in the back of the cutting edge a fairly deep layer of ''disturbed metal'' exists in which the tungsten carbide grains are much smaller and have much more rounded edges than in the original material. 10 figures, 4 tables

  13. Experimental testing of exchangeable cutting inserts cutting ability

    OpenAIRE

    Čep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Čepová, Lenka; Petrů, Jana; Hlavatý, Ivo; Car, Zlatan; Hatala, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with experimental testing of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts. Eleven types of exchangeable cutting inserts from five different manufacturers were tested. The tested cutting inserts were of the same shape and were different especially in material and coating types. The main aim was both to select a suitable test for determination of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts and to design such testing procedure that could make it possible...

  14. Augmented Endoscopic Images Overlaying Shape Changes in Bone Cutting Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Megumi; Endo, Shota; Nakao, Shinichi; Yoshida, Munehito; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    In microendoscopic discectomy for spinal disorders, bone cutting procedures are performed in tight spaces while observing a small portion of the target structures. Although optical tracking systems are able to measure the tip of the surgical tool during surgery, the poor shape information available during surgery makes accurate cutting difficult, even if preoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance images are used for reference. Shape estimation and visualization of the target structures are essential for accurate cutting. However, time-varying shape changes during cutting procedures are still challenging issues for intraoperative navigation. This paper introduces a concept of endoscopic image augmentation that overlays shape changes to support bone cutting procedures. This framework handles the history of the location of the measured drill tip as a volume label and visualizes the remains to be cut overlaid on the endoscopic image in real time. A cutting experiment was performed with volunteers, and the feasibility of this concept was examined using a clinical navigation system. The efficacy of the cutting aid was evaluated with respect to the shape similarity, total moved distance of a cutting tool, and required cutting time. The results of the experiments showed that cutting performance was significantly improved by the proposed framework.

  15. Small angle spectrometers: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.; Foley, K.J.; Schlein, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of experiments at small angles at the Superconducting Super Collider are considered. Topics summarized include a small angle spectrometer, a high contingency spectrometer, dipole and toroid spectrometers, and magnet choices

  16. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  17. Cut without Killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The zero-based curriculum model can help school boards and administrators make decisions about what to keep and what to cut. All instructional programs are ranked and judged in categories ranging from required to optional. (MLF)

  18. Short-cut math

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Gerard W

    1984-01-01

    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  19. Laser cutting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J

    2015-03-03

    A workpiece cutting apparatus includes a laser source, a first suction system, and a first finger configured to guide a workpiece as it moves past the laser source. The first finger includes a first end provided adjacent a point where a laser from the laser source cuts the workpiece, and the first end of the first finger includes an aperture in fluid communication with the first suction system.

  20. How Can I Stop Cutting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español How Can I Stop Cutting? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Can I Stop Cutting? ... in a soft, cozy blanket Substitutes for the Cutting Sensation You'll notice that all the tips ...

  1. Cutting and Self-Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your feelings Feeling sad Cutting and self-harm Cutting and self-harm Self-harm, sometimes called self- ... There are many types of self-injury, and cutting is one type that you may have heard ...

  2. On Permuting Cut with Contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Borisavljevic, Mirjana; Dosen, Kosta; Petric, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents a cut-elimination procedure for intuitionistic propositional logic in which cut is eliminated directly, without introducing the multiple-cut rule mix, and in which pushing cut above contraction is one of the reduction steps. The presentation of this procedure is preceded by an analysis of Gentzen's mix-elimination procedure, made in the perspective of permuting cut with contraction. It is also shown that in the absence of implication, pushing cut above contraction doesn't p...

  3. Analyses of Effects of Cutting Parameters on Cutting Edge Temperature Using Inverse Heat Conduction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ribeiro dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During machining energy is transformed into heat due to plastic deformation of the workpiece surface and friction between tool and workpiece. High temperatures are generated in the region of the cutting edge, which have a very important influence on wear rate of the cutting tool and on tool life. This work proposes the estimation of heat flux at the chip-tool interface using inverse techniques. Factors which influence the temperature distribution at the AISI M32C high speed steel tool rake face during machining of a ABNT 12L14 steel workpiece were also investigated. The temperature distribution was predicted using finite volume elements. A transient 3D numerical code using irregular and nonstaggered mesh was developed to solve the nonlinear heat diffusion equation. To validate the software, experimental tests were made. The inverse problem was solved using the function specification method. Heat fluxes at the tool-workpiece interface were estimated using inverse problems techniques and experimental temperatures. Tests were performed to study the effect of cutting parameters on cutting edge temperature. The results were compared with those of the tool-work thermocouple technique and a fair agreement was obtained.

  4. Force Modelling in Orthogonal Cutting Considering Flank Wear Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Kanti Bhikhubhai; Lalwani, Devdas I.

    2017-05-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to provide a predictive cutting force model during orthogonal cutting by combining two different force models, that is, a force model for a perfectly sharp tool plus considering the effect of edge radius and a force model for a worn tool. The first force model is for a perfectly sharp tool that is based on Oxley's predictive machining theory for orthogonal cutting as the Oxley's model is for perfectly sharp tool, the effect of cutting edge radius (hone radius) is added and improve model is presented. The second force model is based on worn tool (flank wear) that was proposed by Waldorf. Further, the developed combined force model is also used to predict flank wear width using inverse approach. The performance of the developed combined total force model is compared with the previously published results for AISI 1045 and AISI 4142 materials and found reasonably good agreement.

  5. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    To strengthen the national framework for care of adolescents and women affected by female genital cutting (FGC) in Canada by providing health care professionals with: (1) information intended to strengthen their knowledge and understanding of the practice; (2) directions with regard to the legal issues related to the practice; (3) clinical guidelines for the management of obstetric and gynaecological care, including FGC related complications; and (4) guidance on the provision of culturally competent care to adolescents and women with FGC. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in September 2010 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., Circumcision, Female) and keywords (e.g., female genital mutilation, clitoridectomy, infibulation). We also searched Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses in 2010 and 2011. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. Female genital cutting is internationally recognized as a harmful practice and a violation of girls' and women's rights to life, physical integrity, and health. (II-3) 2. The immediate and long-term health risks and complications of female genital cutting can be serious and life threatening. (II-3) 3. Female genital cutting continues to be practised in many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, and Sudan. (II-3) 4. Global migration

  6. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  7. Tool geometry and damage mechanisms influencing CNC turning efficiency of Ti6Al4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sangeeth; Hamid, Darulihsan Abdul; Yazid, M. Z. A.; Nasuha, Nurdiyanah; Ain, Siti Nurul

    2017-12-01

    Ti6Al4V or Grade 5 titanium alloy is widely used in the aerospace, medical, automotive and fabrication industries, due to its distinctive combination of mechanical and physical properties. Ti6Al4V has always been perverse during its machining, strangely due to the same mix of properties mentioned earlier. Ti6Al4V machining has resulted in shorter cutting tool life which has led to objectionable surface integrity and rapid failure of the parts machined. However, the proven functional relevance of this material has prompted extensive research in the optimization of machine parameters and cutting tool characteristics. Cutting tool geometry plays a vital role in ensuring dimensional and geometric accuracy in machined parts. In this study, an experimental investigation is actualized to optimize the nose radius and relief angles of the cutting tools and their interaction to different levels of machining parameters. Low elastic modulus and thermal conductivity of Ti6Al4V contribute to the rapid tool damage. The impact of these properties over the tool tips damage is studied. An experimental design approach is utilized in the CNC turning process of Ti6Al4V to statistically analyze and propose optimum levels of input parameters to lengthen the tool life and enhance surface characteristics of the machined parts. A greater tool nose radius with a straight flank, combined with low feed rates have resulted in a desirable surface integrity. The presence of relief angle has proven to aggravate tool damage and also dimensional instability in the CNC turning of Ti6Al4V.

  8. Improved cutting performance in high power laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described.......Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described....

  9. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CUTTING FLUID EFFECTS IN DRILLING. (R825370C057)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were designed and conducted on aluminum alloys and gray cast iron to determine the function of cutting fluid in drilling. The variables examined included speed, feed, hole depth, tool and workpiece material, cutting fluid condition, workpiece temperatures and drill...

  10. Determination of cut front position in laser cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M; Thombansen, U

    2016-01-01

    Laser cutting has a huge importance to manufacturing industry. Laser cutting machines operate with fixed technological parameters and this does not guarantee the best productivity. The adjustment of the cutting parameters during operation can improve the machine performance. Based on a coaxial measuring device it is possible to identify the cut front position during the cutting process. This paper describes the data analysis approach used to determine the cut front position for different feed rates. The cut front position was determined with good resolution, but improvements are needed to make the whole process more stable. (paper)

  11. Determination of cut front position in laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M.; Thombansen, U.

    2016-07-01

    Laser cutting has a huge importance to manufacturing industry. Laser cutting machines operate with fixed technological parameters and this does not guarantee the best productivity. The adjustment of the cutting parameters during operation can improve the machine performance. Based on a coaxial measuring device it is possible to identify the cut front position during the cutting process. This paper describes the data analysis approach used to determine the cut front position for different feed rates. The cut front position was determined with good resolution, but improvements are needed to make the whole process more stable.

  12. Understanding Angle and Angle Measure: A Design-Based Research Study Using Context Aware Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies are quickly becoming tools found in the educational environment. The researchers in this study use a form of mobile learning to support students in learning about angle concepts. Design-based research is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated local instruction theory about students' develop of angle and…

  13. Cutting Edge Localisation in an Edge Profile Milling Head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Robles, Laura; Azzopardi, George; Alegre, Enrique; Petkov, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Wear evaluation of cutting tools is a key issue for prolonging their lifetime and ensuring high quality of products. In this paper, we present a method for the effective localisation of cutting edges of inserts in digital images of an edge profile milling head. We introduce a new image data set of

  14. modelling of responses from orthogonal metal cutting of mild steel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    technical sciences which are shaped by local operating conditions. ... Three different tool types namely, HSS, tungsten carbide and carbide ... procedure indicated that a tape rule model Fat Max Blade. Armor 35' ... Carbon, C. 0.30 – 0.59% ... Block is Mild Steel x carbide. Runs. Cutting Speed. Feed Rate. Depth of Cut. 1. 250.

  15. Underwater plasma arc cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leautier, R.; Pilot, G.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the work done to develop underwater plasma arc cutting techniques, to characterise aerosols from cutting operations on radioactive and non-radioactive work-pieces, and to develop suitable ventilation and filtration techniques. The work has been carried out in the framework of a contract between CEA-CEN Cadarache and the Commission of European Communities. Furthermore, this work has been carried out in close cooperation with CEA-CEN Saclay mainly for secondary emissions and radioactive analysis. The contract started in May 1986 and was completed in December 1988 by a supplementary agreement. This report has been compiled from several progress reports submitted during the work period, contains the main findings of the work and encloses the results of comparative tests on plasma arc cutting

  16. Generation Mechanism of Work Hardened Surface Layer in Metal Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikiji, Rikio; Kondo, Eiji; Kawagoishi, Norio; Arai, Minoru

    Finish machining used to be carried out in grinding, but it is being replaced by cutting with very small undeformed chip thickness. In ultra precision process, the effects of the cutting conditions and the complicated factors on the machined surface integrity are the serious problems. In this research, work hardened surface layer was dealt with as an evaluation of the machined surface integrity and the effect of the mechanical factors on work hardening was investigated experimentally in orthogonal cutting. As a result, it was found that work hardened surface layer was affected not only by the shear angle varied under the cutting conditions and the thrust force of cutting resistance, but also by the thrust force acting point, the coefficient of the thrust force and the compressive stress equivalent to the bulk hardness. Furthermore, these mechanical factors acting on the depth of the work hardened surface layer were investigated with the calculation model.

