WorldWideScience

Sample records for angle cutting tools

  1. Development of lathe tool dynamometer and finding cutting forces using negative and positive rake angle cutting tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most output parameters in machining, such as cutting forces, temperatures, strains and the work-hardening of the chip material, are directly related to the chip formation process. The characteristics of machining processes can be well understood if the forces and strains during chip formation are known. In this research a lathe tool dynamometer was used to measure cutting forces involved in machining of Steel 1045 and Aluminum 2219 T62. High Speed Steel (HSS), cutting tools with positive and negative rake angles were used. It was observed that more cutting forces are experienced by the cutting tool with positive rake angle as compared to the forces experienced by the cutting tool with negative rake angle. For steel 1045 the cutting forces using positive rake angle cutting tool were much higher. This suggested that for harder materials using a negative rake angle is more suitable for cutting. (author)

  2. Finite Element Modelling of the effect of tool rake angle on tool temperature and cutting force during high speed machining of AISI 4340 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a Finite Element Method (FEM) based on the ABAQUS explicit software which involves Johnson-Cook material model was used to simulate cutting force and tool temperature during high speed machining (HSM) of AISI 4340 steel. In this simulation work, a tool rake angle ranging from 0° to 20° and a range of cutting speeds between 300 to 550 m/min was investigated. The purpose of this simulation analysis was to find optimum tool rake angle where cutting force is smallest as well as tool temperature is lowest during high speed machining. It was found that cutting forces to have a decreasing trend as rake angle increased to positive direction. The optimum rake angle observed between 10° and 18° due to decrease of cutting force as 20% for all simulated cutting speeds. In addition, increasing cutting tool rake angle over its optimum value had negative influence on tool's performance and led to an increase in cutting temperature. The results give a better understanding and recognition of the cutting tool design for high speed machining processes

  3. Finite Element Modelling of the effect of tool rake angle on tool temperature and cutting force during high speed machining of AISI 4340 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, S.; Roshan, A.; Ariffin, M. K. A.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a Finite Element Method (FEM) based on the ABAQUS explicit software which involves Johnson-Cook material model was used to simulate cutting force and tool temperature during high speed machining (HSM) of AISI 4340 steel. In this simulation work, a tool rake angle ranging from 0° to 20° and a range of cutting speeds between 300 to 550 m/min was investigated. The purpose of this simulation analysis was to find optimum tool rake angle where cutting force is smallest as well as tool temperature is lowest during high speed machining. It was found that cutting forces to have a decreasing trend as rake angle increased to positive direction. The optimum rake angle observed between 10° and 18° due to decrease of cutting force as 20% for all simulated cutting speeds. In addition, increasing cutting tool rake angle over its optimum value had negative influence on tool's performance and led to an increase in cutting temperature. The results give a better understanding and recognition of the cutting tool design for high speed machining processes.

  4. Laser Prepared Cutting Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Wegener; Claus, Dold; Marcel, Henerichs; Christian, Walter

    Laser pulses with a pulsewidth of a few picoseconds have recently received a lot of attention, solving the problem of manufacturing tools for new materials of superior mechanical properties. Processing thermally sensitive material, such as diamond and CBN structures, can be done without major material deterioration effects. The breakthrough of this new technology becomes possible, if the accuracy and life time requirements of those tools are met. The paper shows in three applications the potential of laser manufacturing of cutting tools. Manufacturing of cutting edges for CFRP cutting needs sharp and stable cutting edges, which are prepared in PCD tools by laser sources in the picosecond pulsewidth regime. Profiling of hybrid bond grinding wheels yields geometric flexibility, which is impossible by mechanical treatment so far. Touch dressing of grinding wheels substantially reduces cutting forces.

  5. Implementation of cutting tool management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Svinjarević

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to show the benefits of implementation of management of cutting tools in the company which specializes in metal cutting process, after which the production conditions alows new possibilities for improvement of the tool management.Design/methodology/approach: applied in this paper was identification current state and exploatation conditions of cutting tools on lathes and milling machines and organization of the departments and other services, which are directly involved in the cutting tools management system.Findings: of the controlled testings and analyses in every phase of tool management in departments and other services which are directly involved in the tool management system will help to reduce stock and costs. It is possible to identify which operator makes errors and is responsible for inappropriate use of cutting tool. Some disadvantages have been identified and a few suggestions for the improvement in the tool management system have been given. A result of research is easy to apply in company with developed informatic infrastructure and is mostly interesting for CNC workshops. Small companies and specialized low volume productions have to made additional effort to integrate in clusters.Practical implications: are reduction of cutting tool on stock, reduction of employee, quick access to the necessary cutting tools and data, simplicity in tool order and supply. The most important is possibility to monitor and to identify which cutting tools and employees are weakest parts of chain in tool management system. Management activity should be foreseeable in all its segments, which includes both the appropriate choice and use of cutting tools, and monitoring of unwanted phenomena during the cutting process and usage of these data for further purchase of tools.Originality/value: in the paper is turnover methodology applied for determination of management efficacy and formation of employees from different departments in

  6. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF CUTTING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Matuszak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Correct and stable machining process requires an appropriate cutting tool. In most cases the tool can be selected by using special tool catalogs often available in online version. But in some cases there is a need to design unusual tools, for special treatment, which are not available in tool manufacturers’ catalogs. Proper tool design requires strength and geometric calculations. Moreover, in many cases specific technical documentation is required. By using Computer Aided Design of cutting tools this task can be carried out quickly and with high accuracy. Cutting tool visualization in CAD programs gives a clear overview of the design process. Besides, these programs provide the ability to simulate real machining process. Nowadays, 3D modeling in CAD programs is a fundamental tool for engineers. Therefore, it is important to use them in the education process.

  7. Micromachining with Nanostructured Cutting Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the brief is to explain how nanostructured tools can be used to machine materials at the microscale.  The aims of the brief are to explain to readers how to apply nanostructured tools to micromachining applications. This book describes the application of nanostructured tools to machining engineering materials and includes methods for calculating basic features of micromachining. It explains the nature of contact between tools and work pieces to build a solid understanding of how nanostructured tools are made.

  8. An FMS Dynamic Production Scheduling Algorithm Considering Cutting Tool Failure and Cutting Tool Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, A.; Wangsaputra, R.; Martawirya, Y. Y.; Halim, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    This paper deals with Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) production rescheduling due to unavailability of cutting tools caused either of cutting tool failure or life time limit. The FMS consists of parallel identical machines integrated with an automatic material handling system and it runs fully automatically. Each machine has a same cutting tool configuration that consists of different geometrical cutting tool types on each tool magazine. The job usually takes two stages. Each stage has sequential operations allocated to machines considering the cutting tool life. In the real situation, the cutting tool can fail before the cutting tool life is reached. The objective in this paper is to develop a dynamic scheduling algorithm when a cutting tool is broken during unmanned and a rescheduling needed. The algorithm consists of four steps. The first step is generating initial schedule, the second step is determination the cutting tool failure time, the third step is determination of system status at cutting tool failure time and the fourth step is the rescheduling for unfinished jobs. The approaches to solve the problem are complete-reactive scheduling and robust-proactive scheduling. The new schedules result differences starting time and completion time of each operations from the initial schedule.

  9. Development of a Mathematical Model for Angle of Soil Failure Plane in Case of 3-Dimenssional Cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Moayad B. Zaied; Mohammed H. Dahab; Ahmed M. El Naim

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between tillage tools and soil is of a primary interest to the design and use of these tools for soil manipulation. A new explicit mathematical model to calculate the angle of soil failure plane when soil is cut with narrow tine was developed. Equations of Soil cohesion and soil adhesion cutting factors were partially differentiated with respect to angle of soil external friction, were maximized; Values of angle of soil failure plane were calculated by the model for tine rake ...

  10. Machining M42 tool steel using nanostructured coated cutting tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Jackson

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper discusses improvements associated with the life of cutting tools used to machine M42 tool steel. To achieve this in an efficient way, experiments on a variety of tool coatings are conducted on AISI M42 tool steel (58-63 HRC.Design/methodology/approach: In order to assess the impact of different tool coatings on the machining process, initial experiments simulate existing machining operations; this provides a standard for tool life and surface finish.Findings: The findings in the paper show that TiAlCrYN coated WC-Co cutting tools perform better than uncoated cutting tools.Research limitations/implications: The implications of the paper tend to indicate that machining M42 tool steels without lubricant can be optimized using coated cutting tools. The limitations of the paper include machining at one specific cutting speed and the employment of a short-time tool wear method.Practical implications: The practical implications of the paper show that dry machining of hardened tool steels can be achieved under certain circumstances. Further research is needed to explain how the wear mechanism changes with varying machining conditions.Originality/value: The paper presents original information on the characteristics of dry machining of M42 tool steel under specific machining operations. The paper is of interest to manufacturing engineers and materials scientists.

  11. Machining M42 tool steel using nanostructured coated cutting tools

    OpenAIRE

    M.J. Jackson; G.M. Robinson; J.S. Morrell

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses improvements associated with the life of cutting tools used to machine M42 tool steel. To achieve this in an efficient way, experiments on a variety of tool coatings are conducted on AISI M42 tool steel (58-63 HRC).Design/methodology/approach: In order to assess the impact of different tool coatings on the machining process, initial experiments simulate existing machining operations; this provides a standard for tool life and surface finish.Findings: The finding...

  12. Influence of the Magnetic High-speed Steel Cutting Tool on Cutting Capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The high-speed steel cutting tool has advantaged i n modern cutting tool for its preferable synthetical performance, especially, in a pplication of complicated cutting tools. Therefore, the study of the high-speed steel cutting tools that occupied half of cutting tools has become an importa nt way of studying on modern cutting technology. The cutting performance of hi gh speed-steel cutting tools will be improved by magnetization treating method. Microstructure of high-speed steel will be changed as a ...

  13. Intelligent cutting tool condition monitoring in milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Balic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to present a tool condition monitoring (TCM system that can detect tool breakage in real time by using a combination of neural decision system, ANFIS tool wear estimator and machining error compensation module.Design/methodology/approach: The principal presumption was that the force signals contain the most useful information for determining the tool condition. Therefore, ANFIS method is used to extract the features of tool states from cutting force signals. The trained ANFIS model of tool wear is then merged with a neural network for identifying tool wear condition (fresh, worn.Findings: The overall machining error is predicted with very high accuracy by using the deflection module and a large percentage of it is eliminated through the proposed error compensation process.Research limitations/implications: This study also briefly presents a compensation method in milling in order to take into account tool deflection during cutting condition optimization or tool-path generation. The results indicate that surface errors due to tool deflections can be reduced by 65-78%.Practical implications: The fundamental limitation of research was to develop a single-sensor monitoring system, reliable as commercially available system, but much cheaper than multi-sensor approach.Originality/value: A neural network is used in TCM as a decision making system to discriminate different malfunction states from measured signals.

  14. High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools discusses the fundamentals and advances in high performance grinding processes, and provides a complete overview of newly-developing areas in the field. Topics covered are grinding tool formulation and structure, grinding wheel design and conditioning and applications using high performance grinding wheels. Also included are heat treatment strategies for grinding tools, using grinding tools for high speed applications, laser-based and diamond dressing techniques, high-efficiency deep grinding, VIPER grinding, and new grinding wheels.

  15. Cutting tool materials for high speed machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhanqiang; AI Xing

    2005-01-01

    High speed machining (HSM) is one of the emerging cutting processes, which is machining at a speed significantlyhigher than the speed commonly in use on the shop floor. In the last twenty years, high speed machining has received great attentions as a technological solution for high productivity in manufacturing. This article reviews the developments of tool materials in high speed machining operations, and the properties, applications and prospective developments of tool materials in HSM are also presented.

  16. Effects of knife edge angle and speed on peak force and specific energy when cutting vegetables of diverse texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutting tool parameters such as edge-sharpness and speed of cut directly influence the shape of final samples and the required cutting force and specific energy for slicing or cutting operations. Cutting force and specific energy studies on different vegetables help to design the appropriate slicing or cutting devices. Peak cutting force and specific energy requirements for the transverse cutting of nine vegetables, differing in their textural characteristics of rind and flesh, were determined at cutting speeds of 20, 30, 40 mm min-1 and single-cut knife-edge angles of 15, 20 and 25° using a Universal Testing Machine. Low speed (20 mm min-1 cutting with a sharper knife-edge angle (15° required less peak force and specific energy than that of high-speed cutting (40 mm min-1 with a wider knife-edge angle (25°. The vegetables with the maximum and minimum variation in the average peak cutting force were aubergine, at 79.05 (for knife speed 20 mm min-1 and edge angle 150 to 285.1 N (40 mm min-1 and 250, and cucumber, at 11.61 (20 mm min-1 and 150 to 21.41 N (40 mm min-1 and 250, respectively. High speed (40 mm min-1, with a large knife-edge angle (25°, required the highest force and specific energy to cut the vegetables, however, low speed (20 mm min-1, with a small knife-edge angle (150, is preferred. Effects of cutting speed and knife-edge angle on peak force and specific energy responses were found significant (p<0.05. Linear or quadratic regressions gave a good fit of these variables. 

  17. Process Damping and Cutting Tool Geometry in Machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regenerative vibration, or chatter, limits the performance of machining processes. Consequences of chatter include tool wear and poor machined surface finish. Process damping by tool-workpiece contact can reduce chatter effects and improve productivity. Process damping occurs when the flank (also known as the relief face) of the cutting tool makes contact with waves on the workpiece surface, created by chatter motion. Tool edge features can act to increase the damping effect. This paper examines how a tool's edge condition combines with the relief angle to affect process damping. An analytical model of cutting with chatter leads to a two-section curve describing how process damped vibration amplitude changes with surface speed for radiussed tools. The tool edge dominates the process damping effect at the lowest surface speeds, with the flank dominating at higher speeds. A similar curve is then proposed regarding tools with worn edges. Experimental data supports the notion of the two-section curve. A rule of thumb is proposed which could be useful to machine operators, regarding tool wear and process damping. The question is addressed, should a tool of a given geometry, used for a given application, be considered as sharp, radiussed or worn regarding process damping.

  18. Cutting Properties and Wearing Process of Diamond Film Coated Tools in the Dry-Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qimao

    Dry cutting can eliminate a series of negative effects of coolant. Based on tribology principle of coated tool, diamond film coated tool is used to cut the same workpiece under the conditions of dry-cutting and coolant. The tool's cutting properties and wear mechanism are studied by tests. Results imply that this coated tool will be applied more widely day by day in the dry-cutting.

  19. Chip-ejection interference in cutting processes of modern cutting tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师汉民

    1999-01-01

    Based on the “principle of minimum energy”, the basic characteristics of non-free cutting are studied; the phenomenon and the nature of chip-ejection interference commonly existing in the cutting process of modem cutting tools are explored. A "synthesis method of elementary cutting tools" is suggested for modeling the cutting process of modem complex cutting tools. The general equation governing the chip-ejection motion is deduced. Real examples of non-free cutting are analyzed and the theoretically predicted results are supported by the experimental data or facts. The sufficient and necessary conditions for eliminating chip-ejection interference and for realizing free cutting are given; the idea and the technical approach of "the principle of free cutting" are also discussed, and a feasible way for improving or optimizing the cutting performance of modem cutting tools is, therefore, found.

  20. Tool life and surface roughness of ceramic cutting tool when turning AISI D2 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tool life of physical vapor deposition (PVD) titanium nitride (TiN) coated ceramic when turning AISI D2 tool steel of hardness 54-55 HRC was investigated. The experiments were conducted at various cutting speed and feed rate combinations with constant depth of cut and under dry cutting condition. The tool life of the cutting tool for all cutting conditions was obtained. The tool failure mode and wear mechanism were also investigated. The wear mechanism that is responsible for the wear form is abrasion and diffusion. Flank wear and crater wear are the main wear form found when turning AISI D2 grade hardened steel with 54-55 HRC using KY 4400 ceramic cutting tool. Additionally catastrophic failure is observed at cutting speed of 183 m/min and feed rate of 0.16 mm/ rev. (author)

  1. Sintering of polycrystalline diamond cutting tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeren, Muzaffer [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Kocaeli University, Veziroglu Campus, 41040 Izmit-Kocaeli (Turkey)]. E-mail: zeren@kou.edu.tr; Karagoez, Sadi [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Kocaeli University, Veziroglu Campus, 41040 Izmit-Kocaeli (Turkey)]. E-mail: karagoez@kou.edu.tr

    2007-07-01

    In this study, pressure-sintering experiments during direct sintering of diamond cutting tools has been conducted at 730 deg. C for 3-15 min with a pressure of around 350 MPa. For the matrix, the elements cobalt and nickel are used as the bonding phase and the {alpha}-bronze is used as the filling phase in various amounts. In microstructural characterization studies, various microstructural analyses were performed using the techniques of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-disperse X-ray spectrography and image analysis.

  2. Laser Cutting of Leather: Tool for Industry or Designers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Alexander; Manninen, Matti; Pärnänen, Inni; Hirvimäki, Marika; Salminen, Antti

    Currently technologies which are applied for leather cutting include slitting knifes, die press techniques and manual cutting. Use of laser technology has grown significantly during recent years due to number of advantages over conventional cutting methods; flexibility, high production speed, possibility to cut complex geometries, easier cutting of customized parts, and less leftovers of leather makes laser cutting more and more economically attractive to apply for leather cutting. Laser technology provides advantages in cutting complex geometries, stable cutting quality and possibility to utilize leather material in economically best way. Constant quality is important in industrial processes and laser technology fulfills this requirement: properly chosen laser cutting parameters provides identical cuts. Additionally, laser technology is very flexible in terms of geometries: complex geometries, individual designs, prototypes and small scale products can be manufactured by laser cutting. Variety of products, which needed to be cut in small volumes, is also the application where laser cutting can be more beneficial due to possibility to change production from one product to another only by changing geometry without a need to change cutting tool. Disadvantages of laser processing include high initial investment costs and some running costs due to maintenance and required gas supply for the laser. Higher level of operator's expertise is required due to more complicated machinery in case of laser cutting. This study investigates advantages and disadvantages of laser cutting in different areas of application and provides comparison between laser cutting and mechanical cutting of leather.

  3. Personal use of heavy cutting tools with the steady-cut-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of nuclear plants, it is necessary to cut technical components and infrastructural elements. The container dimensions for waste disposal determine the size of the fragmented parts. The main cutting techniques are sawing, milling, flame cutting, plasma arc cutting, laser cutting and water abrasive suspension cutting. For radiological and technical reasons, especially size and weight, the cutting tools are remote controlled. The main issues concerning remote controlled cutting tools are the high equipment cost, the long time for planning, installation and transaction. Another problem is the small flexibility towards technical and unpredictable difficulties. These are the reasons for the development of the Steady-Cut-System. This system works in non, weak or middle radiation areas without remote controlled cutting techniques. An operator, equipped with the appropriate cutting tools and the Steady-Cut-System, executes the necessary disassembling under permanent radiological control. After termination of the disassembling the user leaves the radiologically contaminated area with the cutting tool and the Steady-Cut-System. Time- and costintensive installations, assemblies and transfers in this area are not necessary. The operator can immediately intervene in case of sudden problems and changes. (orig.)

  4. CVD COATING OF CERAMIC LAYERS ON CERAMIC CUTTING TOOL MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Porat, R.

    1991-01-01

    When forming cutting tool materials based on ceramic components, one must take into considration the combination of wear resistance and mechanical properties which can withstand unfavorable cutting conditions at the same time maintaining high strength and fracture toughness. Ceramic cutting tools which are designed for machining at high cutting speeds and which have high strength and fracture toughness can be formed by applying a thin layer of ceramic materials on the substrate in order to in...

  5. Study of elementary micro-cutting in hardened tool steel

    OpenAIRE

    PIQUARD, Romain; Gilbin, Alexandre; Fontaine, Michael; D'ACUNTO, Alain; Thibaud, Sébastien; DUDZINSKI, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In order to model micro-milling cutting forces, a way is to apply a local model on discretized elements of the cutting edge and then summing on the whole edge to obtain the global cutting forces. This local model is usually obtained by numerical simulation or cutting experimentation. This paper focuses on orthogonal and oblique micro-cutting experiments of AISI 6F7 with tungsten carbide tools. Results show the influence of cutting edge sharpness on cutting forces and the existence of differen...

  6. Effect of the sand-blasting of edge peeling tools on the cutting forces and wear resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Labidi, Chafik; DENAUD, Louis; Nouveau, Corinne; Collet, Robert; Henry, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    International audience One of the major problems concerning tools of wood industry is nicks occurrence on the cutting edge. This phenomenon is accentuated by the small tool angle of most of the wood machining tools. The aim of this present study is to look if the geometry modifications of the cutting edge permit to decrease the weakness of the tools, especially in peeling process. For this, different sand-blasted tools were tested in laboratory peeling of beech. In addition, the adhesion o...

  7. Energy efficient tool concepts in metal cutting. Analysis of energy consumption of metal cutting machine tools; Energieeffiziente Werkzeugkonzepte in der Zerspanung. Analyse des Energieverbrauchs von spanenden Werkzeugmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalhoefer, Eckehard; Rief, Markus [Hochschule Aalen - Technik und Wirtschaft (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    The contribution investigates the energy consumption of metal cutting machine tools, with the intention to obtain measures and development strategies for metal cutting machine tools which will improve energy efficiency in metal cutting. (orig.)

  8. Stagnant zone formation on diamond cutting tools during machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation of an intact region on the rake face of cutting tool during machining is quite common phenomenon but its significance in maintaining tool edge sharpness has not been recognized by many researchers. This region is sometimes called stagnant zone. It is believed that when an intact zone present on the rake face, it delays the crater wear progress and hence maintaining the tool edge sharpness longer. This paper investigates the effect of edge radius, surface roughness of the rake face and cutting parameters on the formation of stagnant zone on two different type of diamond tools i.e. polycrystalline diamond PCD-KD100 and diamond-coated inserts when machining titanium alloy. The used inserta and post-processed chips were examined under FESEM and optical microscope after cutting at three different conditions. Experimental results show that the speed and feel, the tool edge radius, and the tool rake surface roughness significantly affect the stagnant zone formation. (author)

  9. Modeling of tool path for the CNC sheet cutting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petunin, Aleksandr A.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper the problem of tool path optimization for CNC (Computer Numerical Control) cutting machines is considered. The classification of the cutting techniques is offered. We also propose a new classification of toll path problems. The tasks of cost minimization and time minimization for standard cutting technique (Continuous Cutting Problem, CCP) and for one of non-standard cutting techniques (Segment Continuous Cutting Problem, SCCP) are formalized. We show that the optimization tasks can be interpreted as discrete optimization problem (generalized travel salesman problem with additional constraints, GTSP). Formalization of some constraints for these tasks is described. For the solution GTSP we offer to use mathematical model of Prof. Chentsov based on concept of a megalopolis and dynamic programming.

  10. Study on optimal surface property of WC-Co cutting tool for aluminium alloy cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, Mohd; Arimatsu, Naoya; Kawamitsu, Hiroshi; Takai, Kazuteru; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    The light weight property as well as high corrosion resistance of aluminium alloy has increased their demand especially in automobile industries. Aluminium alloy as a matter of fact has a low melting point and high ductility that severely adhere to the cutting tool surface and cause deterioration of chip evacuation. This problem often resulting in tools breakage. In this paper, in order to impart functions of anti-adhesion, we propose a technique by controlling the grinding marks micro texture on the tool surface by using the blast polishing treatment without any coating technologies. The results show that the tool which underwent polishing treatment reduces the cutting force as well as the aluminium adherence during the initial cutting process, and become worst as the process cutting continues. These results indicate that grinding mark texture improves the anti-adhesion by reducing the contact area during cutting and provide storage for the lubricant. In addition, too much polishing on the tool surface may remove these textures and resultantly worsen the tool performance.

  11. Research into cutting tool development and process of wear

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašek, Jaroslav

    Gliwice: KOMAG, 2008, s. 169-183. ISBN 83-919228-5-5. [KOMTECH. International Scientific and Technical Conference/4./. Szczyrk (PL), 17.11.2003-19.11.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3086201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : cutting tools * wear process Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools

  12. Design principles of metal-cutting machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1964-01-01

    Design Principles of Metal-Cutting Machine Tools discusses the fundamentals aspects of machine tool design. The book covers the design consideration of metal-cutting machine, such as static and dynamic stiffness, operational speeds, gearboxes, manual, and automatic control. The text first details the data calculation and the general requirements of the machine tool. Next, the book discusses the design principles, which include stiffness and rigidity of the separate constructional elements and their combined behavior under load, as well as electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic drives for the op

  13. Study on carbide cutting tool life using various cutting speeds for α-β Ti-alloy machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Ahsan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Current experimental studies have yielded that cutting speed, using carbide cutters, has no significant influence on surface roughness obtained for machining the α-β Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. This paper presents results of experimental investigations carried out on the widely used titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V using variable cutting speeds as well as different cutting tools at a constant feed rate and depth of cut. The effects of varying cutting speeds on the tool life have been analysed by inspecting the surface roughness of the machined samples and the tool wear observed during machining. As the cutting speed increases, the tool life drops off very rapidly and at higher cutting speed the chips start to ignite because of high heat generation at the cutting zone which is mainly caused by the low thermal conductivity of titanium alloys as postulated. Consequently higher cutting speeds may be used to dramatically reduce the production costs, but the currently available cutting tools will have a very poor tool life. According to this study, it has been identified that the uncoated carbide tool life is comparatively better than that of coated ones at lower cutting speeds whereas the coated ones are preferable at higher cutting speeds. It is expected that the metal manufacturing industries will be highly benefitted by this outcome in selecting the appropriate cutting tool as well as cutting speed according to their desired surface finish and tool life.

  14. Effects of knife edge angle and speed on peak force and specific energy when cutting vegetables of diverse texture

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Singh; Madhusweta Das; Susanta Kumar Das

    2016-01-01

    Cutting tool parameters such as edge-sharpness and speed of cut directly influence the shape of final samples and the required cutting force and specific energy for slicing or cutting operations. Cutting force and specific energy studies on different vegetables help to design the appropriate slicing or cutting devices. Peak cutting force and specific energy requirements for the transverse cutting of nine vegetables, differing in their textural characteristics of rind and flesh, were determine...

  15. STRESS ANALYSIS IN CUTTING TOOLS COATED TiN AND EFFECT OF THE FRICTION COEFFICIENT IN TOOL-CHIP INTERFACE

    OpenAIRE

    ASLANTAŞ, Kubilay

    2003-01-01

    The coated tools are regularly used in today's metal cutting industry. Because, it is well known that thin and hard coatings can reduce tool wear, improve tool life and productivity. Such coatings have significantly contributed to the improvements cutting economies and cutting tool performance through lower tool wear and reduced cutting forces. TiN coatings have especially high strength and low friction coefficients. During the cutting process, low friction coefficient reduce damage in cutt...

  16. Thermal properties of cutting tool coatings at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Thermal properties of coatings for cutting tools measured in range from 20 to 500 °C. ► Coatings were based on nitrides of Ti, Al, Cr and Si. ► Thermal conductivity varies from 2.8 to 25 W m−1 K−1 and grows with temperature. ► Lowest thermal conductivity was observed for CrAlSiN coating. - Abstract: Cutting tools with coated inserts are widely used in high-speed cutting and in the cutting of hard-to-machine materials. The thermal properties of the coatings (or thin films) have a major impact on the cutting process and tool life. As there is a lack of data for high temperatures, we are presenting an experimental study of thermal conductivity and volumetric specific heat of different coatings in the range from room temperature to 500 °C. The coatings under investigation were TiN, TiAlCN, TiAlN, AlTiN, TiAlSiN and CrAlSiN. The thermal properties were measured using the pulsed photothermal radiometry method. The thermal conductivity of the coatings under investigation varied from 2.8 to 25 W m−1 K−1 and increased with the rise in temperature. The lowest thermal conductivity was observed for the CrAlSiN coating.

  17. Development of cutting tools for the dismantling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study, carried cut by the Atomic Energy Commission - Nuclear Installations Dismantling Unit (CEA-UDIN), is to test cutting apparatuses and tools suitable for use in dismantling operations on CEA sites and to do such development work as is necessary to make these apparatus and tools more efficient and better adapted to remote control operation. The work, carried out over the last three years, can be split into two categories: comparative trials of five tools carried out in standardized inactive conditions: (hacksaw) recuperating saw, grinder, plasma torch, arc air and arc saw. Comparisons have been made of performances and the production of secondary wastes (in mass and grain sizes). Improvements envisaged concern, mainly, the plasma torch and the arc saw. Development of two tools for concrete cutting: a diamond saw used in the stage 3 dismantling of the ATI installation at La Hague for the remote controlled cutting of a 200 mm thick reinforced concrete wall. The work completed with good results. A shot blasting machine intended for the decontamination of plain or resin coated concrete walls and of stainless steel cladding of rooms in the AT1 installation. The active trials have proved positive. 17 figs, 9 tabs

  18. Parameter Changes Which Characterize the Wear of the Cutting Tool in the Milling Process of Aspen Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andis ĀBELE

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to determine changesof parameters (cutting power, roughness of woodensurface and rounding of cutting edge whichcharacterize the wear of the cutting tool in the millingprocess of aspen wood (Populus tremula,depending on the rake angle of the cutting tool.The milling process was performed by meansof a computer numerical control milling machine andtwo cutterheads with a rake angle of the fixed cutterknife adjusted at 100, 150, 200 and 300. The cuttersmade of high speed steel and highly alloyed toolsteel. After reaching the definite length of the cuttingtrajectory, the cutting power and the roughness ofthe processed wood surface were measured, as wellas replicates of the cutting edge, by pressing it inlead sheet.By milling aspen wood with highly alloyed toolsteel cutter knives at rake angle of cutter 10º, theroughness of the processed wooden surface beganincreasing after 44 000m length of cutting trajectory,which corresponds to a cutting time of 15 hours.

  19. Hard and wear resistant coatings for cutting tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gołombek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents investigation results of structure and properties of the cemented carbide tips and cermet tools, both uncoated and coated with single and multiple hard surface layers in the physical (PVD and chemical (CVD vapour deposition processes.Design/methodology/approach: SEM, TEM, X-ray, Microhardness, Scratch test, Cutting test.Findings: The TiN+gradient or multi (Ti,Al,SiN+TiN system coatings deposited with the PVD method in the cathodic arc evaporation CAE onto the substrates from cermets and cemented carbides reveal better working properties in comparison to the commercial tool materials with the gradient- or multi-layer and single- and two-component coatings deposited in the PVD or CVD processes.Practical implications: Dry cutting processes without the use of the cutting fluids.Originality/value: In the paper the investigation of TiN+gradient or multi(Ti,Al,SiN+TiN nanocrystalline coatings deposited in the CAE process on cemented carbides and cermets were carried out in order to improve the tool cutting properties.

  20. IMPACT OF DEPTH OF CUT ON CHIP FORMATION IN AZ91HP MAGNESIUM ALLOY MILLING WITH TOOLS OF VARYING CUTTING EDGE GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gziut

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Safety of Mg milling processes can be expressed by means of the form and the number of fractions of chips formed during milling. This paper presents the state of the art of magnesium alloys milling technology in the aspect of chip fragmentation. Furthermore, the impact of the depth of cut ap and the rake angle γ on the number of chip fractions was analysed in the study. These were conducted on AZ91HP magnesium cast alloy and milling was performed with carbide tools of varying rake angle values (γ = 5º and γ = 30º. It was observed that less intense chip fragmentation occurs with decreasing depth of cut ap. The number of chip fractions was lower at the tool rake angle of γ = 30º. The test results were formulated as technological recommendations according to the number of generated chip fractions.

  1. Quality management in development of hard coatings on cutting tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soković

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper, an attempt is made to establish the general model of quality management also to the field of development and introducing of hard coatings on cutting tools.Design/methodology/approach: The conventional PVD and CVD methods have its limitations and that innovative processes are essential within the framework of an environmentally oriented quality management system. Meeting the requirements of ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 standards, the proposed model ensures the fulfilment of the basic requirements leading to the required quality of preparation processes and the quality of end products (hard coatings.Findings: One of the main pre-requisites for successful industrial production is the use of quality coated cutting tools with defined mechanical and technological properties. Therefore, for the development and introduction of new coated cutting tool (new combination of cutting material and hard coatings, it is necessary to carry out a number of studies with the purpose to optimize the coatings composition and processing procedures, and also to test new tools in working conditions.Research limitations/implications: The requirements from industry: produce faster, better, safety and more ecologically, force us to develop new effective tools and innovative technologies. This provides a technological challenge to the scientists and engineers and increases the importance of knowing several scientific disciplines.Practical implications: The quality of a company’s product directly affects its competitive position, profitability and credibility in the market. Quality management system must undergo a process of continuous improvement, which extends from the deployment of preventive quality assurance methods to the application of closed loop quality circuits.Originality/value: Design of the original and structured model of quality management system for successful development, producing and involving of new coated tools in the practice.

  2. Performance of Process Damping in Machining Titanium Alloys at Low Cutting Speed with Different Helix Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium is a strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant and transition metal with a silver color to produce strong lightweight alloys for industrial process, automotive, medical instruments and other applications. However, it is very difficult to machine the titanium due to its poor machinability. When machining titanium alloys with the conventional tools, the wear rate of the tool is rapidly accelerate and it is generally difficult to achieve at high cutting speed. In order to get better understanding of machining titanium alloy, the interaction between machining structural system and the cutting process which result in machining instability will be studied. Process damping is a useful phenomenon that can be exploited to improve the limited productivity of low speed machining. In this study, experiments are performed to evaluate the performance of process damping of milling under different tool helix geometries. The results showed that the helix of 42° angle is significantly increase process damping performance in machining titanium alloy.

  3. The CutFlowService tool in the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the CutFlowSvc, a service for coherent organization of the reading and writing of bookkeeping information, in the context of the ATLAS experiment. It is a necessary tool because amount of data stored by the LHC experiments is typically so large, that running each individual analysis or performance measurement over the full dataset including all details is prohibitive. Hence, the data is stored consecutively in different data sets of smaller size, each skimmed from the previous, larger format. The end user therefore needs detailed information about the application and efficiency of each cut used for the reduction of the dataset in the steps before. The implementation of the CutFlowSvc within the ATLAS software framework Athena is summarized as well as its application for different ATLAS-specific data formats: the POOL format as well as flat data structures. Finally an overview of future developments is presented.

  4. Setting of angles on machine tools speeded by magnetic protractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, L. B.

    1964-01-01

    An adjustable protractor facilitates transference of angles to remote machine tools. It has a magnetic base incorporating a beam which can be adjusted until its shadow coincides with an image on the screen of a projector.

  5. Analyzing the effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness and tool wear when machining nickel based hastelloy - 276

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machining parameters has an important factor on tool wear and surface finish, for that the manufacturers need to obtain optimal operating parameters with a minimum set of experiments as well as minimizing the simulations in order to reduce machining set up costs. The cutting speed is one of the most important cutting parameter to evaluate, it clearly most influences on one hand, tool life, tool stability, and cutting process quality, and on the other hand controls production flow. Due to more demanding manufacturing systems, the requirements for reliable technological information have increased. For a reliable analysis in cutting, the cutting zone (tip insert-workpiece-chip system) as the mechanics of cutting in this area are very complicated, the chip is formed in the shear plane (entrance the shear zone) and is shape in the sliding plane. The temperature contributed in the primary shear, chamfer and sticking, sliding zones are expressed as a function of unknown shear angle on the rake face and temperature modified flow stress in each zone. The experiments were carried out on a CNC lathe and surface finish and tool tip wear are measured in process. Machining experiments are conducted. Reasonable agreement is observed under turning with high depth of cut. Results of this research help to guide the design of new cutting tool materials and the studies on evaluation of machining parameters to further advance the productivity of nickel based alloy Hastelloy - 276 machining.

  6. Ultrasonic pulsations of pressure in a water jet cutting tool

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říha, Zdeněk; Foldyna, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2012), s. 487-491. ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : high pressure * transitional space between larger and smaller pipe * ultrasonic pulsations * water jet cutting Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.601, year: 2012 http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=129056

  7. Ultrasonic pulsations of pressure in a water jet cutting tool

    OpenAIRE

    Říha, Z. (Zdeněk); Foldyna, J.

    2012-01-01

    Water flow in a tool for water jet cleaning and cutting is evaluated in this paper. There are ultrasonic pulsations of high pressure in the given domain. The efficiency of the amplification of high pressure pulsations in the transitional space between larger and smaller pipes is analysed. Three types of transitional spaces are compared in the paper: step change, conical and radius change of pipe diameters.

  8. The Effects of Cutting Tool Coating on the Surface Roughness of AISI 1015 Steel Depending on Cutting Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan GÖKKAYA

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a number of cutting tool coating materials on the surface quality of workpieces, depending on various cutting parameters, were investigated. AISI 1015 steel was processed without cooling on a lathe using 4 different cemented carbide cutting tools, i.e. uncoated, coated with AlTiN and coated with TiAlN using the PVD technique, and one with 3-layer coatings (outermost being TiN) applied by the CVD technique. Among the cutting parameters, the depth of cut was kept constan...

  9. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE TOOL-CHIP INTERFACE TMPERATURES ON UNCOATED CEMENTIDE CARBIDE CUTTING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasım HABALI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the temperature as the result of the heat developed during machining at the tool-chip interface has an influence on the tool life and workpiece surface guality and the methods for measuring this temperature are constantly under investigation. In this study, the measurement of tool-chip interface temperature using toolworkpiece termocouple method was investigated. The test were carried out on a AISI 1040 steel and the toolchip interface temperature variation was examined depending on the cutting speed and feed rate. The obtained groups show that cutting speed has more influence on the temperature than feedrate has.

  10. HIGH SPEED END MILLING OF HARDENED AISI D3 COLD WORK TOOL STEEL WITH CBN CUTTING TOOL

    OpenAIRE

    Aslan, E; CAMUŞCU, N.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACTIn this work, high speed end milling of AISI D3 cold-work tool steel hardened to 35 HRC and 62 HRC was investigated using CBN cutting tools. Cutting tool performance was studied with respect to tool life and surface finish of the workpiece. The effect of material hardness on the tool wear and surface roughness was also discussed.

  11. Hard and wear resistant coatings for cutting tools

    OpenAIRE

    K. Gołombek; L.A. Dobrzański

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper presents investigation results of structure and properties of the cemented carbide tips and cermet tools, both uncoated and coated with single and multiple hard surface layers in the physical (PVD) and chemical (CVD) vapour deposition processes.Design/methodology/approach: SEM, TEM, X-ray, Microhardness, Scratch test, Cutting test.Findings: The TiN+gradient or multi (Ti,Al,Si)N+TiN system coatings deposited with the PVD method in the cathodic arc evaporation CAE onto the s...

  12. Design of an instrumented smart cutting tool and its implementation and application perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, C; CHENG, K; Chen, X.; Minton, T.; Rakowski, R

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative design of a smart cutting tool, using two surface acoustic wave (SAW) strain sensors mounted onto the top and the side surface of the tool shank respectively, and its implementation and application perspectives. This surface acoustic wave-based smart cutting tool is capable of measuring the cutting force and the feed force in a real machining environment, after a calibration process under known cutting conditions. A hybrid dissimilar workpiece is then machine...

  13. Prediction and Control of Cutting Tool Vibration in Cnc Lathe with Anova and Ann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abuthakeer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Machining is a complex process in which many variables can deleterious the desired results. Among them, cutting tool vibration is the most critical phenomenon which influences dimensional precision of the components machined, functional behavior of the machine tools and life of the cutting tool. In a machining operation, the cutting tool vibrations are mainly influenced by cutting parameters like cutting speed, depth of cut and tool feed rate. In this work, the cutting tool vibrations are controlled using a damping pad made of Neoprene. Experiments were conducted in a CNC lathe where the tool holder is supported with and without damping pad. The cutting tool vibration signals were collected through a data acquisition system supported by LabVIEW software. To increase the buoyancy and reliability of the experiments, a full factorial experimental design was used. Experimental data collected were tested with analysis of variance (ANOVA to understand the influences of the cutting parameters. Empirical models have been developed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Experimental studies and data analysis have been performed to validate the proposed damping system. Multilayer perceptron neural network model has been constructed with feed forward back-propagation algorithm using the acquired data. On the completion of the experimental test ANN is used to validate the results obtained and also to predict the behavior of the system under any cutting condition within the operating range. The onsite tests show that the proposed system reduces the vibration of cutting tool to a greater extend.

  14. STRESS ANALYSIS IN CUTTING TOOLS COATED TiN AND EFFECT OF THE FRICTION COEFFICIENT IN TOOL-CHIP INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubilay ASLANTAŞ

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The coated tools are regularly used in today's metal cutting industry. Because, it is well known that thin and hard coatings can reduce tool wear, improve tool life and productivity. Such coatings have significantly contributed to the improvements cutting economies and cutting tool performance through lower tool wear and reduced cutting forces. TiN coatings have especially high strength and low friction coefficients. During the cutting process, low friction coefficient reduce damage in cutting tool. In addition, maximum stress values between coating and substrate also decrease as the friction coefficient decreases. In the present study, stress analysis is carried out for HSS (High Speed Steel cutting tool coated with TiN. The effect of the friction coefficient between tool and chip on the stresses developed at the cutting tool surface and interface of coating and HSS is investigated. Damage zones during cutting process was also attempted to determine. Finite elements method is used for the solution of the problem and FRANC2D finite element program is selected for numerical solutions.

  15. Defining the effect of sweep tillage tool cutting edge geometry on tillage forces using 3D discrete element modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ucgul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The energy required for tillage processes accounts for a significant proportion of total energy used in crop production. In many tillage processes decreasing the draft and upward vertical forces is often desired for reduced fuel use and improved penetration, respectively. Recent studies have proved that the discrete element modelling (DEM can effectively be used to model the soil–tool interaction. In his study, Fielke (1994 [1] examined the effect of the various tool cutting edge geometries, namely; cutting edge height, length of underside rub, angle of underside clearance, on draft and vertical forces. In this paper the experimental parameters of Fielke (1994 [1] were simulated using 3D discrete element modelling techniques. In the simulations a hysteretic spring contact model integrated with a linear cohesion model that considers the plastic deformation behaviour of the soil hence provides better vertical force prediction was employed. DEM parameters were determined by comparing the experimental and simulation results of angle of repose and penetration tests. The results of the study showed that the simulation results of the soil-various tool cutting edge geometries agreed well with the experimental results of Fielke (1994 [1]. The modelling was then used to simulate a further range of cutting edge geometries to better define the effect of sweep tool cutting edge geometry parameters on tillage forces. The extra simulations were able to show that by using a sharper cutting edge with zero vertical cutting edge height the draft and upward vertical force were further reduced indicating there is benefit from having a really sharp cutting edge. The extra simulations also confirmed that the interpolated trends for angle of underside clearance as suggested by Fielke (1994 [1] where correct with a linear reduction in draft and upward vertical force for angle of underside clearance between the ranges of −25 and −5°, and between −5 and 0°. The

  16. Cryogenic turning of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with modified cutting tool inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananchezian, M.; Pradeep Kumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Productivity in the machining of titanium alloys is adversely affected by rapid tool wear as a consequence of high cutting zone temperature. Conventional cutting fluids are ineffective in controlling the cutting temperature in the cutting zone. In this research work, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of liquid nitrogen when it is applied to the rake surface, and the main and auxiliary flank surfaces through holes made in the cutting tool insert during the turning of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The cryogenic results of the cutting temperature, cutting forces, surface roughness and tool wear of the modified cutting tool insert have been compared with those of wet machining. It has been observed that in the cryogenic cooling method, the cutting temperature was reduced by 61-66% and the surface roughness was reduced to a maximum of 36% over wet machining. The cutting force was decreased by 35-42% and the flank wear was reduced by 27-39% in cryogenic cooling over that of wet machining. Cryogenic cooling enabled a substantial reduction in the geometry of tool wear through the control of the tool wear mechanisms. The application of liquid nitrogen to the heat generation zones through holes made in the cutting tool insert was considered to be more effective over conventional machining.

  17. Micro Shot Blasting of Machine Tools for Improving Surface Finish and Reducing Cutting Forces in Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Vahey, James, (Thesis); Kennedy, David

    2005-01-01

    Micro blasting of cutting tips and tools is a very effective and reliable method of advancing the life of tools under the action of turning, milling, drilling, punching and cutting. This paper outlines the ways in which micro blasted tools, both coated and un coated have benefited from shot blasting and resulted in greater productivity, lower cutting forces, improved surface finish of the work pieces and less machine downtime. The process of micro blasting is discussed in the paper. Its effec...

  18. Design and analysis of the internally cooled smart cutting tools with the applications to adaptive machining

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Che Ghani, Saiful Anwar

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Adaptive machining with internally cooled smart cutting tools is a smart solution for industrial applications, which have stringent manufacturing requirements such as contamination free machining (CFM), high material removal rate, low tool wear and better surface integrity. The absence of cutting fluid in CFM causes the cutting tool and the workpiece subject to great thermal loads owing to hi...

  19. Development of remote pipe cutting tool for divertor cassettes in JT-60SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote pipe cutting tool accessing from inside pipe has been newly developed for JT-60SA. The tool head equips a disk-shaped cutter blade and four rollers which are subjected to the reaction force. The tool pushes out the cutter blade by decreasing the distance between two cams. The tool cuts a cooling pipe by both pushing out the cutter blade and rotating the tool head itself. The roller holder is not pushed out anymore after touching the inner wall of the pipe. In other words, only cutter blade is pushed out after bringing the tool axis into the pipe axis. Outer diameter of the cutting tool head is 44 mm. The cutting tool is able to push out the cutter blade up to 32.5 mm in radius, i.e. 65 mm in diameter, which is enough to cut the pipe having an outer diameter of 59.8 mm. The thickness and material of the cooling pipe are 2.8 mm and SUS316L, respectively. The length of the cutting tool head is about 1 m. The tool is able to cut a pipe locates about 480 mm in depth from the mounting surface on the divertor cassette. The pipe cutting system equips two cutting heads and they are able to cut two pipes at the same time in order to remove the inner target plate. Reproducibility of the cross-sectional shape of the cut pipe is required for re-welding. The degree of reproducibility is inside 0.1 mm except for burr at outside of the pipe, which is enough to re-weld the cut pipe. Some swarf is generated during cutting the double-layered pipe assuming a plug located on the top of the pipe. The swarf is deposited on the bottom of the plug and collected by pulling out the plug in the actual equipment

  20. Fabrication, characterization and tests on Si3 N4 cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon nitride based ceramic cutting tools were developed in Brazil. Itria and aluminium nitride has been used as sintering aids. The samples evaluations were performed using, specific mass determination, X ray diffraction, microhardness testing, fracture toughness by by indentation method and microstructural examination via scanning electron microscopy. After samples evaluation, some pressureless sintering silicon nitride based ceramic cutting tools were made. A piece of cast iron was machined using these cutting tools. For the purpose of comparison, a commercial hard metal cutting tools have also been used to perform the same machining. (author)

  1. EFFECT OF TOOL NOSE RADIUS AND CUTTING PARAMETERS ON TOOL LIFE, SURFACE ROUGHNESS IN TURNING OF GREY CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna P Kulkarni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In metal cutting industries peoples are trying to reduce the cost of the production by proper selection of inserts, tool geometry, and cutting conditions to obtain economical benefits. Tool nose radius has significant influence on tool life and surface finish. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of tool nose radius under different cutting conditions and their effect on tool life, surface roughness. The measurement has been carried out by rough boring operation using grey cast iron cylinder liners at three cutting speed (Vc and feed rate (f. Depth of cut (doc is kept constant at 2.5mm.Cutting tool used in this work is multilayer coated tool of nose radius 0.8mm and 1.2mm nose radius. Tool coated with titanium nitride (TiN + titanium carbo nitride (TiCN +Aluminium oxide (Al2O3 coating. The insert is designated with SNMG 120408. Cutting conditions used is speed (Vc 100m/min, 125m/min and 150m/min. Feed rate (f 0.20mm/rev,0.23mm/rev,0.27mm/rev.Finally results of the present work determine the appropriate parameter for increasing the tool life and surface finish for two different nose radius tools.

  2. Modelling of cutting tool - soil interaction - part I: contact behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardin, A.; Zavarise, G.; Schrefler, B. A.

    The unknown interaction of the cutting tools with geological settings represents an interesting problem for the excavation machinery industry. To simplify the non-linear aspects involved in the numerical analysis of such phenomena a strategy for an accurate soil modelling has to be defined. A possible approach is the discrete one, by considering the soil as an assembly of rigid spheres. In this work this strategy is adopted. The basic idea is to concentrate at the contact level between the spheres the real mechanical behaviour of the soil. For this purpose suitable contact models have been developed, where specific elasto-plastic laws have been implemented in the node-to-segment contact formulation. The framework for the plastic behaviour consists of a failure criterion, a one-dimensional, rate-independent elasto-plastic flow rule for the normal and the tangential force and a non-linear yield criterion. The final aim of this paper is to develop mechanical models to study the behaviour of stiff soils and rocks under different loading conditions.

