Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed that the mitochondrial genome of the angiosperm Silene noctiflora (Caryophyllaceae has experienced a massive mutation-driven acceleration in substitution rate, placing it among the fastest evolving eukaryotic genomes ever identified. To date, it appears that other species within Silene have maintained more typical substitution rates, suggesting that the acceleration in S. noctiflora is a recent and isolated evolutionary event. This assessment, however, is based on a very limited sampling of taxa within this diverse genus. Results We analyzed the substitution rates in 4 mitochondrial genes (atp1, atp9, cox3 and nad9 across a broad sample of 74 species within Silene and related genera in the tribe Sileneae. We found that S. noctiflora shares its history of elevated mitochondrial substitution rate with the closely related species S. turkestanica. Another section of the genus (Conoimorpha has experienced an acceleration of comparable magnitude. The phylogenetic data remain ambiguous as to whether the accelerations in these two clades represent independent evolutionary events or a single ancestral change. Rate variation among genes was equally dramatic. Most of the genus exhibited elevated rates for atp9 such that the average tree-wide substitution rate for this gene approached the values for the fastest evolving branches in the other three genes. In addition, some species exhibited major accelerations in atp1 and/or cox3 with no correlated change in other genes. Rates of non-synonymous substitution did not increase proportionally with synonymous rates but instead remained low and relatively invariant. Conclusion The patterns of phylogenetic divergence within Sileneae suggest enormous variability in plant mitochondrial mutation rates and reveal a complex interaction of gene and species effects. The variation in rates across genomic and phylogenetic scales raises questions about the
Alejandro García Malpica
Full Text Available The upgrade of the topic of the death slips from its romantic tradition to be inserted in the heart of the postmodernity, through the Gothic tribes, juvenile groupings linked by a «elective affiliation» where a macabre, somber revival is shared, amid an economic context of unemployment, raised by the neo-liberalism and the setting in practice of a hiperindividualism that tries to compensate the fateful future of the youths by means of the boredom.
Endress, Peter K
Ovules as developmental precursors of seeds are organs of central importance in angiosperm flowers and can be traced back in evolution to the earliest seed plants. Angiosperm ovules are diverse in their position in the ovary, nucellus thickness, number and thickness of integuments, degree and direction of curvature, and histological differentiations. There is a large body of literature on this diversity, and various views on its evolution have been proposed over the course of time. Most recently evo-devo studies have been concentrated on molecular developmental genetics in ovules of model plants. The present review provides a synthetic treatment of several aspects of the sporophytic part of ovule diversity, development and evolution, based on extensive research on the vast original literature and on experience from my own comparative studies in a broad range of angiosperm clades. In angiosperms the presence of an outer integument appears to be instrumental for ovule curvature, as indicated from studies on ovule diversity through the major clades of angiosperms, molecular developmental genetics in model species, abnormal ovules in a broad range of angiosperms, and comparison with gymnosperms with curved ovules. Lobation of integuments is not an atavism indicating evolution from telomes, but simply a morphogenetic constraint from the necessity of closure of the micropyle. Ovule shape is partly dependent on locule architecture, which is especially indicated by the occurrence of orthotropous ovules. Some ovule features are even more conservative than earlier assumed and thus of special interest in angiosperm macrosystematics.
Lomax, Barry; Lee, Alex; Smilie, Ian; Knight, Charles; Upchurch, Garland
The angiosperms occupy almost every habitat type on Earth and comprise nearly 90% of extant plant species. Yet this ascendency is a relatively recent (geological) phenomenon. Palaeobotanical evidence indicates a likely first occurrence in the Early Cretaceous followed by a relatively rapid increase in diversity with their rise to dominance marking the onset of modern world. Understanding this diversification event has been a key research question since Darwin commented on this "abominable mystery", and it remains one of the most significant unanswered questions in plant biology. Sequencing work shows that the diversification and radiation was accompanied by successive whole genome duplication (WGD) events. Furthermore proxy data and predictions from long-term carbon cycle models indicate that the angiosperm diversification was accompanied by a decline in atmospheric CO2. These observation raise the intriguing possibility that declining atmospheric CO2 concentration and capacity to undergo polyploidy could have given angiosperms a competitive advantage when compared to other plant groups. Using comparative ecophysiology we set out to test the effects of declining atmospheric CO2 by growing a six species (Ranunculus acris and Polypodium vulgare, chosen to represent Cretaceous understorey angiosperms and pteridophytes respectively. Liquidambar styraciflua and Laurus nobilis represented canopy angiosperms and Ginkgo biloba and Metasequoia glyptostroboides canopy gymnosperms) in controlled conditions across a CO2 gradient (2000, 1200, 800 and 400 ppm) to simulate Cretaceous CO2decline. To test for WGDs we use the relationship between guard cell size and genome size to reconstruct angiosperm genome size as they radiated. Analysis of our fossil dataset shows that earliest angiosperms had a small genome size. Our experimental work shows that angiosperms have a greater capacity for acclimation suggesting that declining CO2 could have acted as a trigger for the angiosperm
Sheremet'ev, S N; Gamaleĭ, Iu V; Slemnev, N N
Direction of evolutionary variability of parameters of genome size and structurally functional activity of plants on life forms groups and angiosperms taxa are analyzed. It is shown that, in the Cretaceous-Cenozoic, their nuclear genome tended to increase. Functional genome efficiency (intensity of functions per 1 pg of DNA) decreased from as much as possible high at trees and lianas of rain and monsoonal forests of the Paleogene to minimum at shrubs, perennial and annual grasses of meadow-steppe vegetation which had appeared in the neogene. Important for the vegetation environmental changes in temperature, humidity and CO2 concentration in an adverse direction are discussed as the cause of evolutionary genome size growth and decrease in its functional efficiency. Price for phylogenetic adaptogenesis of angiosperms to the step Cenozoic climate cooling was 4-fold and more genome growth.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of angiosperms has been under debate since the time of Darwin. While there has been much speculation in past decades about pre-Cretaceous angiosperms, including Archaefructus, these reports are controversial. The earliest reliable fossil record of angiosperms remains restricted to the Cretaceous, even though recent molecular phylogenetic studies suggest an origin for angiosperms much earlier than the current fossil record. Results In this paper, after careful SEM and light microscopic work, we report fossils with angiospermous traits of the Jurassic age. The fossils were collected from the Haifanggou Formation (middle Jurassic in western Liaoning, northeast China. They include two female structures and an associated leaf on the same slab. One of the female structures is physically connected to the apex of a short shoot. The female organs are borne in pairs on short peduncles that are arranged along the axis of the female structure. Each of the female organs has a central unit that is surrounded by an envelope with characteristic longitudinal ribs. Each central unit has two locules completely separated by a vertical septum. The apex of the central unit is completely closed. The general morphology places these fossils into the scope of Schmeissneria, an early Jurassic genus that was previously attributed to Ginkgoales. Conclusion Because the closed carpel is a character only found in angiosperms, the closed apex of the central unit suggests the presence of angiospermy in Schmeissneria. This angiospermous trait implies either a Jurassic angiosperm or a new seed plant group parallel to angiosperms and other known seed plants. As an angiosperm, the Liassic age (earliest Jurassic of Schmeissneria microstachys would suggest an origin of angiosperms during the Triassic. Although still uncertain, this could have a great impact on our perspective of the history, diversity and systematics of seed plants and angiosperms.
The conservation of the genetic variability of the indigenous angiosperm community is a sine qua non. A survey of indigenous angiosperm biodiversity of the Olabisi Onabanjo University permanent site was undertaken. Plants collected were dried, poisoned and mounted on herbarium sheets, proper identification and ...
Pirone, Cary; Johnson, Jodie V; Quirke, J Martin E; Priestap, Horacio A; Lee, David
Bilirubin is an orange-yellow tetrapyrrole produced from the breakdown of heme by mammals and some other vertebrates. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria synthesize molecules similar to bilirubin, including the protein-bound bilins and phytochromobilin which harvest or sense light. Recently, we discovered bilirubin in the arils of Strelitzia nicolai, the White Bird of Paradise Tree, which was the first example of this molecule in a higher plant. Subsequently, we identified bilirubin in both the arils and the flowers of Strelitzia reginae, the Bird of Paradise Flower. In the arils of both species, bilirubin is present as the primary pigment, and thus functions to produce colour. Previously, no tetrapyrroles were known to generate display colour in plants. We were therefore interested in determining whether bilirubin is broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and whether it contributes to colour in other species. In this paper, we use HPLC/UV and HPLC/UV/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/UV/ESI-MS/MS) to search for bilirubin in 10 species across diverse angiosperm lineages. Bilirubin was present in eight species from the orders Zingiberales, Arecales and Myrtales, but only contributed to colour in species within the Strelitziaceae. The wide distribution of bilirubin in angiosperms indicates the need to re-assess some metabolic details of an important and universal biosynthetic pathway in plants, and further explore its evolutionary history and function. Although colour production was limited to the Strelitziaceae in this study, further sampling may indicate otherwise.
Sims, Hallie J
The evolution of seed size among angiosperms reflects their ecological diversification in a complex fitness landscape of life-history strategies. The lineages that have evolved seeds beyond the upper and lower boundaries that defined nonflowering seed plants since the Paleozoic are more dispersed across the angiosperm phylogeny than would be expected under a neutral model of phenotypic evolution. Morphological rates of seed size evolution estimated for 40 clades based on 17,375 species ranged from 0.001 (Garryales) to 0.207 (Malvales). Comparative phylogenetic analysis indicated that morphological rates are not associated with the clade's seed size but are negatively correlated with the clade's position in the overall distribution of angiosperm seed sizes; clades with seed sizes closer to the angiosperm mean had significantly higher morphological rates than clades with extremely small or extremely large seeds. Likewise, per-clade taxonomic diversification rates are not associated with the seed size of the clade but with where the clade falls within the angiosperm seed size distribution. These results suggest that evolutionary rates (morphological and taxonomic) are elevated in densely occupied regions of the seed morphospace relative to lineages whose ecophenotypic innovations have moved them toward the edges. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Angiosperms (flowering plants) are strikingly diverse. This is clearly expressed in the morphology of their pollen grains, which are characterized by enormous variety in their shape and patterning. In this paper, I approach angiosperm pollen morphology from the perspective of enumerative combinatorics. This involves generating angiosperm pollen morphotypes by algorithmically combining character states and enumerating the results of these combinations. I use this approach to generate 3 643 200 pollen morphotypes, which I visualize using a parallel-coordinates plot. This represents a raw morphospace. To compare real-world and theoretical morphologies, I map the pollen of 1008 species of Neotropical angiosperms growing on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, onto this raw morphospace. This highlights that, in addition to their well-documented taxonomic diversity, Neotropical rainforests also represent an enormous reservoir of morphological diversity. Angiosperm pollen morphospace at BCI has been filled mostly by pollen morphotypes that are unique to single plant species. Repetition of pollen morphotypes among higher taxa at BCI reflects both constraint and convergence. This combinatorial approach to morphology addresses the complexity that results from large numbers of discrete character combinations and could be employed in any situation where organismal form can be captured by discrete morphological characters. © 2016 The Author(s).
Sauquet, Hervé; Magallón, Susana
Contents Summary I. Introduction II. Six key questions III. Three key challenges IV. Conclusions Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: The origin and rapid diversification of angiosperms (flowering plants) represent one of the most intriguing topics in evolutionary biology. Despite considerable progress made in complementary fields over the last two decades (paleobotany, phylogenetics, ecology, evo-devo, genomics), many important questions remain. For instance, what has been the impact of mass extinctions on angiosperm diversification? Are the angiosperms an adaptive radiation? Has morphological evolution in angiosperms been gradual or pulsed? We propose that the recent and ongoing revolution in macroevolutionary methods provides an unprecedented opportunity to explore long-standing questions that probably hold important clues to understand present-day biodiversity. We present six key questions that explore the origin and diversification of angiosperms. We also identify three key challenges to address these questions: (1) the development of new integrative models that include diversification, multiple intrinsic and environmental traits, biogeography and the fossil record all at once, whilst accounting for sampling bias and heterogeneity of macroevolutionary processes through time and among lineages; (2) the need for large and standardized synthetic databases of morphological variation; and (3) continuous effort on sampling the fossil record, but with a revolution in current paleobotanical practice. © 2018 Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.
Seago, James L; Fernando, Danilo D
Anatomy had been one of the foundations in our understanding of plant evolutionary trends and, although recent evo-devo concepts are mostly based on molecular genetics, classical structural information remains useful as ever. Of the various plant organs, the roots have been the least studied, primarily because of the difficulty in obtaining materials, particularly from large woody species. Therefore, this review aims to provide an overview of the information that has accumulated on the anatomy of angiosperm roots and to present possible evolutionary trends between representatives of the major angiosperm clades. This review covers an overview of the various aspects of the evolutionary origin of the root. The results and discussion focus on angiosperm root anatomy and evolution covering representatives from basal angiosperms, magnoliids, monocots and eudicots. We use information from the literature as well as new data from our own research. The organization of the root apical meristem (RAM) of Nymphaeales allows for the ground meristem and protoderm to be derived from the same group of initials, similar to those of the monocots, whereas in Amborellales, magnoliids and eudicots, it is their protoderm and lateral rootcap which are derived from the same group of initials. Most members of Nymphaeales are similar to monocots in having ephemeral primary roots and so adventitious roots predominate, whereas Amborellales, Austrobaileyales, magnoliids and eudicots are generally characterized by having primary roots that give rise to a taproot system. Nymphaeales and monocots often have polyarch (heptarch or more) steles, whereas the rest of the basal angiosperms, magnoliids and eudicots usually have diarch to hexarch steles. Angiosperms exhibit highly varied structural patterns in RAM organization; cortex, epidermis and rootcap origins; and stele patterns. Generally, however, Amborellales, magnoliids and, possibly, Austrobaileyales are more similar to eudicots, and the
Oklahoma is a microcosm of American Indian country. Water rights, tribal government impotence, jurisdiction, tribal membership, treaty rights, taxation, sovereignty, racism, and poor housing, education, and health are all vital issues facing the Indian tribes of Oklahoma. In order to understand the complexity of these issues, a review of the…
Feild, Taylor S; Brodribb, Timothy J; Iglesias, Ari; Chatelet, David S; Baresch, Andres; Upchurch, Garland R; Gomez, Bernard; Mohr, Barbara A R; Coiffard, Clement; Kvacek, Jiri; Jaramillo, Carlos
The flowering plants that dominate modern vegetation possess leaf gas exchange potentials that far exceed those of all other living or extinct plants. The great divide in maximal ability to exchange CO(2) for water between leaves of nonangiosperms and angiosperms forms the mechanistic foundation for speculation about how angiosperms drove sweeping ecological and biogeochemical change during the Cretaceous. However, there is no empirical evidence that angiosperms evolved highly photosynthetically active leaves during the Cretaceous. Using vein density (D(V)) measurements of fossil angiosperm leaves, we show that the leaf hydraulic capacities of angiosperms escalated several-fold during the Cretaceous. During the first 30 million years of angiosperm leaf evolution, angiosperm leaves exhibited uniformly low vein D(V) that overlapped the D(V) range of dominant Early Cretaceous ferns and gymnosperms. Fossil angiosperm vein densities reveal a subsequent biphasic increase in D(V). During the first mid-Cretaceous surge, angiosperm D(V) first surpassed the upper bound of D(V) limits for nonangiosperms. However, the upper limits of D(V) typical of modern megathermal rainforest trees first appear during a second wave of increased D(V) during the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition. Thus, our findings provide fossil evidence for the hypothesis that significant ecosystem change brought about by angiosperms lagged behind the Early Cretaceous taxonomic diversification of angiosperms.
Doyle, James A.
Molecular data on relationships within angiosperms confirm the view that their increasing morphological diversity through the Cretaceous reflected their evolutionary radiation. Despite the early appearance of aquatics and groups with simple flowers, the record is consistent with inferences from molecular trees that the first angiosperms were woody plants with pinnately veined leaves, multiparted flowers, uniovulate ascidiate carpels, and columellar monosulcate pollen. Molecular data appear to refute the hypothesis based on morphology that angiosperms and Gnetales are closest living relatives. Morphological analyses of living and fossil seed plants that assume molecular relationships identify glossopterids, Bennettitales, and Caytonia as angiosperm relatives; these results are consistent with proposed homologies between the cupule of glossopterids and Caytonia and the angiosperm bitegmic ovule. Jurassic molecular dates for the angiosperms may be reconciled with the fossil record if the first angiosperms were restricted to wet forest understory habitats and did not radiate until the Cretaceous.
Olson, Ray [Energy Controls Manager; Schubert, Eugene [Policy Analyst
Project funding energy audits of 44 Tribally owned buildings operated by the Oneida Tribe of Indians of WI. Buildings were selected for their size, age, or known energy concerns and total over 1 million square feet. Audits include feasibility studies, lists of energy improvement opportunities, and a strategic energy plan to address cost effective ways to save energy via energy efficiency upgrades over the short and long term.
Friis, Else Marie; Crane, P.R.; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard
based on research into Early and Late Cretaceous fossil floras from Europe and North America, the authors draw on direct palaeontological evidence of the pattern of angiosperm evolution through time. Synthesising palaeobotanical data with information from living plants, this unique book explores......The recent discovery of diverse fossil flowers and floral organs in Cretaceous strata has revealed astonishing details about the structural and systematic diversity of early angiosperms. Exploring the rich fossil record that has accumulated over the last three decades, this is a unique study...... of the evolutionary history of flowering plants from their earliest phases in obscurity to their dominance in modern vegetation. The discussion provides comprehensive biological and geological background information, before moving on to summarise the fossil record in detail. Including previously unpublished results...
Leonard B. Thien; Peter Bernhardt; Margaret S. Devall; Zhi-Duan Chen; Yi-bo Luo; Jian-Hua Fan; Liang-Chen Yuan; Joseph H. Williams
The fi rst three branches of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree consist of eight families with ~201 species of plants (the ANITA grade). The oldest fl ower fossil for the group is dated to the Early Cretaceous (115 â 125 Mya) and identifi ed to the Nymphaeales. The fl owers of extant plants in the ANITA grade are small, and pollen is the edible reward (rarely nectar or...
Full Text Available Spermiogelnesis has been studied in a large number of Angiosperm species characterizing different levels of phylogenetic system. The formation and development of male gamets can be described as formation of sperm cells that undergo ontogenesis which stimulates changes up to full maturity of the pollen grain. The process of ontogenesis is aimed at creating a suitable delivery system by the pollen tube to a female gamete.
Martin, William; Gierl, Alfons; Saedler, Heinz
FLOWERING plants or angiosperms have dominated the Earth's flora since at least the late Cretaceous1 and were already highly diversified by Barremian times, about 120 million years (Myr) ago. However, because of the paucity of fossilized angiosperm reproductive structures from lower Cretaceous sediments2,3 and the absence of generally recognized angiosperm fossils from pre-Cretaceous strata4,5, their origins and early evolution remain obscure. Similarly, attempts to understand pre-Cretaceous angiosperm evolution4-11 have been impaired by difficulties in defining and interpreting angiospermous characters in fossil specimens8,12. We report here molecular evidence suggesting that angiosperm ancestors underwent diversification more than 300 Myr ago.
Feild, Taylor S.; Brodribb, Timothy J.; Iglesias, Ari; Chatelet, David S.; Baresch, Andres; Upchurch, Garland R.; Gomez, Bernard; Mohr, Barbara A. R.; Coiffard, Clement; Kvacek, Jiri; Jaramillo, Carlos
The flowering plants that dominate modern vegetation possess leaf gas exchange potentials that far exceed those of all other living or extinct plants. The great divide in maximal ability to exchange CO2 for water between leaves of nonangiosperms and angiosperms forms the mechanistic foundation for speculation about how angiosperms drove sweeping ecological and biogeochemical change during the Cretaceous. However, there is no empirical evidence that angiosperms evolved highly photosyntheticall...
Al Lily, Abdulrahman Essa
This article looks into the claim that the international academic community of educational technologies seems to have functioned in a "tribal" way, having formed themselves around tribe-like patterns. It therefore addresses the research question: What are these claimed tribe-like practices that such a community exhibits? This question is…
Lord, Janice M; Westoby, Mark
Accessory costs of reproduction frequently equal or exceed direct investment in offspring, and can limit the evolution of small offspring sizes. Early angiosperms had minimum seed sizes, an order of magnitude smaller than their contemporaries. It has been proposed that changes to reproductive features at the base of the angiosperm clade reduced accessory costs thus removing the fitness disadvantage of small seeds. We measured accessory costs of reproduction in 25 extant gymnosperms and angiosperms, to test whether angiosperms can produce small seeds more economically than gymnosperms. Total accessory costs scaled isometrically to seed mass for angiosperms but less than isometrically for gymnosperms, so that smaller seeds were proportionally more expensive for gymnosperms to produce. In particular, costs of abortions and packaging structures were significantly higher in gymnosperms. Also, the relationship between seed:ovule ratio and seed size was negative in angiosperms but positive in gymnosperms. We argue that the carpel was a key evolutionary innovation reducing accessory costs in angiosperms by allowing sporophytic control of pre- and postzygotic mate selection and timing of resource allocation. The resulting reduction in costs of aborting unfertilized ovules or genetically inferior embryos would have lowered total reproductive costs enabling early angiosperms to evolve small seed sizes and short generation times. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution © 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Prieu, Charlotte; Sauquet, Hervé; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Albert, Béatrice
Apertures in pollen grains are key structures of the wall, involved in pollen tube germination and exchanges with the environment. Aperture types in angiosperms are diverse, but pollen with one and three apertures (including monosulcate and tricolpate, respectively) are the two most common types. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic distribution in angiosperms of pollen with many round, scattered apertures called pantoporate pollen. We constructed a morphological data set with species producing pantoporate pollen and representative angiosperm species with other pollen types, sampled from every angiosperm order, with a total of 1260 species distributed in 330 families. This data set was analyzed with parsimony to characterize the phylogenetic distribution of pantoporate pollen in angiosperms. We show that pantoporate pollen is distributed throughout most of the angiosperm tree, including early diverging angiosperms, monocots, and eudicots. However, this pollen type is usually restricted to a few species in a given group, and is seldom fixed at large taxonomical scales, with a few notable exceptions. Pantoporate pollen evolved many times during angiosperm history, but the persistence of this morphology in the long term is infrequent. This distribution pattern could indicate conflicting short-term and long-term selective pressures, pantoporate pollen being selected in the short run, but eliminated in the long run. Biological hypotheses supporting this scenario are discussed, in the context of both theoretical and empirical data on pollen biology. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.
Fellenberg, Christin; Vogt, Thomas
The male gametophyte of higher plants appears as a solid box containing the essentials to transmit genetic material to the next generation. These consist of haploid generative cells that are required for reproduction, and an invasive vegetative cell producing the pollen tube, both mechanically protected by a rigid polymer, the pollen wall, and surrounded by a hydrophobic pollen coat. This coat mediates the direct contact to the biotic and abiotic environments. It contains a mixture of compounds required not only for fertilization but also for protection against biotic and abiotic stressors. Among its metabolites, the structural characteristics of two types of phenylpropanoids, hydroxycinnamic acid amides and flavonol glycosides, are highly conserved in Angiosperm pollen. Structural and functional aspects of these compounds will be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Benedict, John C.; Smith, Selena Y.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Leong-Skornickova, Jana; Specht, Chelsea D.; Marone, Federica; Xiao, Xianghui; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Recent phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data suggested that the monocot family Zingiberaceae be separated into four subfamilies and four tribes. Robust morphological characters to support these clades are lacking. Seeds were analyzed in a phylogenetic context to test independently the circumscription of clades and to better understand evolution of seed characters within Zingiberaceae. METHODS: Seventy-five species from three of the four subfamilies were analyzed using synchrotron based x-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) and scored for 39 morphoanatomical characters. KEY RESULTS: Zingiberaceae seeds are some of the most structurally complex seeds in angiosperms. No single seed character was found to distinguish each subfamily, but combinations of characters were found to differentiate between the subfamilies. Recognition of the tribes based on seeds was possible for Globbeae, but not for Alpinieae, Riedelieae, or Zingibereae, due to considerable variation. CONCLUSIONS: SRXTM is an excellent, nondestructive tool to capture morphoanatomical variation of seeds and allows for the study of taxa with limited material available. Alpinioideae, Siphonochiloideae, Tamijioideae, and Zingiberoideae are well supported based on both molecular and morphological data, including multiple seed characters. Globbeae are well supported as a distinctive tribe within the Zingiberoideae, but no other tribe could be differentiated using seeds due to considerable homoplasy when compared with currently accepted relationships based on molecular data. Novel seed characters suggest tribal affinities for two currently unplaced Zingiberaceae taxa: Siliquamomum may be related to Riedelieae and Monolophus to Zingibereae, but further work is needed before formal revision of the family.
Benedict, John C; Smith, Selena Y; Collinson, Margaret E; Leong-Škorničková, Jana; Specht, Chelsea D; Marone, Federica; Xiao, Xianghui; Parkinson, Dilworth Y
Recent phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data suggested that the monocot family Zingiberaceae be separated into four subfamilies and four tribes. Robust morphological characters to support these clades are lacking. Seeds were analyzed in a phylogenetic context to test independently the circumscription of clades and to better understand evolution of seed characters within Zingiberaceae. Seventy-five species from three of the four subfamilies were analyzed using synchrotron based x-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) and scored for 39 morphoanatomical characters. Zingiberaceae seeds are some of the most structurally complex seeds in angiosperms. No single seed character was found to distinguish each subfamily, but combinations of characters were found to differentiate between the subfamilies. Recognition of the tribes based on seeds was possible for Globbeae, but not for Alpinieae, Riedelieae, or Zingibereae, due to considerable variation. SRXTM is an excellent, nondestructive tool to capture morphoanatomical variation of seeds and allows for the study of taxa with limited material available. Alpinioideae, Siphonochiloideae, Tamijioideae, and Zingiberoideae are well supported based on both molecular and morphological data, including multiple seed characters. Globbeae are well supported as a distinctive tribe within the Zingiberoideae, but no other tribe could be differentiated using seeds due to considerable homoplasy when compared with currently accepted relationships based on molecular data. Novel seed characters suggest tribal affinities for two currently unplaced Zingiberaceae taxa: Siliquamomum may be related to Riedelieae and Monolophus to Zingibereae, but further work is needed before formal revision of the family. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.
Merckx, V.; Chatrou, L.W.; Lemaire, B.; Sainge, M.N.; Huysman, S.; Smets, E.F.
Background: Myco-heterotrophy evolved independently several times during angiosperm evolution. Although many species of myco-heterotrophic plants are highly endemic and longdistance dispersal seems unlikely, some genera are widely dispersed and have pantropical distributions, often with large
Belvin Pete; Kent Good; Krista Gordon; Ed McCarthy,
The Three Affliated Tribes on the Fort Berthold Reservation studied the feasibility of a commercial wind facility on land selected and owned by the Tribes and examined the potential for the development of renewable energy resources on Tribal Lands.
Friedman, William E
Recent advances in angiosperm phylogeny reconstruction, palaeobotany and comparative organismic biology have provided the impetus for a major re-evaluation of the earliest phases of the diversification of flowering plants. We now know that within the first fifteen million years of angiosperm history, three major lineages of flowering plants-monocotyledons, eumagnoliids and eudicotyledons-were established, and that within this window of time, tremendous variation in vegetative and floral characteristics evolved. Here I report on a novel type of embryo sac (angiosperm female gametophyte or haploid egg-producing structure) in Amborella trichopoda, the sole member of the most ancient extant angiosperm lineage. This is the first new pattern of embryo sac structure to be discovered among angiosperms in well over half a century. This discovery also supports the emerging view that the earliest phases of angiosperm evolution were characterized by an extensive degree of developmental experimentation and structural lability, and may provide evidence of a critical link to the gymnospermous ancestors of flowering plants.
The origins of interactions between angiosperms and fruit-eating seed dispersers have attracted much attention following a seminal paper on this topic by Tiffney (1984). This review synthesizes evidence pertaining to key events during the evolution of angiosperm-frugivore interactions and suggests some implications of this evidence for interpretations of angiosperm-frugivore coevolution. The most important conclusions are: (i) the diversification of angiosperm seed size and fleshy fruits commenced around 80 million years ago (Mya). The diversity of seed sizes, fruit sizes and fruit types peaked in the Eocene around 55 to 50 Mya. During this first phase of the interaction, angiosperms and animals evolving frugivory expanded into niche space not previously utilized by these groups, as frugivores and previously not existing fruit traits appeared. From the Eocene until the present, angiosperm-frugivore interactions have occurred within a broad frame of existing niche space, as defined by fruit traits and frugivory, motivating a separation of the angiosperm-frugivore interactions into two phases, before and after the peak in the early Eocene. (ii) The extinct multituberculates were probably the most important frugivores during the early radiation phase of angiosperm seeds and fleshy fruits. Primates and rodents are likely to have been important in the latter part of this first phase. (iii) Flying frugivores, birds and bats, evolved during the second phase, mainly during the Oligocene and Miocene, thus exploiting an existing diversity of fleshy fruits. (iv) A drastic climate shift around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (around 34 Mya) resulted in more semi-open woodland vegetation, creating patchily occurring food resources for frugivores. This promoted evolution of a 'flying frugivore niche' exploited by birds and bats. In particular, passerines became a dominant frugivore group worldwide. (v) Fleshy fruits evolved at numerous occasions in many angiosperm families
Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Donoghue, Michael J
With increases in both the size and scope of phylogenetic trees, we are afforded a renewed opportunity to address long-standing comparative questions, such as whether particular fruit characters account for much of the variation in diversity among flowering plant clades. Studies to date have reported conflicting results, largely as a consequence of taxonomic scale and a reliance on potentially conservative statistical measures. Here we examine a larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer the rates of character transitions among the major fruit types, emphasizing the evolution of the achene fruits that are most frequently observed within the group. Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated bearing capsules, and that all subsequent fruit diversity was derived from various modifications of this dry fruit type. We also found that the preponderance of lineages bearing achenes is a consequence of not only being a fruit type that is somewhat irreversible once it evolves, but one that also seems to have a positive association with diversification rates. Although these results imply the achene fruit type is a significant correlate of diversity patterns observed across campanulids, we conclude that it remains difficult to confidently and directly view this character state as the actual cause of increased diversification rates. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Thien, Leonard B; Bernhardt, Peter; Devall, Margaret S; Chen, Zhi-Duan; Luo, Yi-Bo; Fan, Jian-Hua; Yuan, Liang-Chen; Williams, Joseph H
The first three branches of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree consist of eight families with ∼201 species of plants (the ANITA grade). The oldest flower fossil for the group is dated to the Early Cretaceous (115-125 Mya) and identified to the Nymphaeales. The flowers of extant plants in the ANITA grade are small, and pollen is the edible reward (rarely nectar or starch bodies). Unlike many gymnosperms that secrete "pollination drops," ANITA-grade members examined thus far have a dry-type stigma. Copious secretions of stigmatic fluid are restricted to the Nymphaeales, but this is not nectar. Floral odors, floral thermogenesis (a resource), and colored tepals attract insects in deceit-based pollination syndromes throughout the first three branches of the phylogenetic tree. Self-incompatibility and an extragynoecial compitum occur in some species in the Austrobaileyales. Flies are primary pollinators in six families (10 genera). Beetles are pollinators in five families varying in importance as primary (exclusive) to secondary vectors of pollen. Bees are major pollinators only in the Nymphaeaceae. It is hypothesized that large flowers in Nymphaeaceae are the result of the interaction of heat, floral odors, and colored tepals to trap insects to increase fitness.