  17. Numerical Analysis of Mixed Fluid Jet Flows through Cutting Fluid Supplying Nozzle

    OpenAIRE

    S, Chung; B, Shin

    2017-01-01

    Metal cutting operation involves generation of heat due to friction between the tool and the cutting materials. This heat needs to be carried away otherwise it creates white spots. To reduce this abnormal heat cutting fluid is used. Cutting fluid also has an important role in the lubrication of the cutting edges of machine tools and the pieces, and in sluicing away the resulting swarf. As a cutting fluid, water is a great conductor of heat but is not stable at high temperatures, so to improve...

  18. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  19. Theoretical Models for Orthogonal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”......This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”...

  20. The use of cutting temperature to evaluate the machinability of titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated the machinability of titanium, two commercial titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb) and free-cutting brass using the cutting temperature. The cutting temperature was estimated by measuring the thermal electromotive force of the tool-workpiece thermocouple during cutting. The thermoelectric power of each metal relative to the tool had previously been determined. The metals were slotted using a milling machine and carbide square end mills under four cutting conditions. The cutting temperatures of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb were significantly higher than that of the titanium, while that of the free-cutting brass was lower. This result coincided with the relationship of the magnitude of the cutting forces measured in a previous study. For each metal, the cutting temperature became higher when the depth of cut or the cutting speed and feed increased. The increase in the cutting speed and feed was more influential on the value than the increase in the depth of cut when two cutting conditions with the same removal rates were compared. The results demonstrated that cutting temperature measurement can be utilized to develop a new material for dental CAD/CAM applications and to optimize the cutting conditions.

  1. Tools and their uses

    CERN Document Server

    1973-01-01

    Teaches names, general uses, and correct operation of all basic hand and power tools, fasteners, and measuring devices you are likely to need. Also, grinding, metal cutting, soldering, and more. 329 illustrations.

  2. Skin Cut Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    of the exhibition is to create a connection between the artistic and technological development through Danish rms and researchers who represent the newest technology in concrete treatment. The rst part exhibition (skin) will focus on the surface treatment of concrete (’graphical concrete’), the second (cut...

  3. Cutting Cakes Carefully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theodore P.; Morrison, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the fascinating mathematics of fair division, and provides a suite of examples using basic ideas from algebra, calculus, and probability which can be used to examine and test new and sometimes complex mathematical theories and claims involving fair division. Conversely, the classical cut-and-choose and moving-knife algorithms…

  4. Classroom Cut Ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    Discovering identity can be a lifelong challenge for some people, while others seem to figure it out right away. During the middle school years, finding one's identity can be a daunting task. Most students will spend a considerable amount of time during these middle years looking for it. This lesson on cut-paper self-portraits lets students delve…

  5. After the Ribbon Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodge, Graeme A.; Boulot, Emille; Duffield, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Much attention has gone towards ‘up-front’ processes when delivering infrastructure public–private partnerships (PPPs), but less on how to best govern after the ribbon is cut and the infrastructure built. This paper identifies the primary contractual and institutional governance challenges arising...

  6. Simultaneous Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balkanski, Eric; Branzei, Simina; Kurokawa, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the simultaneous model for cake cutting (the fair allocation of a divisible good), in which agents simultaneously send messages containing a sketch of their preferences over the cake. We show that this model enables the computation of divisions that satisfy proportionality — a popular...

  7. Effects of Cutting Edge Microgeometry on Residual Stress in Orthogonal Cutting of Inconel 718 by FEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi; Liu, Zhanqiang; Hua, Yang; Zhao, Jinfu; Lv, Woyun; Mohsan, Aziz Ul Hassan

    2018-06-14

    Service performance of components such as fatigue life are dramatically influenced by the machined surface and subsurface residual stresses. This paper aims at achieving a better understanding of the influence of cutting edge microgeometry on machined surface residual stresses during orthogonal dry cutting of Inconel 718. Numerical and experimental investigations have been conducted in this research. The cutting edge microgeometry factors of average cutting edge radius S¯, form-factor K , and chamfer were investigated. An increasing trend for the magnitudes of both tensile and compressive residual stresses was observed by using larger S¯ or introducing a chamfer on the cutting edges. The ploughing depth has been predicted based on the stagnation zone. The increase of ploughing depth means that more material was ironed on the workpiece subsurface, which resulted in an increase in the compressive residual stress. The thermal loads were leading factors that affected the surface tensile residual stress. For the unsymmetrical honed cutting edge with K = 2, the friction between tool and workpiece and tensile residual stress tended to be high, while for the unsymmetrical honed cutting edge with K = 0.5, the high ploughing depth led to a higher compressive residual stress. This paper provides guidance for regulating machine-induced residual stress by edge preparation.

  8. Tool wear and breakage monitoring in machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madl, J.

    1992-01-01

    Risk minimization of metal cutting operations is one of the main problems of metal cutting technology. This paper describes some aspects in monitoring and control of machining processes. Tool monitoring is the fokus of machining process monitoring. Tool breakage and tool life recognition are the main problems of tool monitoring. All problems of this type of monitoring have not yet been fully solved. (orig.)

  9. Optimal reconstruction angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, G.O. Jr.; Knight, L.

    1979-07-01

    The question of optimal projection angles has recently become of interest in the field of reconstruction from projections. Here, studies are concentrated on the n x n pixel space, where literative algorithms such as ART and direct matrix techniques due to Katz are considered. The best angles are determined in a Gauss--Markov statistical sense as well as with respect to a function-theoretical error bound. The possibility of making photon intensity a function of angle is also examined. Finally, the best angles to use in an ART-like algorithm are studied. A certain set of unequally spaced angles was found to be preferred in several contexts. 15 figures, 6 tables

  10. Slicing Cuts on Food Materials Using Robotic-Controlled Razor Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debao Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting operations using blades can arise in a number of industries, for example, food processing industry, in which cheese, fruit and vegetable, even meat, are involved. Certain questions will rise during these works, such as “why pressing-and-slicing cuts use less force than pressing-only cuts” and “how is the influence of the blade cutting-edge on force”. To answer these questions, this research developed a mathematical expression of the cutting stress tensor. Based on the analysis of the stress tensor on the contact surface, the influence of the blade edge-shape and slicing angle on the resultant cutting force were formulated and discussed. These formulations were further verified using experimental results by robotic cutting of potatoes. Through studying the change of the cutting force, the optimal slicing angle can be obtained in terms of maximum feeding distance and minimum cutting force. Based on the blade sharpness properties and the specific materials, the required cutting force can be predicted. These formulation and experimental results explained the basic theory of blade cutting fracture and further provided the support to optimize the cutting mechanism design and to develop the force control algorithms for the automation of blade cutting operations.

  11. Evaluation of the Normal Cochlear Second Interscalar Ridge Angle and Depth on 3D T2-Weighted Images: A Tool for the Diagnosis of Scala Communis and Incomplete Partition Type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, T N; Wick, C; Clarke, R; Kutz, J W; Medina, M; Gorsage, D; Xi, Y; Isaacson, B

    2018-05-01

    Cochlear malformations may be be subtle on imaging studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the angle and depth of the lateral second interscalar ridge or notch in ears without sensorineural hearing loss (normal ears) and compare them with ears that have a documented incomplete type II partition malformation. The second interscalar ridge notch angle and depth were measured on MR imaging in normal ears by a single experienced neuroradiologist. The images of normal and incomplete partition II malformation ears were then randomly mixed for 2 novice evaluators to measure both the second interscalar ridge notch angle and depth in a blinded manner. For the mixed group, interobserver agreement was calculated, normal and abnormal ear measurements were compared, and receiver operating characteristic curves were generated. The 94 normal ears had a mean second interscalar ridge angle of 80.86° ± 11.4° and depth of 0.54 ± 0.14 mm with the 98th percentile for an angle of 101° and a depth of 0.3 mm. In the mixed group, agreement between the 2 readers was excellent, with significant differences for angle and depth found between normal and incomplete partition type II ears for angle and depth on average ( P 114° and a depth of the second interscalar ridge notch of ≤0.31 mm suggest the diagnosis of incomplete partition type II malformation and scala communis. These measurements can be accurately made by novice readers. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  12. Core Cutting Test with Vertical Rock Cutting Rig (VRCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Serdar; Osman Yilmaz, Ali

    2017-12-01

    Roadheaders are frequently used machines in mining and tunnelling, and performance prediction of roadheaders is important for project economics and stability. Several methods were proposed so far for this purpose and, rock cutting tests are the best choice. Rock cutting tests are generally divided into two groups which are namely, full scale rock cutting tests and small scale rock cutting tests. These two tests have some superiorities and deficiencies over themselves. However, in many cases, where rock sampling becomes problematic, small scale rock cutting test (core cutting test) is preferred for performance prediction, since small block samples and core samples can be conducted to rock cutting testing. Common problem for rock cutting tests are that they can be found in very limited research centres. In this study, a new mobile rock cutting testing equipment, vertical rock cutting rig (VRCR) was introduced. Standard testing procedure was conducted on seven rock samples which were the part of a former study on cutting rocks with another small scale rock cutting test. Results showed that core cutting test can be realized successfully with VRCR with the validation of paired samples t-test.

  13. The effect of cutting conditions on power inputs when machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushin, S. I.; Gruby, S. V.; Nosirsoda, Sh C.

    2016-08-01

    Any technological process involving modification of material properties or product form necessitates consumption of a certain power amount. When developing new technologies one should take into account the benefits of their implementation vs. arising power inputs. It is revealed that procedures of edge cutting machining are the most energy-efficient amongst the present day forming procedures such as physical and technical methods including electrochemical, electroerosion, ultrasound, and laser processing, rapid prototyping technologies etc, such as physical and technical methods including electrochemical, electroerosion, ultrasound, and laser processing, rapid prototyping technologies etc. An expanded formula for calculation of power inputs is deduced, which takes into consideration the mode of cutting together with the tip radius, the form of the replaceable multifaceted insert and its wear. Having taken as an example cutting of graphite iron by the assembled cutting tools with replaceable multifaceted inserts the authors point at better power efficiency of high feeding cutting in comparison with high-speed cutting.