  3. Wear Characteristics of Multilayer-Coated Cutting Tools in Milling Wood and Wood-Based Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fahrussiam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the characteristic of wear on the clearance face of newly multilayer-coated K10 cutting tools when cutting mersawa wood, fiberboard, particleboard, and glass reinforced concrete (GRC. The K10 cutting tools were coated with monolayer titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN, multilayer TiAlN/titanium silicon nitride (TiSiN, and TiAlN/titanium boron oxide nitride (TiBON. Cutting tests were performed on computer numeric control router at a high cutting speed of 17 m/s and a feed rate of 0.2 mm/rev to investigate the wear characteristics on the clearance face of these coated tools. Experimental results show that the coated tools experienced a smaller amount of clearance wear than the uncoated tool in cutting the mersawa wood, fiberboard, particleboard, and GRC. The GRC compared to the other work materials caused higher amount of clearance wear for both the uncoated and coated cutting tools. High content of silica and density were the reason for this phenomenon. The best coating among other coated cutting tools in this study was multilayer TiAlN/TiBON. The high hardness, low coefficient of friction, high resistance to oxidation, and high resistance to delamination wear of the multilayer-coated TiAlN/TiBON tool indicate a very promising applicability of this coating for high-speed cutting of abrasive woods and wood-based materials.

  4. Effect of laser incidence angle on cut quality of 4 mm thick stainless steel sheet using fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullick, Suvradip; Agrawal, Arpit Kumar; Nath, Ashish Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Fiber laser has potential to outperform the more traditionally used CO2 lasers in sheet metal cutting applications due to its higher efficiency, better beam quality, reliability and ease of beam delivery through optical fiber. It has been however, reported that the higher focusability and shorter wavelength are advantageous for cutting thin metal sheets up to about 2 mm only. Better focasability results in narrower kerf-width, which leads to an earlier flow separation in the flow of assist gas within the kerf, resulting in uncontrolled material removal and poor cut quality. However, the advarse effect of tight focusability can be taken care by shifting the focal point position towards the bottom surface of work-piece, which results in a wider kerf size. This results in a more stable flow within the kerf for a longer depth, which improves the cut quality. It has also been reported that fiber laser has an unfavourable angle of incidence during cutting of thick sections, resulting in poor absorption at the metal surface. Therefore, the effect of laser incidence angle, along with other process parameters, viz. cutting speed and assist gas pressure on the cut quality of 4 mm thick steel sheet has been investigated. The change in laser incidence angle has been incorporated by inclining the beam towards and away from the cut front, and the quality factors are taken as the ratio of kerf width and the striation depth. Besides the absorption of laser radiation, beam inclination is also expected to influence the gas flow characteristics inside the kerf, shear force phenomena on the molten pool, laser beam coupling and laser power distribution at the inclined cut surface. Design of experiment has been used by implementing response surface methodology (RSM) to study the parametric dependence of cut quality, as well as to find out the optimum cut quality. An improvement in quality has been observed for both the inclination due to the combined effect of multiple phenomena.

  5. Experimental investigation of cutting tool performance in high speed cutting of hardened X210 Cr12 cold-work tool steel (62 HRC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan, E

    2005-02-15

    This study explored the performance and wear behaviour of different cutting tools in end milling of X210 Cr12 cold-work tool steel hardened to 62 HRC. The purpose of the experiments reported in this paper is to investigate the wear of TiCN coated tungsten carbide, TiCN + TiAlN coated tungsten carbide, TiAlN coated cermet, mixed ceramic with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + TiCN and cubic boron nitride (CBN) tools. Tool performance evaluation was based on the surface finish and tool flank wear. Tool flank wear was studied carefully through JSM 5600 (30 kW) scanning electron microscope. Surface roughness values were measured by Mitutoyo Metusurf 310 equipment. CBN tool exhibited the best cutting performance in terms of both flank wear and surface finish. The highest volume of metal removal was obtained with CBN tool.

  6. Experimental investigation of cutting tool performance in high speed cutting of hardened X210 Cr12 cold-work tool steel (62 HRC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study explored the performance and wear behaviour of different cutting tools in end milling of X210 Cr12 cold-work tool steel hardened to 62 HRC. The purpose of the experiments reported in this paper is to investigate the wear of TiCN coated tungsten carbide, TiCN + TiAlN coated tungsten carbide, TiAlN coated cermet, mixed ceramic with Al2O3 + TiCN and cubic boron nitride (CBN) tools. Tool performance evaluation was based on the surface finish and tool flank wear. Tool flank wear was studied carefully through JSM 5600 (30 kW) scanning electron microscope. Surface roughness values were measured by Mitutoyo Metusurf 310 equipment. CBN tool exhibited the best cutting performance in terms of both flank wear and surface finish. The highest volume of metal removal was obtained with CBN tool

  7. Communication research between working capacity of hard- alloy cutting tools and fractal dimension of their wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefiev, K.; Nesterenko, V.; Daneykina, N.

    2016-06-01

    The results of communication research between the wear resistance of the K applicability hard-alloy cutting tools and the fractal dimension of the wear surface, which is formed on a back side of the cutting edge when processing the materials showing high adhesive activity are presented in the paper. It has been established that the wear resistance of tested cutting tools samples increases according to a fractal dimension increase of their wear surface.

  8. Investigation of tool geometry effect and penetration strategies on cutting forces during thread milling

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Vishal; Fromentin, Guillaume; Poulachon, Gérard; BRENDLEN, Romain

    2014-01-01

    The application of thread milling is increasing in industry because of its inherent advantages over other thread cutting techniques. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of milling cutter tool geometry on cutting forces during thread milling. The proposed method can compare the performance of milling cutters in spite of the different number of tooth. The best thread milling cutter among the studied tools was determined from the cutting forces point of view. Furthermore, th...

  9. Development of Software for Analyzing Breakage Cutting ToolsBased on Image Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彦玲; 刘献礼; 王鹏; 王波; 王红运

    2004-01-01

    As the present day digital microsystems do not provide specialized microscopes that can detect cutting-tool, analysis software has been developed using VC++. A module for verge test and image segmentation is designed specifically for cutting-tools. Known calibration relations and given postulates are used in scale measurements. Practical operations show that the software can perform accurate detection.

  10. Design of an instrumented smart cutting tool and its implementation and application perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an innovative design of a smart cutting tool, using two surface acoustic wave (SAW) strain sensors mounted onto the top and the side surface of the tool shank respectively, and its implementation and application perspectives. This surface acoustic wave-based smart cutting tool is capable of measuring the cutting force and the feed force in a real machining environment, after a calibration process under known cutting conditions. A hybrid dissimilar workpiece is then machined using the SAW-based smart cutting tool. The hybrid dissimilar material is made of two different materials, NiCu alloy (Monel) and steel, welded together to form a single bar; this can be used to simulate an abrupt change in material properties. The property transition zone is successfully detected by the tool; the sensor feedback can then be used to initiate a change in the machining parameters to compensate for the altered material properties. (paper)

  11. Decrease of FIB-induced lateral damage for diamond tool used in nano cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We mainly aim to characterize and decrease the FIB-induced damage on diamond tool. • Raman and XPS methods were used to characterize the nanoscale FIB-induced damage. • Lower energy FIB can effectively lessen the FIB-induced damage on diamond tool. • The diamond tools’ performance was greatly improved after FIB process optimization. • 6 nm chip thickness of copper was achieved by diamond tool with 22 nm edge radius. - Abstract: Diamond cutting tools with nanometric edge radius used in ultra-precision machining can be fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) technology. However, due to the nanoscale effects, the diamond tools performance and the cutting edge lifetime in nano cutting would be degraded because of the FIB-induced nanoscale lateral damage. In this study, the methods of how to effectively characterize and decrease the FIB-induced lateral damage for diamond tool are intensively studied. Based on the performance optimization diamond machining tools, the controllable chip thickness of less than 10 nm was achieved on a single-crystal copper in nano cutting. In addition, the ratio of minimum thickness of chip (MTC) to tool edge radius of around 0.3–0.4 in nano cutting is achieved. Methods for decreasing the FIB-induced damage on diamond tools and adding coolant during the nano cutting are very beneficial in improving the research of nano cutting and MTC. The nano cutting experiments based on the sharp and high performance of diamond tools would validate the nano cutting mechanisms that many molecular dynamic simulation studies have put forward and provide new findings for nano cutting

  12. Forces in Hard Turning of 51CrV4 with Wiper Cutting Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xinfeng; WU Su; Hubert Kratz

    2006-01-01

    For precision machining, the hard turning process is becoming an important alternative to some of the existing grinding processes. This paper presents an analytical model for predicting cutting forces in hard turning of 51CrV4 with hardness of 68 HRC. The cutting tool used is made from cubic boron nitride (CBN) with a wiper cutting edge. Formulas for differential chip loads are derived for three different situations, depending on the radial depth of cut. The cutting forces are determined by integrating the differential cutting forces over the tool-workpiece engagement domain. For validation, cutting forces predicted by the model were compared with experimental measurements, and most of the results agree quite well.

  13. Producing Fe-W-Co-Cr-C Alloy Cutting Tool Material Through Powder Metallurgy Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta Banik, Bibhas; Dutta, Debasish; Ray, Siddhartha

    2016-06-01

    High speed steel tools can withstand high impact forces as they are tough in nature. But they cannot retain their hardness at elevated temperature i.e. their hot hardness is low. Therefore permissible cutting speed is low and tools wear out easily. Use of lubricants is essential for HSS cutting tools. On the other hand cemented carbide tools can withstand greater compressive force, but due to lower toughness the tool can break easily. Moreover the cost of the tool is comparatively high. To achieve a better machining economy, Fe-W-Co-Cr-C alloys are being used nowadays. Their toughness is as good as HSS tools and hardness is very near to carbide tools. Even, at moderate cutting speeds they can be safely used in old machines having vibration. Moreover it is much cheaper than carbide tools. This paper highlights the Manufacturing Technology of the alloy and studies the comparative tribological properties of the alloy and tungsten mono carbide.

  14. Effect of Cutting Parameters on Microhardness in 2 mm Slot Milling Hardened Tool Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the dependency of surface integrity on cutting parameters in slot milling of hardened tool steel. A series of 2 mm slot milling tests have been performed with different cutting parameters. Microhardness was chosen for evaluation of subsurface integrity....... The process was found to be sensitive to cutting parameters. An increase of feed per tooth or depth of cut produced a reduction of the microhardness of the slot surface. An optimal combination of machining parameters was found to be 80-110 m/min in cutting speed, 0.005 mm in feed per tooth and 0.1 mm...

  15. NC flame pipe cutting machine tool based on open architecture CNC system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaogen NIE; Yanbing LIU

    2009-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the principle and flame movement of a pipe cutting machine tool, a retrofit NC flame pipe cutting machine tool (NFPCM) that can meet the demands of cutting various pipes is proposed. The paper deals with the design and implementation of an open architecture CNC system for the NFPCM, many of whose aspects are similar to milling machines; however, different from their machining processes and control strategies. The paper emphasizes on the NC system structure and the method for directly creating the NC file according to the cutting type and parameters. Further, the paper develops the program and sets up the open and module NC system.

  16. STUDY ON COATING MECHANISM OF DIAMOND FILM ON CUTTING TOOL AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The deposition mechanism of diamond film on cutting tools and the state of the interface between film and substrate are studied theoretically and experimentally. Methods for controlling diamond crystalline state and improving adhesion of diamond films to substrates are proposed to improve the quality of diamond-coated tools.Experiments are performed by cutting Al-Sil8% alloy and SiCp/Al composite with diamond coated tool. The results indicate that the life of coated tools is 90 times higher than that of non-coated tools. Wear mechanism of diamond-coated tools is also studied.

  17. Laboratory versus industrial cutting force sensor in tool condition monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research works concerning the utilisation of cutting force measures in tool condition monitoring usually present results and deliberations based on laboratory sensors. These sensors are too fragile to be used in industrial practice. Industrial sensors employed on the factory floor are less accurate, and this must be taken into account when creating a tool condition monitoring strategy. Another drawback of most of these works is that constant cutting parameters are used for the entire tool life. This does not reflect industrial practice where the same tool is used at different feeds and depths of cut in sequential passes. This paper presents a comparison of signals originating from laboratory and industrial cutting force sensors. The usability of the sensor output was studied during a laboratory simulation of industrial cutting conditions. Instead of building mathematical models for the correlation between tool wear and cutting force, an FFBP artificial neural network was used to find which combination of input data would provide an acceptable estimation of tool wear. The results obtained proved that cross talk between channels has an important influence on cutting force measurements, however this input configuration can be used for a tool condition monitoring system

  18. A methodology for cutting tool management through the integration of CAPP and scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Meseguer Calas, Amparo; Gonzalez Contreras, F

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Tool management is an important element in the efficiency of flexible manufacturing systems. This paper improves manufacturing flexibility through integrated computer aided process planning and scheduling with tool management. A new methodology for cutting tool management is introduced, based on the use of alternative tools. In the methodology proposed, computer aided process planning singles out all possible tool alternatives for each operation. The tool manager is design...

  19. Verifying Nd-Tool Quality Using Plunge Cuts And Micro-Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullner, Dieter

    1986-11-01

    In micromachining of aspherical surfaces the diamond tools are used in a zone extending over a certain segment. This zone is minimized in the spherical generator type machine, but it must be found and located by knowing edge quality over the entire length. Our method of verifying edge sharpness over the entire tool radius as well as the circularity (form) consists in viewing with a micro-interferometer a plunge cut trace produced in the real tool-workpiece configuration. This allows to set a partially defective tool for optimum machining conditions. One can also set for best cutting depth, because certain tool damages on the rear phase become effective only with deeper cuts. This will be illustrated. The micro-interferometer plunge cut inspection allows to detect material vibration, chatter and crossflow of material.

  20. Carbon nanotube reinforced metal binder for diamond cutting tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny;

    2015-01-01

    grain size of the structural constituents of the binder, what in turn leads to the improved simultaneously hardness, Young modulus, plastic extension, bending strength and performances of the metallic binders. Comparing service properties of diamond end-cutting drill bits with and without MWCNT one...

  1. Measurement and suppression of cutting tool vibration using piezoelectric ceramic in ansys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure vibration produced in lathe cutting tool various kinds of procedures are adopted. Small patch of piezoelectric ceramic material is successfully incorporated into turning cutting which is modeled in Pro Engineer and examined in finite element analysis to check vibrations in material cutting processes. Model and harmonic analysis are performed. The relative amplitudes of mode shapes and frequencies are identified by analyses which are causing chatter. The results are compared with the analysis which is performed without using piezoelectric material patch. (author)

  2. A Hybrid Pattern Recognition Architecture for Cutting Tool Condition Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Pan; Hope, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    An intelligent tool condition monitoring system has been established. Tool wear classification is realized by applying a unique fuzzy neural hybrid pattern recognition system. On the basis of this investigation, the following conclusions can be made.

  3. ACOUSTIC EMISSIONS AT THE INSTANT DESTRUCTION OF THE CUTTING TOOL

    OpenAIRE

    Філоненко, С.; Національний авіаційний університет; Косицка, Т.; Національний авіаційний університет; Німченко, Т.; Національний авіаційний університет

    2013-01-01

    The outcomes of simulation of acoustic emission resulting signal are reviewed, which one is reshaped at ma­chine work of cutting material, with allowance of instantaneous composite material destruction. Is shown, that at instantaneous destruction of composite material on an acoustic emission resulting signal there is appearance of let of amplitude. Influencing the area of instantaneous destruction of composite material on value of acoustic emission resulting signal of let of amplitude is dete...

  4. Reducing bending stress in external spur gears by redesign of the standard cutting tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2009-01-01

    For the design of gears the stress due to bending plays a significant role. The stress from bending is largest in the root of the gear teeth, and the magnitude of the maximum stress is controlled by the nominal bending stress and stress concentration due to the geometric shape of the tooth. In this...... work the bending stress of involute teeth is minimized by shape optimizing the tip of the standard cutting tool. By redesign of the tip of the standard cutting tool we achieve that the functional part of the teeth stays the same while at the same time the root shape is changed so that a reduction of...... the stresses results. The tool tip shape is described by different parameterizations that use the super ellipse as the central shape. For shape optimization it is important that the shape is given analytically. The shape of the cut tooth that is the envelope of the cutting tool is found analytically...

  5. Hardening of the cutting tool by the coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Skoblo, T. S.; Romaniuk, S. P.; Sidashenko, А. I.; Muratov, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Raising of problem. The existing operational stability of the thin-walled circular knife does not satisfy the requirements of the confectionery production and it has been provided with additional reinforcement by the nanocoating on one side (the cutting edge and the basis). At that the effective application is the coating on the basis blade both in the form of ribs, as well as continuous coating. For this the WC coating of 20…100 nm thickness has been applied. It was obtained by the PVD metho...

  6. Cutting force and wear evaluation in peripheral milling by CVD diamond dental tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polini, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: polini@uniroma2.it; Allegri, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Guarino, S. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Quadrini, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Sein, H. [Department of Chemistry and Materials, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Ahmed, W. [Department of Chemistry and Materials, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-22

    Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) tools are currently employed in dental application for prosthesis fabrication. The deposition of a diamond coating onto WC-Co tools could allow both to increase the tool life and tool performance at higher speeds. However, at present it is very difficult to quantify the effective advantage of the application of a diamond coating onto dental tools compared to traditional uncoated tools. Therefore, in this work, we have deposited diamond coatings onto WC-Co dental tools having different geometries by Hot Filament Chemical Vapour Deposition (HFCVD). Prior to deposition, the WC-Co tools were pre-treated in order to roughen the surface and to modify the chemical surface composition. The use of the HFCVD process enabled the deposition of a uniform coating despite the complex geometries of the dental mills. For the first time, in accordance to the knowledge of the authors, we have studied and compared the cutting behaviour of both virgin and diamond-coated dental tools by measuring both wear and cutting force time evolution under milling a very hard Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy. To ensure constant cutting rate (20,000-r.p.m. cutting rate, 0.01-m/min feed rate and 0.5-mm depth of cut), a proper experimental apparatus was used. Three different mill geometries were considered in both coated and uncoated conditions. The results showed that, under the high-speed conditions employed, uncoated tools underwent to catastrophic failure within a few seconds of machining. Diamond-coated tools exhibited much longer tool lives. Lower forces were measured when the coated tool was employed due to the much lower material-mill friction. The best behaviour was observed for coated mills with the presence of a chip-breaker.

  7. Cutting force and wear evaluation in peripheral milling by CVD diamond dental tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) tools are currently employed in dental application for prosthesis fabrication. The deposition of a diamond coating onto WC-Co tools could allow both to increase the tool life and tool performance at higher speeds. However, at present it is very difficult to quantify the effective advantage of the application of a diamond coating onto dental tools compared to traditional uncoated tools. Therefore, in this work, we have deposited diamond coatings onto WC-Co dental tools having different geometries by Hot Filament Chemical Vapour Deposition (HFCVD). Prior to deposition, the WC-Co tools were pre-treated in order to roughen the surface and to modify the chemical surface composition. The use of the HFCVD process enabled the deposition of a uniform coating despite the complex geometries of the dental mills. For the first time, in accordance to the knowledge of the authors, we have studied and compared the cutting behaviour of both virgin and diamond-coated dental tools by measuring both wear and cutting force time evolution under milling a very hard Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy. To ensure constant cutting rate (20,000-r.p.m. cutting rate, 0.01-m/min feed rate and 0.5-mm depth of cut), a proper experimental apparatus was used. Three different mill geometries were considered in both coated and uncoated conditions. The results showed that, under the high-speed conditions employed, uncoated tools underwent to catastrophic failure within a few seconds of machining. Diamond-coated tools exhibited much longer tool lives. Lower forces were measured when the coated tool was employed due to the much lower material-mill friction. The best behaviour was observed for coated mills with the presence of a chip-breaker

  8. Investigation on Cutting Tool Performance of α-Si3N4 - β SiAlON Ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Çalışkan, Fatih; Tatlı, Zafer; Kılıç, Serkan; Sönmez, Hakkı

    2014-01-01

    One of the ceramic products is ceramic cutting edges and these are used as cutting tools for fabrication of metal products (ferrous and non ferrous metals) at very high speeds. These cutting tools can mainly be classified silicon nitride, alumina, mixed-ceramics, titanium carbonitride, cubic boron nitride and hard ceramic particle reinforced metals. Ceramic cutting tools offer a high productivity because of their superior hardness, fracture toughness and resistance of elevated temperature whi...

  9. Surface Roughness Prediction Model in Machining of Carbon Steel by PVD Coated Cutting Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Sahin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface roughness model in the turning of AISI 1040 carbon steel was developed in terms of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut using response surface methodology. Machining tests were carried out using PVD-coated tools under different cutting conditions. The surface roughness equations of cutting tools when machining the carbon steels were achieved by using the experimental data. The results are presented in terms of mean values and confidence levels. The established equation shows that the feed rate was found to be a main influencing factor on the surface roughness. It increased with increasing the feed rate, but decreased with increasing the cutting speed and the depth of cut, respectively. The variance analysis for the second-order model shows that the interaction terms and the square terms were statically insignificant. However, it could be seen that the first-order effect of feed rate was significant while cutting speed and depth of cut was insignificant. The predicted surface roughness of the samples was found to lie close to that of the experimentally observed ones with 95% confident intervals.

  10. Faulting at Mormon Point, Death Valley, California: A low-angle normal fault cut by high-angle faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Charles; Serpa, Laura; Pavlis, Terry L.

    1993-04-01

    New geophysical and fault kinematic studies indicate that late Cenozoic basin development in the Mormon Point area of Death Valley, California, was accommodated by fault rotations. Three of six fault segments recognized at Mormon Point are now inactive and have been rotated to low dips during extension. The remaining three segments are now active and moderately to steeply dipping. From the geophysical data, one active segment appears to offset the low-angle faults in the subsurface of Death Valley.

  11. Research on the Cutting Performance of Cubic Boron Nitride Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    There were only two kinds of superhard tool material at the past, i.e. diamond and cubic boron nitride (CBN). Manmade diamond and CBN are manufactured by the middle of 20th century. Various manufacturing methods and manmade superhard materials were developed later. They were widely used in different industry and science areas. Recently, a new kind of superhard tool material, C 3N 4 coating film, had been developed. American physical scientists, A. M. Liu and M. L. Cohen, designed a new kind of inorganic c...

  12. Reliability estimation for cutting tools based on logistic regression model using vibration signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baojia; Chen, Xuefeng; Li, Bing; He, Zhengjia; Cao, Hongrui; Cai, Gaigai

    2011-10-01

    As an important part of CNC machine, the reliability of cutting tools influences the whole manufacturing effectiveness and stability of equipment. The present study proposes a novel reliability estimation approach to the cutting tools based on logistic regression model by using vibration signals. The operation condition information of the CNC machine is incorporated into reliability analysis to reflect the product time-varying characteristics. The proposed approach is superior to other degradation estimation methods in that it does not necessitate any assumption about degradation paths and probability density functions of condition parameters. The three steps of new reliability estimation approach for cutting tools are as follows. First, on-line vibration signals of cutting tools are measured during the manufacturing process. Second, wavelet packet (WP) transform is employed to decompose the original signals and correlation analysis is employed to find out the feature frequency bands which indicate tool wear. Third, correlation analysis is also used to select the salient feature parameters which are composed of feature band energy, energy entropy and time-domain features. Finally, reliability estimation is carried out based on logistic regression model. The approach has been validated on a NC lathe. Under different failure threshold, the reliability and failure time of the cutting tools are all estimated accurately. The positive results show the plausibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach, which can facilitate machine performance and reliability estimation.

  13. Advantages of the CCD camera measurements for profile and wear of cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our paper we prepared an evaluating study of which conclusions draw mainly two directions for our fields of research. On the one hand, this means the measuring of fix, standing workpieces, on the other hand this means geometrical measurement of moving tools. The first case seems to be solved in many respects (in general cases), but the second one is not completely worked out according to the relevant literature. The monitoring of tool wear, the determination of geometrical parameters (this is mainly in case of gear-generating tools) is not really widespread yet, mainly, if optical parameters have influence on the evaluating procedure (e.g. examination of profiles of grinding wheels). We show the elaboration of a process for the practical application of measuring techniques performed by image processing CCD cameras on the basis of wearing criteria of different cutting tools (drilling tool, turning tool). We have made a profile and cutting tool wear measuring program

  14. Wear properties of TiN coated cutting tools implanted with nitrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the preliminary results on improving the wear properties of TiN coated WC-Co cutting inserts by nitrogen implantation, both conventional and using PIII process. A moderate increase of the tool life has been observed in some cases. It is concluded that ion implantation of uncoated tools might be a better solution from an economical point of view. (author)

  15. Reliable tool life measurements in turning - an application to cutting fluid efficiency evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos A.; Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    ) provides efficiency evaluation. Six cutting oils, five of which formulated from vegetable basestock, were evaluated in turning. Experiments were run in a range of cutting parameters. according to a 2, 3-1 factorial design, machining AISI 316L stainless steel with coated carbide tools. Tool life......The paper proposes a method to obtain reliable measurements of tool life in turning, discussing some aspects related to experimental procedure and measurement accuracy. The method (i) allows and experimental determination of the extended Taylor's equation, with a limited set of experiments and (ii...

  16. Information Technology: A Tool to Cut Health Care Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, Ravi; Maly, K. J.; Overstreet, C. M.; Foudriat, E. C.

    1996-01-01

    Old Dominion University embarked on a project to see how current computer technology could be applied to reduce the cost and or to improve the efficiency of health care services. We designed and built a prototype for an integrated medical record system (MRS). The MRS is written in Tool control language/Tool kit (Tcl/Tk). While the initial version of the prototype had patient information hard coded into the system, later versions used an INGRES database for storing patient information. Currently, we have proposed an object-oriented model for implementing MRS. These projects involve developing information systems for physicians and medical researchers to enhance their ability for improved treatment at reduced costs. The move to computerized patient records is well underway, several standards exist for laboratory records, and several groups are working on standards for other portions of the patient record.

  17. Modelling and Development of a High Performance Milling Process with Monolithic Cutting Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critical aerospace components usually require difficult to machine workpiece materials like nickel based alloys. Moreover; there is a pressing need to maximize the productivity of machining operations. This need can be satisfied by selection of higher feed velocity, axial and radial depths. But there may be several problems during machining in this case. Due to high cutting speeds in high performance machining, the tool life may be unacceptably low. If magnitudes of cutting forces are high, out of tolerance static form errors may result; moreover in the extreme cases, the cutting tool may break apart. Forced vibrations may deteriorate the surface quality. Chatter vibrations may develop if the selected parameters result in instability. In this study, in order to deal with the tool life issue, several experimental cuts are made with different tool geometries, and the best combination in terms of tool life is selected. A force model is developed and the results of the force model are verified by experimental results. The force model is used in predicting the effect of process parameters on cutting forces. In order to account for the other concerns such as static form errors, forced and chatter vibrations, additional process models are currently under development.

  18. Thermal modelling of cooling tool cutting when milling by electrical analogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benmoussa H.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurement temperatures by (some devises are applied immediately after shut-down and may be corrected for the temperature drop that occurs in the interval between shut-down and measurement. This paper presents a new procedure for thermal modelling of the tool cutting used just after machining; when the tool is out off the chip in order to extrapolate the cutting temperature from the temperature measured when the tool is at stand still. A fin approximation is made in enhancing heat loss (by conduction and convection to air stream is used. In the modelling we introduce an equivalent thermal network to estimate the cutting temperature as a function of specific energy. In another hand, a local modified element lumped conduction equation is used to predict the temperature gradient with time when the tool is being cooled, with initial and boundary conditions. These predictions provide a detailed view of the global heat transfer coefficient as a function of cutting speed because the heat loss for the tool in air stream is an order of magnitude larger than in normal environment. Finally we deduct the cutting temperature by inverse method.

  19. SIMULATION SYSTEM FOR FIVE-AXIS NC MACHINING USING GENERAL CUTTING TOOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A simulation system for five-axis NC machining using general cutting tools is presented. This system differs from other simulation system in that it not only focuses on the geometric simulation but also focuses on the collision detection which is usually not included in NC machining simulation. Besides all of these, estimating cutting forces is also discussed. In order to obtain high efficiency, all algorithms use swept volume modeling technique, so the simulation system is compact and can be performed efficiently.

  20. Steel characteristics and their link to chip breaking and tool wear in metal cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Ånmark, Niclas

    2016-01-01

    The vision of this thesis is to study how it is possible to obtain optimised workpieces during metal cutting processes in industry. Specifically, the work is aimed to increase the understanding between the steel characteristics and their link to the chip breaking and tool wear during metal cutting. The emphasis is on the influence of the cleanliness and the characteristics of non-metallic inclusions in the workpiece on the machinability of carburising steel grades. The machinability of a case...

  1. Kinect, a Novel Cutting Edge Tool in Pavement Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, A.; Firoozi Yeganeh, S.; Golroo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pavement roughness and surface distress detection is of interest of decision makers due to vehicle safety, user satisfaction, and cost saving. Data collection, as a core of pavement management systems, is required for these detections. There are two major types of data collection: traditional/manual data collection and automated/semi-automated data collection. This paper study different non-destructive tools in detecting cracks and potholes. For this purpose, automated data collection tools, which have been utilized recently are discussed and their applications are criticized. The main issue is the significant amount of money as a capital investment needed to buy the vehicle. The main scope of this paper is to study the approach and related tools that not only are cost-effective but also precise and accurate. The new sensor called Kinect has all of these specifications. It can capture both RGB images and depth which are of significant use in measuring cracks and potholes. This sensor is able to take image of surfaces with adequate resolution to detect cracks along with measurement of distance between sensor and obstacles in front of it which results in depth of defects. This technology has been very recently studied by few researchers in different fields of studies such as project management, biomedical engineering, etc. Pavement management has not paid enough attention to use of Kinect in monitoring and detecting distresses. This paper is aimed at providing a thorough literature review on usage of Kinect in pavement management and finally proposing the best approach which is cost-effective and precise.

  2. Effect of Plasma Nitriding on the Performance of WC-Co Cutting Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoglu, Ebru; Yilmaz, Safak; Gulmez, Turgut

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the effect of nitriding process parameters on the cutting performance of WC-Co tools. The cutting performance was measured by CNC machining of GG25 cast iron parts. The hardness and phase composition of nitrided layer were determined for different plasma nitriding temperatures and times. The hardness of the nitrided layer increased at all plasma nitrided conditions investigated. However, the machining performance of the cutting inserts varied in the range between a 60% increase and a 40% decrease after plasma nitriding. The maximum number of machined parts was seen when the insert was nitrided at 600 °C-4 h and at 500 °C-4 h.

  3. Experimental and theoretical studies on stainless steel transfer onto a TiN-coated cutting tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stainless steel is a good example of a metal that is not easily machined. To explain such behavior an understanding of the fundamental adhesion between the workpiece and the tool is invaluable. It is a well-known fact that build-up layers form in the interface, but little attention has been given to the very first layer that adheres to the tool surface. Although this layer rapidly becomes covered by successive material transfer, this layer and its ability to stick to the tool surface control the successive material transfer and influence the cutting properties. In this work, a quick stop test is employed to interrupt the cutting of a 316L stainless steel using a TiN-coated cemented carbide cutting insert. Different analytical techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, as well as theoretical atomistic modeling, were used to study the early adhesion.

  4. PIXE as a characterization technique in the cutting tool industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two WC–Co powders have been analyzed using micro-PIXE to identify elemental concentration and distribution. A powder recycled primarily from used mining components and a powder produced exclusively from fresh raw materials was studied. Elemental mapping of major elements as well as impurities, within powder granule cross sections, was performed. Contaminants (e.g. Fe and Ni) from manufacturing processes, as well as trace impurities (e.g. Cr, Cl, Ca and S) from recycling were detected, quantified and compared. The extent of increased concentrations of impurities resulting from recycling were observed, demonstrating the potential for PIXE as a characterization tool for detecting trace elements in cemented carbides, allowing for future improvements in the manufacturing and recycling processes

  5. PIXE as a characterization technique in the cutting tool industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freemantle, C.S., E-mail: chris@freemantle.co.za [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering and DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Pilot Tools (Pty) (Ltd.), P.O. Box 27559, Benrose 2011 (South Africa); Sacks, N. [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering and DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Topic, M. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa)

    2014-01-01

    Two WC–Co powders have been analyzed using micro-PIXE to identify elemental concentration and distribution. A powder recycled primarily from used mining components and a powder produced exclusively from fresh raw materials was studied. Elemental mapping of major elements as well as impurities, within powder granule cross sections, was performed. Contaminants (e.g. Fe and Ni) from manufacturing processes, as well as trace impurities (e.g. Cr, Cl, Ca and S) from recycling were detected, quantified and compared. The extent of increased concentrations of impurities resulting from recycling were observed, demonstrating the potential for PIXE as a characterization tool for detecting trace elements in cemented carbides, allowing for future improvements in the manufacturing and recycling processes.

  6. Chemical vapour deposition diamond coating on tungsten carbide dental cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond coatings on Co cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) hard metal tools are widely used for cutting non-ferrous metals. It is difficult to deposit diamond onto cutting tools, which generally have a complex geometry, using a single step growth process. This paper focuses on the deposition of polycrystalline diamond films onto dental tools, which possess 3D complex or cylindrical shape, employing a novel single step chemical vapour deposition (CVD) growth process. The diamond deposition is carried out in a hot filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) reactor with a modified filament arrangement. The filament is mounted vertically with the drill held concentrically in between the filament coils, as opposed to the commonly used horizontal arrangement. This is a simple and inexpensive filament arrangement. In addition, the problems associated with adhesion of diamond films on WC-Co substrates are amplified in dental tools due to the very sharp edges and unpredictable cutting forces. The presence of Co, used as a binder in hard metals, generally causes poor adhesion. The amount of metallic Co on the surface can be reduced using a two step pre-treatment employing Murakami etching followed by an acid treatment. Diamond films are examined in terms of their growth rate, morphology, adhesion and cutting efficiency. We found that in the diamond coated dental tool the wear rate was reduced by a factor of three as compared to the uncoated tool

  7. Artificial Intelligence Based Selection of Optimal Cutting Tool and Process Parameters for Effective Turning and Milling Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, Kunaparaju; John Rozario Jegaraj, J.; Ramesh Kumar, Katta; Venkateshwara Rao, Ghanta

    2016-06-01

    With the increased trend in automation of modern manufacturing industry, the human intervention in routine, repetitive and data specific activities of manufacturing is greatly reduced. In this paper, an attempt has been made to reduce the human intervention in selection of optimal cutting tool and process parameters for metal cutting applications, using Artificial Intelligence techniques. Generally, the selection of appropriate cutting tool and parameters in metal cutting is carried out by experienced technician/cutting tool expert based on his knowledge base or extensive search from huge cutting tool database. The present proposed approach replaces the existing practice of physical search for tools from the databooks/tool catalogues with intelligent knowledge-based selection system. This system employs artificial intelligence based techniques such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithm for decision making and optimization. This intelligence based optimal tool selection strategy is developed using Mathworks Matlab Version 7.11.0 and implemented. The cutting tool database was obtained from the tool catalogues of different tool manufacturers. This paper discusses in detail, the methodology and strategies employed for selection of appropriate cutting tool and optimization of process parameters based on multi-objective optimization criteria considering material removal rate, tool life and tool cost.

  8. An Approach to the Classification of Cutting Vibration on Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Fung Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Predictions of cutting vibrations are necessary for improving the operational efficiency, product quality, and safety in the machining process, since the vibration is the main factor for resulting in machine faults. “Cutting vibration” may be caused by setting incorrect parameters before machining is commenced and may affect the precision of the machined work piece. This raises the need to have an effective model that can be used to predict cutting vibrations. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN model to forecast and classify the cutting vibration of the intelligent machine tool is presented. The factors that may cause cutting vibrations is firstly identified and a dataset for the research purpose is constructed. Then, the applicability of the model is illustrated. Based on the results in the comparative analysis, the artificial neural network approach performed better than the others. Because the vibration can be forecasted and classified, the product quality can be managed. This work may help new workers to avoid operating machine tools incorrectly, and hence can decrease manufacturing costs. It is expected that this study can enhance the performance of machine tools in metalworking sectors.

  9. Machining of high performance workpiece materials with CBN coated cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The machining of high performance workpiece materials requires significantly harder cutting materials. In hard machining, the early tool wear occurs due to high process forces and temperatures. The hardest known material is the diamond, but steel materials cannot be machined with diamond tools because of the reactivity of iron with carbon. Cubic boron nitride (cBN) is the second hardest of all known materials. The supply of such PcBN indexable inserts, which are only geometrically simple and available, requires several work procedures and is cost-intensive. The development of a cBN coating for cutting tools, combine the advantages of a thin film system and of cBN. Flexible cemented carbide tools, in respect to the geometry can be coated. The cBN films with a thickness of up to 2 μm on cemented carbide substrates show excellent mechanical and physical properties. This paper describes the results of the machining of various workpiece materials in turning and milling operations regarding the tool life, resultant cutting force components and workpiece surface roughness. In turning tests of Inconel 718 and milling tests of chrome steel the high potential of cBN coatings for dry machining was proven. The results of the experiments were compared with common used tool coatings for the hard machining. Additionally, the wear mechanisms adhesion, abrasion, surface fatigue and tribo-oxidation were researched in model wear experiments.

  10. Production of structured thin wooden chips by milling with small cutting angles

    OpenAIRE

    Heisel, Uwe; Tröger, Johannes

    1994-01-01

    Thin wooden chips can be used in a wide range, primarily to produce ecological positive materials to substitute plastics and mineral wool for the use of thermal isolation and packaging materials. There are wide resources of wood and it can be wasted ecologically. Additionally, the production of wooden chips for the above mentioned purposes has clear advantages regarding the expenditure of energy. With existing machining methods for the production of wooden cutting chips, only a chip thickness...

  11. Ductile cutting of silicon microstructures with surface inclination measurement and compensation by using a force sensor integrated single point diamond tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Liu; Cai, Yindi; Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, So; Gao, Wei; Ju, Bing-Feng

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a measurement and compensation method of surface inclination for ductile cutting of silicon microstructures by using a diamond tool with a force sensor based on a four-axis ultra-precision lathe. The X- and Y-directional inclinations of a single crystal silicon workpiece with respect to the X- and Y-motion axes of the lathe slides were measured respectively by employing the diamond tool as a touch-trigger probe, in which the tool-workpiece contact is sensitively detected by monitoring the force sensor output. Based on the measurement results, fabrication of silicon microstructures can be thus carried out directly along the tilted silicon workpiece by compensating the cutting motion axis to be parallel to the silicon surface without time-consuming pre-adjustment of the surface inclination or turning of a flat surface. A diamond tool with a negative rake angle was used in the experiment for superior ductile cutting performance. The measurement precision by using the diamond tool as a touch-trigger probe was investigated. Experiments of surface inclination measurement and ultra-precision ductile cutting of a micro-pillar array and a micro-pyramid array with inclination compensation were carried out respectively to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  12. Development of pipe welding, cutting and inspection tools for the ITER blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In D-T burning reactors such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), an internal access welding/cutting of blanket cooling pipe with bend sections is inevitably required because of spatial constraint due to nuclear shield and available port opening space. For this purpose, internal access pipe welding/cutting/inspection tools for manifolds and branch pipes are being developed according to the agreement of the ITER R and D task (T329). A design concept of welding/cutting processing head with a flexible optical fiber has been developed and the basic feasibility studies on welding, cutting and rewelding are performed using stainless steel plate (SS316L). In the same way, a design concept of inspection head with a non-destructive inspection probe (including a leak-testing probe) has been developed and the basic characteristic tests are performed using welded stainless steel pipes. In this report, the details of welding/cutting/inspection heads for manifolds and branch pipes are described, together with the basic experiment results relating to the welding/cutting and inspection. In addition, details of a composite type optical fiber, which can transmit both the high-power YAG laser and visible rays, is described. (author)

  13. LOW PRESSURE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION (CVD) ON OXIDE AND NONOXIDE CERAMIC CUTTING TOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Layyous, A.; Wertheim, R.

    1989-01-01

    Cutting tools made of Al2O3+TiC, silicon nitride, carbide, and stabilized ZrO2 were coated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with a multilayer of TiN, TiCN, TiC and Al2O3 in different combinations. The adhesion of the coated layers to the substrate, and the structure of the layers were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Auger spectroscopy. This made it possible to analyze the chemical interaction between the substrate and the TiN at 1000°C. The cutting...

  14. BACK CHIP TEMPERATURE IN ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS TURNING WITH CONVENTIONAL AND INTERNALLY COOLED CUTTING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Anwar Che Ghani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Central to machining processes is the interaction between the tool insert and the chip of material removed from the blank. Chip-insert interaction occurs when the chip slides on the rake face of the insert. Heat is generated by the friction inherent to this sliding process. The temperature in the cutting zone of both the insert and the chip rises, usually facilitating adhesion, diffusion, and more complex chemical and physical phenomena between the insert and the chip. These effects accelerate the insert wear, ultimately undermining the tool life. Thus, a number of methods have been developed to control heat generation. Most typically, metal working fluids are conveyed onto the rake face in the cutting zone. However, this solution may be not ideal from the point of view of cost, the environment, and contamination of the part, which may be unacceptable, for example, in healthcare and optical applications. In this study, microfluidic structures internal to the insert are examined as a means of controlling the heat generation.Conventional and internallycooled tools were compared in dry turning of AA6082-T6 aluminum alloy in two 3  3 factorial experiments of different machining conditions. Statistical analyses support the conclusion that chip temperature depends only on the depth of cut,and not on the feed rate or cutting speed. They also show that the benefit of cooling the insert internally increases as the depth of cut increases. Therefore, internallycooled tools can be particularly advantageous in roughing operations.

  15. Resistance of Si3N4 ceramic tools to thermal and mechanical loading in cutting of iron alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, R F; Gomes, J. R.; Miranda, A. S.; J. M. Vieira

    1991-01-01

    The mechanisms of wear in two extreme cases relating to the performance of Si3N4-based cutting tools in machining iron alloys were investigated, with the corresponding wear rates correlated with cutting speed, tool and alloy composition and seizure. The sources of discrepancy between the cutting tests and conventional pin-on-disk tests are discussed on the basis of loads, surface speed, wear debris accumulation, reaction with atmospheric oxygen and solid lubrication. The distinct interacti...

  16. Prototype of Partial Cutting Tool of Geological Map Images Distributed by Geological Web Map Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, S.; Nemoto, T.

    2014-12-01

    Geological maps and topographical maps play an important role in disaster assessment, resource management, and environmental preservation. These map information have been distributed in accordance with Web services standards such as Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Map Tile Service (WMTS) recently. In this study, a partial cutting tool of geological map images distributed by geological WMTS was implemented with Free and Open Source Software. The tool mainly consists of two functions: display function and cutting function. The former function was implemented using OpenLayers. The latter function was implemented using Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL). All other small functions were implemented by PHP and Python. As a result, this tool allows not only displaying WMTS layer on web browser but also generating a geological map image of intended area and zoom level. At this moment, available WTMS layers are limited to the ones distributed by WMTS for the Seamless Digital Geological Map of Japan. The geological map image can be saved as GeoTIFF format and WebGL format. GeoTIFF is one of the georeferenced raster formats that is available in many kinds of Geographical Information System. WebGL is useful for confirming a relationship between geology and geography in 3D. In conclusion, the partial cutting tool developed in this study would contribute to create better conditions for promoting utilization of geological information. Future work is to increase the number of available WMTS layers and the types of output file format.

  17. MULTI-SCALE AND MULTI-PHASE NANOCOMPOSITE CERAMIC TOOLS AND CUTTING PERFORMANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Chuanzhen; LIU Hanlian; WANG Jun; WANG Hui

    2007-01-01

    An advanced ceramic cutting tool material Al2O3/TiC/TiN (LTN) is developed by incorporation and dispersion of micro-scale TiC particle and nano-scale TiN particle in alumina matrix. With the optimal dispersing and fabricating technology, this multi-scale and multi-phase nanocomposite ceramic tool material can get both higher flexural strength and fracture toughness than that of Al2O3/TiC (LT) ceramic tool material without nano-scale TiN particle, especially the fracture toughness can reach to 7.8 MPa·m0.5. The nano-scale TiN can lead to the grain fining effect and promote the sintering process to get a higher density. The coexisting transgranular and intergranular fracture mode induced by micro-scale TiC and nano-scale TiN, and the homogeneous and densified microstructure can result in a remarkable strengthening and toughening effect. The cutting performance and wear mechanisms of the advanced multi-scale and multi-phase nanocomposite ceramic cutting tool are researched.

  18. Wear monitoring of single point cutting tool using acoustic emission techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Kulandaivelu; P Senthil Kumar; S Sundaram

    2013-04-01

    This paper examines the flank and crater wear characteristics of coated carbide tool inserts during dry turning of steel workpieces. A brief review of tool wear mechanisms is presented together with new evidence showing that wear of the TiC layer on both flank and rake faces is dominated by discrete plastic deformation, which causes the coating to be worn through to the underlying carbide substrate when machining at high cutting speeds and feed rates. Wear also occurs as a result of abrasion, as well as cracking and attrition, with the latter leading to the wearing through the coating on the rake face under low speed conditions. When moderate speeds and feeds are used, the coating remains intact throughout the duration of testing. Wear mechanism maps linking the observed wear mechanisms to machining conditions are presented for the first time. These maps demonstrate clearly that transitions from one dominant wear mechanism to another may be related to variations in measured tool wear rates. Comparisons of the present wear maps with similar maps for uncoated carbide tools show that TiC coatings dramatically expand the range of machining conditions under which acceptable rates of tool wear might be experienced. However, the extent of improvement brought about by the coatings depends strongly on the cutting conditions, with the greatest benefits being seen at higher cutting speeds and feed rates. Among these methods, tool condition monitoring using Acoustic Techniques (AET) is an emerging one. Hence, the present work was carried out to study the stability, applicability and relative sensitivity of AET in tool condition monitoring in turning.

  19. Laser forming cutting once quenched high-speed tool steel (HSTS) disk-shaped milling cutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhihong; Liu, Yongzhen; Weng, Shiping

    1998-08-01

    Laser cutting technology has been applied to ordinary alloy steel circular sawblade, but it is very rarely used in quenched HSTS disk-shape milling-cutters due to the material particularity. In this paper, the authors systematically explain the advantages of this new technique, respecting the optimum design of HSTS disk-shape milling-cutter, the specific characteristics of laser forming cutting once for all, the technology testing, the analysis of structural performance of tooth and the small batch production for verifying. The article displays its advantages completely as follows: The design for a perfect tooth profile is not bound to the ordinary machining methods; The special laser technique does not lower the hardness on the tooth nose so that this process and needs no follow-up operational sequences, ensures the excellent dynamic-balance performance and operation properties, and prolongs the tools' service time; The new technique also has advantages of high efficiency and good economics. Therefore, this special laser cutting method, an integration of intensified heat-treatment and laser forming cutting once for all technology, will be regarded as a reform in HSTS tools Manufacturing field.

  20. Application of response surface methodology for determining cutting force model in turning hardened AISI H11 hot work tool steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Fnides; M A Yallese; T Mabrouki; J-F Rigal

    2011-02-01

    This experimental study is conducted to determine statistical models of cutting forces in hard turning of AISI H11 hot work tool steel (∼ 50 HRC). This steel is free from tungsten on Cr–Mo–V basis, insensitive to temperature changes and having a high wear resistance. It is employed for the manufacture of highly stressed diecasting moulds and inserts with high tool life expectancy, plastic moulds subject to high stress, helicopter rotor blades and forging dies. The workpiece is machined by a mixed ceramic tool (insert CC650 of chemical composition 70%Al23+30%TiC) under dry conditions. Based on 33 full factorial design, a total of 27 tests were carried out. The range of each parameter is set at three different levels, namely low, medium and high. Mathematical models were deduced by software Minitab (multiple linear regression and response surface methodology) in order to express the influence degree of the main cutting variables such as cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut on cutting force components. These models would be helpful in selecting cutting variables for optimization of hard cutting process. The results indicate that the depth of cut is the dominant factor affecting cutting force components. The feed rate influences tangential cutting force more than radial and axial forces. The cutting speed affects radial force more than tangential and axial forces.

  1. Correction method for the error of diamond tool's radius in ultra-precision cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Yu, Jing-chi

    2010-10-01

    The compensation method for the error of diamond tool's cutting edge is a bottle-neck technology to hinder the high accuracy aspheric surface's directly formation after single diamond turning. Traditional compensation was done according to the measurement result from profile meter, which took long measurement time and caused low processing efficiency. A new compensation method was firstly put forward in the article, in which the correction of the error of diamond tool's cutting edge was done according to measurement result from digital interferometer. First, detailed theoretical calculation related with compensation method was deduced. Then, the effect after compensation was simulated by computer. Finally, φ50 mm work piece finished its diamond turning and new correction turning under Nanotech 250. Testing surface achieved high shape accuracy pv 0.137λ and rms=0.011λ, which approved the new compensation method agreed with predictive analysis, high accuracy and fast speed of error convergence.

  2. Self propagating high temperature synthesis of mixed carbide and boride powder systems for cutting tools manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TiC-TiB2 composites have been produced via SHS technique starting from low cost raw materials like TiO2, B4C, Mg. The influence of the diluent phase (Mg, TiC) content on combustion temperature has been investigated. The use of magnesium as the reductant phase allowed acid leaching of the undesired oxide product (MgO), leaving pure hard materials with fine particle size suitable to be employed in cutting tools manufacturing through cold pressing and sintering route. The densification has shown to be strongly dependent on the wetting additions. The influence of the metal binder and wetting additions on the sintering process has been investigated. A characterization of the obtained materials was performed by the point of view of cutting tools life (hardness, toughness, strength). (author)

  3. Research concerning optimum cutting parameters according with tool path strategy for finishing procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, A. E.; Anania, F. D.; Zapciu, M.