Villette, Claire; Berna, Anne; Compagnon, Vincent; Schaller, Hubert
Here we have examined the composition of free sterols and steryl esters of pollen from selected angiosperm species, as a first step towards a comprehensive analysis of sterol biogenesis in the male gametophyte. We detected four major sterol structural groups: cycloartenol derivatives bearing a 9β,19-cyclopropyl group, sterols with a double bond at C-7(8), sterols with a double bond at C-5(6), and stanols. All these groups were unequally distributed among species. However, the distribution of sterols as free sterols or as steryl esters in pollen grains indicated that free sterols were mostly Δ(5)-sterols and that steryl esters were predominantly 9β,19-cyclopropyl sterols. In order to link the sterol composition of a pollen grain at anthesis with the requirement for membrane lipid constituents of the pollen tube, we germinated pollen grains from Nicotiana tabacum, a model plant in reproductive biology. In the presence of radiolabelled mevalonic acid and in a time course series of measurements, we showed that cycloeucalenol was identified as the major neosynthesized sterol. Furthermore, the inhibition of cycloeucalenol neosynthesis by squalestatin was in full agreement with a de novo biogenesis and an apparent truncated pathway in the pollen tube.
Chukwu: Tribe, Tongue, Enculturation Threatened. 234 language. Alluding to sign language, Basden (60) describes medical cult recruitment of baby male boys via supposedly supernatural engraven signs on the baby's body. During the dedication, the dibia (medicine man) detects some sign which convinces him that this ...
Brodribb, Tim J; Feild, Taylor S
Angiosperm evolution transformed global ecology, and much of this impact derives from the unrivalled vegetative productivity of dominant angiosperm clades. However, the origins of high photosynthetic capacity in angiosperms remain unknown. In this study, we describe the steep trajectory of leaf vein density (D(v)) evolution in angiosperms, and predict that this leaf plumbing innovation enabled a major shift in the capacity of leaves to assimilate CO(2). Reconstructing leaf vein evolution from an examination of 504 angiosperm species we found a rapid three- to fourfold increase in D(v) occurred during the early evolution of angiosperms. We demonstrate how this major shift in leaf vein architecture potentially allowed the maximum photosynthetic capacity in angiosperms to rise above competing groups 140-100 Ma. Our data suggest that early terrestrial angiosperms produced leaves with low photosynthetic rates, but that subsequent angiosperm success is linked to a surge in photosynthetic capacity during their early diversification.
Coiffard, Clément; Gomez, Bernard; Daviero-Gomez, Véronique; Dilcher, David L
The majority of environments are dominated by flowering plants today, but it is uncertain how this dominance originated. This increase in angiosperm diversity happened during the Cretaceous period (ca. 145-65 Ma) and led to replacement and often extinction of gymnosperms and ferns. We propose a scenario for the rise to dominance of the angiosperms from the Barremian (ca. 130 Ma) to the Campanian (ca. 84 Ma) based on the European megafossil plant record. These megafossil data demonstrate that angiosperms migrated into new environments in three phases: (i) Barremian (ca. 130-125 Ma) freshwater lake-related wetlands; (ii) Aptian-Albian (ca. 125-100 Ma) understory floodplains (excluding levees and back swamps); and (iii) Cenomanian-Campanian (ca. 100-84 Ma) natural levees, back swamps, and coastal swamps. This scenario allows for the measured evolution of angiosperms in time and space synthesizing changes in the physical environment with concomitant changes in the biological environment. This view of angiosperm radiation in three phases reconciles previous scenarios based on the North American record. The Cretaceous plant record that can be observed in Europe is exceptional in many ways. (i) Angiosperms are well preserved from the Barremian to the Maastrichtian (ca. 65 Ma). (ii) Deposits are well constrained and dated stratigraphically. (iii) They encompass a full range of environments. (iv) European paleobotany provides many detailed studies of Cretaceous floras for analysis. These factors make a robust dataset for the study of angiosperm evolution from the Barremian to the Campanian that can be traced through various ecosystems and related to other plant groups occupying the same niches.
Baldwin, Bruce G; Wagner, Warren L
Putative phytogeographical links between America (especially North America) and the Hawaiian Islands have figured prominently in disagreement and debate about the origin of Pacific floras and the efficacy of long-distance (oversea) plant dispersal, given the obstacles to explaining such major disjunctions by vicariance. Review of past efforts, and of progress over the last 20 years, toward understanding relationships of Hawaiian angiosperms allows for a historically informed re-evaluation of the American (New World) contribution to Hawaiian diversity and evolutionary activity of American lineages in an insular setting. Temperate and boreal North America is a much more important source of Hawaiian flora than suggested by most 20th century authorities on Pacific plant life, such as Fosberg and Skottsberg. Early views of evolution as too slow to account for divergence of highly distinctive endemics within the Hawaiian geological time frame evidently impeded biogeographical understanding, as did lack of appreciation for the importance of rare, often biotically mediated dispersal events and ecological opportunity in island ecosystems. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for North American ancestry of Hawaiian plant radiations, such as the silversword alliance, mints, sanicles, violets, schiedeas and spurges, underlines the potential of long-distance dispersal to shape floras, in accordance with hypotheses championed by Carlquist. Characteristics important to colonization of the islands, such as dispersibility by birds and ancestral hybridization or polyploidy, and ecological opportunities associated with 'sky islands' of temperate or boreal climate in the tropical Hawaiian archipelago may have been key to extensive diversification of endemic lineages of North American origin that are among the most species-rich clades of Hawaiian plants. Evident youth of flowering-plant lineages from North America is highly consistent with recent geological evidence for lack of high
Boyce, C Kevin; Brodribb, Tim J; Feild, Taylor S; Zwieniecki, Maciej A
The veins that irrigate leaves during photosynthesis are demonstrated to be strikingly more abundant in flowering plants than in any other vascular plant lineage. Angiosperm vein densities average 8 mm of vein per mm(2) of leaf area and can reach 25 mm mm(-2), whereas such high densities are absent from all other plants, living or extinct. Leaves of non-angiosperms have consistently averaged close to 2 mm mm(-2) throughout 380 million years of evolution despite a complex history that has involved four or more independent origins of laminate leaves with many veins and dramatic changes in climate and atmospheric composition. We further demonstrate that the high leaf vein densities unique to the angiosperms enable unparalleled transpiration rates, extending previous work indicating a strong correlation between vein density and assimilation rates. Because vein density is directly measurable in fossils, these correlations provide new access to the physiology of extinct plants and how they may have impacted their environments. First, the high assimilation rates currently confined to the angiosperms among living plants are likely to have been unique throughout evolutionary history. Second, the transpiration-driven recycling of water that is important for bolstering precipitation in modern tropical rainforests might have been significantly less in a world before the angiosperms.
Bachelier, Julien B; Friedman, William E
In Trimenia moorei, an extant member of the ancient angiosperm clade Austrobaileyales, we found a remarkable pattern of female gametophyte (egg-producing structure) development that strikingly resembles that of pollen tubes and their intrasexual competition within the maternal pollen tube transmitting tissues of most flowers. In contrast with most other flowering plants, in Trimenia, multiple female gametophytes are initiated at the base (chalazal end) of each ovule. Female gametophytes grow from their tips and compete over hundreds of micrometers to reach the apex of the nucellus and the site of fertilization. Here, the successful female gametophyte will mate with a pollen tube to produce an embryo and an endosperm. Moreover, the central tissue within the ovules of Trimenia, through which the embryo sacs grow, contains starch and other carbohydrates similar to the pollen tube transmitting tissues in the styles of most flowers. The pattern of female gametophyte development found in Trimenia is rare but by no means unique in angiosperms. Importantly, it seems that multiple female gametophytes are occasionally or frequently initiated in members of other ancient angiosperm lineages. The intensification of pollen tube (male gametophyte) competition and enhanced maternal selection among competing pollen tubes are considered to have been major contributors to the rise of angiosperms. Based on insights from Trimenia, we posit that prefertilization female gametophyte (egg) competition within individual ovules in addition to male gametophyte (sperm) competition and maternal mate choice may have been key features of the earliest angiosperms.
Hall, Jocelyn C; Tisdale, Tracy E; Donohue, Kathleen; Wheeler, Andrew; Al-Yahya, Mohammed A; Kramer, Elena M
Many angiosperms have fruit morphologies that result in seeds from the same plant having different dispersal capabilities. A prime example is found in the Brassiceae (Brassicaceae), which has many members with segmented or heteroarthrocarpic fruits. Since only 40% of the genera are heteroarthrocarpic, this tribe provides an opportunity to study the evolution of an ecologically significant novelty and its variants. We analyzed nuclear (PHYA) and plastid (matK) sequences from 66 accessions using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference approaches. The evolution of heteroarthrocarpy and its variants was evaluated using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood ancestral state reconstructions. Although nuclear and plastid phylogenies are incongruent with each other, the following findings are consistent: (1) Cakile, Crambe, Vella, and Zilla lineages are monophyletic; (2) the Nigra lineage is not monophyletic; and (3) within the Cakile clade, Cakile, Didesmus, and Erucaria are paraphyletic. Despite differences in the matK and PHYA topologies at both deep and shallow nodes, similar patterns of morphological evolution emerge. Heteroarthrocarpy, a complex morphological trait, has evolved multiple times across the tribe. Moreover, there are convergent transitions in dehiscence capabilities and fruit disarticulation across the tribe. We present the first explicit analysis of fruit evolution within the Brassiceae, which exemplifies evolutionary lability. The repeated loss and gain of segment dehiscence and disarticulation suggests conservation in the genetic pathway controlling abscission with differential expression across taxa. This study provides a strong foundation for future studies of mechanisms underlying variation in dispersal capabilities of Brassiceae.
Oliver, Keith R.; McComb, Jen A.; Greene, Wayne K.
Transposable elements (TEs) are a dominant feature of most flowering plant genomes. Together with other accepted facilitators of evolution, accumulating data indicate that TEs can explain much about their rapid evolution and diversification. Genome size in angiosperms is highly correlated with TE content and the overwhelming bulk (>80%) of large genomes can be composed of TEs. Among retro-TEs, long terminal repeats (LTRs) are abundant, whereas DNA-TEs, which are often less abundant than retro-TEs, are more active. Much adaptive or evolutionary potential in angiosperms is due to the activity of TEs (active TE-Thrust), resulting in an extraordinary array of genetic changes, including gene modifications, duplications, altered expression patterns, and exaptation to create novel genes, with occasional gene disruption. TEs implicated in the earliest origins of the angiosperms include the exapted Mustang, Sleeper, and Fhy3/Far1 gene families. Passive TE-Thrust can create a high degree of adaptive or evolutionary potential by engendering ectopic recombination events resulting in deletions, duplications, and karyotypic changes. TE activity can also alter epigenetic patterning, including that governing endosperm development, thus promoting reproductive isolation. Continuing evolution of long-lived resprouter angiosperms, together with genetic variation in their multiple meristems, indicates that TEs can facilitate somatic evolution in addition to germ line evolution. Critical to their success, angiosperms have a high frequency of polyploidy and hybridization, with resultant increased TE activity and introgression, and beneficial gene duplication. Together with traditional explanations, the enhanced genomic plasticity facilitated by TE-Thrust, suggests a more complete and satisfactory explanation for Darwin’s “abominable mystery”: the spectacular success of the angiosperms. PMID:24065734
Gómez Ros, Laura V; Aznar-Asensio, Ginés J; Hernandez, Jose A; Bernal, Maria A; Núñez-Flores, María J L; Cuello, Juan; Ros Barceló, Alfonso
The most distinctive variation in the monomer composition of lignins in vascular land plants is that between the two main groups of seed plants. Thus, whereas gymnosperm (softwood) lignins are typically composed of guaiacyl (G) units, angiosperm (hardwood) lignins are largely composed of similar levels of G and syringyl (S) units. However, there are some studies that suggest that certain angiosperm peroxidases are unable to oxidize sinapyl alcohol, and a coniferyl alcohol shuttle has been proposed for oxidizing S units during the biosynthesis of lignins. With this in mind, a screening of the presence of S peroxidases in angiosperms (including woody species and forages) was performed. Contrarily to what might be expected, the intercellular washing fluids from lignifying tissues of 25 woody, herbaceous, and shrub species, belonging to both monocots and dicotyledons, all showed both S peroxidase activities and basic peroxidase isoenzymes analogous, with regard the isoelectric point, to the Zinnia elegans basic peroxidase isoenzyme, the only S peroxidase that has been fully characterized. These results led to the protein database in the search for homologies between angiosperm peroxidases and a true eudicot S peroxidase, the Z. elegans peroxidase. The findings showed that certain structural motifs of S peroxidases are conserved within the first 15 million years of angiosperm history, because they are found in peroxidases from the two major lineages of flowering plants, eumagnoliids and eudicotyledons, of note being the presence of these peroxidases in Amborella and Nymphaeales, which represent the first stages of angiosperm evolution. These phylogenetic studies also suggest that guaiacyl peroxidases apparently constitute the most "evolved state" of the plant peroxidase family evolution.
Boer, H.J. de; Eppinga, M.B.; Wassen, M.J.; Dekker, S.C.
The revolutionary rise of broad-leaved (flowering) angiosperm plant species during the Cretaceous initiated a global ecological transformation towards modern biodiversity. Still, the mechanisms involved in this angiosperm radiation remain enigmatic. Here we show that the period of rapid
Vialette-Guiraud, Aurelie C M; Alaux, Michael; Legeai, Fabrice; Finet, Cedric; Chambrier, Pierre; Brown, Spencer C; Chauvet, Aurelie; Magdalena, Carlos; Rudall, Paula J; Scutt, Charles P
The angiosperms, or flowering plants, diversified in the Cretaceous to dominate almost all terrestrial environments. Molecular phylogenetic studies indicate that the orders Amborellales, Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales, collectively termed the ANA grade, diverged as separate lineages from a remaining angiosperm clade at a very early stage in flowering plant evolution. By comparing these early diverging lineages, it is possible to infer the possible morphology and ecology of the last common ancestor of the extant angiosperms, and this analysis can now be extended to try to deduce the developmental mechanisms that were present in early flowering plants. However, not all species in the ANA grade form convenient molecular-genetic models. The present study reviews the genus Cabomba (Nymphaeales), which shows a range of features that make it potentially useful as a genetic model. We focus on characters that have probably been conserved since the last common ancestor of the extant flowering plants. To facilitate the use of Cabomba as a molecular model, we describe methods for its cultivation to flowering in the laboratory, a novel Cabomba flower expressed sequence tag database, a well-adapted in situ hybridization protocol and a measurement of the nuclear genome size of C. caroliniana. We discuss the features required for species to become tractable models, and discuss the relative merits of Cabomba and other ANA-grade angiosperms in molecular-genetic studies aimed at understanding the origin of the flowering plants.
Baudisch, Annette; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Jones, Owen
not senesce. We find that growth form relates to differences in pace, that is, life span, as woody plants are typically longer lived than nonwoody plants, while differences in shape, that is, whether or not angiosperms senesce, are related to ancestral history. 5. Synthesis: The age trajectory of mortality...
Hilu, K.W.; Borsch, T.; Müller, K.; Soltis, D.E.; Savolainen, V.; Chase, M.W.; Powell, M.; Alice, L.A.; Evans, R.; Sauquet, H.; Neinhuis, C.; Slotta, T.A.B.; Rohwer, J.G.; Campbell, C.; Chatrou, L.W.
Plastid matK gene sequences for 374 genera representing all angiosperm orders and 12 genera of gymnosperms were analyzed using parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) approaches. Traditionally, slowly evolving genomic regions have been preferred for deep-level phylogenetic inference in
Huysmans, S.; Verstraete, B.; Smets, E.; Chatrou, L.W.
Background and aims - Orbicules or Ubisch bodies have been recorded in many angiosperm families and although the first observations date back to 1865, their function in the anther remains enigmatic. In flowering plants a general evolutionary trend is observed from common occurrence of orbicules in
Holzweber, Markus; Mattsson, Jan; Standing, Craig
loudspeaker concept) that is able to generate strong customer response, and shape the brand or e-brand, which in turn can create a market and a sustainable business. We suggest entrepreneurial success is highly dependent on how the inner-tribe can create an ‘icon’ to shape an outer-tribe by means...
Feldberg, Kathrin; Schneider, Harald; Stadler, Tanja; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Schmidt, Alexander R.; Heinrichs, Jochen
Recent studies have provided evidence for pulses in the diversification of angiosperms, ferns, gymnosperms, and mosses as well as various groups of animals during the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, evidence for such pulses has not been reported so far for liverworts. Here we provide new insight into liverwort evolution by integrating a comprehensive molecular dataset with a set of 20 fossil age constraints. We found evidence for a relative constant diversification rate of generalistic liverworts (Jungermanniales) since the Palaeozoic, whereas epiphytic liverworts (Porellales) show a sudden increase of lineage accumulation in the Cretaceous. This difference is likely caused by the pronounced response of Porellales to the ecological opportunities provided by humid, megathermal forests, which were increasingly available as a result of the rise of the angiosperms.
Friis, Else Marie; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard; Crane, Peter R
In the second half of the nineteenth century, pioneering discoveries of rich assemblages of fossil plants from the Cretaceous resulted in considerable interest in the first appearance of angiosperms in the geological record. Darwin's famous comment, which labelled the 'rapid development' of angiosperms an 'abominable mystery', dates from this time. Darwin and his contemporaries were puzzled by the relatively late, seemingly sudden and geographically widespread appearance of modern-looking angiosperms in Late Cretaceous floras. Today, the early diversification of angiosperms seems much less 'rapid'. Angiosperms were clearly present in the Early Cretaceous, 20-30 Myr before they attained the level of ecological dominance reflected in some mid-Cretaceous floras, and angiosperm leaves and pollen show a distinct pattern of steadily increasing diversity and complexity through this interval. Early angiosperm fossil flowers show a similar orderly diversification and also provide detailed insights into the changing reproductive biology and phylogenetic diversity of angiosperms from the Early Cretaceous. In addition, newly discovered fossil flowers indicate considerable, previously unrecognized, cryptic diversity among the earliest angiosperms known from the fossil record. Lineages that today have an herbaceous or shrubby habit were well represented. Monocotyledons, which have previously been difficult to recognize among assemblages of early fossil angiosperms, were also diverse and prominent in many Early Cretaceous ecosystems.
Theissen, Guenter; Melzer, Rainer
Background Understanding the mode and mechanisms of the evolution of the angiosperm flower is a long-standing and central problem of evolutionary biology and botany. It has essentially remained unsolved, however. In contrast, considerable progress has recently been made in our understanding of the genetic basis of flower development in some extant model species. The knowledge that accumulated this way has been pulled together in two major hypotheses, termed the ‘ABC model’ and the ‘floral quartet model’. These models explain how the identity of the different types of floral organs is specified during flower development by homeotic selector genes encoding transcription factors. Scope We intend to explain how the ‘ABC model’ and the ‘floral quartet model’ are now guiding investigations that help to understand the origin and diversification of the angiosperm flower. Conclusions Investigation of orthologues of class B and class C floral homeotic genes in gymnosperms suggest that bisexuality was one of the first innovations during the origin of the flower. The transition from dimer to tetramer formation of floral homeotic proteins after establishment of class E proteins may have increased cooperativity of DNA binding of the transcription factors controlling reproductive growth. That way, we hypothesize, better ‘developmental switches’ originated that facilitated the early evolution of the flower. Expression studies of ABC genes in basally diverging angiosperm lineages, monocots and basal eudicots suggest that the ‘classical’ ABC system known from core eudicots originated from a more fuzzy system with fading borders of gene expression and gradual transitions in organ identity, by sharpening of ABC gene expression domains and organ borders. Shifting boundaries of ABC gene expression may have contributed to the diversification of the angiosperm flower many times independently, as may have changes in interactions between ABC genes and their target
Lu, Li-Min; Mao, Ling-Feng; Yang, Tuo; Ye, Jian-Fei; Liu, Bing; Li, Hong-Lei; Sun, Miao; Miller, Joseph T.; Mathews, Sarah; Hu, Hai-Hua; Niu, Yan-Ting; Peng, Dan-Xiao; Chen, You-Hua; Smith, Stephen A.; Chen, Min; Xiang, Kun-Li; Le, Chi-Toan; Dang, Viet-Cuong; Lu, An-Ming; Soltis, Pamela S.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Li, Jian-Hua; Chen, Zhi-Duan
High species diversity may result from recent rapid speciation in a ‘cradle’ and/or the gradual accumulation and preservation of species over time in a ‘museum’. China harbours nearly 10% of angiosperm species worldwide and has long been considered as both a museum, owing to the presence of many species with hypothesized ancient origins, and a cradle, as many lineages have originated as recent topographic changes and climatic shifts—such as the formation of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the development of the monsoon—provided new habitats that promoted remarkable radiation. However, no detailed phylogenetic study has addressed when and how the major components of the Chinese angiosperm flora assembled to form the present-day vegetation. Here we investigate the spatio-temporal divergence patterns of the Chinese flora using a dated phylogeny of 92% of the angiosperm genera for the region, a nearly complete species-level tree comprising 26,978 species and detailed spatial distribution data. We found that 66% of the angiosperm genera in China did not originate until early in the Miocene epoch (23 million years ago (Mya)). The flora of eastern China bears a signature of older divergence (mean divergence times of 22.04-25.39 Mya), phylogenetic overdispersion (spatial co-occurrence of distant relatives) and higher phylogenetic diversity. In western China, the flora shows more recent divergence (mean divergence times of 15.29-18.86 Mya), pronounced phylogenetic clustering (co-occurrence of close relatives) and lower phylogenetic diversity. Analyses of species-level phylogenetic diversity using simulated branch lengths yielded results similar to genus-level patterns. Our analyses indicate that eastern China represents a floristic museum, and western China an evolutionary cradle, for herbaceous genera; eastern China has served as both a museum and a cradle for woody genera. These results identify areas of high species richness and phylogenetic diversity, and
Leitman, Paula; Amorim, André; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela C.
The Atlantic Forest in southern Bahia State, Brazil, has high levels of diversity and vascular plant endemism. There have been few floristic surveys of the mountain forests there, however, especially those focusing on herbs and canopy plants, with studies of Atlantic Forest epiphytes having been limited to the southern and southeastern region of that country. The present study therefore surveyed the epiphytic angiosperms in the Serra das Lontras National Park (SLNP), the distribution of their...
Biancucci, Marco; Mattioli, Roberto; Forlani, Giuseppe; Funck, Dietmar; Costantino, Paolo; Trovato, Maurizio
Two glutamate derivatives, proline and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), appear to play pivotal roles in different aspects of sexual reproduction in angiosperms, although their precise function in plant reproduction and the molecular basis of their action are not yet fully understood. Proline and GABA have long been regarded as pivotal amino acids in pollen vitality and fertility. Proline may constitute up to 70% of the free amino acid pool in pollen grains and it has been recently shown that Arabi...
Fornoff, Felix; Gross, Elisabeth M
In terrestrial angiosperms, defense and resistance mechanisms against herbivores have been studied extensively; yet this topic is poorly understood in aquatic angiosperms. We investigated induced response mechanisms in Myriophyllum spicatum to the generalist insect herbivore Acentria ephemerella in three independent experiments. Various morphological and chemical response variables were examined in grazed apical shoots and compared to undamaged controls. We further estimated plant palatability of induced and non-induced apices in choice assays, and assessed the growth response of Acentria larvae in no-choice feeding assays. Leaves of induced apices were splayed out horizontally and changed in color from green to red. The dry matter content and thus plant toughness increased by up to 19%, but silica levels stayed constant. Induced apices exhibited a decline in chlorophyll content of up to 34%, reflected also by a 10% decrease in nitrogen levels, while nitrogen increased by 14% in lower parts of grazed shoots. Also, herbivore-deterring total phenolic compounds increased by up to 20% in apices. In choice trials, Acentria larvae strongly avoided grazed tips, and growth was reduced by 25% on induced apices. In total, we observed five different induced resistance and defensive traits in grazed apices: changes in appearance, increased plant toughness, delocalization of N-containing metabolites, increased polyphenols, and reduced nutritional value. The observed changes prevent herbivore damage and loss of apical tissue, which are most valuable for plant fitness. Our study presents the first evidence of multiple, parallel defense strategies including constitutive and induced defense mechanisms in a freshwater angiosperm.
Ge, Li-Li; Tian, Hui-Qiao
The fertilization of angiosperms is a complicated and ingenious process. When pollen tube arrives at ovary and enters embryo sac by degenerated synergid, two sperm cells are released into the cell. Two sperm cells are connected together at first in the pollen tube, and then separated in the degenerated synergid. One of the two sperm cells moves to the egg cell and fuses with it to form a zygote, and another one to central cell and fuses to form the endosperm, which completes the double fertilization. The process of male and female gamete recognition is a key link but we know nothing about it. This review introduced the study of cell cycle of male and female gametes before fertilization; discussed the question of synergid degeneration; analysed status of research into the movement of both sperm cells in degenerated synergid; and evaluated the preferential fertilization of sperm cells and the egg cell activation of angiosperms. The results of recent research into these questions may help us to understand the fertilization mechanism in angiosperms.
Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe Planning Department; Smiley, Steve; Bennett, Keith, DOE Project Officer
The Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe has a vision to become self-sufficient in its energy needs and to maintain its culture and protect Mother Earth with respect and honor for the next seven generations. To achieve this vision, green energy sources such as solar, wind and biomass energy are the best energy paths to travel. In this feasibility study the Tribe has analyzed and provided data on the nature of the renewable resources available to the Tribe and the costs of implementing these technologies.
Brodribb, Timothy J; McAdam, Scott A M
Angiosperm and conifer tree species respond differently when exposed to elevated CO2, with angiosperms found to dynamically reduce water loss while conifers appear insensitive. Such distinct responses are likely to affect competition between these tree groups as atmospheric CO2 concentration rises. Seeking the mechanism behind this globally important phenomenon we targeted the Ca(2+)-dependent signalling pathway, a mediator of stomatal closure in response to elevated CO2, as a possible explanation for the differentiation of stomatal behaviours. Sampling across the diversity of vascular plants including lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms we show that only angiosperms possess the stomatal behaviour and prerequisite genetic coding, linked to Ca(2+)-dependent stomatal signalling. We conclude that the evolution of Ca(2+)-dependent stomatal signalling gives angiosperms adaptive benefits in terms of highly efficient water use, but that stomatal sensitivity to high CO2 may penalise angiosperm productivity relative to other plant groups in the current era of soaring atmospheric CO2.
Wang, Xiao-Fan; Armbruster, Scott; Huang, S.
Fusion of floral carpels (syncarpy) in angiosperms is thought to have allowed for significant improvements in offspring quantity and quality in syncarpous species over gymnosperms and apocarpous (free-carpelled) angiosperms. Given the disadvantages of apocarpy, it remains an evolutionary puzzle why many angiosperm lineages with free carpels (apocarpy) have been so successful and why some lineages show reversals to apocarpy. To investigate whether some advantages of syncarpy may accrue in othe...
Full Text Available Effective communication is essential for information systems development crossing functional, organisational and national boundaries. As organisations attempt to overcome cultural barriers to communication across the world, communication with colleagues across the corridor remains problematic; cultural barriers between departments remain unchallenged. This paper introduces the concepts of 'culture' and 'tribe' into the discussion of the relationship between business users and information systems developers. Previous research has focused on identifying specific barriers to user-systems developer communication and on ways of eliminating these barriers. In contrast, this paper suggests that much can be learnt through the recognition of cultural differences inherent to the differing roles of user and systems developer. Maintenance of cultural identity is essential to the individual if he/she is to function effectively as a member of his/her tribe, whether it is the 'tribe' of developers or the 'tribe' of users. Communication problems within the systems development process may be addressed by a mutual understanding of cultural differences between the 'tribes' of users and systems developers. This degree of understanding cannot be achieved by attempting to change, persuade or convert the other tribe. The problems of user-systems developer communication need to be addressed through effective communication which acknowledges the differing cultures.
Lamont Byron B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fires have been widespread over the last 250 million years, peaking 60−125 million years ago (Ma, and might therefore have played a key role in the evolution of Angiosperms. Yet it is commonly believed that fireprone communities existed only after the global climate became more arid and seasonal 15 Ma. Recent molecular-based studies point to much earlier origins of fireprone Angiosperm floras in Australia and South Africa (to 60 Ma, Paleocene but even these were constrained by the ages of the clades examined. Results Using a molecular-dated phylogeny for the great Gondwanan family Proteaceae, with a 113-million-year evolutionary history, we show that the ancestors of many of its characteristic sclerophyll genera, such as Protea, Conospermum, Leucadendron, Petrophile, Adenanthos and Leucospermum (all subfamily Proteoideae, occurred in fireprone habitats from 88 Ma (83−94, 95% HPD, Mid-Upper Cretaceous. This coincided with the highest atmospheric oxygen (combustibility levels experienced over the past 150 million years. Migration from non-fireprone (essentially rainforest-climate-type environments was accompanied by the evolution of highly speciose clades with a range of seed storage traits and fire-cued seed release or germination mechanisms that was diagnostic for each clade by 71 Ma, though the ant-dispersed lineage (as a soil seed-storage subclade was delayed until 45 Ma. Conclusions Focusing on the widespread 113-million-year-old family Proteaceae, fireproneness among Gondwanan Angiosperm floras can now be traced back almost 90 million years into the fiery Cretaceous. The associated evolution of on-plant (serotiny and soil seed storage, and later ant dispersal, affirms them as ancient adaptations to fire among flowering plants.