  14. Assessment of abrasiveness for research of rock cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Labaš

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rock abrasiveness is ability of rock to wear down the working tool during the mutual interaction between the working indentorand the rock in the mechanical rock cutting process. The cutting indentor is worn down during the interaction, which changes itsgeometric dimensions causing the enlargement of a contact area between the tool and the rock surface. The changes in these dimensionsconsequently alter the rate of advance of the drilling machine and the specific cutting energy. We have determined the abrasivenessaccording to the norm ON 44 1121 (1982 on the testing device constructed at the Institute of Geotechnics SAS.

  15. Shaping Cutter Original Profile for Fine-module Ratchet Teeth Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkov, O. V.; Koryagin, S. I.; Velikanov, N. L.

    2018-03-01

    The methods for determining geometric characteristics of a theoretical original profile of the cutter for cutting ratchet teeth with a module of 0.3–1.0 mm are considered in the article. Design models describing the shaping process of cutting edges of cutter teeth are developed. Systems of expressions for determining coordinates of the points of front and back edges of cutter teeth; the workpiece angles of rotation during the cutting process; the minimum cutter radius are received. The basic data when using the proposed technique are: radii of circumferences passing through cavities of cutter teeth and external cut teeth; the gradient angle and length of straight section of the front edge of a cut tooth; angles of rotation of the cutter and the workpiece at the moment of shaping.

  16. An Experimental Study of Cutting Performances of Worn Picks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogruoz, Cihan; Bolukbasi, Naci; Rostami, Jamal; Acar, Cemil

    2016-01-01

    The best means to assess rock cuttability and efficiency of cutting process for using mechanical excavation is specific energy (SE), measured in full-scale rock cutting test. This is especially true for the application of roadheaders, often fitted with drag-type cutting tools. Radial picks or drag bits are changed during the operation as they reach a certain amount of wear and become blunt. In this study, full-scale cutting tests in different sedimentary rock types with bits having various degree of wear were used to evaluate the influence of bit wear on cutting forces and specific energy. The relationship between the amount of wear as represented by the size of the wear flats at the tip of the bit, and cutting forces as well as specific energy was examined. The influence of various rock properties such as mineral content, uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, indentation index, shore hardness, Schmidt hammer hardness, and density with required SE of cutting using different levels of tool wear was also studied. The preliminary analysis of the data shows that the mean cutting forces increase 2-3 times and SE by 4-5 times when cutting with 4 mm wear flat as compared to cutting with new or sharp wedge shape bits. The grain size distribution of the muck for cutting different rock types and different level of bit wear was analyzed and discussed. The best fit prediction models for SE based on statistical analysis of laboratory test results are introduced. The model can be used for estimating the performance of mechanical excavators using radial tools, especially roadheaders, continuous miners and longwall drum shearers.

  17. Characterisation of aerosols produced by laser cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauvel, S.; Pilot, G.; Dinechin, G. de; Gosse, X.; Arnaud, P.

    2007-01-01

    Powerful lasers represent a promising alternative solution to traditional cutting processes used in dismantling nuclear equipments. The use of optical fibers has an unquestionable advantage when dealing with airtight workshops. A study funded by COGEMA Marcoule was undertaken by IRSN/SERAC in collaboration with GIP/GERAILP in order to characterise the aerosols emitted by the cutting of evaporators elements with a 4 kW continuous wave Nd:YAG laser. For this study, laser cutting has been carried out in a tight room of 35 m 3 connected to a particle sampling pipe. Iso-kinetic samplers allowed the measurement of the aerosol concentration. A diffusional and inertial spectrometer (SDI 2001) - an Andersen impinger coupled to a diffusion battery - provided the size distribution. An electrostatic filter used upstream a HEPA filter, itself placed before the extractor fan, collected the majority of the emitted aerosol. Its efficiency was measured and controlled throughout the experiments. The results show the influence of the cutting conditions on the characteristics of the aerosol, and allow a comparison with other cutting tools. (authors)

  18. A study of estimating cutting depth for multi-pass nanoscale cutting by using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zone-Ching; Hsu, Ying-Chih

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies two models for estimating cutting depth of multi-pass nanoscale cutting by using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe. One estimates cutting depth for multi-pass nanoscale cutting by using regression equations of nanoscale contact pressure factor (NCP factor) while the other uses equation of specific down force energy (SDFE). This paper proposes taking a diamond-coated probe of AFM as the cutting tool to carry out multi-pass nanoscale cutting experiments on the surface of sapphire substrate. In the process of experimentation, different down forces are set, and the probe shape of AFM is known, then using each down force to multi-pass cutting the sapphire substrate. From the measured experimental data of a central cutting depth of the machining groove by AFM, this paper calculates the specific down force energy of each down force. The experiment results reveal that the specific down force energy of each case of multi-pass nanoscale cutting for different down forces under a probe of AFM is close to a constant value. This paper also compares the nanoscale cutting results from estimating cutting depths for each pass of multi-pass among the experimental results and the calculating results obtained by the two theories models. It is found that the model of specific down force energy can calculate cutting depths for each nanoscale cutting pass by one equation. It is easier to use than the multi-regression equations of the nanoscale contact pressure factor. Besides, the estimations of cutting depth results obtained by the model of specific down force energy are closer to that of the experiment results. It shows that the proposed specific down force energy model in this paper is an acceptable model.

  19. Some possibilities for determining cutting data when using laser cutting:

    OpenAIRE

    Radovanović, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    The technological problems faced in the field of the application of laser-cutting machines lie in insufficient knowledge of the laser technique and the absence of both sufficiently reliable practical data and knowledge about the parameters affecting the work process itself. A significant parameter that is necessary to determine and to enter in an NC-program is the cutting speed. Various authors analyze the laser-cutting process and give mathematical models where laser cutting is modeled by us...

  20. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  1. Making the cut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcshannon, G. [Hydra Mining Tools International Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-15

    The paper explains how coal mines around the world can benefit from the use of cowless, radial shearer drums. Hydra Mining has designed and manufactured a range of shearer drums to combat problems ranging from dust, frictional ignitions, geological problems or low production rates. This allows the mine operator to maximise production efficiency. The company tailor-makes shearer drums for each longwall face to optimise the cutting performance of every installation. 8 figs.

  2. Cutting Out Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In the field of program transformation, one often transforms programs into continuation-passing style to make their flow of control explicit, and then immediately removes the resulting continuations using defunctionalisation to make the programs first-order. In this article, we show how these two...... transformations can be fused together into a single transformation step that cuts out the need to first introduce and then eliminate continuations. Our approach is calculational, uses standard equational reasoning techniques, and is widely applicable....

  3. Multifactor Analysis of Roadheader’s Body Pose Responses during the Horizontal Cutting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Lagrange equation in system dynamics, aiming at the horizontal cutting process, the dynamical coupling model of boom-type roadheader’s body pose was established. According to input problem of solving the model, a calculation method of the cutting head load was proposed, and the relationship between the cutting head load and pressure of the driving cylinders and swing angle of the cutting arm was obtained through simulating analysis. The simulation model was established to solve the dynamical coupling model. The cutting head load, horizontal swing angle of the cutting arm, and dip angle of coal seam were regarded as independent variables to perform changing parameter analysis in variations of the body pose. The field experiment was carried out, and the measured data is basically consistent with the simulation values. The results show that lateral displacement of the body can reach up to 6.5 cm, backward displacement can reach up to 5.2 cm, floor-based quantity can reach up to 11 cm, pitch angle of the body can reach up to 7.8°, and roll angle can reach up to 2.1°. Variations of the body pose parameters are influenced greatly by the cutting head load, while the influence from horizontal swing angle of the cutting arm and dip angle of coal seam is slighter. Among the pose parameters, floor-based quantity and pitch angle of the body vary relatively greatly, which tend to seriously influence forming quality of the roadway and should be mainly considered in deviation rectification of the roadheader’s body pose.

  4. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  5. Study of the Vibration Effect on the Cutting Forces and Roughness of Slub Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germa, S.; Estrems Amestoy, M.; Sánchez Reinoso, H. T.; Franco Chumillas, P.

    2009-11-01

    For the planning process of slab milling operations, the vibration of the tool is the main factor to be considered. Under vibration conditions, the effect of the small displacements of the cutting tool and the cutting forces on the chip thickness must be minimized in order to avoid undesirable consequences, such as the fast flank wear, superficial defects and roughness increase. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to take into account the combined effect of the cutting tool and workpiece oscillation, as well as the axial errors of different milling tool tips. As a result, the model estimates the variation of the cutting forces and the ideal surface roughness.

  6. COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF COATED AND UNCOATED INSERTS DURING INTERMITTENT CUT MILLING OF AISI 4340 STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARAVANAN L.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Machining behaviour of TiN coated and uncoated cemented carbide tools were studied during intermittent milling operation of AISI 4340 steel. Series of orthogonal intermittent milling tests were performed subsequently to investigate the role of the selected tools and cutting parameters. Three cutting parameters namely cutting speed, feed and depth of cut with three different levels and two types of cutting tools (coated and uncoated were considered for conducting the experimental trials. Intermittent face milling was employed to study the wear behaviour of the tools and the resulting surface roughness. The cyclic load induced during the entry and exit of the tool, leads to unstable temperature at cutting zone. This unstable temperature affects the tool life badly during intermittent milling. Tool wear increases considerably with an increase in frequency of the interruption. The experimental results indicated that the coated tool out performed uncoated tool in terms of tool life and surface finish. The other interesting observation was the uncoated tool performed better than coated tool at moderate cutting parameters. Results also indicated that the fracture and chipping were the dominant tool failure modes in uncoated tool. The chipping of uncoated tool causes the surface quality to deteriorate. TiN coating ensures the toughness of the cutting tool, which leads to good surface quality during the machining process. A detailed analysis of tool wear and surface roughness was done and the results are employed to create a linear regression model. This model established the relation between the cutting parameters and the response variables. ANOVA was used to identify the influential parameters which affect the tool wear and surface roughness.

  7. Cutting force measurement of electrical jigsaw by strain gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazup, L; Varadine Szarka, A

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a measuring method based on strain gauges for accurate specification of electric jigsaw's cutting force. The goal of the measurement is to provide an overall perspective about generated forces in a jigsaw's gearbox during a cutting period. The lifetime of the tool is affected by these forces primarily. This analysis is part of the research and development project aiming to develop a special linear magnetic brake for realizing automatic lifetime tests of electric jigsaws or similar handheld tools. The accurate specification of cutting force facilitates to define realistic test cycles during the automatic lifetime test. The accuracy and precision resulted by the well described cutting force characteristic and the possibility of automation provide new dimension for lifetime testing of the handheld tools with alternating movement. (paper)

  8. Tool breakage detection from 2D workpiece profile using vision method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W K; Ratnam, M M; Ahmad, Z A

    2016-01-01

    In-process tool breakage monitoring can significantly save cost and prevent damages to machine tool. In this paper, a machine vision approach was employed to detect the tool fracture in commercial aluminium oxide ceramic cutting tool during turning of AISI 52100 hardened steel. The contour of the workpiece profile was captured with the aid of backlighting during turning using a high-resolution DSLR camera with a shutter speed of 1/4000 s. The surface profile of the workpiece was extracted to sub-pixel accuracy using the invariant moment method. The effect of fracture in ceramic cutting tools on the surface profile signature of the machined workpiece using autocorrelation was studied. Fracture in the aluminum oxide ceramic tool was found to cause the peaks of autocorrelation function of the workpiece profile to decrease rapidly as the lag distance increased. The envelope of the peaks of the autocorrelation function was observed to deviate significantly from one another at different workpiece angles when the tool has fractured due to the continuous fracture of ceramic cutting insert during machining. (paper)

  9. Riemannian and Lorentzian flow-cut theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headrick, Matthew; Hubeny, Veronika E.