    2015-11-01

    Optimization of cutting parameters in NC milling needs to be studied because of its influence on machining time and cost. Today, any CAM software offers many tool path strategies to milling free form geometries. However, the users must have the know-how to choose the strategies according to geometry complexity, cutting tool geometry and its contact on the machined surface. Choosing the right strategy with the right cutting parameter is a rather difficult task to do on the machine tool. In this paper we try to take into account the influence of the toolpath over the surface quality for finishing operation. The main goal is to establish a direct link between machining parameters and toolpath in order to obtain the same surface quality for different trajectories. The first step consist in making a series of experiments for standards toolpaths (which can be found in any CAM software) like one-way, zig-zag, spiral from outside to inside, zig-zag at 45 dgr on a milling center. Based on the results, a correction coefficient for the feed rate was established.

  4. Design and fabrication of nano-scale single crystal diamond cutting tool by focused ion beam (FIB) milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Yub

    2015-07-01

    Micro/nanoscale diamond cutting tools used in ultra-precision machining can be fabricated by precision grinding, but it is hard to fabricate a tool with a nanometric cutting edge and complex configurations. High-precision geometry accuracy and special shapes for microcutting tools with sharp edges can be achieved by FIB milling. Because the FIB milling method induces much smaller machining stress compared with conventional precision grinding methods. In this study, the FIB milling characteristics of single-crystal diamond were investigated, along with methods for decreasing the FIB-induced damage on diamond tools. Lift-off process method and Pt(Platinum) coating process method with FIB milling were investigated to reduce the damage layer on diamond substrate and quadrilateral-shaped single-crystal diamond cutting tool with cutting edge width under 500 nm were obtained.

  5. Investigation of wear and tool life of coated carbide and cubic boron nitride cutting tools in high speed milling

    OpenAIRE

    Twardowski, P.; Legutko, S.; G. Krolczyk; S. Hloch

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was analysis of the wear of milling cutters made of sintered carbide and of boron nitride. The article presents the life period of the cutting edges and describes industrial conditions of the applicability of tools made of the materials under investigation. Tests have been performed on modern toroidal and ball-end mill cutters. The study has been performed within a production facility in the technology of high speed machining of 55NiCrMoV6 and X153CrMoV1...

  6. Regression Modeling Of Cutting Parameters' Effect To Cutting Forces And Hole Surface Qualities In Drilling Of Dievar Hot Work Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İskender Özkul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, cutting moments, surface roughness, dimensional accuracy and circularity deviation values were investigated during drilling on Dievar degree of hot work tool steels with various drill bits. The experiments, was completed with Ø16 mm diameter uncoated carbide drill bits and TiAlN coated self-reamed carbide drill bits using coolant fluid on vertical machining center. In experiments, feed rate 0,16 mm/rev and the cutting speed 36, 40, 44, 48 m/min rates were used. The results were modeled by the method of linear regression and polynomial regression curve. Then they were compared with values equal significance. At the same time by analysis of variance, the cutting speed and drill type were investigated on the results of axial feed force, cutting torque, surface roughness, dimensional accuracy and circularity the deviation.

  7. Modelo Funcional de un Gestor de Herramientas de Mecanizado Functional Model of Cutting Tool Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Meseguer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone un modelo funcional para un gestor de herramientas de mecanizado, integrado con la Planificación de Procesos Asistida por Ordenador (CAPP y la programación de la producción. El modelo propuesto está basado en la capacidad de CAPP para generar alternativas de herramientas en las operaciones de mecanizado. El gestor resuelve las interferencias entre las herramientas, de forma que cada operación dispone de un conjunto de alternativas de herramientas compatibles con la programación. La existencia de alternativas flexibiliza la gestión de las herramientas y permiten que el gestor reaccione ante las perturbaciones habituales en producción.This paper presents a functional structure for cutting tool management, integrated through Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP and part scheduling. The proposal is based on the capacity of CAPP to generate tool alternatives in machining operations. The tool manager solves interferences among tools, and each operation has a set of tool alternatives compatible with part scheduling. Tool alternatives permit a flexible tool management and the capacity to intervene in case of interruptions to production.

  8. Thermally activated relaxation behaviour of shot-peened tool steels for cutting tool body applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Different shot-peened tool steels had different thermal surface stress relaxation. → Hot-work tool steel had better stress relaxation resistance than low-alloyed steel. → Stress relaxation mechanism was diffusion-controlled. → Relaxation rate determining exponent was time and temperature dependent. - Abstract: Surface residual stress, microstrain and domain size were determined using X-ray diffraction in shot-peened low-alloyed and hot-work tool steels subjected to varying temperatures (200-600 deg. C) and times (0.5-50 h). The stress relaxation was directly related to microstrain decrease and domain size increase.The Zener-Wert-Avrami function was used to model the relaxation behaviour. The mechanism responsible for the relaxation behaviour is proposed to be diffusion-controlled as the activation energies for stress and microstrain relaxation were close to the activation enthalpy for lattice self-diffusion of alpha-iron.The relaxation rate varied over time and temperature. At temperatures up to 300 deg. C, the relaxation rate was insignificant in all the steels. In the temperature range of 300-400 deg. C and 400-550 deg. C for low-alloyed and hot-work tool steels, respectively, the stresses decreased at a similar rate with increasing time and temperature. At the tempering temperatures of the steels, the stress relaxation was controlled by microstructure transformations. A stress relaxation stabilization was found in one of hot-work steels between 450 and 500 deg. C at annealing times longer than 3 h.

  9. Influence of Cutting Parameters on Chatter and Tool Wear During End Milling of Stainless Steel Conducted on VMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M.N. AMIN, M. IMRAN AND M. ARIF

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steels are a group of difficult to machine work materials. The difficulty in machining stainless steels is manifested in high contact length and stresses, formation of serrated chips and development of chatter resulting in high tool wear rates and poor machined surface finish. The paper focuses on the performance of TiN coated-carbide inserts in machining stainless steel specimens in end milling operation performed on vertical machining centre (VMC. The performance of the tool is evaluated from the point of view of its wear intensity, mechanism of failure and generation and effect of chatter on tool wear and vice versa. The investigations were aimed at determining the effect of cutting parameters, specifically cutting speed, feed and depth of cut, on chatter amplitude, tool wear rate, mechanism of tool wear and using these data and machined surface roughness values from previous work to come up with recommended values of cutting parameters for semi-finish and finish end milling operation of stainless steel work materials. For recording vibration signals a dual channel portable signal analyzers was used and the signals were analyzed using Pulse Multi-analyzer version 4.2 software. Tool wear was measured using an optical microscope with digital readout capabilities along 3 axes. The tool wear mechanisms were studied under a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results of the investigation show that acceleration amplitudes generally increase with cutting speed and the magnitude of tool flank wears. It has been also found that an increase in feed and depth of cut leads to higher acceleration amplitudes. The most common wear mechanisms observed during machining of stainless steel are attrition, micro and macro chipping of the tool at lower cutting speeds, and diffusion and mechanical failures due to intensive chatter at higher speeds. It has been also established that stable cutting speeds with relatively low tool wear intensity and

  10. 大跨度偏光片斜角裁切设备的研制%Develoment of Large Span Polarizer Angle Cutting Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董彦梅; 王建花; 王敏

    2015-01-01

    介绍了在偏光片斜角裁切设备的研制中, 如何实现大跨度偏光片精确的旋转角度并裁切的过程. 通过采用高刚性交叉滚柱轴环和滚动轴承以及电机、导轨、丝杠组合结构设计了角度旋转机构,利用编码器、PLC 控制角度旋转和角度显示,通过刹车系统控制角度旋转的到位停止,保证了角度旋转的精度,同时保证了偏光片角度裁切精度.机械抗变形工艺设计和电液联合控制系统以及合理的同步工艺设计,保证了大跨度偏光片的精确裁切.%M ainly introduces the research of polarizer angle cutting equipm ent in the process,how to realize the large span polarizer rotation angle and the cutting precision. T hrough the use of high rigid cross roller collar and rolling bearing and m otor,screw ,rail structure design of angle rotating m echanism ,the encoder,PLC control rotation angle and angle,the angle of rotation of the brake control system in place to stop,the angle of rotation accuracy,but also ensure the polarizer angle cutting accuracy. M echanical deform ation process design and the electrical and hydraulic control system and the synchronization process design is reasonable,to ensure accurate cutting of large span of the polarizer.

  11. Available Tools and Challenges Classifying Cutting-Edge and Historical Astronomical Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerstrom, Jill

    2015-08-01

    The STScI Library assists the Science Policies Division in evaluating and choosing scientific keywords and categories for proposals for the Hubble Space Telescope mission and the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope mission. In addition we are often faced with the question “what is the shape of the astronomical literature?” However, subject classification in astronomy in recent times has not been cultivated. This talk will address the available tools and challenges of classifying cutting-edge as well as historical astronomical documents. In at the process, we will give an overview of current and upcoming practices of subject classification in astronomy.

  12. Decontamination of a rotating cutting tool during operation by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Kusano, Yukihiro; Hansen, F.;

    2010-01-01

    The decontamination of a rotating cutting tool used for slicing in the meat industry by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas is investigated. The target is Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium which causes listeriosis and can be found in plants and food. The non-pathogenic species, Listeria innocua......, is used for the experiments. A rotating knife was inoculated with L. innocua. The surface of the rotating knife was partly exposed to an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge operated in air, where the knife itself served as a ground electrode. The rotation of the knife ensures a...

  13. Ultrasonic pulsations of pressure in a tool for water jet cutting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říha, Zdeněk; Foldyna, Josef

    Ostrava : Ústav geoniky AV ČR, 2011 - (Sitek, L.; Zeleňák, M.), s. 245-254 ISBN 978-80-86407-23-4. [Vodní paprsek 2011. Ostravice (CZ), 03.10.2011-05.10.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : water jet cutting * high pressure * transitional space between larger and smaller pipe * ultrasonic pulsations Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools

  14. Design of AlCrSiN multilayers and nanocomposite coating for HSS cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Design of the AlCrSiN multilayer and composite coating. • Tribological/mechanical properties of the coatings. • AlCrSiN coating with the special structures presented lowest F.C. • AlCrSiN coating possessed best service life and cutting performance for the application of high-speed steel (HSS) tools. - Abstract: In the present work, AlCrN coating and AlCrSiN multilayer and nanocomposite coating were designed and deposited on the surface of high speed steel (HSS) cutters. The microstructures of these coatings were investigated systematically by means of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), in association with mechanical property measurement and corresponding cutting test. The results showed that the AlCrN coating mainly composed of nanocrystalline fcc-CrN, hcp-AlN and fcc-(Cr,Al)N solid-solution. In addition to these nanocrystalline phases, a few amorphous Si3N4 phases were observed for the AlCrSiN multilayers and nanocomposite coating with a stronger {2 0 0} preferred orientation. The modulation period (6 nm) of the AlCrSiN coating was much smaller than that of the AlCrN coating (18 nm). The service life of the AlCrSiN coated tool increased approximately 40% longer in comparison with the AlCrN coated tool because of its more excellent mechanical properties (48 GPa hardness, 1123 MPa toughness, 52 N LC2 adhesion strength and 0.25 average friction coefficient). During the cutting process, the wear mechanisms of coated tools at the early stage and mid-stage were abrasion wear and adhesion wear, respectively. And the worn loss of AlCrSiN coated tool was less than that of AlCrN coated tool

  15. Design of AlCrSiN multilayers and nanocomposite coating for HSS cutting tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Weiwei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Ma’anshan City, Anhui Province 243002 (China); Material Processing Research Department, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), 66 Sangnam-dong, Changwon, Kyungnam 641-010 (Korea, Republic of); Chen, Wanglin; Yang, Shubao; Lin, Yue [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Ma’anshan City, Anhui Province 243002 (China); Zhang, Shihong, E-mail: shzhang@ahut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Ma’anshan City, Anhui Province 243002 (China); Cho, Tong-Yul [Institute of Industrial Technology, Changwon National University, Changwon, Kyungnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, G.H. [Material Processing Research Department, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), 66 Sangnam-dong, Changwon, Kyungnam 641-010 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sik-Chol [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Ma’anshan City, Anhui Province 243002 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Design of the AlCrSiN multilayer and composite coating. • Tribological/mechanical properties of the coatings. • AlCrSiN coating with the special structures presented lowest F.C. • AlCrSiN coating possessed best service life and cutting performance for the application of high-speed steel (HSS) tools. - Abstract: In the present work, AlCrN coating and AlCrSiN multilayer and nanocomposite coating were designed and deposited on the surface of high speed steel (HSS) cutters. The microstructures of these coatings were investigated systematically by means of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), in association with mechanical property measurement and corresponding cutting test. The results showed that the AlCrN coating mainly composed of nanocrystalline fcc-CrN, hcp-AlN and fcc-(Cr,Al)N solid-solution. In addition to these nanocrystalline phases, a few amorphous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} phases were observed for the AlCrSiN multilayers and nanocomposite coating with a stronger {2 0 0} preferred orientation. The modulation period (6 nm) of the AlCrSiN coating was much smaller than that of the AlCrN coating (18 nm). The service life of the AlCrSiN coated tool increased approximately 40% longer in comparison with the AlCrN coated tool because of its more excellent mechanical properties (48 GPa hardness, 1123 MPa toughness, 52 N LC2 adhesion strength and 0.25 average friction coefficient). During the cutting process, the wear mechanisms of coated tools at the early stage and mid-stage were abrasion wear and adhesion wear, respectively. And the worn loss of AlCrSiN coated tool was less than that of AlCrN coated tool.

  16. Machinability of Hastelloy C-276 Using Hot-pressed Sintered Ti(C7N3)-based Cermet Cutting Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Kaitao; ZOU Bin; HUANG Chuanzhen; YAO Yang; ZHOU Huijun; LIU Zhanqiang

    2015-01-01

    C-276 nickel-based alloy is a difficult-to-cut material. In high-speed machining of Hastelloy C-276, notching is a prominent fallure mode due to high mechanical properties of work piece, which results in the short tool life and low productivity. In this paper, a newly developed Ti(C7N3)-based cermet insert manufactured by a hot-pressing method is used to machine the C-276 nickel-based alloy, and its cutting performances are studied. Based on orthogonal experiment method, the influence of cutting parameters on tool life, material removal rates and surface roughness are investigated. Experimental research results indicate that the optimal cutting condition is a cutting speed of 50 m/min, depth of cut of 0.4 mm and feed rate of 0.15 mm/r if the tool life and material removal rates are considered comprehensively. In this case, the tool life is 32 min and material removal rates are 3000 mm3/min, which is appropriate to the rough machining. If the tool life and surface roughness are considered, the better cutting condition is a cutting speed of 75 m/min, depth of cut of 0.6 mm and feed rate of 0.1 mm/r. In this case, the surface roughness is 0.59mm. Notch wear, flank wear, chipping at the tool nose, built-up edge(BUE) and micro-cracks are found when Ti(C7N3)-based cermet insert turned Hastelloy C-276. Oxidation, adhesive, abrasive and diffusion are the wear mechanisms, which can be investigated by the observations of scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. This research will help to guide studies on the evaluation of machining parameters to further advance the productivity of nickel based alloy Hastelloy C-276 machining.

  17. Machinability of hastelloy C-276 using Hot-pressed sintered Ti(C7N3)-based cermet cutting tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kaitao; Zou, Bin; Huang, Chuanzhen; Yao, Yang; Zhou, Huijun; Liu, Zhanqiang

    2015-05-01

    C-276 nickel-based alloy is a difficult-to-cut material. In high-speed machining of Hastelloy C-276, notching is a prominent failure mode due to high mechanical properties of work piece, which results in the short tool life and low productivity. In this paper, a newly developed Ti(C7N3)-based cermet insert manufactured by a hot-pressing method is used to machine the C-276 nickel-based alloy, and its cutting performances are studied. Based on orthogonal experiment method, the influence of cutting parameters on tool life, material removal rates and surface roughness are investigated. Experimental research results indicate that the optimal cutting condition is a cutting speed of 50 m/min, depth of cut of 0.4 mm and feed rate of 0.15 mm/r if the tool life and material removal rates are considered comprehensively. In this case, the tool life is 32 min and material removal rates are 3000 mm3/min, which is appropriate to the rough machining. If the tool life and surface roughness are considered, the better cutting condition is a cutting speed of 75 m/min, depth of cut of 0.6 mm and feed rate of 0.1 mm/r. In this case, the surface roughness is 0.59μm. Notch wear, flank wear, chipping at the tool nose, built-up edge(BUE) and micro-cracks are found when Ti(C7N3)-based cermet insert turned Hastelloy C-276. Oxidation, adhesive, abrasive and diffusion are the wear mechanisms, which can be investigated by the observations of scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. This research will help to guide studies on the evaluation of machining parameters to further advance the productivity of nickel based alloy Hastelloy C-276 machining.

  18. Investigation on SS316, SS440C, and Titanium Alloy Grade-5 used as Single Point Cutting Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Kothakota Suresh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to find alternative materials for the cutting tools used in turning operations. The conventional materials like tungsten carbide(WC, titanium carbide(TiC, cubic boron nitride (CBN and diamond used as cutting tools for turning operations on lathe are expensive. Titanium grade 5 (Ti-6Al-4V, SS440C/AISI440C and SS316 are some of the materials which satisfy the necessary requirements for turning metals and polymer materials. These materials are machined as per the standard tool signature of high-speed steel tool (HSS and are subjected to necessary heat treatment for hardening and then finish ground. The machined tools thus prepared were used to turn mild steel and aluminium workpieces. The cutting forces at play are determined using lathe tool dynamometer and plotted on a MCD (Merchant’s Circle Diagram. The cutting tools are also subjected to tests to determine tool life, wear and work hardening. It is found that the performance and tool life of SS440C is better and cost effective compared to existing tools. Even though Ti-6Al-4V is comparatively costly it could be used for obtaining good surface finish.

  19. Experimental investigation of cutting parameters influence on surface roughness and cutting forces in hard turning of X38CrMoV5-1 with CBN tool

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Aouici; M A Yallese; A Belbah; M F Ameur; M Elbah

    2013-06-01

    This experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of cutting conditions on surface roughness and cutting forces in hard turning of X38CrMoV5-1. This steel was hardened at 50 HRC and machined with CBN tool. This is employed for the manufacture of helicopter rotor blades and forging dies. Combined effects of three cutting parameters, namely cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, on the six performance outputs-surface roughness parameters and cutting force components, are explored by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Optimal cutting conditions for each performance level are established. The relationship between the variables and the technological parameters is determined through the response surface methodology (RSM), using a quadratic regression model. Results show how much surface roughness is mainly influenced by feed rate and cutting speed. The depth of cut exhibits maximum influence on cutting force components as compared to the feed rate and cutting speed.

  20. SIMULATION STUDY OF CUTTING TOOL SYSTEM USING INTELLIGENT ACTIVE FORCE CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Hatifi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of vibration control through an active force control (AFC scheme. AFCs are used widely in dynamic system control and are highly robust control schemes, although under unknown disturbances and operation conditions. In this study, the AFC was incorporated with a conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller to control an active vibration isolation system. A cutting tool of a turning machine with two degrees of freedom is used in this study. A harmonic force due to an unbalanced rotating mass and a sinusoidal response that represented an internal disturbance were applied to both axes (X and Y of the models, respectively. Generally, the estimated mass (EM is the most significant parameter in an AFC scheme; thus, the interest in this study was to obtain the EM via a conventional crude approximation method and an intelligent fuzzy logic method. A new AFC scheme with fuzzy logic control (FLC was proposed (AFCFLC, which is an AFC combined with a PID and FLC. The main purpose of this scheme was to obtain the optimum EM value via the intelligent method and to suppress vibration. Finally, a demonstration of a comparison study between each control scheme was carried out, which revealed clearly that the proposed AFCFLC scheme was the most superior control method for vibration isolation in both axes of the cutting tool models.

  1. Development of manufacturing and application system for cutting tools made of polycrystalline diamond and cubic boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, G.

    1982-12-01

    The improvement of the technology of making tools from ultrahard polycrystalline materials and to develop the pertinent conditions of application are discussed. High performance tools applying combined empirical/analytical methods. The following results are obtained: (1) development of high performance diamond grinding wheels and establishment of optimum machining conditions for making tools from polycrystalline material; (2) system development of standardized and special tools from polycrystalline cutting material; (3) investigation on wear and tool life of dressing tools made from polycrystalline diamond, and development of improved dressing tools.

  2. Analytical Investigation and Comparison on Performance of Ss316, Ss440c and Titanium Alloy Tool Materials Used As Single Point Cutting Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Amaresh Kumar Dhadange

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical analysis for performance studies of SS316, SS44OC and Titanium Alloy used as a cutting tool is presented in this paper. Tool temperature, tools wear and life of the tool is investigated analytically. These theoretical values are compared with the experimental studies conducted by the author. The values obtained from experimental studies are comparable with analytical values and variation is the correlation between theoretical and experimental values is of the order of 15%.

  3. Deposition of hard and adherent TiBCN films for cutting tools applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillmann, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Fabian [Institute of Materials Engineering, Technische Universitaet Dortmund (Germany); Bejarano, Gilberto [Institute of Materials Engineering, Technische Universitaet Dortmund (Germany); Department of Materials Engineering, Universidad de Antioquia, Group for Corrosion and Protection-CIDEMAT, Calle 67 No. 53-108, Medellin (Colombia)

    2012-08-15

    Metal cutting tools having wear resistant and chemically stable ceramic coatings are in many applications superior in performance to uncoated tools. Titanium boron carbon nitride (TiBCN) is a hard material particularly suitable as a protective coating for cutting tools due to its excellent properties, such as a high hardness and high wear and corrosion resistance, among other. TiBCN films were grown on Si (100) and high speed steel substrates by means of reactively pulsed DC magnetron sputtering technique. Two B{sub 4}C- and two Ti-targets, to which a pulsed DC voltage of middle frequency was applied, were used for the deposition of TiBCN. A chromium layer was first deposited to obtain a better adhesion of TiBCN to the substrates. The mechanical properties of these coatings deposited under different N{sub 2} contents were investigated. The substrates were biased through a medium frequency power supply. The bias voltage value was -90 V for all coatings. The total film thickness was maintained at approximately 2 {mu}m. The hardness of the coatings increased with reduced nitrogen content, while the adhesion decreased from 40.8 to 24.2 N, and the wear rate increased from 0.154 to 0.744 x 10{sup -16} m{sup 3}/N.m, the latter probably caused by the low content of the self-lubricating amorphous matrix of our coatings. However, the sample deposited by a nitrogen gas flow of 60 sccm presented a wear rate of four orders of magnitude smaller than the uncoated sample. The deposition method presented in this work seems very promising for the manufacture of TiBCN coatings. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Wear resistance and electronic structure of cutting tool materials on a basis carbides of tungsten and titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tool materials durability problem, in particular shock and wear resistance, has allowed to formulate a set of requirements and also to stablish the dependence between physical properties and wear. However, for understanding the nature of the process, for example determining the tribological property of the cutting tool, it is necessary to consider the atom interactions in a crystal. A theoretical study of the physical properties of cutting tool materials (W-Ti-C) with varying concentration of titanium is presented. Total and partial local electronic density for each atom in such hard solutions were calculated. (nevyjel)

  5. Below-unitarity-threshold branch cut in the left angle anti q q right angle coefficient of the axial-vector two-current correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dimension-3 quark-condensate component of the flavour-diagonal axial-vector two-current correlation function is evaluated to all orders in the quark mass mqk through use of the quark-condensate component of the nonperturbative fermion propagator. The result obtained is analytic in p2 except for a branch cut for 02qk)2, corresponding to a branch cut occurring helow the anti qq kinematic threshold. The deep Euclidean region of the longitudinal component of this correlation function is utilized to obtain leading and subleading contributions to the QCD sum-rule relating mqk to . These same sum-rule results are obtained by means of an alternative derivation involving integration over the discontinuity in the correlation function along the branch cut, demonstrating the consistency of the physical-momentum-region branch cut with results obtained via standard means in the deep Euclidean region. (orig.)

  6. Surface Quality of Ti-6%Al-4%V ELI When Machined Using CVD-Carbide Tools at High Cutting Speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machining of Ti-6Al-4V ELI becomes more interested topic due to extremely weight-to-strength ratio and resistance to corrosion at elevated temperature. Quality of machined surface is presented by surface roughness, surface texture and damages of microstructure of titanium alloys. The turning parameters evaluated are cutting speed of 55-95 m/min, feed rate of 0.15-0.35 mm/rev, depth of cut of 0.10-0.20 mm and tool grade of CVD carbide tools. The results show the trend lines of surface roughness value are higher at the initial machining and the surface texture profile has a strong correlation with the feed rate. At the machining condition of cutting speed of 95 m/min, feed rate of 0.35 mm/rev and depth of cut of 0.10 mm produced the with layer with thickness of 2.0 μm.

  7. Novel Pretreatment of Hard Metal Substrate for Better Performance of Diamond Coated Cutting Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Fan-xiu; TANG Wei-zhong; MIAO Jin-qi; HE Li-fu; LI Cheng-ming; CHEN Guang-chao

    2004-01-01

    A surface engineering approach for a novel pre-treatment of hard metal tool substrate for optimum adhesion of diamond coatings is presented. Firstly, an alkaline solution was used to etch the WC grains to generate a rough surface for better mechanical interlocking. Subsequently, surface Co was removed by etching in acid solution. Then the hard metal substrate was boronized to form a compound interlayer which acted as an efficient diffusion barrier to prevent the outward diffusion of Co. Novel nano-microcrystalline composite diamond film coatings with a very smooth surface was deposited on the surface engineering pre-treated hard metal surface. Promising results of measurement in adhesion strength as well as field cutting tests have been obtained.

  8. Titanium carbonitride films on cemented carbide cutting tool prepared by pulsed high energy density plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenran; Liu, Chizi; Chen, Guangliang; Zhang, Guling; Gu, Weichao; Niu, Erwu; Yang, Si-Ze

    2007-03-01

    Hard films prepared by pulsed high energy density plasma (PHEDP) are characterized by high film/substrate adhesive strength, and high wear resistance. Titanium carbonitride (TiCN) films were deposited onto YG11C (ISO G20) cemented carbide cutting tool substrates by PHEDP at room temperature. XRD, XPS, SEM, AES, etc. were adopted to analyze the phases (elements) composition, microstructure and the interface of the films, respectively. The results show that, the uniform dense films are composed of grains ranging from 70 to 90 nm. According to the AES result, there is a broad transition layer between the film and the substrate, due to the ion implantation effect of the PHEDP. The transition layer is favorable for the film/substrate adhesion.

  9. Cut It Up and Put It Back Together: Cut-up and Collage as Tools to Overcome Academic Deadlock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager-Elsborg, Anna; Loads, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    This ‘On the Horizon’ paper concerns creativity in the research process as a way to overcome unhelpful pre-understandings and ‘false clarity’. This paper gives an idea of how we can allow research to be as complex and messy as reality. Cut-up and collage are introduced and suggested as a way of l...... letting go of rational analysis and allowing subconscious observations to come forward. The research example is from a project examining the disciplinary characteristics of academic law in a research intensive university...

  10. Study on Platinum Coating Depth in Focused Ion Beam Diamond Cutting Tool Milling and Methods for Removing Platinum Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong Kirl Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, nanomachining has attracted increasing attention in advanced manufacturing science and technologies as a value-added processes to control material structures, components, devices, and nanoscale systems. To make sub-micro patterns on these products, micro/nanoscale single-crystal diamond cutting tools are essential. Popular non-contact methods for the macro/micro processing of diamond composites are pulsed laser ablation (PLA and electric discharge machining (EDM. However, for manufacturing nanoscale diamond tools, these machining methods are not appropriate. Despite diamond’s extreme physical properties, diamond can be micro/nano machined relatively easily using a focused ion beam (FIB technique. In the FIB milling process, the surface properties of the diamond cutting tool is affected by the amorphous damage layer caused by the FIB gallium ion collision and implantation and these influence the diamond cutting tool edge sharpness and increase the processing procedures. To protect the diamond substrate, a protection layer—platinum (Pt coating is essential in diamond FIB milling. In this study, the depth of Pt coating layer which could decrease process-induced damage during FIB fabrication is investigated, along with methods for removing the Pt coating layer on diamond tools. The optimum Pt coating depth has been confirmed, which is very important for maintaining cutting tool edge sharpness and decreasing processing procedures. The ultra-precision grinding method and etching with aqua regia method have been investigated for removing the Pt coating layer. Experimental results show that when the diamond cutting tool width is bigger than 500 nm, ultra-precision grinding method is appropriate for removing Pt coating layer on diamond tool. However, the ultra-precision grinding method is not recommended for removing the Pt coating layer when the cutting tool width is smaller than 500 nm, because the possibility that the diamond

  11. A Flexure-Based Tool Holder for Sub-(micro)m Positioning of a Single Point Cutting Tool on a Four-axis Lathe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bono, M J; Hibbard, R L

    2005-12-05

    A tool holder was designed to facilitate the machining of precision meso-scale components with complex three-dimensional shapes with sub-{micro}m accuracy on a four-axis lathe. A four-axis lathe incorporates a rotary table that allows the cutting tool to swivel with respect to the workpiece to enable the machining of complex workpiece forms, and accurately machining complex meso-scale parts often requires that the cutting tool be aligned precisely along the axis of rotation of the rotary table. The tool holder designed in this study has greatly simplified the process of setting the tool in the correct location with sub-{micro}m precision. The tool holder adjusts the tool position using flexures that were designed using finite element analyses. Two flexures adjust the lateral position of the tool to align the center of the nose of the tool with the axis of rotation of the B-axis, and another flexure adjusts the height of the tool. The flexures are driven by manual micrometer adjusters, each of which provides a minimum increment of motion of 20 nm. This tool holder has simplified the process of setting a tool with sub-{micro}m accuracy, and it has significantly reduced the time required to set a tool.

  12. Effect of finite edge radius on ductile fracture ahead of the cutting tool edge in micro-cutting of Al2024-T3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbiah, Sathyan [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Melkote, Shreyes N. [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)], E-mail: shreyes.melkote@me.gatech.edu

    2008-02-15

    Evidence of ductile fracture leading to material separation has been reported recently in ductile metal cutting [S. Subbiah, S.N. Melkote, ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 28(3) (2006)]. This paper investigates the effect of finite edge radius on such ductile fracture. The basic question of whether such ductile fracture occurs in the presence of a finite edge radius is explored by performing a series of experiments with inserts of different edge radii at various uncut chip thickness values ranging from 15 to 105 {mu}m. Chip-roots are obtained in these experiments using a quick-stop device and examined in a scanning electron microscope. Clear evidence of material separation is seen at the interface zone between the chip and machined surface even when the edge radius is large compared to the uncut chip thickness. Failure is seen to occur at the upper, middle, and/or the lower edges of the interface zone. Based on these observations, a hypothesis is presented for the events leading to the occurrence of this failure when cutting with an edge radius tool. Finite element simulations are performed to study the nature of stress state ahead of the tool edge with and without edge radius. Hydrostatic stress is seen to be tensile in front of the tool and hence favors the occurrence of ductile fracture leading to material separation. The stress components are, however lower than those seen with a sharp tool.

  13. Performance evaluation of minimum quantity lubrication by vegetable oil in terms of cutting force, cutting zone temperature,tool wear, job dimension and surface finish in turning AISI-1060 steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KHAN M.M.A.; DHAR N.R.

    2006-01-01

    In all machining processes, tool wear is a natural phenomenon and it leads to tool failure. The growing demands for high productivity of machining need use of high cutting velocity and feed rate. Such machining inherently produces high cutting temperature, which not only reduces tool life but also impairs the product quality. Metal cutting fluid changes the performance of machining operations because of their lubrication, cooling and chip flushing functions, but the use of cutting fluid has become more problematic in terms of both employee health and environmental pollution. The minimization of cutting fluid also leads to economical benefits by way of saving lubricant costs and workpiece/tool/machine cleaning cycle time. The concept of minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) has been suggested since a decade ago as a means of addressing the issues of environmental intrusiveness and occupational hazards associated with the airborne cutting fluid particles on factory shop floors. This paper deals with experimental investigation on the role of MQL by vegetable oil on cutting temperature, tool wear, surface roughness and dimensional deviation in turning AISI-1060 steel at industrial speed-feed combinations by uncoated carbide insert. The encouraging results include significant reduction in tool wear rate, dimensional inaccuracy and surface roughness by MQL mainly through reduction in the cutting zone temperature and favorable change in the chip-tool and work-tool interaction.

  14. Diamond and cBN hybrid and nanomodified cutting tools with enhanced performance: Development, testing and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loginov, Pavel; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny;

    2015-01-01

    The potential of enhancement of superhard steel and cast iron cutting tool performance on the basis of microstuctural modifications of the tool materials is studied. Hybrid machining tools with mixed diamond and cBN grains, as well as machining tool with composite nanomodified metallic binder are...... developed, and tested experimentally and numerically. It is demonstrated that both combination of diamond and cBN (hybrid structure) and nanomodification of metallic binder (with hexagonal boron nitride/hBN platelets) lead to sufficient improvement of the cast iron machining performance. The superhard tools...... with 25% of diamond replaced by cBN grains demonstrate 20% increased performance as compared with pure diamond machining tools, and more than two times higher performance as compared with pure cBN tools. Further, cast iron machining efficiency of the wheels modified by hBN particles was 80% more...

  15. High-temperature stability of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride cutting tool materials in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Oxidation of cBN–TiC composites is not passive within 550–1100 °C, obeying a linear rate law. ► Outward diffusion of Ti, Al and C, and inward diffusion of O2 controlled this oxidation. ► Ultimately, the oxidation scale is made of a porous outer layer (TiO2 and Al2O3 sub-layers) and an inner layer. ► Constitution and morphology of the inner layer vary with temperature. ► Formation and evaporation of B2O3 keeps the porosity within the oxidation scale. - Abstract: Thermal stability of cubic boron nitride (cBN)–TiC cutting tool material in air was analyzed using TGA and oxidation tests in a muffle furnace within the temperature range 550–1100 °C for a holding time of 60 min. A scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis system was particularly used for the characterization of the oxidation scales obtained thereafter. The significance of the results obtained was discussed in terms of oxidation kinetics law, oxidation mechanisms as well as variation of constitution and morphology of the oxidation scale with temperature, keeping focus on the machining context.

  16. Development of remote bore tools for pipe welding/cutting by YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In D-T burning reactors such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), an internal access welding/cutting of blanket cooling pipe with bend sections is inevitably required because of spatial constraint due to nuclear shield and available port opening space. For this purpose, an internal access pipe welding/cutting using YAG laser beam is being developed according to the agreement of the ITER R and D task (T44). A design concept of welding/cutting processing head with a flexible optical fiber has been developed and the basic feasibility studies on welding, cutting and rewelding are performed using stainless steel plate (SS316L). In this report, the details of a welding/cutting head with a flexible optical fiber for YAG laser are described, together with the basic experiment results relating to the welding/cutting and rewelding. (author)

  17. An Approach to the Classification of Cutting Vibration on Machine Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Jeng-Fung Chen; Shih-Kuei Lo; Quang Hung Do

    2016-01-01

    Predictions of cutting vibrations are necessary for improving the operational efficiency, product quality, and safety in the machining process, since the vibration is the main factor for resulting in machine faults. “Cutting vibration” may be caused by setting incorrect parameters before machining is commenced and may affect the precision of the machined work piece. This raises the need to have an effective model that can be used to predict cutting vibrations. In this study, an artificial neu...

  18. Performance and characterisation of CVD diamond coated, sintered diamond and WC-Co cutting tools for dental and micromachining applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond coatings are attractive for cutting processes due to their high hardness, low friction coefficient, excellent wear resistance and chemical inertness. The application of diamond coatings on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) tools was the subject of much attention in recent years in order to improve cutting performance and tool life. WC-Co tools containing 6% Co and 94% WC substrate with an average grain size 1-3 μm were used in this study. In order to improve the adhesion between diamond and WC substrates, it is necessary to etch away the surface Co and prepare the surface for subsequent diamond growth. Hot filament chemical vapour deposition with a modified vertical filament arrangement has been employed for the deposition of diamond films. Diamond film quality and purity have been characterised using scanning electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The performance of diamond coated WC-Co bur, uncoated WC-Co bur, and diamond embedded (sintered) bur have been compared by drilling a series of holes into various materials such as human teeth, borosilicate glass and porcelain teeth. Flank wear has been used to assess the wear rates of the tools. The materials subjected to cutting processes have been examined to assess the quality of the finish. Diamond coated WC-Co microdrills and uncoated microdrills were also tested on aluminium alloys. Results show that there was a 300% improvement when the drills were coated with diamond compared to the uncoated tools

  19. Performance and characterisation of CVD diamond coated, sintered diamond and WC-Co cutting tools for dental and micromachining applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sein, Htet; Ahmed, Waqar; Jackson, Mark; Woodwards, Robert; Polini, Riccardo

    2004-01-30

    Diamond coatings are attractive for cutting processes due to their high hardness, low friction coefficient, excellent wear resistance and chemical inertness. The application of diamond coatings on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) tools was the subject of much attention in recent years in order to improve cutting performance and tool life. WC-Co tools containing 6% Co and 94% WC substrate with an average grain size 1-3 {mu}m were used in this study. In order to improve the adhesion between diamond and WC substrates, it is necessary to etch away the surface Co and prepare the surface for subsequent diamond growth. Hot filament chemical vapour deposition with a modified vertical filament arrangement has been employed for the deposition of diamond films. Diamond film quality and purity have been characterised using scanning electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The performance of diamond coated WC-Co bur, uncoated WC-Co bur, and diamond embedded (sintered) bur have been compared by drilling a series of holes into various materials such as human teeth, borosilicate glass and porcelain teeth. Flank wear has been used to assess the wear rates of the tools. The materials subjected to cutting processes have been examined to assess the quality of the finish. Diamond coated WC-Co microdrills and uncoated microdrills were also tested on aluminium alloys. Results show that there was a 300% improvement when the drills were coated with diamond compared to the uncoated tools.

  20. Novel method for detection of anomalous structure characteristics of ID precision ultrathin monocrystalline silicon section cutting tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宗农; 郭明; 王庆九; 余学功

    2002-01-01

    The structure characteristics of ID precision uhrathin monoerystaUine silicon section cutting machine-tool spindle with force-monitoring bearings functioning as force measuring sensors were detected with the new Hilbert theory based signal-wave envelope detection method, presented to replace the conventional hardware device in order to ensure that the signal is measured online with high fidelity.According to the probability of anomalous incidents in the cutting process, a mathematical recognition model has been designed and verified on an STC-22ID machine.

  1. Novel method for detection of anomalous structure characteristics of ID precision ultrathin monocrystalline silicon section cutting tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宗农; 郭明; 王庆九; 余学功

    2002-01-01

    The structure characteristics of ID precision ultrathin monocrystalline silicon section cutting machine-tool spindle with force-monitoring bearings functioning as force measuring sensors were detected with the new Hilbert theory based signal-wave envelope detection method, presented to replace the conventional hardware device in order to ensure that the signal is measured online with high fidelity. According to the probability of anomalous incidents in the cutting process, a mathematical recognition model has been designed and verified on an STC-22ID machine.

  2. Environmentally conscious hard turning of cemented carbide materials on the basis of micro-cutting in SEM: stressing four kinds of cemented carbides with PCD tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmentally conscious hard turning and technology has placed more importance on the machining process. In this research, the possibility of environmentally conscious hard turning of cemented carbides was studied. The effects of cutting methods of dry and wet (vegetable oil mist, and mineral oil) and work material on cutting resistance and wear characteristics of cutting tools were experimentally investigated. The turning and micro-cutting process in SEM was carried out by using four kinds of tungsten carbides with the PCD cutting tools. Specifically, an emphasis was put on the effect of WC and Co additives in four kinds of cemented carbides on machinability and tool wear characteristics. The tool wear width and the cutting resistances were measured, and the worn flank was observed

  3. Image Measurement of Rounded Cutting Edge Radius of Cutting Tool%刀具切削刃钝圆半径的图像测量法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾志伟; 蒋代君

    2014-01-01

    为提高刀具切削刃钝圆半径的测量精度,提出了改进的边缘检测和刃口曲线计算方法,并用于三角形铣刀片的测量。在方向导数和梯度理论基础上改进现有边缘检测方法。首先定义包含边缘的感兴趣区域( Region of Interest, ROI),再以ROI边界像素的法线方向近似此法线方向上各像素的梯度方向。沿近似的梯度方向拟合灰度曲线并计算一阶导数极大值点,从而精确定位边缘点。参考刀具精确设计理论,以直线段和圆弧段刃口曲线相切作为约束条件,拟合圆弧段刃口曲线。结果表明,不加约束的切削刃钝圆半径测量误差为7%,加入约束的测量误差为0.5%。改进的刀具测量方法能准确定位边缘点,也能显著提高切削刃钝圆半径的测量精度。%For the purpose of improving the measuring accuracy of rounded cutting edge radius of cutting tool, modified edge detection and blade curve calculation methods were proposed and used to measure the triangle milling insert. Existing edge detection method was reformed based on directional derivative and gra-dient theories. Firstly, define the region of interest ( ROI) that contains edge. Then use the normal direction of each ROI boundary pixel as the approximated gradient direction for each pixel on this normal direction. Fit gray curve along the approximate gradient direction, calculate the maxima of first derivative, and accu-rately position the edge point. Reference theory of accurate designing of cutting tool;employ the tangent be-tween straight and arc blade curve as the constraint condition to fit the arc blade curve. The results show that the average measuring error of rounded cutting edge radius without constrain is 7%, and that with constrain is 0. 5%. Improved measuring method of cutting tool not only can accurately locate edge point, but also sig-nificantly improve the measuring accuracy of rounded cutting edge radius.

  4. Automatic registration method for multisensor datasets adopted for dimensional measurements on cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multisensor systems with optical 3D sensors are frequently employed to capture complete surface information by measuring workpieces from different views. During coarse and fine registration the resulting datasets are afterward transformed into one common coordinate system. Automatic fine registration methods are well established in dimensional metrology, whereas there is a deficit in automatic coarse registration methods. The advantage of a fully automatic registration procedure is twofold: it enables a fast and contact-free alignment and further a flexible application to datasets of any kind of optical 3D sensor. In this paper, an algorithm adapted for a robust automatic coarse registration is presented. The method was originally developed for the field of object reconstruction or localization. It is based on a segmentation of planes in the datasets to calculate the transformation parameters. The rotation is defined by the normals of three corresponding segmented planes of two overlapping datasets, while the translation is calculated via the intersection point of the segmented planes. First results have shown that the translation is strongly shape dependent: 3D data of objects with non-orthogonal planar flanks cannot be registered with the current method. In the novel supplement for the algorithm, the translation is additionally calculated via the distance between centroids of corresponding segmented planes, which results in more than one option for the transformation. A newly introduced measure considering the distance between the datasets after coarse registration evaluates the best possible transformation. Results of the robust automatic registration method are presented on the example of datasets taken from a cutting tool with a fringe-projection system and a focus-variation system. The successful application in dimensional metrology is proven with evaluations of shape parameters based on the registered datasets of a calibrated workpiece. (paper)

  5. Microstructural characterization of WC-TiC-Co cutting tools during high-speed machining of P20 mold steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wear behavior of tungsten carbide (WC)-TiC-Co cutting tools during cutting P20 tool steel was investigated. Orthogonal cutting tests were performed on a CNC lathe using five speeds, namely, 60, 120, 240, 380 and 600 m/min. Wear, as the width of the wear land, was monitored at five time intervals. Wear characterization of the rake and the flank surfaces as well as the collected chips was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered electron imaging and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Microhardness of collected chips was also performed to monitor strain hardening effects during cutting. Two dominant wear mechanisms were identified: at high speed (380-600 m/min), wear was found to occur by a melt wear mechanism; at low speed (60-120 m/min), adhesion (built-up edge) followed by delamination was found to be the cause of wear damage. It was also found that deformation in the chips occurred by localized shear deformation

  6. PERFORMANCE STUDY ON AISI316 AND AISI410 USING DIFFERENT LAYERED COATED CUTTING TOOLS IN CNC TURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. RAJA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steel (SS is used for many commercial and industrial applications owing to its high resistance to corrosion. It is too hard to machine due to its high strength and high work hardening property. A surface property such as surface roughness (SR is critical to the function-ability of machined components. SS is generally regarded as more difficult to machine material and poor SR is obtained during machining. In this paper an attempt has been made to investigate the SR produced by CNC turning on austenitic stainless steel (AISI316 and martensitic stainless steel (AISI410 by different cases of coated cutting tool used at dry conditions. Multilayered coated with TiCN/Al2O3, multilayered coated with Ti(C, N, B and single layered coated with TiAlN coated cutting tools are used. Experiments were carried out by using Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array. The effect of cutting parameters on SR is evaluated and optimum cutting conditions for minimizing the SR are determined. Analysis of variance (ANOVA is used for identifying the significant parameters affecting the responses. Confirmation experiments are conducted to validate the results obtained from optimization.

  7. Prescribed fire and cutting as tools for reducing woody plant succession in a created salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, A.B.; Proffitt, C.E.; Grace, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on efforts to reduce woody successional growth by the native shrub Iva frutescens L. in a created salt marsh by using prescribed fire and cutting. Experimental treatments included a winter burn, cutting plants at ground level, and a combination burn-and-cut treatment, with replicate plots of each. Iva frutescens proved to be extremely hardy, with zero mortality following the cutting, burning, or combination treatment; similar levels of regrowth were observed for all treatments. Individual shrub response, however, was found to be related to initial plant size, ground water level and salinity, and two fire characteristics (total heating >60??C and total heat index >60??C). Fire severity, sediment nutrient concentrations, and other abiotic factors had no observable effects. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  8. Low-loss image compression techniques for cutting tool images: a comparative study of compression quality measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Henrique Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work accomplishes a comparative study between two distinct image compression techniques, namely the Lifting technique and the Principal Components Analysis (PCA, in order to determine what of these two approaches is more appropriate for cutting tool wear images analysis. Lifting and Principal Components Analysis were applied in original images of a cutting tool for producing a low resolution version, while keeping the more important details of the image. The low-loss image compression quality provided by these techniques was expressed in terms of the compression factor (¿, the Mean Square Error (MSE and the Peak Signal-to-Noise Rate (PSNR provided by the image compression process. The tests were accomplished using the high-performance language for technical computing MATLAB®, and the results shown that the PCA technique presented the best values of PSNR with low compression rates. However, with high values of compression rates the lifting technique gave the highest PSNR.

  9. The triple correlation function as a tool for angle resolved structural analysis of spherical clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Finite charged particle ensembles in externally controlled confinement geometries allow for a systematic investigation of correlation effects over broad ranges of plasma parameters. Additionally, the formation of distinct shells emerges as a governing finite-size effect in systems of trapped ions and dusty plasma as well. As a sensitive tool to study the internal cluster structure, we introduce the 'Triple Correlations Function' (TCF), which allows for an angle resolved structure analysis. The TCF can not only resolve the transition probability of particles between shells, but also structural modifications within the shells during dynamic processes, e.g. melting or excitation. In particular this quantity is not affected by rotational invariance (i.e. rotation of the entire cluster). Using the TCF we study the effect of Coulomb screening, temperature, and special symmetries of different ground and metastable states with respect to the exact particle number as well as the limiting case of large N.

  10. SASfit: A comprehensive tool for small-angle scattering data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Breßler, Ingo; Thünemann, Andreas F

    2015-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering experiments are used in many fields of the life sciences and condensed matter research to obtain answers to questions about the shape and size of nano-sized structures, typically in the range of 1 to 100 nm. It provides good statistics for large numbers of structural units for short measurement times. With the ever-increasing quantity and quality of data acquisition, the value of appropriate tools that are able to extract valuable information is steadily increasing. SASfit has been one of the mature programs for small-angle scattering data analysis available for many years. We describe the basic data processing and analysis work-flow along with recent developments in the SASfit program package (version 0.94.6). They include (i) advanced algorithms for reduction of oversampled data sets (ii) improved confidence assessment in the optimized model parameters and (iii) a flexible plug-in system for custom user-provided models. A scattering function of a mass fractal model o...

  11. 先进CNC复合加工刀具和复合切削技术%Summarization of Advanced CNC Composite Cutting Tools and Composite Cutting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平亮

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics and application area of advanced CNC composite machining tools in Germany, Japan, Italy and other countries were introduced. The essential hardware, software and expected result of CNC composite cutting technology were expounded. Development of the new CNC composite processing technology in future was proposed.%介绍了德国、日本、意大利等国生产的先进的CNC复合加工刀具的特点与应用范围,阐明了CNC复合切削技术必要的硬软件及期望达到的效果,并提出今后CNC复合加工技术发展方向.

  12. Effect of cutting parameters on workpiece and tool properties during drilling of Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, Yahya Hisman; Yildiz, Hakan [Batman Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Oezek, Cebeli [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey)

    2016-08-01

    The main aim of machining is to provide the dimensional preciseness together with surface and geometric quality of the workpiece to be manufactured within the desired limits. Today, it is quite hard to drill widely utilized Ti-6Al-4 V alloys owing to their superior features. Therefore, in this study, the effects of temperature, chip formation, thrust forces, surface roughness, burr heights, hole diameter deviations and tool wears on the drilling of Ti-6Al-4 V were investigated under dry cutting conditions with different cutting speeds and feed rates by using tungsten carbide (WC) and high speed steel (HSS) drills. Moreover, the mathematical modeling of thrust force, surface roughness, burr height and tool wear were formed using Matlab. It was found that the feed rate, cutting speed and type of drill have a major effect on the thrust forces, surface roughness, burr heights, hole diameter deviations and tool wears. Optimum results in the Ti-6Al-4 V alloy drilling process were obtained using the WC drill.