Barba-Montoya, Jose; Dos Reis, Mario; Schneider, Harald; Donoghue, Philip C J; Yang, Ziheng
Through the lens of the fossil record, angiosperm diversification precipitated a Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution (KTR) in which pollinators, herbivores and predators underwent explosive co-diversification. Molecular dating studies imply that early angiosperm evolution is not documented in the fossil record. This mismatch remains controversial. We used a Bayesian molecular dating method to analyse a dataset of 83 genes from 644 taxa and 52 fossil calibrations to explore the effect of different interpretations of the fossil record, molecular clock models, data partitioning, among other factors, on angiosperm divergence time estimation. Controlling for different sources of uncertainty indicates that the timescale of angiosperm diversification is much less certain than previous molecular dating studies have suggested. Discord between molecular clock and purely fossil-based interpretations of angiosperm diversification may be a consequence of false precision on both sides. We reject a post-Jurassic origin of angiosperms, supporting the notion of a cryptic early history of angiosperms, but this history may be as much as 121 Myr, or as little as 23 Myr. These conclusions remain compatible with palaeobotanical evidence and a more general KTR in which major groups of angiosperms diverged later within the Cretaceous, alongside the diversification of pollinators, herbivores and their predators. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.
Xiaohan Yang; Gerald A. Tuskan; Timothy J. Tschaplinski; (Max) Zong-Ming Cheng
Flowering plants (angiosperms) appeared on Earth rather suddenly approximately 130 million years ago and underwent a massive expansion in the subsequent 10-12 million years. Current molecular phylogenies have predominantly identified _Amborella_, followed by _Nymphaea_ (water lilies) or _Amborella_ plus _Nymphaea_, in the ANITA clade (_Amborella_, Nymphaeales, Illiciaceae, Trimeniaceae and Austrobaileyaceae) as the earliest angiosperm. However, developmental studies suggest that the earliest ...
Grossnickle, David M; Polly, P David
Fossil discoveries over the past 30 years have radically transformed traditional views of Mesozoic mammal evolution. In addition, recent research provides a more detailed account of the Cretaceous diversification of flowering plants. Here, we examine patterns of morphological disparity and functional morphology associated with diet in early mammals. Two analyses were performed: (i) an examination of diversity based on functional dental type rather than higher-level taxonomy, and (ii) a morphometric analysis of jaws, which made use of modern analogues, to assess changes in mammalian morphological and dietary disparity. Results demonstrate a decline in diversity of molar types during the mid-Cretaceous as abundances of triconodonts, symmetrodonts, docodonts and eupantotherians diminished. Multituberculates experience a turnover in functional molar types during the mid-Cretaceous and a shift towards plant-dominated diets during the late Late Cretaceous. Although therians undergo a taxonomic expansion coinciding with the angiosperm radiation, they display small body sizes and a low level of morphological disparity, suggesting an evolutionary shift favouring small insectivores. It is concluded that during the mid-Cretaceous, the period of rapid angiosperm radiation, mammals experienced both a decrease in morphological disparity and a functional shift in dietary morphology that were probably related to changing ecosystems.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Myco-heterotrophy evolved independently several times during angiosperm evolution. Although many species of myco-heterotrophic plants are highly endemic and long-distance dispersal seems unlikely, some genera are widely dispersed and have pantropical distributions, often with large disjunctions. Traditionally this has been interpreted as evidence for an old age of these taxa. However, due to their scarcity and highly reduced plastid genomes our understanding about the evolutionary histories of the angiosperm myco-heterotrophic groups is poor. Results We provide a hypothesis for the diversification of the myco-heterotrophic family Burmanniaceae. Phylogenetic inference, combined with biogeographical analyses, molecular divergence time estimates, and diversification analyses suggest that Burmanniaceae originated in West Gondwana and started to diversify during the Late Cretaceous. Diversification and migration of the species-rich pantropical genera Burmannia and Gymnosiphon display congruent patterns. Diversification began during the Eocene, when global temperatures peaked and tropical forests occurred at low latitudes. Simultaneous migration from the New to the Old World in Burmannia and Gymnosiphon occurred via boreotropical migration routes. Subsequent Oligocene cooling and breakup of boreotropical flora ended New-Old World migration and caused a gradual decrease in diversification rate in Burmanniaceae. Conclusion Our results indicate that extant diversity and pantropical distribution of myco-heterotrophic Burmanniaceae is the result of diversification and boreotropical migration during the Eocene when tropical rain forest expanded dramatically.
Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes and leaves by DGGE. A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled, and the band patterns obtained for each meadow were compared for the three sampled tissues. Endophytic bacterial sequences were detected in most of the samples analyzed. A total of 34 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units were detected. The main OTUs of endophytic bacteria present in P. oceanica tissues belonged primarily to Proteobacteria (α, γ and δ subclasses and Bacteroidetes. The OTUs found in roots significantly differed from those of rhizomes and leaves. Moreover, some OTUs were found to be associated to each type of tissue. Bipartite network analysis revealed differences in the bacterial endophyte communities present on different islands. The results of this study provide a pioneering step toward the characterization of the endophytic bacterial community associated with tissues of a marine angiosperm and reveal the presence of bacterial endophytes that differed among locations and tissue types.
Endress, Peter K.
In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology. PMID:20047868
Hafidh, Said; Fíla, Jan; Honys, David
Overview of pollen development. Male gametophyte development of angiosperms is a complex process that requires coordinated activity of different cell types and tissues of both gametophytic and sporophytic origin and the appropriate specific gene expression. Pollen ontogeny is also an excellent model for the dissection of cellular networks that control cell growth, polarity, cellular differentiation and cell signaling. This article describes two sequential phases of angiosperm pollen ontogenesis-developmental phase leading to the formation of mature pollen grains, and a functional or progamic phase, beginning with the impact of the grains on the stigma surface and ending at double fertilization. Here we present an overview of important cellular processes in pollen development and explosive pollen tube growth stressing the importance of reserves accumulation and mobilization and also the mutual activation of pollen tube and pistil tissues, pollen tube guidance and the communication between male and female gametophytes. We further describe the recent advances in regulatory mechanisms involved such as posttranscriptional regulation (including mass transcript storage) and posttranslational modifications to modulate protein function, intracellular metabolic signaling, ionic gradients such as Ca(2+) and H(+) ions, cell wall synthesis, protein secretion and intercellular signaling within the reproductive tissues.
de Boer, Hugo Jan; Eppinga, Maarten B; Wassen, Martin J; Dekker, Stefan C
The revolutionary rise of broad-leaved (flowering) angiosperm plant species during the Cretaceous initiated a global ecological transformation towards modern biodiversity. Still, the mechanisms involved in this angiosperm radiation remain enigmatic. Here we show that the period of rapid angiosperm evolution initiated after the leaf interior (post venous) transport path length for water was reduced beyond the leaf interior transport path length for CO2 at a critical leaf vein density of 2.5-5 mm mm(-2). Data and our modelling approaches indicate that surpassing this critical vein density was a pivotal moment in leaf evolution that enabled evolving angiosperms to profit from developing leaves with more and smaller stomata in terms of higher carbon returns from equal water loss. Surpassing the critical vein density may therefore have facilitated evolving angiosperms to develop leaves with higher gas exchange capacities required to adapt to the Cretaceous CO2 decline and outcompete previously dominant coniferous species in the upper canopy.
Indian tribes retain their sovereign rights of self-government and self-determination unless it is specifically waived by the tribe or abrogated by the US Congress, through treaty or statute. The Clean Water Act does not specifically abrogate tribal sovereignty. This raises the issue of what would occur if an on-scene coordinator decides that cleanup of tribal lands is necessary to protect the public health and welfare, but the tribe does not want the cleanup activities to proceed? May a tribe impede cleanup efforts? During the cleanup of the barge Nestucca oil spill, this occurred when the Quinault Tribe did not allow the OSC to clean lands that the tribe holds sacred. This issue with the Clean Water Act has not been decided by Congress, nor by the courts. Recently, courts have applied at least three different approaches to determine if a statute of general application, such as the Clean Water Act, applies to Indian tribes. The different tests do not always yield the same result. An on-scene coordinator, when confronted with this scenario, might handle the situation in several different ways, or perhaps move to prevent such an occurrence. The different approaches used by the courts can be taken together to gain a sense of whether the Clean Water Act may preempt tribal sovereignty
The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, authorizes the siting, construction and operation of a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS is intended to be used for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel from the nation's nuclear power plants beginning as early as 1998. Pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created. On October 7, 1991, the Nuclear Waste Negotiator invited the governors of states and the Presidents of Indian tribes to apply for government grants in order to conduct a study to assess under what conditions, if any, they might consider hosting an MRS facility. Pursuant to this invitation, on October 11, 1991 the Mescalero Apache Indian Tribe of Mescalero, NM applied for a grant to conduct a phased, preliminary study of the safety, technical, political, environmental, social and economic feasibility of hosting an MRS. The preliminary study included: (1) An investigative education process to facilitate the Tribe's comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social, political, and economic aspects of hosting an MRS, and; (2) The development of an extensive program that is enabling the Tribe, in collaboration with the Negotiator, to reach an informed and carefully researched decision regarding the conditions, (if any), under which further pursuit of the MRS would be considered. The Phase 1 grant application enabled the Tribe to begin the initial activities necessary to determine whether further consideration is warranted for hosting the MRS facility. The Tribe intends to pursue continued study of the MRS in order to meet the following objectives: (1) Continuing the education process towards a comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social and economic aspects of the MRS; (2) Conducting an effective public participation and information program; (3) Participating in MRS meetings
United States. Bonneville Power Administration
This is an omnibus publication about the federally-recognized Indian tribes of the Columbia-Snake river basin, as presented by themselves. It showcases several figurative and literal snapshots of each tribe, bits and pieces of each tribe`s story. Each individual tribe or tribal confederation either submitted its own section to this publication, or developed its own section with the assistance of the writer-editor. A federally-recognized tribe is an individual Indian group, or confederation of Indian groups, officially acknowledged by the US government for purposes of legislation, consultation and benefits. This publication is designed to be used both as a resource and as an introduction to the tribes. Taken together, the sections present a rich picture of regional indian culture and history, as told by the tribes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Results Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04 generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Conclusion Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage
Farmerie William G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Plastid genome sequence information is vital to several disciplines in plant biology, including phylogenetics and molecular biology. The past five years have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of completely sequenced plastid genomes, fuelled largely by advances in conventional Sanger sequencing technology. Here we report a further significant reduction in time and cost for plastid genome sequencing through the successful use of a newly available pyrosequencing platform, the Genome Sequencer 20 (GS 20 System (454 Life Sciences Corporation, to rapidly and accurately sequence the whole plastid genomes of the basal eudicot angiosperms Nandina domestica (Berberidaceae and Platanus occidentalis (Platanaceae. Results More than 99.75% of each plastid genome was simultaneously obtained during two GS 20 sequence runs, to an average depth of coverage of 24.6× in Nandina and 17.3× in Platanus. The Nandina and Platanus plastid genomes shared essentially identical gene complements and possessed the typical angiosperm plastid structure and gene arrangement. To assess the accuracy of the GS 20 sequence, over 45 kilobases of sequence were generated for each genome using conventional sequencing. Overall error rates of 0.043% and 0.031% were observed in GS 20 sequence for Nandina and Platanus, respectively. More than 97% of all observed errors were associated with homopolymer runs, with ~60% of all errors associated with homopolymer runs of 5 or more nucleotides and ~50% of all errors associated with regions of extensive homopolymer runs. No substitution errors were present in either genome. Error rates were generally higher in the single-copy and noncoding regions of both plastid genomes relative to the inverted repeat and coding regions. Conclusion Highly accurate and essentially complete sequence information was obtained for the Nandina and Platanus plastid genomes using the GS 20 System. More importantly, the high accuracy
Welle, ter B.J.H.; Loureiro, A.A.; Lisboa, P.L.B.; Koek-Noorman, J.
Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae). The wood anatomy of nearly all genera of the Guettardeae (Rubiaceae, Guettardoideae) has been examined, and in this respect the tribe is heterogeneous. Suggestions are made for a delimitation of the tribe. Guettarda, Bobea, Antirhea,
Khadse, Vivek P.; Akhil, P.; Anto, Christopher; Gnanasigamani, Lydia J.
One of the curses to the society is a crime which has a deep impact on the society. Victims of crimes are the one who is impacted the most. All communities in the world are affected by crime and the criminal justice system, but largely impacted communities are the backward classes. There are many cases reported of crime committed against scheduled tribes from the year 2005 till date. This paper states the analysis of Crimes Committed against Scheduled Tribes in the year 2015 in various states and union territories in India. In this study, Multiple Linear regression techniques have been used to analyze the crimes committed against scheduled tribes’ community in India. This study compares the number of cases reported to the police station and rate of crime committed in different states in India. It also states the future prediction of the crime that would happen. It will also predict the number of cases of crime committed against the scheduled tribe that can be reported in future. The dataset which has been used in this study is taken from official Indian government repository for crimes which include different information of crimes committed against scheduled tribes in different states and union territories measured under the population census of the year 2011. This study will help different Indian states and union territory government to analyze and predict the future crimes that may occur and take appropriate measures against it before the actual crime would occur.
Holt, Jeffrey W.
The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will conduct energy audits of nine Tribally-owned governmental buildings in three counties in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to provide a basis for evaluating and selecting the technical and economic viability of energy efficiency improvement options. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will follow established Tribal procurement policies and procedures to secure the services of a qualified provider to conduct energy audits of nine designated buildings. The contracted provider will be required to provide a progress schedule to the Tribe prior to commencing the project and submit an updated schedule with their monthly billings. Findings and analysis reports will be required for buildings as completed, and a complete Energy Audit Summary Report will be required to be submitted with the provider?s final billing. Conducting energy audits of the nine governmental buildings will disclose building inefficiencies to prioritize and address, resulting in reduced energy consumption and expense. These savings will allow Tribal resources to be reallocated to direct services, which will benefit Tribal members and families.
Toni Osterhout; Global Energy Concepts
The Sault Tribe conducted a feasibility study on tribal lands in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to determine the technical and economic feasibility of both small and large-scale wind power development on tribal lands. The study included a wind resource assessment, transmission system analysis, engineering and regulatory analyzes and assessments.
Caruso, Christina M; Case, Andrea L; Bailey, Maia F
Interactions between cytoplasmic and nuclear genomes have significant evolutionary consequences. In angiosperms, the most common cytonuclear interaction is between mitochondrial genes that disrupt pollen production (cytoplasmic male sterility, CMS) and nuclear genes that restore it (nuclear male fertility restorers, Rf). The outcome of CMS/Rf interactions can depend on whether Rf alleles have negative pleiotropic effects on fitness. Although these fitness costs are often considered to be independent of the ecological context, we argue that the effects of Rf alleles on fitness should be context dependent. Thus, measuring the cost of restoration across a range of environments could help explain geographic and phylogenetic variation in the distribution of Rf alleles and the outcome of CMS/Rf interactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
William Oki Wong
Full Text Available Archaeamphora longicervia H.Q.Li was described as an herbaceous, Sarraceniaceae-like pitcher plant from the mid Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, northeastern China. Here, a re-investigation of A. longicervia specimens from the Yixian Formation provides new insights into its identity and the morphology of pitcher plants claimed by Li. We demonstrate that putative pitchers of Archaeamphora are insect-induced leaf galls that consist of three components: (1 an innermost larval chamber with a distinctive outer wall; (2 an intermediate zone of nutritive tissue; and (3 an outermost zone of sclerenchyma. Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous, Sarraceniaceae-like angiosperm, but represents insect-galled leaves of the formerly reported gymnosperm Liaoningocladus boii G.Sun et al. from the Yixian Formation.
Wong, William Oki; Dilcher, David Leonard; Labandeira, Conrad C; Sun, Ge; Fleischmann, Andreas
Archaeamphora longicervia H. Q. Li was described as an herbaceous, Sarraceniaceae-like pitcher plant from the mid Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, northeastern China. Here, a re-investigation of A. longicervia specimens from the Yixian Formation provides new insights into its identity and the morphology of pitcher plants claimed by Li. We demonstrate that putative pitchers of Archaeamphora are insect-induced leaf galls that consist of three components: (1) an innermost larval chamber; (2) an intermediate zone of nutritive tissue; and (3) an outermost wall of sclerenchyma. Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous, Sarraceniaceae-like angiosperm, but represents insect-galled leaves of the previously reported gymnosperm Liaoningocladus boii G. Sun et al. from the Yixian Formation.
Prakash, N; Ansari, M A; Punitha, P; Sharma, P K
Rongmei tribe (Kooki), are inhabitant of the Charoi Chagotlong village, Tupul, Tamenglong district of Manipur have the traditional knowledge of folk bio-medicine based on diverse plant species for the prevention and cure of certain chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to document and preserve the indigenous knowledge of the Rongmei tribe on folk medicines. The present work was based on methodical field survey conducted between 2010, to 2013. Local people of within 30-70 age groups of both sexes were interviewed and a group discussion (using a structured interview schedule), was held to know about the type of plant parts used in folk bio-medicines, and their mode of use. The interviewers were drawn from a wide array of disciplines (Vendors, Farmers club, NGO's, scientific societies, etc.), to obtain maximum information in relation to folk bio-medicine. A total of 60 species belonging to 36 different families (ranging from gymnosperm to angiosperm with medicinal benefits), were discussed briefly with significant emphasis on their local name, scientific name, family, parts used; they claimed to cure various ailments from these plants in this mode of folk bio-medicine. The different plant parts used were leaves, fruits, bulbs, bark, roots, seeds, tuber, trunk, flower, shoot, whole plant, rhizome, stem, wood and berries. Based on a life form of the reported plants comprise herbs, shrubs, trees, grasses, bulb, vine, climber, tuber and succulent. Efforts should be made to promote the use of traditional biomedicines within rural communities to preserve the traditional knowledge.
Zeng, Liping; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Renran; Kong, Hongzhi; Zhang, Ning; Ma, Hong
Angiosperms are the most successful plants and support human livelihood and ecosystems. Angiosperm phylogeny is the foundation of studies of gene function and phenotypic evolution, divergence time estimation and biogeography. The relationship of the five divergent groups of the Mesangiospermae (~99.95% of extant angiosperms) remains uncertain, with multiple hypotheses reported in the literature. Here transcriptome data sets are obtained from 26 species lacking sequenced genomes, representing each of the five groups: eudicots, monocots, magnoliids, Chloranthaceae and Ceratophyllaceae. Phylogenetic analyses using 59 carefully selected low-copy nuclear genes resulted in highly supported relationships: sisterhood of eudicots and a clade containing Chloranthaceae and Ceratophyllaceae, with magnoliids being the next sister group, followed by monocots. Our topology allows a re-examination of the evolutionary patterns of 110 morphological characters. The molecular clock estimates of Mesangiospermae diversification during the late to middle Jurassic correspond well to the origins of some insects, which may have been a factor facilitating early angiosperm radiation.
Singer, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
A strategic plan is needed to catalyze clean energy in the more than 100 California Indian tribal communities with varying needs and energy resources. We propose to conduct a scoping study to identify tribal lands with clean energy potential, as well as communities with lack of grid-tied energy and communications access. The research focus would evaluate the energy mixture and alternatives available to these tribal communities, and evaluate greenhouse gas emissions associated with accessing fossil fuel used for heat and power. Understanding the baseline of energy consumption and emissions of communities is needed to evaluate improvements and advances from technology. Based on this study, we will develop a strategic plan that assesses solutions to address high energy fuel costs due to lack of electricity access and inform actions to improve economic opportunities for tribes. This could include technical support for tribes to access clean energy technologies and supporting collaboration for on-site demonstrations.
Walker, Andrea C; Balk, David E
A qualitative, collective case study explores bereavement rituals in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, revealed consensus on participation in certain bereavement rituals. Common rituals included: (a) conducting a wake service the night before burial; (b) never leaving the body alone before burial; (c) enclosing personal items and food in the casket; (d) digging graves by hand; (e) each individual throwing a handful of dirt into the grave before covering, called giving a "farewell handshake"; (f) covering the grave completely by hand; (g) building a house over the grave; (h) waiting 4 days before burial; (i) using medicine/purification; and (j) adhering to socialized mourning period. Cultural values of family, community, religion, importance of the number 4, Indian medicine, and the meaning of death contributed to the development of these rituals.
Friis, Else Marie; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard; Crane, Peter R.
In the second half of the nineteenth century, pioneering discoveries of rich assemblages of fossil plants from the Cretaceous resulted in considerable interest in the first appearance of angiosperms in the geological record. Darwin's famous comment, which labelled the ‘rapid development’ of angiosperms an ‘abominable mystery’, dates from this time. Darwin and his contemporaries were puzzled by the relatively late, seemingly sudden and geographically widespread appearance of modern-looking ang...
Consulting, BB9 [BB9 Consulting; Director, Environmental
The Yerington Paiute Tribe has made energy management and planning a priority. The Tribal Council has recognized that energy is an important component of their goal of self-sufficiency. Recognizing energy development as a component of the Tribe’s natural resources provides for needed economic development.A number of priorities have been identified for energy development. These range from immediate housing needs such as weatherization and solar to interest in energy as economic development.
Sturtevant, William C.
Tribal distributions depicted on these maps (and on all other tribal maps covering a comparable area) are arbitrary at many points. Detailed knowledge of tribal areas was acquired at different times in different regions. For example, by the time knowledge was gained of the areas occupied by Plains tribes, many groups in the East had become extinct or had moved from their aboriginal locations. Some of these movements ultimately affected distributions on the Plains prior to reasonably detailed knowledge of Plains occupancy. Hence, it is not possible to approximate aboriginal areas of occupancy on a single map of continental scope. Furthermore, most groups did not occupy sharply defined areas, so that the delineation of territories is misleading.Distributions were derived, with slight modifications, from Indian tribes of North America (Driver and others, 1953), and boundaries within California were simplified after Languages, territories, and names of California Indian tribes (Heizer, 1966). According to the authors of these publications, the boundaries shown are those of the mid-17th century in the Southeast and the eastern part of the Northeast, the late 17th and early 18th centuries farther west in the Northeast, the late 18th and early 19th centuries in the Plains, the late 18th century in California, and the middle-to-late 19th century elsewhere. Even so, many compromises had to be made.
The CERT Tribal Internship Program is part of the education and training opportunities provided by CERT to accelerate the development of American Indian technical professionals available to serve Tribes and expand the pool of these professionals. Tribes are severely impacted by the inadequate number of Indian professionals available to serve and facilitate Tribal participation and support of the energy future of Tribes,and subsequently the energy future of the nation. By providing interns with hands-on work experience in their field of study two goals are accomplished: (1) the intern is provided opportunities for professional enhancement; and (2) The pool of Indian professionals available to meet the needs of Tribal government and Tribal communities in general is increased. As of January 17, 2003, Lance M Wyatt successfully completed his internship with the Interagency Working Group on Environmental Justice on the Task Force that specifically focuses their work on Tribal nations. While working as an intern with the National Transportation Program, Albuquerque operations, Jacqueline Agnew received an offer to work for the Alaska Native Health Board in Anchorage, Alaska. This was an opportunity that Ms. Agnew did not feel she could afford to forego and she left her internship position in February 2003. At present, CERT is in the process of finding another qualified individual to replace the internship position vacated by Ms. Agnew. Mr. Wyatt's and Ms. Agnew's final comments are given.
Biffin, Ed; Brodribb, Timothy J; Hill, Robert S; Thomas, Philip; Lowe, Andrew J
The angiosperm radiation has been linked to sharp declines in gymnosperm diversity and the virtual elimination of conifers from the tropics. The conifer family Podocarpaceae stands as an exception with highest species diversity in wet equatorial forests. It has been hypothesized that efficient light harvesting by the highly flattened leaves of several podocarp genera facilitates persistence with canopy-forming angiosperms, and the angiosperm ecological radiation may have preferentially favoured the diversification of these lineages. To test these ideas, we develop a molecular phylogeny for Podocarpaceae using Bayesian-relaxed clock methods incorporating fossil time constraints. We find several independent origins of flattened foliage types, and that these lineages have diversified predominantly through the Cenozoic and therefore among canopy-forming angiosperms. The onset of sustained foliage flattening podocarp diversification is coincident with a declining diversification rate of scale/needle-leaved lineages and also with ecological and climatic transformations linked to angiosperm foliar evolution. We demonstrate that climatic range evolution is contingent on the underlying state for leaf morphology. Taken together, our findings imply that as angiosperms came to dominate most terrestrial ecosystems, competitive interactions at the foliar level have profoundly shaped podocarp geography and as a consequence, rates of lineage diversification.
Timothy J Brodribb
Full Text Available Angiosperm and conifer tree species respond differently when exposed to elevated CO2, with angiosperms found to dynamically reduce water loss while conifers appear insensitive. Such distinct responses are likely to affect competition between these tree groups as atmospheric CO2 concentration rises. Seeking the mechanism behind this globally important phenomenon we targeted the Ca(2+-dependent signalling pathway, a mediator of stomatal closure in response to elevated CO2, as a possible explanation for the differentiation of stomatal behaviours. Sampling across the diversity of vascular plants including lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms we show that only angiosperms possess the stomatal behaviour and prerequisite genetic coding, linked to Ca(2+-dependent stomatal signalling. We conclude that the evolution of Ca(2+-dependent stomatal signalling gives angiosperms adaptive benefits in terms of highly efficient water use, but that stomatal sensitivity to high CO2 may penalise angiosperm productivity relative to other plant groups in the current era of soaring atmospheric CO2.
Crisp, Michael D; Cook, Lyn G
We test the widely held notion that living gymnosperms are 'ancient' and 'living fossils' by comparing them with their sister group, the angiosperms. This perception derives partly from the lack of gross morphological differences between some Mesozoic gymnosperm fossils and their living relatives (e.g. Ginkgo, cycads and dawn redwood), suggesting that the rate of evolution of gymnosperms has been slow. We estimated the ages and diversification rates of gymnosperm lineages using Bayesian relaxed molecular clock dating calibrated with 21 fossils, based on the phylogenetic analysis of alignments of matK chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and 26S nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) sequences, and compared these with published estimates for angiosperms. Gymnosperm crown groups of Cenozoic age are significantly younger than their angiosperm counterparts (median age: 32 Ma vs 50 Ma) and have long unbranched stems, indicating major extinctions in the Cenozoic, in contrast with angiosperms. Surviving gymnosperm genera have diversified more slowly than angiosperms during the Neogene as a result of their higher extinction rate. Compared with angiosperms, living gymnosperm groups are not ancient. The fossil record also indicates that gymnosperms suffered major extinctions when climate changed in the Oligocene and Miocene. Extant gymnosperm groups occupy diverse habitats and some probably survived after making adaptive shifts. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.
Sun, Miao; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Zhu, Xinyu; Burleigh, J Gordon; Chen, Zhiduan
Analysis of large data sets can help resolve difficult nodes in the tree of life and also reveal complex evolutionary histories. The placement of the Celastrales-Oxalidales-Malpighiales (COM) clade within Rosidae remains one of the most confounding phylogenetic questions in angiosperms, with previous analyses placing it with either Fabidae or Malvidae. To elucidate the position of COM, we assembled multi-gene matrices of chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear sequences, as well as large single- and multi-copy nuclear gene data sets. Analyses of multi-gene data sets demonstrate conflict between the chloroplast and both nuclear and mitochondrial data sets, and the results are robust to various character-coding and data-exclusion treatments. Analyses of single- and multi-copy nuclear loci indicate that most loci support the placement of COM with Malvidae, fewer loci support COM with Fabidae, and almost no loci support COM outside a clade of Fabidae and Malvidae. Although incomplete lineage sorting and ancient introgressive hybridization remain as plausible explanations for the conflict among loci, more complete sampling is necessary to evaluate these hypotheses fully. Our results emphasize the importance of genomic data sets for revealing deep incongruence and complex patterns of evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pennell, Matthew W; FitzJohn, Richard G; Cornwell, William K; Harmon, Luke J
Making meaningful inferences from phylogenetic comparative data requires a meaningful model of trait evolution. It is thus important to determine whether the model is appropriate for the data and the question being addressed. One way to assess this is to ask whether the model provides a good statistical explanation for the variation in the data. To date, researchers have focused primarily on the explanatory power of a model relative to alternative models. Methods have been developed to assess the adequacy, or absolute explanatory power, of phylogenetic trait models, but these have been restricted to specific models or questions. Here we present a general statistical framework for assessing the adequacy of phylogenetic trait models. We use our approach to evaluate the statistical performance of commonly used trait models on 337 comparative data sets covering three key angiosperm functional traits. In general, the models we tested often provided poor statistical explanations for the evolution of these traits. This was true for many different groups and at many different scales. Whether such statistical inadequacy will qualitatively alter inferences drawn from comparative data sets will depend on the context. Regardless, assessing model adequacy can provide interesting biological insights-how and why a model fails to describe variation in a data set give us clues about what evolutionary processes may have driven trait evolution across time.
Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Ho-Young
Flowering trees have various types of wood structure to perform multiple functions under their environmental conditions. In addition to transporting water from the roots to the canopy and providing mechanical support, the structure should provide resistance to embolism to maintain soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. By investigating existing data of the resistivity to embolism and wood density of 165 angiosperm species, here we show that the climate can limit the intrinsic properties of trees. Trees living in the dry environments require a high wood density to slow down the pressure decrease as it loses water relatively fast by evaporation. However, building too much tissues will result in the decrease of hydraulic conductivity and moisture concentration around mesophyll cells. To rationalize the biologically observed lower bound of the wood density, we construct a mechanical model to predict the wood density as a function of the vulnerability to embolism and the time for the recovery. Also, we build an artificial system using hydrogel microchannels that can test the probability of embolism as a function of conduit distributions. Our theoretical prediction is shown to be consistent with the results obtained from the artificial system and the biological data.
Sousa-Baena, Mariane S; Lohmann, Lúcia G; Hernandes-Lopes, José; Sinha, Neelima R
The climbing habit has evolved multiple times during the evolutionary history of angiosperms. Plants evolved various strategies for climbing, such as twining stems, tendrils and hooks. Tendrils are threadlike organs with the ability to twine around other structures through helical growth; they may be derived from a variety of structures, such as branches, leaflets and inflorescences. The genetic capacity to grow as a tendrilled climber existed in some of the earliest land plants; however, the underlying molecular basis of tendril development has been studied in only a few taxa. Here, we summarize what is known about the molecular basis of tendril development in model and candidate model species from key tendrilled families, that is, Fabaceae, Vitaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Passifloraceae and Bignoniaceae. Studies on tendril molecular genetics and development show the molecular basis of tendril formation and ontogenesis is diverse, even when tendrils have the same ontogenetic origin, for example leaflet-derived tendrils in Fabaceae and Bignoniaceae. Interestingly, all tendrils perform helical growth during contact-induced coiling, indicating that such ability is not correlated with their ontogenetic origin or phylogenetic history. Whether the same genetic networks are involved during helical growth in diverse tendrils still remains to be investigated. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.