    2018-05-01

    We prove several geometric theorems using tools from the theory of convex optimization. In the Riemannian setting, we prove the max flow-min cut (MFMC) theorem for boundary regions, applied recently to develop a ‘bit-thread’ interpretation of holographic entanglement entropies. We also prove various properties of the max flow and min cut, including respective nesting properties. In the Lorentzian setting, we prove the analogous MFMC theorem, which states that the volume of a maximal slice equals the flux of a minimal flow, where a flow is defined as a divergenceless timelike vector field with norm at least 1. This theorem includes as a special case a continuum version of Dilworth’s theorem from the theory of partially ordered sets. We include a brief review of the necessary tools from the theory of convex optimization, in particular Lagrangian duality and convex relaxation.

  10. Angles in hyperbolic lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Morten S.; Södergren, Carl Anders

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior of the den......It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior...... of the density function in both the small and large variable limits. This extends earlier results by Boca, Pasol, Popa and Zaharescu and Kelmer and Kontorovich in dimension 2 to general dimension n . Our proofs use the decay of matrix coefficients together with a number of careful estimates, and lead...

  11. CALCULATION OF LASER CUTTING COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Nedic; Milan Eric; Marijana Aleksijevic

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents description methods of metal cutting and calculation of treatment costs based on model that is developed on Faculty of mechanical engineering in Kragujevac. Based on systematization and analysis of large number of calculation models of cutting with unconventional methods, mathematical model is derived, which is used for creating a software for calculation costs of metal cutting. Software solution enables resolving the problem of calculating the cost of laser cutting, compar...

  12. Knee joint kinematics and kinetics during the hop and cut after soft tissue artifact suppression: Time to reconsider ACL injury mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, Kenneth B; Potvin, Brigitte M; Shourijeh, Mohammad S; Benoit, Daniel L

    2017-09-06

    The recent development of a soft tissue artifact (STA) suppression method allows us to re-evaluate the tibiofemoral kinematics currently linked to non-contact knee injuries. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate knee joint kinematics and kinetics in six degrees of freedom (DoF) during the loading phases of a jump lunge and side cut using this in silico method. Thirty-five healthy adults completed these movements and their surface marker trajectories were then scaled and processed with OpenSim's inverse kinematics (IK) and inverse dynamics tools. Knee flexion angle-dependent kinematic constraints defined based on previous bone pin (BP) marker trajectories were then applied to the OpenSim model during IK and these constrained results were then processed with the standard inverse dynamics tool. Significant differences for all hip, knee, and ankle DoF were observed after STA suppression for both the jump lunge and side cut. Using clinically relevant effect size estimates, we conclude that STA contamination had led to misclassifications in hip transverse plane angles, knee frontal and transverse plane angles, medial/lateral and distractive/compressive knee translations, and knee frontal plane moments between the NoBP and the BP IK solutions. Our results have substantial clinical implications since past research has used joint kinematics and kinetics contaminated by STA to identify risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Metal Cutting for Large Component Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulick, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    been employed for cutting the reactor nozzles at San Onofre Unit 1 and at Connecticut Yankee. These carbon steel nozzles ranged up to 54 inch diameter with a 15 inch thick wall and an interior stainless cladding. Diamond wire sawing using traditional water cooling has been used to segment the reactor head at Rancho Seco and for cutting reactor nozzles and control rod drive tubes at Dairyland Power's Lacrosse BWR project. Advantages: - ALARA: All cutting is preformed remotely significantly reducing dose. Stringing of wires is accomplished using long handle tools. - Secondary waste is reduced to just the volume of material cut with the diamond wire. - The potential for airborne contamination is eliminated. Due to the flexibility of the wire, any access restrictions and interferences can be accommodated using pulleys and long handle tools. - The operation is quiet. Disadvantages: - With Liquid Carbon Dioxide cooling and cleaning, delivery of the material must be carefully planned. The longer the distance from the source to the cut area, the greater the chance for pressure drop and subsequent problems with line freezing. - Proper shrouding and ventilation are required for environmental reasons. In each case, the metal structures were cut at a precise location. Radiation dose was reduced significantly by operating the equipment from a remote location. The cuts were very smooth and completed on schedule. Each project must be analyzed individually and take into account many factors including access, radiological conditions, environmental conditions, schedule requirements, packaging requirements and size of cuts

  14. Automated measurement of diagnostic angles for hip dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Raedt, Sepp; Mechlenburg, I.; Stilling, M.

    2013-01-01

    automatically calculated. Previous work in automating the measuring of angles required the manual segmentation or delineation of the articular joint surface. In the current work automatic segmentation is established using graph-cuts with a cost function based on a sheetness score to detect the sheet...

  15. A Surgery Issue: Cutting through the Architectural Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina Angelopoulou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the material ontologies of surgical trans-modifications. Focusing on incisions and subsequent scars, the essay argues for the queering of architecture and design as an act of cutting through structures and processes. I start by rereading a topological body plan, used by surgeons as a guide for performing incisions. I suggest that this plan constitutes a variation within topological representations. It is thus reconceptualised as an internally contradictory representation, calling for dis/continuous cutting acts upon the represented body; that is an amphi-topological representation. The notion of the cut is further approached from the point of view of queer theory and ‘agential realism’. This perspective offers affirmative ways of discussing about acts of cutting. When performed into self-organizing fabrics, cuts appear to act as ‘agents of dis/continuity’. Then, the discussion passes through the genealogy of the architectural section and the building cuts of Gordon Matta Clark, so as to show that the production of buildings by ‘cutting through them to come to matter’ is deep-rooted in the architectural discipline. Next, the philosophical origins of the idea of cutting through the material fabric of the world are sought. It is argued that the latter, beginning as a gnosiological tool, was transformed into a fabricating tool and then into a tool of smoothing the striated. The essay concludes with the presentation of SCARchiCAD; a computational design tool which takes the skin’s wound healing process as a model, offering an interpretation of what the ‘cutting through a virtual form’ could suggest for the design of architectural bodies and the queering of architecture.

  16. Can You Cut It?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Tina; Lillelund, Christoffer Bredo; Moth-Poulsen, Mie

    2017-01-01

    The advent of affordable virtual reality (VR) displays and 360◦ video cameras has sparked an interest in bringing cinematic experiences from the screen and into VR. However, it remains uncertain whether traditional approaches to filmmaking can be directly applied to cinematic VR. Historically......’ sense of disorientation and their ability to follow the story, during exposure to fictional 360◦ films experienced using a head-mounted display. The results revealed no effects of increased cut frequency which leads us to conclude that editing need not pose a problem in relation to cinematic VR, as long...

  17. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-07-31

    We have tested the loop elevation system. We raised the mast to approximately 25 to 30 degrees from horizontal. All went well. However, while lowering the mast, it moved laterally a couple of degrees. Upon visual inspection, severe spalling of the concrete on the face of the support pillar, and deformation of the steel support structure was observed. At this time, the facility is ready for testing in the horizontal position. A new air compressor has been received and set in place for the ACTS test loop. A new laboratory has been built near the ACTS test loop Roughened cups and rotors for the viscometer (RS300) were obtained. Rheologies of aqueous foams were measured using three different cup-rotor assemblies that have different surface roughness. The relationship between surface roughness and foam rheology was investigated. Re-calibration of nuclear densitometers has been finished. The re-calibration was also performed with 1% surfactant foam. A new cuttings injection system was installed at the bottom of the injection tower. It replaced the previous injection auger. A mechanistic model for cuttings transport with aerated mud has been developed. Cuttings transport mechanisms with aerated water at various conditions were experimentally investigated. A total of 39 tests were performed. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental measurements show a satisfactory agreement. Results from the ultrasonic monitoring system indicated that we could distinguish between different sand levels. We also have devised ways to achieve consistency of performance by securing the sensors in the caps in exactly the same manner as long as the sensors are not removed from the caps. A preliminary test was conducted on the main flow loop at 100 gpm flow rate and 20 lb/min cuttings injection rate. The measured bed thickness using the ultrasonic method showed a satisfactory agreement with nuclear densitometer readings. Thirty different data points were collected after the test

  18. Cutting the Cord-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the rear hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting from the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn took place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  19. Cutting the Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the front hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting off the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn could take place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  20. Surface roughness and cutting force estimation in the CNC turning using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ramezani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness and cutting forces are considered as important factors to determine machinability rate and the quality of product. A number of factors like cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cutting and tool noise radius influence the surface roughness and cutting forces in turning process. In this paper, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN model was used to forecast surface roughness and cutting forces with related inputs, including cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool noise radius. The machined surface roughness and cutting force parameters related to input parameters are the outputs of the ANN model. In this work, 24 samples of experimental data were used to train the network. Moreover, eight other experimental tests were implemented to test the network. The study concludes that ANN was a reliable and accurate method for predicting machining parameters in CNC turning operation.

  1. ITER lip seal welding and cutting developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesy, B.; Cordier, J.J.; Jokinen, T.; Kujanpää, V.; Karhu, M.; Le Barbier, R.; Määttä, T.; Martins, J.P.; Utin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Different TIG and Laser welding techniques are tested. • Twin spot laser welding techniques is the best. • Limited heat input gives a stable weld pool in all positions. • Penetrations is achieved. • Lip seal welding and cutting with a robotic arm is successfully performed on a representative mock-up. - Abstract: The welded lip seals form part of the torus primary vacuum boundary in between the port plugs and the vacuum vessel, and are classified as Protection Important Component. In order to refurbish the port plugs or the in-vessel components, port plugs have to be removed from the machine. The lip seal design must enable up to ten opening of the vacuum vessel during the life time operation of the ITER machine. Therefore proven, remote reliable cutting and re-welding are essential, as these operations need to be performed in the port cells in a nuclear environment, where human presence will be restricted. Moreover, the combination of size of the components to be welded (∼10 m long vacuum compatible thin welds) and the congested environment close to the core of the machine constraint the type and size of tools to be used. This paper describes the lip seal cutting and welding development programme performed at the VTT Technical Research Centre, Finland. Potential cutting and welding techniques are analyzed and compared. The development of the cutting, TIG and laser welding techniques on samples are presented. Effects of lip seal misalignments and optimization of the 2 welding processes are discussed. Finally, the manufacturing and test of the two 1.2 m × 1 m representative mock-ups are presented. The set-up and use of a robotic arm for the mock-up cutting and welding operations are also described.