  13. Investigation of wear and tool life of coated carbide and cubic boron nitride cutting tools in high speed milling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Twardowski, P.; Legutko, S.; Krolczyk, G.; Hloch, Sergej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2015), s. 1-9. ISSN 1687-8132 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : hardened steel s * milling tools * high speed machining * tool life * wear Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.575, year: 2014 http://ade.sagepub.com/content/7/6/1687814015590216.full.pdf+html

  14. Surface Layer States of Worn Uncoated and TiN-Coated WC/Co-Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools after Dry Plain Turning of Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kümmel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing wear mechanisms and developments of surface layers in WC/Co-cemented carbide cutting inserts is of great importance for metal-cutting manufacturing. By knowing relevant processes within the surface layers of cutting tools during machining the choice of machining parameters can be influenced to get less wear and high tool life of the cutting tool. Tool wear obviously influences tool life and surface integrity of the workpiece (residual stresses, surface quality, work hardening, etc., so the choice of optimised process parameters is of great relevance. Vapour-deposited coatings on WC/Co-cemented carbide cutting inserts are known to improve machining performance and tool life, but the mechanisms behind these improvements are not fully understood. The interaction between commercial TiN-coated and uncoated WC/Co-cemented carbide cutting inserts and a normalised SAE 1045 steel workpiece was investigated during a dry plain turning operation with constant material removal under varied machining parameters. Tool wear was assessed by light-optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and EDX analysis. The state of surface layer was investigated by metallographic sectioning. Microstructural changes and material transfer due to tribological processes in the cutting zone were examined by SEM and EDX analyses.

  15. Grain size evaluation of pulsed TiAlN nanocomposite coatings for cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays advanced TiAlN coatings enable high performance and high speed cutting. A side from excellent coating adhesion at the cutting edges and choice of material, a fine grained physical vapour deposition coating is the enabler for these high performance cutting operations. Isotropy and composition is of vital importance for the coating performance. On industrial scale equipment, composition (Ti-Al ratio), crystallite size and orientation are altered by changing pulse energy, duty cycle and cathode power. The synthesized coatings are then analyzed by common thin film and application oriented techniques, regarding the grain size and its influence on the coating properties. For the determination of the crystallite size, two methods, Debye Scherrer and Warren Averbach are compared. Finally, crystallite size is determined by using the Warren Averbach method and transmission electron microscopy for comparison reasons

  16. Cutting tool performance enhancement by using a B{sub 4}C/BCN/C-BN multilayer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano Gaitan, G. [Technological Development Center ASTIN-SENA, Cali (Colombia); Group of Corrosion and Protection, University of Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia); Caicedo, J.C. [Technological Development Center ASTIN-SENA, Cali (Colombia); Excellence Center for Novel Materials, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Prieto, P. [Excellence Center for Novel Materials, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Balogh, Adam G. [Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Thin films of B{sub 4}C/BCN/c-BN multilayers were deposited on to AISI M2 high speed steel substrates by rf. (13.56 MHz) multi-target magnetron sputtering from high purity (99.99%) h-BN and a (99.5%)B{sub 4}C target, in Ar(90%)/N{sub 2}(10%) gasmixture. For their deposition we varied the bias voltage of the B{sub 4}C films between -50 and -250 V and, for the BCN coatings the nitrogen gas flow from 3% to 12%. A 300-nm thick TiN buffer layer was first deposited to improve the adhesion of all samples. Mechanical properties like hardness, elastic Young modulus, and adhesion were determined by nanoindentation and scratch measurements. Finally, cutting tools were carried out. Tool performance was registered as functions of bilayer numbers showed enhancement between 60% and 107% and a surface roughness reduction of 60% for cutting tools coated with 16 bilayers, compared to uncoated tools. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Fundamental Study into the Mechanics of Material Removal in Rock Cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Aresh, Balaji

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to understand the mechanics of material removal during rock cutting. The exact nature of the failure of the rock material at the tool tip was investigated using a single cutting tooth test rig coupled with high speed photography, for various rock-like specimens. Linear cutting tests were performed using a tungsten carbide tipped orthogonal cutting tool with three different rake angles on low and high strength simulated rocks. Statistical analysis together with h...

  18. Si3N4 ceramic cutting tool sintered with CeO2 and Al2O3 additives with AlCrN coating

    OpenAIRE

    José Vitor Candido Souza; Olivério Moreira Macedo Silva; Maria do Carmo Andrade Nono; João Paulo Barros Machado; Marcelo Pimenta; Marcos Valério Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Ceramic cutting tools are showing a growing market perspective in terms of application on machining operations due to their high hardness, wear resistance, and machining without a cutting fluid, therefore are good candidates for cast iron and Nickel superalloys machining. The objective of the present paper was the development of Si3N4 based ceramic cutting insert, characterization of its physical and mechanical properties, and subsequent coating with AlCrN using a PVD method. The characteriza...

  19. Effects of cutting angle, edge preparation, and nano-structured coating on milling performance of a gamma titanium aluminide

    OpenAIRE

    Settineri, Luca; Priarone, Paolo Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Gamma titanium aluminides are intermetallic alloys. Recently, they have been evaluated as important contenders for structural applications in the automotive and aerospace sectors. This is due to their excellent high-temperature performances and their significantly lower density compared to Nickel-based superalloys. In this paper, an analysis of machinability of a gamma TiAl obtained via an electron beam melting (EBM) process is presented. The effects of tool geometry modifications, in terms o...

  20. Adventitious shoot formation on leaf cuttings in vivo, a tool in horticulture.

    OpenAIRE

    Custers, J.B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Adventitious shoot formation implies the regeneration or development of shoots from fully differentiated tissue. Its application has, after the rise of in vitro culture, assumed large proportions. Then the question arose whether in vivo adventitious shoot formation could not be applied more widely in commercial horticulture. To answer this question investigations were made on the regeneration of leaf cuttings and the results are presented in this thesis.It was found that the majority of a lar...

  1. Hard and wear-resistant titanium nitride coatings for cemented carbide cutting tools by pulsed high energy density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hard and wear-resistant titanium nitride coatings were deposited by pulsed high energy density plasma technique on cemented carbide cutting tools at ambient temperature. The coating thickness was measured by an optical profiler and surface Auger microprobe. The elemental and phase compositions and distribution of the coatings were determined by Auger microprobe, x-photon electron spectroscope, and X-ray diffractometer. The microstructures of the coatings were observed by scanning electron microscope and the roughness of the sample surface was measured by an optical profiler. The mechanical properties of the coatings were determined by nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests. The tribological properties were evaluated by the cutting performances of the coated tools applied in turning hardened CrWMn steel under industrial conditions. The structural and mechanical properties of the coatings were found to depend strongly on deposition conditions. Under optimized deposition conditions, the adhesive strength of TiN film to the substrate was satisfactory with the highest critical load up to more than 90 mN. The TiN films possess very high values of nanohardness and Young's modulus, which are near to 27 GPa and 450 GPa, respectively. The wear resistance and edge life of the cemented carbide tools were improved dramatically because of the deposition of titanium nitride coatings

  2. Analysis Of The Structure Of A Material Used In The Manufacture Of Thermal Chucks For Fixing Tools Cutting Using Finite Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, P.; J. Carneiro

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic stability of machine has its own importance in the quality of the machined product. With the development of new technologies for cutting tools, as the geometries and materials, cutting speeds used today reach values inconceivable for two decades. In the automotive industry steel and cast iron are gradually being replaced by lower density material and even lower costs. In complex shapes tools, heterogeneous material removal in roughing, sudden changes of sections, e...

  3. X-Lase CoreScriber, Picosecond Fiber Laser Tool for High-Precision Scribing and Cutting of Transparent Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivistö, S.; Amberla, T.; Konnunaho, T.; Kangastupa, J.; Sillanpää, J.

    We have developed various industrial transparent material scribing processes and a laser tool, picosecond MHz-range all- fiber laser X-Lase CoreScriber. The remarkably high peak power, exceptionally good beam quality, and integrability of the X-Lase CoreScriber combined with high achievable material processing speeds provide tempting solutions for high- precision glass processing. Here presented sapphire and Gorilla glass dicing processes are based on transparent material internal modification with short and intense high repetition rate ps-laser pulses. Increased processing speeds and cutting qualities in comparison to other conventional processing methods are presented.

  4. Simulation of the casting process - a powerful tool for enhanced design of the cutting teeth in surface mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Slavkovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent development in the computer simulation technology caused a tremendous influence on a rapid prototyping in casting process. These computational tools facilitate engineering work and urge moulding verification in foundries. Among dedicated software packages the MAGMASoft is selected for availability reasons. Its effectiveness is proved with the simulation of moulding process of the cutting teeth for a bucket wheel excavator Use of MAGMASoft enables a shortcut to a forceful and durable product, without internal cavities and micro-porosity. Such advancement of the moulding process is described in this paper.

  5. Pneumatically-powered hand tool used for cutting bolts during bone-fixing in surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cool, J.C.; Rijnsaardt K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract of NL 1000849 (C2) The tool has at least one pneumatic motor (1a, 1b), transmission (2) and regulator. The motor(s) can be of the piston and cylinder type producing reciprocating motion or of the rotary type. The tool is powered by a commercially-available gas cylinder containing 16g of

  6. ANALYSIS OF CUTTING FORCE AND CHIP MORPHOLOGY DURING HARD TURNING OF AISI D2 STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. M. ANTHONY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research work AISI D2 tool steel at a hardness of 55 HRC is being used for experimental investigation. Cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut are the cutting parameters considered for the experimentation along with tool geometry namely, nose radius, clearance angle and rake angle. Three different cutting tool materials are used for experimentation namely multicoated carbide, cermet and ceramic inserts. The cutting force generated during the machining process is being measured using Kistler dynamometer and recorded for further evaluation. The chips produced during the machining process for every experimental trail is also collected for understanding the chip morphology. Based on the experimental data collected Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was conducted to understand the influence of all cutting parameters and tool geometry on cutting force.

  7. Chemical and mechanical properties of silica hybrid films from NaOH catalyzed sols for micromachining with diamond cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manufacturing of microstructured mold surfaces was realized by the micromachining of thick sol–gel silica hybrid coatings. The films were deposited onto pre-machined steel molds by spin coating using NaOH-catalyzed sols from organosilicate precursors. The effect of the sol synthesis and the heat treatment on the mechanical and chemical properties of these films was studied in order to develop thick and crack-free films with appropriate properties for micromachining with diamond cutting tools. The hardness was measured by nanoindentation as a function of the heat treatment temperature. The transition from soft organic gel films to hard glass-like films due to the thermal treatment was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection, and Raman and infrared spectroscopies. The films from NaOH catalyzed sols showed a complex transition from aliphatic carbon originating from hydrocarbon groups to carbonates, carboxylates and disordered carbon clusters. - Highlights: ► Thick silica hybrid films were micromachined with diamond cutting tools. ► The nanoindentation hardness increased with the heat treatment temperature. ► The role of sodium hydroxide in base catalyzed silica sols was studied. ► Formation of carbonates, carboxylates and disordered carbon was observed

  8. Chemical and mechanical properties of silica hybrid films from NaOH catalyzed sols for micromachining with diamond cutting tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prenzel, T., E-mail: tprenzel@uni-bremen.de [Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik, Badgasteiner Str. 3, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Mehner, A. [Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik, Badgasteiner Str. 3, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Lucca, D.A.; Qi, Y.; Harriman, T.A. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 218 Engineering North, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Mutlugünes, Y. [Labor für Mikrozerspanung — LFM, Badgasteiner Str. 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Shojaee, S.A. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 218 Engineering North, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Wang, Y.Q.; Williams, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Nastasi, M. [Nebraska Center for Energy Sciences Research, University of Nebraska, 230 Whittier Research Center, 2200 Vine Street Lincoln, NE 68583-0857 (United States); Zoch, H.-W. [Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik, Badgasteiner Str. 3, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Swiderek, P. [Institute of Applied and Physical Chemistry, University of Bremen, Leobener Straße, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    Manufacturing of microstructured mold surfaces was realized by the micromachining of thick sol–gel silica hybrid coatings. The films were deposited onto pre-machined steel molds by spin coating using NaOH-catalyzed sols from organosilicate precursors. The effect of the sol synthesis and the heat treatment on the mechanical and chemical properties of these films was studied in order to develop thick and crack-free films with appropriate properties for micromachining with diamond cutting tools. The hardness was measured by nanoindentation as a function of the heat treatment temperature. The transition from soft organic gel films to hard glass-like films due to the thermal treatment was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection, and Raman and infrared spectroscopies. The films from NaOH catalyzed sols showed a complex transition from aliphatic carbon originating from hydrocarbon groups to carbonates, carboxylates and disordered carbon clusters. - Highlights: ► Thick silica hybrid films were micromachined with diamond cutting tools. ► The nanoindentation hardness increased with the heat treatment temperature. ► The role of sodium hydroxide in base catalyzed silica sols was studied. ► Formation of carbonates, carboxylates and disordered carbon was observed.

  9. Si3N4 ceramic cutting tool sintered with CeO2 and Al2O3 additives with AlCrN coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vitor Candido Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic cutting tools are showing a growing market perspective in terms of application on machining operations due to their high hardness, wear resistance, and machining without a cutting fluid, therefore are good candidates for cast iron and Nickel superalloys machining. The objective of the present paper was the development of Si3N4 based ceramic cutting insert, characterization of its physical and mechanical properties, and subsequent coating with AlCrN using a PVD method. The characterization of the coating was made using an optical profiler, XRD, AFM and microhardness tester. The results showed that the tool presented a fracture toughness of 6.43 MPa.m½ and hardness of 16 GPa. The hardness reached 31 GPa after coating. The machining tests showed a decrease on workpiece roughness when machining with coated insert, in comparison with the uncoated cutting tool. Probably this fact is related to hardness, roughness and topography of AlCrN.

  10. Pneumatically-powered hand tool used for cutting bolts during bone-fixing in surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Cool, J.C.; Rijnsaardt K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract of NL 1000849 (C2) The tool has at least one pneumatic motor (1a, 1b), transmission (2) and regulator. The motor(s) can be of the piston and cylinder type producing reciprocating motion or of the rotary type. The tool is powered by a commercially-available gas cylinder containing 16g of CO2 at a pressure of 56 bar. Illustrated is a surgical implement to crop bone-fixing bolts. The bolt end is inserted in the hole (7) to enter the eccentric bore (9) of the inner rod (8). The rod rotat...

  11. "Good Jobs and the Cutting Edge: The U.S. Machine Tool Industry and Sustainable Prosperity"

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Forrant

    1997-01-01

    A principal focus of the paper is a comparative analysis of the development of computer numerically controlled machine tools in the U.S. and Japan. Japan's ability to wrest global machine tool preeminence from the U.S. grew out of its successful development of this technology. The first section of the paper contains a brief history of the industry and documents the decline of production and employment after 1970. Section two describes the industry's failure to resolve the problems caused by e...

  12. Thermo-energetic Analysis of the Fluid Systems in Cutting Machine Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Juliane; Lohse, Harald; Weber, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the thermo-elastic behavior of tooling machines can only be achieved by systematic analysis, characterization and design of their fluidic system. In the first stage of this project, fundamental work was done to develop simulation methods for the calculation of the thermodynamic behavior of a representative example of a milling machine and each of its components. With experimental and numerical data it was proven, that significant improvement can be achieved by a proper design of h...

  13. Aplicaciones extraorales del bisturí piezoeléctrico Extraoral uses of a piezoelectric surgical cutting tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. González Lagunas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos nuestra experiencia con el empleo de un bisturí piezoeleéctrico con el fin de efectuar diferentes osteotomias extraorales, Estas indicaciones no se han presentado previamente en la literatura. En los últimos 6 meses hemos utilizado este intrumento para efectuar osteotomías en el cóndilo y en la eminencia articular, para tomar injerto de calota craneal y para realizar las osteotomias de la rinoplastia. Este instrumento permite una inea de osteotomia precisa sin el riesgo de lesionar los tejidos blandos vecinos. Se discuten las ventajas e inconvenientes del instrumento según el procedimiento realizado.We report our experience with the use of a piezoelectric surgical cutting tool in performing extraoral osteotomies. These indications have not been reported previously in the literature. In the last 6 months we have used this instrument to perform osteotomy on the temporomandibular condyle and articular eminence, to obtain grafts from the skull, and to perform osteotomy for rhinoplasty. This instrument can be used to makes an osteotomy cut without risk of injuring adjacent soft tissues. Its advantages and disadvantages are discussed in accordance with the procedure performed.

  14. Fracture toughness of advanced alumina ceramics and alumina matrix composites used for cutting tool edges

    OpenAIRE

    M. Szutkowska

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Specific characteristics in fracture toughness measurements of advanced alumina ceramics and alumina matrix composites with particular reference to α-Al2O3, Al2O3-ZrO2, Al2O3-ZrO2-TiC and Al2O3-Ti(C,N) has been presented.Design/methodology/approach: The present study reports fracture toughness obtained by means of the conventional method and direct measurements of the Vickers crack length (DCM method) of selected tool ceramics based on alumina: pure alumina, alumina-zirconia composit...

  15. Detection and diagnosis of bearing and cutting tool faults using hidden Markov models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutros, Tony; Liang, Ming

    2011-08-01

    Over the last few decades, the research for new fault detection and diagnosis techniques in machining processes and rotating machinery has attracted increasing interest worldwide. This development was mainly stimulated by the rapid advance in industrial technologies and the increase in complexity of machining and machinery systems. In this study, the discrete hidden Markov model (HMM) is applied to detect and diagnose mechanical faults. The technique is tested and validated successfully using two scenarios: tool wear/fracture and bearing faults. In the first case the model correctly detected the state of the tool (i.e., sharp, worn, or broken) whereas in the second application, the model classified the severity of the fault seeded in two different engine bearings. The success rate obtained in our tests for fault severity classification was above 95%. In addition to the fault severity, a location index was developed to determine the fault location. This index has been applied to determine the location (inner race, ball, or outer race) of a bearing fault with an average success rate of 96%. The training time required to develop the HMMs was less than 5 s in both the monitoring cases.

  16. CutLHCO: A Consumer-Level Tool for Implementing Generic Collider Data Selection Cuts in the Search for New Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Joel W

    2012-01-01

    A new computer program named CutLHCO is introduced, whose function is the implementation of generic data selection cuts on collider event specification files in the standardized .lhco format. This software is intended to fill an open market niche for a lightweight yet flexible "consumer-level" alternative to the ROOT data analysis framework. The primary envisioned application is as a filter on output produced by the PGS4 and DELPHES detector simulations, which are themselves lightweight alternatives to the GEANT4 based solutions favored by the large LHC experiments. All process control instructions are provided via a compact and powerful card file input syntax that efficiently facilitates the reasonable approximation of most event selection strategies and specialized discovery statistics commonly employed by the CMS and ATLAS collaborations. The structure, function, invocation and usage of the most recent CutLHCO 2.0 program version are documented thoroughly, including a detailed deconstruction of several exa...

  17. High precision batch mode micro-electro-discharge machining of metal alloys using DRIE silicon as a cutting tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports recent advances in batch mode micro-electro-discharge machining (µEDM) for high precision micromachining of metal alloys such as stainless steel. High-aspect-ratio silicon microstructures with fine feature sizes formed by deep reactive ion etching are used as cutting tools. To machine workpiece features with widths ≤10 µm, a silicon dioxide coating is necessary to passivate the sidewalls of the silicon tools from spurious discharges. In the machined workpieces, a minimum feature size of ≈7 µm and an aspect ratio up to 3.2 are demonstrated by the batch mode µEDM of stainless steel 304 and titanium (Grade 1) substrates. Machining rates up to ≈5 µm min−1 in feature depth are achieved in batch mode micromachining of typical microfluidic structures, including arrays of channels and cavities of different sizes. The machined features are uniform across a die-scale area of 5 × 5 mm2. Other machining characteristics are also discussed. (paper)

  18. Framework for utilizing angling as a tourism development tool in rural areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Josef; Martinát, Stanislav; Kallabová, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 10 (2009), s. 508-518. ISSN 0139-570X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300860902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : rural areas * development * angling Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.716, year: 2009 http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-72349089553&origin=resultslist&sort

  19. Geometry of single-point turning tools and drills

    CERN Document Server

    Astakhov, Viktor P

    2010-01-01

    Tools for metal cutting have many shapes and features, each of which is described by its angles or geometries. The selection of the right cutting tool geometry is critical because it directly affects the integrity of the machined surface, tool life, power needed for machining, and thus the overall machining efficiency. ""Geometry of Single-Point Turning Tools and Drills"" outlines clear objectives of cutting tool geometry selection and optimization, using multiple examples to provide a thorough explanation. The establishment of clear bridges between cutting theory, tool geometry, and shop prac

  20. Recombinant yeast technology at the cutting edge: robust tools for both designed catalysts and new biologicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, Karin; Looser, Verena; Hyka, Petr; Merseburger, Tobias; Meier, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Health and safety concerns, enhanced quality criteria, and environmental sustainability, have prompted investigations into production using recombinant yeasts as a feasible alternative for isolation of proteins from natural animal or plant sources, as well as for processes utilising either mammalian cell cultures or bacterial systems. An overview of recent research papers and review articles provides readers with a comprehensive insight into the field of next-generation yeast expression systems. Major breakthroughs in recombinant yeast technology linked to Pichia pastoris are (i) the public availability of tools to generate proteins with tailored and highly homogenous N-glycan structures, similar to the forms assembled in humans, (ii) the recent accomplishment of the annotation of its genome sequence, and finally, (iii) the presence of the first few (non-glycosylated) therapeutic proteins in Pichia on the market. The P. pastoris expression platform is now well developed, as proven by multiple products used in human and veterinary medicine and in industry (e.g., enzymes for chemical synthesis and for the modification/synthesis of pharmaceuticals, drug target proteins used for structural analysis or for high throughput screening, proteins for diagnostics, proteinous biomaterials, vaccines, and therapeutic proteins). Nevertheless, the complexity of protein analysis (monitoring) continues to restrict process development for recombinant products. Drawing on combined expertise in molecular biology and process technology, the Institute of Biotechnology (IBT) at the Zurich University of Applied Science (ZHAW) and its international partners have developed solutions which (i) fully eliminate (or partially reduce) the use of methanol, which is undesirable in high-cell-density and high-productivity processes, (ii) match both strain construction and process design with the target protein characteristics to the benefit of the cells' physiological shape, and (iii) allow multi

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF THE TOOL POINT ANGLE AND FEED RATE ON THE DYNAMIC PARAMETERS AT DRILLING COATED PARTICLEBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai ISPAS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pre-laminated (coated particleboards (PB are wood-based composites intensively used in the furniture industry. In order to prepare the PB for joining, drilling is the most commonly applied machining process. The surface quality and the dynamic parameters (thrust force and torque are significantly influenced by the tools characteristics and the machining parameters. The point/tip angle of the drill bit and the feed speed during drilling play a major role in gaining a good surface quality and minimizing the dynamic parameters. The objective of this study was to measure and analyze the influence of both the geometric and cinematic parameters on the dynamic parameters at drilling with twist (helical drills. The experiments were performed based on a factorial design. The results show that, a low feed rate generally minimizes both the drilling torque and the thrust force, while a small tip angle increases the drilling torque and minimizes the thrust force.

  2. PCD刀具切削天然大理石的磨损特性研究%Wear characteristics of PCD tools when cutting natural marble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任文祥; 吴玉厚; 赵德宏; 苏姜姜

    2013-01-01

    The effect of different parameters on cutting performance of PCD tool when cutting natural marble is analyzed.The results show that,the wear form of the PCD tool during the cutting process mainly include the abrasive wear,the breakage of the polycrystalline layer and the damage of the binding agent,etc.Results show that the minimum wear of the tool can be reached at spindle speed 12 000 r/min,feed speed 1 000 mm/min,and cutting depth 0.5 mm.The wear of the tool decreases with the increase of the spindle speed of the tool,and increases with the increase of feed rate of the tool and the cutting depth.%通过PCD刀具切削天然大理石的试验研究,分析了在不同加工参数条件下对PCD刀具切削性能的影响以及刀具的磨损机理.试验结果表明:PCD刀具在加工过程中的磨损机理主要表现为磨粒的磨损、剥落,聚晶层的破损与结合剂破坏等;刀具主轴转速为12 000 r/min、进给速度为1000 mm/min、切削深度为0.5 mm时,刀具的磨损量最小;且磨损量随刀具主轴转速的增加而降低,随刀具的进给速度和切削深度的增加而增加.

  3. Tribological and cutting behavior of silicon nitride tools coated with monolayer- and multilayer-microcrystalline HFCVD diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Multilayer-MCD film shows lower friction coefficient compared monolayer-MCD film. ► Multilayer-MCD film is similar in friction coefficient to monolayer-SMCD film. ► Multilayer-MCD film presents the higher wear resistance than monolayer-SMCD film. ► Multilayer-MCD diamond insert presents the perfect behavior regarding tool wear. - Abstract: Monolayer-micrometric (MN-MCD), monolayer-submicrometric (MN-SMCD) and multilayer-micrometric (MT-MCD) diamond films are grown on silicon nitride substrates by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. The as-deposited diamond films are characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), Raman spectrum and 3D surface topography. Tribological properties are assessed by the sliding tests using a reciprocal motion ball-on-flat (BOF) configuration. The friction coefficients are measured as 0.126 for the MN-MCD films, 0.076 for the MN-SMCD films and 0.071 for the MT-MCD films during dry sliding against silicon nitride counterface. The different carbon content of the films may result in the visible diminution of friction coefficient for the MT-MCD films relative to the MN-MCD films. The results show that the MN-MCD and MT-MCD films present the much higher wear resistance than the MN-SMCD films. Meanwhile, the cutting performances of as-deposited diamond films are evaluated by machining aluminum–silicon alloy material. The experimental results show that the MT-MCD insert presents the best behavior regarding the tool wear.

  4. Precision-Cut Kidney Slices as a Tool to Understand the Dynamics of Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Renal Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Federica; Kàrpàti, Zsolt S.; Nielsen, Signe H.; Karsdal, Morten A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to set up an ex vivo model for renal interstitial fibrosis in order to investigate the extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover profile in the fibrotic kidney. We induced kidney fibrosis in fourteen 12-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) surgery of the right ureter. The left kidney (contralateral) was used as internal control. Six rats were sham operated and used as the control group. Rats were terminated two weeks after the surgery; the kidneys were excised and precision-cut kidney slices (PCKSs) were cultured for five days in serum-free medium. Markers of collagen type I formation (P1NP), collagen type I and III degradation (C1M and C3M), and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) were measured in the PCKS supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. P1NP, C1M, C3M, and α-SMA were increased up to 2- to 13-fold in supernatants of tissue slices from the UUO-ligated kidneys compared with the contralateral kidneys (P < 0.001) and with the kidneys of sham-operated animals (P < 0.0001). The markers could also reflect the level of fibrosis in different animals. The UUO PCKS ex vivo model provides a valuable translational tool for investigating the extracellular matrix remodeling associated with renal interstitial fibrosis.

  5. Tribological and cutting behavior of silicon nitride tools coated with monolayer- and multilayer-microcrystalline HFCVD diamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Naichao; Shen, Bin; Yang, Guodong; Sun, Fanghong

    2013-01-01

    Monolayer-micrometric (MN-MCD), monolayer-submicrometric (MN-SMCD) and multilayer-micrometric (MT-MCD) diamond films are grown on silicon nitride substrates by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. The as-deposited diamond films are characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), Raman spectrum and 3D surface topography. Tribological properties are assessed by the sliding tests using a reciprocal motion ball-on-flat (BOF) configuration. The friction coefficients are measured as 0.126 for the MN-MCD films, 0.076 for the MN-SMCD films and 0.071 for the MT-MCD films during dry sliding against silicon nitride counterface. The different carbon content of the films may result in the visible diminution of friction coefficient for the MT-MCD films relative to the MN-MCD films. The results show that the MN-MCD and MT-MCD films present the much higher wear resistance than the MN-SMCD films. Meanwhile, the cutting performances of as-deposited diamond films are evaluated by machining aluminum-silicon alloy material. The experimental results show that the MT-MCD insert presents the best behavior regarding the tool wear.

  6. Cutting force-based real-time estimation of tool wear in face milling using a combination of signal processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, P.; Sengupta, D.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, combinations of signal processing techniques for real-time estimation of tool wear in face milling using cutting force signals are presented. Three different strategies based on linear filtering, time-domain averaging and wavelet transformation techniques are adopted for extracting relevant features from the measured signals. Sensor fusion at feature level is used in search of an improved and robust tool wear model. Isotonic regression and exponential smoothing techniques are introduced to enforce monotonicity and smoothness of the extracted features. At the first stage, multiple linear regression models are developed for specific cutting conditions using the extracted features. The best features are identified on the basis of a statistical model selection criterion. At the second stage, the first-stage models are combined, in accordance with proven theory, into a single tool wear model, including the effect of cutting parameters. The three chosen strategies show improvements over those reported in the literature, in the case of training data as well as test data used for validation—for both laboratory and industrial experiments. A method for calculating the probabilistic worst-case prediction of tool wear is also developed for the final tool wear model.

  7. Prediction of cutting forces in machining of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastics composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Surinder Kumar; Gupta, Meenu; Satsangi, P. S.

    2013-06-01

    Machining of plastic materials has become increasingly important in any engineering industry subsequently the prediction of cutting forces. Forces quality has greater influence on components, which are coming in contact with each other. So it becomes necessary to measure and study machined forces and its behavior. In this research work, experimental investigations are conducted to determine the effects of cutting conditions and tool geometry on the cutting forces in the turning of the unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastics (UD-GFRP) composites. In this experimental study, carbide tool (K10) having different tool nose radius and tool rake angle is used. Experiments are conducted based on the established Taguchi's technique L18 orthogonal array on a lathe machine. It is found that the depth of cut is the cutting parameter, which has greater influence on cutting forces. The effect of the tool nose radius and tool rake angles on the cutting forces are also considerably significant. Based on statistical analysis, multiple regression model for cutting forces is derived with satisfactory coefficient ( R 2). This model proved to be highly preferment for predicting cutting forces.

  8. Analysis Of The Structure Of A Material Used In The Manufacture Of Thermal Chucks For Fixing Tools Cutting Using Finite Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic stability of machine has its own importance in the quality of the machined product. With the development of new technologies for cutting tools, as the geometries and materials, cutting speeds used today reach values inconceivable for two decades. In the automotive industry steel and cast iron are gradually being replaced by lower density material and even lower costs. In complex shapes tools, heterogeneous material removal in roughing, sudden changes of sections, etc. Stress relieving treatment should be carried out to minimize dimensional variations of form during quenching and tempering. Materials for manufacture of thermal fixing most appropriate for that operating system still needs to be further investigated. Therefore, this study investigated the elastic behavior of the material used in the manufacture of tooling systems for cutting tools. Has been evaluated In fastening system, the temperature variation exerted on the mandrel body region and the thermal expansion where H13 steel can withstand the assembly process by thermal interference. This method can determine the amount of number of cycles until the onset of fatigue that material.

  9. 基于宏程序的椭球面加工刀路算法%Macroprogram-based Algorithms of Tool Trajectory for Cutting Oval Sphere Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡翔云; 肖仁

    2013-01-01

      椭球形、球形表面在现代机械生产中比较常见,这类特征需要数控加工。使用计算机自动编程时,程序修改不方便,加工程序编制时间长。通过分析椭球形电极表面加工工艺,分别给出球刀、立铣刀、牛鼻刀加工椭球表面的刀路算法、参数方程及适用范围。并以球刀层切椭球面为例,采用两个嵌套的循环语句编制宏程序,可使用G65指令调用,相当于给数控系统增加了一个固定循环功能,实现了该类零件加工程序的参数化,提高了加工程序的编制速度,可用于椭球、球类零件表面的铣削加工。通过一个具体实例对宏程序进行了验证。%Oval sphere and spherical surface are often seen in modern machinery manufacturing,and numerical control (NC) machining is required for this kind of characteristics. When computer used for automatic programming,modification of a program is not easy,and a long period of time is taken for writing the cutting program. By analyzing the cutting technology for oval sphere surface of an electrode,the algorithm of tooltrajectory,parameter equation and applicable scope were given separately for the ball tool,vertical milling tool and cownose tool for cutting oval sphere surface. Moreover by taking an example of layer cutting of oval sphere surface with ball tool,a macroprogram was wrote with two embedded circulate sentences. It could be invoked by G65 code,which was equivalent to add a fixed circular function to the NC system. The parameterization of cutting program for this kind of parts is realized,and writing speed for the cutting program is improved. It can be used for milling and cutting parts with oval sphere and spherical surface. The macroprogram is verified by a detailed practical example.

  10. Effect of machining conditions on MRR and surface roughness during CNC Turning of different Materials Using TiN Coated Cutting Tools – A Taguchi approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Raval

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents on experimental investigation of the machining characteristics of different grades of EN materials in CNC turning process using TiN coated cutting tools. In machining operation, the quality of surface finish is an important requirement for many turned work pieces. Thus, the choice of optimized cutting parameters is very important for controlling the required surface quality. The purpose of this research paper is focused on the analysis of optimum cutting conditions to get the lowest surface roughness and maximum material removal rate in CNC turning of different grades of EN materials by Taguchi method. Optimal cutting parameters for each performance measure were obtained employing Taguchi techniques. The orthogonal array, signal to noise ratio and analysis of variance were employed to study the performance characteristics in dry turning operation. ANOVA has shown that the depth of cut has significant role to play in producing higher MRR and insert has significant role to play for producing lower surface roughness. Thus, it is possible to increase machine utilization and decrease production cost in an automated manufacturing environment.

  11. Numerical simulation of rock cutting using 2D AUTODYN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldemichael, D. E.; Rani, A. M. Abdul; Lemma, T. A.; Altaf, K.

    2015-12-01

    In a drilling process for oil and gas exploration, understanding of the interaction between the cutting tool and the rock is important for optimization of the drilling process using polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutters. In this study the finite element method in ANSYS AUTODYN-2D is used to simulate the dynamics of cutter rock interaction, rock failure, and fragmentation. A two-dimensional single PDC cutter and rock model were used to simulate the orthogonal cutting process and to investigate the effect of different parameters such as depth of cut, and back rake angle on two types of rocks (sandstone and limestone). In the simulation, the cutting tool was dragged against stationary rock at predetermined linear velocity and the depth of cut (1,2, and 3 mm) and the back rake angles(-10°, 0°, and +10°) were varied. The simulation result shows that the +10° back rake angle results in higher rate of penetration (ROP). Increasing depth of cut leads to higher ROP at the cost of higher cutting force.

  12. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....

  13. Synergistically toughening effect of SiC whiskers and nanoparticles in Al2O3-based composite ceramic cutting tool material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuefei; Liu, Hanlian; Huang, Chuanzhen; Wang, Limei; Zou, Bin; Zhao, Bin

    2016-06-01

    In recent decades, many additives with different characteristics have been applied to strengthen and toughen Al2O3-based ceramic cutting tool materials. Among them, SiC whiskers and SiC nanoparticles showed excellent performance in improving the material properties. While no attempts have been made to add SiC whiskers and SiC nanoparticles together into the ceramic matrix and the synergistically toughening effects of them have not been studied. An Al2O3-SiCw-SiCnp advanced ceramic cutting tool material is fabricated by adding both one-dimensional SiC whiskers and zero-dimensional SiC nanoparticles into the Al2O3 matrix with an effective dispersing and mixing process. The composites with 25 vol% SiC whiskers and 25 vol% SiC nanoparticles alone are also investegated for comparison purposes. Results show that the Al2O3-SiCw-SiCnp composite with both 20 vol% SiC whiskers and 5 vol% SiC nanoparticles additives have much improved mechanical properties. The flexural strength of Al2O3-SiCw-SiCnp is 730±95 MPa and fracture toughness is 5.6±0.6 MPa·m1/2. The toughening and strengthening mechanisms of SiC whiskers and nanoparticles are studied when they are added either individually or in combination. It is indicated that when SiC whiskers and nanoparticles are added together, the grains are further refined and homogenized, so that the microstructure and fracture mode ratio is modified. The SiC nanoparticles are found helpful to enhance the toughening effects of the SiC whiskers. The proposed research helps to enrich the types of ceramic cutting tool and is benefit to expand the application range of ceramic cutting tool.

  14. Optimization of Wet or Dry Micro-blasting on PVD Films by Various Al2O3 Grain Sizes for Improving the Coated Tools' Cutting Performance

    OpenAIRE

    K.-D. Bouzakis; Tsouknidas, A.; G. Skordaris; E. Bouzakis; Makrimallakis, S.; S. Gerardis; G. Katirtzoglou

    2011-01-01

    Micro-blasting on PVD coated tools is an effective technology for improving their cutting performance. Through micro-blasting, compressive stresses are induced into the film, thus increasing the coating hardness, but its brittleness too. Simultaneously, abrasion phenomena are activated, which may lead to roughness augmentation, film thickness decrease and substrate revelation. In this way, for a successful process conduct, it is pivotal to adapt, among others, the applied micro-blasting pres...

  15. Corrosion resistance appraisal of TiN, TiCN and TiAlN coatings deposited by CAE-PVD method on WC-Co cutting tools exposed to artificial sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, A. A.; Pencea, I.; Branzei, M.; Trancă, D. E.; Ţepeş, G.; Sfăt, C. E.; Ciovica (Coman), E.; Gherghilescu, A. I.; Stanciu, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    A new advanced sintered composite cutting tool has been developed based on tungsten carbide matrix ligated with cobalt (WC-Co) additivated with tantalum carbide (TaC), titanium carbide (TiC) and niobium carbide (NbC) as grain growth inhibitors. Titanium nitride (TiN), titanium carbonitride (TiCN) and titanium aluminium nitride (TiAlN) coatings were deposited on these tools by CAE-PVD technique to find out the best solution to improve the corrosion resistance of this tool in marine environment. The electrochemical behaviours of the specimens in 3.5% NaCl water solution were estimated by potentiodynamic polarization measurements i.e. the open circuit potential (Eoc), corrosion potential (Ecorr) and corrosion current density (icorr). Wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), optical microscopy (OM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigations have been carried on tested and untested specimens to substantiate the corrosion resistance of the tested specimens. Based on the open circuit potential (Eoc) and corrosion potential (Ecorr) results, the tested specimens were ranked as TiN, TiAlN, TiCN and WC-Co while on corrosion current density (icorr) and protective efficiency (P) values they have been ranked as TiN, TiAlN, WC-Co and TiCN. The WAXD, MO and AFM results unambiguously show that the corrosion resistance depends on the nature and morphology of the coating.

  16. Study of AFM-based nanometric cutting process using molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are conducted to investigate the atomic force microscope (AFM)-based nanometric cutting process of copper using diamond tool. The effects of tool geometry, cutting depth, cutting velocity and bulk temperature are studied. It is found that the tool geometry has a significant effect on the cutting resistance. The friction coefficient (cutting resistance) on the nanoscale decreases with the increase of tool angle as predicted by the macroscale theory. However, the friction coefficients on the nanoscale are bigger than those on the macroscale. The simulation results show that a bigger cutting depth results in more material deformation and larger chip volume, thus leading to bigger cutting force and bigger normal force. It is also observed that a higher cutting velocity results in a larger chip volume in front of the tool and bigger cutting force and normal force. The chip volume in front of the tool increases while the cutting force and normal force decrease with the increase of bulk temperature.

  17. PVD-Alumina Coatings on Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools: A Study About the Effect on Friction and Adhesion Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    S.E. Cordes

    2012-01-01

    Crystalline PVD γ-alumina coatings are interesting for machining operations due to their outstanding characteristics, such as high hot hardness, high thermal stability and low tendency to adhesion. In the present work (Ti,Al)N/γ-Al2O3-coatings are deposited on cemented carbide by means of MSIP. Objectives of this work are to study the effects of coating and cutting fluid regarding friction in tribological tests and to study the wear mechanisms and cutting performance of γ-Al2O3-based coated c...

  18. Ultrasonic Cutting of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    In the field of food engineering, cutting is usually classified as a mechanical unit operation dealing with size reduction by applying external forces on a bulk product. Ultrasonic cutting is realized by superpositioning the macroscopic feed motion of the cutting device or of the product with a microscopic vibration of the cutting tool. The excited tool interacts with the product and generates a number of effects. Primary energy concentration in the separation zone and the modification of contact friction along the tool flanks arise from the cyclic loading and are responsible for benefits such as reduced cutting force, smooth cut surface, and reduced product deformation. Secondary effects such as absorption and cavitation originate from the propagation of the sound field in the product and are closely related to chemical and physical properties of the material to be cut. This chapter analyzes interactions between food products and ultrasonic cutting tools and relates these interactions with physical and chemical product properties as well as with processing parameters like cutting velocity, ultrasonic amplitude and frequency, and tool design.

  19. The Impact of Cutting Tool Advances on Machining Productivity%刀具创新对提高金属切削效率的作用与影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Intense global competition is forcing the manufacturing industry to reduce costs so as to maintain profitability. Since a major component of manufacturing cost is machine tool time, attention is focused on cycle time reduction through greater machining productivity. Advances in machine tools, development of stronger workpiece materials, new machining methods, and environmental regulations with regard to safe disposal of cutting fluids are providing additional challenges to the cutting tool industry. In response to these challenges, the industry has made significant innovations in every class of tool materials. This paper discusses the role of tooling advances in enhancing metalcutting productivity.

  20. Influence of Fiber Orientation on Single-Point Cutting Fracture Behavior of Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy Prepreg Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Wei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate the influences of carbon fibers on the fracture mechanism of carbon fibers both in macroscopic view and microscopic view by using single-point flying cutting method. Cutting tools with three different materials were used in this research, namely, PCD (polycrystalline diamond tool, CVD (chemical vapor deposition diamond thin film coated carbide tool and uncoated carbide tool. The influence of fiber orientation on the cutting force and fracture topography were analyzed and conclusions were drawn that cutting forces are not affected by cutting speeds but significantly influenced by the fiber orientation. Cutting forces presented smaller values in the fiber orientation of 0/180° and 15/165° but the highest one in 30/150°. The fracture mechanism of carbon fibers was studied in different cutting conditions such as 0° orientation angle, 90° orientation angle, orientation angles along fiber direction, and orientation angles inverse to the fiber direction. In addition, a prediction model on the cutting defects of carbon fiber reinforced plastic was established based on acoustic emission (AE signals.

  1. Subjectivity Inherent In By-Eye Symmetry Judgements and the Large Cutting Tools at the Cave of Hearths, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Underhill

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The Stone Age of South Africa is an area of study due for a renaissance, and there is a real need for unification of the extant evidence. As a beginning to this, new methodologies have been proposed. This paper tackles the issue of symmetry, specifically the subjectivity involved in by-eye judgements. Assumptions of subjectivity, however, are not proof: presented here is a critical analysis of the inherent bias of by-eye symmetry judgements. Ultimately it is clear that the method contains a level of subjectivity which strips it of any analytical value. The by-eye judgement of symmetry is replaced by the more robust Flip Test computer program, and a brief study is made of the Large Cutting Tools (LCT at a vitally important, yet often overlooked, site dating from the Pleistocene in South Africa, the Cave of Hearths, Limpopo province. The corollary is that the symmetry present in the Cave of Hearths Large Cutting Tools can be studied with some measure of confidence: suggestions are made regarding the nature of tool typologies and the knappers’ ultimate focus on tip shape and utility.

  2. Specific Energy as an Index to Identify the Critical Failure Mode Transition Depth in Rock Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xianqun; Xu, Chaoshui

    2016-04-01

    Rock cutting typically involves driving a rigid cutter across the rock surface at certain depth of cut and is used to remove rock material in various engineering applications. It has been established that there exist two distinct failure modes in rock cutting, i.e. ductile mode and brittle mode. The ductile mode takes precedence when the cut is shallow and the increase in the depth of cut leads to rock failure gradually shifted to brittle-dominant mode. The threshold depth or the critical transition depth, at which rock failure under cutting changes from the ductile to the brittle mode, is associated with not only the rock properties but also the cutting operational parameters and the understanding of this threshold is important to optimise the tool design and operational parameters. In this study, a new method termed the specific cutting energy transition model is proposed from an energy perspective which is demonstrated to be much more effective in identifying the critical transition depth compared with existing approaches. In the ductile failure cutting mode, the specific cutting energy is found to be independent of the depth of cut; but in the brittle failure cutting mode, the specific cutting energy is found to be dependent on the depth of cut following a power-law relationship. The critical transition depth is identified as the intersection point between these two relationships. Experimental tests on two types of rocks with different combinations of cutting velocity, depth of cut and back rake angle are conducted and the application of the proposed model on these cutting datasets has demonstrated that the model can provide a very effective tool to analyse the cutting mechanism and to identify the critical transition depth.

  3. A Robot Laser As A Flexible Tool For Cutting Openings In The Car-Body On The Production Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felske, A.; Lunzmann, F.

    1986-11-01

    A flexible laser robot system is described which has been selected for the purpose of cutting additional openings in entire bodies in white on the conveyor. The lightweight CO2 400-W-laser generator is carried and moved computer-controlled by the VOLKSWAGEN robotic system with a fixed 3-mirror robot arm for minimizing losses of energy and for increasing quality and reliability. In a pilot project this technique is integrated in the production line at a final stage of production and can be started with the designation of the vehicle's body.

  4. 电火花线切割机床及控制系统总体设计%Overall Design of Wire Cutting Machine Tool and Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆临平

    2012-01-01

    对数控高速走丝电火花线切割机床及控制系统进行总体设计,其中机械部分设计包括机床的总体布局设计,横向进给机构、纵向进给机构设计,控制系统部分进行了硬件电路的设计,完成了电气原理图。%The author overall designed wire cutting machine tool and control system. Mechanical part included general layout design of machine tool, transverse feed mechanism and longitudinal feed mechanism. Control system was designed hardware circuit, which completed schematic diagram.

  5. Mechanistic identification of cutting force coefficients in bull-nose milling process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Ge; Wu Baohai; Zhang Dinghua; Luo Ming

    2013-01-01

    An improved method to determine cutting force coefficients for bull-nose cutters is proposed based on the semi-mechanistic cutting force model.Due to variations of cutting speed along the tool axis in bull-nose milling,they affect coefficients significantly and may bring remarkable discrepancies in the prediction of cutting forces.Firstly,the bull-nose cutter is regarded as a finite number of axial discs piled up along the tool axis,and the rigid cutting force model is exerted.Then through discretization along cutting edges,the cutting force related to each element is recalculated,which equals to differential force value between the current and previous elements.In addition,coefficient identification adopts the cubic polynomial fitting method with the slice elevation as its horizontal axis.By calculating relations of cutting speed and cutting depth,the influences of speed variations on cutting force can be derived.Thereby,several tests are conducted to calibrate the coefficients using the improved method,which are applied to later force predictions.Eventually,experimental evaluations are discussed to verify the effectiveness.Compared to the conventional method,the results are more accurate and show satisfactory consistency with the simulations.For further applications,the method is instructive to predict the cutting forces in bull-nose milling with lead or tilt angles and can be extended to the selection of cutting parameters.

  6. Mechanical properties and oxidation behaviour of (Al,Cr)N and (Al,Cr,Si)N coatings for cutting tools deposited by HPPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hard coatings with high hardness, high oxidation resistance and thermal stability are used for economical machining. In this regard nanostructured (Cr,Al)N and nc-(Cr,Al)N/a-Si3N4 films were sputtered on tungsten carbide tools and WC/Co samples by using the HPPMS (High Power Pulse Magnetron Sputtering) technology. The relationship between coating composition, microstructure and mechanical properties was investigated by using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Nanoindentation. The maximum hardness value was about 40 GPa. For the coatings the Al-content was varied from 10-90 at.% while the silicon content was about 5 at.% for the (Cr,Al,Si)N. As this study focuses on oxidation behaviour of the deposited coatings, annealing tests were carried out in air at 1000 deg. C . HPPMS is a promising technology to ensure a uniform coating distribution, especially for complex shaped substrates like cutting tools or moulds. SEM pictures of the cross section have been taken around the cutting edge to determine the deposition rate and the film growth. The coatings morphology has been compared to m. f. (middle frequency)- and d. c. (direct current)-sputtered nanocomposite (Cr,Al,Si)N films indicating enhanced properties due to the application of the HPPMS-technology with regard to denser structure, higher hardness, favourable surface topography and better thickness uniformity

  7. Research on the Effectiveness of Cleaning Cutting Fluid Used for Machining During Abrasive and Diamond Tools Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Vykintas Dusevičius; Audrius Čereška

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the problem of cleaning effectively lubricant - coolant fluid using two different metal-working techniques. Compared with lubricant-coolant fluid, the use of steel abrasive tools produces very small steel particles having relative weight. Steel processing with diamond polishing tools does not make chips. The paper considers theoretical cleaning methods and compares them with experimental results cleaning an additional flow of lubrication and cooling with a magnetic separa...

  8. Influence of Cutting Parameters on Chatter and Tool Wear During End Milling of Stainless Steel Conducted on VMC

    OpenAIRE

    A.K.M.N. AMIN, M. IMRAN AND M. ARIF

    2012-01-01

    Stainless steels are a group of difficult to machine work materials. The difficulty in machining stainless steels is manifested in high contact length and stresses, formation of serrated chips and development of chatter resulting in high tool wear rates and poor machined surface finish. The paper focuses on the performance of TiN coated-carbide inserts in machining stainless steel specimens in end milling operation performed on vertical machining centre (VMC). The performance of the tool is e...