Leão, Tarciso C C; Fonseca, Carlos R; Peres, Carlos A; Tabarelli, Marcelo
Understanding how plant life history affects species vulnerability to anthropogenic disturbances and environmental change is a major ecological challenge. We examined how vegetation type, growth form, and geographic range size relate to extinction risk throughout the Brazilian Atlantic Forest domain. We used a database containing species-level information of 6,929 angiosperms within 112 families and a molecular-based working phylogeny. We used decision trees, standard regression, and phylogenetic regression to explore the relationships between species attributes and extinction risk. We found a significant phylogenetic signal in extinction risk. Vegetation type, growth form, and geographic range size were related to species extinction risk, but the effect of growth form was not evident after phylogeny was controlled for. Species restricted to either rocky outcrops or scrub vegetation on sandy coastal plains exhibited the highest extinction risk among vegetation types, a finding that supports the hypothesis that species adapted to resource-limited environments are more vulnerable to extinction. Among growth forms, epiphytes were associated with the highest extinction risk in non-phylogenetic regression models, followed by trees, whereas shrubs and climbers were associated with lower extinction risk. However, the higher extinction risk of epiphytes was not significant after correcting for phylogenetic relatedness. Our findings provide new indicators of extinction risk and insights into the mechanisms governing plant vulnerability to extinction in a highly diverse flora where human disturbances are both frequent and widespread. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.
Full Text Available Two glutamate derivatives, proline and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, appear to play pivotal roles in different aspects of sexual reproduction in angiosperms, although their precise function in plant reproduction and the molecular basis of their action are not yet fully understood. Proline and GABA have long been regarded as pivotal amino acids in pollen vitality and fertility. Proline may constitute up to 70% of the free amino acid pool in pollen grains and it has been recently shown that Arabidopsis mutants affected in the first and rate-limiting step in proline synthesis produce aberrant and infertile pollen grains, indicating that proline synthesis is required for pollen development and fertility. Concerning GABA, a large body of evidence points to this glutamate derivative as a key determinant of post-pollination fertilization. Intriguingly, proline has also been associated with pollination, another aspect of sexual reproduction, since honeybees were reported to show a strong preference for proline-enriched nectars. In this review, we survey current knowledge on the roles of proline and GABA in plant fertility, and discuss future perspectives potentially capable to improve our understanding on the functions of these amino acids in pollen development, pollination, and pollen tube guidance.
Rosell, Julieta A
Global variation in total bark thickness (TBT) is traditionally attributed to fire. However, bark is multifunctional, as reflected by its inner living and outer dead regions, meaning that, in addition to fire protection, other factors probably contribute to TBT variation. To address how fire, climate, and plant size contribute to variation in TBT, inner bark thickness (IBT) and outer bark thickness (OBT), I sampled 640 species spanning all major angiosperm clades and 18 sites with contrasting precipitation, temperature, and fire regime. Stem size was by far the main driver of variation in thickness, with environment being less important. IBT was closely correlated with stem diameter, probably for metabolic reasons, and, controlling for size, was thicker in drier and hotter environments, even fire-free ones, probably reflecting its water and photosynthate storage role. OBT was less closely correlated with size, and was thicker in drier, seasonal sites experiencing frequent fires. IBT and OBT covaried loosely and both contributed to overall TBT variation. Thickness variation was higher within than across sites and was evolutionarily labile. Given high within-site diversity and the multiple selective factors acting on TBT, continued study of the different drivers of variation in bark thickness is crucial to understand bark ecology. © 2016 The Author. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.
This paper is designed to be a working part of a larger project which would deal with the topic of Tribal interests affected by the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program and the approaches by which those Tribal interests can be advanced. Topics discussed in this paper include: background history of the Nez Perce Tribe`s relations with the US government; a Nez Perce view of tribal interests affected by DOE activities at Hanford; and a Nez Perce framework for private/governmental/tribal interest.
Seader, Victoria H; Thornsberry, Jennifer M; Carey, Robert E
Expansins form a superfamily of plant proteins that assist in cell wall loosening during growth and development. The superfamily is divided into four families: EXPA, EXPB, EXLA, and EXLB (Sampedro and Cosgrove in Genome Biol 6:242, 2005. doi: 10.1186/gb-2005-6-12-242 ). Previous studies on Arabidopsis, rice, and Populus trichocarpa have clarified the evolutionary history of expansins in angiosperms (Sampedro et al. in Plant J 44:409-419, 2005. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2005.02540.x ). Amborella trichopoda is a flowering plant that diverged very early. Thus, it is a sister lineage to all other extant angiosperms (Amborella Genome Project in 342:1241089, 2013. doi: 10.1126/science.1241089 ). Because of this relationship, comparing the A. trichopoda expansin superfamily with those of other flowering plants may indicate which expansin genes were present in the last common ancestor of all angiosperms. The A. trichopoda expansin superfamily was assembled using BLAST searches with angiosperm expansin queries. The search results were analyzed and annotated to isolate the complete A. trichopoda expansin superfamily. This superfamily is similar to other angiosperm expansin superfamilies, but is somewhat smaller. This is likely because of a lack of genome duplication events (Amborella Genome Project 2013). Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses of A. trichopoda expansins have improved our understanding of the evolutionary history of expansins in angiosperms. Nearly all of the A. trichopoda expansins were placed into an existing Arabidopsis-rice expansin clade. Based on the results of phylogenetic and syntenic analyses, we estimate there were 12-13 EXPA genes, 2 EXPB genes, 1 EXLA gene, and 2 EXLB genes in the last common ancestor of all angiosperms.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Involvement of conservative molecular modules and cellular mechanisms in the widely diversified processes of eukaryotic cell morphogenesis leads to the intriguing question: how do similar proteins contribute to dissimilar morphogenetic outputs. Formins (FH2 proteins play a central part in the control of actin organization and dynamics, providing a good example of evolutionarily versatile use of a conserved protein domain in the context of a variety of lineage-specific structural and signalling interactions. Results In order to identify possible plant-specific sequence features within the FH2 protein family, we performed a detailed analysis of angiosperm formin-related sequences available in public databases, with particular focus on the complete Arabidopsis genome and the nearly finished rice genome sequence. This has led to revision of the current annotation of half of the 22 Arabidopsis formin-related genes. Comparative analysis of the two plant genomes revealed a good conservation of the previously described two subfamilies of plant formins (Class I and Class II, as well as several subfamilies within them that appear to predate the separation of monocot and dicot plants. Moreover, a number of plant Class II formins share an additional conserved domain, related to the protein phosphatase/tensin/auxilin fold. However, considerable inter-species variability sets limits to generalization of any functional conclusions reached on a single species such as Arabidopsis. Conclusions The plant-specific domain context of the conserved FH2 domain, as well as plant-specific features of the domain itself, may reflect distinct functional requirements in plant cells. The variability of formin structures found in plants far exceeds that known from both fungi and metazoans, suggesting a possible contribution of FH2 proteins in the evolution of the plant type of multicellularity.
Bustamam, A.; Siswantining, T.; Febriyani, N. L.; Novitasari, I. D.; Cahyaningrum, R. D.
The herpes virus can be found anywhere and one of the important characteristics is its ability to cause acute and chronic infection at certain times so as a result of the infection allows severe complications occurred. The herpes virus is composed of DNA containing protein and wrapped by glycoproteins. In this work, the Herpes viruses family is classified and analyzed by clustering their protein-sequence using Tribe Markov Clustering (Tribe-MCL) algorithm. Tribe-MCL is an efficient clustering method based on the theory of Markov chains, to classify protein families from protein sequences using pre-computed sequence similarity information. We implement the Tribe-MCL algorithm using an open source program of R. We select 24 protein sequences of Herpes virus obtained from NCBI database. The dataset consists of three types of glycoprotein B, F, and H. Each type has eight herpes virus that infected humans. Based on our simulation using different inflation factor r=1.5, 2, 3 we find a various number of the clusters results. The greater the inflation factor the greater the number of their clusters. Each protein will grouped together in the same type of protein.
Feild, Taylor S; Brodribb, Timothy J
High vein density (D(V)) evolution in angiosperms represented a key functional transition. Yet, a mechanistic account on how this hydraulic transformation evolved remains lacking. We demonstrate that a consequence of producing high D(V is that veins must become very small to fit inside the leaf, and that angiosperms are the only clade that evolved the specific type of vessel required to yield sufficiently conductive miniature leaf veins. From 111 species spanning key divergences in vascular plant evolution, we show, using analyses of vein conduit evolution in relation to vein packing, that a key xylem innovation associated with high D(V) evolution is a strong reduction in vein thickness and simplification of the perforation plates of primary xylem vessels. Simple perforation plates in the leaf xylem occurred only in derived angiosperm clades exhibiting high D(V) (> 12 mm mm(-2)). Perforation plates in the vessels of other species, including extant basal angiosperms, consisted of resistive scalariform types that were associated with thicker veins and much lower D(V). We conclude that a reduction in within-vein conduit resistance allowed vein size to decrease. We suggest that this adaptation may have been a critical evolutionary step that enabled dramatic D(V) elaboration in angiosperms. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.
Full Text Available MIKCc-type MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that control floral organ morphogenesis and flowering time in flowering plants. Here, in order to determine when the subfamilies of MIKCc originated and their early evolutionary trajectory, we sampled and analyzed the genomes and large-scale transcriptomes representing all the orders of gymnosperms and basal angiosperms. Through phylogenetic inference, the MIKCc-type MADS-box genes were subdivided into 14 monophyletic clades. Among them, the gymnosperm orthologs of AGL6, SEP, AP1, GMADS, SOC1, AGL32, AP3/PI, SVP, AGL15, ANR1, and AG were identified. We identified and characterized the origin of a novel subfamily GMADS within gymnosperms but lost orthologs in monocots and Brassicaceae. ABCE model prototype genes were relatively conserved in terms of gene number in gymnosperms, but expanded in angiosperms, whereas SVP, SOC1, and GMADS had dramatic expansions in gymnosperms but conserved in angiosperms. Our results provided the most detailed evolutionary history of all MIKCc gene clades in gymnosperms and angiosperms. We proposed that although the near complete set of MIKCc genes had evolved in gymnosperms, the duplication and expressional transition of ABCE model MIKCc genes in the ancestor of angiosperms triggered the first flower.
Chen, Fei; Zhang, Xingtan; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Liangsheng
MIKCc-type MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that control floral organ morphogenesis and flowering time in flowering plants. Here, in order to determine when the subfamilies of MIKCc originated and their early evolutionary trajectory, we sampled and analyzed the genomes and large-scale transcriptomes representing all the orders of gymnosperms and basal angiosperms. Through phylogenetic inference, the MIKCc-type MADS-box genes were subdivided into 14 monophyletic clades. Among them, the gymnosperm orthologs of AGL6, SEP, AP1, GMADS, SOC1, AGL32, AP3/PI, SVP, AGL15, ANR1, and AG were identified. We identified and characterized the origin of a novel subfamily GMADS within gymnosperms but lost orthologs in monocots and Brassicaceae. ABCE model prototype genes were relatively conserved in terms of gene number in gymnosperms, but expanded in angiosperms, whereas SVP, SOC1, and GMADS had dramatic expansions in gymnosperms but conserved in angiosperms. Our results provided the most detailed evolutionary history of all MIKCc gene clades in gymnosperms and angiosperms. We proposed that although the near complete set of MIKCc genes had evolved in gymnosperms, the duplication and expressional transition of ABCE model MIKCc genes in the ancestor of angiosperms triggered the first flower. PMID:28611810
Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin
Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions.
Heimhofer, U.; Hochuli, P. A.; Burla, S.; Dinis, J. M. L.; Weissert, H.
Palynological records from the Western Portuguese and Algarve basins (Portugal) provide new insights on the timing and pattern of the early diversification of angiosperms (flowering plants) and its relationship to global environmental perturbations during the late Early Cretaceous. Angiosperm pollen displays a stepwise increase in both diversity and relative abundance during the late Barremian to middle Albian interval (ca. 124 104 Ma), reflecting the incipient radiation of flowering plants in lower midlatitude floras. Our results provide new evidence for the age interpretation of the previously described angiosperm mesofossil floras and associated in situ pollen assemblages from the Western Portuguese basin, until now interpreted as Barremian or possibly Aptian in age. Biostratigraphic and sedimentologic evidence indicates a post-Aptian age for these assemblages, hence demonstrating a major radiation phase of angiosperms during the early Albian. Correlation of the angiosperm pollen record with data on global paleoenvironmental changes suggests a link between the rapid adaptive radiation of flowering plants and major climatic and oceanographic perturbations during the late Early Cretaceous.
Political Role of Tribes : Analysis of Tribalism, Islamism and Gender in Iraq, Jordan and Yemen. The institution of the tribe continues to represent a major component of social structure throughout the Middle East, particularly in Iraq, Jordan and Yemen. Tribal relations are deeply intertwined with political relations. In a country ...
Ravazi, A; Oliveira, J; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Alevi, K C C
The tribe Rhodniini is a monophyletic group composed of 22 species, with 19 in the Rhodnius genus and three in the Psammolestes genus. These insects are morphologically very similar (cryptic species), and new tools are important for investigating the taxonomy of these vectors. Spermiotaxonomy is an important tool in differentiating between related species, and this study analyzed the spermatids of Rhodniini species to elucidate their spermiotaxonomy. All of the Rhodniini species contained two heteropyknotic filaments in the extremities of their cells. Although spermiotaxonomy has been an important tool in differentiating between species of the Triatoma genus, all of the species in the Rhodnius genus exhibited the same characteristics in their male gametes. However, spermatid analysis made it possible to confirm the monophyly of the Rhodniini tribe, because Psammolestes tertius had the same pattern as that described for Rhodnius. The results of this study demonstrate that spermiotaxonomy, in addition to being an important tool for differentiating between related species of Triatoma, can be used as an optimization tool in phylogenetic analyses.
Long branches are potentially problematic in molecular dating because they can encompass a vast number of combinations of substitution rate and time. A long branch is suspected to have biased molecular clock estimates of the age of flowering plants (angiosperms) to be much older than their earliest fossils. This study explores the effect of the long branch subtending angiosperms in molecular dating and how different relaxed clocks react to it. Fossil angiosperm relatives, identified through a combined morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis for living and fossil seed plants, were used to break the long angiosperm stem branch. Nucleotide sequences of angiosperm fossil relatives were simulated using a phylogeny and model parameters from living taxa and incorporated in molecular dating. Three relaxed clocks, which implement among-lineage rate heterogeneity differently, were used: penalized likelihood (using 2 different rate smoothing optimization criteria), a Bayesian rate-autocorrelated method, and a Bayesian uncorrelated method. Different clocks provided highly correlated ages across the tree. Breaking the angiosperm stem branch did not result in major age differences, except for a few sensitive nodes. Breaking the angiosperm stem branch resulted in a substantially younger age for crown angiosperms only with 1 of the 4 methods, but, nevertheless, the obtained age is considerably older than the oldest angiosperm fossils. The origin of crown angiosperms is estimated between the Upper Triassic and the early Permian. The difficulty in estimating crown angiosperm age probably lies in a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic complicating factors, including substantial molecular rate heterogeneity among lineages and through time. A more adequate molecular dating approach might combine moderate background rate heterogeneity with large changes in rate at particular points in the tree.
Full Text Available The Diptera (true flies is one of the most species-abundant orders of Insecta, and it is also among the most important flower-visiting insects. Dipteran fossils are abundant in the Mesozoic, especially in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Here, we review the fossil record and early evolution of some Mesozoic lower brachyceran flies together with new records in Burmese amber, including Tabanidae, Nemestrinidae, Bombyliidae, Eremochaetidae, and Zhangsolvidae. The fossil records reveal that some flower-visiting groups had diversified during the mid-Cretaceous, consistent with the rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These brachyceran groups played an important role in the origin of co-evolutionary relationships with basal angiosperms. Moreover, the rise of angiosperms not only improved the diversity of flower-visiting flies, but also advanced the turnover and evolution of other specialized flies.
Vasconcelos, Thais N C; Proença, Carol E B; Ahmad, Berhaman; Aguilar, Daniel S; Aguilar, Reinaldo; Amorim, Bruno S; Campbell, Keron; Costa, Itayguara R; De-Carvalho, Plauto S; Faria, Jair E Q; Giaretta, Augusto; Kooij, Pepijn W; Lima, Duane F; Mazine, Fiorella F; Peguero, Brigido; Prenner, Gerhard; Santos, Matheus F; Soewarto, Julia; Wingler, Astrid; Lucas, Eve J
Myrteae (c. 2500 species; 51 genera) is the largest tribe of Myrtaceae and an ecologically important groups of angiosperms in the Neotropics. Systematic relationships in Myrteae are complex, hindering conservation initiatives and jeopardizing evolutionary modelling. A well-supported and robust phylogenetic hypothesis was here targeted towards a comprehensive understanding of the relationships within the tribe. The resultant topology was used as a base for key evolutionary analyses such as age estimation, historical biogeography and diversification rate patterns. One nuclear (ITS) and seven chloroplast (psbA-trnH, matK, ndhF, trnl-trnF, trnQ-rps16, rpl16 and rpl32-trnL) DNA regions for 115 taxa representing 46 out of the 51 genera in the tribe were accessed and analysed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference tools for phylogenetic reconstruction. Dates of diversification events were estimated and contrasted using two distinct fossil sets (macro and pollen) in BEAST. The subsequent dated phylogenies were compared and analysed for biogeographical patterns using BioGeoBEARS and diversification rates using BAMM. Myrteae phylogeny presents strong statistical support for three major clades within the tribe: Australasian group, Myrtus group and Main Neotropical Lineage. Dating results from calibration using macrofossil are an average of 20 million years older and show an early Paleocene origin of Myrteae, against a mid-Eocene one from the pollen fossil calibration. Biogeographic analysis shows the origin of Myrteae in Zealandia in both calibration approaches, followed by a widespread distribution throughout the still-linked Gondwana continents and diversification of Neotropical endemic lineages by later vicariance. Best configuration shift indicates three points of acceleration in diversification rates, all of them occurring in the Main Neotropical Lineage. Based on the reconstructed topology, several new taxonomic placements were recovered, including: the
Roddy, Adam B; Guilliams, C Matt; Lilittham, Terapan; Farmer, Jessica; Wormser, Vanessa; Pham, Trang; Fine, Paul V A; Feild, Taylor S; Dawson, Todd E
Early angiosperm evolution, beginning approximately 140 million years ago, saw many innovations that enabled flowering plants to alter ecosystems globally. These included the development of novel, flower-based pollinator attraction mechanisms and the development of increased water transport capacity in stems and leaves. Vein length per area (VLA) of leaves increased nearly threefold in the first 30-40 million years of angiosperm evolution, increasing the capacity for transpiration and photosynthesis. In contrast to leaves, high water transport capacities in flowers may not be an advantage because flowers do not typically contribute to plant carbon gain. Although flowers of extant basal angiosperms are hydrated by the xylem, flowers of more recently derived lineages may be hydrated predominantly by the phloem. In the present study, we measured leaf and flower VLA for a phylogenetically diverse sample of 132 species from 52 angiosperm families to ask (i) whether flowers have lower VLA than leaves, (ii) whether flowers of basal angiosperm lineages have higher VLA than more recently derived lineages because of differences between xylem and phloem hydration, and (iii) whether flower and leaf VLA evolved independently. It was found that floral structures had lower VLA than leaves, but basal angiosperm flowers did not have higher VLA than more derived lineages. Furthermore, the independent evolution of leaf and petal VLA suggested that these organs may be developmentally modular. Unlike leaves, which have experienced strong selection for increased water transport capacity, flowers may have been shielded from such selective pressures by different developmental processes controlling VLA throughout the plant bauplan.
Crepet, William L; Niklas, Karl J
The rapid diversification and ecological dominance of the flowering plants beg the question "Why are there so many angiosperm species and why are they so successful?" A number of equally plausible hypotheses have been advanced in response to this question, among which the most widely accepted highlights the mutually beneficial animal-plant relationships that are nowhere better developed nor more widespread than among angiosperm species and their biotic vectors for pollination and dispersal. Nevertheless, consensus acknowledges that there are many other attributes unique to or characteristic of the flowering plants. In addition, the remarkable coevolution of the angiosperms and pollination/dispersal animal agents could be an effect of the intrinsic adaptability of the flowering plants rather than a primary cause of their success, suggesting that the search for underlying causes should focus on an exploration of the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that might facilitate adaptive evolution and speciation. Here, we explore angiosperm diversity promoting attributes in their general form and draw particular attention to those that, either individually or collectively, have been shown empirically to favor high speciation rates, low extinction rates, or broad ecological tolerances. Among these are the annual growth form, homeotic gene effects, asexual/sexual reproduction, a propensity for hybrid polyploidy, and apparent "resistance" to extinction. Our survey of the literature suggests that no single vegetative, reproductive, or ecological feature taken in isolation can account for the evolutionary success of the angiosperms. Rather, we believe that the answer to Darwin's second "abominable mystery" lies in a confluence of features that collectively make the angiosperms unique among the land plants.
Wallace, Simon; Williams, Joseph H
The early evolution of angiosperms was marked by a number of innovations of the reproductive cycle including an accelerated fertilization process involving faster transport of sperm to the egg via a pollen tube. Fast pollen tube growth rates in angiosperms are accompanied by a hard shank-soft tip pollen tube morphology. A critical actor in that morphology is the wall-embedded enzyme pectin methylesterase (PME), which in type II PMEs is accompanied by a co-transcribed inhibitor, PMEI. PMEs convert the esterified pectic tip wall to a stiffer state in the subapical flank by pectin de-esterification. It is hypothesized that rapid and precise targeting of PME activity was gained with the origin of type II genes, which are derived and have only expanded since the origin of vascular plants. Pollen-active PMEs have yet to be reported in early-divergent angiosperms or gymnosperms. Gene expression studies in Nymphaea odorata found transcripts from four type II VGD1-like and 16 type I AtPPME1-like homologs that were more abundant in pollen and pollen tubes than in vegetative tissues. The near full-length coding sequence of one type II PME (NoPMEII-1) included at least one PMEI domain. The identification of possible VGD1 homologs in an early-diverging angiosperm suggests that the refined control of PMEs that mediate de-esterification of pectins near pollen tube tips is a conserved feature across angiosperms. The recruitment of type II PMEs into a pollen tube elongation role in angiosperms may represent a key evolutionary step in the development of faster growing pollen tubes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jansen, S.; Gortan, E.; Lens, F.; Assunta Lo Gullo, M.; Salleo, S.; Scholtz, A.; Stein, A.; Trifilò, P.; Nardini, A.
• The hydraulic conductance of angiosperm xylem has been suggested to vary with changes in sap solute concentrations because of intervessel pit properties. • The magnitude of the ‘ionic effect’ was linked with vessel and pit dimensions in 20 angiosperm species covering 13 families including six
Moray, Camile; Hua, Xia; Bromham, Lindell
Salt tolerance in plants is rare, yet it is found across a diverse set of taxonomic groups. This suggests that, although salt tolerance often involves a set of complex traits, it has evolved many times independently in different angiosperm lineages. However, the pattern of evolution of salt tolerance can vary dramatically between families. A recent phylogenetic study of the Chenopodiaceae (goosefoot family) concluded that salt tolerance has a conserved evolutionary pattern, being gained early in the evolution of the lineage then retained by most species in the family. Conversely, a phylogenetic study of the Poaceae (grass family) suggested over 70 independent gains of salt tolerance, most giving rise to only one or a few salt tolerant species. Here, we use a phylogenetic approach to explore the macroevolutionary patterns of salt tolerance in a sample of angiosperm families, in order to ask whether either of these two patterns - deep and conserved or shallow and labile - represents a common mode of salt tolerance evolution. We analyze the distribution of halophyte species across the angiosperms and identify families with more or less halophytes than expected under a random model. Then, we explore the phylogenetic distribution of halophytes in 22 families using phylogenetic comparative methods. We find that salt tolerance species have been reported from over one-third of angiosperm families, but that salt tolerant species are not distributed evenly across angiosperm families. We find that salt tolerance has been gained hundreds of times over the history of the angiosperms. In a few families, we find deep and conserved gains of salt tolerance, but in the majority of families analyzed, we find that the pattern of salt tolerant species is best explained by multiple independent gains that occur near the tips of the phylogeny and often give rise to only one or a few halophytes. Our results suggest that the pattern of many independent gains of salt tolerance near the tips
Most papers on the status of indigenous health focus on health problems from the individual perspective in the hope that this will spread from the individual to tribal/ethnic perspectives. For most indigenous people, the 'tribe' is their home and this home has been affected by colonial society, which has changed tribal ethics and influenced the status of indigenous health. Similarly, there are fissures in the links between indigenous people and their tribes, their ancestry, and their land because of the loss of their land, traditional culture, and racial discrimination and prejudice. These result in an imbalance between indigenous people and their environment and have a deeply felt influence on indigenous health. Transitional justice is an approach to coping with these issues that include colonization, capitalism, relationships with production, and promoting indigenous health.
Rapp, James; Albert, Steve
The San Carlos Apache Tribe (SCAT) was awarded $164,000 in late-2011 by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Tribal Energy Program's "First Steps Toward Developing Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency on Tribal Lands" Grant Program. This grant funded: The analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of tribal energy organization (this Energy Organization Analysis, hereinafter referred to as "EOA"). Start-up staffing and other costs associated with the Phase 1 SCAT energy organization. An intern program. Staff training. Tribal outreach and workshops regarding the new organization and SCAT energy programs and projects, including two annual tribal energy summits (2011 and 2012). This report documents the analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of a tribal energy organization.
Melandri, José Luis; de Pernía, Narcisana Espinoza
We studied the wood anatomy of 29 species belonging to 10 genera of the tribe Detarieae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae and compare them with tribe Caesalpinieae. Detarieae is the largest of four tribes of Caesalpinioideae, with 84 genera, only eleven occur in Venezuela with species of timber importance. The specimens were collected in Venezuela and include wood samples from the collection of the Laboratorio de Anatomía de Maderas de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales de la Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela, and of the Forest Products Laboratory of the USDA Forest Service in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. The terminology and methodology used followed the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood Identification of the IAWA Committee, 1989. Measurements from each specimen were averaged (vessel diameters, vessel element lengths, intervessels pit size, fibre lengths and ray height). The species of Detarieae can be separated using a combination of diagnostic features. Wood characters that provide the most important diagnosis and may be used in systematics of Detarieae include: intercellular axial canals, rays heterocellular, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells, irregular storied structure and fibre wall thickness. For comparative anatomy between Detarieae and Caesalpinieae: intercellular axial canals, heterocellular rays, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells (in Detarieae) and regular storied structure, fibres septate, fibre wall thick or very thick, rays homocellular, multiseriate rays and silica bodies (in Caesalpinieae). Axial parenchyma is typically a good diagnostic feature for Leguminosae, but not for Detarieae and Caesalpinieae comparisons.
Madeline R Carins Murphy
Full Text Available Producing leaves with closely spaced veins is a key innovation linked to high rates of photosynthesis in angiosperms. A close geometric link between veins and stomata in angiosperms ensures that investment in enhanced venous water transport provides the strongest net carbon return to the plant. This link is underpinned by "passive dilution" via expansion of surrounding cells. However, it is not known whether this 'passive dilution' mechanism is present in plant lineages other than angiosperms and is another key feature of the angiosperms' evolutionary success. Consequently, we sought to determine whether the 'passive dilution' mechanism is; (i exclusive to the angiosperms, (ii a conserved mechanism that evolved in the common ancestor of ferns and angiosperms, or (iii has evolved continuously over time. To do this we first we assessed the plasticity of vein and stomatal density and epidermal cell size in ferns in response to light environment. We then compared the relationships between these traits found among ferns with modelled relationships that assume vein and stomatal density respond passively to epidermal cell expansion, and with those previously observed in angiosperms. Vein density, stomatal density and epidermal cell size were linked in ferns with remarkably similar relationships to those observed in angiosperms, except that fern leaves had fewer veins per stomata. However, plasticity was limited in ferns and stomatal spacing was dependent on active stomatal differentiation as well as passive cell expansion. Thus, ferns (like angiosperms appear to coordinate vein and stomatal density with epidermal cell expansion to some extent to maintain a constant ratio between veins and stomata in the leaf. The different general relationships between vein density and stomatal density in ferns and angiosperms suggests the groups have different optimum balances between the production of vein tissue dedicated to water supply and stomatal tissue for gas
Schouten, Stefan; Woltering, Martijn; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Sluijs, Appy; Brinkhuis, Henk; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.
A study of upper Paleocene-lower Eocene (P-E) sediments deposited on the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean reveals relatively high abundances of terrestrial biomarkers. These include dehydroabietane and simonellite derived from conifers (gymnosperms) and a tetra-aromatic triterpenoid derived from angiosperms. The relative percentage of the angiosperm biomarker of the summed angiosperm + conifer biomarkers was increased at the end of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), different when observed with pollen counts which showed a relative decrease in angiosperm pollen. Stable carbon isotopic analysis of these biomarkers shows that the negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) during the PETM amounts to 3‰ for both conifer biomarkers, dehydroabietane and simonellite, comparable to the magnitude of the CIE inferred from marine carbonates, but significantly lower than the 4.5‰ of the terrestrial C 29n-alkane [M. Pagani, N. Pedentchouk, M. Huber, A. Sluijs, S. Schouten, H. Brinkhuis, J.S. Sinninghe Damsté, G.R. Dickens, and the IODP Expedition 302 Expedition Scientists (2006), Arctic's hydrology during global warming at the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. Nature, 442, 671-675.], which is a compound sourced by both conifers and angiosperms. Conspicuously, the angiosperm-sourced aromatic triterpane shows a much larger CIE of 6‰ and suggests that angiosperms increased in their carbon isotopic fractionation during the PETM. Our results thus indicate that the 4.5‰ C 29n-alkane CIE reported previously represents the average CIE of conifers and angiosperms at this site and suggest that the large and variable CIE observed in terrestrial records may be partly explained by the variable contributions of conifers and angiosperms. The differential response in isotopic fractionation of angiosperms and conifers points to different physiological responses of these vegetation types to the rise in temperature, humidity, and greenhouse gases during the PETM.