  2. ITER lip seal welding and cutting developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesy, B.; Cordier, J.J.; Jokinen, T. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Kujanpää, V.; Karhu, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Le Barbier, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Määttä, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Martins, J.P.; Utin, Y. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Different TIG and Laser welding techniques are tested. • Twin spot laser welding techniques is the best. • Limited heat input gives a stable weld pool in all positions. • Penetrations is achieved. • Lip seal welding and cutting with a robotic arm is successfully performed on a representative mock-up. - Abstract: The welded lip seals form part of the torus primary vacuum boundary in between the port plugs and the vacuum vessel, and are classified as Protection Important Component. In order to refurbish the port plugs or the in-vessel components, port plugs have to be removed from the machine. The lip seal design must enable up to ten opening of the vacuum vessel during the life time operation of the ITER machine. Therefore proven, remote reliable cutting and re-welding are essential, as these operations need to be performed in the port cells in a nuclear environment, where human presence will be restricted. Moreover, the combination of size of the components to be welded (∼10 m long vacuum compatible thin welds) and the congested environment close to the core of the machine constraint the type and size of tools to be used. This paper describes the lip seal cutting and welding development programme performed at the VTT Technical Research Centre, Finland. Potential cutting and welding techniques are analyzed and compared. The development of the cutting, TIG and laser welding techniques on samples are presented. Effects of lip seal misalignments and optimization of the 2 welding processes are discussed. Finally, the manufacturing and test of the two 1.2 m × 1 m representative mock-ups are presented. The set-up and use of a robotic arm for the mock-up cutting and welding operations are also described.

  3. Prediction of Cutting Force in Turning Process-an Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangarasu, S. K.; Shankar, S.; Thomas, A. Tony; Sridhar, G.

    2018-02-01

    This Paper deals with a prediction of Cutting forces in a turning process. The turning process with advanced cutting tool has a several advantages over grinding such as short cycle time, process flexibility, compatible surface roughness, high material removal rate and less environment problems without the use of cutting fluid. In this a full bridge dynamometer has been used to measure the cutting forces over mild steel work piece and cemented carbide insert tool for different combination of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The experiments are planned based on taguchi design and measured cutting forces were compared with the predicted forces in order to validate the feasibility of the proposed design. The percentage contribution of each process parameter had been analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Both the experimental results taken from the lathe tool dynamometer and the designed full bridge dynamometer were analyzed using Taguchi design of experiment and Analysis of Variance.

  4. Fourier phase analysis on equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography: range of phase spread and cut-off limits in normal individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaiah, Vijayaraghavan L.; Harish, B.; Sunil, H.V.; Selvakumar, Job; Ravi Kishore, A.G.; Nair, Gopinathan

    2011-01-01

    To define the range of phase spread on equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography (ERNV) in normal individuals and derive the cut-off limit for the parameters to detect cardiac dyssynchrony. ERNV was carried out in 30 individuals (age 53±23 years, 25 males and 5 females) who had no history of cardiovascular disease. They all had normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF 55-70%) as determined by echocardiography, were in sinus rhythm, with normal QRS duration (≤120 msec) and normal coronary angiography. First harmonic phase analysis was performed on scintigraphic data acquired in best septal view. Left and right ventricular standard deviation (LVSD and RVSD, respectively) and interventricular mechanical delay (IVMD), the absolute difference of mean phase angles of right and left ventricle, were computed and expressed in milliseconds. Mean + 3 standard deviation (SD) was used to derive the cut-off limits. Average LVEF and duration of cardiac cycle in the study group were 62.5%±5.44% and 868.9±114.5 msec, respectively. The observations of LVSD, RVSD and right and left ventricular mean phase angles were shown to be normally distributed by Shapiro-Wilk test. Cut-off limits for LVSD, RVSD and IVMD were calculated to be 80 msec, 85 msec and 75 msec, respectively. Fourier phase analysis on ERNV is an effective tool for the evaluation of synchronicity of cardiac contraction. The cut-off limits of parameters of dyssynchrony can be used to separate heart failure patients with cardiac dyssynchrony from those without. ERNV can be used to select patients for cardiac resynchronization therapy. (author)

  5. The relationship between bioelectrical impedance phase angle and subjective global assessment in advanced colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grutsch James F

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioelectrical Impedance (BIA derived phase angle is increasingly being used as an objective indicator of nutritional status in advanced cancer. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA is a subjective method of nutritional status. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between BIA derived phase angle and SGA in advanced colorectal cancer. Methods We evaluated a case series of 73 stages III and IV colorectal cancer patients. Patients were classified as either well-nourished or malnourished using the SGA. BIA was conducted on all patients and phase angle was calculated. The correlation between phase angle and SGA was studied using Spearman correlation coefficient. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were estimated using the non-parametric method to determine the optimal cut-off levels of phase angle. Results Well-nourished patients had a statistically significantly higher (p = 0.005 median phase angle score (6.12 as compared to those who were malnourished (5.18. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient between phase angle and SGA was found to be 0.33 (p = 0.004, suggesting better nutritional status with higher phase angle scores. A phase angle cut-off of 5.2 was 51.7% sensitive and 79.5% specific whereas a cut-off of 6.0 was 82.8% sensitive and 54.5% specific in detecting malnutrition. Interestingly, a phase angle cut-off of 5.9 demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy in males who had failed primary treatment for advanced colorectal cancer. Conclusion Our study suggests that bioimpedance phase angle is a potential nutritional indicator in advanced colorectal cancer. Further research is needed to elucidate the optimal cut-off levels of phase angle that can be incorporated into the oncology clinic for better nutritional evaluation and management.

  6. Leptogenesis: The other cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbrecht, Bjoern

    2011-01-01

    For standard leptogenesis from the decay of singlet right-handed neutrinos, we derive source terms for the lepton asymmetry that are present in a finite density background but absent in the vacuum. These arise from cuts through the vertex correction to the decay asymmetry, where in the loop either the Higgs boson and the right-handed neutrino or the left-handed lepton and the right-handed neutrino are simultaneously on-shell. We evaluate the source terms numerically and use them to calculate the lepton asymmetry for illustrative points in parameter space, where we consider only two right-handed neutrinos for simplicity. Compared to calculations where only the standard cut through the propagators of left-handed lepton and Higgs boson is included, sizable corrections arise when the masses of the right-handed neutrinos are of the same order, but the new sources are found to be most relevant when the decaying right-handed neutrino is heavier than the one in the loop. In that situation, they can yield the dominant contribution to the lepton asymmetry.

  7. Investigation of Physical Phenomena and Cutting Efficiency for Laser Cutting on Anode for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkyoung Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries have a higher energy density than other secondary batteries. Among the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process, electrode cutting is one of the most important processes since poor cut quality leads to performance degradation, separator protrusion, and local electric stress concentration. This may, eventually, lead to malfunction of lithium-ion batteries or explosion. The current mechanical cutting technology uses a contact process and this may lead to process instability. Furthermore, there are additional costs if the tools and cell design are changed. To solve these issues, laser cutting has been used. Conventional dependent parameters have limitations in investigating and explaining many physical phenomena during the laser cutting of electrodes. Therefore, this study proposes specific widths such as melting, top, and kerf width. Moreover, the relationship between laser parameters and multiphysical phenomena with the proposed widths are investigated. Five types of classification with regard to physical phenomena are presented and explained with SEM images. Cutting efficiency is estimated with the proposed widths. The proposed specific cutting widths, five types of geometrical classification, and cutting efficiency can be used as standardized parameters to evaluate the cutting quality.

  8. Influence of Fiber Orientation on Single-Point Cutting Fracture Behavior of Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy Prepreg Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Yingying; An, Qinglong; Cai, Xiaojiang; Chen, Ming; Ming, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the influences of carbon fibers on the fracture mechanism of carbon fibers both in macroscopic view and microscopic view by using single-point flying cutting method. Cutting tools with three different materials were used in this research, namely, PCD (polycrystalline diamond) tool, CVD (chemical vapor deposition) diamond thin film coated carbide tool and uncoated carbide tool. The influence of fiber orientation on the cutting force and fracture to...

  9. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  10. Prediction of melt geometry in laser cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tani, Giovanni; Tomesani, Luca; Campana, Giampaolo

    2003-03-15

    In this paper, an analytical model for the evaluation of the melt film geometry in laser cutting of steels is developed. Using as basis, a previous model for kerf geometry estimation developed by the authors, with both reactive and non-reactive process gases, the film thickness and velocity were determined as a function of the kerf depth in the cutting plate. Two criteria were then adopted to predict the quality of the laser cutting operation: the first is based on a minimum acceptable value of the ejection speed of the melt from the bottom of the kerf, the second on the occlusion of the kerf itself due to an excess of molten material in the boundary layer at the kerf width. These criteria determined a feasibility region in the domain of the process and material variables, such as cutting speed, assistant gas pressure, laser beam power and material characteristics. These factors may be successfully used to build a process-planning tool for parameters optimisation and setting, in order to achieve a satisfactory process quality. The model response is in excellent agreement with the feasibility regions reported from experimental data by various authors and demonstrates a relationship between the occurrence of dross adhesion and the two different mechanisms predicted for such a phenomenon were: unsatisfactory ejection speed of the melt film from the bottom of the kerf and occlusion of the kerf.

  11. Automatic Generation of Minimal Cut Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sentot Kromodimoeljo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A cut set is a collection of component failure modes that could lead to a system failure. Cut Set Analysis (CSA is applied to critical systems to identify and rank system vulnerabilities at design time. Model checking tools have been used to automate the generation of minimal cut sets but are generally based on checking reachability of system failure states. This paper describes a new approach to CSA using a Linear Temporal Logic (LTL model checker called BT Analyser that supports the generation of multiple counterexamples. The approach enables a broader class of system failures to be analysed, by generalising from failure state formulae to failure behaviours expressed in LTL. The traditional approach to CSA using model checking requires the model or system failure to be modified, usually by hand, to eliminate already-discovered cut sets, and the model checker to be rerun, at each step. By contrast, the new approach works incrementally and fully automatically, thereby removing the tedious and error-prone manual process and resulting in significantly reduced computation time. This in turn enables larger models to be checked. Two different strategies for using BT Analyser for CSA are presented. There is generally no single best strategy for model checking: their relative efficiency depends on the model and property being analysed. Comparative results are given for the A320 hydraulics case study in the Behavior Tree modelling language.

  12. Investigations of Cutting Fluid Performance Using Different Machining Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of cutting fluid performance in dif-ferent metal cutting operations is presented based on performance criteria, work material and fluid type. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping operations, with respect to tool life, cutting forces and prod...... will get the same performance ranking for different metalworking fluids no matter what machining test is used, when the fluids are of the same type. Results show that this is mostly true for the water-based fluids on austenitic stainless steel while ranking did change depending on the test with straight......-gated. In the case of austenitic stainless steel as the workpiece material, results using the different operations under different cutting conditions show that the performance of vegetable oil based prod-ucts is superior or equal to that of mineral oil based products. The hypothesis was investigated that one...