  9. Angling web forums as an additional tool for detection of new fish introductions: the first record of Perca fluviatilis in continental Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banha F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports for the first time the presence of a non-native fish, the European Perch (Perca fluviatilis, in continental Portugal. The presence of this species was first reported on an angling web forum and its occurrence was scientifically confirmed later in a small reservoir of the Tagus river basin, located in the central region of Portugal. The importance of the angling web forums as a useful tool to help detection of non-native fish species introductions and their potential for education on biological invasions is discussed.

  10. Research on the Effectiveness of Cleaning Cutting Fluid Used for Machining During Abrasive and Diamond Tools Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vykintas Dusevičius

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the problem of cleaning effectively lubricant - coolant fluid using two different metal-working techniques. Compared with lubricant-coolant fluid, the use of steel abrasive tools produces very small steel particles having relative weight. Steel processing with diamond polishing tools does not make chips. The paper considers theoretical cleaning methods and compares them with experimental results cleaning an additional flow of lubrication and cooling with a magnetic separator and hydro-cyclone.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Development of a novel custom micro-tool for effective cutting of a precision microgroove array on a microscope slide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a novel, economical and efficient fabrication technique for precisely generating multiple microgrooves on a microscope slide to allow for microscopic examination of urine sediment cells. This study incorporates two important phases: a precision wheel-tool array is fabricated and then the developed tool is used in fast on-line grinding of multiple microgrooves. The wheel-tool blank is made of diamond grit of 0–2 µm grade via co-deposition. Subsequently, it is trued, sliced and sharpened by means of micro wire electro discharge dressing. The finished wheel-tool is utilized on-line to grind multiple microgrooves using 'high-speed and fast-shallow grinding'. A ductile grinding regime is established to obtain a nano-metric surface finish for the multiple microgrooves generated on the microscope slide. The depth and width of the grooves in the array are both 10 µm and a surface finish of Ra equal to 0.010 µm is simultaneously achieved. This multiple microgrooving technique can supply high-quality fast grinding in the fabrication of bio-medical devices, such as those used for stationing and counting urine sediment cells.

  12. 精密切削刀具磨损监控系统设计%Designing of test and control system on tools wear in precision cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马廉洁

    2011-01-01

    设计了刀具磨损检测控制系统,采用EPF10K10TC144-4主控芯片、位移传感器,采用分布式算法编制了控制软件并进行了系统仿真.将数据输入到CNC系统,修改刀具参数,并在数控车床上进行了切削实验.对比研究结果表明,该系统避免了人工检测误差、机床频繁停机,减少了换刀次数和重新对刀引入的二次误差,延长了刀具有效使用时间,且加工效率、加工精度、产品合格率都有明显提高.%The test and control system was designed on tools wear, it selected EPF10K10TC144-4 type controlling chip, displacement sensor, the control software was programmed using distributed algorithm, and system simulation was carried out. The data was input into the CNC system, tools parameters were modified. The cutting experiment was carried out in turning machine. The results of comparing study indicate that the manual examination errors and machine tools on-and-off frequently are avoided, the quadric errors introduced by the number of change tools and re-adjust tools are reduced, the effective time of using the tools was extended, in addition , machining efficiency, machining precision and product qualification rate have been obviously improved.

  13. 肉类加工机刀具制造与修复的新方法%New in Manufacturing and Restoration of Meat-Processing Machines Cutting Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rudt.,FY; Gut.,MSH

    2000-01-01

    @@ Many tools such as boning knives, meat-mincing machine cross knives and grates, cutter knives that are widely used nowadays in meat processing industry have low safety index. In this connection it became necessary to improve cutting tools b y increasing their safety.

  14. Selection of cutting fluids in machining processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kilickap

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: During machining operation, friction between workpiece-cutting tool and cutting tool-chip interfaces result high temperature on cutting tool. The effect of this generated heat affects shorter tool life, higher surface roughness and lowers the dimensional sensitiveness of work material. This result is more important when machining of difficult-to-cut materials, due to occurrence of higher heat.Design/methodology/approach: Different methods have been reported to protect cutting tool from the generated heat during machining operations. The selection of coated cutting tools are an expensive alternative and generally it is a suitable approach for machining some materials such as titanium alloys, heat resistance alloys etc. Another alternative is to apply cutting fluids in machining operation. They are used to provide lubrication and cooling effects between cutting tool and workpiece and cutting tool and chip during machining operation. Hence the influence of generated heat on cutting tool would be prevented.Findings: As a result, important benefits would be achieved such longer tool life, easy chip flow and higher machining quality in the machining processes. The selection of cutting fluids should be carefully carried out to obtain optimum result in machining processes. Various factors are affecting the selection of cutting fluid type in machining operation such as type of workpiece materials, cutting tool material and the method of machining processes.Research limitations/implications: In this study, the selection of cutting fluids for machining processes was examined. The effects of workpiece material, cutting tool and machining process type were determined in detail.Originality/value: In this study, the studies about cutting fluid application in machining processes have been evaluated. The selection criteria of cutting fluids have been examined. Suitable cutting fluids for various material machining processes have been determined

  15. Modelling the cutting edge radius size effect for force prediction in micro milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Jan, Slunsky

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model for cutting force prediction in micro milling, taking into account the cutting edge radius size effect, the tool run out and the deviation of the chip flow angle from the inclination angle. A parameterization according to the uncut chip thickness to cutting...... edge radius ratio is used for the parameters involved in the force calculation. The model was verified by means of cutting force measurements in micro milling. The results show good agreement between predicted and measured forces. It is also demonstrated that the use of the Stabler's rule...... is a reasonable approximation and that micro end mill run out is effectively compensated by the deflections induced by the cutting forces....

  16. 高速钢刀具复合涂层的研究现状%Research Status of Composite Coating for High Speed Steel Cutting Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凯; 赵琳; 付拴拴

    2012-01-01

    为了满足刀具苛刻的工况条件,利用不同涂层材料的性能优点,在刀具表面形成多元多层复合涂层具有重大的意义.复合涂层技术具有抗磨损、抗高温氧化腐蚀、隔热、扩大涂层制品使用范围以及延长使用寿命等功能,已被各国列为机加工刀具发展的主要方向.简要叙述了高速钢刀具硬质复合涂层技术的发展和研究现状.%In order to meet harsh working conditions of catting tools, forming a multi-element and multi-layer composite coating on tool surface by using the performance benefits of different coating materials has a great significance. Composite coating, with functions of anti-wear, high temperature oxidation corrosion resistance and heat insulation, can expand the application scope and extend the service life of the coated products, so has been regarded as the main developing direction by various countries. The development and research status of hard composite coating technology for high speed steel cutting tools is briefly described.

  17. Optimization of Wet or Dry Micro-blasting on PVD Films by Various Al2O3 Grain Sizes for Improving the Coated Tools' Cutting Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. -D. Bouzakis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Micro-blasting on PVD coated tools is an effective technology for improving their cutting performance. Through micro-blasting, compressive stresses are induced into the film, thus increasing the coating hardness, but its brittleness too. Simultaneously, abrasion phenomena are activated, which may lead to roughness augmentation, film thickness decrease and substrate revelation. In this way, for a successful process conduct, it is pivotal to adapt, among others, the applied micro-blasting pressure to the employed medium, air or water. The paper deals with the optimization of wet or dry micro-blasting pressure by various Al2O3 grain sizes for improving the coated tool’s wear resistance. The wear behaviour of coated and variously dry or wet micro-blasted tools was investigated in milling. Considering the grains’ penetration kinematics into the coated tool surface and the film deformation mechanisms during dry or wet microblasting by fine or coarse sharp–edged Al2O3 grains, optimum process pressures can be determined.

  18. Machinery Cutting Technology of Ceramic Parts%陶瓷零件的机械切削加工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 谢帆

    2013-01-01

    用数据包络分析法评价陶瓷的可加工性,构造数学规划模型,求出决策单元的最优解.结合陶瓷材料的机械加工难点,探讨了陶瓷车削、磨削、钻削等机械切削加工工艺的技术要点.通过切削正交试验,得到刀具的前角、后角、主偏角、副偏角、刃倾角、刀尖圆弧半径及切削速度、吃刀深度、进给量的参考值,优化加工工艺参数,达到较好的加工效果.%The machinability of ceramics is evaluated by data envelopment analysis, and mathematical programming model is constructed, then the optimal solution of decision-making unit is found. These reference values of the tool rake angle, clearance angle, tool cutting edge angle, minor cutting edge angle, tool cutting edge inclination angle, tip ARC radius and cutting speed, back engagement and the range of feeds are obtained through orthogonal cutting test, whose processing parameters are optimized, then better processing results are achieved. Considering the problem of machining of ceramic materials, the techniques of mechanical cutting process, ceramic turning, grinding, drilling, are discussed.

  19. Methods for assessing the energy and working fluid consumption of metal-cutting machine tools; Methode zur Energie- und Medienbedarfsbewertung spanender Werkzeugmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhrke, Benjamin

    2011-07-01

    The dissertation presents a method that enables a comparison of the energy and working fluid consumption of metal-cutting machine tools from different manufacturers already in the planning phase. An important element is a detailed specification of the intended uses to which the machine will be put as this will provide a basis for calculating and evaluating energy and working fluid consumption during the machine's life. The dissertation also presents energy and working fluid consumption models for the various components of metal-cutting machine tools based on manufacturer's specifications which enable sufficiently accurate forecasting of consumption data. The specifications of the various manufacturers are made comparable by a standardized methodology for calculating consumption data. The method was developed with a view to immediate applicability in industrial practice. With the approach presented here, this appears to be a realistic goal. [German] In dieser Dissertation wurde eine Methode entwickelt, die einen fundierten Vergleich des Energie- und Medienbedarfs von spanenden Werkzeugmaschinen verschiedener Hersteller in der Angebotsphase ermoeglicht. Ein entscheidendes Element ist dabei die detaillierte Vorgabe der geplanten Nutzungsweise der Maschinen durch den Maschinenbetreiber, da diese erst die Berechnung und Bewertung der Energie- und Medienkosten auf die Lebenszeit der Maschinen ermoeglicht. Darueber hinaus werden in der Arbeit Energie- und Medienbedarfsmodelle fuer die verschiedenen Komponenten der Werkzeugmaschine vorgestellt, die auf Basis von Datenblattangaben und Basismessungen an Referenzmaschinen eine ausreichend genaue Prognose der Verbrauchswerte durch den Maschinenhersteller ermoeglichen. Eine Vergleichbarkeit der Angaben verschiedener Hersteller wird durch die Vorgabe einer standardisierten Vorgehensweise bei der Ermittlung der Verbrauchswerte sichergestellt. Bei der Entwicklung der Methodik wurde stets eine moeglichst zuegige

  20. Surface cuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    2003-12-01

    The paper reports on mechanical rock cutting in surface mining. Mining technology has moved a long way in recent years and the mining equipments achieved considerable success in direct rock cutting. 3 figs.

  1. Effects of sintering processes on mechanical properties and microstructure of TiB2–TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni composite ceramic cutting tool material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► TiB2–TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni ceramic tool material was sintered by six processes. ► The properties of material depended mainly on the holding stages and duration. ► SP1 process was involved with the multiple holding stages and longer duration. ► SP1 process led to many pores, and coarsening and brittle rupture of grains. ► Tool material sintered by SP6 process exhibited the optimum mechanical properties. - Abstract: TiB2–TiC composite powder was prepared by ball-milled with ethanol and vacuum dry, and TiB2–TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni composite ceramic cutting tool material was sintered using vacuum hot-pressed sintering technique by six processes which included the different holding stages and times. The effects of sintering processes on the mechanical properties and microstructure were investigated. The polished surface and fracture surface of TiB2–TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni ceramics sintered by the different sintering processes were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and the relationships between mechanical properties and microstructure were discussed. The mechanical properties and microstructure depended mainly on the total holding time and the different holding stages. The longer holding time and multiple holding stages led to coarsening of TiB2 and TiC grains, formation of pores and the brittle rupture of grains, which deteriorated the mechanical properties of TiB2–TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni ceramic. TiB2–TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni composite ceramic cutting tool material sintered by SP6 process exhibited the optimum resultant mechanical properties because of its finer microstructure and higher relative density, and its flexural strength, fracture toughness and hardness were 916.8 MPa, 7.80 MPa m1/2 and 22.54 GPa, respectively.

  2. Research on computer vision inspection system for 2-D cutting tool presetter%计算机视觉二维刀具预调仪的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东光; 景芳盛; 张国雄

    2001-01-01

    研究了计算机视觉二维刀形检测系统。由面阵CCD摄像机摄取刀形图像,通过硬件解调电路提取刀形轮廓数据并送入计算机。数据处理程序给出刀形曲线的参数值,并存入数据库及绘制出刀形曲线。根据系统的特性给出了定标方法。由于测试结果是以参数值的形式给出,便于程控加工时调用。系统具有高精度、高速度、自动化测试的特点,测量精度优于3μm。%A research is made on computer vision inspection system for 2-D cutting tool presetter. The image of tool form is taken by a matrix CCD camera. The data of tool form are collected into PC through the hardware demodulation circuits. The parameters of the measured tool are processed and restored into database. The calibration method is given according to feature of the system. It is convenient in the procedure of automatic manufacture, since the measurement result is given in format of parameters, which are the radius and center coordinates of partial segment, the coordinates of the top point in both X and Y direction. The system is characterised by high accuracy (3μm), high speed and automatic test.

  3. EVALUATION OF PIPE CUTTING TECHNOLOGIES IN SHIPBUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Kafali, Mustafa; Ozkok, Murat; Cebi, Selcuk

    2014-01-01

    Pipes are the most significant ones of the components which constitutes the vessel body. Pipes are fabricated in piping plant at shipyard and exposed to some processes such as cutting, bending, hydrostatic tests, galvanizing and so on. Cutting operation is also vital process among the other ones since it is very crucial that the cutting surfaces are flat and the right angles. In shipyards, there are various pipe cutting methods such as plasma, oxygen, metal saw, band saw and abrasive cutting ...

  4. search.bioPreprint: a discovery tool for cutting edge, preprint biomedical research articles [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie L. Iwema

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The time it takes for a completed manuscript to be published traditionally can be extremely lengthy. Article publication delay, which occurs in part due to constraints associated with peer review, can prevent the timely dissemination of critical and actionable data associated with new information on rare diseases or developing health concerns such as Zika virus. Preprint servers are open access online repositories housing preprint research articles that enable authors (1 to make their research immediately and freely available and (2 to receive commentary and peer review prior to journal submission. There is a growing movement of preprint advocates aiming to change the current journal publication and peer review system, proposing that preprints catalyze biomedical discovery, support career advancement, and improve scientific communication. While the number of articles submitted to and hosted by preprint servers are gradually increasing, there has been no simple way to identify biomedical research published in a preprint format, as they are not typically indexed and are only discoverable by directly searching the specific preprint server websites. To address this issue, we created a search engine that quickly compiles preprints from disparate host repositories and provides a one-stop search solution. Additionally, we developed a web application that bolsters the discovery of preprints by enabling each and every word or phrase appearing on any web site to be integrated with articles from preprint servers. This tool, search.bioPreprint, is publicly available at http://www.hsls.pitt.edu/resources/preprint.

  5. Late Miocene termination of tectonic activity on the detachment in the Alaşehir Rift, Western Anatolia: Depositional records of the Göbekli Formation and high-angle cross-cutting faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Fatih

    2016-04-01

    Western Anatolia is a well-known province of continental extension in the world. Most distinctive structural elements of the region are E-W trending grabens. The Alaşehir Rift/Graben is an asymmetric rift/graben trending E-W between Ahmetli and Turgutlu in its western part and continues eastwardly in a NW-SE direction to Alaşehir (Philadelphia in ancient Greek). The stratigraphy of the region consists of metamorphic rocks of the Menderes Massif (Paleozoic-lower Cenozoic) and the syn-extensional Salihli granitoid (middle Miocene) forming the basement unit and overlying sedimentary cover rocks of Neogene-Quaternary. These rocks are cut and deformed by the Karadut detachment fault and various low-angle normal faults (antithetic and synthetic faults of the Karadut detachment fault), which are also cut by various younger high-angle normal faults. It is possible to observe two continuous sequences of different time intervals in that Miocene deposits of the first rifting phase are covered by Plio-Quaternary sediments of second rifting phase with a "break-up" unconformity. In lower levels of a measured stratigraphic section (583 m) of the Göbekli formation which has lower age of late Miocene and upper age of early Pliocene, the presence of angular to sub-angular clasts of the blocks and conglomerates suggests alluvial-fun origin during an initial stage of deposition. Existence of normal-reverse graded, cross-bedding, pebble imbrications in layers of the pebbly sandstone demonstrates fluvial environment in following levels of the sequence. Existence of lenses and normal graded conglomerates in pebbly sandstones and fine grained sandstones strata evidences a low energy environment. Observed siltstone-claystone intercalations on the middle levels of the sequence indicate an environment with low dipping morphology to be formed as flat plains during this period. In the uppermost levels of the sequence, existence of the pebble imbrications inside pebbly sandstones overlying

  6. 微织构刀具正交切削Ti6Al4V的试验研究%Experimental Study on Orthogonal Cutting of Ti6Al4V with Micro-textured Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚宝运; 李亮; 何宁; 赵威; 王震

    2011-01-01

    The appearance and development of biomimetics in tribology brings a new research direction for antifriction technology of tool.The orthogonal experiments of the cutting performance of micro-textured cutting tool in machining titanium alloy was presented.Micro-grooves were made using laser on the rake face of uncoated tungsten carbide cutting inserts.Minimal quantity lubricant(MQL) and cryogenic minimal quantity lubricant(CMQL) were used.Three cutting force components were measured and compared.Tool-chip contact length and worn surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy(SEM).It was found that under the lubricated condition the surface micro-grooves could effectively improve the friction status between the tool and chip,thereby reducing cutting force and cutting temperature.The surface micro-grooves could also improve the adhesion of titanium alloy.Without lubricant,micro-grooves still had a certain "lubrication" effect.%仿生摩擦学的出现,为刀具减摩技术提出了新的研究方向,通过钛合金的正交切削试验研究了表面微织构刀具在微量润滑和无润滑剂条件下的减摩性能.结果表明:表面微沟槽在润滑剂条件下可以有效地改善刀屑之间的摩擦,降低切削力与切削温度,同时表面微沟槽还可以改善钛合金的粘结现象;在无润滑剂条件下,微沟槽依然具有一定的"润滑"作用.

  7. Cutting force prediction for circular end milling process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Baohai; Yan Xue; Luo Ming; Gao Ge

    2013-01-01

    A deduced cutting force prediction model for circular end milling process is presented in this paper.Traditional researches on cutting force model usually focus on linear milling process which does not meet other cutting conditions,especially for circular milling process.This paper presents an improved cutting force model for circular end milling process based on the typical linear milling force model.The curvature effects of tool path on chip thickness as well as entry and exit angles are analyzed,and the cutting force model of linear milling process is then corrected to fit circular end milling processes.Instantaneous cutting forces during circular end milling process are predicted according to the proposed model.The deduced cutting force model can be used for both linear and circular end milling processes.Finally,circular end milling experiments with constant and variable radial depth were carried out to verify the availability of the proposed method.Experiment results show that measured results and simulated results corresponds well with each other.

  8. Small Angle X-ray and Neutron Scattering: Powerful Tools for Studying the Structure of Drug-Loaded Liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cola, Emanuela; Grillo, Isabelle; Ristori, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Nanovectors, such as liposomes, micelles and lipid nanoparticles, are recognized as efficient platforms for delivering therapeutic agents, especially those with low solubility in water. Besides being safe and non-toxic, drug carriers with improved performance should meet the requirements of (i) appropriate size and shape and (ii) cargo upload/release with unmodified properties. Structural issues are of primary importance to control the mechanism of action of loaded vectors. Overall properties, such as mean diameter and surface charge, can be obtained using bench instruments (Dynamic Light Scattering and Zeta potential). However, techniques with higher space and time resolution are needed for in-depth structural characterization. Small-angle X-ray (SAXS) and neutron (SANS) scattering techniques provide information at the nanoscale and have therefore been largely used to investigate nanovectors loaded with drugs or other biologically relevant molecules. Here we revise recent applications of these complementary scattering techniques in the field of drug delivery in pharmaceutics and medicine with a focus to liposomal carriers. In particular, we highlight those aspects that can be more commonly accessed by the interested users. PMID:27043614

  9. The Cutting Process, Chips and Cutting Forces in Machining CFRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koplev, A.; Lystrup, Aage; Vorm, T.

    1983-01-01

    The cutting of unidirectional CFRP, perpendicular as well as parallel to the fibre orientation, is examined. Shaping experiments, ‘quick-stop’ experiments, and a new chip preparation technique are used for the investigation. The formation of the chips, and the quality of the machined surface is d...... discussed. The cutting forces parallel and perpendicular to the cutting direction are measured for various parameters, and the results correlated to the formation of chips and the wear of the tool....

  10. Cutting agents for special metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantity of use of special metals has increased year after year in the Plasma Research Institute, Nagoya University, with the development of researches on plasma and nuclear fusion. Most of these special metals are hard to cut, and in order to secure the surface smoothness and dimensional accuracy, considerable efforts are required. The method of experiment is as follows: cutting agents salt water and acetone, rape-seed oil, sulfide and chloride oil and water soluble cutting oil W grade 3; metals to be cut niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, titanium and tungsten; cutting conditions cutting speed 4.7 to 90 m/min, feed 0.07 to 0.2 mm/rev, depth of cut 0.1 to 0.4 mm, tool cemented carbide bit. Chemicals such as tetrachloromethane and trichloroethane give excellent cutting performance, but the toxicity is intense and the stimulative odor exists, accordingly they are hard to use practically. Cutting was easier when the salt water added with acetone was used than the case of rape-seed oil, but salt water is corrosive. Recently, the machining of molybdenum has been often carried out, and the water soluble cutting oil was the best. It is also good for cutting stainless steel, and its lubricating property is improved by adding some additives such as sulfur, chlorine, phosphorus and molybdenum disulfide. However after cutting with it, washing is required. (Kako, I.)

  11. Force Relations and Dynamics of Cutting Knife in a Vertical Disc Mobile Wood Chipper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun R. BELLO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The force relations and dynamics of cutting knife in a vertical disc wood chipper were investigated. The tool geometry determined include: rake angle (20 deg C; Shear angle, (fi= 52.15 deg C; the mean frictional angle, (t = 5.71 deg C. The analysis and comparison of the cutting forces has shown that the chips separated from the wood are being formed by off cutting, since normal applied force N is compressive in nature, the magnitude of the forces used by the knife on the wood is expected to increase as the cutting edge of the knife goes deeper into the wood until the value of the resisting force acting against the cut wood Ff is reached and exceeded. The evaluated forces acting on the knife and the chip are: F = 3.63Nmm^-1; N = 34.7 Nmm^-1; Fs= 27.45Nmm^-1; Fn =31.92 Nmm^-1; Ft = -8.46Nmm^-1; Fc = 33.85Nmm^-1. The resultant force acting on the tool face, Pr = 34.89Nmm^-1. The specific cutting pressure, Pc and cutting force needed to cut the timber, Fc, are 1.79 × 10^6 N/m2 and 644.84N respectively. The energy consumed in removing a unit volume of material is 69.96kJ/mm^-3 and the maximum power developed in cutting the chip is 3591.77W (4.82hp. The chipper efficiency (86.6% was evaluated by the highest percentage of accepted chip sizes.

  12. Solution small-angle x-ray scattering as a screening and predictive tool in the fabrication of asymmetric block copolymer membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Dorin, Rachel Mika

    2012-05-15

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis of the diblock copolymer poly(styrene-b-(4-vinyl)pyridine) in a ternary solvent system of 1,4-dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, and N,N-dimethylformamide, and the triblock terpolymer poly(isoprene-b-styrene-b-(4-vinyl)-pyridine) in a binary solvent system of 1,4-dioxane and tetrahydrofuran, reveals a concentration-dependent onset of ordered structure formation. Asymmetric membranes fabricated from casting solutions with polymer concentrations at or slightly below this ordering concentration possess selective layers with the desired nanostructure. In addition to rapidly screening possible polymer solution concentrations, solution SAXS analysis also predicts hexagonal and square pore lattices of the final membrane surface structure. These results suggest solution SAXS as a powerful tool for screening casting solution concentrations and predicting surface structure in the fabrication of asymmetric ultrafiltration membranes from self-assembled block copolymers. (Figure presented) © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. Three-dimensional simulation of cutting tool path of non-circular gear based on VB%基于VB的非圆齿轮加工刀路轨迹三维仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雪强; 李才泼

    2011-01-01

    The secondary development of solid edge was carried out by using Visual Basic language, and a model library for cutting tool of non-circular gear was established. According to the moving path equation of arbitrary point on the tool contour,a 3D model of cutting tool in a different position is created. So motion simulation of ellipse gear in three-dimensional environment can be realized. The moving path of cutting tool and the machining result can be observed directly and the manufacturability of gear can be analyzed. The system runs well. It provides a method of digital design of non-circular gear drive.%利用VB编程实现对三维软件Solid Edge的二次开发,建立了加工刀具的模型库.根据刀具齿廓上任意点的运动轨迹方程,计算和生成刀具在不同位置时的三维模型,从而实现三维环境下椭圆齿轮加工的运动仿真.本系统可观察到刀具的运动轨迹及齿轮的加工结果,判定设计齿轮的可加工性.系统运行效果良好,为非圆齿轮传动提供了一种数字化设计方法.

  14. Cutting temperature measurement and material machinability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Bogdan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.

  15. Heat Resistance of TiN Coated HSS Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兰英; 周焕雷; 贾庆莲

    2003-01-01

    The cutting friction, cutting deformation, producing heat, conducting heat, temperature field of TiN coated HSS tools in the cutting process are discussed profoundly. In order to make clear the heat property of TiN coated tools, from the micromechanism angle, the relationship of the heat property and the crystal structure of TiN compound is analyzed, and the regularity of TiN compound crystal structure changing with temperature rising is sought. The difference of the wear resistance and heat resistance of TiN coated tools deposited by c1 and c2 depositing techniques is proved by tests. The conclusions will offer the theoretical basis for correct design of geometrical parameters of TiN coated tools, rational selection of cutting regimes and optimization of the depositing technique.

  16. 粉末表面涂层陶瓷的硬质合金刀具材料%Advanced Cutting Tool Material by Hot-Pressing Ceramic Coated Carbide Powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元春; 黄传真; 艾兴; 王宝友

    2000-01-01

    Carbide powders were coated with very thin alumina films by the sol-gel process. The coated powders were then hot-pressed as a novel cutting tool material. This material possessed relatively high hardness, which led to similar wear resistant ability with ceramics. At the same time, its bending strength and toughness were higher than that of the ceramic cutting tool materials with similar composition. As a result, these tools show good performance in cutting high-hardness materials. SEM and TEM photographs of coated powders and fracture surface were presented as an aid to illustrate the strengthen mechanism.%使用溶胶-凝胶法在硬质合金粉末表面涂覆了一层氧化铝陶瓷,涂层粉末经热压烧结后, 制得一种新型的涂层刀具材料. 这种刀具材料的耐磨性与陶瓷材料接近,并且具有较高的强度和韧性,在切削高硬度材料时表现出良好性能,具有广阔的应用前景.

  17. Discussion of Wear Mechanism in Cutting Silicon Alloy with Diamond Coated Tools%金刚石涂层刀具切削硅铝合金时磨损机理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李召群; 朱振国; 周前进; 杨海东; 赵锦

    2011-01-01

    Through the diamond coated tools in cutting eutectic silicon aluminium experiment, the wear mechanism about the diamond film coated tool is explored. Empirical formulas of the surface roughness is established by orthogonal regression method.%通过金刚石涂层刀具切削共晶铝硅的试验,探讨金刚石薄膜涂层刀具的磨损机理;利用正交回归方法建立表面粗糙度的经验公式.

  18. GRINDING OF SHAPED TOOLS ON CNC TOOL GRINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Kráľ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Worm gears are special gears consisting of a worm wheel and a worm. Worm gears can be produced in different ways, depending on the size of the transmission, the number of courses, the pitch angle of worm profile, the number of units produced, the purpose of application, etc. As cylindrical worm gears we consider the cylindrical worms with globoid gears, globoid worm with globoid worm gear and globoid worm with cylindrical worm gearing. This paper deals with the evolvent worm whose curve of the tooth side in the front plane is evolvent. The production of worm with an optimal profile for optimal meshing conditions is an increasingly frequent focus of worm gear manufacturers. The problem of designing the tool cutting edge can be divided into several steps. This article deals with the problems of optimum design of a tool shape for the production of worms; and the problems of calculating the coordinates of the transition cutting edge shape, and thus the path of grinding wheel for sharpening the tool cutting edge shape are solved. By grinding tool of grinding machine we can complete the worm shape and also sharpen the cutting edges of tools for production of worm surface. The problems of calculation of the coordinates are solved with regard to the functioning of the KON 250 CNC grinding machine logic.

  19. The Effect of Kinematical Parameters and Tool Geometry on Burr Height in Face Milling of Al-Si Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Avila, Miguel C.; Dornfeld, David A

    2003-01-01

    High speed face milling test were performed on two aluminum silicon alloys currently used in automotive engine production to study the effect of cutting parameters and tool geometry in edge quality. Axial Rake and Radial Rake angles were varied to assess their effect in burr formation, as well as cutting speed, feedrate and depth of cut. Significant improvements in edge quality were obtained by optimizing these geometrical and kinematical parameters.

  20. Angle performance on optima MDxt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angle control on medium current implanters is important due to the high angle-sensitivity of typical medium current implants, such as halo implants. On the Optima MDxt, beam-to-wafer angles are controlled in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In the horizontal direction, the beam angle is measured through six narrow slits, and any angle adjustment is made by electrostatically steering the beam, while cross-wafer beam parallelism is adjusted by changing the focus of the electrostatic parallelizing lens (P-lens). In the vertical direction, the beam angle is measured through a high aspect ratio mask, and any angle adjustment is made by slightly tilting the wafer platen prior to implant. A variety of tests were run to measure the accuracy and repeatability of Optima MDxt’s angle control. SIMS profiles of a high energy, channeling sensitive condition show both the cross-wafer angle uniformity, along with the small-angle resolution of the system. Angle repeatability was quantified by running a channeling sensitive implant as a regular monitor over a seven month period and measuring the sheet resistance-to-angle sensitivity. Even though crystal cut error was not controlled for in this case, when attributing all Rs variation to angle changes, the overall angle repeatability was measured as 0.16° (1σ). A separate angle repeatability test involved running a series of V-curves tests over a four month period using low crystal cut wafers selected from the same boule. The results of this test showed the angle repeatability to be <0.1° (1σ).

  1. Induction of metabolism and transport in human intestine : Validation of precision-cut slices as a tool to study induction of drug metabolism in human intestine in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kerkhof, Esther; De Graaf, Inge A. M.; Ungell, Anna-Lena B.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2008-01-01

    Induction of drug enzyme activity in the intestine can strongly determine plasma levels of drugs. It is therefore important to predict drug-drug interactions in human intestine in vitro. We evaluated the applicability of human intestinal precision-cut slices for induction studies in vitro. Morpholog

  2. Sanitation Can Be A Foundation Disease Management Tool: Potential Of Spreading Binucleate Rhizoctonia from Nursery Propagation Floors To Trays Containing Azalea Stem Cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binucelate Rhizoctonia spp. (BNR), the cause of web blight, are present all year on container-grown azaleas in the southern U.S. BNR can be eliminated during vegetative propagation by submerging stem cuttings in 50°C water for 21 minutes. The objective was to evaluate risk of rooting trays being con...

  3. Inner tubes cutting method by electrical arc saw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research program deals on the definition of tools used for dismantling steam generator tubes bundle of PWR and on tool used for cutting pipes of great diameter by using the process of cutting by electrical arc saw. The remote tools are used for cutting by the interior pipes of contamined circuits

  4. The application of mechanical and thermal cutting tools for the dismantling of activated internals of the reactor pressure vessels in the Versuchsatomkraftwerk, Kahl and the Gundremmingen Unit A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickelpasch, N. [Versuchsatomkraftwerk GmbH, Kahl am Main (Germany); Kalwa, H. [Versuchsatomkraftwerk GmbH, Kahl am Main (Germany); Steiner, H. [Kernkraftwerke Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, D-89355 Gundremmingen (Germany); Priesmeyer, U. [Kernkraftwerke Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, D-89355 Gundremmingen (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    The Gundremmingen Unit A plant (KRB A) and the Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl (VAK) plant represent the first generation of nuclear reactors in Germany. The 250 MW{sub e} reactor KRB A was the first commercial reactor in Germany and the 16 MW{sub e} reactor VAK was the pilot nuclear power plant, which had to serve mainly scientific purposes. KRB A is under dismantling since 1983, VAK since 1988. Although they are both of the boiling water type, they are rather different to each other, referring to their size and construction. The actual work is the dismantling of high contaminated components inside the reactor buildings and the underwater cutting of activated internals of the reactor pressure vessels. Several cutting techniques have been developed, tested and applied to respective dismantling tasks in the meantime. The experiences made in both projects are not limited to dismantling work only, but also include know-how on effective decontamination and scrap recycling. (orig.)

  5. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  6. Machinability study of steels in precision orthogonal cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Roberto Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The miniaturization of components and systems is advancing steadily in many areas of engineering. Consequently, micro-machining is becoming an important manufacture technology due to the increasing demand for miniaturized products in recent years. Precision machining aims the production of advanced components with high dimensional accuracy and acceptable surface integrity. This work presents an experimental study based on Merchant and Lee & Shaffer theories applied to precision radial turning of AISI D2 cold work tool and AISI 1045 medium carbon steels with uncoated carbide tools ISO grade K15. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of feed rate on chip compression ratio (Rc, chip deformation (ε, friction angle (ρ, shear angle (Φ, normal stress (σ and shear stress (• for both work materials. The results indicated that the shear angle decreased and chip deformation increased as the chip compression ratio was elevated without significant differences between both materials. Additionally, higher cutting and thrust forces and normal and shear stresses were observed for the tool steel. Finally, the Lee & Shaffer model gave shear plane angle values closer to the experimental data.

  7. Distribution of contact loads over the flank-land of the cutter with a rounded cutting edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, V.; Gerasimov, A.; Kim, A.

    2016-04-01

    ]; σh - normal specific contact load on the flank land [MPa]; τh - tangential (shear) specific contact load on the flank land [MPa]; HSS - high speed steel (material of cutting tool); Py - radial component of cutting force [N]; Py r - radial component of cutting force on the rake face [N]; Pz - tangential component of cutting force [N]; γ - rake angle of the cutting tool [°] α - clearance angle of the sharp cutting tool [°] αh - clearance angle of the flank wear land [°] ρ - rounding off radius of the cutting edge [mm]; b - width of the machined disk [mm].

  8. High speed tool steel cut off dies made using powder metallurgy techniques; Fabricacion de matrices de corte con aceros rapidos para herramientas mediante metalurgia de polvos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talacchia, S.; Amador, J.; Urcola, J. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Navarra, San Sebastian (Spain)

    1996-06-01

    The present work summarises the results obtained by compacting water atomized powders of T42 modifed carbon and vanadium, M3/2 and M2 high speed steels. The powders were compacted under complex forms (cut off dies) and sintered under a 90 N{sub 2}-9 H{sub 2}-1 CH{sub 4} industrial atmosphere. Heat treatments in different severity media were performed. hardness of 1,100 HV can be obtained in the case of T42 modified steel. Also, the shrinking of the sintered specimens was study. (Author) 6 refs.

  9. Mechanisms of de cohesion in cutting aluminium matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper properties and applications of aluminium matrix composites are presented with a composite reinforced with saffil fibres selected for topical study. Behavior of matrix and reinforcement during machining with a cutting tool is analyzed. The paper presents an explosive quick-stop device designed to obtain undisturbed machined surface for examination. Meso hardness measurements of deformed structure, resultant chips and built-up-edge were carried out. Scanning micrographs of machined surface are presented with morphology and types of chips analysed. Values of the fibrousness angle ψ and thickening index kh of chip are evaluated. The research performed has enabled the authors to define mechanisms of e cohesion during cutting aluminium matrix composites. The results received for composite material are compared with those pertinent to aluminum alloys.

  10. Scoliosis angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most commonly used methods of assessing the scoliotic deviation measure angles that are not clearly defined in relation to the anatomy of the patient. In order to give an anatomic basis for such measurements it is proposed to define the scoliotic deviation as the deviation the vertebral column makes with the sagittal plane. Both the Cobb and the Ferguson angles may be based on this definition. The present methods of measurement are then attempts to measure these angles. If the plane of these angles is parallel to the film, the measurement will be correct. Errors in the measurements may be incurred by the projection. A hypothetical projection, called a 'rectified orthogonal projection', is presented, which correctly represents all scoliotic angles in accordance with these principles. It can be constructed in practice with the aid of a computer and by performing measurements on two projections of the vertebral column; a scoliotic curve can be represented independent of the kyphosis and lordosis. (Auth.)

  11. Study on Error Compensation of Tool Deflection Based on Cutting Force in NC Machining%数控加工刀具变形误差补偿技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李苏渊; 杨茂奎; 杨川

    2011-01-01

    Force-induced error is one of the key elements in achieving overall product quality in NC machining.The study introduces a model of cutting force, takes into account the affect of thickness of chip and establishs an error model caused by the deflection of the cutting tool. The study introduces a linear iterative machining error compensation approach. The algorithm is focused on the errors of deflection of the tool caused by the cutting force. The error compensation scheme is simulated using NC machining center and the results show that the algorithm is correct.%在数控铣削加工的研究中,刀具变形引起的加工误差对工件的加工精度影响较大.研究了一种考虑切屑厚度影响的切削力模型,建立了由切削力引起的刀具变形加工误差的分析模型.为了提高加工精度,提出了一种线性迭代误差补偿算法,方法主要对由切削力引起的刀具变形产生的切削误差进行循环迭代补偿.通过应用数控加工中心,方案进行了验证,对补偿后的加工误差测量值和补偿后的误差预测值进行比较,结果表明,采用的方法对刀具变形引起的误差能进行有效的补偿.

  12. The applications of new ceramic cutting tools in machining of superhard materials%新型陶瓷刀具在超硬材料加工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗赫濯; 齐龙浩; 司文捷; 仇启源

    2001-01-01

    The hardness and cutting performance of Si3N4-based ceramic tools were enhanced by dispersion of hard particles. The new ceramic tools can not only do rough and finish machining of varous superhard materials, but also do some machining with great shock load, such as milling, planing, interrupted cutting. They have been used in the machining of roller punop, mininm machine, bearing and vechicle parto.%Si3N4基陶瓷刀具通过硬质颗粒弥散,使硬度和切削能力得到提高,能对传统刀具难以加工的一系列超硬难加工材料进行顺利的切削。新型陶瓷刀具在轧辊、碴浆泵、矿山机械、轴承、汽车等领域中得到了应用,提高了生产效率,降低了加工成本,促进了机械加工工艺的改革并带来很大的社会经济效益。

  13. Influence of cutting conditions on chip side curl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the influence of local variations of contact length, cutting speed and material constraint, showing the effect of lubrication, on the side curl of the chip. The following examples are illustrated by experiments: cutting of a tube vs. cutting of a bar; cutting using a tool...

  14. Investigations of Cutting Fluid Performance Using Different Machining Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    An analysis of cutting fluid performance in dif-ferent metal cutting operations is presented based on performance criteria, work material and fluid type. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping operations, with respect to tool life, cutting forces and pro...

  15. Machining Challenges: Macro to Micro Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunmugam, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Metal cutting is an important machining operation in the manufacture of almost all engineering components. Cutting technology has undergone several changes with the development of machine tools and cutting tools to meet challenges posed by newer materials, complex shapes, product miniaturization and competitive environments. In this paper, challenges in macro and micro cutting are brought out. Conventional and micro end-milling are included as illustrative examples and details are presented along with discussion. Lengthy equations are avoided to the extent possible, as the emphasis is on the basic concepts.

  16. UN MÉTODO DE MONITOREO DEL DESGASTE DE UNA HERRAMIENTA DE CORTE BASADO EN UN SENSOR DE PROXIMIDAD DE FIBRA ÓPTICA A METHOD FOR CUTTING TOOL WEAR MONITORING BASED ON AN OPTICAL FIBER PROXIMITY PROBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G de Anda-Rodriguez

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este documento presenta una técnica novedosa para el monitoreo en línea del desgaste de una herramienta de fresado. El desgaste es estimado directamente a partir de un sensor de proximidad de fibra óptica (SPFO con características de alta resolución y alto ancho de banda. El SPFO proporciona una medida de la distancia entre su extremo y el perfil de la herramienta. La principal contribución de este trabajo es la aplicación del SPFO para monitorear en línea el desgaste de una herramienta de fresado. Puesto que la luz emitida por el SPFO proviene de un fotodiodo, esta no produce daño a los ojos, lo que la hace más segura que los sensores de desplazamiento de tipo láser. Esta técnica permite monitorear el desgaste de la herramienta en tiempo real, mientras la herramienta gira, con una precisión inferior a 1 micra. Se presentan resultados experimentales para una herramienta de fresado vertical de cuatro filos que gira a 300 rpm.A novel technique for on-line wear monitoring of a milling tool is presented. The tool wear is estimated directly from a fiber optic proximity sensor (FOPS with high resolution and high bandwidth characteristics. The FOPS provides a distance measurement between its probe and the tool profile. The main contribution of this work is the application of FOPS to sense on-line the wear of a milling tool. Since the light emitted by this sensor comes from a photodiode, it does not produce eye damage; this is safer than laser displacement sensors. This technique senses the tool wear in real time, while the tool is rotating, with an accuracy of less than 1 micron. Experimental results are also presented for a four-flank cutting tool rotating at 300 rpm.

  17. Cutting inserts effect on heat generation in turning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Žitňanský

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on confirmation of an effect of cutting materials and cutting inserts geometry on cutting forces and temperature, quality and accuracy of machined surface in turning. The main part is devoted to description of advanced turning tools and cutting materials. The experimental part is focused on cutting forces and temperature measurement and machined surface quality in turning of steel grade 11 523 samples with one feed and depth of cut value and varying spindle speed. Measurements were performed with various types of indexable cutting inserts used. Measured values were evaluated in terms of the effect of different properties of cutting inserts and various spindle speed values.

  18. Cutting capacity of PDC cutters in very hard rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental programm of investigating the cutting capacity of PDC flat cutters in very hard rock has been performed.Experiments include both the cutting of PDC fixed at different angles on the granite core or bar and linear cutting with different static thrust on the block of granite.The effects of the rough degree of rock surface,cutting angles,and static thrust on the cutting capacity of PDC in very hard rock were investigated and analyzed.The results show that the single mode of rotary drilling using PDC cutters is not applied for very hard rocks.

  19. Structural architecture and palaeofluid evolution of low-angle extensional fault systems cutting through carbonate rocks within the brittle crust. The case study of the Tellaro Detachment, Northern Apennines (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemenzi, Luca; Storti, Fabrizio; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Molli, Giancarlo; Ellam, Rob; Muchez, Philippe; Swennen, Rudy

    2014-05-01

    The Tellaro Detachment is an exhumed low-angle extensional fault zone exposed in the internal portion of the Northern Apennines thrust wedge. It developed at shallow structural levels within the brittle crust, and mainly affected the carbonate-dominated Late Triassic to early Early Miocene non-metamorphic Tuscan succession. The three-dimensional geometry of the Tellaro Detachment has been investigated through detailed structural mapping and restoration of the superimposed deformations, while appropriate exposure allowed for accurate damage zone characterization. Pressure-depth conditions and palaeofluid evolution of the fault system have been studied through microstructural, mineralogical, petrographic, fluid inclusion and stable isotope analysis of fault rocks and fault-related dolomite and calcite veins. Abundant fluid circulation characterized the fault zone, with development of metric- to decametric-scale dolomitic bodies, abundant pressure solution, and veining. Dolomitic bodies are discordant to bedding and typically overly the main low-angle fault segments; they are brecciated and crosscut by the subsidiary high-angle faults. Dolomite veins are only observed in dolomitic host rocks. They are generally oriented perpendicular to the tectonic transport direction and formed at about 175°C and 5.2 km depth. Stable isotope signature and elevated salinity suggest precipitation from a rock-buffered fluid. Syntectonic calcite veins with variable orientations are well developed in the fault damage zones, and characterized by multiple generations of infillings. Crosscutting relationships between differently oriented veins are not systematic in damage zones and the different calcite generations do not have any preferred orientations. Furthermore, short and irregularly shaped veins characterize the footwall damage zone in the proximity of the major low-angle fault segments. Fluid inclusion microthermometry indicates that different veins formed at different temperature

  20. Theoretical aspects of fibre laser cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibre lasers offer distinct advantages over established laser systems with respect to power efficiency, beam guidance and beam quality. Consequently, the potential of these new laser beam sources will be increasingly exploited for laser cutting applications that are conventionally carried out with CO2 lasers. However, theoretical estimates of the effective absorptivity at the cut front suggest that the shorter wavelength of the fibre laser in combination with its high focusability seems to be primarily advantageous for thin sheet metal cutting whereas the CO2 laser is probably still capable of cutting thicker materials more efficiently. This surprising result is a consequence of the absorptivity behaviour of metals that shows essential quantitative differences for the corresponding wavelengths of both laser sources as a function of the angle of incidence between the laser beam and the material to be cut. In evaluation of the revealed dependences, solution strategies for an improvement of the efficiency of fibre laser cutting of thicker metal sheets are suggested.

  1. Theoretical aspects of fibre laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrle, A.; Beyer, E.

    2009-09-01

    Fibre lasers offer distinct advantages over established laser systems with respect to power efficiency, beam guidance and beam quality. Consequently, the potential of these new laser beam sources will be increasingly exploited for laser cutting applications that are conventionally carried out with CO2 lasers. However, theoretical estimates of the effective absorptivity at the cut front suggest that the shorter wavelength of the fibre laser in combination with its high focusability seems to be primarily advantageous for thin sheet metal cutting whereas the CO2 laser is probably still capable of cutting thicker materials more efficiently. This surprising result is a consequence of the absorptivity behaviour of metals that shows essential quantitative differences for the corresponding wavelengths of both laser sources as a function of the angle of incidence between the laser beam and the material to be cut. In evaluation of the revealed dependences, solution strategies for an improvement of the efficiency of fibre laser cutting of thicker metal sheets are suggested.

  2. Phase angle measurement techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madge, R.; Fischer, D.

    1996-01-01

    Real-time measure of the power transfer across a transmission line was discussed. Phase angle measurement techniques, algorithms and applications relevant to power utilities were assessed. Phase-based applications compute the voltage angle difference between two stations, thereby allowing for power transfer calculations and power system control applications. A list of phase angle measurement applications was provided. It includes frequency measurement, state estimation, adaptive relaying, power system control, system restoration, real power flow monitoring and stability assessment, reactive power requirements monitoring, HVDC modulation, subsynchronous resonance, sequence of event recording, and loss reduction and fault location. The optimum timing requirement was determined for each application. Among the timing systems available today, the Global Positioning System (GPS), supported by powerful computers and other custom hardware, is the only tool that can provide the accuracy and coverage needed by today`s power system applications. Commercially available equipment for phase angle measurements was also reviewed. 30 refs., 32 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Tool steel for tool holder applications : microstructure and mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Medvedeva, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Large improvements in cutting tool design and technology, including the application of advanced surface engineering treatments on the cemented carbide insert, have been achieved in the last decades to enhance tool performance. However, the problem of improving the tool body material is not adequately studied. Fatigue is the most common failure mechanism in cutting tool bodies. Rotating tools, tool going in and out of cutting engagement, impose dynamic stresses and require adequate fatigue str...

  4. Plasma arc cutting: speed and cut quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When cutting metal with plasma arc cutting, the walls of the cut are narrower at the bottom than at the top. This lack of squareness increases as the cutting speed increases. A model of this phenomenon, affecting cut quality, is suggested. A thin liquid layer, which separates the plasma from the solid metal to be melted, plays a key role in the suggested model. This layer decreases heat transfer from the plasma to the solid metal; the decrease is more pronounced the higher the speed and the thicker the liquid metal layer. Since the layer is thicker at the bottom of the cut, the heat transfer effectiveness is lower at the bottom. The decrease in heat transfer effectiveness is compensated by the narrowness of the cut. The suggested model allows one to calculate the profile of the cut. The result of the calculations of the cutting speeds for plates of various thicknesses, at which the squareness of the cut is acceptable, agrees well with the speeds recommended by manufacturers. The second effect considered in the paper is the deflection of the plasma jet from the vertical at a high cutting speed. A qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is given. We believe the considerations of this paper are pertinent to other types of cutting with moving heat sources.