... Transportation § 170.905 How can tribes obtain training in handling hazardous material? (a) Tribes cannot use IRR Program funds to train personnel to handle radioactive and hazardous material. (b) Tribes can seek... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can tribes obtain training in handling hazardous...
Sepulchre, Pierre; Chaboureau, Anne-Claire; Donnadieu, Yannick; Franc, Alain; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste
It has long been thought that the Angiosperms diversification occurred within a context of warmer-than-present and equable climate during the Cretaceous. However, during the last decade, the view of a uniformely warm Cretaceous climate has been challenged both by paleoclimate proxies and numerical simulations. Among the processes likely affecting climate during this time, atmospheric pCO2 and tectonics appear to be pivotal to drive temperature and precipitation changes, while the feedbacks from vegetation cover changes on the hydrological cycles remain to be explored. Here we attempt to provide a review of the main studies exploring climate-vegetation interactions during the Cretaceous. Then we present climate simulations aiming at quantifying the impact of landmasses redistribution on climate and vegetation distribution from 225 Ma to 70 Ma. In our simulations, the Pangea breakup triggers the decrease of arid belts from the Triassic to the Cretaceous and a subsequent onset of humid conditions during the late Cretaceous. Positioning angiosperm-bearing fossil sites on our paleo-bioclimatic maps confirm that the rise of flowering plants occured within a context of changing climate. With additional simulations in which we modified physiological parameterizations of the vegetation, we explore the combined impact of paleogeography and shift to angiosperms-dominated land surfaces on climate at the regional and global scales. This gives us the opportunity to test earlier ideas that the angiosperms takeover could have benefited from a positive feedback induced by their particular transpiration capacities.
Fidlerová, A.; Smýkal, P.; Tupý, Jaroslav; Čapková, Věra
Roč. 158, - (2001), s. 1367-1374 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/00/1622 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : angiosperms * cell wall * glycoproteins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.018, year: 2001
Hodgson, J.G.; Sharafi, M.; Jalili, A.; Diaz, S.; Montserrat-Marti, G.; Palmer, C.; Cerabolini, B.; Pierce, S.; Hamzehee, B.; Asri, Y.; Jamzad, Z.; Wilson, P.; Zarrinkamar, F.; Raven, J.; Band, S.R.; Basconcelo, S.; Bogard, A.; Carter, G.; Charles, M.; Castro-Diez, P.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Funes, G.; Jones, M.; Khoshnevis, M.; Perez-Harguindeguy, N.; Perez-Rontome, M.C.; Shirvany, F.A.; Vendramini, F.; Yazdani, S.; Abbas-Azimi, R.; Boustani, S.; Dehghan, M.; Hynd, F.A.; Kowsary, E.; Kazemi-Saeed, F.; Siavash, B.; Villar-Salvador, P.; Cragie, R.; Naqinezhad, A.; Romo-Diez, A.; De Torres Espuny, L.; Simmons, E.
Background and Aims Genome size is a function, and the product, of cell volume. As such it is contingent on ecological circumstance. The nature of 'this ecological circumstance' is, however, hotly debated. Here, we investigate for angiosperms whether stomatal size may be this 'missing link': the
Full Text Available Species diversity varies greatly across the different taxonomic groups that comprise the Tree of Life (ToL. This imbalance is particularly conspicuous within angiosperms, but is largely unexplained. Seed mass is one trait that may help clarify why some lineages diversify more than others because it confers adaptation to different environments, which can subsequently influence speciation and extinction. The rate at which seed mass changes across the angiosperm phylogeny may also be linked to diversification by increasing reproductive isolation and allowing access to novel ecological niches. However, the magnitude and direction of the association between seed mass and diversification has not been assessed across the angiosperm phylogeny. Here, we show that absolute seed size and the rate of change in seed size are both associated with variation in diversification rates. Based on the largest available angiosperm phylogenetic tree, we found that smaller-seeded plants had higher rates of diversification, possibly due to improved colonisation potential. The rate of phenotypic change in seed size was also strongly positively correlated with speciation rates, providing rare, large-scale evidence that rapid morphological change is associated with species divergence. Our study now reveals that variation in morphological traits and, importantly, the rate at which they evolve can contribute to explaining the extremely uneven distribution of diversity across the ToL.
Igea, Javier; Miller, Eleanor F; Papadopulos, Alexander S T; Tanentzap, Andrew J
Species diversity varies greatly across the different taxonomic groups that comprise the Tree of Life (ToL). This imbalance is particularly conspicuous within angiosperms, but is largely unexplained. Seed mass is one trait that may help clarify why some lineages diversify more than others because it confers adaptation to different environments, which can subsequently influence speciation and extinction. The rate at which seed mass changes across the angiosperm phylogeny may also be linked to diversification by increasing reproductive isolation and allowing access to novel ecological niches. However, the magnitude and direction of the association between seed mass and diversification has not been assessed across the angiosperm phylogeny. Here, we show that absolute seed size and the rate of change in seed size are both associated with variation in diversification rates. Based on the largest available angiosperm phylogenetic tree, we found that smaller-seeded plants had higher rates of diversification, possibly due to improved colonisation potential. The rate of phenotypic change in seed size was also strongly positively correlated with speciation rates, providing rare, large-scale evidence that rapid morphological change is associated with species divergence. Our study now reveals that variation in morphological traits and, importantly, the rate at which they evolve can contribute to explaining the extremely uneven distribution of diversity across the ToL.
Rijpkema, A.S.; Vandenbussche, M.; Koes, R.E.; Heijmans, K.; Gerats, T.
Angiosperms display a huge variety of floral forms. The development of the ABC-model for floral organ identity, almost 20 years ago, has created an excellent basis for comparative floral development (evo-devo) studies. These have resulted in an increasingly more detailed understanding of the
Rijpkema, A.S.; Vandenbussche, M.; Koes, R.E.; Heijmans, K.; Gerats, T.
Angiosperms display a huge variety of floral forms. The development of the ABC-model for floral organ identity, almost 20 years ago, has created an excellent basis for comparative floral development (evo-devo) studies. These have resulted in an increasingly more detailed understanding of the
Olsen, Jeanine; Rouzé, Pierre; Verhelst, Bram; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Bayer, Till; Collen, Jonas; Dattolo, Emanuela; De Paoli, Emanuele; Dittami, Simon; Maumus, Florian; Michel, Gurvan; Kersting, Anna; Lauritano, Chiara; Lohaus, Rolf; Töpel, Mats; Tonon, Thierry; Vanneste, Kevin; Amirebrahimi, Mojgan; Brakel, Janina; Boström, Christoffer; Chovatia, Mansi; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry W; Jueterbock, Alexander; Mraz, Amy; Stam, Wytze T; Tice, Hope; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Green, Pamela J; Pearson, Gareth A; Procaccini, Gabriele; Duarte, Carlos M; Schmutz, Jeremy; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Van de Peer, Yves
Seagrasses colonized the sea on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals
Angiosperms are the most species-rich group of land plants, but their origins and fast and intense diversification still require an explanation. Extending research scopes can broaden theoretical frameworks and lines of evidence that can lead to solving this 'abominable mystery'. Solutions lie in understanding evolutionary trends across taxa and throughout the Phanerozoic, and integration between hypotheses and ideas that are derived from multiple disciplines. Descriptions of evolutionary chronologies should integrate between molecular phylogenies, descriptive palaeontology and palaeoecology. New molecular chronologies open new avenues of research of possible Palaeozoic angiosperm ancestors and how they evolved during as many as 200Myr until the emergence of true angiosperms. The idea that 'biodiversity creates biodiversity' requires evidence from past and present ecologies, with changes in herbivory and resource availability throughout the Phanerozoic appearing to be particularly promising. Promoting our understanding of angiosperm origins and diversification in particular, and the evolution of biodiversity in general, requires more profound understanding of the ecological past through integrating taxonomic, temporal and ecological scopes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Qiu, Y.L.; Dombrovska, O.; Lee, J.; Li, L.; Whitlock, B.A.; Bernasconi-Quadroni, F.; Rest, J.S.; Davis, C.C.; Borsch, T.; Hilu, K.W.; Renner, S.S.; Soltis, D.E.; Soltis, P.E.; Zanis, M.J.; Cannone, J.J.; Powell, M.; Savolainen, V.; Chatrou, L.W.; Chase, M.W.
DNA sequences of nine genes (plastid: atpB, matK, and rbcL; mitochondrial: atp1, matR, mtSSU, and mtLSU; nuclear: 18S and 26S rDNAs) from 100 species of basal angiosperms and gymnosperms were analyzed using parsimony, Bayesian, and maximum likelihood methods. All of these analyses support the
Berendse, F.; Scheffer, M.
One of the greatest terrestrial radiations is the diversification of the flowering plants (Angiospermae) in the Cretaceous period. Early angiosperms appear to have been limited to disturbed, aquatic or extremely dry sites, suggesting that they were suppressed in most other places by the gymnosperms
Full Text Available The difference between the uniparental maternal and biparental type of plastid inheritance is based upon a relatively simple mechanism. In the uniparental type plastids are excluded from the generative or siperm cells during the firts pollen mitosis or during pollen development. In some angiosperms this exclusion is completely lacking or carried out partially.
Bellot, Sidonie; Renner, Susanne S
The most recent reviews of the reproductive biology and sexual systems of parasitic angiosperms were published 17 yr ago and reported that dioecy might be associated with parasitism. We use current knowledge on parasitic lineages and their sister groups, and data on the reproductive biology and sexual systems of Apodanthaceae, to readdress the question of possible trends in the reproductive biology of parasitic angiosperms. • Fieldwork in Zimbabwe and Iran produced data on the pollinators and sexual morph frequencies in two species of Apodanthaceae. Data on pollinators, dispersers, and sexual systems in parasites and their sister groups were compiled from the literature. • With the possible exception of some Viscaceae, most of the ca. 4500 parasitic angiosperms are animal-pollinated, and ca. 10% of parasites are dioecious, but the gain and loss of dioecy across angiosperms is too poorly known to infer a statistical correlation. The studied Apodanthaceae are dioecious and pollinated by nectar- or pollen-foraging Calliphoridae and other flies. • Sister group comparisons so far do not reveal any reproductive traits that evolved (or were lost) concomitant with a parasitic life style, but the lack of wind pollination suggests that this pollen vector may be maladaptive in parasites, perhaps because of host foliage or flowers borne close to the ground.
The difference between the uniparental maternal and biparental type of plastid inheritance is based upon a relatively simple mechanism. In the uniparental type plastids are excluded from the generative or siperm cells during the firts pollen mitosis or during pollen development. In some angiosperms this exclusion is completely lacking or carried out partially.
Wang, Xiao-Fan; Armbruster, W Scott; Huang, Shuang-Quan
• Fusion of floral carpels (syncarpy) in angiosperms is thought to have allowed for significant improvements in offspring quantity and quality in syncarpous species over gymnosperms and apocarpous (free-carpelled) angiosperms. Given the disadvantages of apocarpy, it remains an evolutionary puzzle why many angiosperm lineages with free carpels (apocarpy) have been so successful and why some lineages show reversals to apocarpy. • To investigate whether some advantages of syncarpy may accrue in other ways to apocarpous species, we reviewed previous studies of pollen-tube growth in apocarpous species and also documented pollen-tube growth in nine additional apocarpous species in six families. • Anatomical studies of a scattering of apocarpous paleodicots, monocots, and eudicots show that, after transiting the style, 'extra' pollen tubes exit fully fertilized carpels and grow to other carpels with unfertilized ovules. In many species this occurs via openings in the simple carpels, as we report here for Sagittaria potamogetifolia, Sagittaria pygmaea, Sedum lineare, and Schisandra sphenanthera. • The finding that extra-gynoecial pollen-tube growth is widespread in apocarpous species eliminates the possibility of a major fitness cost of apocarpy relative to syncarpy and may help to explain the persistence of, and multiple reversals to, apocarpy in the evolutionary history of angiosperms. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.
Vialette-Guiraud, Aurélie C M; Adam, Hélène; Finet, Cédric; Jasinski, Sophie; Jouannic, Stefan; Scutt, Charles P
The closely related NAC family genes NO APICAL MERISTEM (NAM) and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3) regulate the formation of boundaries within and between plant organs. NAM is post-transcriptionally regulated by miR164, whereas CUC3 is not. To gain insight into the evolution of NAM and CUC3 in the angiosperms, we analysed orthologous genes in early-diverging ANA-grade angiosperms and gymnosperms. We obtained NAM- and CUC3-like sequences from diverse angiosperms and gymnosperms by a combination of reverse transcriptase PCR, cDNA library screening and database searching, and then investigated their phylogenetic relationships by performing maximum-likelihood reconstructions. We also studied the spatial expression patterns of NAM, CUC3 and MIR164 orthologues in female reproductive tissues of Amborella trichopoda, the probable sister to all other flowering plants. Separate NAM and CUC3 orthologues were found in early-diverging angiosperms, but not in gymnosperms, which contained putative orthologues of the entire NAM + CUC3 clade that possessed sites of regulation by miR164. Multiple paralogues of NAM or CUC3 genes were noted in certain taxa, including Brassicaceae. Expression of NAM, CUC3 and MIR164 orthologues from Am. trichopoda was found to co-localize in ovules at the developmental boundary between the chalaza and nucellus. The NAM and CUC3 lineages were generated by duplication, and CUC3 was subsequently lost regulation by miR164, prior to the last common ancestor of the extant angiosperms. However, the paralogous NAM clade genes CUC1 and CUC2 were generated by a more recent duplication, near the base of Brassicaceae. The function of NAM and CUC3 in defining a developmental boundary in the ovule appears to have been conserved since the last common ancestor of the flowering plants, as does the post-transcriptional regulation in ovule tissues of NAM by miR164.
Fogliani, Bruno; Gâteblé, Gildas; Villegente, Matthieu; Fabre, Isabelle; Klein, Nicolas; Anger, Nicolas; Baskin, Carol C; Scutt, Charlie P
Recent parsimony-based reconstructions suggest that seeds of early angiosperms had either morphophysiological or physiological dormancy, with the former considered as more probable. The aim of this study was to determine the class of seed dormancy present in Amborella trichopoda , the sole living representative of the most basal angiosperm lineage Amborellales, with a view to resolving fully the class of dormancy present at the base of the angiosperm clade. Drupes of A. trichopoda without fleshy parts were germinated and dissected to observe their structure and embryo growth. Pre-treatments including acid scarification, gibberellin treatment and seed excision were tested to determine their influence on dormancy breakage and germination. Character-state mapping by maximum parsimony, incorporating data from the present work and published sources, was then used to determine the likely class of dormancy present in early angiosperms. Germination in A. trichopoda requires a warm stratification period of at least approx. 90 d, which is followed by endosperm swelling, causing the water-permeable pericarp-mesocarp envelope to split open. The embryo then grows rapidly within the seed, to radicle emergence some 17 d later and cotyledon emergence after an additional 24 d. Gibberellin treatment, acid scarification and excision of seeds from the surrounding drupe tissues all promoted germination by shortening the initial phase of dormancy, prior to embryo growth. Seeds of A. trichopoda have non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy, in which mechanical resistance of the pericarp-mesocarp envelope plays a key role in the initial physiological phase. Maximum parsimony analyses, including data obtained in the present work, indicate that morphophysiological dormancy is likely to be a pleisiomorphic trait in flowering plants. The significance of this conclusion for studies of early angiosperm evolution is discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on
... employees. VI. Innovative and Effective Consultation Practices The Department's leadership will strive to... or facilitating an effective consultation process, negotiated rulemaking or other collaborative... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Policy on Consultation With Indian Tribes...
Full Text Available Nicobarese are one of the six aboriginal tribes inhabiting Andaman and Nicobar Islands. They account for over 95% of the total tribal population in the islands and majority of them inhabit at Car Nicobar, which is the capital of Nicobar district and popularly called as Coconut Island. The Nicobari tribes are hunters and gatherers who use their indigenous knowledge for exploitation of marine fishery resources using locally available materials. The common fishing methods in vogue are tamatu (trap, thanam kak (spear with rope chok/linreny kak (spear with rubber, kinyav (icthyotoxic seed, thakua kak (line, kel thakua kak (hand line, tamarotha thakua kak (long line, Hanak Inhal Kak (shore seine, Inruon thakua kak (troll line and Inhal (gill net. The Nicobari tribes have inherited the skill for designing and operating these gears from their forefathers. This paper summarises the traditional knowledge existing and commonly practiced among the Nicobari tribes for exploitation of marine fish at Car Nicobar.
... judicial review of final administrative decisions to take land in trust for Indian tribes and individual... Manual 8.1. Dated: November 12, 2010. Larry Echo Hawk, Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs. BILLING CODE...
Johnson, Jennifer [Washoe Tribe of NV and CA
The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California was awarded funding to complete the Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study project. The main goal of the project was to complete an alternative energy feasibility study. This study was completed to evaluate “the potential for development of a variety of renewable energy projects and to conduct an alternative energy feasibility study that determines which alternative energy resources have the greatest economic opportunity for the Tribe, while respecting cultural and environmental values” (Baker-Tilly, 2014). The study concluded that distributed generation solar projects are the best option for renewable energy development and asset ownership for the Washoe Tribe. Concentrating solar projects, utility scale wind projects, geothermal, and biomass resource projects were also evaluated during the study and it was determined that these alternatives would not be feasible at this time.
Howarth, D. [Morse, Richard, and Weisenmiller, and Associates Inc., Oakland, CA (United States); Busch, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Starrs, T. [Kelso, Starrs, and Associates LLC, Vashon, WA (United States)
The US electric utility industry is undergoing a period of fundamental change that has significant implications for Native American tribes. Although many details remain to be determined, the future electric power industry will be very different from that of the present. It is anticipated that the new competitive electric industry will be more efficient, which some believe will benefit all participants by lowering electricity costs. Recent developments in the industry, however, indicate that the restructuring process will likely benefit some parties at the expense of others. Given the historical experience and current situation of Native American tribes in the US, there is good reason to pay attention to electric industry changes to ensure that the situation of tribes is improved and not worsened as a result of electric restructuring. This paper provides a review of electricity restructuring in the US and identifies ways in which tribes may be affected and how tribes may seek to protect and serve their interests. Chapter 2 describes the current status of energy production and service on reservations. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the evolution of the electric industry to its present form and introduces the regulatory and structural changes presently taking place. Chapter 4 provides a more detailed discussion of changes in the US electric industry with a specific focus on the implications of these changes for tribes. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the conclusions reached in this paper.
... applicant pool become self-governance Tribes? 1000.27 Section 1000.27 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... for Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.27 How does the Director select which Tribes in the applicant pool become self-governance Tribes? The Director selects up...
Full Text Available PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1 is an important secondary transporter and determines the direction of intercellular auxin flow. As PIN1 performs the conserved function of auxin transport, it is expected that the sequence and structure of PIN1 is conserved. Therefore, we hypothesized that PIN1 evolve under pervasive purifying selection in the protein-coding sequences in angiosperm. To test this hypothesis, we performed detailed evolutionary analyses of 67 PIN1 sequences from 35 angiosperm species. We found that the PIN1 sequences are highly conserved within their transmembrane regions, part of their hydrophilic regions. We also found that there are two or more PIN1 copies in some of these angiosperm species. PIN1 sequences from Poaceae and Brassicaceae are representative of the modern clade. We identified 12 highly conserved motifs and a significant number of family-specific sites within these motifs. One family-specific site within Motif 11 shows a different residue between monocots and dicots, and is functionally critical for the polarity of PIN1. Likewise, the function of PIN1 appears to be different between monocots and dicots since the phenotype associated with PIN1 overexpression is opposite between Arabidopsis and rice. The evolution of angiosperm PIN1 protein-coding sequences appears to have been primarily driven by purifying selection, but traces of positive selection associated with sequences from certain families also seem to be present. We verified this observation by calculating the numbers of non-synonymous and synonymous changes on each branch of a phylogenetic tree. Our results indicate that the evolution of angiosperm PIN1 sequences involve strong purifying selection. In addition, our results suggest that the conserved sequences of PIN1 derive from a combination of the family-specific site variations and conserved motifs during their unique evolutionary processes, which is critical for the functional integrity and stability of these auxin
Rice Danny W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies, using in aggregate some 28 genes, have achieved a consensus in recognizing three groups of plants, including Amborella, as comprising the basal-most grade of all other angiosperms. A major exception is the recent study by Goremykin et al. (2003; Mol. Biol. Evol. 20:1499–1505, whose analyses of 61 genes from 13 sequenced chloroplast genomes of land plants nearly always found 100% support for monocots as the deepest angiosperms relative to Amborella, Calycanthus, and eudicots. We hypothesized that this conflict reflects a misrooting of angiosperms resulting from inadequate taxon sampling, inappropriate phylogenetic methodology, and rapid evolution in the grass lineage used to represent monocots. Results We used two main approaches to test this hypothesis. First, we sequenced a large number of chloroplast genes from the monocot Acorus and added these plus previously sequenced Acorus genes to the Goremykin et al. (2003 dataset in order to explore the effects of altered monocot sampling under the same analytical conditions used in their study. With Acorus alone representing monocots, strongly supported Amborella-sister trees were obtained in all maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses, and in some distance-based analyses. Trees with both Acorus and grasses gave either a well-supported Amborella-sister topology or else a highly unlikely topology with 100% support for grasses-sister and paraphyly of monocots (i.e., Acorus sister to "dicots" rather than to grasses. Second, we reanalyzed the Goremykin et al. (2003 dataset focusing on methods designed to account for rate heterogeneity. These analyses supported an Amborella-sister hypothesis, with bootstrap support values often conflicting strongly with cognate analyses performed without allowing for rate heterogeneity. In addition, we carried out a limited set of analyses that included the chloroplast genome of Nymphaea, whose position as a basal angiosperm was
Wang, Pengkai; Cheng, Tielong; Wu, Shuang; Zhao, Fangfang; Wang, Guangping; Yang, Liming; Lu, Mengzhu; Chen, Jinhui; Shi, Jisen
PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1) is an important secondary transporter and determines the direction of intercellular auxin flow. As PIN1 performs the conserved function of auxin transport, it is expected that the sequence and structure of PIN1 is conserved. Therefore, we hypothesized that PIN1 evolve under pervasive purifying selection in the protein-coding sequences in angiosperm. To test this hypothesis, we performed detailed evolutionary analyses of 67 PIN1 sequences from 35 angiosperm species. We found that the PIN1 sequences are highly conserved within their transmembrane regions, part of their hydrophilic regions. We also found that there are two or more PIN1 copies in some of these angiosperm species. PIN1 sequences from Poaceae and Brassicaceae are representative of the modern clade. We identified 12 highly conserved motifs and a significant number of family-specific sites within these motifs. One family-specific site within Motif 11 shows a different residue between monocots and dicots, and is functionally critical for the polarity of PIN1. Likewise, the function of PIN1 appears to be different between monocots and dicots since the phenotype associated with PIN1 overexpression is opposite between Arabidopsis and rice. The evolution of angiosperm PIN1 protein-coding sequences appears to have been primarily driven by purifying selection, but traces of positive selection associated with sequences from certain families also seem to be present. We verified this observation by calculating the numbers of non-synonymous and synonymous changes on each branch of a phylogenetic tree. Our results indicate that the evolution of angiosperm PIN1 sequences involve strong purifying selection. In addition, our results suggest that the conserved sequences of PIN1 derive from a combination of the family-specific site variations and conserved motifs during their unique evolutionary processes, which is critical for the functional integrity and stability of these auxin transporters
Gadella, Th.W.J.; Kliphuis, E.
The chromosome number of 53 species of Angiosperms, occurring in the Valley of Aosta and in the National Park « Gran Paradise » was determined. Some notes on the taxonomy of some species are presented in this paper.
Full Text Available We present 25 new records of angiosperms for the Peruvian flora, as a result of different botanical explorations conducted in southern Peru, mainly in the areas of the departments of Cusco, Apurimac and Madre de Dios.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Different theories for the origin of the angiosperm hermaphrodite flower make different predictions concerning the overlap between the genes expressed in the male and female cones of gymnosperms and the genes expressed in the hermaphrodite flower of angiosperms. The Mostly Male (MM theory predicts that, of genes expressed primarily in male versus female gymnosperm cones, an excess of male orthologs will be expressed in flowers, excluding ovules, while Out Of Male (OOM and Out Of Female (OOF theories predict no such excess. Results In this paper, we tested these predictions by comparing the transcriptomes of three gymnosperms (Ginkgo biloba, Welwitschia mirabilis and Zamia fisheri and two angiosperms (Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, using EST data. We found that the proportion of orthologous genes expressed in the reproductive organs of the gymnosperms and in the angiosperms flower is significantly higher than the proportion of orthologous genes expressed in the reproductive organs of the gymnosperms and in the angiosperms vegetative tissues, which shows that the approach is correct. However, we detected no significant differences between the proportion of gymnosperm orthologous genes expressed in the male cone and in the angiosperms flower and the proportion of gymnosperm orthologous genes expressed in the female cone and in the angiosperms flower. Conclusions These results do not support the MM theory prediction of an excess of male gymnosperm genes expressed in the hermaphrodite flower of the angiosperms and seem to support the OOM/OOF theories. However, other explanations can be given for the 1:1 ratio that we found. More abundant and more specific (namely carpel and ovule expression data should be produced in order to further test these theories.
Background Different theories for the origin of the angiosperm hermaphrodite flower make different predictions concerning the overlap between the genes expressed in the male and female cones of gymnosperms and the genes expressed in the hermaphrodite flower of angiosperms. The Mostly Male (MM) theory predicts that, of genes expressed primarily in male versus female gymnosperm cones, an excess of male orthologs will be expressed in flowers, excluding ovules, while Out Of Male (OOM) and Out Of Female (OOF) theories predict no such excess. Results In this paper, we tested these predictions by comparing the transcriptomes of three gymnosperms (Ginkgo biloba, Welwitschia mirabilis and Zamia fisheri) and two angiosperms (Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa), using EST data. We found that the proportion of orthologous genes expressed in the reproductive organs of the gymnosperms and in the angiosperms flower is significantly higher than the proportion of orthologous genes expressed in the reproductive organs of the gymnosperms and in the angiosperms vegetative tissues, which shows that the approach is correct. However, we detected no significant differences between the proportion of gymnosperm orthologous genes expressed in the male cone and in the angiosperms flower and the proportion of gymnosperm orthologous genes expressed in the female cone and in the angiosperms flower. Conclusions These results do not support the MM theory prediction of an excess of male gymnosperm genes expressed in the hermaphrodite flower of the angiosperms and seem to support the OOM/OOF theories. However, other explanations can be given for the 1:1 ratio that we found. More abundant and more specific (namely carpel and ovule) expression data should be produced in order to further test these theories. PMID:20682074
Qiu, Y L; Lee, J; Whitlock, B A; Bernasconi-Quadroni, F; Dombrovska, O
Five groups of basal angiosperms, Amborella, Nymphaeales, Illiciales, Trimeniaceae, and Austrobaileya (ANITA), were identified in several recent studies as representing a series of the earliest-diverging lineages of the angiosperm phylogeny. All of these studies except one employed a multigene analysis approach and used gymnosperms as the outgroup to determine the ingroup topology. The high level of divergence between gymnosperms and angiosperms, however, has long been implicated in the difficulty of reconstructing relationships at the base of angiosperm phylogeny using DNA sequences, for fear of long-branch attraction (LBA). In this study, we replaced the gymnosperm sequences from the five-gene matrix (mitochondrial atp1 and matR, plastid atpB and rbcL, and nuclear 18S rDNA) used in our earlier study with four categories of divergent sequences--random sequences with equal base frequencies or equally AT- and GC-rich contents, homopolymers and heteropolymers, misaligned gymnosperm sequences, and aligned lycopod and bryophyte sequences--to evaluate whether the gymnosperms were an appropriate outgroup to angiosperms in our earlier study that identified the ANITA rooting. All 24 analyses performed rooted the angiosperm phylogeny at either Acorus or Alisma (or Alisma-Triglochin-Potamogeton in one case due to use of a slightly different alignment) and placed the monocots as a basal grade, producing genuine LBA results. These analyses demonstrate that the identification of ANITA as the basalmost extant angiosperms was based on historical signals preserved in the gymnosperm sequences and that the gymnosperms were an appropriate outgroup with which to root the angiosperm phylogeny in the multigene sequence analysis. This strategy of evaluating the appropriateness of an outgroup using artificial sequences and a series of outgroups with increments of divergence levels can be applied to investigations of phylogenetic patterns at the bases of other major clades, such as land
Busch, Andrea; Zachgo, Sabine
Flower symmetry is considered a morphological novelty that contributed significantly to the rapid radiation of the angiosperms, which already puzzled Charles Darwin and prompted him to name this phenomenon an 'abominable mystery'. In 2009, the bicentenary of Darwin's birth and the 150th anniversary of the publication of his seminal work, 'On the Origin of Species', this question can now be more satisfactorily readdressed. Understanding the molecular control of monosymmetry formation in the model species Antirrhinum opened the path for comparative studies with non-model species revealing modifications of this trait. TCP transcription factors, named after TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1 in maize, CYCLOIDEA in snapdragon and PCF in rice, control flower monosymmetry development and contributed to establishing this trait several times independently in higher angiosperms. The joint advances in evolutionary and developmental plant research, combined in the novel research field named Evo/Devo, aim at elucidating the molecular mechanisms and strategies to unravel the mystery of how this diversity has been generated.
Raubeso, Linda A.; Peery, Rhiannon; Chumley, Timothy W.; Dziubek,Chris; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.
The number of completely sequenced plastid genomes available is growing rapidly. This new array of sequences presents new opportunities to perform comparative analyses. In comparative studies, it is most useful to compare across wide phylogenetic spans and, within angiosperms, to include representatives from basally diverging lineages such as the new genomes reported here: Nuphar advena (from a basal-most lineage) and Ranunculus macranthus (from the basal group of eudicots). We report these two new plastid genome sequences and make comparisons (within angiosperms, seed plants, or all photosynthetic lineages) to evaluate features such as the status of ycf15 and ycf68 as protein coding genes, the distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and longer dispersed repeats (SDR), and patterns of nucleotide composition.