  13. Methods and Research for Multi-Component Cutting Force Sensing Devices and Approaches in Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaokang Liang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-component cutting force sensing systems in manufacturing processes applied to cutting tools are gradually becoming the most significant monitoring indicator. Their signals have been extensively applied to evaluate the machinability of workpiece materials, predict cutter breakage, estimate cutting tool wear, control machine tool chatter, determine stable machining parameters, and improve surface finish. Robust and effective sensing systems with capability of monitoring the cutting force in machine operations in real time are crucial for realizing the full potential of cutting capabilities of computer numerically controlled (CNC tools. The main objective of this paper is to present a brief review of the existing achievements in the field of multi-component cutting force sensing systems in modern manufacturing.

  14. Methods and Research for Multi-Component Cutting Force Sensing Devices and Approaches in Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiaokang; Zhang, Dan; Wu, Wanneng; Zou, Kunlin

    2016-11-16

    Multi-component cutting force sensing systems in manufacturing processes applied to cutting tools are gradually becoming the most significant monitoring indicator. Their signals have been extensively applied to evaluate the machinability of workpiece materials, predict cutter breakage, estimate cutting tool wear, control machine tool chatter, determine stable machining parameters, and improve surface finish. Robust and effective sensing systems with capability of monitoring the cutting force in machine operations in real time are crucial for realizing the full potential of cutting capabilities of computer numerically controlled (CNC) tools. The main objective of this paper is to present a brief review of the existing achievements in the field of multi-component cutting force sensing systems in modern manufacturing.

  15. A study on the mechanical behavior of soils during flat edge cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiba, Satoru; Hyodo, Kazuya; Ooishi, Yoshihiro

    1986-01-01

    For the development of efficient earthmoving machinery, it is necessary to clarify the soil cutting mechanism, but there is no usual analytical or experimental technique for large deformation problems like soil cutting. Therefore, we have tried to apply the X-ray radiography method, which is a soil experiment method for the visualization and the quantative analysis of soil deformation, to the flat edge cutting problem. Firstly we have confirmed that the X-ray radiography method is applicable to large deformations, and have examined by this method the cutting mechanism of soils under various cutting conditions. As a result, the behavior of shear failure lines, which have not been studied in detail before, are clarified, and the differences in the cutting mechanism with the cutting angle and the nature of soils are discussed through the quantative estimation of the strain distribution. (author)

  16. A study on the mechanical behavior of soil during frat edge cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiba, Satoru; Hyodo, Kazuya; Ooishi, Yoshihiro.

    1987-02-01

    For the development of efficient earthmoving machinery, it is necessary to clarify the soil cutting mechanism, but there is no usual analytical or experimental technique for large deformation problems like soil cutting. Therefore, we have tried to apply the X-ray radiography method, which is a soil experiment method for the visualization and the quantitative analysis of soil deformation, to the flat edge cutting problem. Firstly we have confirmed that the X-ray radiography method is applicable to large deformations, and have examined by this method the cutting mechanism of soils under various cutting conditions. As a result, the behavior of shear failure lines, which have not been studied in detail before, are clarified, and the differences in the cutting mechanism with the cutting angle and the nature of soils are discussed through the quantitative estimation of the strain distribution. (author)

  17. Aerodynamic Interactions During Laser Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieret, J.; Terry, M. J.; Ward, B. A.

    1986-11-01

    Most laser cutting systems utilise a gas jet to remove molten or vaporised material from the kerf. The speed, economy and quality of the cut can be strongly dependent on the aerodynamic conditions created by the nozzle, workpiece proximity and kerf shape. Adverse conditions can be established that may lead to an unwelcome lack of reproducibility of cut quality. Relatively low gas nozzle pressures can result in supersonic flow in the jet with its associated shock fronts. When the nozzle is placed at conventional distances (1-2mm) above the workpiece, the force exerted by the gas on the workpiece and the cut products (the cutting pressure) can be significantly less than the nozzle pressure. Higher cutting pressures can be achieved by increasing the height of the nozzle above the workpiece, to a more damage resistant zone, provided that the shock structure of the jet is taken into account. Conventional conical nozzles with circular exits can be operated with conditions that will result in cutting pressures up to 3 Bar (g) in the more distant zone. At higher pressures in circular tipped nozzles the cutting pressure in this zone decays to inadequate levels. Investigations of a large number of non-circular nozzle tip shapes have resulted in the selection of a few specific shapes that can provide cutting pressures in excess of 6 Bar(g) at distances of 4 to 7mm from the nozzle tip. Since there is a strong correlation between cutting pressure and the speed and quality of laser cutting, the paper describes the aerodynamic requirements for achieving the above effects and reports the cutting results arising from the different nozzle designs and conditions. The results of the work of other investigators, who report anomalous laser cutting results, will be examined and reviewed in the light of the above work.

  18. Characterization of vibratory turning in cutting zone using a pneumatic quick-stop device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Amini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Shear angle and sticking length are two crucial parameters in mechanics of metal cutting. These two parameters directly influence machinability factors such as cutting forces. Thus, shear angle and sticking length were investigated in vibratory turning process by using a pneumatic quick-stop device which was designed and fabricated, in this study. After preparation of ultrasonic assisted turning set-up, experimental tests have been carried out on two types of steel: AISI-1060 and AISI 304. Accordingly, the process of chip formation in each particular cutting test was quickly stopped when deformed chip was still in contact with workpiece. As a result, it was revealed that added linear vibration leads the turning operation to be improved by increase of shear angle and decrease of sticking length. Moreover, the effect of ultrasonic vibration on cutting force and chip micro-hardness is evaluated.

  19. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-01-31

    Final design of the mast was completed (Task 5). The mast is consisting of two welded plate girders, set next to each other, and spaced 14-inches apart. Fabrication of the boom will be completed in two parts solely for ease of transportation. The end pivot connection will be made through a single 2-inch diameter x 4 feet-8 inch long 316 SS bar. During installation, hard piping make-ups using Chiksan joints will connect the annular section and 4-inch return line to allow full movement of the mast from horizontal to vertical. Additionally, flexible hoses and piping will be installed to isolate both towers from piping loads and allow recycling operations respectively. Calibration of the prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed and experiments are now being conducted. We were able to generate up to 95% quality foam. Work is currently underway to attach the Thermo-Haake RS300 viscometer and install a view port with a microscope to measure foam bubble size and bubble size distribution. Foam rheology tests (Task 13) were carried out to evaluate the rheological properties of the proposed foam formulation. After successful completion of the first foam test, two sets of rheological tests were conducted at different foam flow rates while keeping other parameters constant (100 psig, 70F, 80% quality). The results from these tests are generally in agreement with the previous foam tests done previously during Task 9. However, an unanticipated observation during these tests was that in both cases, the frictional pressure drop in 2 inch pipe was lower than that in the 3 inch and 4 inch pipes. We also conducted the first foam cuttings transport test during this quarter. Experiments on aerated fluids without cuttings have been completed in ACTF (Task 10). Gas and liquid were injected at different flow rates. Two different sets of experiments were carried out, where the only difference was the temperature. Another set of tests was performed, which covered a wide range of

  20. The quadriceps angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Frederiksen, Jane V.; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2012-01-01

    : Pelvic limbs from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). METHODS: Q angles were measured on hip dysplasia (HD) and whole limb (WL) view radiographs of each limb between the acetabular rim, mid-point (Q1: patellar center, Q2: femoral trochlea), and tibial tuberosity. Errors of 0.5-2.0 mm at measurement landmarks...

  1. open angle glaucoma (poag)?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    there is a build up of pressure due to poor outflow of aqueous humor. The outflow obstruction could occur at the trabecular meshwork of the anterior chamber angle or subsequently in the episcleral vein due to raised venous pressure. Such build up of pressure results in glaucoma . Elevated intraocular pressure remains the ...

  2. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology....

  3. At Right Angles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 9. At Right Angles. Shailesh A Shirali. Information and Announcements Volume 17 Issue 9 September 2012 pp 920-920. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/09/0920-0920 ...

  4. Wide angle isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for particle separation. The method uses a wide angle radially expanding vapor of a particle mixture. In particular, selective ionization of one isotope type in the particle mixture is produced in a multichamber separator and the ionized isotope type is accelerated out of the path of the vapor expansion for separate collection

  5. Modeling of Wear of Knives of Paper-Cutting Machines in Use

    OpenAIRE

    Кулак, Михаил Иосифович; Медяк, Диана Михайловна

    2016-01-01

    Development of the theory of cutting of paper and methods of measurement of width of the cutting edge in the course of wear of a knife is analyzed. Device to a micrometer for measurement of the tool edge width and a way of determination of radius of a curve of the cutting edge of such tool is presented. The card of wear of a knife is constructed and process of wear of the self-sharpened knife is investigated.

  6. Semantic Versus Syntactic Cutting Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Filmus, Yuval; Hrubeš, Pavel; Lauria, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the strength of the semantic and syntactic version of the cutting planes proof system. First, we show that the lower bound technique of Pudlák applies also to semantic cutting planes: the proof system has feasible interpolation via monotone real circuits, which gives an exponential lower bound on lengths of semantic cutting planes refutations. Second, we show that semantic refutations are stronger than syntactic ones. In particular, we give a formula for whic...

  7. Laser Cutting of Different Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir ÇAVDAR

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; in general potential developments and trends of a particular machining field by extensively evaluating present studies of laser beam machining have been discussed. As it is indicated below, technical literatures have been subsumed under five major headlines: Experimental studies, reviews, optimization researches of the cutting parameters, theoretical modelling studies of laser beam cutting and academic studies relating to laser cutting

  8. Shaping of Rack Cutter Original Profile for Fine-module Ratchet Teeth Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkov, O. V.; Koryagin, S. I.; Velikanov, N. L.

    2018-05-01

    The design models and the process of shaping the cutting edges of the rack cutter for cutting fine-module ratchet teeth are considered in the article. The use of fine-module ratchet teeth can reduce the noise and impact loads during operation of the freewheel mechanisms. Mathematical dependencies for calculating the coordinates determining the geometric position of the points of the front and back edges of the cutting profile of the rack cutter, the workpiece angle of rotation during cutting the ratchet teeth were obtained. When applying the developed method, the initial data are: the radii of the workpiece circumferences passing through the dedendum of the external and internal cut teeth; gradient angles of the front and back edges of the rail.