  5. 直角铣头在五轴加工中的刀尖点补偿技术%Tool-nose Point Compensation Technology of Ring-angle Milling Head for 5-axis Machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高立国; 蒋疆; 张佳朋

    2015-01-01

    针对直角铣头在五轴数控加工中刀尖点位置线性补偿的技术难题,通过对直角铣头的安装方式及刀尖点补偿算法等研究,采用了刀具参考点偏置补偿法、控制器双向刀长补偿法,解决了直角铣头在不同机床结构、不同数控系统的加工中心上,对内部空间狭小的复杂结构进行加工时易出现主轴干涉和运动轴超程的共性瓶颈问题,大幅度提升了加工中心的加工范围与适应性.目前,直角铣头已在多个航天器型号的复杂结构研制中得到成功应用.%To solve the technical problems of tool-nose point compensation technology of ring-angle milling head for 5-axis machining,the methods of tool-nose reference point offsetting compensation and the controller of bidirectional tool length compensation are used according to studying ring-angle milling head fixing and tool-nose point compensation.The tool-nose point compensation technology has been made a breakthrough in ring-angle milling head using in different machine configurations and controllers to solve the interference of principal axis and the axis motion exceeding problems,advanced highly the machining range and flexibility of numerical control machining center for more space models.

  6. The investigations of (Ti,Al)N and (Al,Ti)N coatings obtained by PVD process onto sintered cutting tools

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; M. Staszuk; M. Pawlyta; J. Konieczny

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this research was an investigation of both the coatings structure and mechanical properties deposited by the cathode arc evaporation physical vapor deposition (CAE-PVD) on sintered carbides and sialon tool ceramics substrates.Design/methodology/approach: The (Ti,Al)N and (Al,Ti)N coatings were investigated. Microstructure was characterized using the scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Phases composition analysis was carried out by the XRD and GIXRD method. ...

  7. Tribological properties of AlN-CeO2-Si3N4 cutting materials in unlubricated sliding against tool steel and cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, J. R.; Miranda, A. S.; Silva, R F; J. M. Vieira

    1996-01-01

    Ceramic pins of the AIN-CeO2-Si3N4 system were tested in a pin-on-disc tribometer against discs of tool steel and grey cast iron, at room temperature, without lubrication, in different conditions of humidity and sliding speed. Ceramic samples were selected on the basis of their mechanical properties (hardness and fracture toughness), and microstructural characteristics, namely porosity, volume of intergranular phase and nitrogen content of the glass phase. Water vapour increased the ...

  8. Experimental test of theory for the stability of partially saturated vertical cut slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Michael M.; Lu, N.; Wayllace, Alexandra; Godt, Jonathan W.; Take, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends Culmann's vertical-cut analysis to unsaturated soils. To test the extended theory, unsaturated sand was compacted to a uniform porosity and moisture content in a laboratory apparatus. A sliding door that extended the height of the free face of the slope was lowered until the vertical cut failed. Digital images of the slope cross section and upper surface were acquired concurrently. A recently developed particle image velocimetry (PIV) tool was used to quantify soil displacement. The PIV analysis showed strain localization at varying distances from the sliding door prior to failure. The areas of localized strain were coincident with the location of the slope crest after failure. Shear-strength and soil-water-characteristic parameters of the sand were independently tested for use in extended analyses of the vertical-cut stability and of the failure plane angle. Experimental failure heights were within 22.3% of the heights predicted using the extended theory.

  9. 高速硬切削参数对切削力影响的数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of Parameters on Cutting Force in High-Speed Hard Cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董丙闯; 刘泓滨; 王瑞杰; 倪斌; 唐重霖

    2011-01-01

    建立了淬硬钢高速切削的有限元模型,通过Johnson-Cook(JC)工件材料模型及JC失效准则来模拟切屑的形成过程;并研究了背吃刀量、刀具前角和刀尖圆弧半径等参数对切削力的影响规律.%In this paper, a finite clement model of high - speed cutting for hardened steel is created. By Johnson - Cook (JO materials model and JC fracture criterion, the chip formation is simulated. Also the influence of parameters such as the cutting depth, the tool rake angle, the fillet radius of the tool on cutting force is investigated.

  10. Laser cutting - trends in the development,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2002-01-01

    Since the laser was invented in 1960, the industrial applications of this tool has grown and grown. And - since the beginning of the 1980'ies, the major industrial application of lasers in production has been laser cutting. In this paper a short review of the development of the laser cutting...

  11. A Tentative Study on Dynamics of a New Parallel NC Machine Tool with Long Travel, Large Rotating Angle and High Moving Speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In view of the structure of traditional five-coord in ate machine tool, the work-piece and machine tool often move along their respec tive guides simultaneously on the whole. In this kind of machine structure, the total mass of moving parts including work-pieces, fixtures, rotating table, wor king table and so on is often very large. Besides, the elastic reform of transmi ssion and the viscous friction force of the guide can not be ignored. As a resul t, the machine tool can not move with high velocity and...

  12. Cuts, Scratches, and Scrapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cuts, Scratches, and Scrapes KidsHealth > For Teens > Cuts, Scratches, and Scrapes Print A A A Text Size ... is repaired. Signs of Infection Sometimes, a cut, scratch, or scrape starts out as no big deal, ...

  13. Multibeam fiber laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber-laser...... cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...

  14. Multibeam Fibre Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fibre laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating cutting laser, the CO2-laser. However, quality problems in fibre-laser...... cutting have until now limited its application in metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multi beam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from 2 single mode fibre lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single...

  15. Performances of cutting fluids in turning. Formulated oil - E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos A.; Steffanato, Simone

    Tool life is a parameter closely connected to the lubricating effect of a cutting fluid. Long tool life in turning corresponds to good lubrication and a process with good lubrication is preferred, since it normally results in lower tool wear and better surface quality. Cutting forces are mainly...

  16. CO2 laser cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, John

    1998-01-01

    The laser has given manufacturing industry a new tool. When the laser beam is focused it can generate one of the world's most intense energy sources, more intense than flames and arcs, though similar to an electron beam. In fact the intensity is such that it can vaporise most known materials. The laser material processing industry has been growing swiftly as the quality, speed and new manufacturing possibilities become better understood. In the fore of these new technologies is the process of laser cutting. Laser cutting leads because it is a direct process substitu­ tion and the laser can usually do the job with greater flexibility, speed and quality than its competitors. However, to achieve these high speeds with high quality con­ siderable know how and experience is required. This information is usually carefully guarded by the businesses concerned and has to be gained by hard experience and technical understanding. Yet in this book John Powell explains in lucid and almost non­ technical language many o...

  17. Cutting state identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.; Rokni, M. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Cutting states associated with the orthogonal cutting of stiff cylinders are identified through an analysis of the singular values of a Toeplitz matrix of third order cumulants of acceleration measurements. The ratio of the two pairs of largest singular values is shown to differentiate between light cutting, medium cutting, pre-chatter and chatter states. Sequences of cutting experiments were performed in which either depth of cut or turning frequency was varied. Two sequences of experiments with variable turning frequency and five with variable depth of cut, 42 cutting experiments in all, provided a database for the calculation of third order cumulants. Ratios of singular values of cumulant matrices find application in the analysis of control of orthogonal cutting.

  18. Combination of small angle neutron scattering data and mesoscopic simulation techniques as a tool for the structural characterization and prediction of properties of bi-phasic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A powerful, versatile methodology based on the combination of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) with mesoscopic simulation techniques is developed in an effort to relate in a sufficiently accurate manner the structure of biphasic media to their macroscopic physicochemical (equilibrium and dynamic) properties. Appropriate mathematical transformation of SANS spectra provides valuable information about the disordered geometry of a wide range of biphasic materials spanning from typical porous materials (Vycor porous glass, silica gel, alumina membrane) to complex biological tissues (stratum corneum), in terms of the corresponding autocorrelation function. Digital reconstruction (stochastic or process-based) is employed to generate two- or three-dimensional binary images of the respective structures, on the basis of the statistical properties obtained from the SANS spectra of the original materials. The resulting reconstructed domains are further used for the simulation of equilibrium (sorption) and dynamic (diffusion and permeation) processes, addressing the most common applications of the materials under consideration

  19. An Experimental Study of the Cutting Forces in Metal Turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Iosif Korka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutting forces are classified among the most important technological parameters in machining process. Cutting forces are the background for the evaluation of the necessary machining power, as well as for dimensioning of the tools. Cutting forces are also having a major influence on the deformation of the work piece machined, its dimensional accuracy, and machining system stability.

  20. The optimal cutting parametre design of rough cutting process in side milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-S. Lu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper is focused on the optimal cutting parameters design of rough cutting processes in side milling for SKD61 tool steels.Design/methodology/approach: The fuzzy logics can be a proper basis to perform the optimization procedure with complicated multiple performance characteristics in this paper. Using this approach combined with the grey-relational analysis, the design algorithm is transformed into optimization of a single and simple grey-fuzzy reasoning grade rather than multiple performance characteristics. The Taguch method is also adopted to search for an optimal combination of cutting parameters for this rough cutting process in side milling.Findings: The improvement of tool life and metal removal rate from the initial cutting parameters to the optimal cutting parameters are 54% and 9.7%. Hence, this reveals that the proposed approach in this study can effectively improve the cutting performance.Research limitations/implications: In this paper only four cutting parameters are taken into consideration. Many other parameters such as tool geometric shape are not applied to this study.Practical implications: It is believed that this optimal result can be applied to practical processes to effectively reduce manufacturing cost and greatly enhance manufacturing efficiency.Originality/value: A systematic and effective optimization method is presented in this paper. Using this method can effectively acquire an optimal combination of the cutting parameters.

  1. Experimental study of the process of cutting of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass densification has encouraged significant interest around the world as a technique for utilization of agro and forest residues as an energy source, and pellets/briquettes production has grown rapidly in last few years. The cutting process is one of the most important steps for biomass preparation prior densification. This stage helps to homogenize the raw material and therefore facilitate handling, feeding and filling in the briquetting equipment. The aim of this work was to study the behavior of sugarcane bagasse submitted to cutting, as a function of its moisture content, angle of the blade edge and cutting speed. The specific cutting energy and peak cutting force were measure using an experimental facility developed for this series of experiments. An analysis of the results of the full factorial experimental design using a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. The response surfaces and empirical models for the specific cutting energy and peak cutting force were obtained using statistical analysis system software. Low angle of the blade edge and low moisture content are, in this order, the most important experimental factors in determining a low specific cutting energy and a low peak cutting force respectively. The best cutting conditions are achieved for an angle of blade edge of 20.8° and a moisture content of 10% w. b. The results of this work could contribute to the optimal design of sugarcane bagasse pre-treatment systems. (full text)

  2. Nanopillar Fabrication with Focused Ion Beam Cutting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmin, Oleksii V.; Pei, Yutao T.; De Hosson, Jeff T. M.

    2014-01-01

    A versatile method to fabricate taper-free micro-/nanopillars of large aspect ratio was developed with focused ion beam (FIB) cutting. The key features of the fabrication are a FIB with an incident angle of 90 degrees to the long axis of the pillar that enables milling of the pillar sideways avoidin

  3. The role of tool geometry in process damped milling

    OpenAIRE

    Yusoff, A.; Turner, M. S.; Taylor, C. M.; N.D. Sims

    2010-01-01

    The complex interaction between machining structural systems and the cutting process results in machining instability, so called chatter. In some milling scenarios, process damping is a useful phenomenon that can be exploited to mitigate chatter and hence improve productivity. In the present study, experiments are performed to evaluate the performance of process damped milling considering different tool geometries (edge radius, rake and relief angles and variable helix/pitch). The results cle...

  4. Design and development of remotely operated coolant channel cutting machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the coolant tubes of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) reactor needs to be removed. To remove a coolant tube, four cutting operations, (liner tube cutting, end-fitting cutting, machining of seal weld of bellow ring and finally coolant tube cutting) are required to be carried out. A remotely operated cutting machine to carry out all these operations has been designed and developed by Central Workshops. This machine is able to cut at the exact location because of numerically controlled axial and radial travel of tool. Only by changing the tool head and tool holder, same machine can be used for various types of cutting/machining operations. This report details the design, manufacture, assembly and testing work done on the machine. (author). 4 figs

  5. Optimization experiment of influence factors on greenhouse vegetable harvest cutting%设施蔬菜收获切割影响因素优化试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高国华; 王天宝; 周增产; 卜云龙

    2015-01-01

    In the developed countries of the West, the greenhouse vegetable industry has become highly mechanized, with a relatively stable mechanization production system and necessary supporting tools. In order to improve the efficiency of harvesting greenhouse vegetables, Beijing University of Technology has designed an innovative vegetable harvester. The cutting tool that is used to remove vegetables from their stems is a critical factor in greenhouse vegetable harvesting and must be optimized to ensure that greenhouse vegetables are harvested effectively. The designed machine can have a better harvest effect and reduce the wear of cutting tool in the process of the work. At present, the mechanical properties of stem-cutting factors affecting crops have been extensively studied with sugar cane, corn stalk, eulaliopsis binata stem and cabbage in China and abroad. This paper detailed the design and study of the SHQG-I greenhouse vegetable harvest cutting experiment platform, which used a response surface method (RSM) to optimize the harvest process through a comprehensive cutting tool that removed vegetables from their stems. The study object of this paper was butter lettuce; the experiment was carried out on the SHQG-I greenhouse vegetable harvest cutting experiment platform, and the working process of greenhouse vegetable harvester was analyzed. According to the butter lettuce growth and the working process conditions, 6 parameters of the harvest cutting process were analyzed: cutting position, way of cutting, cutting speed, cutting angle, clamping distance and clamping angle. Determining the ways in which these parameters affected cutting force was the target of the experiment. The working range of these factors, which could be adjusted on the SHQG-I greenhouse vegetable harvest cutting experiment platform, influenced the cutting force. For the RSM employed in the experiment, generally no more than 4 parameters would be adjusted at a time. Therefore, the experiment first

  6. The perfect cut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scozzafava, G.; Mueller Loose, Simone; Corsi, A.;

    There are a large number of different beef cuts, which are produced in a complementary relationship. Research so far has mainly focused on single cuts and is often limited to either T-bone steaks or ground beef separately. Although the cuts are produced complementary, they compete against each ot...

  7. The analysis and selection of methods and facilities for cutting of naturally-deficit materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetov, I. D.; Zakirova, A. R.; Sadykov, Z. B.

    2016-06-01

    The comparison of perspective methods is done in the article, such as laser, plasma and combined electro-diamond methods of hard processed materials cutting. There are the review and analysis of naturally-deficit materials cutting facilities. A new electrode-tool for the combined cutting of naturally-deficit materials is suggested. This electrode-tool eliminates electrical contact between the cutting electrode-tool and side surfaces of the channel of cutting workpiece cut, which allows to obtain coplanar channels of cut.

  8. The mechanics of slitting and cutting webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Richard Raymond

    The quality of edges formed during cutting and slitting of thin polymer webs is important for many industrial applications. In order to control the edge quality of the separated material, it is necessary to understand cutting. A model is proposed and the mechanics of cutting are described. An apparatus was constructed to instrument, monitor and control the web slitting process. The slitting speed, tension in the web, blade sharpness and angle of cut were varied during tests. This allowed a quantitative understanding of the cutting mechanisms to be established. The results of the experiments showed the in-plane cutting forces were minimally affected by changes in rate or speed and independent of web tension for sharp blades. The angle of cut had a pronounced effect on the in-plane cutting forces and the stability of the cut. Further experimentation was designed to relate force to plastic deformation caused by a wedge indenting the edge surface of a polymer sample. These experiments clearly revealed the shape of the plastic deformation zone ahead of and around the wedges. Data from the experiments showed increasing cutting force with wedge displacement until the sample fractured. Plastic deformation of the samples was then examined in detail. The results showed out-of-plane plastic volume was equal to the volume displaced by the wedge. Samples also exhibited constant hardness during initial phases of wedge indenting. A finite element model concurred with the empirical plastic zone data. An innovative method was developed to take a dynamic "snapshot" of web displacement around the blade. The results clearly showed the web buckling ahead of the blade producing major instability during the cutting and slitting of thin webs. A finite element model supported the characteristics of the buckling phenomena observed in thin webs. An understanding of the interaction of cutting parameters and the buckling instability will allow quality web edges with minimal deformation and

  9. Laser cutting - from 200 Watt to 12 Kilowatt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    Laser cutting is the most widespread industrial application of high power lasers. The development of this process was initiated around 1970, when scientists at TWI first demonstrated laser cutting with coaxial gas assistance. 10 years later, the polarisation problem was solved and the technology...... got its breakthrough. Since then some 30,000 laser cutting systems have been installed worldwide, making the laser an important cutting tool in modern industry....

  10. Analysis of Orthogonal Cutting of Aluminium-based Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ravinder Reddy

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A turning test on aluminium-based metal-matrix composites (MMCs (aluminium-30% silicon carbide was performed with K-20 carbide tool material and wear patterns and the wear land growth rates were analysed to evaluate the wear characteristics and to classify the relationship between the physical (mechanical properties and the flank wear of cutting tools. The study was also extended to the machining aspects and the width of cuts on MMCs and the influence of various cutting parameters. The experiments were conducted to measure the temperature along the cutting tool edge using thermocouple at various cutting speeds, and depth of cuts, keeping the feed rate constant while turning with K-20 carbide cutting tool. The finite-element method was used to simulate the orthogonal cutting of aluminium-based MMCs. The heat generation at the chip-tool interface, frictional heat generation at the tool flank, and the heat generation at the work tool interface were calculated analytically and imposed as boundary conditions. The analysis of the steady-state heat transfer was carried out and the temperature distribution at cutting edge, shear zone, and interface regions have been reported.

  11. Cutting tool manufacturing: a sustainability perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Loglisci, Giovanni; Priarone, Paolo Claudio; Settineri, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Part of: Selinger, Günther (Ed.): Innovative solutions : proceedings / 11th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing, Berlin, Germany, 23rd - 25th September, 2013. - Berlin: Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin, 2013. - ISBN 978-3-7983-2609-5 (online). - http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:83-opus4-40276. - pp. 252-257.

  12. Development and characterization of AlCrN coated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic cutting tool; Desenvolvimento e caracterizacao de ferramentas ceramicas de Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} revestidas com AlCrN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, J.V.C.; Nono, M.C.A.; Machado, J.P.B., E-mail: vitor@las.inpe.b [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, O.M.M. [Centro Tecnico de Aeronautica (CTA-IAE/AMR), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Aeronautica e Espaco. Div. de Materiais; Pimenta, M. [Balzers, Jundiai, SP (Brazil); Sa, F.C.L. [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UNIFOA), RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Ceramic cutting tools are showing a growing market perspective in terms of application on machining operations due to their high hardness, wear resistance, and machining without a cutting fluid, therefore are good candidates for cast iron and Nickel superalloys machining. The objective of the present paper was the development of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} based ceramic cutting insert, characterization of its physical and mechanical properties, and subsequent coating with AlCrN using a PVD method. The characterization of the coating was made using an optical profiler, XRD, AFM and microhardness tester. The results showed that the tool presented a fracture toughness of 6,43 MPa.m{sup 1/2} and hardness of 16 GPa. The hardness reached 31 GPa after coating. The machining tests showed an improvement on work piece roughness when machining with coated insert, in comparison with the uncoated cutting tool. Probably this fact is related to hardness, roughness and topography of AlCrN. (author)

  13. Cutting of Two Marble Dummy Crystals in Industrial Prototype Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    De Forni, Armando; Limia-Conde, Francisco; Morino, René

    1997-01-01

    Two marble samples were cut to specified conditions with the tooling set designed for the mass processing of the 110'000 PbWO4 crystals of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter. We wanted to test in particular the reproducibility of the electrical contact on the reference sphere, the accuracy of the new positioning tools at each cutting operation in their respective positions

  14. 纳米镍粉对孕镶金刚石切削工具胎体性能的影响%Effect of Nano-nickel Powder on the Performance of Diamond Impregnated Cutting Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高科; 徐小健; 谢晓波; 李梦; 董博; 孙阳; 张绪良

    2014-01-01

    The sintering temperature being lowered and matrix material being selected in the manufacturing process are the good way to reduce the effect of sintering temperature on the properties of diamond and improve matrix performance of cut-ting tools.Diamond impregnated matrix samples with an appropriate amount of nano-nickel powder were prepared by the vacuum hot-pressed.The hardness, strength, friction properties and microstructure were investigated in order to evaluate the feasibility of this method.The results show that for WC-based diamond impregnated matrix, HRC of the matrix contai-ning nano-nickel powder is increased by 11.9%, bending strength by 18.4% and abrasion ratio by 44.5% than those of the matrix without nano-nickel powder respectively;and for Fe-based diamond impregnated matrix, HRC of the matrix con-taining nano-nickel powder is increased by 19.5%, bending strength by0.2%, and abrasion ratio by 33.3%than those of the matrix without nano-nickel powder respectively.So adding nano-nickel powder to the matrix can both reduce the effect of sintering temperature on diamond and improve cutting performance.%为减小孕镶金刚石切削工具的烧结温度对单晶金刚石性能的影响和改善切削工具胎体性能,降低烧结温度和优选胎体配方材料是很好的解决方法。在切削工具的胎体中加入适量纳米镍粉,通过对制备试样的硬度、强度和耐磨性测试及微观特征分析,综合评价该方法的可行性。结果表明:对于WC基胎体,含有纳米镍粉的胎体较不含纳米镍粉的胎体HRC提高11.9%,抗弯强度提高18.4%,耐磨性提高44.5%;对于Fe基胎体,含有纳米镍粉的胎体较不含纳米镍粉的胎体HRC提高19.5%,抗弯强度提高0.2%,耐磨性提高33.3%。既减小了温度对金刚石的影响,又提高了切削工具整体性能。

  15. The Constant Intensity Cut Method applied to the KASCADE-Grande muon data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteaga-Velazquez, J.C., E-mail: arteaga@ifm.umich.m [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Apel, W.D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box Mg-6, RO-7690 Bucharest (Romania); Brueggemann, M.; Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF, 10133 Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Souza, V. de [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Di Pierro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Finger, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    The constant intensity cut method is a very useful tool to reconstruct the cosmic ray energy spectrum in order to combine or compare extensive air shower data measured for different attenuation depths independently of the MC model. In this contribution the method is used to explore the muon data of the KASCADE-Grande experiment. In particular, with this technique, the measured muon number spectra for different zenith angle ranges are compared and summed up to obtain a single muon spectrum for the measured showers. Preliminary results are presented, along with estimations of the systematic uncertainties associated with the analysis technique.

  16. The Constant Intensity Cut Method applied to the KASCADE-Grande muon data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constant intensity cut method is a very useful tool to reconstruct the cosmic ray energy spectrum in order to combine or compare extensive air shower data measured for different attenuation depths independently of the MC model. In this contribution the method is used to explore the muon data of the KASCADE-Grande experiment. In particular, with this technique, the measured muon number spectra for different zenith angle ranges are compared and summed up to obtain a single muon spectrum for the measured showers. Preliminary results are presented, along with estimations of the systematic uncertainties associated with the analysis technique.

  17. 恒定加工条件及定期补偿下的刀具渐变可靠性灵敏度分析方法%Gradual Reliability and Its Sensitivity Analysis Approach of Cutting Tool in Invariant Machining Condition and Periodical Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李常有; 张义民; 王跃武

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that the downtime due to cutting tool failure is more than one third of the total forced downtime of the machine tool. Therefore, it is very important for improving the machine tool operation reliability to investigate the gradual reliability and its sensitivity of the cutting tool. A non-stationary Gamma process which is a continuous-time, continuous-state and monotone increasing stochastic process with independent increment is employed to describe the wear process of the cutting tool. The gradual state function of the cutting tool with the periodical compensation for wear and the invariant machining condition are formulated according to the principle that the machining eiror is not more than the given machine tool machining accuracy in two cases. One has the assumption that the cutting tool has not the machining error and the detection of the wear of the cutting tool is accurate. The other is the contrary one. Then, the corresponding gradual reliability is derived. On this basis, the sensitivity of the gradual reliability is analyzed. It is described by the numerical examples how to improve the operation reliability of the cutting tool using the proposed gradual reliability model and its sensitivity analysis results. The more feasible theory and method for improving the cutting tool operation reliability with the periodical compensation for wear and the invariant machining condition than the existed works might be provided by this work.%据统计,由刀具失效导致的停机时间超过机床被迫停机时间的1/3,故开展刀具渐变可靠性及其灵敏度分析的研究对提高机床的运行可靠性具有重要意义.采用连续时间、连续状态、具有非减独立增量的非平稳Gamma过程描述刀具磨损量的变化过程.根据加工偏差不大于机床给定加工精度的原则,构建刀具制造及磨损量检测有无误差两种情形下、恒定加工条件及定期补偿的刀具渐变状态函数,由此推

  18. Utilization of physicochemical variables developed from changes in sensory attributes and consumer acceptability to predict the shelf life of fresh-cut mango fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas-Hernández, Rosa María; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A.; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Sensory evaluation is the ideal tool for shelf-life determination. With the objective to develop an easy shelf-life indicator, color (L*, a*, b*, chroma and hue angle), total soluble solids (TSS), firmness (F), pH, acidity, and the sensory attributes of appearance, brightness, browning, odor, flavor, texture, color, acidity and sweetness were evaluated in fresh cut mangoes (FCM) stored at 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C. Overall acceptability was evaluated by consumers. Correlation analysis between senso...

  19. Micromachined cutting blade formed from {211}-oriented silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, James G.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Montague, Stephen

    2003-09-09

    A cutting blade is disclosed fabricated of micromachined silicon. The cutting blade utilizes a monocrystalline silicon substrate having a {211} crystalline orientation to form one or more cutting edges that are defined by the intersection of {211} crystalline planes of silicon with {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This results in a cutting blade which has a shallow cutting-edge angle .theta. of 19.5.degree.. The micromachined cutting blade can be formed using an anisotropic wet etching process which substantially terminates etching upon reaching the {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This allows multiple blades to be batch fabricated on a common substrate and separated for packaging and use. The micromachined cutting blade, which can be mounted to a handle in tension and optionally coated for increased wear resistance and biocompatibility, has multiple applications including eye surgery (LASIK procedure).

  20. Micromachined cutting blade formed from {211}-oriented silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, legal representative, Carol (Burbank, CA); Sniegowski, Jeffry J. (Tijeras, NM); Montague, Stephen (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-08-09

    A cutting blade is disclosed fabricated of micromachined silicon. The cutting blade utilizes a monocrystalline silicon substrate having a {211} crystalline orientation to form one or more cutting edges that are defined by the intersection of {211} crystalline planes of silicon with {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This results in a cutting blade which has a shallow cutting-edge angle .theta. of 19.5.degree.. The micromachined cutting blade can be formed using an anisotropic wet etching process which substantially terminates etching upon reaching the {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This allows multiple blades to be batch fabricated on a common substrate and separated for packaging and use. The micromachined cutting blade, which can be mounted to a handle in tension and optionally coated for increased wear resistance and biocompatibility, has multiple applications including eye surgery (LASIK procedure).

  1. Effects of superfine refractory carbide additives on microstructure and mechanical properties of TiB2–TiC+Al2O3 composite ceramic cutting tool materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The superfine carbides determined the mechanical properties of composites. • Superfine HfC or TaC caused some oxide impurities in composites. • Superfine VC or NbC refined and homogenized the microstructure. • Failure of composites containing HfC or TaC was produced by larger grains. • Composite containing VC exhibited more bridging and transcrystalline failure. -- Abstract: A study to increase the mechanical properties of TiB2–TiC+Al2O3 composite ceramic cutting tool material by using superfine refractory carbide additives is presented. Four superfine refractory carbides are considered to investigate their effects on the phase composition, element distribution, grain size, fracture surface, crack propagation of the metal ceramic. The physicochemical properties of superfine carbides, such as chemical activities and atom radius, were found to have the significant effects on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the metal ceramic. Hafnium carbide (HfC) and Tantalum carbide (TaC) reduced the mechanical properties of the metal ceramic because of their poor solubility with the Ni binder phase and the formation of oxides. The mechanical properties of the metal ceramic were increased by the addition of superfine niobium carbide (NbC) and vanadium carbide (VC), and their optimum values were a flexural strength of 1100 ± 62 MPa, fracture toughness of 8.5 ± 0.8 MPa.m1/2 and hardness of 21.53 ± 0.36 GPa, respectively, when 3.2 wt% superfine VC was used

  2. Effects of superfine refractory carbide additives on microstructure and mechanical properties of TiB{sub 2}–TiC+Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite ceramic cutting tool materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Bin, E-mail: zou20011110@163.com [Centre for Advanced Jet Engineering Technologies (CaJET), School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of High Efficiency and Clean Mechanical Manufacture, Shandong University, Ministry of Education (China); Ji, Wenbin; Huang, Chuanzhen; Wang, Jun [Centre for Advanced Jet Engineering Technologies (CaJET), School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of High Efficiency and Clean Mechanical Manufacture, Shandong University, Ministry of Education (China); Li, Shasha [Shandong Special Equipment Inspection Institute, Jinan 250013 (China); Xu, Kaitao [Centre for Advanced Jet Engineering Technologies (CaJET), School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of High Efficiency and Clean Mechanical Manufacture, Shandong University, Ministry of Education (China)

    2014-02-05

    Highlights: • The superfine carbides determined the mechanical properties of composites. • Superfine HfC or TaC caused some oxide impurities in composites. • Superfine VC or NbC refined and homogenized the microstructure. • Failure of composites containing HfC or TaC was produced by larger grains. • Composite containing VC exhibited more bridging and transcrystalline failure. -- Abstract: A study to increase the mechanical properties of TiB{sub 2}–TiC+Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite ceramic cutting tool material by using superfine refractory carbide additives is presented. Four superfine refractory carbides are considered to investigate their effects on the phase composition, element distribution, grain size, fracture surface, crack propagation of the metal ceramic. The physicochemical properties of superfine carbides, such as chemical activities and atom radius, were found to have the significant effects on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the metal ceramic. Hafnium carbide (HfC) and Tantalum carbide (TaC) reduced the mechanical properties of the metal ceramic because of their poor solubility with the Ni binder phase and the formation of oxides. The mechanical properties of the metal ceramic were increased by the addition of superfine niobium carbide (NbC) and vanadium carbide (VC), and their optimum values were a flexural strength of 1100 ± 62 MPa, fracture toughness of 8.5 ± 0.8 MPa.m1/2 and hardness of 21.53 ± 0.36 GPa, respectively, when 3.2 wt% superfine VC was used.

  3. Angular Stability Margins for the Remote Fusion Cutting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Kristiansen, Morten

    The set of incident angles, that yields stable cuts when conducting remote fusion cutting (RFC), is of great importance when scheduling multiple cuts on a work piece. This is due to their ability to determine how much the laser beam can be moved by angling the cutting head instead of translating it. This paper investigates how the stability of the RFC process is affected by changing the incident angle when processing stainless steel sheets. This investigation was conducted as an experimental study in which the angle of incidence was decomposed into a work angle and a travel angle. The stability was evaluated by an automatic procedure based on images acquired by a programmable microscope and a computer vision algorithm developed in MATLAB. The results showed that the stability of the RFC process was dependent on the work and the travel angle. It was also seen that a coherent region of stable incident angles could be found. All experiments were conducted with a 3 kW single mode fiber laser at the laser processing laboratory at Aalborg University.

  4. Cutting Force in Stone Machining by Diamond Disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Turchetta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stone machining by diamond disk is a widespread process to manufacture standard products, such as tiles, slabs, and kerbs. Cutting force and energy may be used to monitor stone machining. Empirical models are required to guide the selection of cutting conditions. In this paper, the effects of cutting conditions on cutting force and cutting energy are related to the shape of the idealized chip thickness. The empirical models developed in this paper can be used to predict the variation of the cutting energy. Therefore these models can be used to guide the selection of cutting conditions. The chip generation and removal process has been quantified with the intention of assisting both the toolmaker and the stonemason in optimising the tool composition and cutting process parameters, respectively.

  5. Micro-Grooving and Micro-Threading Tools for Fabricating Curvilinear Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS,DAVID P.; VASILE,MICHAEL J.; KRISHNAN,A.S.M.

    2000-07-24

    This paper presents techniques for fabricating microscopic, curvilinear features in a variety of workpiece materials. Micro-grooving and micro-threading tools having cutting widths as small as 13 {micro}m are made by focused ion beam sputtering and used for ultra-precision machining. Tool fabrication involves directing a 20 keV gallium beam at polished cylindrical punches made of cobalt M42 high-speed steel or C2 tungsten carbide to create a number of critically aligned facets. Sputtering produces rake facets of desired angle and cutting edges having radii of curvature equal to 0.4 {micro}m. Clearance for minimizing frictional drag of a tool results from a particular ion beam/target geometry that accounts for the sputter yield dependence on incidence angle. It is believed that geometrically specific cutting tools of this dimension have not been made previously. Numerically controlled, ultra-precision machining with micro-grooving tools results in a close match between tool width and feature size. Microtools are used to machine 13 {micro}m wide, 4 {micro}m deep, helical grooves in polymethyl methacrylate and 6061 Al cylindrical workplaces. Micro-grooving tools are also used to fabricate sinusoidal cross-section features in planar metal samples.

  6. Saving Seal Cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On April 20, the graduation ceremony of China’s seal-cutting art postgraduates and visiting experts from the Institute of Seal Cutting Art under the China Art Academy was held in Beijing. On the same day, the exhibition of the works of the teachers and graduates of the institute was also held.

  7. Atomic Study on Some Problems in Nanometric Cutting Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An investigation of some problems such as chip formation and surface generation in nanometric cutting mechanism based on molecular dynamics(MD) simulation is presented.It shows that chip formation is similar to that observed in macro-scale cutting.The movement of some micro-dislocation is the main cause of formation of chip and surface.Surface generation is notably affected by very small cutting force vibration.The highest stress appears in tool cutting edge,and it may cause wear,so it is necessary to build a MD model of tool wear.

  8. 基于刀具振动位移的动态铣削力测量方法%Dynamic milling force measuring method based on cutting tool vibration displacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱坚民; 王健; 张统超; 李孝茹

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the problem that the dynamic cutting force in milling process is difficult to measure, a method that determines the dynamic milling force through measuring the vibration displacement of milling cutter bar is put forward. This method firstly measures the cutter bar vibration displacement in milling process with a laser doppler vibrometer (LDV), and then determines the corresponding milling force from the vibration displacement according to the static calibration results of the measuring system. Aiming at the distortion problem of the measured milling force in high-speed milling process, the transfer function of the measuring system is determined through analyzing the dynamic characteristics of the cutting tool system; and a dynamic compensation link is designed adopting the zero pole assignment method to compensate the dynamic characteristics of the measuring system in order to improve the measuring bandwidth. The milling experiments were conducted on a milling machining center; and comparison was performed between the milling forces measured with the proposed method and obtained using a three-dimensional force sensor. Experiment results show that the proposed measuring method can measure the dynamic milling force accurately, and the frequency bandwidth can reach 1600 Hz. Besides, the measuring method is simple, reliable and easy to be used in engineering application.%针对铣削加工中动态铣削力难于测量的问题,提出了一种通过测量铣刀振动位移来确定动态铣削力的方法。该方法首先通过激光测振仪测量铣削加工时铣刀刀杆的振动位移,然后根据测量系统的静态校准结果由该振动位移确定相应的铣削力。针对高速铣削时的铣削力测量失真问题,通过分析刀具系统的动态特性,确定测量系统的传递函数,并采用零极点配置的方法设计了动态补偿环节对测量系统进行动态补偿,以提高测量系统的带宽。在铣削加工中心上进行

  9. Theoretical aspects of fibre laser cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahrle, A; Beyer, E, E-mail: achim.mahrle@iws.fraunhofer.d [University of Technology Dresden, Institute for Surface and Manufacturing Technology, PO Box, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-09-07

    Fibre lasers offer distinct advantages over established laser systems with respect to power efficiency, beam guidance and beam quality. Consequently, the potential of these new laser beam sources will be increasingly exploited for laser cutting applications that are conventionally carried out with CO{sub 2} lasers. However, theoretical estimates of the effective absorptivity at the cut front suggest that the shorter wavelength of the fibre laser in combination with its high focusability seems to be primarily advantageous for thin sheet metal cutting whereas the CO{sub 2} laser is probably still capable of cutting thicker materials more efficiently. This surprising result is a consequence of the absorptivity behaviour of metals that shows essential quantitative differences for the corresponding wavelengths of both laser sources as a function of the angle of incidence between the laser beam and the material to be cut. In evaluation of the revealed dependences, solution strategies for an improvement of the efficiency of fibre laser cutting of thicker metal sheets are suggested.

  10. Effect of cutting parameters on chip formation in orthogonal cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ben Salem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to study the chip formation to obtain the optimal cutting conditions and to observe the different chip formation mechanisms. Analysis of machining of a hardened alloy, X160CrMoV12-1 (cold work steel: AISI D2 with a ferritic and cementite matrix and coarse primary carbides, showed that there are relationships between the chip geometry, cutting conditions and the different micrographs under different metallurgical states.Design/methodology/approach: Machining of hardened alloys has some metallurgical and mechanical difficulties even if many successful processes have been increasingly developed. A lot of study has been carried out on this subject, however only with modest progress showing specific results concerning the real efficiency of chip formation. Hence, some crucial questions remain unanswered: the evolution of white layers produced during progressive tool flank wear in dry hard turning and to correlate this with the surface integrity of the machined surface. For the experimental study here, various cutting speeds and feed rates have been applied on the work material.Findings: The “saw-tooth type chips” geometry has been examined and a specific attention was given to the chip samples that were metallographically processed and observed under scanning electronic microscope (SEM to determine if white layers are present.Research limitations/implications: This research will be followed by a detail modelling and need more experimental results for a given a good prediction of the results occurred on the damage related to the microstructure by using the cutting parameters.Practical implications: A special detail was given to the mechanism of chip formation resulting from hard machining process and behaviour of steel at different metallurgical states on the material during the case of annealing and or the case of quench operations.Originality/value: For the sake of simplicity, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance was used to

  11. Cutting-tool recycling process with the zinc-melt method for obtaining thermal-spray feedstock powder (WC-Co): Postopek recikliranja orodij za rezanje z metodo taljenja v Zn za pridobivanje prahu WC-Co za termično nabrizgavanje:

    OpenAIRE

    Altuncu, Ekrem; Erdogan, Garip; Ozturk, Savas; Turk, Ahmet; Ustel, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    Various recycling processes for WC-Co cermets from cutting tools, such as chemical modification, thermal modification, the cold-stream method and the electrochemical method have been investigated and some of them are actually employed in industry. However, these conventional methods have many problems to be solved and they are not always established technologies. Therefore, a more economical and high-efficiency recycling procedure needs to be developed. In this study we investigated the appli...

  12. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIAL CUTTING SYSTEM FOR SWEET SORGHUM HARVESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OMID GHAHRAE

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sweet Sorghum is similar to racemose maize with about 3m height and 0.5-3cm thickness of stalk. Sweet Sorghum has sweet flavor stalk, which is used for sugar production. Developed cutting mechanism in this research has a rotary disk with 50 cm diameter and four cutting blades that spin clockwise. The stalks are cut with the impact and inertia forces at the linear velocity of 27 m/s, by cutting blades. This system has a simple bar mechanism guiding the whole-stalk to one side. The cutting quality tests were achieved by two series of blades with 30°and 45° blade angles on the stalk. The results showed that the stalk cutting surface with 30° blade angle was smooth and without fracture on filaments and vasculums, compared to that of 45° blade angle. Blade penetration was accomplished very well with 30° blade angle.

  13. Selection Of Cutting Inserts For Aluminum Alloys Machining By Using MCDM Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madić, Miloš; Radovanović, Miroslav; Petković, Dušan; Nedić, Bogdan

    2015-07-01

    Machining of aluminum and its alloys requires the use of cutting tools with special geometry and material. Since there exists a number of cutting tools for aluminum machining, each with unique characteristics, selection of the most appropriate cutting tool for a given application is very complex task which can be viewed as a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem. This paper is focused on multi-criteria analysis of VCGT cutting inserts for aluminum alloys turning by applying recently developed MCDM method, i.e. weighted aggregated sum product assessment (WASPAS) method. The MCDM model was defined using the available catalogue data from cutting tool manufacturers.

  14. Laser Cutting, Development Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...... of 3-dimensional shapes.The CO2-laser will also in the near future be the dominating laser source in the market, although the new developments in ND-YAG-lasers opens for new possibilities for this laser type....

  15. Online Cake Cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Toby

    2010-01-01

    We propose an online form of the cake cutting problem. This models situations where players arrive and depart during the process of dividing a resource. We show that well known fair division procedures like cut-and-choose and the Dubins-Spanier moving knife procedure can be adapted to apply to such online problems. We propose some desirable properties that online cake cutting procedures might possess like online forms of proportionality and envy-freeness, and identify which properties are in fact possessed by the different online cake procedures.

  16. Analyses of Effects of Cutting Parameters on Cutting Edge Temperature Using Inverse Heat Conduction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ribeiro dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During machining energy is transformed into heat due to plastic deformation of the workpiece surface and friction between tool and workpiece. High temperatures are generated in the region of the cutting edge, which have a very important influence on wear rate of the cutting tool and on tool life. This work proposes the estimation of heat flux at the chip-tool interface using inverse techniques. Factors which influence the temperature distribution at the AISI M32C high speed steel tool rake face during machining of a ABNT 12L14 steel workpiece were also investigated. The temperature distribution was predicted using finite volume elements. A transient 3D numerical code using irregular and nonstaggered mesh was developed to solve the nonlinear heat diffusion equation. To validate the software, experimental tests were made. The inverse problem was solved using the function specification method. Heat fluxes at the tool-workpiece interface were estimated using inverse problems techniques and experimental temperatures. Tests were performed to study the effect of cutting parameters on cutting edge temperature. The results were compared with those of the tool-work thermocouple technique and a fair agreement was obtained.

  17. Cutting work in thick section cryomicrotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saubermann, A J; Riley, W D; Beeuwkes, R

    1977-09-01

    The forces during cryosectioning were measured using miniature strain gauges attached to a load cell fitted to the drive arm of the Porter-Blum MT-2 cryomicrotome. Work was calculated and the data normalized to a standard (1 mm X 1 mm X 0.5 micrometer) section. Thermal energy generated was also calculated. Five parameters were studied: cutting angle, thickness, temperature, hardness, and block shape. Force patterns could be divided into three major groups thought to represent cutting (Type I), large fracture planes greater than 10 micrometer in length (Type II), and small fracture planes less than 10 micrometer in length (Type III). Type I and Type II produced satisfactory sections. Work in cutting ranged from an average of 78.4 muJ to 568.8 muJ. Cutting angle and temperature had the greatest effect on sectioning. Heat generated would be sufficient to cause through-section melting for 0.5 micrometer thick sections assuming the worst possible case, namely that all heat went into the section without loss. Presence of a Type II pattern (large fracture pattern) is thought to be presumptive evidence against thawing. PMID:606833

  18. Short-cut math

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Gerard W

    2014-01-01

    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  19. Cutting glass by laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyoung-Shik; Hong, Soon-Kug; Oh, Seok-Chang; Choi, Jong-Yoon; Song, Min-Gyu

    2002-02-01

    In FPD (Flat Panel Display) devices, the diamond wheel has been used to scribe glass by means of mechanical contact which needs grinding and cleaning processes to remove particles, glass chips, surface cracks and sharp edges. In recent years, laser glass technology that is different from the conventional method of cutting glass by melting, has been researched and utilizes cutting glass by thermal shock. Laser glass cutting by thermal shock can produce cracks in glass by surface cooling after laser heating on glass by means of stress slope on glass surface. When this technology is applied in FPD manufacturing devices, it has several advantages compared to conventional methods as follows: a) non-contact glass cutting: almost no glass chip occurs. b) according to circumstances, grinding and cleaning can be omitted. c) system maintenance can be simplified.

  20. Cuts and puncture wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needed. The person has been bitten by a human or animal. A cut or puncture is caused by a fishhook or rusty object. You step on a nail or other similar object. An object or debris is stuck. Do ...

  1. Cut without Killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The zero-based curriculum model can help school boards and administrators make decisions about what to keep and what to cut. All instructional programs are ranked and judged in categories ranging from required to optional. (MLF)

  2. Cutting Cakes Correctly

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Theodore P

    2008-01-01

    Without additional hypotheses, Proposition 7.1 in Brams and Taylor's book "Fair Division" (Cambridge University Press, 1996) is false, as are several related Pareto-optimality theorems of Brams, Jones and Klamler in their 2006 cake-cutting paper.

  3. Dealing with Cuts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Cellulitis First Aid: Cuts Staph Infections Bites and Scratches First Aid: Falls First Aid: ... What's a Scab? Cellulitis Cuts, Scratches, and Scrapes Staph Infections Dealing With Cuts and Wounds Babysitting: Dealing With ...

  4. Steep Cut Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the Steep Cut Construction. This project describes construction of a petrol filling station on Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. The project was unique in that the necessary area for the filling station was required to be cut from the base of a steeply sloping soil/rock slope adjacent to a busy highway.

  5. Salary cuts and competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Haliassos, Michael

    2013-01-01

    There is a prevalent view outside Greece that promotion of competitiveness is tantamount with price reductions for Greek goods and services. Massive horizontal salary cuts appear, at first, to promote competitiveness by reducing unit labor costs and to reduce fiscal deficits by reducing the wage bill of the public sector. Upon closer look, however, horizontal salary cuts have been much greater than needed for Greek competitiveness, providing an alibi vis a vis the Troika for reforms that are ...

  6. Tools and their uses

    CERN Document Server

    1973-01-01

    Teaches names, general uses, and correct operation of all basic hand and power tools, fasteners, and measuring devices you are likely to need. Also, grinding, metal cutting, soldering, and more. 329 illustrations.

  7. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-04-30

    This is the third quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Jan. 1, 2002 and Mar. 31, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop, progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); and (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  8. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Oct 1, 2001 and Dec. 31, 2001. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Collection System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  9. A theoretical model for predicting the Peak Cutting Force of conical picks

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Kuidong; Du Changlong; Jiang Hongxiang; Liu Songyong

    2014-01-01

    In order to predict the PCF (Peak Cutting Force) of conical pick in rock cutting process, a theoretical model is established based on elastic fracture mechanics theory. The vertical fracture model of rock cutting fragment is also established based on the maximum tensile criterion. The relation between vertical fracture angle and associated parameters (cutting parameter  and ratio B of rock compressive strength to tensile strength) is obtained by numerical analysis method and polynomial regre...

  10. BUCKET WHEEL EXCAVATOR WITH CHANGEABLE CUTTING ANGLE OF SOIL CHIP / РОТОРНЫЙ ЭКСКАВАТОР С ИЗМЕНЯЮЩИМСЯ УГЛОМ РЕЗАНЬЯ СТРУЖКИ ГРУНТА

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotov P. I. / Федотов Петр Игнатьевич

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of the change of cutting angle of soil chip. When excavator operates arise conditions when it “licks” soil and does not cut it. It is necessary to change the angle at which teeth meet the ground. The author offers the device allowing to change the cutting angle without leaving the excavator cab / Рассмотрен вопрос об изменении угла резания стружки грунта. Во время работы экскаватора возникают условия, когда он «лижет» грунт, не срезая его. Необходимо менять угол встречи зубьев с грунтом. Предложено устройство, позволяющее машинисту менять угол резанья грунта, не выходя из кабины экскаватора

  11. Improving axial depth of cut accuracy in micromilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    and their rapid warming and cooling, which prevent the achievement of a steady state. Several other factors, independent on the tool-workpiece interaction, influence the machining accuracy. The cutting parameter most heavily affected is the axial depth of cut which is the most critical when using...

  12. Correlation of cutting fluid performance in different machining operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    2001-01-01

    tapping, with respect to tool life, cutting forces and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity). A number of different work materials were considered, with emphasis on austenitic stainless steel, and cutting fluids from two main groups, water miscible and straight oils, were...

  13. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  14. Perception of perspective angles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    We perceive perspective angles, that is, angles that have an orientation in depth, differently from what they are in physical space. Extreme examples are angles between rails of a railway line or between lane dividers of a long and straight road. In this study, subjects judged perspective angles bet

  15. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining t...

  16. Theoretical Models for Orthogonal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”......This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”...

  17. Large Chip Production Mechanism under the Extreme Load Cutting Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianli; HE Genghuang; YAN Fugang; CHENG Yaonan; LIU Li

    2015-01-01

    There has existed a great deal of theory researches in term of chip production and chip breaking characteristics under conventional cutting and high speed cutting conditions, however, there isn’t sufficient research on chip formation mechanism as well as its influence on cutting state regarding large workpieces under extreme load cutting. This paper presents a model of large saw-tooth chip through applying finite element simulation method, which gives a profound analysis about the characteristics of the extreme load cutting as well as morphology and removal of the large chip. In the meantime, a calculation formula that gives a quantitative description of the saw-tooth level regarding the large chip is established on the basis of cutting experiments on high temperature and high strength steel 2.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V. The cutting experiments are carried out by using the scanning electron microscope and super depth of field electron microscope to measure and calculate the large chip produced under different cutting parameters, which can verify the validity of the established model. The calculating results show that the large saw-toothed chip is produced under the squeezing action between workpiece and cutting tools. In the meanwhile, the chip develops a hardened layer where contacts the cutting tool and the saw-tooth of the chip tend to form in transverse direction. This research creates the theoretical model for large chip and performs the cutting experiments under the extreme load cutting condition, as well as analyzes the production mechanism of the large chip in the macro and micro conditions. Therefore, the proposed research could provide theoretical guidance and technical support in improving productivity and cutting technology research.

  18. ANALYSIS OF PARAMETERS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF A CUTTING MACHINE

    OpenAIRE

    Iveta Onderová; Lubomír Šooš

    2014-01-01

    The quality of cutting machines is affected by several factors that can be directly or indirectly influenced by manufacturers, technicians and users of machine tools. The most critical qualitative evaluation parameters of machine tools include accuracy and stability. Investigations of accuracy and repeatable positioning accuracy were essential for the research presented in this paper. The aim was to develop and experimentally verify the design of a methodology for cutting centers aimed at ach...