Gandolfo, M A; Nixon, K C; Crepet, W L
Based on recent molecular systematics studies, the water lily lineage (Nymphaeales) provides an important key to understanding ancestral angiosperm morphology and is of considerable interest in the context of angiosperm origins. Therefore, the fossil record of Nymphaeales potentially provides evidence on both the timing and nature of diversification of one of the earliest clades of flowering plants. Recent fossil evidence of Turonian age (approximately 90 million years B.P.) includes fossil flowers with characters that, upon rigorous analysis, firmly place them within Nymphaeaceae. Unequivocally the oldest floral record of the Nymphaeales, these fossils are closely related to the modern Nymphaealean genera Victoria (the giant Amazon water lily) and Euryale. Although the fossils are much smaller than their modern relatives, the precise and dramatic correspondence between the fossil floral morphology and that of modern Victoria flowers suggests that beetle entrapment pollination was present in the earliest part of the Late Cretaceous.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Shuffling of modular protein domains is an important source of evolutionary innovation. Formins are a family of actin-organizing proteins that share a conserved FH2 domain but their overall domain architecture differs dramatically between opisthokonts (metazoans and fungi and plants. We performed a phylogenomic analysis of formins in most eukaryotic kingdoms, aiming to reconstruct an evolutionary scenario that may have produced the current diversity of domain combinations with focus on the origin of the angiosperm formin architectures. Results The Rho GTPase-binding domain (GBD/FH3 reported from opisthokont and Dictyostelium formins was found in all lineages except plants, suggesting its ancestral character. Instead, mosses and vascular plants possess the two formin classes known from angiosperms: membrane-anchored Class I formins and Class II formins carrying a PTEN-like domain. PTEN-related domains were found also in stramenopile formins, where they have been probably acquired independently rather than by horizontal transfer, following a burst of domain rearrangements in the chromalveolate lineage. A novel RhoGAP-related domain was identified in some algal, moss and lycophyte (but not angiosperm formins that define a specific branch (Class III of the formin family. Conclusion We propose a scenario where formins underwent multiple domain rearrangements in several eukaryotic lineages, especially plants and chromalveolates. In plants this replaced GBD/FH3 by a probably inactive RhoGAP-like domain, preserving a formin-mediated association between (membrane-anchored Rho GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton. Subsequent amplification of formin genes, possibly coincident with the expansion of plants to dry land, was followed by acquisition of alternative membrane attachment mechanisms present in extant Class I and Class II formins, allowing later loss of the RhoGAP-like domain-containing formins in angiosperms.
Taylor, Mackenzie L; Cooper, Ranessa L; Schneider, Edward L; Osborn, Jeffrey M
A knowledge of pollen characters in early-diverging angiosperm lineages is essential for understanding pollen evolution and the role of pollen in angiosperm diversification. In this paper, we report and synthesize data on mature pollen and pollen ontogeny from all genera of Nymphaeales within a comparative, phylogenetic context and consider pollen evolution in this early-diverging angiosperm lineage. We describe mature pollen characters for Euryale, Barclaya, and Nymphaea ondinea, taxa for which little to no structural data exist. We studied mature pollen for all nymphaealean genera using light, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. We reviewed published reports of nymphaealean pollen to provide a comprehensive discussion of pollen characters in water lilies. Nymphaeales exhibit diversity in key pollen characters, including dispersal unit size, ornamentation, aperture morphology, and tapetum type. All Nymphaeales pollen are tectate-columellate, exhibiting one of two distinct patterns of infratectal ultrastructure-a thick infratectal space with robust columellae or a thin infratectal space with thin columellae. All genera have pollen with a lamellate endexine that becomes compressed in the proximal, but not distal wall. This endexine ultrastructure supports the operculate hypothesis for aperture origin. Nymphaeaceae pollen exhibit a membranous granular layer, which is a synapomorphy of the family. Variation in pollen characters indicates that significant potential for lability in pollen development was present in Nymphaeales at the time of its divergence from the rest of angiosperms. Structural and ontogenetic data are essential for interpreting pollen characters, such as infratectum and endexine ultrastructure in Nymphaeales. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.
Lora, J.; Hormaza, J. I.; Herrero, M.
Background and Aims Recent studies of reproductive biology in ancient angiosperm lineages are beginning to shed light on the early evolution of flowering plants, but comparative studies are restricted by fragmented and meagre species representation in these angiosperm clades. In the present study, the progamic phase, from pollination to fertilization, is characterized in Annona cherimola, which is a member of the Annonaceae, the largest extant family among early-divergent angiosperms. Beside interest due to its phylogenetic position, this species is also an ancient crop with a clear niche for expansion in subtropical climates. Methods The kinetics of the reproductive process was established following controlled pollinations and sequential fixation. Gynoecium anatomy, pollen tube pathway, embryo sac and early post-fertilization events were characterized histochemically. Key Results A plesiomorphic gynoecium with a semi-open carpel shows a continuous secretory papillar surface along the carpel margins, which run from the stigma down to the obturator in the ovary. The pollen grains germinate in the stigma and compete in the stigma-style interface to reach the narrow secretory area that lines the margins of the semi-open stylar canal and is able to host just one to three pollen tubes. The embryo sac has eight nuclei and is well provisioned with large starch grains that are used during early cellular endosperm development. Conclusions A plesiomorphic simple gynoecium hosts a simple pollen–pistil interaction, based on a support–control system of pollen tube growth. Support is provided through basipetal secretory activity in the cells that line the pollen tube pathway. Spatial constraints, favouring pollen tube competition, are mediated by a dramatic reduction in the secretory surface available for pollen tube growth at the stigma–style interface. This extramural pollen tube competition contrasts with the intrastylar competition predominant in more recently derived
Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Tank, David C; Donoghue, Michael J
Background New powerful biogeographic methods have focused attention on long-standing hypotheses regarding the influence of the break-up of Gondwana on the biogeography of Southern Hemisphere plant groups. Studies to date have often concluded that these groups are too young to have been influenced by these ancient continental movements. Here we examine a much larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer its biogeographic history by combining Bayesian divergence time informat...
Chhabra, S C; Mahunnah, R L; Mshiu, E N
Sixty-one Angiosperms (Passifloraceae to Sapindaceae) are listed, which are used by traditional healers in five regions of Eastern Tanzania, namely, Coast, Dar es Salaam, Kilimanjaro, Morogoro and Tanga. For each species listed, the botanical name, vernacular name, collection number, locality, habit, distribution and medicinal uses are given. Additionally, information from the literature on medicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological effects are also provided.
Sieg, R Drew; Kubanek, Julia
This review examines the state of the field for chemically mediated interactions involving marine angiosperms (seagrasses, mangroves, and salt marsh angiosperms). Small-scale interactions among these plants and their herbivores, pathogens, fouling organisms, and competitors are explored, as are community-level effects of plant secondary metabolites. At larger spatial scales, secondary metabolites from marine angiosperms function as reliable cues for larval settlement, molting, or habitat selection by fish and invertebrates, and can influence community structure and ecosystem function. Several recent studies illustrate the importance of chemical defenses from these plants that deter feeding by herbivores and infection by pathogens, but the extent to which allelopathic compounds kill or inhibit the growth of competitors is less clear. While some phenolic compounds such as ferulic acid and caffeic acid act as critical defenses against herbivores and pathogens, we find that a high total concentration of phenolic compounds within bulk plant tissues is not a strong predictor of defense. Residual chemical defenses prevent shredding or degradation of plant detritus by detritivores and microbes, delaying the time before plant matter can enter the microbial loop. Mangroves, marsh plants, and seagrasses remain plentiful sources of new natural products, but ecological functions are known for only a small proportion of these compounds. As new analytical techniques are incorporated into ecological studies, opportunities are emerging for chemical ecologists to test how subtle environmental cues affect the production and release of marine angiosperm chemical defenses or signaling molecules. Throughout this review, we point to areas for future study, highlighting opportunities for new directions in chemical ecology that will advance our understanding of ecological interactions in these valuable ecosystems.
Puttick, Mark N.; Clark, James; Donoghue, Philip C. J.
Angiosperms represent one of the key examples of evolutionary success, and their diversity dwarfs other land plants; this success has been linked, in part, to genome size and phenomena such as whole genome duplication events. However, while angiosperms exhibit a remarkable breadth of genome size, evidence linking overall genome size to diversity is equivocal, at best. Here, we show that the rates of speciation and genome size evolution are tightly correlated across land plants, and angiosperms show the highest rates for both, whereas very slow rates are seen in their comparatively species-poor sister group, the gymnosperms. No evidence is found linking overall genome size and rates of speciation. Within angiosperms, both the monocots and eudicots show the highest rates of speciation and genome size evolution, and these data suggest a potential explanation for the megadiversity of angiosperms. It is difficult to associate high rates of diversification with different types of polyploidy, but it is likely that high rates of evolution correlate with a smaller genome size after genome duplications. The diversity of angiosperms may, in part, be due to an ability to increase evolvability by benefiting from whole genome duplications, transposable elements and general genome plasticity. PMID:26631568
Ahrens, Dirk; Schwarzer, Julia; Vogler, Alfried P
Extant terrestrial biodiversity arguably is driven by the evolutionary success of angiosperm plants, but the evolutionary mechanisms and timescales of angiosperm-dependent radiations remain poorly understood. The Scarabaeoidea is a diverse lineage of predominantly plant- and dung-feeding beetles. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis of Scarabaeoidea based on four DNA markers for a taxonomically comprehensive set of specimens and link it to recently described fossil evidence. The phylogeny strongly supports multiple origins of coprophagy, phytophagy and anthophagy. The ingroup-based fossil calibration of the tree widely confirmed a Jurassic origin of the Scarabaeoidea crown group. The crown groups of phytophagous lineages began to radiate first (Pleurostict scarabs: 108 Ma; Glaphyridae between 101 Ma), followed by the later diversification of coprophagous lineages (crown-group age Scarabaeinae: 76 Ma; Aphodiinae: 50 Ma). Pollen feeding arose even later, at maximally 62 Ma in the oldest anthophagous lineage. The clear time lag between the origins of herbivores and coprophages suggests an evolutionary path driven by the angiosperms that first favoured the herbivore fauna (mammals and insects) followed by the secondary radiation of the dung feeders. This finding makes it less likely that extant dung beetle lineages initially fed on dinosaur excrements, as often hypothesized. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Blazier, J. Chris; Ruhlman, Tracey A.; Weng, Mao-Lun; Rehman, Sumaiyah K.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Jansen, Robert K.
Genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) persist in the plastid genomes of all photosynthetic angiosperms. However, three unrelated lineages (Annonaceae, Passifloraceae and Geraniaceae) have been identified with unusually divergent open reading frames (ORFs) in the conserved region of rpoA, the gene encoding the PEP α subunit. We used sequence-based approaches to evaluate whether these genes retain function. Both gene sequences and complete plastid genome sequences were assembled and analyzed from each of the three angiosperm families. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that the rpoA sequences are likely functional despite retaining as low as 30% nucleotide sequence identity with rpoA genes from outgroups in the same angiosperm order. The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions indicated that these genes are under purifying selection, and bioinformatic prediction of conserved domains indicated that functional domains are preserved. One of the lineages (Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) contains species with multiple rpoA-like ORFs that show evidence of ongoing inter-paralog gene conversion. The plastid genomes containing these divergent rpoA genes have experienced extensive structural rearrangement, including large expansions of the inverted repeat. We propose that illegitimate recombination, not positive selection, has driven the divergence of rpoA. PMID:27087667
Xi, Zhenxiang; Ruhfel, Brad R.; Schaefer, Hanno; Amorim, André M.; Sugumaran, M.; Wurdack, Kenneth J.; Endress, Peter K.; Matthews, Merran L.; Stevens, Peter F.; Mathews, Sarah; Davis, Charles C.
The angiosperm order Malpighiales includes ∼16,000 species and constitutes up to 40% of the understory tree diversity in tropical rain forests. Despite remarkable progress in angiosperm systematics during the last 20 y, relationships within Malpighiales remain poorly resolved, possibly owing to its rapid rise during the mid-Cretaceous. Using phylogenomic approaches, including analyses of 82 plastid genes from 58 species, we identified 12 additional clades in Malpighiales and substantially increased resolution along the backbone. This greatly improved phylogeny revealed a dynamic history of shifts in net diversification rates across Malpighiales, with bursts of diversification noted in the Barbados cherries (Malpighiaceae), cocas (Erythroxylaceae), and passion flowers (Passifloraceae). We found that commonly used a priori approaches for partitioning concatenated data in maximum likelihood analyses, by gene or by codon position, performed poorly relative to the use of partitions identified a posteriori using a Bayesian mixture model. We also found better branch support in trees inferred from a taxon-rich, data-sparse matrix, which deeply sampled only the phylogenetically critical placeholders, than in trees inferred from a taxon-sparse matrix with little missing data. Although this matrix has more missing data, our a posteriori partitioning strategy reduced the possibility of producing multiple distinct but equally optimal topologies and increased phylogenetic decisiveness, compared with the strategy of partitioning by gene. These approaches are likely to help improve phylogenetic resolution in other poorly resolved major clades of angiosperms and to be more broadly useful in studies across the Tree of Life. PMID:23045684
Taylor, Edith L; Taylor, Thomas N
Five orders of late Paleozoic-Mesozoic seed ferns have, at one time or another, figured in discussions on the origin of angiosperms, even before the application of phylogenetic systematics. These are the Glossopteridales, Peltaspermales, Corystospermales, Caytoniales, and Petriellales. Although vegetative features have been used to suggest homologies, most discussion has focused on ovulate structures, which are generally interpreted as megasporophylls bearing seeds, with the seeds partially to almost completely enclosed by the megasporophyll (or cupule). Here we discuss current information about the reproductive parts of these plants. Since most specimens are impression-compression remains, homologizing the ovulate organs, deriving angiospermous homologues, and defining synapomorphies remain somewhat speculative. Although new specimens have increased the known diversity in these groups, a reconstruction of an entire plant is available only for the corystosperms, and thus hypotheses about phylogenetic position are of limited value. We conclude that, in the case of these seed plants, phylogenetic analysis techniques have surpassed the hard data needed to formulate meaningful phylogenetic hypotheses. Speculation on angiosperm origins and transitional stages in these fossils provides for interesting discussion, but currently it is still speculation, as the role of these groups in the origin of angiospermy continues to be cloaked in Darwin's mystery.
Rudall, Paula J; Knowles, Emma V W
Angiosperm stomata consistently possess a pair of guard cells, but differ between taxa in the patterning and developmental origin of neighbour cells. Developmental studies of phylogenetically pivotal taxa are essential as comparative yardsticks for understanding the evolution of stomatal development. We present a novel ultrastructural study of developing stomata in leaves of Amborella (Amborellales), Nymphaea and Cabomba (Nymphaeales), and Austrobaileya and Schisandra (Austrobaileyales), representing the three earliest-divergent lineages of extant angiosperms (the ANITA-grade). Alternative developmental pathways occur in early-divergent angiosperms, resulting partly from differences in pre-patterning and partly from the presence or absence of highly polarized (asymmetric) mitoses in the stomatal cell lineage. Amplifying divisions are absent from ANITA-grade taxa, indicating that ostensible similarities with the stomatal patterning of Arabidopsis are superficial. In Amborella, 'squared' pre-patterning occurs in intercostal regions, with groups of four protodermal cells typically arranged in a rectangle; most guard-mother cells are formed by asymmetric division of a precursor cell (the mesoperigenous condition) and are typically triangular or trapezoidal. In contrast, water-lily stomata are always perigenous (lacking asymmetric divisions). Austrobaileya has occasional 'giant' stomata. Similar mature stomatal phenotypes can result from contrasting morphogenetic factors, although the results suggest that paracytic stomata are invariably the product of at least one asymmetric division. Loss of asymmetric divisions in stomatal development could be a significant factor in land plant evolution, with implications for the diversity of key structural and physiological pathways.
Neimanis, Karina; Staples, James F; Hüner, Norman P A; McDonald, Allison E
Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a terminal ubiquinol oxidase present in the respiratory chain of all angiosperms investigated to date, but AOX distribution in other members of the Viridiplantae is less clear. We assessed the taxonomic distribution of AOX using bioinformatics. Multiple sequence alignments compared AOX proteins and examined amino acid residues involved in AOX catalytic function and post-translational regulation. Novel AOX sequences were found in both Chlorophytes and Streptophytes and we conclude that AOX is widespread in the Viridiplantae. AOX multigene families are common in non-angiosperm plants and the appearance of AOX1 and AOX2 subtypes pre-dates the divergence of the Coniferophyta and Magnoliophyta. Residues involved in AOX catalytic function are highly conserved between Chlorophytes and Streptophytes, while AOX post-translational regulation likely differs in these two lineages. We demonstrate experimentally that an AOX gene is present in the moss Physcomitrella patens and that the gene is transcribed. Our findings suggest that AOX will likely exert an influence on plant respiration and carbon metabolism in non-angiosperms such as green algae, bryophytes, liverworts, lycopods, ferns, gnetophytes, and gymnosperms and that further research in these systems is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This project includes a consortium of tribes. The tribes include Hughes (representing the consortium) Birch Creek, Huslia, and Allakaket. The project proposed by Interior Regional Housing Authority (IRHA) on behalf of the villages of Hughes, Birch Creek, Huslia and Allakaket is to develop an energy conservation program relevant to each specific community, educate tribe members and provide the tools to implement the conservation plan. The program seeks to achieve both energy savings and provide optimum energy requirements to support each tribe's mission. The energy management program will be a comprehensive program that considers all avenues for achieving energy savings, from replacing obsolete equipment, to the design and construction of energy conservation measures, the implementation of energy saving operation and maintenance procedures, the utilization of a community-wide building energy management system, and a commitment to educating the tribes on how to decrease energy consumption. With the implementation of this program and the development of an Energy Management Plan, these communities can then work to reduce the high cost of living in rural Alaska.
Full Text Available Abstract Background DAYSLEEPER encodes a domesticated transposase from the hAT-superfamily, which is essential for development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Little is known about the presence of DAYSLEEPER orthologs in other species, or how and when it was domesticated. We studied the presence of DAYSLEEPER orthologs in plants and propose a model for the domestication of the ancestral DAYSLEEPER gene in angiosperms. Results Using specific BLAST searches in genomic and EST libraries, we found that DAYSLEEPER-like genes (hereafter called SLEEPER genes are unique to angiosperms. Basal angiosperms as well as grasses (Poaceae and dicotyledonous plants possess such putative orthologous genes, but SLEEPER-family genes were not found in gymnosperms, mosses and algae. Most species contain more than one SLEEPER gene. All SLEEPERs contain a C2H2 type BED-zinc finger domain and a hATC dimerization domain. We designated 3 motifs, partly overlapping the BED-zinc finger and dimerization domain, which are hallmark features in the SLEEPER family. Although SLEEPER genes are structurally conserved between species, constructs with SLEEPER genes from grapevine and rice did not complement the daysleeper phenotype in Arabidopsis, when expressed under control of the DAYSLEEPER promoter. However these constructs did cause a dominant phenotype when expressed in Arabidopsis. Rice plant lines with an insertion in the RICESLEEPER1 or 2 locus displayed phenotypic abnormalities, indicating that these genes are functional and important for normal development in rice. We suggest a model in which we hypothesize that an ancestral hAT transposase was retrocopied and stably integrated in the genome during early angiosperm evolution. Evidence is also presented for more recent retroposition events of SLEEPER genes, such as an event in the rice genome, which gave rise to the RICESLEEPER1 and 2 genes. Conclusions We propose the ancestral SLEEPER gene was formed after a process of retro
Criscuolo, P. J.
One type of attack on computer systems is know as a Denial of Service (DoS) attack. A DoS attack is designed to prevent legitimate users from using a system. Traditional Denial of Service attacks are done by exploiting a buffer overflow, exhausting system resources, or exploiting a system bug that results in a system that is no longer functional. In the summer of 1999, a new breed of attack has been developed called Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack. Several educational and high capacity commercial sites have been affected by these DDoS attacks. A DDoS attack uses multiple machines operating in concert to attack a network or site. There is very little that can be done if you are the target of a DDoS. The nature of these attacks cause so much extra network traffic that it is difficult for legitimate traffic to reach your site while blocking the forged attacking packets. The intent of this paper is to help sites not be involved in a DDoS attack. The first tools developed to perpetrate the DDoS attack were Trin00 and Tribe Flood Network (TFN). They spawned the next generation of tools called Tribe Flood Network 2000 (TFN2K) and Stacheldraht (German for Barb Wire). These DDoS attack tools are designed to bring one or more sites down by flooding the victim with large amounts of network traffic originating at multiple locations and remotely controlled by a single client. This paper discusses how these DDoS tools work, how to detect them, and specific technical information on each individual tool. It is written with the system administrator in mind. It assumes that the reader has basic knowledge of the TCP/IP Protocol.
Melzer, Rainer; Härter, Andrea; Rümpler, Florian; Kim, Sangtae; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Theißen, Günter
DEFICIENS (DEF)- and GLOBOSA (GLO)-like proteins constitute two sister clades of floral homeotic transcription factors that were already present in the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of extant angiosperms. Together they specify the identity of petals and stamens in flowering plants. In core eudicots, DEF- and GLO-like proteins are functional in the cell only as heterodimers with each other. There is evidence that this obligate heterodimerization contributed to the canalization of the flower structure of core eudicots during evolution. It remains unknown as to whether this strict heterodimerization is an ancient feature that can be traced back to the MRCA of extant flowering plants or if it evolved later during the evolution of the crown group angiosperms. The interactions of DEF- and GLO-like proteins of the early-diverging angiosperms Amborella trichopoda and Nuphar advena and of the magnoliid Liriodendron tulipifera were analysed by employing yeast two-hybrid analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Character-state reconstruction, including data from other species as well, was used to infer the ancestral interaction patterns of DEF- and GLO-like proteins. The yeast two-hybrid and EMSA data suggest that DEF- and GLO-like proteins from early-diverging angiosperms both homo- and heterodimerize. Character-state reconstruction suggests that the ability to form heterodimeric complexes already existed in the MRCA of extant angiosperms and that this property remained highly conserved throughout angiosperm evolution. Homodimerization of DEF- and GLO-like proteins also existed in the MRCA of all extant angiosperms. DEF-like protein homodimerization was probably lost very early in angiosperm evolution and was not present in the MRCA of eudicots and monocots. GLO-like protein homodimerization might have been lost later during evolution, but very probably was not present in the MRCA of eudicots. The flexibility of DEF- and GLO-like protein interactions in
Biranvand, Amir; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Khormizi, Mehdi Zare; Nicolas, Vincent; Canepari, Claudio; Shakarami, Jahanshir; Fekrat, Lida; Fürsch, Helmut
The Iranian species of the tribe Hyperaspidini Mulsant, 1846 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are reviewed. The current list includes 12 species, all placed in a single genus Hyperaspis Chevrolat, 1836. Hyperapsis asiatica Lewis, 1896 and H. pumila Mulsant, 1850 are excluded from the Iranian list of Coccinellidae. Diagnoses of the tribe Hyperaspidini and the genus Hyperaspis are given. Images of adult beetles and diagnostic characters of the male genitalia of all species distributed in Iran are shown. A key to identification of the species is presented. Distribution records are provided for each species along with information on host plants and prey species when available.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a tribe challenge the data BIA uses in the RNDF? 170... challenge the data BIA uses in the RNDF? (a) A tribe may submit a request to the BIA Regional Director to revise the data for the tribe that BIA uses in the RNDF. The request must include the tribe's data and...
...-governance tribe and needs advance funding in order to complete the planning phase requirement may apply... seeking a planning grant submit in order to meet the planning phase requirements? A tribe/consortium must... the tribe meets the requirement of being free from any material audit exception; (3) A proposal that...
... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Disaster Assistance § 20.328 How can a tribe apply for Disaster Assistance? (a) The tribe affected by the disaster is considered the applicant and must... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can a tribe apply for Disaster Assistance? 20.328...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do tribes identify transit needs? 170.149 Section 170... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Transit Facilities § 170.149 How do tribes identify transit needs? Tribes identify transit needs during the tribal transportation...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information must the Tribe's/Consortium's response... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Reassumption § 1000.310 What information must the Tribe's/Consortium's response contain? (a) The Tribe's/Consortium's response must indicate the specific measures that...
... Operational Provisions Audits and Cost Principles § 137.165 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to undertake...-Governance Tribes must undertake annual audits pursuant to the Single Audit Act, 31 U.S.C. 7501 et seq. ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to undertake...
Embalming is the art and science of temporary preserving human remains to forestall decomposition. It was first practiced by the ancient Egyptians dating back to 4000BC. This research was carried out to study the traditional method of embalmment by the Ogonis, a tribe in the Southern part of Nigeria. A total of 140 elders ...
Biranvand, Amir; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Li, Wenjing; Nicolas, Vincent; Shakarami, Jahanshir; Fekrat, Lida; Hesami, Shahram
The Iranian checklist of the tribe Chilocorini Mulsant, 1846 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is updated. In total, 13 species belonging to four genera ( Brumoides Chapin, 1965, Chilocorus Leach, 1815, Exochomus Redtenbacher, 1843, and Parexochomus Barovsky, 1922) are listed from Iran. An identification key to all genera and species currently known from Iran is presented along with illustrations of adult specimens and male genitalia.
Attili-Angelis, D.; Duarte, A.P.M.; Pagnocca, F.C.; Nagamoto, N.S.; de Vries, M.; Stielow, J.B.; de Hoog, G.S.
Ants in the tribe Attini (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) maintain a 50 million-year-old lifestyle of co-evolution with symbiotic basidiomycetous fungi which they cultivate as essential source of nutrition. However, other microorganisms have been reported from ant habitats indicating a higher diversity of
The phylogenetic relationships among members of long tongue bee tribe Anthidiini (Megachilidae: Megachilinae) were investigated at the Department of Entomology and Wildlife, University of Cape Coast (Ghana) and the Agricultural Research Council, Pretoria (South Af-rica) from July, 2006 to May, 2007. Ten museums ...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Land Acquisitions; Cowlitz Indian Tribe AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Final Agency Determination. SUMMARY: The Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs...
The article namely: "Socio-cultural attitudes of Igbomina tribe toward marriage and abortion in Osun and Kwara states of Nigeria" by Adeleke Gbadebo Fatai has been updated with a new version bearing the author's current affiliation with significant editorial intervention. Abortion has been a social menace and its ...
Moderate activity was recorded for the leaves of Clerodendrum colebrookianum, Lasia spinosa and Centella asiatica, while Curcuma longa, Cinnamomum cassia, Gynura angulosa, Lasia spinosa (stem) and Aloe vera revealed a negligible degree of anticestodal activity. Key Words: Anticestodal Efficacy, Naga Tribes, India, ...
The institution of the tribe continues to represent a major component of social structure throughout the Middle East, particularly in Iraq, Jordan and Yemen. ... groups (Shi'a, Sunni and Kurdish) unleashed by the ousting of Saddam Hussein's regime aggravated contests for control of the country and its political organization.
Aoki, Seishiro; Uehara, Koichi; Imafuku, Masao; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Ito, Motomi
The B-class MADS-box genes composed of APETALA3 ( AP3) and PISTILLATA ( PI) lineages play an important role in petal and stamen identity in previously studied flowering plants. We investigated the diversification of the AP3-like and PI-like MADS-box genes of eight species in five basal angiosperm families: Amborella trichopoda (Amborellaceae); Brasenia schreberi and Cabomba caroliniana (Cabombaceae); Euryale ferox, Nuphar japonicum, and Nymphaea tetragona (Nymphaeaceae); Illicium anisatum (Illiciaceae); and Kadsura japonica (Schisandraceae). Sequence analysis showed that a four amino acid deletion in the K domain, which was found in all previously reported angiosperm PI genes, exists in a PI homologue of Schisandraceae, but not in six PI homologues of the Amborellaceae, Cabombaceae, and Nymphaeaceae, suggesting that the Amborellaceae, Cabombaceae, and Nymphaeaceae are basalmost lineages in angiosperms. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses were not inconsistent with this hypothesis. The AP3 and PI homologues from Amborella share a sequence of five amino acids in the 5' region of exon 7. Using the linearized tree and likelihood methods, the divergence time between the AP3 and PI lineages was estimated as somewhere between immediately after to several tens of millions of years after the split between angiosperms and extant gymnosperms. Estimates of the age of the most recent common ancestor of all extant angiosperms range from approximately 140-210 Ma, depending on the trees used and assumptions made.
Corbi, Jonathan; Dutheil, Julien Y; Damerval, Catherine; Tenaillon, Maud I; Manicacci, Domenica
ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is a key enzyme of starch biosynthesis. In the green plant lineage, it is composed of two large (LSU) and two small (SSU) sub-units encoded by paralogous genes, as a consequence of several rounds of duplication. First, our aim was to detect specific patterns of molecular evolution following duplication events and the divergence between monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Secondly, we investigated coevolution between amino acids both within and between sub-units. A phylogeny of each AGPase sub-unit was built using all gymnosperm and angiosperm sequences available in databases. Accelerated evolution along specific branches was tested using the ratio of the non-synonymous to the synonymous substitution rate. Coevolution between amino acids was investigated taking into account compensatory changes between co-substitutions. We showed that SSU paralogues evolved under high functional constraints during angiosperm radiation, with a significant level of coevolution between amino acids that participate in SSU major functions. In contrast, in the LSU paralogues, we identified residues under positive selection (1) following the first LSU duplication that gave rise to two paralogues mainly expressed in angiosperm source and sink tissues, respectively; and (2) following the emergence of grass-specific paralogues expressed in the endosperm. Finally, we found coevolution between residues that belong to the interaction domains of both sub-units. Our results support the view that coevolution among amino acid residues, especially those lying in the interaction domain of each sub-unit, played an important role in AGPase evolution. First, within SSU, coevolution allowed compensating mutations in a highly constrained context. Secondly, the LSU paralogues probably acquired tissue-specific expression and regulatory properties via the coevolution between sub-unit interacting domains. Finally, the pattern we observed during LSU evolution is consistent
Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant circadian clocks regulate many photoperiodic and diurnal responses that are conserved among plant species. The plant circadian clock system has been uncovered in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, using genetics and systems biology approaches. However, it is still not clear how the clock system had been organized in the evolutionary history of plants. We recently revealed the molecular phylogeny of LHY/CCA1 genes, one of the essential components of the clock system. The aims of this study are to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of angiosperm clock-associated PRR genes, the partner of the LHY/CCA1 genes, and to clarify the evolutionary history of the plant clock system in angiosperm lineages. Results In the present study, to investigate the molecular phylogeny of PRR genes, we performed two approaches: reconstruction of phylogenetic trees and examination of syntenic relationships. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that PRR genes had diverged into three clades prior to the speciation of monocots and eudicots. Furthermore, copy numbers of PRR genes have been independently increased in monocots and eudicots as a result of ancient chromosomal duplication events. Conclusions Based on the molecular phylogenies of both PRR genes and LHY/CCA1 genes, we inferred the evolutionary process of the plant clock system in angiosperms. This scenario provides evolutionary information that a common ancestor of monocots and eudicots had retained the basic components required for reconstructing a clock system and that the plant circadian clock may have become a more elaborate mechanism after the speciation of monocots and eudicots because of the gene expansion that resulted from polyploidy events.