  9. Registration strategy using occlusal splint based on augmented reality for mandibular angle oblique split osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Chai, Gang; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Xiaofei; Gan, Jiliang

    2011-09-01

    An augmented reality tool allows for visual tracking of real anatomic structures in superposition with volume-rendered computed tomographic or magnetic resonance imaging scans and thus can be used for navigated translocation of important structures during operation. In this feasibility study, ARToolKit was used in mandibular angle oblique split osteotomy to define the cutting planes according to an operative plan. We overlay the operative plan on the model of a mandible made by rapid prototyping technology, and the technology was successfully used in 15 patients. Before the operation, all patients underwent computed tomographic scan, and dental casts were prepared by surgeons. Then, surgeons make the occlusal splint according to a dental cast to fix the marker, which can be recognized by the ARToolKit. The occlusal splint and marker were transformed to three-dimensional data using a laser scanner, and a programmer that runs on a personal computer named Rapidform matches the marker and the mandible image to generate the virtual image. By this step, the virtual image describing the marker, occlusal splint, and the mandible image of the patient are integrated. During the operation, the operative plan was overlaid on the rapid prototyping model of the mandible as soon as the ARToolKit recognized the marker. The technology was successfully used in 15 patients; the virtual image of the mandible and the cutting-plane both overlaid the real model of the mandible. This study has reported a new and effective way for mandibular angle oblique split osteotomy, and using occlusal splint might be a powerful option for the registration of augmented reality. Augmented reality tools like ARToolKit may be helpful for control of maxillary translocation in orthognathic surgery.

  10. Latest development of laser cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Wetzig, Andreas; Herwig, Patrick; Hauptmann, Jan; Goppold, Cindy; Baumann, Robert; Fürst, Andreas; Rose, Michael; Pinder, Thomas; Mahrle, Achim; Beyer, Eckhard

    2016-01-01

    Laser cutting was one of the first applications of laser material processing. Today, laser cutting is the most widespread application among laser material processing besides laser marking. Meanwhile, nearly each material can be cut by means of a laser, in particular since ultra short pulse lasers are available in the power range of up to 100 W. The to be cut material can come with thicknesses from a few microns till tens of millimeters as flat stock or as free form shapes. The paper will conc...

  11. CALCULATION OF LASER CUTTING COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nedic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents description methods of metal cutting and calculation of treatment costs based on model that is developed on Faculty of mechanical engineering in Kragujevac. Based on systematization and analysis of large number of calculation models of cutting with unconventional methods, mathematical model is derived, which is used for creating a software for calculation costs of metal cutting. Software solution enables resolving the problem of calculating the cost of laser cutting, comparison' of costs made by other unconventional methods and provides documentation that consists of reports on estimated costs.

  12. Prototype arc saw design and cutting trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, G.S.

    1980-09-01

    A program was initiated to develop the arc saw as a tool capable of removing the end fittings from spent nuclear fuel bundles. A special arc saw for this purpose was designed, installed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and satisfactorily operated to remove end fittings from simulated, nonradioactive fuel bundles. The design of the arc saw included consideration of the cutting environment, power supply size, control equipment, and work piece size. Several simulated fuel bundles were cut to demonstrate that the arc saw met design specifications. Although the arc saw development program was curtailed before significant performance data could be collected, tests indicate that the arc saw is a good means of cropping spent fuel bundles and is well suited to remote operation and maintenance

  13. Design of an Optical System for High Power CO2 Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lange, D.F.; Meijer, J.; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2003-01-01

    The results of a design study for the optical system for cutting with high power CO2 lasers (6 kW and up) will be presented. As transparent materials cannot be used for these power levels, mirrors have been applied. A coaxial cutting gas supply has been designed with a laser beam entrance into th...... independent of the entering beam angle or position. manufacturing tolerances have been compensated in a one time adjustment during the assembly of the optical system. Preliminary cutting results in 13 mm thick steel in a shipyard application show a signinficant improvement in the cutting performance....

  14. A study on the formation of the sharp corner on the cutting of Inconel 718 sheet using CW Nd:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Dong Gyu; Byun, Kyung Won; Yoo, Young Tae [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate into the formation of the sharp corner according to process parameters and corner angles in the cutting of Inconel 718 sheet using CW Nd:YAG laser. In order to examine the effects of corner angles and the size of loop on the melted area in the sharp corner, several angular and loop cutting experiments were performed using a six-axis controlled automatic robot cutting system. The results of angular cutting experiments showed that the melted area is minimized at 90 .deg. of the corner angle. In addition, the results of the loop cutting experiments showed that the melted area rapidly decreases to nearly zero when the corner angle is greater than 3 mm and the corner angle is 90 .deg.

  15. A new concept for the targeted cutting of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, Steffen; Gentes, Sascha; Weidemann, Roman; Geimer, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    The decontamination and crushing of reinforced concrete is a main part during deconstruction of nuclear facilities. The selective treatment of contaminated or activated material is of special interest, since the non-contaminated material can be transferred into the normal reprocessing cycle. In the frame of a project concerning the innovative cutting of massive reinforced concrete structures an all-purpose system for spatially restricted and defined cutting of strongly reinforced concrete including packaging suitable for final disposal was developed. Due to the remote handling of the machine the dose rate for personnel can be reduced significantly. Main part of the system is the tool that can cut highly reinforced concrete without system or component replacement. The authors describe preliminary tests of these tools, further experiments and process optimization are necessary before the tools can be integrated into the new system.

  16. Influence of non-edible vegetable based oil as cutting fluid on chip, surface roughness and cutting force during drilling operation of Mild Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmitha, M.; Sharan, P.; Jyothi, P. N.

    2016-09-01

    Friction between work piece-cutting tool-chip generates heat in the machining zone. The heat generated reduces the tool life, increases surface roughness and decreases the dimensional sensitiveness of work material. This can be overcome by using cutting fluids during machining. They are used to provide lubrication and cooling effects between cutting tool and work piece and cutting tool and chip during machining operation. As a result, important benefits would be achieved such longer tool life, easy chip flow and higher machining quality in the machining processes. Non-edible vegetable oils have received considerable research attention in the last decades owing to their remarkable improved tribological characteristics and due to increasing attention to environmental issues, have driven the lubricant industry toward eco friendly products from renewable sources. In the present work, different non-edible vegetable oils are used as cutting fluid during drilling of Mild steel work piece. Non-edible vegetable oils, used are Karanja oil (Honge), Neem oil and blend of these two oils. The effect of these cutting fluids on chip formation, surface roughness and cutting force are investigated and the results obtained are compared with results obtained with petroleum based cutting fluids and dry conditions.

  17. Small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, G.; Cherubini, G.; Fioravanti, A.; Olivi, A.

    1976-09-01

    A method for the analysis of the data derived from neutron small angle scattering measurements has been accomplished in the case of homogeneous particles, starting from the basic theory without making any assumption on the form of particle size distribution function. The experimental scattering curves are interpreted with the aid the computer by means of a proper routine. The parameters obtained are compared with the corresponding ones derived from observations at the transmission electron microscope

  18. Determination of solid angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, S.; Amano, H.; Kasai, A.

    1988-01-01

    The solid angle in extended alpha source measurement for a series of counting geometries has been obtained by two methods: (1) calculated by means of the Nelson Blachmen series; (2) interpolated from the data table given by Gardner. A particular consequence of the application of the Nelson Blachmen series was deduced which was different from that given by the original author. The applicability of these two methods, as well as an experimentally measured method, is also evaluated. (author)

  19. A cutting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajdas, C.; Dominiak, M.; Kozinski, R.; Misterkiewicz, B.; Polowniak, J.; Szczepaniak, S.

    1982-06-30

    The cutting fluid (SOZh) contains 0.5 to 10 percent vegetable or animal fats, selectively sulfurized in the presence of a catalyst (Kt): 0.1 to 10 percent chlorinated C2O to C3O paraffins, which contain 10 to 50 percent Chlorine in a molecule, and 0.001 to 0.5 percent dialkyldithiocarbamic or alkylen-bis-(dithiocarbamic) acids or their salts or derivatives of the form (R(R')NC(S)SRn'', (CH2)n(NHC(S)S)2R'' or R(R')NC(S)SnC(S)(R)R', where R and R' are alkyl or cycloalkyl of the C1 to C6 fractions, R'' is Hydrogen, a metal, or aliphatic or heterocyclic amine, n = 2 to 6 and 0.001 to 0.3 percent of heterocyclic mercaptanes or disulfides of the cited formula, where A is Nitrogen or Sulfur, and up to 100 percent petroleum oil with a kinematic viscosity of 5 to 50 square millimeters per second at 323K.

  20. ANALYSIS OF PARAMETERS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF A CUTTING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Onderová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of cutting machines is affected by several factors that can be directly or indirectly influenced by manufacturers, technicians and users of machine tools. The most critical qualitative evaluation parameters of machine tools include accuracy and stability. Investigations of accuracy and repeatable positioning accuracy were essential for the research presented in this paper. The aim was to develop and experimentally verify the design of a methodology for cutting centers aimed at achieving the desired working precision. Before working on the topic described here, it was necessary to make several scientific analyses, which are summarized in this paper. We can build on the initial working hypothesis that by improving the technological parameters (e.g. by increasing the working speed of the machine, or by improving the precision of the positioning the quality of the cutting machine will also be improved. For the purposes of our study, several investigated parameters were set affecting positioning accuracy, such as rigidity, positioning speed, etc. First, the stiffness of the portal structure of the cutting machine was analyzed. FEM analysis was used to investigate several alternative structures of the cutting machine, and also an innovative solution for beam mounting. The second step was to integrate two types of drives into the design of the cutting machine. The first drive is a classic rack and pinion drive for cutting machines. To increase (improve the working speed of the machine, linear motors were designed as an alternative drive. The portal of the cutting machine was designed for a working speed of 260mmin−1 and acceleration of 25 m. s−2. The third step was based on the results of the analysis. In collaboration with Microstep, an experimental cutting machine in a portal version was produced using linear synchronous motors driving the portal on both sides, and with direct linear metering of its position. In the fourth step, an

  1. The Gesso Cut for Printmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Perry; Sarvis, Alva

    1969-01-01

    Directions are given for the preparation, cutting, and printing of a gesso board. A gesso cut is defined as a board coated with gesso into which a design has been impressed. The process is similar to the woodcut, but offers greater textural possibilities. (BF)

  2. Shearer drums - the cutting edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, M.; Wright, C.

    2004-09-15

    The paper discusses continuous miner and shearer cutters. It claims cutting drum require the same level of engineering know-how and technical expertise as do the machines driving them, and that the cutting drum, whether on a longwall shearer or continuous miner, comprises, the steel, pedestals, bit holders and the bits.

  3. Water-Cut Sensor System

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Shamim, Atif; Arsalan, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Provided in some embodiments is a method of manufacturing a pipe conformable water-cut sensors system. Provided in some embodiments is method for manufacturing a water-cut sensor system that includes providing a helical T-resonator, a helical ground

  4. Analysis of the influence of the cutting edge geometry on parameters of the perforation process for conveyor and transmission belts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojtkowiak Dominik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Perforated belts, which are used in vacuum conveyor belts, can have significantly different mechanical properties like strength and elasticity due to a variety of used materials and can have different thickness from very thin (0,7 mm to thick belts (6 mm. In order to design a complex machine for mechanical perforation, which can perforate whole range of belts, it is necessary to research the influence of the cutting edge geometry on the parameters of the perforation process. Three most important parameters, which describe the perforation process are the cutting force, the velocity and the temperature of the piercing punch. The results presented in this paper consider two different types of punching (a piercing punch with the punching die or with the reducer plate and different cutting edge directions, angles, diameters and material properties. Test were made for different groups of composites belts – with polyurethane and polyester fabric, polyamide core or aramid-fibre reinforced polymers. The main goal of this research is to specify effective tools and parameters of the perforation process for each group of composites belts.