  19. Investigations of Cutting Fluid Performance Using Different Machining Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of cutting fluid performance in dif-ferent metal cutting operations is presented based on performance criteria, work material and fluid type. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping operations, with respect to tool life, cutting forces and prod...... one will get the same performance ranking for different metalworking fluids no matter what machining test is used, when the fluids are of the same type. Results show that this is mostly true for the water-based fluids on austenitic stainless steel while ranking did change depending on the test with...

  20. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  1. Three-dimensional measurement and characterization of grinding tool topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Changcai; Blunt, Liam; Jiang, Xiangqian; Xu, Xipeng; Huang, Hui; Ye, Ruifang

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive 3-dimensional measurement and characterization method for grinding tool topography was developed. A stylus instrument (SOMICRONIC, France) was used to measure the surface of a metal-bonded diamond grinding tool. The sampled data was input the software SurfStand developed by Centre for Precision Technology (CPT) for reconstruction and further characterization of the surface. Roughness parameters pertaining to the general surface and specific feature parameters relating to the grinding grits, such as height and angle peak curvature have been calculated. The methodology of measurement has been compared with that using an optical microscope. The comparison shows that the three-dimensional characterization has distinct advantages for grinding tool topography assessment. It is precise, convenient and comprehensive so it is suitable for precision measurement and analysis where an understanding of the grinding tool and its cutting ability are required.

  2. Collaborating To Cut Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strosnider, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Private colleges across the country are collaborating to cut costs, streamline services, and increase efficiency. An ambitious Ohio project, involving 35 colleges, to redesign business operations hopes to save $20-25 million. Other efforts include joint classes using interactive television, shared library resources, cross-registration, jointly…

  3. Cutting Cakes Carefully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theodore P.; Morrison, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the fascinating mathematics of fair division, and provides a suite of examples using basic ideas from algebra, calculus, and probability which can be used to examine and test new and sometimes complex mathematical theories and claims involving fair division. Conversely, the classical cut-and-choose and moving-knife algorithms…

  4. Genetic Evolutionary Approach for Cutting Forces Prediction in Hard Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylan, Fatih; Kayacan, Cengiz

    2011-11-01

    Hard milling is a very common used machining procedure in the last years. Therefore the prediction of cutting forces is important. The paper deals with this prediction using genetic evolutionary programming (GEP) approach to set mathematical expression for out cutting forces. In this study, face milling was performed using DIN1.2842 (90MnCrV8) cold work tool steel, with a hardness of 61 HRC. Experimental parameters were selected using stability measurements and simulations. In the hard milling experiments, cutting force data in a total of three axes were collected. Feed direction (Fx) and tangential direction (Fy) cutting forces generated using genetic evolutionary programming were modelled. Cutting speed and feed rate values were treated as inputs in the models, and average cutting force values as output. Mathematical expressions were created to predict average Fxand Fy forces that can be generated in hard material milling.

  5. An Experimental Study of Cutting Performances of Worn Picks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogruoz, Cihan; Bolukbasi, Naci; Rostami, Jamal; Acar, Cemil

    2016-01-01

    The best means to assess rock cuttability and efficiency of cutting process for using mechanical excavation is specific energy (SE), measured in full-scale rock cutting test. This is especially true for the application of roadheaders, often fitted with drag-type cutting tools. Radial picks or drag bits are changed during the operation as they reach a certain amount of wear and become blunt. In this study, full-scale cutting tests in different sedimentary rock types with bits having various degree of wear were used to evaluate the influence of bit wear on cutting forces and specific energy. The relationship between the amount of wear as represented by the size of the wear flats at the tip of the bit, and cutting forces as well as specific energy was examined. The influence of various rock properties such as mineral content, uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, indentation index, shore hardness, Schmidt hammer hardness, and density with required SE of cutting using different levels of tool wear was also studied. The preliminary analysis of the data shows that the mean cutting forces increase 2-3 times and SE by 4-5 times when cutting with 4 mm wear flat as compared to cutting with new or sharp wedge shape bits. The grain size distribution of the muck for cutting different rock types and different level of bit wear was analyzed and discussed. The best fit prediction models for SE based on statistical analysis of laboratory test results are introduced. The model can be used for estimating the performance of mechanical excavators using radial tools, especially roadheaders, continuous miners and longwall drum shearers.

  6. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira

    2000-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between July 14, 2000 and September 30, 2000. This report presents information on the following specific tasks: (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development (Task 2), (b) Progress on research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress on research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress on research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress on research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Initiate research on project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Progress on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution (Tasks 11), and Foam properties (Task 12), (h) Initiate a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. Since the previous Task 1 has been completed, we will now designate this new task as: (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  7. Tool breakage detection from 2D workpiece profile using vision method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. K.; Ratnam, M. M.; Ahmad, Z. A.

    2016-02-01

    In-process tool breakage monitoring can significantly save cost and prevent damages to machine tool. In this paper, a machine vision approach was employed to detect the tool fracture in commercial aluminium oxide ceramic cutting tool during turning of AISI 52100 hardened steel. The contour of the workpiece profile was captured with the aid of backlighting during turning using a high-resolution DSLR camera with a shutter speed of 1/4000 s. The surface profile of the workpiece was extracted to sub-pixel accuracy using the invariant moment method. The effect of fracture in ceramic cutting tools on the surface profile signature of the machined workpiece using autocorrelation was studied. Fracture in the aluminum oxide ceramic tool was found to cause the peaks of autocorrelation function of the workpiece profile to decrease rapidly as the lag distance increased. The envelope of the peaks of the autocorrelation function was observed to deviate significantly from one another at different workpiece angles when the tool has fractured due to the continuous fracture of ceramic cutting insert during machining.

  8. Methods of Cut-Elimination

    CERN Document Server

    Baaz, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    This is the first book on cut-elimination in first-order predicate logic from an algorithmic point of view. Instead of just proving the existence of cut-free proofs, it focuses on the algorithmic methods transforming proofs with arbitrary cuts to proofs with only atomic cuts (atomic cut normal forms, so-called ACNFs). The first part investigates traditional reductive methods from the point of view of proof rewriting. Within this general framework, generalizations of Gentzen's and Sch\\"utte-Tait's cut-elimination methods are defined and shown terminating with ACNFs of the original proof. M

  9. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-04-30

    Experiments on the flow loop are continuing. Improvements to the software for data acquisition are being made as additional experience with three-phase flow is gained. Modifications are being made to the Cuttings Injection System in order to improve control and the precision of cuttings injection. The design details for a drill-pipe Rotation System have been completed. A US Patent was filed on October 28, 2002 for a new design for an instrument that can generate a variety of foams under elevated pressures and temperatures and then transfer the test foam to a viscometer for measurements of viscosity. Theoretical analyses of cuttings transport phenomena based on a layered model is under development. Calibrations of two nuclear densitometers have been completed. Baseline tests have been run to determine wall roughness in the 4 different tests sections (i.e. 2-in, 3-in, 4-in pipes and 5.76-in by 3.5-in annulus) of the flow loop. Tests have also been conducted with aerated fluids at EPET conditions. Preliminary experiments on the two candidate aqueous foam formulations were conducted which included rheological tests of the base fluid and foam stability reports. These were conducted after acceptance of the proposal on the Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature Conditions. Preparation of a test matrix for cuttings-transport experiments with foam in the ACTF is also under way. A controller for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration and distribution has been designed that can control four transceivers at a time. A prototype of the control circuit board was built and tested. Tests showed that there was a problem with radiated noise. AN improved circuit board was designed and sent to an external expert to verify the new design. The new board is being fabricated and will first be tested with static water and gravel in an annulus at elevated temperatures. A series of viscometer tests to measure foam properties have

  10. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  11. Laser cutting nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Terry J.

    1984-01-01

    A laser cutting nozzle for use with a laser cutting apparatus directing a focused beam to a spot on a work piece. The nozzle has a cylindrical body with a conical tip which together have a conically shaped hollow interior with the apex at a small aperture through the tip. The conical hollow interior is shaped to match the profile of the laser beam, at full beamwidth, which passes through the nozzle to the work piece. A plurality of gas inlet holes extend through the body to the hollow interior and are oriented to produce a swirling flow of gas coaxially through the nozzle and out the aperture, aligned with the laser beam, to the work piece. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

  12. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  13. Tool Wear Characteristics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Particleboard

    OpenAIRE

    Jegatheswaran Ratnasingam; Tee Chew Tek; Saied Reza Farrokhpayam

    2008-01-01

    A series of machining experiments on the Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) particleboard were carried out using a CNC router, to evaluate the tool wearing properties of the composite in comparison to the conventional wood-material particleboard. A single-fluted tungsten-carbide router bit (12 mm φ, 18 000 rpm), with a rake angle of 15° was used in this experiment, in which the depth of cut was 1.5 mm and feed speed was 4.5 m min-1. The router bit machined the edge of the board, moving along ...

  14. How Can I Stop Cutting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 • 3 • 4 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Teens Talk About Cutting Do People Who Self-Injure Have to Be Hospitalized? Stress & Coping Center Stress Cutting How Can I Help a ...

  15. Cutting force signal pattern recognition using hybrid neural network in end milling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-Tae SEONG; Ko-Tae JO; Young-Moon LEE

    2009-01-01

    Under certain cutting conditions in end milling, the signs of cutting forces change from positive to negative during a revolution of the tool. The change of force direction causes the cutting dynamics to be unstable which results in chatter vibration. Therefore, cutting force signal monitoring and classification are needed to determine the optimal cutting conditions and to improve the efficiency of cut. Artificial neural networks are powerful tools for solving highly complex and nonlinear problems. It can be divided into supervised and unsupervised learning machines based on the availability of a teacher. Hybrid neural network was introduced with both of functions of multilayer perceptron (MLP) trained with the back-propagation algorithm for monitoring and detecting abnormal state, and self organizing feature map (SOFM) for treating huge datum such as image processing and pattern recognition, for predicting and classifying cutting force signal patterns simultaneously. The validity of the results is verified with cutting experiments and simulation tests.

  16. Dredging Processes I: The Cutting of Sand, Clay & Rock - Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    This book gives an overview of cutting theories. It starts with a generic model, which is valid for all types of soil (sand, clay and rock) after which the specifics of dry sand, water saturated sand, clay, rock and hyperbaric rock are covered. For each soil type small blade angles and large blade a

  17. Wear and cutting performance of diamond composite material-a comparison with tungsten carbide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xing-sheng; J. N. Boland

    2004-01-01

    A series of wear and rock cutting tests were undertaken to assess the wear and cutting performance of a thermally stable diamond composite (TSDC). The wear tests were conducted on a newly designed wear testing rig in which a rotating aluminium oxide grinding wheel is turned (also known as machined) by the testing tool element.The rock cutting tests were performed on a linear rock-cutting planer. The thrust and cutting forces acting on the tool were measured during these tests. A tungsten carbide element was also studied for comparative purposes. The wear coefficients of both materials were used to evaluate wear performance while cutting performance was assessed by tool wear and the rates of increase in forces with cutting distance.

  18. Influence of Fiber Orientation on Single-Point Cutting Fracture Behavior of Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy Prepreg Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Yingying Wei; Qinglong An; Xiaojiang Cai; Ming Chen; Weiwei Ming

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the influences of carbon fibers on the fracture mechanism of carbon fibers both in macroscopic view and microscopic view by using single-point flying cutting method. Cutting tools with three different materials were used in this research, namely, PCD (polycrystalline diamond) tool, CVD (chemical vapor deposition) diamond thin film coated carbide tool and uncoated carbide tool. The influence of fiber orientation on the cutting force and fracture to...

  19. Modeling and damage prediction of coated carbide tool in cutting process based on discrete element method%基于离散元法的涂层硬质合金刀具建模及其加工损伤预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜胜强; 李添添; 刘浩瀚; 谭援强; 高伟; 张高峰

    2015-01-01

    首先建立了Ti CN涂层硬质合金刀具基体材料(WC)的离散元模型,根据单轴压缩、三点弯曲以及断裂韧性等数值试验方法校准了基体材料离散元模型的微观参数,然后采用划痕法校准了基体与涂层的界面结合强度。根据 Merchant 切削模型,建立了涂层刀具切削过程中的刀-屑接触模型,通过对切屑施加周期性边界条件来模拟实际的切削加工过程;模拟了涂层刀具加工过程中的裂纹扩展和破坏情况,并预测了切削加工用量对涂层裂纹扩展及破坏的影响。%In this paper,a discrete element model of WC matrix material which is the part of TiCN coated carbide tool was established.Base on numerical tests,such as uniaxial compression test,three point bending test and fracture toughness test,the microscopic parameters of matrix material in DEM model were calibrated.Then,starching test was used to calibrate the strength of interfacial bond between TiCN coating and WC matrix.According to the Merchant’s cutting model,a tool-chip contact model was estab-lished.By applying a periodic boundary to tool-chip contact model,several different conditions of cutting processes were carried out to investigate the crack’s propagation and damage of coated carbide tool,and the influence of cutting parameters to the coated carbide tool’s crack propagation and damage were also predicted.

  20. Adiabatic Shear Mechanisms for the Hard Cutting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Caixu; WANG Bo; LIU Xianli; FENG Huize; CAI Chunbin

    2015-01-01

    The most important consequence of adiabatic shear phenomenon is formation of sawtooth chip. Lots of scholars focused on the formation mechanism of sawtooth, and the research often depended on experimental approach. For the present, the mechanism of sawtooth chip formation still remalns some ambiguous aspects. This study develops a combined numerical and experimental approach to get deeper understanding of sawtooth chip formation mechanism for Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride (PCBN) tools orthogonal cutting hard steel GCr15. By adopting the Johnson-Cook material constitutive equations, the FEM simulation model established in this research effectively overcomes serious element distortions and cell singularity in high straln domaln caused by large material deformation, and the adiabatic shear phenomenon is simulated successfully. Both the formation mechanism and process of sawtooth are simulated. Also, the change features regarding the cutting force as well as its effects on temperature are studied. More specifically, the contact of sawtooth formation frequency with cutting force fluctuation frequency is established. The cutting force and effect of cutting temperature on mechanism of adiabatic shear are investigated. Furthermore, the effects of the cutting condition on sawtooth chip formation are researched. The researching results show that cutting feed has the most important effect on sawtooth chip formation compared with cutting depth and speed. This research contributes a better understanding of mechanism, feature of chip formation in hard turning process, and supplies theoretical basis for the optimization of hard cutting process parameters.

  1. Adiabatic shear mechanisms for the hard cutting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Caixu; Wang, Bo; Liu, Xianli; Feng, Huize; Cai, Chunbin

    2015-05-01

    The most important consequence of adiabatic shear phenomenon is formation of sawtooth chip. Lots of scholars focused on the formation mechanism of sawtooth, and the research often depended on experimental approach. For the present, the mechanism of sawtooth chip formation still remains some ambiguous aspects. This study develops a combined numerical and experimental approach to get deeper understanding of sawtooth chip formation mechanism for Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride (PCBN) tools orthogonal cutting hard steel GCr15. By adopting the Johnson-Cook material constitutive equations, the FEM simulation model established in this research effectively overcomes serious element distortions and cell singularity in high strain domain caused by large material deformation, and the adiabatic shear phenomenon is simulated successfully. Both the formation mechanism and process of sawtooth are simulated. Also, the change features regarding the cutting force as well as its effects on temperature are studied. More specifically, the contact of sawtooth formation frequency with cutting force fluctuation frequency is established. The cutting force and effect of cutting temperature on mechanism of adiabatic shear are investigated. Furthermore, the effects of the cutting condition on sawtooth chip formation are researched. The researching results show that cutting feed has the most important effect on sawtooth chip formation compared with cutting depth and speed. This research contributes a better understanding of mechanism, feature of chip formation in hard turning process, and supplies theoretical basis for the optimization of hard cutting process parameters.

  2. Selection of Cutting Inserts in Dry Machining for Reducing Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Domingo; Marta María Marín; Juan Claver; Roque Calvo

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing processes are responsible for climate change due to the emissions produced as result of energy consumption. This paper analyzes the influence of the cutting conditions and the characteristics of cutting tools on the energy required in machining processes and the carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions generated per material removed ratio (MRR) in an effort to define common criteria for using cutting inserts in a sustainable manner. Consequently, four cutting inserts were ev...

  3. Influence of the Cutting Parameters on Vibration Level in Metal Turning

    OpenAIRE

    Korka Zoltan Iosif; Miclosina Calin-Octavian; Cojocaru Vasile

    2014-01-01

    Cutting vibration is a phenomenon that often appears in the process of metal machining, being one of primary factors that affects the processing quality and limits the productivity enhances. The analysis of vibration in the cutting process became very important, because the vibrations may cause the damaging of the machine spindle, cutting tool, or workpiece and leave behind a poor quality machined surface. The present paper intended to study the influence of the cutting parameters on the vibr...

  4. Verification test results of a cutting technique for the ITER blanket cooling pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For replacement of the first wall (FW) of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), cutting and welding tools for the cooling pipes must be able to access a pipe from the surface side of the FW and cut/weld the pipe from the inside the cooling pipe (inner diameter: 42.72 mm, thickness: 2.77 mm). The cutting tool for the pipe end is required to cut a flat plate circularly from the surface side of the FW (cutting diameter: approximately 44 mm, plate thickness: 5 mm). To determine the specifications for both the tools and the blanket hydraulic connections, the ITER Organization (IO) and the Japan Domestic Agency (JADA) conducted research and development activities regarding the FW replacement. This paper describes the current status of the development of cutting tools for the cooling pipe connection.

  5. Angles between subspaces and their tangents

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Peizhen; Knyazev, Andrew V.

    2012-01-01

    Principal angles between subspaces (PABS) (also called canonical angles) serve as a classical tool in mathematics, statistics, and applications, e.g., data mining. Traditionally, PABS are introduced via their cosines. The cosines and sines of PABS are commonly defined using the singular value decomposition. We utilize the same idea for the tangents, i.e., explicitly construct matrices, such that their singular values are equal to the tangents of PABS, using several approaches: orthonormal and...

  6. Drilling cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  7. Simultaneous Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balkanski, Eric; Branzei, Simina; Kurokawa, David;

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the simultaneous model for cake cutting (the fair allocation of a divisible good), in which agents simultaneously send messages containing a sketch of their preferences over the cake. We show that this model enables the computation of divisions that satisfy proportionality — a popular...... fairness notion — using a protocol that circumvents a standard lower bound via parallel information elicitation. Cake divisions satisfying another prominent fairness notion, envy-freeness, are impossible to compute in the simultaneous model, but admit arbitrarily good approximations....

  8. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-07-31

    We have tested the loop elevation system. We raised the mast to approximately 25 to 30 degrees from horizontal. All went well. However, while lowering the mast, it moved laterally a couple of degrees. Upon visual inspection, severe spalling of the concrete on the face of the support pillar, and deformation of the steel support structure was observed. At this time, the facility is ready for testing in the horizontal position. A new air compressor has been received and set in place for the ACTS test loop. A new laboratory has been built near the ACTS test loop Roughened cups and rotors for the viscometer (RS300) were obtained. Rheologies of aqueous foams were measured using three different cup-rotor assemblies that have different surface roughness. The relationship between surface roughness and foam rheology was investigated. Re-calibration of nuclear densitometers has been finished. The re-calibration was also performed with 1% surfactant foam. A new cuttings injection system was installed at the bottom of the injection tower. It replaced the previous injection auger. A mechanistic model for cuttings transport with aerated mud has been developed. Cuttings transport mechanisms with aerated water at various conditions were experimentally investigated. A total of 39 tests were performed. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental measurements show a satisfactory agreement. Results from the ultrasonic monitoring system indicated that we could distinguish between different sand levels. We also have devised ways to achieve consistency of performance by securing the sensors in the caps in exactly the same manner as long as the sensors are not removed from the caps. A preliminary test was conducted on the main flow loop at 100 gpm flow rate and 20 lb/min cuttings injection rate. The measured bed thickness using the ultrasonic method showed a satisfactory agreement with nuclear densitometer readings. Thirty different data points were collected after the test

  9. Selection of Cutting Inserts in Dry Machining for Reducing Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Domingo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing processes are responsible for climate change due to the emissions produced as result of energy consumption. This paper analyzes the influence of the cutting conditions and the characteristics of cutting tools on the energy required in machining processes and the carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq emissions generated per material removed ratio (MRR in an effort to define common criteria for using cutting inserts in a sustainable manner. Consequently, four cutting inserts were evaluated during the turning of Ti6Al4V alloy. An experimental and statistical methodology that combined the orthogonal array L36, the signal-to-noise ratio under the “small is better” criterion of Taguchi, and a multifactor analysis of variance was used. The effects of the geometry, material and coating of the tool and the cutting conditions on the energy and the carbon footprint during the manufacturing process were analyzed. The results show that a high tool cutting length and a high cutting depth are significant common factors, whereas the coating-cutting depth and cutting length-cutting speed are significant common interactions for both the energy/MRR ratio and the CO2-eq emissions/MRR ratio, and the coating-cutting speed exhibits a significant interaction for emissions. The outcomes show that the lifespan of the tool has little influence on the total emissions, at the time that the methodology is able to identify the most appropriate manner to calculate energy.

  10. An Investigation on the Suitability of Abrasive Waterjet Cutting for Hybrid Manufacturing of Gears in Automotive Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Babashov, Vusal; Mammadova, Gunel

    2015-01-01

    Gears are components in mechanical assemblies used for transmitting power and motion. Gear form cutting (broaching, milling) and gear generating (shaping and hobbing) are two of the main gear manufacturing methods. Usually production involves three stages: (i) soft machining, (ii) heat treatment, and (iii) hard machining. Limitations introduced by conventional methods can be listed as follows: - In machining difficult to cut materials, high cost of specialized cutting tools, high cutting tool...

  11. Study on precision cutting technology of complex shape microparts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Relatively to non-traditional and high-energy-beam micro-manufacturing technique, the micro-cutting technology has many merits. For instance, the machining range is bigger, the cost of equipments is much lower, and the productivity and machining accuracy are higher. Therefore, the micro-cutting technology will take an important effect on the machining technique of complex shape microparts. In this paper, based on selfly-developed machine tool, the precision cutting technology of complex shape microparts made of metal material was studied by analyzing the modeling method on complex shape, the means of toolpaths layout and the optimal selection for cutting parameters. On the basis of above work, a typical duralumin specimen of high precision, low surface roughness and complex shape micropart was manufactured. This result will provide favorable technical support for farther research on the micro-cutting technology.

  12. High performance cutting of aircraft and turbine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, A.; Lung, D.; Klocke, F.

    2012-04-01

    Titanium and nickel-based alloys belong to the group of difficult-to-cut materials. The machining of these high-temperature alloys is characterized by low productivity and low process stability as a result of their physical and mechanical properties. Major problems during the machining of these materials are low applicable cutting speeds due to excessive tool wear, long machining times, and thus high manufacturing costs, as well as the formation of ribbon and snarled chips. Under these conditions automation of the production process is limited. This paper deals with strategies to improve machinability of titanium and nickel-based alloys. Using the example of the nickel-based alloy Inconel 718 high performance cutting with advanced cutting materials, such as PCBN and cutting ceramics, is presented. Afterwards the influence of different cooling strategies, like high-pressure lubricoolant supply and cryogenic cooling, during machining of TiAl6V4 is shown.

  13. Dental abrasion as a cutting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Peter W; Wagner, Mark; Al-Fadhalah, Khaled; Almusallam, Abdulwahab S; Michael, Shaji; Thai, Lidia A; Strait, David S; Swain, Michael V; van Casteren, Adam; Renno, Waleed M; Shekeban, Ali; Philip, Swapna M; Saji, Sreeja; Atkins, Anthony G

    2016-06-01

    A mammalian tooth is abraded when a sliding contact between a particle and the tooth surface leads to an immediate loss of tooth tissue. Over time, these contacts can lead to wear serious enough to impair the oral processing of food. Both anatomical and physiological mechanisms have evolved in mammals to try to prevent wear, indicating its evolutionary importance, but it is still an established survival threat. Here we consider that many wear marks result from a cutting action whereby the contacting tip(s) of such wear particles acts akin to a tool tip. Recent theoretical developments show that it is possible to estimate the toughness of abraded materials via cutting tests. Here, we report experiments intended to establish the wear resistance of enamel in terms of its toughness and how friction varies. Imaging via atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to assess the damage involved. Damage ranged from pure plastic deformation to fracture with and without lateral microcracks. Grooves cut with a Berkovich diamond were the most consistent, suggesting that the toughness of enamel in cutting is 244 J m(-2), which is very high. Friction was higher in the presence of a polyphenolic compound, indicating that this could increase wear potential. PMID:27274807

  14. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  15. Applicability of waterjet cutting for different machining operations

    OpenAIRE

    Kun-Bodnár, K.; Kundrák, J.

    2011-01-01

    Today the waterjet is unparalleled in many aspects of cutting and has changed the way of production in the case of many products. The abrasive waterjet (AWJ) may be used for flexible machine tools, capable of multiple operations including cutting, milling, turning and drilling in one setup, has been demonstrated in practice. In the following sections the alternative AWJ operations milling, turning will be discussed in more detail. Because of its excellent properties waterjet has a good chance...

  16. Reading Angles in Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

  17. Checking Out Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Checking Out Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions KidsHealth > For Kids > Checking Out Cuts, ... weren't wearing kneepads. How Do Cuts and Scratches Heal? After getting a cut, scratch, or abrasion, ...

  18. Optimal reconstruction angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of optimal projection angles has recently become of interest in the field of reconstruction from projections. Here, studies are concentrated on the n x n pixel space, where literative algorithms such as ART and direct matrix techniques due to Katz are considered. The best angles are determined in a Gauss--Markov statistical sense as well as with respect to a function-theoretical error bound. The possibility of making photon intensity a function of angle is also examined. Finally, the best angles to use in an ART-like algorithm are studied. A certain set of unequally spaced angles was found to be preferred in several contexts. 15 figures, 6 tables

  19. Chip-Tool Interface Temperature Prediction Model for Turning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B.Abhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research work the tool-chip interface temperature is measured experimentally during turning of EN-31 steel alloy with tungsten carbide inserts using a tool-work thermocouple technique. First and secondorder mathematical models are developed in terms of machining parameters by using the response surface methodology on the basis of the experimental results. The results are analyzed statistically and graphically. The metal cutting parameters considered are cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool nose radius. It can be seenfrom the first order model that the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut are the most significantly influencing parameters for the chip-tool interface temperature followed by tool nose radius. Another quadratic model shows the variation of chip-tool interface with major interaction effect between cutting speed and depth of cut (V*D and second order (quadratic effect of cutting speed (V2 appears to be highly significant. The results show that increase in cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut increases the cutting temperature while increasing nose radius reduces the cutting temperature. The suggested models of chip-tool interface temperature adequately map within the range of the cutting conditions considered.

  20. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2016-08-01

    Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details of the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.

  1. Smart Tooling for Manufacturing Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CRG's shape memory polymer (SMP) tooling technologies, Smart Tooling, offer cutting-edge manufacturing solutions that can meet the construction needs of all future...

  2. 数控车削刀具刀尖圆弧半径对加工精度影响的分析与解决途径%Analysis of NC Lathe Machining Precision with Affects of Cutting Tool Tip' s Radius and Its Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓东

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes how the size of cutting tool tip' s radius affects the numerical control lathe machining precision when processing the cone surface, circular surface and non - circular curve surface, which is followed by summarizing the causes of errors that occur in processing, and explaining the ways to eliminate them as well.%分析了数控车削加工中,在加工圆锥面、圆弧面以及非圆曲线表面时,刀具的刀尖圆弧半径的大小对零件加工精度的影响.对产生误差进行了研究,并论述了消除误差的途径.

  3. Kinetic Slip Condition, van der Waals Forces and Dynamic Contact Angle

    CERN Document Server

    Pismen, L M; Pismen, Len M.; Rubinstein, Boris Y.

    2000-01-01

    The profiles of a spreading wetting film are computed taking into account intermolecular forces and introducing a kinetic slip condition at a molecular cut-off distance. This eliminates the stress singularity, so that both "true" and "visible" contact angles are defined unequivocally. The "true" contact angle at the cut-off distance depends on the slip length as well as on the edge propagation speed, but not on gravity or asymptotic inclination angle. These macroscopic factors influence, however, the "visible" contact angle observed in the interval where the actual film profile departs from the intermediate asymptotic curve.

  4. Effects of vegetable-based cutting fluids on the wear in drilling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Babur Ozcelik; Emel Kuram; Erhan Demirbas; Emrah Şik

    2013-08-01

    This study focuses on both formulation of vegetable-based cutting fluids (VBCFs) and machining with these cutting fluids. For this purpose, characterizations of chemical and physical analyses of these formulated cutting fluids are carried out. In this study, performances of three VBCFs developed from crude sunflower oil, refined sunflower oil, refined canola oil and commercial semi-synthetic cutting fluid are compared in terms of tool wear, thrust force and surface roughness during drilling of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel with HSSE tool. Experimental results show that canolabased cutting fluid gives the best performance due to its higher lubricant properties with respect to other cutting fluids at the constant cutting conditions (spindle speed of 750 rpm and feed rate of 0.1 mm/rev).

  5. Unconventional methods of material cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Rusz, Radek

    2009-01-01

    The present bachelor thesis summarizes the findings of unconventional methods of materials cutting. The thesis is only concerned with the most common and most appropriate methods used in practice. The described methods include cutting by laser, plasma, water jet, electron beam and ultrasound. For each of these methods, the principle of current technologies and technological equipment used for materials cutting in industrial practice is described. This thesis compares the individual methods in...

  6. Cutting sequences on translation surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Diana

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the cutting sequences associated to geodesic flow on a large class of translation surfaces, including Bouw-Moller surfaces. We give a combinatorial rule that relates a cutting sequence corresponding to a given trajectory, to the cutting sequence corresponding to the image of that trajectory under the parabolic element of the Veech group. This extends previous work for regular polygon surfaces to a larger class of translation surfaces. We find that the combinatorial rule is the same...

  7. Study of the Influence of the Input parameters of Wire Electro Discharge Machining on the Cutting Speed and Gap Current of H11 tool steel using Correlation – Regression and ANOVA

    OpenAIRE

    Tenzing Dorjee Pradhan

    2014-01-01

    Setting up of the Input parameters in a multi input machining setup like the Wire Electro Discharge Machine (WEDM) also known as WireEDM is a very difficult task. This is due to the fact that the multiple measurable outputs are dependent on, most of the time, a combination of the Input variables and rarely are dependent solely on one of the input parameters. Researchers are continuously studying the relationship between the Input variables and the output responses. Machining of H11 tool steel...

  8. Variation cutting speed on the five axis milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Torbaty

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this research is to make a study of the effective cutting speed variation in milling with a ball end tool is studied. Then an experimental study of the effect of finishing strategies on surface texture, roughness is described. The material of a specific HB 300 pre-hardened mould steel Super Plast (SP 300.Design/methodology/approach: The methodology has consisted to dertemine cutting speed of each mode of tilt tool in five axes machining, and of proving a series of configurations and parameters combinations: cutting speed Vc, feed rate Vf, and tilt tool in multi-axis milling.Findings: This paper has investigated the effect of the tool orientation on the variation effective cutting speed, on the surface texture, while multi-axis milling. Experimental results have shown that disadvantages of three axes machining results from the existence of very low cutting speeds, even null when the tool axis is normal to the machined surface. This mode of machining generates a bad surface quality. Surfaces have a poor topography and important anisotropy. A suitable slope of the cutting tool by the means of the fifth machine tool axis, improves considerably work piece machined surface quality; Good micro-geometrical surface topography and lower surface roughness.Research limitations/implications: A possible future work would be the development of a general the phenomenal of the residual stress of the cutting on the five axis machining. The behavior is of the residual stress studies are planed in the future. Practical implications: The relationship found between the effective cutting speed and surface texture work piece has an important practical implication since it allows selecting the best cutting condition combination from the points of view both the security and the economy for the established requirements in each case. Results are of great importance in for aerospace and automotive industry.Originality/value: The paper is original since

  9. Photoelectric angle converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podzharenko, Volodymyr A.; Kulakov, Pavlo I.

    2001-06-01

    The photo-electric angle transmitter of rotation is offered, at which the output voltage is linear function of entering magnitude. In a transmitter the linear phototransducer is used on the basis of pair photo diode -- operating amplifier, which output voltage is linear function of the area of an illuminated photosensitive stratum, and modulator of a light stream of the special shape, which ensures a linear dependence of this area from an angle of rotation. The transmitter has good frequent properties and can be used for dynamic measurements of an angular velocity and angle of rotation, in systems of exact drives and systems of autocontrol.

  10. An appraisal of techniques and equipment for cutting force measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AUDY J.

    2006-01-01

    Current research focussed on the assessment of metal machining process parameters and on the development of adaptive control, shows that machine performance, work-piece and tool material selections, tool life, quality of machined surfaces,the geometry of cutting tool edges, and cutting conditions are closely related to the cutting forces. This information is of great interest to cutting tool manufactures and users alike. Over the years there have been significant developments and improvements in the equipment used to monitor such forces. In 1930 mechanical gauges were replaced by resistance strain gauges, and some 30 years later compact air gauge dynamometers were invented. Since this time intensive research has continued being directed towards developing new approaches to cutting force measurement. The Kistler Company, well-known manufacturer of acceleration and piezoelectrical dynamometers, has worked in this field for more than three decades, and developed very sensitive devices.While leading manufacturing research laboratories are often equipped with this technology, classical electrical strain gauges and other dynamometers of individual designs are still commonly used in industry. The present paper presents data obtained using different techniques of force measurement in metal machining processes. In particular, areas of uncertainties, illustrated through results concerning the turning process, are analysed, leading to an appraisal of the current status of these measurements and their significance.

  11. Tribological properties of AlN-CeO{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} cutting materials in unlubricated sliding against tool steel and cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J.R. [Universidade do Minho, Guimaraes (Portugal). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica; Miranda, A.S. [Universidade do Minho, Guimaraes (Portugal). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica; Silva, R.F. [Departamento de Engenharia Ceramica e do Vidro, Universidade de Aveiro, 3800 Aveiro (Portugal); Vieira, J.M. [Departamento de Engenharia Ceramica e do Vidro, Universidade de Aveiro, 3800 Aveiro (Portugal)

    1996-05-01

    Ceramic pins of the AlN-CeO{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} system were tested in a pin-on-disc tribometer against discs of tool steel and grey cast iron, at room temperature, without lubrication, in different conditions of humidity and sliding speed. Ceramic samples were selected on the basis of their mechanical properties (hardness and fracture toughness), and microstructural characteristics, namely porosity, volume of intergranular phase and nitrogen content of the glass phase. Water vapour increased the weight loss of the nitride by promoting the tribo-oxidation wear mode and by weakening the adhesion of debris to the ceramic surfaces. In dry air, the adhering wear debris provided protection to the sliding surfaces and the wear coefficients of the ceramic converged to similar values for tests with both iron alloys. For the ceramic/tool steel tribopairs, the ceramic surfaces become more protected as the amount of the intergranular glassy layer of the nitride is increased, as the glassy phase gives enhanced debris adhesion. Microcracking of the ceramic surface was the dominant wear mode and the volumic wear rate was found to be dependent on the inverse of hardness and fracture toughness. In humid environments, the effect of roughness of the grey cast iron worn surface surmounted the dependence of the wear rate on microstructural and mechanical properties of the nitride, which was found in the ceramic/steel tribopairs. The sliding speed has a strong effect on the wear behaviour. (orig.)

  12. Opening angles and residual strains in normal rat trachea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳兆荣; 王忆勤; 滕忠照; 徐刚; 汤伟昌

    2002-01-01

    The no-load state and zero-stress state of the normal rat trachea were analyzed. It was found that there exist compressive residual strains in the inner wall region of the rat trachea and tensile residual strains in the outer wall region. The fact that the opening angle of the rat trachea cut at the cartilaginous region is significantly larger than that cut at the muscular portion shows that residual strains exist mainly in the muscular region in the rat trachea. It was also indicated that the opening angles and residual strains expressed by cutting at the muscular portion are basically identical along longitudinal location and those expressed by cutting in the cartilaginous region tend to increase in the longitudinal direction in the normal rat, and that there exists quantitatively positive correlation between the opening angles and residual strains in rat trachea. The results will help to further understand the opening angles and residual strains in the trachea and study tracheal remodeling in response to mechanical environment.

  13. ANALYSIS OF PARAMETERS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF A CUTTING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Onderová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of cutting machines is affected by several factors that can be directly or indirectly influenced by manufacturers, technicians and users of machine tools. The most critical qualitative evaluation parameters of machine tools include accuracy and stability. Investigations of accuracy and repeatable positioning accuracy were essential for the research presented in this paper. The aim was to develop and experimentally verify the design of a methodology for cutting centers aimed at achieving the desired working precision. Before working on the topic described here, it was necessary to make several scientific analyses, which are summarized in this paper. We can build on the initial working hypothesis that by improving the technological parameters (e.g. by increasing the working speed of the machine, or by improving the precision of the positioning the quality of the cutting machine will also be improved. For the purposes of our study, several investigated parameters were set affecting positioning accuracy, such as rigidity, positioning speed, etc. First, the stiffness of the portal structure of the cutting machine was analyzed. FEM analysis was used to investigate several alternative structures of the cutting machine, and also an innovative solution for beam mounting. The second step was to integrate two types of drives into the design of the cutting machine. The first drive is a classic rack and pinion drive for cutting machines. To increase (improve the working speed of the machine, linear motors were designed as an alternative drive. The portal of the cutting machine was designed for a working speed of 260mmin−1 and acceleration of 25 m. s−2. The third step was based on the results of the analysis. In collaboration with Microstep, an experimental cutting machine in a portal version was produced using linear synchronous motors driving the portal on both sides, and with direct linear metering of its position. In the fourth step, an

  14. Investigation of the Dynamic Properties of a Milling Tool Holder

    OpenAIRE

    Åkesson, Henrik; Smirnova, Tatiana; Håkansson, Lars; Lagö, Thomas L; Claesson, Ingvar

    2009-01-01

    Vibration problems during metal cutting occur frequently in the manufacturing industry. The vibration level depends on many different parameters such as the material type, the dimensions of the workpiece, the rigidity of tooling structure, the cutting data, and the operation mode. In milling, the cutting process subjects the tool to vibrations, and having a milling tool holder with a long overhang will most likely result in high vibration levels. As a consequence of these vibrations, the tool...

  15. Simulation of Oscillatory Working Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Debeleac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study of the resistance forces in soils cutting, with emphasis on their dependence on working tool motion during the loading process and dynamic regimes. The periodic process of cutting of soil by a tool (blade has described. Different intervals in the cycle of steady-state motion of the tool, and several interaction regimes were considered. The analysis has based on a non-linear approximation of the dependence of the soil resistance force on tool motion. Finally, the influence of frequency on the laws governing the interaction in the cyclic process was established.

  16. Joint and segmental mechanics differ between cutting maneuvers in skilled athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Kathryn L; Sigward, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Cutting is necessary for participation in multidirectional sports but is also associated with non-contact ACL injury. Whole body demands of deceleration and redirection increase with greater cut angles. However, it is not known how these demands relate to differences in joint and segmental mechanics. Understanding the relationship between whole body and joint mechanics necessary for cutting and those related to risk for injury is important for the development of injury prevention training programs. The purpose of this study is to determine how joint and segmental mechanics change to meet increasing deceleration and redirection demands during cutting. Lower limb and trunk kinematics and kinetics were evaluated during the execution of two sidestep cutting maneuvers (to 45 and 90 degrees) in twenty-five healthy soccer players. A two-way multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) determined that differences existed between task directions but not sexes when considering all dependent variables and covarying for approach velocity (α≤0.05). Post hoc analyses revealed that the larger deceleration and redirection demands of the 90-degree cut did not translate into larger angles, moments and power across all lower extremity joints. In the sagittal plane, the knee appeared to primarily accommodate the greater deceleration demands of the sharper cut. These data further suggest that the hip may play a different role during cutting to smaller and larger angles and also illustrate a pattern of engagement in the sagittal and frontal planes that has not been described previously. PMID:25194689

  17. Variation cutting speed on the five axis milling

    OpenAIRE

    S. Torbaty; W. Bouzid; Moisan, A; M. Boujelbene

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research is to make a study of the effective cutting speed variation in milling with a ball end tool is studied. Then an experimental study of the effect of finishing strategies on surface texture, roughness is described. The material of a specific HB 300 pre-hardened mould steel Super Plast (SP 300).Design/methodology/approach: The methodology has consisted to dertemine cutting speed of each mode of tilt tool in five axes machining, and of proving a series of configu...

  18. A combination method of the theory and experiment in determination of cutting force coefficients in ball-end mill processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chou Kao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cutting force calculation of ball-end mill processing was modeled mathematically. All derivations of cutting forces were directly based on the tangential, radial, and axial cutting force components. In the developed mathematical model of cutting forces, the relationship of average cutting force and the feed per flute was characterized as a linear function. The cutting force coefficient model was formulated by a function of average cutting force and other parameters such as cutter geometry, cutting conditions, and so on. An experimental method was proposed based on the stable milling condition to estimate the cutting force coefficients for ball-end mill. This method could be applied for each pair of tool and workpiece. The developed cutting force model has been successfully verified experimentally with very promising results.

  19. THE STUDY OF CUTTING FORCES AND THEIR AMPLITUDES DURING HIGH-SPEED DRY MILLING MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Zagórski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the state of knowledge on cutting forces values during milling of different magnesium alloy types. Additionally, the results of own research on cutting forces and their amplitudes after milling magnesium alloys used for manufacturing elements applied in the aerospace industry are included. The subject of the analysis was the influence of technological parameters and the tool type on cutting forces and their amplitudes. The analysis is important due to the correlation between cutting forces and temperature in the cutting area, and, consequently, the safety of machining and strain of the workpiece.

  20. An Investigation of Reaming Test Parameters Used for Cutting Fluid Evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Zeng, Z.; Belluco, Walter

    2001-01-01

    It has been suggested that the lubricating efficiency of cutting fluids can be assessed using a reaming test that measures cutting forces and surface roughness. In the present work, an investigation was undertaken to ream austenitic stainless steel using water based fluids and to evaluate the...... effect of the cutting fluid on cutting forces, surface finish and hole diameter. Tests were performed at three different cutting depths and using two different tool holders. The main parameters influencing the reaming torque test, which are pilot hole accuracy, built-up edge formation and sampling window...

  1. Influence of Cutting Parameters on Cutting Forces in Wood Sawing%切削参数对木材切削力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张占宽; 彭晓瑞; 李伟光; 曾娟; 张杰

    2011-01-01

    The authors evaluated the cutting force influence of rake angle, cutting thickness and cutting speed to provide the basis for rational design and use of circular saw blades on Chinese fir, Mongolian pine and Manchurian ash specimens. The results indicated that the principal and perpendicular cutting forces decreased with increasing rake angle and cutting thickness. It was also observed that cutting speed had little impact on principal and perpendicular cutting forces. The optimal cutting parameter settings for different wood species were proposed.%为了提供圆据片合理设计与使用的依据,对水曲柳、杉木和樟子松3种木材进行闭式切削试验,研究据齿前角、切削厚度、切削速度等参数对切削力的影响规律.结果表明:主切削力和法向切削力均随据齿前角的增大而减小,随切削厚度的增加而增大,而受切削速度的影响较小.根据试验结果,提出不同密度木材切削参数设置的建议.

  2. Thermocouple and Infrared Sensor-Based Measurement of Temperature Distribution in Metal Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdil Kus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining.

  3. Will Intel Grow Through Cuts?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAN; STEINBOCK

    2006-01-01

    Short-term cuts, perhaps, but long-term growth in China may be inevitable T he world's largest chipmaker, Intel, is sending a ripple effect through its pool of labor globally, including in China, with the announcement of deep workforce cuts.

  4. Influence of the Cutting Parameters on Vibration Level in Metal Turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korka Zoltan Iosif

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cutting vibration is a phenomenon that often appears in the process of metal machining, being one of primary factors that affects the processing quality and limits the productivity enhances. The analysis of vibration in the cutting process became very important, because the vibrations may cause the damaging of the machine spindle, cutting tool, or workpiece and leave behind a poor quality machined surface. The present paper intended to study the influence of the cutting parameters on the vibration level of the tool in turning process of mild steel.

  5. OPTIMAL CONTROL OF CNC CUTTING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The intelligent optimizing method of cutting parameters and the cutting stable districts searching method are set up. The cutting parameters of each cutting pass could be optimized automatically, the cutting chatter is predicted through setting up the dynamic cutting force AR(2) model on-line, the spindle rotation speed is adjusted according to the predicting results so as to ensure the cutting system work in stable district.

  6. Online Cake Cutting (published version)

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Toby

    2011-01-01

    We propose an online form of the cake cutting problem. This models situations where agents arrive and depart during the process of dividing a resource. We show that well known fair division procedures like cut-and-choose and the Dubins-Spanier moving knife procedure can be adapted to apply to such online problems. We propose some fairness properties that online cake cutting procedures can possess like online forms of proportionality and envy-freeness. We also consider the impact of collusion between agents. Finally, we study theoretically and empirically the competitive ratio of these online cake cutting procedures. Based on its resistance to collusion, and its good performance in practice, our results favour the online version of the cut-and-choose procedure over the online version of the moving knife procedure.

  7. Relationship Between Hip and Knee Kinematics In Athletic Women During Cutting Maneuvers: A Possible Link to Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Imwalle, Lauren E.; Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare lower-extremity kinematics during a 45° and 90° cutting maneuver and to examine the relationships between lower-extremity rotations during these maneuvers. The hypotheses tested were that greater internal hip and knee rotation angles would be observed during the cutting maneuver at a 90° angle (90° cut) compared with the maneuver performed at a 45° angle (45° cut) and that the increased internal hip and knee rotation would be related to increased kne...

  8. The relationship between bioelectrical impedance phase angle and subjective global assessment in advanced colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grutsch James F

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioelectrical Impedance (BIA derived phase angle is increasingly being used as an objective indicator of nutritional status in advanced cancer. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA is a subjective method of nutritional status. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between BIA derived phase angle and SGA in advanced colorectal cancer. Methods We evaluated a case series of 73 stages III and IV colorectal cancer patients. Patients were classified as either well-nourished or malnourished using the SGA. BIA was conducted on all patients and phase angle was calculated. The correlation between phase angle and SGA was studied using Spearman correlation coefficient. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were estimated using the non-parametric method to determine the optimal cut-off levels of phase angle. Results Well-nourished patients had a statistically significantly higher (p = 0.005 median phase angle score (6.12 as compared to those who were malnourished (5.18. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient between phase angle and SGA was found to be 0.33 (p = 0.004, suggesting better nutritional status with higher phase angle scores. A phase angle cut-off of 5.2 was 51.7% sensitive and 79.5% specific whereas a cut-off of 6.0 was 82.8% sensitive and 54.5% specific in detecting malnutrition. Interestingly, a phase angle cut-off of 5.9 demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy in males who had failed primary treatment for advanced colorectal cancer. Conclusion Our study suggests that bioimpedance phase angle is a potential nutritional indicator in advanced colorectal cancer. Further research is needed to elucidate the optimal cut-off levels of phase angle that can be incorporated into the oncology clinic for better nutritional evaluation and management.

  9. A Method and Device for 3D Recognition of Cutting Edge Micro Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Palubicki; Michal Szulc; Gerhard Sinn; Kazimierz Orlowski; Jakub Sandak

    2014-01-01

    A very useful method was successfully applied in the investigation of tools for machining wood and wood based composites. It allows scanning of the cutting edge micro geometry in three dimensions and reproducing it in a virtual space as a 3D surface. The application of the method opens new possibilities of studying tool wear by scanning, including the calculation of volume loss and other analysis of tool wedge geometry along and perpendicularly to the cutting edge. Effectiveness of the method...

  10. Cutting Path Planning for Ruled Surface Impellers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Quan; Wang Yongzhang; Fu Hongya; Han Zhenyu

    2008-01-01

    At present, most commercial computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems are deficient in efficiency and performances on generating tool path during machining impellers. To solve the problem, this article develops a special software to plan cutting path for ruled surface impellers. An approximation algorithm to generate cutting path for machining integral ruled surface impellers is proposed. By fitting sampling data points of an impeller blade into a curve, a model of ruled surface blade of an impeller is built up. Furthermore, by calculating the points where the cutter axis vector intersects the flee-form hub surface of an impeller, problems about, for instance, the ambiguity in calculation and machining the wide blade surface with a short flute cutter are solved. Finally, an integral impeller cutting path is planned by way of an integrated cutter location control algorithm. Simulation and machining tests with an impeller are performed on a 5-axis computer numerically controlled (CNC) mill machine, which shows the feasibility of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Influence of Single and Double Stage Forging on Cutting Forces of Al 7075/BSF Metal Matrix Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Karthigeyan, R.; Ranganath, G.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the influence of the forging parameters on cutting forces for different cutting speed, depth of cut, and feed rate during machining of Al 7075 alloy and Al 7075 alloy with short basalt fiber reinforced metal matrix composites. The experiments were conducted by using a lathe machine with tool dynamometer setup.

  12. Influence of Single and Double Stage Forging on Cutting Forces of Al 7075/BSF Metal Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Karthigeyan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the influence of the forging parameters on cutting forces for different cutting speed, depth of cut, and feed rate during machining of Al 7075 alloy and Al 7075 alloy with short basalt fiber reinforced metal matrix composites. The experiments were conducted by using a lathe machine with tool dynamometer setup.