Bukhari, Ghadeer; Zhang, Jingbo; Stevens, Peter F; Zhang, Wenheng
Observations of floral ontogeny indicated that floral organ initiation in pentapetalous flowers most commonly results in a median-abaxial (MAB) petal during early development, a median-adaxial (MAD) petal being less common. Such different patterns of floral organ initiation might be linked with different morphologies of floral zygomorphy that have evolved in Asteridae. Here, we provide the first study of zygomorphy in pentapetalous angiosperms placed in a phylogenetic framework, the goal being to find if the different patterns of floral organ initiation are connected with particular patterns of zygomorphy. We analyzed patterns of floral organ initiation and displays of zygomorphy, extracted from floral diagrams representing 405 taxa in 330 genera, covering 83% of orders (30 out of 36) and 37% of families (116 out of 313) in core eudicots in the context of a phylogeny using ancestral state reconstructions. The MAB petal initiation is the ancestral state of the pattern of floral organ initiation in pentapetalous angiosperms. Taxa with MAD petal initiation represent ∼30 independent origins from the ancestral MAB initiation. There are distinct developmental processes that give rise to zygomorphy in different lineages of pentapetalous angiosperms, closely related lineages being likely to share similar developmental processes. We have demonstrated that development indeed constrains the processes that give rise to floral zygomorphy, while phylogenetic distance allows relaxation of these constraints, which provides novel insights on the role that development plays in the evolution of floral zygomorphy. © 2017 Bukhari et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC).
Foster, Charles S P; Ho, Simon Y W
Evolutionary timescales can be inferred from molecular sequence data using a Bayesian phylogenetic approach. In these methods, the molecular clock is often calibrated using fossil data. The uncertainty in these fossil calibrations is important because it determines the limiting posterior distribution for divergence-time estimates as the sequence length tends to infinity. Here, we investigate how the accuracy and precision of Bayesian divergence-time estimates improve with the increased clock-partitioning of genome-scale data into clock-subsets. We focus on a data set comprising plastome-scale sequences of 52 angiosperm taxa. There was little difference among the Bayesian date estimates whether we chose clock-subsets based on patterns of among-lineage rate heterogeneity or relative rates across genes, or by random assignment. Increasing the degree of clock-partitioning usually led to an improvement in the precision of divergence-time estimates, but this increase was asymptotic to a limit presumably imposed by fossil calibrations. Our clock-partitioning approaches yielded highly precise age estimates for several key nodes in the angiosperm phylogeny. For example, when partitioning the data into 20 clock-subsets based on patterns of among-lineage rate heterogeneity, we inferred crown angiosperms to have arisen 198-178 Ma. This demonstrates that judicious clock-partitioning can improve the precision of molecular dating based on phylogenomic data, but the meaning of this increased precision should be considered critically. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Carlquist, Sherwin; Schneider, Edward L; Hellquist, C Barre
SEM studies of xylem of stems of Nuphar reveal a novel feature, not previously reported for any angiosperm. Pit membranes of tracheid end walls are composed of coarse fibrils, densest on the distal (outside surface, facing the pit of an adjacent cell) surface of the pit membrane of a tracheid, thinner, and disposed at various levels on the lumen side of a pit membrane. The fibrils tend to be randomly oriented on the distal face of the pit membrane; the innermost fibrils facing the lumen take the form of longitudinally oriented strands. Where most abundantly present, the fibrils tend to be disposed in a spongiform, three-dimensional pattern. Pores that interconnect tracheids are present within the fibrillar meshwork. Pit membranes on lateral walls of stem tracheids bear variously diminished versions of this pattern. Pits of root tracheids are unlike those of stems in that the lumen side of pit membranes bears a reticulum revealed on the outer surface of the tracheid after most of the thickness of a pit membrane is shaved away by the sectioning process. No fibrillar texturing is visible on the root tracheid pits when they are viewed from the inside of a tracheid. Tracheid end walls of roots do contain pores of various sizes in pit membranes. These root and stem patterns were seen in six species representing the two sections of Nuphar, plus one intersectional hybrid, as well as in one collection of Nymphaea, included for purposes of comparison. Differences between root and stem tracheids with respect to microstructure are consistent in all species studied. Microstructural patterns reported here for stem tracheid pits of Nymphaeaceae are not like those of Chloranthaceae, Illiciaceae, or other basal angiosperms. They are not referable to any of the patterns reported for early vascular plants. The adaptational nature of the pit membrane structure in these tracheids is not apparent; microstructure of pit membranes in basal angiosperms is more diverse than thought prior to
Sloan Daniel B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial gene loss and functional transfer to the nucleus is an ongoing process in many lineages of plants, resulting in substantial variation across species in mitochondrial gene content. The Caryophyllaceae represents one lineage that has experienced a particularly high rate of mitochondrial gene loss relative to other angiosperms. Results In this study, we report the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a member of this family, Silene latifolia. The genome can be mapped as a 253,413 bp circle, but its structure is complicated by a large repeated region that is present in 6 copies. Active recombination among these copies produces a suite of alternative genome configurations that appear to be at or near "recombinational equilibrium". The genome contains the fewest genes of any angiosperm mitochondrial genome sequenced to date, with intact copies of only 25 of the 41 protein genes inferred to be present in the common ancestor of angiosperms. As observed more broadly in angiosperms, ribosomal proteins have been especially prone to gene loss in the S. latifolia lineage. The genome has also experienced a major reduction in tRNA gene content, including loss of functional tRNAs of both native and chloroplast origin. Even assuming expanded wobble-pairing rules, the mitochondrial genome can support translation of only 17 of the 61 sense codons, which code for only 9 of the 20 amino acids. In addition, genes encoding 18S and, especially, 5S rRNA exhibit exceptional sequence divergence relative to other plants. Divergence in one region of 18S rRNA appears to be the result of a gene conversion event, in which recombination with a homologous gene of chloroplast origin led to the complete replacement of a helix in this ribosomal RNA. Conclusions These findings suggest a markedly expanded role for nuclear gene products in the translation of mitochondrial genes in S. latifolia and raise the possibility of altered
Tiley, George P; Burleigh, J Gordon; Burleigh, Gordon
Although homologous recombination affects the efficacy of selection in populations, the pattern of recombination rate evolution and its effects on genome evolution across plants are largely unknown. Recombination can reduce genome size by enabling the removal of LTR retrotransposons, alter codon usage by GC biased gene conversion, contribute to complex histories of gene duplication and loss through tandem duplication, and enhance purifying selection on genes. Therefore, variation in recombination rate across species may explain some of the variation in genomic architecture as well as rates of molecular evolution. We used phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate the evolution of global meiotic recombination rate in angiosperms and its effects on genome architecture and selection at the molecular level using genetic maps and genome sequences from thirty angiosperm species. Recombination rate is negatively correlated with genome size, which is likely caused by the removal of LTR retrotransposons. After correcting recombination rates for euchromatin content, we also found an association between global recombination rate and average gene family size. This suggests a role for recombination in the preservation of duplicate genes or expansion of gene families. An analysis of the correlation between the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS) and recombination rate in 3748 genes indicates that higher recombination rates are associated with an increased efficacy of purifying selection, suggesting that global recombination rates affect variation in rates of molecular evolution across distantly related angiosperm species, not just between populations. We also identified shifts in dN/dS for recombination proteins that are associated with shifts in global recombination rate across our sample of angiosperms. Although our analyses only reveal correlations, not mechanisms, and do not include potential covariates of recombination rate, like effective
Shao, Zhu-Qing; Xue, Jia-Yu; Wu, Ping; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Wu, Yue; Hang, Yue-Yu; Wang, Bin; Chen, Jian-Qun
Nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes make up the largest plant disease resistance gene family (R genes), with hundreds of copies occurring in individual angiosperm genomes. However, the expansion history of NBS-LRR genes during angiosperm evolution is largely unknown. By identifying more than 6,000 NBS-LRR genes in 22 representative angiosperms and reconstructing their phylogenies, we present a potential framework of NBS-LRR gene evolution in the angiosperm. Three anciently diverged NBS-LRR classes (TNLs, CNLs, and RNLs) were distinguished with unique exon-intron structures and DNA motif sequences. A total of seven ancient TNL, 14 CNL, and two RNL lineages were discovered in the ancestral angiosperm, from which all current NBS-LRR gene repertoires were evolved. A pattern of gradual expansion during the first 100 million years of evolution of the angiosperm clade was observed for CNLs. TNL numbers remained stable during this period but were eventually deleted in three divergent angiosperm lineages. We inferred that an intense expansion of both TNL and CNL genes started from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Because dramatic environmental changes and an explosion in fungal diversity occurred during this period, the observed expansions of R genes probably reflect convergent adaptive responses of various angiosperm families. An ancient whole-genome duplication event that occurred in an angiosperm ancestor resulted in two RNL lineages, which were conservatively evolved and acted as scaffold proteins for defense signal transduction. Overall, the reconstructed framework of angiosperm NBS-LRR gene evolution in this study may serve as a fundamental reference for better understanding angiosperm NBS-LRR genes. PMID:26839128
Shao, Zhu-Qing; Xue, Jia-Yu; Wu, Ping; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Wu, Yue; Hang, Yue-Yu; Wang, Bin; Chen, Jian-Qun
Nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes make up the largest plant disease resistance gene family (R genes), with hundreds of copies occurring in individual angiosperm genomes. However, the expansion history of NBS-LRR genes during angiosperm evolution is largely unknown. By identifying more than 6,000 NBS-LRR genes in 22 representative angiosperms and reconstructing their phylogenies, we present a potential framework of NBS-LRR gene evolution in the angiosperm. Three anciently diverged NBS-LRR classes (TNLs, CNLs, and RNLs) were distinguished with unique exon-intron structures and DNA motif sequences. A total of seven ancient TNL, 14 CNL, and two RNL lineages were discovered in the ancestral angiosperm, from which all current NBS-LRR gene repertoires were evolved. A pattern of gradual expansion during the first 100 million years of evolution of the angiosperm clade was observed for CNLs. TNL numbers remained stable during this period but were eventually deleted in three divergent angiosperm lineages. We inferred that an intense expansion of both TNL and CNL genes started from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Because dramatic environmental changes and an explosion in fungal diversity occurred during this period, the observed expansions of R genes probably reflect convergent adaptive responses of various angiosperm families. An ancient whole-genome duplication event that occurred in an angiosperm ancestor resulted in two RNL lineages, which were conservatively evolved and acted as scaffold proteins for defense signal transduction. Overall, the reconstructed framework of angiosperm NBS-LRR gene evolution in this study may serve as a fundamental reference for better understanding angiosperm NBS-LRR genes. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If a tribe has enacted tribal laws, regulations, or... § 224.106 If a tribe has enacted tribal laws, regulations, or procedures for challenging tribal action, how must the tribe respond to a petition? If a tribe has enacted tribal laws, regulations, or...
Croom Henrietta B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Some of the most difficult phylogenetic questions in evolutionary biology involve identification of the free-living relatives of parasitic organisms, particularly those of parasitic flowering plants. Consequently, the number of origins of parasitism and the phylogenetic distribution of the heterotrophic lifestyle among angiosperm lineages is unclear. Results Here we report the results of a phylogenetic analysis of 102 species of seed plants designed to infer the position of all haustorial parasitic angiosperm lineages using three mitochondrial genes: atp1, coxI, and matR. Overall, the mtDNA phylogeny agrees with independent studies in terms of non-parasitic plant relationships and reveals at least 11 independent origins of parasitism in angiosperms, eight of which consist entirely of holoparasitic species that lack photosynthetic ability. From these results, it can be inferred that modern-day parasites have disproportionately evolved in certain lineages and that the endoparasitic habit has arisen by convergence in four clades. In addition, reduced taxon, single gene analyses revealed multiple horizontal transfers of atp1 from host to parasite lineage, suggesting that parasites may be important vectors of horizontal gene transfer in angiosperms. Furthermore, in Pilostyles we show evidence for a recent host-to-parasite atp1 transfer based on a chimeric gene sequence that indicates multiple historical xenologous gene acquisitions have occurred in this endoparasite. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships inferred for parasites indicate that the origins of parasitism in angiosperms are strongly correlated with horizontal acquisitions of the invasive coxI group I intron. Conclusion Collectively, these results indicate that the parasitic lifestyle has arisen repeatedly in angiosperm evolutionary history and results in increasing parasite genomic chimerism over time.
Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Fu, Donghui; Yu, Jinyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong
Despite their ubiquity and functional importance, microsatellites have been largely ignored in comparative genomics, mostly due to the lack of genomic information. In the current study, microsatellite distribution was characterized and compared in the whole genomes and both the coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the sequenced Brassica, Arabidopsis and other angiosperm species to investigate their evolutionary dynamics in plants. The variation in the microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species was much smaller than those for their microsatellite numbers and genome sizes, suggesting that microsatellite frequency may be relatively stable in plants. The microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species were significantly negatively correlated with both their genome sizes and transposable elements contents. The pattern of microsatellite distribution may differ according to the different genomic regions (such as coding and non-coding sequences). The observed differences in many important microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif length, type and repeat number) of these angiosperm species were generally accordant with their phylogenetic distance, which suggested that the evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite distribution may be generally consistent with plant divergence/evolution. Importantly, by comparing these microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif type) the angiosperm species (aside from a few species) all clustered into two obviously different groups that were largely represented by monocots and dicots, suggesting a complex and generally dichotomous evolutionary pattern of microsatellite distribution in angiosperms. Polyploidy may lead to a slight increase in microsatellite frequency in the coding sequences and a significant decrease in microsatellite frequency in the whole genome/non-coding sequences, but have little effect on the microsatellite distribution with
Full Text Available Despite their ubiquity and functional importance, microsatellites have been largely ignored in comparative genomics, mostly due to the lack of genomic information. In the current study, microsatellite distribution was characterized and compared in the whole genomes and both the coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the sequenced Brassica, Arabidopsis and other angiosperm species to investigate their evolutionary dynamics in plants. The variation in the microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species was much smaller than those for their microsatellite numbers and genome sizes, suggesting that microsatellite frequency may be relatively stable in plants. The microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species were significantly negatively correlated with both their genome sizes and transposable elements contents. The pattern of microsatellite distribution may differ according to the different genomic regions (such as coding and non-coding sequences. The observed differences in many important microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif length, type and repeat number of these angiosperm species were generally accordant with their phylogenetic distance, which suggested that the evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite distribution may be generally consistent with plant divergence/evolution. Importantly, by comparing these microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif type the angiosperm species (aside from a few species all clustered into two obviously different groups that were largely represented by monocots and dicots, suggesting a complex and generally dichotomous evolutionary pattern of microsatellite distribution in angiosperms. Polyploidy may lead to a slight increase in microsatellite frequency in the coding sequences and a significant decrease in microsatellite frequency in the whole genome/non-coding sequences, but have little effect on the microsatellite
Nardmann, Judith; Reisewitz, Pascal; Werr, Wolfgang
The morphologically diverse bodies of seed plants comprising gymnosperms and angiosperms, which separated some 350 Ma, grow by the activity of meristems containing stem cell niches. In the dicot model Arabidopsis thaliana, these are maintained by the stem cell-promoting functions of WUS and WUSCHEL-related homeobox 5 (WOX5) in the shoot and the root, respectively. Both genes are members of the WOX gene family, which has a monophyletic origin in green algae. The establishment of the WOX gene phylogeny from basal land plants through gymnosperms to basal and higher angiosperms reveals three major branches: a basal clade consisting of WOX13-related genes present in some green algae and throughout all land plant genomes, a second clade containing WOX8/9/11/12 homologues, and a modern clade restricted to seed plants. The analysis of the origin of the modern branch in two basal angiosperms (Amborella trichopoda and Nymphaea jamesoniana) and three gymnosperms (Pinus sylvestris, Ginkgo biloba, and Gnetum gnemon) shows that all members of the modern clade consistently found in monocots and dicots exist at the base of the angiosperm lineage, including WUS and WOX5 orthologues. In contrast, our analyses identify a single WUS/WOX5 homologue in all three gymnosperm genomes, consistent with a monophyletic origin in the last common ancestor of gymnosperms and angiosperms. Phylogenetic data, WUS- and WOX5-specific evolutionary signatures, as well as the expression pattern and stem cell-promoting function of the single gymnosperm WUS/WOX5 pro-orthologue in Arabidopsis indicate a gene duplication event followed by subfunctionalization at the base of angiosperms.
Full Text Available Ampelopsis brevipedunculata is an economically important plant that belongs to the Vitaceae family of angiosperms. The phylogenetic placement of Vitaceae is still unresolved. Recent phylogenetic studies suggested that it should be placed in various alternative families including Caryophyllaceae, asteraceae, Saxifragaceae, Dilleniaceae, or with the rest of the rosid families. However, these analyses provided weak supportive results because they were based on only one of several genes. Accordingly, complete chloroplast genome sequences are required to resolve the phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on the complete chloroplast genome sequence suggested strong support for the position of Vitaceae as the earliest diverging lineage of rosids and placed it as a sister to the remaining rosids. These studies also revealed relationships among several major lineages of angiosperms; however, they highlighted the significance of taxon sampling for obtaining accurate phylogenies. In the present study, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of A. brevipedunculata and used these data to assess the relationships among 32 angiosperms, including 18 taxa of rosids. The Ampelopsis chloroplast genome is 161,090 bp in length, and includes a pair of inverted repeats of 26,394 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,036 bp and 89,266 bp, respectively. The gene content and order of Ampelopsis is identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including Vitis and tobacco. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on 70 protein-coding genes of 33 angiosperms showed that both Saxifragales and Vitaceae diverged from the rosid clade and formed two clades with 100% bootstrap value. The position of the Vitaceae is sister to Saxifragales, and both are the basal and earliest diverging lineages. Moreover, Saxifragales forms a sister clade to Vitaceae of rosids. Overall, the results of
Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Fu, Donghui; Yu, Jinyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong
Despite their ubiquity and functional importance, microsatellites have been largely ignored in comparative genomics, mostly due to the lack of genomic information. In the current study, microsatellite distribution was characterized and compared in the whole genomes and both the coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the sequenced Brassica, Arabidopsis and other angiosperm species to investigate their evolutionary dynamics in plants. The variation in the microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species was much smaller than those for their microsatellite numbers and genome sizes, suggesting that microsatellite frequency may be relatively stable in plants. The microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species were significantly negatively correlated with both their genome sizes and transposable elements contents. The pattern of microsatellite distribution may differ according to the different genomic regions (such as coding and non-coding sequences). The observed differences in many important microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif length, type and repeat number) of these angiosperm species were generally accordant with their phylogenetic distance, which suggested that the evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite distribution may be generally consistent with plant divergence/evolution. Importantly, by comparing these microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif type) the angiosperm species (aside from a few species) all clustered into two obviously different groups that were largely represented by monocots and dicots, suggesting a complex and generally dichotomous evolutionary pattern of microsatellite distribution in angiosperms. Polyploidy may lead to a slight increase in microsatellite frequency in the coding sequences and a significant decrease in microsatellite frequency in the whole genome/non-coding sequences, but have little effect on the microsatellite distribution with
Bush, R. T.; McInerney, F. A.
Angiosperm δ13C values are typically 1-3‰ more negative than those of co-occurring gymnosperms. This is known for both bulk leaf and compound-specific values from n-alkanes, which are stable, straight-chain hydrocarbons (C23-C35) found in the epicuticular leaf wax of vascular plants. For n-alkanes, there is a second distinction between the δ13C values of angiosperms and gymnosperms—δ13C values generally decrease with increasing chain-length in angiosperms, while in gymnosperms they increase. These two distinctions have been used to support the ‘plant community change hypothesis’ explaining the difference between the terrestrial and marine carbon isotope excursions during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM.) Preserved n-alkanes from terrestrial paleosols in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming reveal a negative carbon isotope excursion during the PETM of 4-5‰, which is 1-2‰ greater than the excursion recorded by marine carbonates. The local plant community, known from macrofossils as well as palynoflora, shifted from a deciduous, mixed angiosperm/gymnosperm flora to a suite of evergreen angiosperm species during the PETM. At the end of the PETM, the community returned to a mixed deciduous flora very similar to the original. This change in the plant community could thus magnify the terrestrial negative carbon isotope excursion to the degree necessary to explain its divergence from the marine record. However, the comparison between modern angiosperms and gymnosperms has been made mostly between broadleaf, deciduous angiosperms and evergreen, coniferous gymnosperms. New data analyzing deciduous, coniferous gymnosperms, including Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Taxodium distichum, suggests that the division previously ascribed to taxonomy may actually be based on leaf habit and physiology, specifically broadleaf, deciduous versus needle-leaf, evergreen plants. If differences in n-alkane δ13C values can be described not as angiosperms versus gymnosperms
Sokoloff, Dmitry D; Remizowa, Margarita V; Macfarlane, Terry D; Tuckett, Renee E; Ramsay, Margaret M; Beer, Anton S; Yadav, Shrirang R; Rudall, Paula J
Cotyledon number has long been a primary morphological feature distinguishing monocots from other angiosperms. Recent placement of Hydatellaceae near the early-divergent angiosperm order Nymphaeales, rather than in the monocot order Poales, has prompted reassessment of seedling morphology in this poorly known family. Seedlings of six species representing all eco-geographical groups of Hydatellaceae are described using light and scanning electron microscopy. Two seedling types were discovered. Material examined of Trithuria submersa, T. bibracteata, T. austinensis and T. filamentosa possess a transparent bilobed sheathing structure that surrounds the main axis below the first foliage leaf. The seed coat is attached to the sheathing structure. Seedlings of Trithuria lanterna and T. konkanensis lack a sheathing structure, and the seed coat is attached to a short, narrow lateral outgrowth on the main axis of the seedling. The sheathing structure that is present in seedlings of some Hydatellaceae could be homologized with the two united cotyledons of water lilies. It also resembles the single cotyledon of some monocots, and hence demonstrates a possible pathway of the origin of a monocot-like embryo, though no homology is implied. The sheathing structure is reduced in Trithuria lanterna and T. konkanensis, and the short, narrow outgrowth of its seedling could represent a single cotyledon. This synapomorphy suggests that the only Indian species of Hydatellaceae, T. konkanensis, is closer to the northern Australian T. lanterna than to the south-western Australian T. bibracteata.
Chartier, Marion; Jabbour, Florian; Gerber, Sylvain; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Sauquet, Hervé; von Balthazar, Maria; Staedler, Yannick; Crane, Peter R; Schönenberger, Jürg
Morphospaces are mathematical representations used for studying the evolution of morphological diversity and for the evaluation of evolved shapes among theoretically possible ones. Although widely used in zoology, they--with few exceptions--have been disregarded in plant science and in particular in the study of broad-scale patterns of floral structure and evolution. Here we provide basic information on the morphospace approach; we review earlier morphospace applications in plant science; and as a practical example, we construct and analyze a floral morphospace. Morphospaces are usually visualized with the help of ordination methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) or nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). The results of these analyses are then coupled with disparity indices that describe the spread of taxa in the space. We discuss these methods and apply modern statistical tools to the first and only angiosperm-wide floral morphospace published by Stebbins in 1951. Despite the incompleteness of Stebbins’ original dataset, our analyses highlight major, angiosperm-wide trends in the diversity of flower morphology and thereby demonstrate the power of this previously neglected approach in plant science.
Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Boyce, Charles K
The main role of leaf venation is to supply water across the photosynthetic surface to keep stomata open and allow access to atmospheric CO2 despite evaporative demand. The optimal uniform delivery of water occurs when the distance between veins equals the depth of vein placement within the leaf away from the evaporative surface. As presented here, only angiosperms maintain this anatomical optimum across all leaf thicknesses and different habitats, including sheltered environments where this optimization need not be required. Intriguingly, basal angiosperm lineages tend to be underinvested hydraulically; uniformly high optimization is derived independently in the magnoliids, monocots and core eudicots. Gymnosperms and ferns, including available fossils, are limited by their inability to produce high vein densities. The common association of ferns with shaded humid environments may, in part, be a direct evolutionary consequence of their inability to produce hydraulically optimized leaves. Some gymnosperms do approach optimal vein placement, but only by virtue of their ability to produce thick leaves most appropriate in environments requiring water conservation. Thus, this simple anatomical metric presents an important perspective on the evolution and phylogenetic distribution of plant ecologies and further evidence that the vegetative biology of flowering plants-not just their reproductive biology-is unique.
Davila-Velderrain, Jose; Servin-Marquez, Andres; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R
The gene regulatory network of floral organ cell fate specification of Arabidopsis thaliana is a robust developmental regulatory module. Although such finding was proposed to explain the overall conservation of floral organ types and organization among angiosperms, it has not been confirmed that the network components are conserved at the molecular level among flowering plants. Using the genomic data that have accumulated, we address the conservation of the genes involved in this network and the forces that have shaped its evolution during the divergence of angiosperms. We recovered the network gene homologs for 18 species of flowering plants spanning nine families. We found that all the genes are highly conserved with no evidence of positive selection. We studied the sequence conservation features of the genes in the context of their known biological function and the strength of the purifying selection acting upon them in relation to their placement within the network. Our results suggest an association between protein length and sequence conservation, evolutionary rates, and functional category. On the other hand, we found no significant correlation between the strength of purifying selection and gene placement. Our results confirm that the studied robust developmental regulatory module has been subjected to strong functional constraints. However, unlike previous studies, our results do not support the notion that network topology plays a major role in constraining evolutionary rates. We speculate that the dynamical functional role of genes within the network and not just its connectivity could play an important role in constraining evolution.
By Late Cretaceous or early Tertiary time, the diversification and proliferation of angiosperm-deciduous ecosystems resulted in higher rates of mineral weathering. This increase in the global average weathering rate would have caused a decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide and, hence, global cooling. The magnitude of this decrease is quantitatively explored here by developing a formulation for global weathering which combines ecosystems that differ in their fractional global coverage and intrinsic rates of weathering. Incorporating this formulation into models—specifically, several previously developed global steady-state models of the geochemical cycle of carbon between the atmosphere and carbonate rocks—gives results that show signifi-cant global cooling from the evolution of the angiosperm-deciduous ecosystems. This cooling may vary from a few degrees up to 10°C. In this way, deciduous ecosystems with high rates of mineral weathering could have contributed to the evolution during the past 100 m.y. of a cooler Earth and thus were a factor in producing conditions that enhanced their global proliferation.
Antonieta N. Salomão
Full Text Available The occurrence of polyembryony was investigated in 75 woody species of the Cerrado in central Brazil and the xerophilous Caatinga vegetation in northeastern Brazil. Fourteen species showed polyembryony, a type of anomalous angiospermous reproduction. Polyembryony is reported for the first time for nine genera, Astronium, Byrsonima, Cariniana, Copaifera, Hancornia, Magonia, Myracrodruon, Tabebuia, and Tapirira. The positive correlation found between polyembryony, sexual reproduction, and apomictic processes suggests that a number of angiospermous species may make regular use of multiple breeding systems.A ocorrência de poliembrionia foi investigada em 75 espécies lenhosas do Cerrado do Brasil central e da Caatinga xerófila do nordeste brasileiro. Quatorze espécies apresentaram poliembrionia, uma modalidade de reprodução anômala em angiospermas. Poliembrionia é relatada pela primeira vez para nove gêneros, Astronium, Byrsonima, Cariniana, Copaifera, Hancornia, Magonia, Myracrodruon, Tabebuia e Tapirira. A correlação positiva encontrada entre poliembrionia, reprodução sexual e processos apomíticos sugere que parte das espécies de angiospermas faça uso regular de sistemas de cruzamento múltiplos.
Muir, Christopher D
In most plants, stomata are located only on the abaxial leaf surface (hypostomy), but many plants have stomata on both surfaces (amphistomy). High light and herbaceous growth form have been hypothesized to favor amphistomy, but these hypotheses have not been rigorously tested together using phylogenetic comparative methods. I leveraged a large dataset including stomatal ratio, Ellenberg light indicator value, growth form and phylogenetic relationships for 372 species of British angiosperms. I used phylogenetic comparative methods to test how light and/or growth form influence stomatal ratio and density. High light and herbaceous growth form are correlated with amphistomy, as predicted, but they also interact; the effect of light is pronounced in therophytes (annuals) and perennial herbs, but muted in phanerophytes (shrubs and trees). Furthermore, amphistomy and stomatal density evolve together in response to light. Comparative analyses of British angiosperms reveal two major insights. First, light and growth form interact to shape stomatal ratio; amphistomy is common under high light, but mostly for herbs. Second, coordinated evolution of adaxial stomatal density and light tolerance indicates that amphistomy helps to optimally balance light acquisition with gas exchange. Stomatal ratio may have potential as a functional trait for paleoecology and crop improvement. © 2018 The Author. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.
Armbruster, W. Scott
Plant reproduction by means of flowers has long been thought to promote the success and diversification of angiosperms. It remains unclear, however, how this success has come about. Do flowers, and their capacity to have specialized functions, increase speciation rates or decrease extinction rates? Is floral specialization fundamental or incidental to the diversification? Some studies suggest that the conclusions we draw about the role of flowers in the diversification and increased phenotypic disparity (phenotypic diversity) of angiosperms depends on the system. For orchids, for example, specialized pollination may have increased speciation rates, in part because in most orchids pollen is packed in discrete units so that pollination is precise enough to contribute to reproductive isolation. In most plants, however, granular pollen results in low realized pollination precision, and thus key innovations involving flowers more likely reflect reduced extinction rates combined with opportunities for evolution of greater phenotypic disparity (phenotypic diversity) and occupation of new niches. Understanding the causes and consequences of the evolution of specialized flowers requires knowledge of both the selective regimes and the potential fitness trade-offs in using more than one pollinator functional group. The study of floral function and flowering-plant diversification remains a vibrant evolutionary field. Application of new methods, from measuring natural selection to estimating speciation rates, holds much promise for improving our understanding of the relationship between floral specialization and evolutionary success. PMID:24790124
Serrano-Serrano, Martha Liliana; Rolland, Jonathan; Clark, John L; Salamin, Nicolas; Perret, Mathieu
The effects of specific functional groups of pollinators in the diversification of angiosperms are still to be elucidated. We investigated whether the pollination shifts or the specific association with hummingbirds affected the diversification of a highly diverse angiosperm lineage in the Neotropics. We reconstructed a phylogeny of 583 species from the Gesneriaceae family and detected diversification shifts through time, inferred the timing and amount of transitions among pollinator functional groups, and tested the association between hummingbird pollination and speciation and extinction rates. We identified a high frequency of pollinator transitions, including reversals to insect pollination. Diversification rates of the group increased through time since 25 Ma, coinciding with the evolution of hummingbird-adapted flowers and the arrival of hummingbirds in South America. We showed that plants pollinated by hummingbirds have a twofold higher speciation rate compared with plants pollinated by insects, and that transitions among functional groups of pollinators had little impact on the diversification process. We demonstrated that floral specialization on hummingbirds for pollination has triggered rapid diversification in the Gesneriaceae family since the Early Miocene, and that it represents one of the oldest identified plant-hummingbird associations. Biotic drivers of plant diversification in the Neotropics could be more related to this specific type of pollinator (hummingbirds) than to shifts among different functional groups of pollinators. © 2017 The Author(s).