  5. Cutting method and device underwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Genta; Kamei, Hiromasa; Beppu, Seiji

    1998-01-01

    A place of material to be cut is surrounded by an openable/closable box. The material to be cut is cut underwater, and materials generated in this case are removed from the cut portion by a pressurized water jet. The removed materials are sucked and recovered together with water in the box. Among the materials caused by the cutting underwater, solid materials not floating on water are caused to stay in the midway of a sucking and recovering channel. A large sucking force might be required for the entire region of the sucking and recovering channel when sucking and recovering large sized solid materials not floating on water, but even large sized materials can be recovered easily according to the present invention since they are recovered after being sucked and stayed in the midway of the sucking and recovering channel. (N.H.)

  6. Cutting concrete with abrasion jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yie, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    Fluidyne Corporation has developed a unique process and apparatus that allow selected abrasives to be introduced into high-speed waterjet to produce abrasive-entrained waterjet that has high material-cutting capabilities, which is termed by Fluidyne as the Abrasion Jet. Such Abrasion Jet has demonstrated capability in cutting hard rock and concrete at a modest pressure of less than 1360 bars (20,000 psi) and a power input of less than 45 kW (60 horsepower). Abrasion Jet cutting of concrete is characterized by its high rate of cutting, flexible operation, good cut quality, and relatively low costs. This paper presents a general description of this technology together with discussions of recent test results and how it could be applied to nuclear decontamination and decommissioning work. 8 references

  7. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  8. Machinability baja AISI 1040 pada proses bubut dengan variasi cutting speed dan feed rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AAIA Sri Komaladewi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain desired results of machining process (turning, parameter of process and material characteristic to be machined should be well known. This is due to different machining conditions and material yield different material machinability as well. It is needed to investigate of material machinability (AISI 1040 such as force, power and shear angle under different cutting speed (80, 160 and 240 m/min and feed rate (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mm/rev. The results of investigation show that; at the same cutting speed the higher feed rate the higher cutting force needed; the higher cutting speed and feed rate, the higher power needed; at feed rate 0.1 mm./rev and 0.3 mm/rev, the higher cutting speed the shear angles has a trend to incline; at feed rate 0.2 mm/rev, cutting speed from 80 to 160 m/min yield increasing of shear angle, however, from 160 to 240 m/min shear angle declines.

  9. A combination method of the theory and experiment in determination of cutting force coefficients in ball-end mill processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chou Kao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cutting force calculation of ball-end mill processing was modeled mathematically. All derivations of cutting forces were directly based on the tangential, radial, and axial cutting force components. In the developed mathematical model of cutting forces, the relationship of average cutting force and the feed per flute was characterized as a linear function. The cutting force coefficient model was formulated by a function of average cutting force and other parameters such as cutter geometry, cutting conditions, and so on. An experimental method was proposed based on the stable milling condition to estimate the cutting force coefficients for ball-end mill. This method could be applied for each pair of tool and workpiece. The developed cutting force model has been successfully verified experimentally with very promising results.

  10. Erosion Behaviour of API X100 Pipeline Steel at Various Impact Angles and Particle Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Okonkwo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Erosion is the gradual removal of material due to solid particle impingement and results in a failure of pipeline materials. In this study, a series of erosion tests were carried out to investigate the influence of particle speed and impact angle on the erosion mechanism of API X100 pipeline steel. A dry erosion machine was used as the test equipment, while the particle speed ranged from 20 to 80 m/s and impact angles of 30° and 90° were used as test parameters. The eroded API X100 steel surface was characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The weight loss and erosion rate were also investigated. The results showed that at a 90° impact angle, a ploughing mechanism was occurring on the tested specimens, while material removal through low-angle cutting was the dominant mechanism at lower impact angles. Embedment of alumina particles on the target steel surface, micro-cutting, and low-angle cutting were observed at low impact angles. Therefore, the scratches, cuttings, and severe ploughings observed on some failed oil and gas pipelines could be attributed to the erosion mechanism.

  11. Metal cutting by radiation from a CO2 laser with a self-filtering cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malikov, A G; Orishich, Anatolii M; Shulyat'ev, Viktor B

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of quality cutting by radiation from a CO 2 laser with an unstable self-filtering cavity (SFC) is experimentally investigated. The SFC provides the product of the divergence angle by the beam radius close to that for lower modes in a stable cavity (SC), however, at a higher radiation power, which favours faster cutting. In the far-field zone, the SFC beam has a diffraction structure with side maxima, which is usually considered as a negative factor in laser cutting. 25-mm-thick steel slabs have been cut. The comparison of the obtained results with known data on SC lasers shows that the principal characteristics of the cut (the width, edge roughness, specific expenditure of energy) are close in these lasers. A conclusion is made that at the chosen cavity parameters, the specific spatial structure of the SFC laser beam has no significant effect on the cut characteristics. (laser technologies)

  12. The influence of flip angle on the magic angle effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurlo, J.V.; Blacksin, M.F.; Karimi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To assess the impact of flip angle with gradient sequences on the ''magic angle effect''. We characterized the magic angle effect in various gradient echo sequences and compared the signal- to-noise ratios present on these sequences with the signal-to-noise ratios of spin echo sequences.Design. Ten normal healthy volunteers were positioned such that the flexor hallucis longus tendon remained at approximately at 55 to the main magnetic field (the magic angle). The tendon was imaged by a conventional spin echo T1- and T2-weighted techniques and by a series of gradient techniques. Gradient sequences were altered by both TE and flip angle. Signal-to-noise measurements were obtained at segments of the flexor hallucis longus tendon demonstrating the magic angle effect to quantify the artifact. Signal-to-noise measurements were compared and statistical analysis performed. Similar measurements were taken of the anterior tibialis tendon as an internal control.Results and conclusions. We demonstrated the magic angle effect on all the gradient sequences. The intensity of the artifact was affected by both the TE and flip angle. Low TE values and a high flip angle demonstrated the greatest magic angle effect. At TE values less than 30 ms, a high flip angle will markedly increase the magic angle effect. (orig.)

  13. Plasma hot machining for difficult-to-cut materials, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Takeaki; Maekawa, Katsuhiro; Kubo, Akihiko

    1987-01-01

    Machinability of difficult-to-cut materials has been a great concern to manufacturing engineers since demands for new materials in the aerospace and nuclear industries are more and more increasing. The purpose of this study is to develop a hot machining to improve machinability of high hardness materials. A plasma arc is used for heating materials cut. The surface just after being heated is removed as a chip by tungsten carbide tools. The turning experiments of high hardness steels with aid of plasma arc heating show not only the decrease in cutting forces but also the following effectiveness: (1) The application of the plasma hot machining to the condition, under which a built-up edge (BUE) appears in turning 0.46%C steel, makes the BUE disappeared, bringing less flank wear. (2) In the case of 18%Mn steel cutting, deep groove wear on the end-cutting edge diminishes, and roughness of the machined surface is improved by the prevention from chatter. (3) Although the chilled cast iron has high hardness of above HB = 350, the plasma hot machining makes it possible to cut it with tungsten carbide tools having less chipping and flank wear. (author)

  14. Thermocouple and Infrared Sensor-Based Measurement of Temperature Distribution in Metal Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdil Kus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining.

  15. Thermocouple and infrared sensor-based measurement of temperature distribution in metal cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Abdil; Isik, Yahya; Cakir, M Cemal; Coşkun, Salih; Özdemir, Kadir

    2015-01-12

    In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR) pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining.

  16. Forces, surface finish and friction characteristics in surface engineered single- and multiple-point cutting edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Gillibrand, D.; Bradbury, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced surface engineering technologies (physical and chemical vapour deposition) have been successfully applied to high speed steel and carbide cutting tools, and the potential benefits in terms of both performance and longer tool life, are now well established. Although major achievements have been reported by many manufacturers and users, there are a number of applications where surface engineering has been unsuccessful. Considerable attention has been given to the film characteristics and the variables associated with its properties; however, very little attention has been directed towards the benefits to the tool user. In order to apply surface engineering technology effectively to cutting tools, the coater needs to have accurate information relating to cutting conditions, i.e. cutting forces, stress and temperature etc. The present paper describes results obtained with single- and multiple-point cutting tools with examples of failures, which should help the surface coater to appreciate the significance of the cutting conditions, and in particular the magnitude of the forces and stresses present during cutting processes. These results will assist the development of a systems approach to cutting tool technology and surface engineering with a view to developing an improved product. (orig.)

  17. Thermocouple and Infrared Sensor-Based Measurement of Temperature Distribution in Metal Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Abdil; Isik, Yahya; Cakir, M. Cemal; Coşkun, Salih; Özdemir, Kadir

    2015-01-01

    In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR) pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining. PMID:25587976

  18. Chip science: Basic study of the single-point cutting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, R.R.; Riddle, R.A.; Syn, C.K.; Taylor, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Wear that diamond tools sustain during the cutting of electroless nickel (eNi) has been measured. Wear was detected at previously unattained levels, down to 100 A, and it was found that the tool wear resulted in a burnishing action after a relatively short cutting distance. To provide a more direct connection between computer-based modeling and experimental measurements, macroscopic cutting tests on a well-characterized aluminum material were also performed. The results showed good agreement between calculated and measured cutting forces

  19. Experimental Research Using of MQL in Metal Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Globočki Lakić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an effect of using of minimal quantity lubrication (MQL technique in turning operations is presented. Experimental research was performed on carbon steel C45E. Technological parameters: depth of cut, feed rate and cutting speed were adjusted to semi-machining and roughing. Higher values ​​of feed and cutting speed were used, than recommended from literature and different types of cooling and lubrication in turning conditions were applied. As a conventional procedure and technology, lubrication with flooding was applied. As special lubrication the MQL technique was used. During research, monitoring of the cutting force, chip shape, tool wear and surface roughness was performed. Relations between parameters, material machinability and economy of process were analyzed.

  20. Novel fungal disease in complex leaf-cutting ant societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David Peter; Evans, Harry C.; Hywel-Jones, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    1. The leaf-cutting ants practise an advanced system of mycophagy where they grow a fungus as a food source. As a consequence of parasite threats to their crops, they have evolved a system of morphological, behavioural, and chemical defences, particularly against fungal pathogens (mycopathogens). 2....... Specific fungal diseases of the leaf-cutting ants themselves have not been described, possibly because broad spectrum anti-fungal defences against mycopathogens have reduced their susceptibility to entomopathogens. 3. Using morphological and molecular tools, the present study documents three rare infection...... events of Acromyrmex and Atta leaf-cutting ants by Ophiocordyceps fungi, agenus of entomopathogens that is normally highly specific in its host choice. 4. As leaf-cutting ants have been intensively studied, the absence of prior records of Ophiocordyceps suggests that these infections may be a novel event...