  13. Novel fungal disease in complex leaf-cutting ant societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David Peter; Evans, Harry C.; Hywel-Jones, Nigel;

    2009-01-01

    1. The leaf-cutting ants practise an advanced system of mycophagy where they grow a fungus as a food source. As a consequence of parasite threats to their crops, they have evolved a system of morphological, behavioural, and chemical defences, particularly against fungal pathogens (mycopathogens). 2....... Specific fungal diseases of the leaf-cutting ants themselves have not been described, possibly because broad spectrum anti-fungal defences against mycopathogens have reduced their susceptibility to entomopathogens. 3. Using morphological and molecular tools, the present study documents three rare infection...... events of Acromyrmex and Atta leaf-cutting ants by Ophiocordyceps fungi, agenus of entomopathogens that is normally highly specific in its host choice. 4. As leaf-cutting ants have been intensively studied, the absence of prior records of Ophiocordyceps suggests that these infections may be a novel event...

  14. Experimental Research Using of MQL in Metal Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Globočki Lakić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an effect of using of minimal quantity lubrication (MQL technique in turning operations is presented. Experimental research was performed on carbon steel C45E. Technological parameters: depth of cut, feed rate and cutting speed were adjusted to semi-machining and roughing. Higher values ​​of feed and cutting speed were used, than recommended from literature and different types of cooling and lubrication in turning conditions were applied. As a conventional procedure and technology, lubrication with flooding was applied. As special lubrication the MQL technique was used. During research, monitoring of the cutting force, chip shape, tool wear and surface roughness was performed. Relations between parameters, material machinability and economy of process were analyzed.

  15. Predicting Cutting Forces in Aluminum Using Polynomial Classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadi, H. El; Deiab, I. M.; Khattab, A. A.

    Due to increased calls for environmentally benign machining processes, there has been focus and interest in making processes more lean and agile to enhance efficiency, reduce emissions and increase profitability. One approach to achieving lean machining is to develop a virtual simulation environment that enables fast and reasonably accurate predictions of various machining scenarios. Polynomial Classifiers (PCs) are employed to develop a smart data base that can provide fast prediction of cutting forces resulting from various combinations of cutting parameters. With time, the force model can expand to include different materials, tools, fixtures and machines and would be consulted prior to starting any job. In this work, first, second and third order classifiers are used to predict the cutting coefficients that can be used to determine the cutting forces. Predictions obtained using PCs are compared to experimental results and are shown to be in good agreement.

  16. Simulation of the Cuttings Cleaning During the Drilling Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain H. Al-Kayiem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Oil well cleaning is the ability of a drilling fluid to suspend and transport drilled cuttings from the down hole (bit face to the surface. The cleaning performance was affected by many factors such as fluid viscosity, annular flow velocity, angle of inclination and drill cuttings size and shape and. Approach: Navier-Stoke equations, the continuity equation and the power law of non-Newtonian viscosity model were adopted to establish the mathematical model of the cutting transport process in the annulus of the well. The constants of the power law model were evaluated experimentally for three different mud types. The CFD simulation to solve the governing equations was carried out by using FLUENT commercial code. The specifications of the particles, the pumping head and feeding conditions were obtained from a drilling site in Sudan. Results: Simulation of the mud flow in the annulus had shown that in spite of the laminar nature of the flow, the velocity profile was flattening over wide area of the annulus. Such condition was referred to as fog flow and was preferable to produce uniform drag distribution to lift the particles without rotation during the transportation process. The analysis had been conducted for various mud charging rates ranging from 600-900 GPM, in 30° diverted orientation well. The investigation of cuttings size was conducted for 2.54, 4.45 and 7 mm. Also, the effect of the cuttings shape with 1, 0.9 and 0.85 was investigated and it was found that higher sphereicity have better cleaning efficiency. Conclusion: The analyses revealed that for 30° diverted orientation; the effective cleaning performance was achieved when the drilling mud charging was higher than 800 GPM for all types of tested cuttings. The simulation results revealed that there was a significant effect of the cuttings size on the cuttings transport. Fine particles are the easiest to clean out.

  17. Self-contained pipe cutting shear. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DO) is in the process of decontaminating and decommissioning (D and D) many of its nuclear facilities throughout the country. Facilities have to be dismantled and demolition waste must be sized into manageable pieces for handling and disposal. Typically, the facilities undergoing D and D are contaminated, either chemically, radiologically, or both. In its D and D work, the DOE was in need of a tool capable of cutting steel and stainless steel pipe up to 6.4 cm in diameter. The self-contained pipe cutting shear was developed by Lukas Hydraulic GmbH and Co. KG to cut pipes up to 6.4 cm (2.5 in.) in diameter. This tool is a portable, hand-held hydraulic shear that is powered by a built-in rechargeable battery or a portable auxiliary rechargeable battery. Adding to its portability, it contains no hydraulic fluid lines or electrical cords, making it useful in congested areas or in areas with no power. Both curved and straight blades can be attached, making it adaptable to a variety of conditions. This tool is easy to set up, operates quietly, and cuts through pipes quickly. It is especially useful on contaminated pipes, as it crimps the ends while cutting and produces no residual cuttings. This shear is a valuable alternative to baseline technologies such as portable band saws, electric hacksaws, and other hydraulic shears. Costs using the innovative shear for cutting 2.5 cm (1-in.) pipe, for example, are comparable to costs using a conventional shear, approximately 80% of portable bandsaw costs and half of electric hacksaw costs

  18. Self-contained pipe cutting shear. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DO) is in the process of decontaminating and decommissioning (D and D) many of its nuclear facilities throughout the country. Facilities have to be dismantled and demolition waste must be sized into manageable pieces for handling and disposal. Typically, the facilities undergoing D and D are contaminated, either chemically, radiologically, or both. In its D and D work, the DOE was in need of a tool capable of cutting steel and stainless steel pipe up to 6.4 cm in diameter. The self-contained pipe cutting shear was developed by Lukas Hydraulic GmbH and Co. KG to cut pipes up to 6.4 cm (2.5 in.) in diameter. This tool is a portable, hand-held hydraulic shear that is powered by a built-in rechargeable battery or a portable auxiliary rechargeable battery. Adding to its portability, it contains no hydraulic fluid lines or electrical cords, making it useful in congested areas or in areas with no power. Both curved and straight blades can be attached, making it adaptable to a variety of conditions. This tool is easy to set up, operates quietly, and cuts through pipes quickly. It is especially useful on contaminated pipes, as it crimps the ends while cutting and produces no residual cuttings. This shear is a valuable alternative to baseline technologies such as portable band saws, electric hacksaws, and other hydraulic shears. Costs using the innovative shear for cutting 2.5 cm (1-in.) pipe, for example, are comparable to costs using a conventional shear, approximately 80% of portable bandsaw costs and half of electric hacksaw costs.

  19. Improved Vlasov Antenna with Curved Cuts and Optimized Reflector Position and Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. El Misilmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Vlasov antenna with curved cut shape and improved reflector position and geometry suitable for high power microwave applications. The curved shape of the proposed cut totally eliminates the sharp edges and angles present in Vlasov antennas with step and bevel cuts. Furthermore, with the proposed reflector configuration, the wave is radiated in the direction of the axis of the waveguide. A Vlasov antenna, designed for operation at 3 GHz, is used to compare the three cut types. An additional comparison is conducted to validate the concept of the enhanced reflector position, using the bevel-cut antenna and the improved cut. The proposed antenna results in increased antenna gain and in good performance in terms of sidelobe level and half-power beamwidth, with maximum radiation directed toward the axis of the waveguide center.

  20. Effect of cutting parameters on chip formation in orthogonal cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Salem, S.; E. Bayraktar; M. Boujelbene; D. Katundi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is to study the chip formation to obtain the optimal cutting conditions and to observe the different chip formation mechanisms. Analysis of machining of a hardened alloy, X160CrMoV12-1 (cold work steel: AISI D2 with a ferritic and cementite matrix and coarse primary carbides), showed that there are relationships between the chip geometry, cutting conditions and the different micrographs under different metallurgical states.Design/methodology/approach: Machining of harde...

  1. Investigations into fibre laser cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemzadeh, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Fibre laser cutting of mild steel using oxygen and nitrogen is widely used in industries throughout the world. An IPG YLR-2000 Ytterbium fibre machine with a maximum power of 2 kW and a wavelength of 1.06 µm is used throughout this research. The effects of oxygen and nitrogen as assist gases on the feature of laser cutting process are different in terms of kerf width, surface roughness, heat affected zone and striation pattern. The kerf width in oxygen laser cutting is wider than that for nit...

  2. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.

  3. Design and characterization of nanoknife with buffering beam for in situ single-cell cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel nanoknife with a buffering beam is proposed for single-cell cutting. The nanoknife was fabricated from a commercial atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever by focused-ion-beam (FIB) etching technique. The material identification of the nanoknife was determined using the energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS) method. It demonstrated that the gallium ion pollution of the nanoknife can be ignored during the etching processes. The buffering beam was used to measure the cutting force based on its deformation. The spring constant of the beam was calibrated based on a referenced cantilever by using a nanomanipulation approach. The tip of the nanoknife was designed with a small edge angle 5 deg. to reduce the compression to the cell during the cutting procedure. For comparison, two other nanoknives with different edge angles, i.e. 25 deg. and 45 deg., were also prepared. An in situ single-cell cutting experiment was performed using these three nanoknives inside an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The cutting force and the sample slice angle for each nanoknife were evaluated. It showed the compression to the cell can be reduced when using the nanoknife with a small edge angle 5 deg. Consequently, the nanoknife was capable for in situ single-cell cutting tasks.

  4. Increasing of the cutting power at inserts for application in the area of power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article deals with the influence of cutting edge preparation on tool life, cutting forces and the roughness of machined surface. The cutting edge preparation was done on the inserts with wiper geometry which are used during machining of dividing plane at a steam turbine casing. This cutting inserts were prepared by the technology of drag finishing on the edge radius 5, 10 and 15 µ m. The work piece material was ferritic – martensitic steel with the content of 9%Mo and 1%Cr and the material of cutting inserts was submicron sintered carbide. There was used only one cutting insert in the milling cutter. Key words: edge radius, milling, tool life, roughness, forces

  5. Research of the effect of saw blade set dullness on the dimensions of longitudinally cut fir and spruce slats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svrzić Uroš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the problem of choosing the best way of operating and maintaining a set of circular saws intended for longitudinal processing. The study objective was the analysis of current procedures of tools usage and recommendations for their improvement, in order to achieve better quality and longer operating life of tools. The tested set (24+5 blades was mounted on multisaw blade machine which produces slats from fir or spruce planks for three-layer parquet. Changes in thickness of sawed slats, operation time between two sharpenings and blade size changes after removing saw blades from machine and aftesharpening, were monitored. Control x-charts were used for stability evaluation. Work quality of saw blade set for longitudinal cut of fir and spruce planks was presented by cost-effectiveness ratio, ratio of total costs (for purchase of set and its servicing and volume of sawed timber. The saw blade set did not reach the targeted coefficient based on the previous tests. After each sharpening, the set had a different persistence presented in time, and we could not determine the work dynamics. The persistence of saw blade set was affected by wood resin that accumulates on the saw blade surface, the method and angles of sharpening, work dynamics and the continuity of cutting.

  6. The quadriceps angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Frederiksen, Jane V.; Jensen, Bente Rona;

    2012-01-01

    : Pelvic limbs from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). METHODS: Q angles were measured on hip dysplasia (HD) and whole limb (WL) view radiographs of each limb between the acetabular rim, mid-point (Q1: patellar center, Q2: femoral trochlea), and tibial tuberosity. Errors of 0.5-2.0 mm at measurement landmarks...

  7. Yaw Angle Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Large Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Fixture (LAMSTF) is a 5 degree-of -freedom repulsive force magnetic suspension system designed to study the control of objects over large magnetic gaps. A digital control algorithm uses 6 sets of laser-sheet sensors and 5 control coils to position a cylinder 3' above the plane of electromagnetics

  8. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability. The...

  9. Tool Wear Characteristics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Particleboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasingam, Jegatheswaran; Chew Tek, Tee; Farrokhpayam, Saied Reza

    A series of machining experiments on the Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) particleboard were carried out using a CNC router, to evaluate the tool wearing properties of the composite in comparison to the conventional wood-material particleboard. A single-fluted tungsten-carbide router bit (12 mm φ, 18 000 rpm), with a rake angle of 15° was used in this experiment, in which the depth of cut was 1.5 mm and feed speed was 4.5 m min-1. The router bit machined the edge of the board, moving along the full length before returning to repeat the cycle. The tool was examined for the extent of wear after complete failure had occurred. The result found that the wear pattern was similar in the oil-palm based particleboard and the wood-based particleboard, but the former was twice more abrasive compared to the latter. Microscopic examination of the cutter edge revealed greater incidence of micro-fracture when cutting the oil-palm based particleboard, indicating the presence of hard impurities in the composite. From an economic perspective, the tooling cost for machining oil-palm based particleboard is estimated to be twice of the cost for machining wood-based particleboard. This study shows that the machining properties of oil-palm based particleboard will be a primary concern, if the board is to find widespread application as a potential substitute for wood-based particleboard.

  10. Dining centers cut trans fats

    OpenAIRE

    Gehrt, Katie

    2007-01-01

    Dining Services has pulled ahead of the pack in cutting trans fat from its menus--surpassing restaurants like Burger King, KFC, Taco Bell, and others who have announced that they also will be making the change this spring.

  11. Specific cutting energy consumption in a circular saw for Eucalyptus stands VM01 and MN463

    OpenAIRE

    Erica Moraes de Souza; José Reinaldo Moreira da Silva; José Tarcísio Lima; Alfredo Napoli; Túlio Jardim Raad; Thiago Gomes Gontijo

    2011-01-01

    Modern technologies for continuous carbonization of Eucalyptus sp. require special care in wood cutting procedures. Choosing the right tool, cutting speeds and feed rates is important to manage time and energy consumption, both of which being critical factors in optimizing production. The objective of this work is to examine the influence of machining parameters on the specific cutting energy consumption of Eucalyptus sp. stands MN 463 and VM 01, owned by V&M Florestal. Tests were performed a...

  12. THE STUDY OF CUTTING FORCES AND THEIR AMPLITUDES DURING HIGH-SPEED DRY MILLING MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Ireneusz Zagórski; Józef Kuczmaszewski

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the state of knowledge on cutting forces values during milling of different magnesium alloy types. Additionally, the results of own research on cutting forces and their amplitudes after milling magnesium alloys used for manufacturing elements applied in the aerospace industry are included. The subject of the analysis was the influence of technological parameters and the tool type on cutting forces and their amplitudes. The analysis is important due to the correlation betwe...

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF CUTTING PARAMETERS ON THE BASIS OF SEMANTIC NETWORK USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Pashkevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems on accuracy assurance of machine component cutting while using edge tools. An approach based on artificial intelligence technologies in particular technologies of functional semantic networks. The paper analyzes a possibility to apply functional semantic networks for optimization of cutting parameters. An intellectual system intended for solution of applied problems is described in the paper. The paper reveals a system structure and an example for setting optimal cutting speed is cited in the paper. 

  14. Active Control of Machine Tool Chatter

    OpenAIRE

    Håkansson, Lars; Claesson, Ingvar; Lagö, Thomas L

    1999-01-01

    In the turning operation chatter or vibration is a frequent problem, which affects the result of the machining, and, in particular, the surface finish. Tool life is also influenced by vibration. Severe acoustic noise in the working environment frequently occurs as a result of dynamic motion between the cutting tool and the workpiece. By proper machine design, e.g. improved stiffness of the machine structure, the problem of relative dynamic motion between cutting tool and workpiece may be part...

  15. Economic technology of laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedin, Alexander V.; Shilov, Igor V.; Vassiliev, Vladimir V.; Malov, Dmitri V.; Peskov, Vladimir N.

    2000-02-01

    The laser cutting of color metals and alloys by a thickness more than 2 mm has significant difficulties due to high reflective ability and large thermal conduction. We made it possible to raise energy efficiency and quality of laser cutting by using a laser processing system (LPS) consisting both of the YAG:Nd laser with passive Q-switching on base of LiF:F2- crystals and the CO2 laser. A distinctive feature of the LPS is that the radiation of different lasers incorporated in a coaxial beam has simultaneously high level of peak power (more than 400 kW in a TEM00 mode) and significant level of average power (up to 800 W in a TEM01 mode of the CO2 laser). The application of combined radiation for cutting of an aluminum alloy of D16 type made it possible to decrease the cutting energy threshold in 1.7 times, to increase depth of treatment from 2 up to 4 mm, and velocity from 0.015 up to 0.7 m/min, and also to eliminate application of absorptive coatings. At cutting of steels the velocity of treatment was doubled, and also an oxygen flow was eliminated from the technological process and replaced by the air. The obtained raise of energy efficiency and quality of cutting is explained by an essential size reducing of a formed penetration channel and by the shifting of a thermal cutting mode from melting to evaporation. The evaluation of interaction efficiency of a combined radiation was produced on the basis of non-stationary thermal-hydrodynamic model of a heating source moving as in the cutting direction, and also into the depth of material.

  16. Residual stresses modelling in hard turning and its correlation with the cutting forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Batalha

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to study the cutting parameters influence (cutting speed, feed rate, cutting depth and tool radius nose on the cutting forces (cutting force, feed rate cutting force and penetration cutting force as well as on the residual stresses, in conical bearings made of steel DIN 100 CrMn6 hardened (62 HRc, searching correlations between the residual stresses and the cutting forces.Design/methodology/approach: A complete factorial planning was used to establish the correlations. At the same time, the cutting parameters influence in the microstructure of the material and it’s correlation with the residual stress was studied. A turning center machine and CBN inserts was employed for the tests. To the cutting force measurements was carried out using a piezoelectric dynamometer. The residual stresses measurements were carried out by X-ray diffractometry.Findings: The penetration cutting force was the most important factor in the residual stress generation, and it was influenced by the feed rate and the cutting depth. A correlation between the cutting depth and the residual stresses was established. The results do not showed any changes in the microstructure of the material, even when the greater cutting parameters were used.Research limitations/implications: The residual stress is one of the major causes of failures in bearings by contact fatigue, keeping this on mind, this work helps the developer to select correct cutting parameters in order to increase the machined workpiece life in service.Originality/value: This work were based on the real components (conical bearings, real cutting conditions and with these results were possible to make greater improvements in the manufacturing and in the quality of the studied parts.

  17. Optimization of Cutting Variables in Machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xueyan; Wu Zhenye; Zhou Guohua

    1996-01-01

    With the three criteria for cutting variables proposed by W. W. Gilbert and K.Hitomi, th is paper analyzes the reasonable selection of cutting variables, and further states the relations among maximum profit-oriented cutting speed,minimum cost-oriented cutting speed and maximum productivity-oriented cutting speed. It puts forward a mathematical model for the optimization of cutting variables in machining.

  18. Three-Dimensional Profiles Using a Spherical Cutting Bit: Problem Solving in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, Richard L.; Iskov, Grant H.; Shannon, Anthony G.

    2002-01-01

    An engineering problem concerned with relating the coordinates of the centre of a spherical cutting tool to the actual cutting surface leads to a potentially rich example of problem-solving techniques. Basic calculus, Lagrange multipliers and vector calculus techniques are employed to produce solutions that may be compared to better understand…

  19. Large Piwinski angle

    CERN Document Server

    Abelleira, J L; Bhat, C; Cornelis, K; De Maria, R; Fartoukh, S; Giachino, R; Holzer, E B; Lamont, M; Mastoridis, T; Macpherson, A; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Roncarolo, F; Roy, G; Salvachua, B; Valuch, D; Zimmermann, F; Ohmi, K

    2012-01-01

    Two high brightness bunches per beam were collided at injection energy with varying spectrometer strength in IP8 so that the corresponding Piwinski angle changed from about 1.2–1.3 to 0.2. One of the two bunches colliding in IP8 also collided in IPs 1 and 5, increasing its tune spread. A Piwinski angle of 1.2 is the biggest value ever achieved in a hadron collider. The goal of this experiemnt had been to investigate the influence of this parameter on the luminosity lifetime, beam lifetime and emittance growth rate. Due to technical problems and unavailability of luminosity signals from CMS this goal was only partially accomplished.

  20. New process for screen cutting: water-jet guided laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrottet, Delphine; Amorosi, Simone; Richerzhagen, Bernold

    2005-07-01

    Today's OLED manufacturers need high-precision, fast tools to cut the metal screens used to deposit the electroluminescent layers onto the substrate. Conventional methods -tching and dry laser cutting - are not satisfying regarding the demands of high-definition OLED displays. A new micro machining technology, the water jet guided laser - a hybrid of laser and water jet technologies that has been actively used in recent years in the electronic and semiconductor field - is now available to OLED manufacturers. This technology represents a significant improvement in screen, mask and stencil cutting, as it combines high precision and high speed. It is able to cut small apertures with totally clean edges (no dross or slag), as the water jet removes the particles and a thin water film is maintained on the material surface during the process. Because the water jet cools the material between the laser pulses, the cut material is free of any thermal stress. The water jet guided laser is also a very fast process: as an example, rectangular slots can be cut in 30 to 50 microns thick stainless steel or nickel at a rate between 25'000 and 30'000 holes per hour.

  1. Decommissioning and Cutting Methods in the Nuclear Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few states started in the early forties/fifties the first development of nuclear technologies. Some of them now own a great amount of nuclear installations which entirely fulfil their assignment. In some cases, the life time of the nuclear power plants which were scheduled for approximately 30 years have been extended by more than 50%, the other ones as well as fuel production and enrichment plants, experimental or research reactors, will have to be dismantled in the near future. The decommissioning of those installations is definitely one of the twenty first century challenge. It is differently managed depending on the countries and their energetic and development policies, their financial consideration, the availability of qualified engineers or specialized companies to handle such projects. The final aim of decommissioning is to recover the geographic site in its original condition. A real cooperation is existing in between the people involved in different countries through different types of conferences and meetings during which the main subjects are: - The safety of the operators during all the phases of decommissioning operations; - Restrictions and dimensioning of the required equipment; - Storage and waste management; - Elaboration of procedures for recording all different steps and processes. Some of the techniques are described in this paper without being exhaustive: Hot cutting, oxy-fuel and plasma cutting; Band saw; Milling saw; Milling; Cutting tool; Wheel cutting; Shear cutting; And any other cutting processes or dismantling methods. (authors)

  2. Cutting stability investigation on a complicated free surface machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Y. Lin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Both the results obtained previously relating to structure dynamics of a simultaneous five-axismovement machine tool and to the investigations on dynamic cutting behavior are further applied as afoundation to study the effect of the process parameters on the cutting stability in the process of a complicatedfree surface machining.Design/methodology/approach: In the paper cutting stability investigation on a complicated fee surfacemachining are described.Findings: The experimental data obtained from the cases with and without a real cutting process find that a testunder a specified rotational speed can generate its own charcteristic 3-direction frequencies. The paper speciallyselect the characteristic frequency with the most significant change on response amplitude to analyze.Practical implications: The investigation procedures and the results obtained may be used as a reference andguidance for the analysis of cutting stability in the five-axis machining of a complicated surface in industriallypractical use.Originality/value: The results shown on frequency domain for identifying characteristic frequencies can beinterpreted on time domain to observe amplitude variation respect to time and further understand its changingpattern under the cutting process.

  3. Why are angles misperceived?

    OpenAIRE

    Nundy, Surajit; Lotto, Beau; Coppola, David; Shimpi, Amita; Purves, Dale

    2000-01-01

    Although it has long been apparent that observers tend to overestimate the magnitude of acute angles and underestimate obtuse ones, there is no consensus about why such distortions are seen. Geometrical modeling combined with psychophysical testing of human subjects indicates that these misperceptions are the result of an empirical strategy that resolves the inherent ambiguity of angular stimuli by generating percepts of the past significance of the stimulus rather than the geometry of its re...

  4. Angle states in quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, A. C.; Iguain, J. L.

    1998-12-01

    Angle states and angle operators are defined for a system with arbitrary angular momentum. They provide a reasonable formalization of the concept of angle provided that we accept that the angular orientation is quantized. The angle operator is the generator of boosts in angular momentum and is, almost everywhere, linearly related to the logarithm of the shift operator. Angle states for fermions and bosons behave differently under parity transformation.

  5. Effects of cryogenic cold air jet cutting on chip break in metal machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ying; TONG Mingwei; WU Zhijuan

    2004-01-01

    The half-dry cutting employs cryogenic compressed air cooled down to (-10 to -40) ℃ and a micro-dosage of lubricating oil, called cryogenic cold air jet cutting was studied. On the basis of a comparative experiment on dry and cryogenic cold air jet cuttings carried out for grade 45 steel, the effects of cryogenic cold air jet on the breaking of chips were discussed.The experimental results reveal that in the valid ranges of pressure and temperature, the cryogenic cold air jet widens the chip breaking areas effectively. When the cutting depth is not greater than 1 mm, the influence of chip breaking is much more significant. But different injecting angle of cold air has different influence on the chip-break. From the experiment, the optimized jet injecting angle, temperature effecting range and pressure working range of cold air are obtained. These results can offer a foundation for industrial manufacturing.

  6. Fabrication of continuous diffractive optical elements using a fast tool servo diamond turning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous diffractive optical elements (CDOEs) can be used for laser-beam reshaping, pattern generation and can help reduce large angle scattering. Lithography, the method for the production of binary diffractive surfaces, is not suitable for fabrication of CDOEs. Diamond turning using fast tool servo, on the other hand, is a non-cleanroom method for generating continuous microstructures with high precision and efficiency. In this paper, an algorithm for designing CDOEs is introduced. The moving least-squares (MLS) method is then used to obtain the local fitting equation of the diffractive surface. Based on the MLS fitting equation, the selection of diamond cutting tool geometries (including the tool nose radius, rake angle and clearance angle) is discussed and a tool nose radius compensation algorithm is included. This algorithm is a general method for the diamond turning of complex surfaces that can be represented by a point cloud. Surface measurements and diffractive patterns generated on test samples have shown that continuous diffractive surfaces were successfully machined. In the future, CDOEs can be machined on an optical mold surface for high-volume industrial production using methods such as injection molding. (paper)

  7. Effect of C-C b ond breakage on diamond to ol wear in nanometric cutting of silicon%单晶硅纳米切削中C-C键断裂对金刚石刀具磨损的影响∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王治国; 张鹏; 陈家轩; 白清顺; 梁迎春

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that diamond is one of the most ideal cutting tool for materials, but the rapid tool wear can make surface integrity of the machined surface decline sharply during the nanometric cutting process for a single crystal silicon. Thus, a research on the wear mechanism of the diamond tool is of tremendous importance for selecting measures to reduce tool wear so as to extend service life of the tool. In this paper, the molecular dynamics simulation is applied to investigating the wear of the diamond tool during nanometric cutting for the single crystal silicon. Tersoff potential is used to describe the C—C and Si—Si interactions, and also the Morse potential for the C—Si interaction. The rake and flank faces are diamond (111) and (¯1¯12) planes respectively. A new method, by the name of 6-ring, is proposed to describe the bond change of carbon atoms. This new method can extract, all the worn carbon atoms in diamond tool, whose accuracy is higher than the conventional coordination number method. Moreover, the graphitized carbon atoms in the diamond tool also can be extracted by the combination of these two methods. Results show that during the cutting process, the C—C bond’s breaking in the surface layer of the diamond tool leads to the transformation of hybrid structure of the carbon atoms at both ends of the broken bond, from sp3 to sp2. Following to the bond breaking, the bond angle between the surface carbon atoms increases to 119.3◦ whose hybrid structure has changed, and the length between nearest neighboring atoms quickly decreases to 0.144 nm, indicating that the space structure formed by these carbon atoms has changed from 3D net structure of diamond to plane structure of graphite. Hence, the carbon atoms in the tool surface whose space structure has changed due to bond breaking should be defined as worn carbon atoms, but not only the carbon atoms whose hybrid structure has changed. The structure defects at both edges of the diamond

  8. EVALUATION OF THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF INNOVATIVE WATER MAIN REHABILITATION TECHNOLOGIES VS. OPEN CUT METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major benefit of trenchless rehabilitation technologies touted by many practitioners when comparing their products with tradition open cut construction methods is lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In an attempt to verify these claims, multiple tools have been dev...

  9. Extensions of cutting problems: setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Henn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though the body of literature in the area of cutting and packing is growing rapidly, research seems to focus on standard problems in the first place, while practical aspects are less frequently dealt with. This is particularly true for setup processes which arise in industrial cutting processes whenever a new cutting pattern is started (i.e. a pattern is different from its predecessor and the cutting equipment has to be prepared in order to meet the technological requirements of the new pattern. Setups involve the consumption of resources and the loss of production time capacity. Therefore, consequences of this kind must explicitly be taken into account for the planning and control of industrial cutting processes. This results in extensions to traditional models which will be reviewed here. We show how setups can be represented in such models, and we report on the algorithms which have been suggested for the determination of solutions of the respective models. We discuss the value of these approaches and finally point out potential directions of future research.

  10. Cutting inlays with a laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaczyna, Irena; Grabczewski, Zbigniew

    1995-03-01

    To cut inlay from a stack of glued veneer a CO2 HEBAR-1A laser was used. For setting optimal working parameters of the set used in industrial production of inlay the following elements were defined: the shape and dimensions of the cutting fissure, the dependence between the width of the cutting fissure and the speed with which the laser beam moves and the total thickness of the stack of veneer sheets, the application of the laser for cutting various patterns. Computer aided designing and computer steering of the laser beam enables fast and precise production of large numbers of inlay elements not only from wood but also from other materials like glass, stone, metal, etc. Taking into consideration the high running cost of such a laser set and its very big production only few factories or even one factory in the given area could produce inlay ready for gluing. Further investigation should be carried out on this field particularly considering the lowering of costs not only in inlay production but generally where cutting of wood is concerned.

  11. Thermographic measurements of high-speed metal cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Bernhard; Renz, Ulrich

    2002-03-01

    Thermographic measurements of a high-speed cutting process have been performed with an infrared camera. To realize images without motion blur the integration times were reduced to a few microseconds. Since the high tool wear influences the measured temperatures a set-up has been realized which enables small cutting lengths. Only single images have been recorded because the process is too fast to acquire a sequence of images even with the frame rate of the very fast infrared camera which has been used. To expose the camera when the rotating tool is in the middle of the camera image an experimental set-up with a light barrier and a digital delay generator with a time resolution of 1 ns has been realized. This enables a very exact triggering of the camera at the desired position of the tool in the image. Since the cutting depth is between 0.1 and 0.2 mm a high spatial resolution was also necessary which was obtained by a special close-up lens allowing a resolution of app. 45 microns. The experimental set-up will be described and infrared images and evaluated temperatures of a titanium alloy and a carbon steel will be presented for cutting speeds up to 42 m/s.

  12. Testing of Commercial Cutting Heads for Abrasive Water Jet Technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klich, Jiří; Hlaváček, Petr; Zeleňák, Michal; Sitek, Libor; Foldyna, Josef

    Zagreb : Croatian Assossiation of Production Engineering , 2013 - (Abele, E.; Udiljak, T.; Ciglar, D.), s. 149-154 ISBN 978-953-7689-02-5. [CIM 2013 Computer Integrated Manufacturing and High Speed Maching. Biograd (HR), 19.06.2013-22.06.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MPO FR-TI3/733 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : high-speed abrasive water jet technology * cutting head * cutting ability Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools

  13. Application of YAG laser processing in underwater welding and cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-power YAG laser is a new fabrication tool. The laser torch is easy to combine with complex with complex mechanics because of beam delivery through optical fiber. A direct underwater laser welding technology has been developed and applied to the preservation, maintenance and removal of nuclear power plants. For subdividing or removing operations for retirement of plants, the laser cutting properties were confirmed to allow a maximum cutting thickness of 80 mm. For repairing inner surface of stainless steel tanks, an underwater laser welding system using a remote-controlled robot was developed and the high quality of underwater laser welding was confirmed. (author)

  14. Dynamic characterization of the cutting conditions in dry turning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machining instability in the form of violent vibrations or chatter is a physical process characterized by extreme cutting force at the cutting point. The process has very negative impact on machine integrity, tool life, surface quality and dimensional accuracy. Thus it could significantly compromise productivity and manufacturing quality. In the present paper, the importance of characterization and identification of dynamic instability in dry turning operation are shown. The stability behaviour of machine vibration or chatter has been examined and the various relevant parameters are studied and discuted. For chatter detection and identification of the transition between stable and unstable states, different methods are used. Results obtained proof the accuracy of these methods.

  15. Self-lubricious tool coatings for ecological metal cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeswinkel, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Transition metal oxide Magneli phases are traditionally described as crystallographic shear structures. Some of these phases feature a layered crystal structure based on deformed metal-oxygen octahedra. Here, the correlation between structure, decohesion energies and elastic properties of several transition metal oxides is described using ab initio calculations. First, seven different vanadium oxides VO{sub x} (1 {<=} x {<=} 2.5) have been investigated. The C{sub 44} values for V{sub 6}O{sub 13}, V{sub 4}O{sub 9}, V{sub 3}O{sub 7} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} are significantly lower than those for V{sub 2}O{sub 3} and VO{sub 2}. This is consistent with calculated decohesion energies for cleavage in VO{sub 2} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. When cleaving V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, decohesion energies are considerably lower than those of VO{sub 2}. This behaviour may be understood based on V valency induced changes in the crystal and electronic structure as well as in the chemical bonding. As the V valency is increased, the bond strength decreases. The phases with a V valency >4 exhibit low C{sub 44} values, large anisotropy and possess weak ionic bonding between the layers. The formation of easily plastically deformable structures is enabled by the screened Coulomb potential. The largest distance and therefore weakest bond strength is observed for V{sub 2}O{sub 5} in the (002) plane. Studies have then been extended to WO{sub 3}, ReO{sub 3}, MoO{sub 2}, VO{sub 2}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and TiO{sub 2}, showing that the decohesion energies and elastic constants C{sub 44} are inversely proportional to the original distance between the cleaved layers and correspond to the screened Coulomb potential. This can be understood based on the electronic structure. The bond strength decreases rapidly as the distance is increased, resulting in weak coupling between the layers which in turn causes the formation of easily plastically deformable structures, for instance WO{sub 3} or V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The fact that structures such as WO{sub 3} can also be described by the above-presented correlations provides the basis for quantum mechanical guided design of Magneli phase structured solid lubricants, based on tailoring the layer distance by varying the chemical composition. A combinatorial method was employed to grow TiAlN-WN{sub x} films by DC sputtering as well as by High Power Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering (HPPMS) where the W concentration was varied between 10 to 52 at.% and 7 to 54 at.%, respectively. Experiments were paired with ab initio calculations to investigate the correlation between composition, structure and mechanical properties. As the W concentration was increased, the lattice parameter of cubic TiAlN-WN{sub x} films first increased and then decreased for W concentrations above {approx}29 at.% (DCMS) and {approx}27 at.% (HPPMS) as the N concentration decreased. Calculations helped to attribute the increase to the substitution of Ti and Al by W and the decrease to the presence of N vacancies. Young's modulus and hardness were around 385 to 400 GPa and 29 to 31 GPa for DCMS and 430 to 480 GPa and 34 to 38 GPa for HPPMS, respectively, showing no significant trend as the W concentration was increased, whereas calculations showed a continuous decrease in Young's modulus from 440 to 325 GPa as the W concentration was increased from 0 to 37.5 at.%. The presence of N vacancies was shown to increase the calculated Young's modulus. Hence, the relatively constant values measured may be understood based on N vacancy formation as the W concentration was increased. HPPMS-deposited films exceeded DCMS films in Young's modulus and hardness, which may be a consequence of the larger degree of ionisation in the HPPMS plasma. It is reasonable to assume that especially the ionised film forming species may contribute towards film densification and N vacancy formation.

  16. Information Management for Cutting Tools : Information Models and Ontologies

    OpenAIRE

    Nyqvist, Olof

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for the exchange of important product and manufacturing information in a computer interpretable way. Large manufacturing companies are dependent on having access to the necessary information electronically. If they do not get information about their manufacturing resources from their vendors, they will buy their resources elsewhere, or they will have to create the information themselves. In the end, the cost of the manufactured products will increase to accommoda...

  17. Self-lubricious tool coatings for ecological metal cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Reeswinkel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Transition metal oxide Magnéli phases are traditionally described as crystallographic shear structures. Some of these phases feature a layered crystal structure based on deformed metal–oxygen octahedra. Here, the correlation between structure, decohesion energies and elastic properties of several transition metal oxides is described using ab initio calculations. First, seven different vanadium oxides VOx (1

  18. RESEARCH ON INCREASING ACTIVE LIFE OF CUTTING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin STĂNCIOIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available At the exploitation of dies the defections that occur, due mainly to non operating rules of exploration, the improperly conditions of the machine (press in terms of cinematic precision and the wearing elements in relative motion (ram displacement, wearing guides, etc as the incorrect mounting of dies on the press. When installing dies must consider several aspects. Among the techniques used, especially for restoring the active elements in the work area are rectified frontal surfaces, hard chromating, hardening with electric sparks and charging welding. Were restored active profile and size of the work active elements so after reconditioning they corresponded in terms of dimensional precision and resistance to wear, like initial elements

  19. Abrasive water jet: a complementary tool

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, J. P.; Peças, P.; E NUNES; H. Gouveia

    1998-01-01

    The abrasive water jet is a powerful cutting tool, whose main advantages lie in the absence of thermal effects and the capability of cutting highly thick materials. Compared with Laser, the abrasive water jet allows the cutting of a larger range of thicknesses and a wider variety of materials such as: ornamental stones, metals, polymers, composites, wood, glass and ceramics. The application of this technology has suffered an extensive growth, with successful applications in varied industrial ...

  20. Equilibrium Analysis in Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2013-01-01

    Cake cutting is a fundamental model in fair division; it represents the problem of fairly allocating a heterogeneous divisible good among agents with different preferences. The central criteria of fairness are proportionality and envy-freeness, and many of the existing protocols are designed to...... guarantee proportional or envy-free allocations, when the participating agents follow the protocol. However, typically, all agents following the protocol is not guaranteed to result in a Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we initiate the study of equilibria of classical cake cutting protocols. We consider one...... of the simplest and most elegant continuous algorithms -- the Dubins-Spanier procedure, which guarantees a proportional allocation of the cake -- and study its equilibria when the agents use simple threshold strategies. We show that given a cake cutting instance with strictly positive value density...

  1. FEM–based thermal modelling of the cutting process using power law-temperature dependent concept

    OpenAIRE

    W. Grzesik; P. Niesłony

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this study is to compare two variants of the FEM simulation model of orthogonal cuttingprocess of AISI 1045 carbon steel with uncoated and multilayer-coated carbide tools i.e. standard and Power Law–Temperature Dependent (PL-TD) options. The primary reason for undertaking this problem was unsatisfactoryaccuracy of the predictions of cutting temperature especially for coated cutting tools.Design/methodology/approach: Methodology used employs the Lagrangian-FEM model with mo...

  2. New pulsed YAG laser performances in cutting thick metallic materials for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacities of the pulsed YAG laser thick cutting on metallic material and to compare with the CO2 laser capacities. Stainless steel (304L) cutting tests were made in air and underwater using CO2 and YAG lasers. A performance assessment was made for each laser and the wastes produced in the cutting operation were measured and the gases and the aerosols analyzed. The results show that the pulsed YAG laser is high performance tool for thick cutting and particularly attractive for nuclear applications

  3. Metamaterials with angle selective emissivity in the near-infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossard, Jeremy A; Werner, Douglas H

    2013-03-11

    Metamaterials have been previously studied for their ability to tailor the dispersive IR emissivity of a surface. Here, we investigate two metamaterial structures based on an electromagnetic band-gap surface and a dielectric resonator array for use as near-IR emitters with custom angle selectivity. A genetic algorithm is successfully employed to optimize the metamaterial structures to have minimum emissivity in the normal direction and high emissivity at custom off-normal angles specified by the designer. Two symmetry conditions are utilized to achieve emissivity patterns that are azimuthally stable or distinct in the two orthogonal plane cuts. PMID:23482092

  4. Quick cut-elimination for strictly positive cuts

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Toshiyasu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show that the intuitionistic theory for finitely many iterations of strictly positive operators is a conservative extension of the Heyting arithmetic. The proof is inspired by the quick cut-elimination due to G. Mints. This technique is also applied to fragments of Heyting arithmetic.

  5. Quick cut-elimination for strictly positive cuts

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Toshiyasu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show that the intuitionistic theory $\\textyen widehat{ID}^{i}_{<\\textyen ome}(SP)$ for finitely many iterations of strictly positive operators is a conservative extension of the Heyting arithmetic. The proof is inspired by the quick cut-elimination due to G. Mints. This technique is also applied to fragments of Heyting arithmetic.

  6. Cerebellopontine angle Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracranial Hodgkin's disease is a rare site of involvement, and even more rare is its presentation as a cerebellopontine angle mass. It can be difficult to diagnose especially when recurrent tumors occur because both CT and lumbar puncture have been shown to have a relatively low yield. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI is more sensitive. It is concluded that while the imaging findings can be non-specific, the rapid response to therapy (steroids) may provide a clue to diagnosis. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  7. Critical angle laser refractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple laser refractometer based on the detection of the critical angle for liquids is presented. The calibrated refractometer presents up to 0.000 11 of uncertainty when the refractive index is in the range between 1.300 00 and 1.340 00. The experimental setup is easy to construct and the material needed is available at most optics laboratories. The calibration method is simple and can be used in other devices. The refractive index measurements in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride were carried out to test the device and a linear dependence between the refractive index and the salt concentration was found

  8. Female genital cutting: nursing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenstein, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC) is a practice that affects millions of girls and women worldwide. This deeply rooted practice has cultural, religious, and psychosexual meaning to its practitioners, but it also carries long-term physical and mental complications. Decried as a human rights violation, nonetheless this practice is still carried out today. Nurses are in a unique position to contact and educate women who have been cut or are at risk for mutilation. To advocate for these women, a thorough understanding of the practice of FGC, its cultural overtones, religious implications, and psychosexual effects is needed. PMID:23835896

  9. X33 cut quartz for temperature compensated SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Richard T.

    1986-07-01

    An X-cut, 33.44 degree quartz crystal for propagating surface acoustic waves with a temperature stability in the order of - 0.0209 ppm/sq.cm. is described. The crystal orientation requires only a single rotation (33.44 degrees) from the crystal axes. This orientation is substantially simpler than previously reported cuts with comparable temperature stability which typically require three rotations. The X-cut orientation has a surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity of 3175 m/sec, an electromechanical coupling of 0.0004, and a power flow angle of 2.7 degrees.

  10. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with 13C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system

  11. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y K [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with {sup 13}C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system.

  12. Performance of recycling abrasives in rock cutting by abrasive water jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gokhan Aydin

    2015-01-01

    Rock cutting performance of recycling abrasives was investigated in terms of cutting depth, kerf width, kerf taper angle and surface roughness. Gravity separation technique was employed to separate the abrasives and the rock particles. The recycling abrasive particles were then dried and sieved for determination of their disintegration behaviors. Before each cutting with recycling abrasives, the abrasive particles less than 106mm were screened out. It is revealed that a considerable amount of used abrasives can be effectively reused in the rock cutting. The reusabilities of abrasives are determined as 81.77%, 57.50%, 34.37%and 17.72%after the first, second, third and fourth cuttings, respectively. Additionally, it is determined that recycling must be restricted three times due to the excessive disintegration of abrasives with further recycling. Moreover, it is concluded that cutting depth, kerf width and surface roughness decreases with recycling. No clear trend is found between the kerf taper angle and recycling. Particle size distribution is determined as an important parameter for improving the cutting performance of recycling abrasives.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations of thermal effects in nanometric cutting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the basic action of how material removing in nanoscale is a critical issue of producing well-formed components.In order to clarify thermal effects on material removal at atomic level,molecular dynamics(MD)simulations of nanometric cutting of mono-crystalline copper are performed with Morse,EAM and Tersoff potential.The effects of cutting speed on temperature distribution are investigated.The simulation results demonstrate that the temperature distribution shows a roughly concentric shape around shear zone and a steep temperature gradient lies in diamond tool,a relative high temperature is located in shear zone and machined surface,but the highest temperature is found in chip.At a high cutting speed mode,the atoms in shear zone with high temperature implies a large stress is built up in a local region.

  14. New oxide-composite coatings for difficult metal-cutting tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in today's metal working technology are driven by increasing cutting speeds, heavy/hard machining and an enormous amount by changes in work piece materials. These applications are asking for more tailor made cutting tool solutions. Together with the well established multi component coating technology a new approach of composite coatings is giving solutions for the tough demands of the cutting tool market. In this paper is presented composite coatings of AI2O3/ZrO-2/TiOx made by CVD. The coating is like high performance oxide ceramics for cutting applications. The coating is used in combination with MT CVD coatings and different carbide substrates. The CVD coating has optimum stress for cutting applications, low friction and very high thermal isolation. The outstanding performance of this coating is demonstrated in different applications. (author)

  15. Why I like power cuts...

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Accidental power cuts - a permanent nuisance when running accelerators or computing services, since it takes a lot of time to recover from them. While I feel very sorry for those who are under pressure to get their service running again and deeply regret the loss of down-time and availability, I must admit that I like power cuts: power cuts make computers reboot! And rebooting computers at CERN means all the pending software patches are automatically applied.   But don’t think I am egotistic enough to endorse power cuts. Not necessarily! I am already happy if you regularly patch your computer(s) yourself, where regularly means at least once a month: · If you run a centrally or locally managed Windows computer, give that small orange blinking “CMF” icon in the taskbar a chance in the evening to apply all the pending patches. Also, let it initiate a reboot at the end! · If you have a personal computer with your own Windows operating system, ...

  16. Cost minimizing of cutting process for CNC thermal and water-jet machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavaeva, Anastasia; Kurennov, Dmitry

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with optimization problem of cutting process for CNC thermal and water-jet machines. The accuracy of objective function parameters calculation for optimization problem is investigated. This paper shows that working tool path speed is not constant value. One depends on some parameters that are described in this paper. The relations of working tool path speed depending on the numbers of NC programs frames, length of straight cut, configuration part are presented. Based on received results the correction coefficients for working tool speed are defined. Additionally the optimization problem may be solved by using mathematical model. Model takes into account the additional restrictions of thermal cutting (choice of piercing and output tool point, precedence condition, thermal deformations). At the second part of paper the non-standard cutting techniques are considered. Ones may lead to minimizing of cutting cost and time compared with standard cutting techniques. This paper considers the effectiveness of non-standard cutting techniques application. At the end of the paper the future research works are indicated.

  17. SMP Bladder Tooling for Manufacturing Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CRG's shape memory polymer (SMP) Bladder Tooling is a cutting-edge manufacturing technology that can meet the manufacturing needs of the Ares launch vehicles. This...

  18. Heterodyne Interferometer Angle Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Inseob; Weilert, Mark A.; Wang, Xu; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    A compact, high-resolution angle measurement instrument has been developed that is based on a heterodyne interferometer. The common-path heterodyne interferometer metrology is used to measure displacements of a reflective target surface. In the interferometer setup, an optical mask is used to sample the measurement laser beam reflecting back from a target surface. Angular rotations, around two orthogonal axes in a plane perpendicular to the measurement- beam propagation direction, are determined simultaneously from the relative displacement measurement of the target surface. The device is used in a tracking telescope system where pitch and yaw measurements of a flat mirror were simultaneously performed with a sensitivity of 0.1 nrad, per second, and a measuring range of 0.15 mrad at a working distance of an order of a meter. The nonlinearity of the device is also measured less than one percent over the measurement range.

  19. Theory and experiment testing flux-line cutting physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss predictions of five proposed theories for the critical state of type-II superconductors accounting for both flux cutting and flux transport (depinning). The theories predict different behaviours for the ratio Ey/Ez of the transverse and parallel components of the in-plane electric field produced just above the critical current of a type-II superconducting slab as a function of the angle of an in-plane applied magnetic field. We present experimental results measured using an epitaxially grown YBCO thin film favouring one of the five theories, i.e. the extended elliptic critical-state model. We conclude that when the current density J is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the local magnetic flux density B, both flux cutting and flux transport occur simultaneously when J exceeds the critical current density Jc, indicating an intimate relationship between flux cutting and depinning. We also conclude that the dynamical properties of the superconductor when J exceeds Jc depend in detail upon two nonlinear effective resistivities for flux cutting (ρc) and flux flow (ρf) and their ratio r = ρc/ρf. (rapid communication)

  20. CO2-Laser Cutting Fiber Reinforced Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R.; Nuss, Rudolf; Geiger, Manfred

    1989-10-01

    Guided by experimental investigations laser cutting of glass fiber reinforced reactive injection moulded (RRIM)-polyurethanes which are used e.g. in car industry for bumpers, spoilers, and further components is described. A Comparison with other cutting techniques as there are water jet cutting, milling, punching, sawing, cutting with conventional knife and with ultrasonic excited knife is given. Parameters which mainly influence cutting results e.g. laser power, cutting speed, gas nature and pressure will be discussed. The problematic nature in characterising micro and macro geometry of laser cut edges of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) is explained. The topography of cut edges is described and several characteristic values are introduced to specify the obtained working quality. The surface roughness of laser cut edges is measured by both, an optical and a mechanical sensor and their reliabilities are compared.