Olsen, Jeanine L.
Seagrasses colonized the sea1 on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet2. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals unique insights into the genomic losses and gains involved in achieving the structural and physiological adaptations required for its marine lifestyle, arguably the most severe habitat shift ever accomplished by flowering plants. Key angiosperm innovations that were lost include the entire repertoire of stomatal genes3, genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoids and ethylene signalling, and genes for ultraviolet protection and phytochromes for far-red sensing. Seagrasses have also regained functions enabling them to adjust to full salinity. Their cell walls contain all of the polysaccharides typical of land plants, but also contain polyanionic, low-methylated pectins and sulfated galactans, a feature shared with the cell walls of all macroalgae4 and that is important for ion homoeostasis, nutrient uptake and O2/CO2 exchange through leaf epidermal cells. The Z. marina genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of functional ecological studies from adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming5, 6, to unravelling the mechanisms of osmoregulation under high salinities that may further inform our understanding of the evolution of salt tolerance in crop plants7.
Full Text Available The great diversity of the "Phytophaga" (weevils, longhorn beetles and leaf beetles has been attributed to their co-radiation with the angiosperms based on matching age estimates for both groups, but phylogenetic information and molecular clock calibrations remain insufficient for this conclusion.A phylogenetic analysis of the leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae was conducted based on three partial ribosomal gene markers (mitochondrial rrnL, nuclear small and large subunit rRNA including over 3000 bp for 167 taxa representing most major chrysomelid lineages and outgroups. Molecular clock calibrations and confidence intervals were based on paleontological data from the oldest (K-T boundary leaf beetle fossil, ancient feeding traces ascribed to hispoid Cassidinae, and the vicariant split of Nearctic and Palearctic members of the Timarchini.The origin of the Chrysomelidae was dated to 73-79 Mya (confidence interval 63-86 Mya, and most subfamilies were post-Cretaceous, consistent with the ages of all confirmed body fossils. Two major monocot feeding chrysomelid lineages formed widely separated clades, demonstrating independent colonization of this ancient (early Cretaceous angiosperm lineage.Previous calibrations proposing a much older origin of Chrysomelidae were not supported. Therefore, chrysomelid beetles likely radiated long after the origin of their host lineages and their diversification was driven by repeated radiaton on a pre-existing diverse resource, rather than ancient host associations.
Shtein, Ilana; Popper, Zoë A; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar
Most floating aquatic plants have stomata on their upper leaf surfaces, and usually their stomata are permanently open. We previously identified 3 distinct crystallinity patterns in stomatal cell walls, with angiosperm kidney-shaped stomata having the highest crystallinity in the polar end walls as well as the adjacent polar regions of the guard cells. A numerical bio-mechanical model suggested that the high crystallinity areas are localized to regions where the highest stress is imposed. Here, stomatal cell wall crystallinity was examined in 4 floating plants from 2 different taxa: basal angiosperms from the ANITA grade and monocots. It appears that the non-functional stomata of floating plants display reduced crystallinity in the polar regions as compared with high crystallinity of the ventral (inner) walls. Thus their guard cells are both less flexible and less stress resistant. Our findings suggest that the pattern of cellulose crystallinity in stomata of floating plants from different families was altered as a consequence of similar evolutionary pressures.
Armbruster, W Scott
Plant reproduction by means of flowers has long been thought to promote the success and diversification of angiosperms. It remains unclear, however, how this success has come about. Do flowers, and their capacity to have specialized functions, increase speciation rates or decrease extinction rates? Is floral specialization fundamental or incidental to the diversification? Some studies suggest that the conclusions we draw about the role of flowers in the diversification and increased phenotypic disparity (phenotypic diversity) of angiosperms depends on the system. For orchids, for example, specialized pollination may have increased speciation rates, in part because in most orchids pollen is packed in discrete units so that pollination is precise enough to contribute to reproductive isolation. In most plants, however, granular pollen results in low realized pollination precision, and thus key innovations involving flowers more likely reflect reduced extinction rates combined with opportunities for evolution of greater phenotypic disparity (phenotypic diversity) and occupation of new niches. Understanding the causes and consequences of the evolution of specialized flowers requires knowledge of both the selective regimes and the potential fitness trade-offs in using more than one pollinator functional group. The study of floral function and flowering-plant diversification remains a vibrant evolutionary field. Application of new methods, from measuring natural selection to estimating speciation rates, holds much promise for improving our understanding of the relationship between floral specialization and evolutionary success.
Chartier, Marion; Jabbour, Florian; Gerber, Sylvain; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Sauquet, Hervé; von Balthazar, Maria; Staedler, Yannick; Crane, Peter R.; Schönenberger, Jürg
Summary Morphospaces are mathematical representations used for studying the evolution of morphological diversity and for the evaluation of evolved shapes among theoretically possible ones. Although widely used in zoology, they – with few exceptions – have been disregarded in plant science and in particular in the study of broad-scale patterns of floral structure and evolution. Here we provide basic information on the morphospace approach; we review earlier morphospace applications in plant science; and as a practical example, we construct and analyze a floral morphospace. Morphospaces are usually visualized with the help of ordination methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) or nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). The results of these analyses are then coupled with disparity indices that describe the spread of taxa in the space. We discuss these methods and apply modern statistical tools to the first and only angiosperm-wide floral morphospace published by Stebbins in 1951. Despite the incompleteness of Stebbins’ original dataset, our analyses highlight major, angiosperm-wide trends in the diversity of flower morphology and thereby demonstrate the power of this previously neglected approach in plant science. PMID:25539005
O'Meara, Brian C; Smith, Stacey D; Armbruster, W Scott; Harder, Lawrence D; Hardy, Christopher R; Hileman, Lena C; Hufford, Larry; Litt, Amy; Magallón, Susana; Smith, Stephen A; Stevens, Peter F; Fenster, Charles B; Diggle, Pamela K
Why are some traits and trait combinations exceptionally common across the tree of life, whereas others are vanishingly rare? The distribution of trait diversity across a clade at any time depends on the ancestral state of the clade, the rate at which new phenotypes evolve, the differences in speciation and extinction rates across lineages, and whether an equilibrium has been reached. Here we examine the role of transition rates, differential diversification (speciation minus extinction) and non-equilibrium dynamics on the evolutionary history of angiosperms, a clade well known for the abundance of some trait combinations and the rarity of others. Our analysis reveals that three character states (corolla present, bilateral symmetry, reduced stamen number) act synergistically as a key innovation, doubling diversification rates for lineages in which this combination occurs. However, this combination is currently less common than predicted at equilibrium because the individual characters evolve infrequently. Simulations suggest that angiosperms will remain far from the equilibrium frequencies of character states well into the future. Such non-equilibrium dynamics may be common when major innovations evolve rarely, allowing lineages with ancestral forms to persist, and even outnumber those with diversification-enhancing states, for tens of millions of years. © 2016 The Author(s).
Sano, Yuzou; Morris, Hugh; Shimada, Hiroshi; Ronse De Craene, Louis P.; Jansen, Steven
Background and Aims Imperforate tracheary elements (ITEs) in wood of vessel-bearing angiosperms may or may not transport water. Despite the significance of hydraulic transport for defining ITE types, the combination of cell structure with water transport visualization in planta has received little attention. This study provides a quantitative analysis of structural features associated with the conductive vs. non-conductive nature of ITEs. Methods Visualization of water transport was studied in 15 angiosperm species by dye injection and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Structural features of ITEs were examined using light and electron microscopy. Key Results ITEs connected to each other by pit pairs with complete pit membranes contributed to water transport, while cells showing pit membranes with perforations up to 2 µm were hydraulically not functional. A close relationship was found between pit diameter and pit density, with both characters significantly higher in conductive than in non-conductive cells. In species with both conductive and non-conductive ITEs, a larger diameter was characteristic of the conductive cells. Water transport showed no apparent relationship with the length of ITEs and vessel grouping. Conclusions The structure and density of pits between ITEs represent the main anatomical characters determining water transport. The pit membrane structure of ITEs provides a reliable, but practically challenging, criterion to determine their conductive status. It is suggested that the term tracheids should strictly be used for conductive ITEs, while fibre-tracheids and libriform fibres are non-conductive. PMID:21385773
Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Pall, José Luis
Eight genera and 21 species of the tribe Anisoscelini (Coreidae, Coreinae) are recorded in Argentina: Anisoscelis foliaceus (Fabricius); Coribergia declivicollis (Berg); Dalmatomammurius vandoesburgi (Brailovsky); Holymenia hystrio (Fabricius); Leptoglossus chilensis (Spinola); L. cinctus (Herrich-Schaeffer); L. concolor Walker; L. crassicornis (Dallas); L. dentatus Berg; L. fasciatus (Westwood); L. gonagra (Fabricius); L. impictus (Stål); L. ingens (Mayr); L. neovexillatus Allen; L. quadricollis (Westwood); L. stigma (Herbst); L. vexillatus (Stål); L. zonatus (Dallas); Phthia lunata (Fabricius); Phthiacnemia picta (Drury) and Ugnius kermesinus (Linnaeus). A key to genera belonging to the tribe is provided. L. stigma is recorded for the first time in Argentina with new locality records for La Rioja, Salta and San Juan.
Although Idaho's electrical rates are among the lowest in the country, the Nez Perce Tribe's electrical bills take a large bite out of the operating budget every year. Tribal programs are located in forty some buildings, in six counties, in two states. Ninety-five percent, or more, are heated electrically. The age of the Tribal office buildings located in Lapwai, Idaho vary from forty to over a hundred years old. Only sporadic updates, in the buildings themselves, have been made over the years. Working with the Tribe's electrical provider (Avista Corporation), it was determine that a minimum financial commitment could reap large rewards in the form of lower operating costs.
members and loose affiliates prohibited the celebration of Christmas, attacked Catholic churches and destroyed Aden’s Sira brewery. Sufi shrines were...fundamentalists’ reportedly attack Aden Catholic church,” Agence France-Presse, 23 July 1994; “Moslems Topple Marxist Statue in Aden,” Agence France...chews and weddings , representatives from the council discuss the merits of each course of action with those of the broader micro-tribe. The process
Allgood, Tiffany L. [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States); Sorter, Andy [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States)
The Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study (EEFS) is the culminating document that compiles the energy efficiency and building performance assessment and project prioritization process completed on 36 Tribally owned and operated facilities within Tribal lands. The EEFS contains sections on initial findings, utility billing analyses, energy conservation measures and prioritization and funding sources and strategies for energy project implementation.
Bkra shis dpal 'bar བཀྲ་ཤིས་དཔལ་འབར།
Full Text Available The Yul shul (Yushu ngas bzang Tribe historically possessed a rich hunting tradition. Wildlife was hunted for food and other animal products. By 2007, hunting culture had diminished due to improvements in living conditions, wildlife protection laws, greater state control of wildlife product skin market and gun ownership, animal diseases, and the absence of such wildlife as wild yaks in local areas.
Rapp, Jim [Parametrix; Knight, Tawnie [Ute Mountain Ute Tribe
Parametrix Inc. conducted a feasibility study for the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe to determine whether or not a community-scale solar farm would be feasible for the community. The important part of the study was to find where the best fit for the solar farm could be. In the end, a 3MW community-scale solar farm was found best fit with the location of two hayfield sites.
Mukherjee, Malay B.; Tripathy, V.; Colah, R. B.; Solanki, P. K.; Ghosh, K.; Reddy, B. M.; Mohanty, D.
The present study was undertaken to determine the extent of diversity at 12 microsatellite short tandem repeat (STR) loci in seven primitive tribal populations of India with diverse linguistic and geographic backgrounds. DNA samples of 160 unrelated individuals were analyzed for 12 STR loci by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Gene diversity analysis suggested that the average heterozygosity was uniformly high ( >0.7) in these groups and varied from 0.705 to 0.794. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium analysis revealed that these populations were in genetic equilibrium at almost all the loci. The overall GST value was high (GST = 0.051; range between 0.026 and 0.098 among the loci), reflecting the degree of differentiation/heterogeneity of seven populations studied for these loci. The cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling of genetic distances reveal two broad clusters of populations, besides Moolu Kurumba maintaining their distinct genetic identity vis-à-vis other populations. The genetic affinity for the three tribes of the Indo-European family could be explained based on geography and Language but not for the four Dravidian tribes as reflected by the NJT and MDS plots. For the overall data, the insignificant MANTEL correlations between genetic, linguistic and geographic distances suggest that the genetic variation among these tribes is not patterned along geographic and/or linguistic lines. PMID:21088716
Full Text Available Batang Gadis National Park (BGNP located in Bukit Barisan Mountains, Sumatera Utara. A Mandailing tribe who lives around the BGNP, has the unique local knowledge, such as processing young stem of rattan (Calamus manan into pakkat (traditional food and use rimbang (Solanum torvum to neutralize toxins. These local knowledge could be lost because it only inherited orally from generation to generation. This study was aimed to reveal ethnobotany knowledge of Mandailing Tribe. The study was conducted in November 2015 in four villages around the BGNP, Sibanggor Jae, Hutabaringin Julu, Pastap Jae, and Botung Villages. Data were collected by interviewing informants in each village as well as the field survey through two approaches, emic and etic. A total of 262 plant species is used by Mandailing Tribe for subsistence and commercial needs. The highest utilization is for food (106 species, followed by traditional medicines (81 species, firewood (29 species, building materials (35 species, and animal feed (25 species. People also used plant for household appliances, agricultural equipment, art materials, ropes and wrap, and pest control materials. Eme/rice (Oryza sativa have the highest Index of Cultural Significance (ICS values. The existence of this species is maintained for its local wisdom. Thus, involvement of local community will give great contribution to manage and conserve the BGNP area.
The tribe Ambelanieae consists of seventeen species of latex-bearing shrubs and trees in six genera found in the tropical lowlands of norther South America. The center of distribution as well as diversification for the Ambelanieae is the Rio Negro basin of Brazilian Amazonia. This study is based on field observations of representative species from five of the genera, supplemented by the examination of exsiccatae from the major herbaria of the world. The analysis includes a review of the taxonomic history, a presentation of a systematic treatment for the genera and species, and detailed discussions of morphology, anatomy, ecology, pollination, fruit dispersal, phenology, palynology, cytology, and biogeography. The first chromosome numbers for the tribe are reported, indicating that polyploidy occurs within the group. Pollen variability is demonstrated, not only among species of different genera but also within individual pollen samples. In reference to economic uses, some members of the tribe are suggested to hold promise for exploitation of usable latex, lightweight wood, and edible fruits. The presence of potentially important toxic and medicinal principles from several species is indicated by ethnopharmacological observations made in the northwest Amazon basin.
Chanderbali, André S.; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Zahn, Laura M.; Brockington, Samuel F.; Wall, P. Kerr; Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Albert, Victor A.; Leebens-Mack, James; Altman, Naomi S.; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.
The origin and rapid diversification of the angiosperms (Darwin's “Abominable Mystery”) has engaged generations of researchers. Here, we examine the floral genetic programs of phylogenetically pivotal angiosperms (water lily, avocado, California poppy, and Arabidopsis) and a nonflowering seed plant (a cycad) to obtain insight into the origin and subsequent evolution of the flower. Transcriptional cascades with broadly overlapping spatial domains, resembling the hypothesized ancestral gymnosperm program, are deployed across morphologically intergrading organs in water lily and avocado flowers. In contrast, spatially discrete transcriptional programs in distinct floral organs characterize the more recently derived angiosperm lineages represented by California poppy and Arabidopsis. Deep evolutionary conservation in the genetic programs of putatively homologous floral organs traces to those operating in gymnosperm reproductive cones. Female gymnosperm cones and angiosperm carpels share conserved genetic features, which may be associated with the ovule developmental program common to both organs. However, male gymnosperm cones share genetic features with both perianth (sterile attractive and protective) organs and stamens, supporting the evolutionary origin of the floral perianth from the male genetic program of seed plants. PMID:21149731
Daniel M. Johnson; Katherine A. McCulloh; David R. Woodruff; Frederick C. Meinzer
Angiosperm and coniferous tree species utilize a continuum of hydraulic strategies. Hydraulic safety margins (defined as differences between naturally occurring xylem pressures and pressures that would cause hydraulic dysfunction, or differences between pressures resulting in loss of hydraulic function in adjacent organs (e.g., stems vs. leaves) tend to be much greater...
A molecular marker compound, derived from lignin by the thioacidolysis degradative method, for structures produced when ferulic acid is incorporated into lignification in angiosperms (poplar, Arabidopsis, tobacco) has been structurally identified as 1,2,2-trithioethyl ethylguaiacol [1-(4-hydroxy-3-m...
Carey, Robert E; Hepler, Nathan K; Cosgrove, Daniel J
Expansins are plant cell wall loosening proteins encoded by a large superfamily of genes, consisting of four families named EXPA, EXPB, EXLA, and EXLB. The evolution of the expansin superfamily is well understood in angiosperms, thanks to synteny-based evolutionary studies of the gene superfamily in Arabidopsis, rice, and Populus. Analysis of the expansin superfamily in the moss Physcomitrella patens revealed a superfamily without EXLA or EXLB genes that has evolved considerably and independently of angiosperm expansins. The sequencing of the Selaginella moellendorffii genome has allowed us to extend these analyses into an early diverging vascular plant. The expansin superfamily in Selaginella moellendorffii has now been assembled from genomic scaffolds. A smaller (and less diverse) superfamily is revealed, consistent with studies of other gene families in Selaginella. Selaginella has an expansin superfamily, which, like Physcomitrella, lacks EXLA or EXLB genes, but does contain two EXPA genes that are related to a particular Arabidopsis-rice clade involved in root hair development. From sequence-based phylogenetic analysis, most Selaginella expansins lie outside the Arabidopsis-rice clades, leading us to estimate the minimum number of expansins present in the last common ancestor of Selaginella and angiosperms at 2 EXPA genes and 1 EXPB gene. These results confirm Selaginella as an important intermediary between bryophytes and angiosperms.
Full Text Available Indigenous peoples in North America have a long history of understanding their societies as having an intimate relationship with their physical environments. Their cultures, traditions, and identities are based on the ecosystems and sacred places that shape their world. Their respect for their ancestors and ‘Mother Earth’ speaks of unique value and knowledge systems different than the value and knowledge systems of the dominant United States settler society. The value and knowledge systems of each indigenous and non-indigenous community are different but collide when water resources are endangered. One of the challenges that face indigenous people regarding the management of water relates to their opposition to the commodification of water for availability to select individuals. External researchers seeking to work with indigenous peoples on water research or management must learn how to design research or water management projects that respect indigenous cultural contexts, histories of interactions with settler governments and researchers, and the current socio-economic and political situations in which indigenous peoples are embedded. They should pay particular attention to the process of collaborating on water resource topics and management with and among indigenous communities while integrating Western and indigenous sciences in ways that are beneficial to both knowledge systems. The objectives of this paper are to (1 to provide an overview of the context of current indigenous water management issues, especially for the U.S. federally recognized tribes in the Southwestern United States; (2 to synthesize approaches to engage indigenous persons, communities, and governments on water resources topics and management; and (3 to compare the successes of engaging Southwestern tribes in five examples to highlight some significant activities for collaborating with tribes on water resources research and management. In discussing the engagement
Friedman, William E; Williams, Joseph H
The monosporic seven-celled/eight-nucleate Polygonum-type female gametophyte has long served as a focal point for discussion of the origin and subsequent evolution of the angiosperm female gametophyte. In Polygonum-type female gametophytes, two haploid female nuclei are incorporated into the central cell, and fusion of a sperm cell with the binucleate central cell produces a triploid endosperm with a complement of two maternal and one paternal genomes, characteristic of most angiosperms. We document the development of a four-celled/four-nucleate female gametophyte in Nuphar polysepala (Engelm.) and infer its presence in many other ancient lineages of angiosperms. The central cell of the female gametophyte in these taxa contains only one haploid nucleus; thus endosperm is diploid and has a ratio of one maternal to one paternal genome. Based on comparisons among flowering plants, we conclude that the angiosperm female gametophyte is constructed of modular developmental subunits. Each module is characterized by a common developmental pattern: (1) positioning of a single nucleus within a cytoplasmic domain (pole) of the female gametophyte; (2) two free-nuclear mitoses to yield four nuclei within that domain; and (3) partitioning of three uninucleate cells adjacent to the pole such that the fourth nucleus is confined to the central region of the female gametophyte (central cell). Within the basal angiosperm lineages Nymphaeales and Illiciales, female gametophytes are characterized by a single developmental module that produces a four-celled/four-nucleate structure with a haploid uninucleate central cell. A second pattern, typical of Amborella and the overwhelming majority of eumagnoliids, monocots, and eudicots, involves the early establishment of two developmental modules that produce a seven-celled/eight-nucleate female gametophyte with two haploid nuclei in the central cell. Comparative analysis of ontogenetic sequences suggests that the seven-celled female
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to depict the pig farming performances of three different nativePapuan tribes, i.e. Byak, Onate and Arfak. Sites in Biak were taken from Samofa District. Sites in Yapenwere taken from South Yapen District comprised of Famboaman, Anotaurei, Mariadei and Mantembuvillages. Site in Manokwari was chosen at Sub-district of Wosi. Participatory research using interviewand observation was done towards 105 pig farmers. One-way analysis of variance and Pearson Chisquare(χ2 were used to analyse data. Several indicators tested were age, education, objectives ofrearing pigs, and species of pigs. The characteristics of pig farmers were similar. The variations of pigfarmers’ characteristics ware found in pigs’ rearing experience, animal number and litter size. Offeredfeeding on each physiological period was different. Similar finding were feeding sources and feedingprocess. Reproduction knowledge and their experience in farrowing management are similar amongstthe tribes. In general experiences and knowledge to prevent infectious diseases in general were similar.The three tribes have relatively similar in managing their pig farming systems.
Renner, Susanne S
• Separating sexual function between different individuals carries risks, especially for sedentary organisms. Nevertheless, many land plants have unisexual gametophytes or sporophytes. This study brings together data and theoretical insights from research over the past 20 yr on the occurrence and frequency of plant sexual systems, focusing on the flowering plants.• A list of genera with dioecious species, along with other information, is made available (http://www.umsl.edu/∼renners/). Frequencies of other sexual systems are tabulated, and data on the genetic regulation, ecological context, and theoretical benefits of dioecy reviewed.• There are 15600 dioecious angiosperms in 987 genera and 175 families, or 5-6% of the total species (7% of genera, 43% of families), with somewhere between 871 to 5000 independent origins of dioecy. Some 43% of all dioecious angiosperms are in just 34 entirely dioecious clades, arguing against a consistent negative influence of dioecy on diversification. About 31.6% of the dioecious species are wind-pollinated, compared with 5.5-6.4% of nondioecious angiosperms. Also, 1.4% of all angiosperm genera contain dioecious and monoecious species, while 0.4% contain dioecious and gynodioecious species. All remaining angiosperm sexual systems are rare. Chromosomal sex determination is known from 40 species; environmentally modulated sex allocation is common. Few phylogenetic studies have focused on the evolution of dioecy.• The current focus is on the genetic mechanisms underlying unisexual flowers and individuals. Mixed strategies of sexual and vegetative dispersal, together with plants' sedentary life style, may often favor polygamous systems in which sexually inconstant individuals can persist. Nevertheless, there are huge entirely dioecious clades of tropical woody plants. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.
Werner, Gijsbert D. A.; Cornwell, William K.; Sprent, Janet I.; Kattge, Jens; Kiers, E. Toby
Symbiotic associations occur in every habitat on earth, but we know very little about their evolutionary histories. Current models of trait evolution cannot adequately reconstruct the deep history of symbiotic innovation, because they assume homogenous evolutionary processes across millions of years. Here we use a recently developed, heterogeneous and quantitative phylogenetic framework to study the origin of the symbiosis between angiosperms and nitrogen-fixing (N2) bacterial symbionts housed in nodules. We compile the largest database of global nodulating plant species and reconstruct the symbiosis’ evolution. We identify a single, cryptic evolutionary innovation driving symbiotic N2-fixation evolution, followed by multiple gains and losses of the symbiosis, and the subsequent emergence of ‘stable fixers’ (clades extremely unlikely to lose the symbiosis). Originating over 100 MYA, this innovation suggests deep homology in symbiotic N2-fixation. Identifying cryptic innovations on the tree of life is key to understanding the evolution of complex traits, including symbiotic partnerships. PMID:24912610
Salo, Tiina; Gustafsson, Camilla; Boström, Christoffer
Research on plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has mainly focused on terrestrial ecosystems, and our understanding of how plant species diversity and interactions affect processes in marine ecosystems is still limited. To investigate if plant species richness and composition influence...... plant productivity in brackish water angiosperm communities, a 14 wk field experiment was conducted. Using a replacement design with a standardized initial aboveground biomass, shoots of Zostera marina, Potamogeton filiformis and P. perfoliatus were planted on a shallow, sandy bottom in replicated...... production in bicultures in general, while a positive net effect was found in the P. perfoliatus and P. filiformis biculture. Despite the absence of significant results for other treatments and plant variables, a trend of positive complementarity and negative selection effects were present. Plant diversity...
Full Text Available HAK/KUP/KT K+ transporters have been widely associated with K+ transport across membranes in bacteria, fungi and plants. Indeed some members of the plant HAK/KUP/KT family contribute to root K+ uptake, notably at low external concentrations. Besides such role in acquisition, several studies carried out in Arabidopsis have shown that other members are also involved in developmental processes. With the publication of new plant genomes, a growing interest on plant species other than Arabidopsis has become evident. In order to understand HAK/KUP/KT diversity in these new plant genomes, we discuss the evolutionary trends of 913 HAK/KUP/KT sequences identified in 46 genomes revealing five major groups with an uneven distribution among angiosperms, notably between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous species. This information evidenced the richness of crop genomes in HAK/KUP/KT transporters and supports their study for unraveling novel physiological roles of such transporters in plants.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to document the Angiosperm diversity of five ephemeral lakes of ThiruvallurDistrict of Tamil Nadu South India. Qualitative floristic surveys were carried out during 2005-2007. Herbarium specimenswith voucher number, taxonomical and ecological information were deposited to the herbarium, Pachaiyappa’s College(PCH Chennai, Tamilnadu. Forty five species of hydrophytes belonging to 21 families and 34 genera were documented.Most speciose families were Poaceae with 5 species followed by Polygalaceae and Nymphaeaceae (4 Cyperaceae,Hydrocharitaceae, Najadaceae, and Scrophulariaceae (3 species each. Mean depth of all five lakes shrinking gradually dueto severe anthropogenic pressure. Conservation of wetlands is the need of the hour to protect the biota as well as quality ofdrinking water.
Snider, John L; Oosterhuis, Derrick M
Reproductive development in sexual plants is substantially more sensitive to high temperature stress than vegetative development, resulting in negative implications for food and fiber production under the moderate temperature increases projected to result from global climate change. High temperature exposure either during early pollen development or during the progamic phase of pollen development will negatively impact pollen performance and reproductive output; both phases of pollen development are considered exceptionally sensitive to moderate heat stress. However, moderately elevated temperatures either before or during the progamic phase can limit fertilization by negatively impacting important pollen pistil interactions required for successful pollen tube growth toward the ovules. This minireview identifies the impacts of heat stress on pollen-pistil interactions and sexual reproduction in angiosperms. A special emphasis is placed on the biochemical response of the pistil to moderately high temperature and the resultant influence on in vivo pollen performance and fertilization.
Jorge Antonio Gómez-Díaz
Full Text Available Terrestrial herbs are important elements of tropical forests; however, there is a lack of research on their diversity patterns and how they respond to different intensities of forest-use. The aim of this study was to analyze the diversity of herbaceous angiosperms along gradients of elevation (50 m to 3500 m and forest-use intensity on the eastern slopes of the Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, Mexico. We recorded the occurrence of all herbaceous angiosperm species within 120 plots of 20 m x 20 m each. The plots were located at eight study locations separated by ~500 m in elevation and within three different habitats that differ in forest-use intensity: old-growth, degraded, and secondary forest. We analyzed species richness and floristic composition of herb communities among different elevations and habitats. Of the 264 plant species recorded, 31 are endemic to Mexico. Both α- and γ-diversity display a hump-shaped relation to elevation peaking at 2500 m and 3000 m, respectively. The relative contribution of between-habitat β-diversity to γ-diversity also showed a unimodal hump whereas within-habitat β-diversity declined with elevation. Forest-use intensity did not affect α-diversity, but β-diversity was high between old-growth and secondary forests. Overall, γ-diversity peaked at 2500 m (72 species, driven mainly by high within- and among-habitat β-diversity. We infer that this belt is highly sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance and forest-use intensification. At 3100 m, high γ-diversity (50 species was driven by high α- and within-habitat β-diversity. There, losing a specific forest area might be compensated if similar assemblages occur in nearby areas. The high β-diversity and endemism suggest that mixes of different habitats are needed to sustain high γ-richness of terrestrial herbs along this elevational gradient.
Sanyal, Anushree; Decocq, Guillaume
Studies of the biogeographic distribution of seed oil content in plants are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of adaptive evolution in plants as seed oil is the primary energy source needed for germination and establishment of plants. However, seed oil content as an adaptive trait in plants is poorly understood. Here, we examine the adaptive nature of seed oil content in 168 angiosperm families occurring in different biomes across the world. We also explore the role of multiple seed traits like seed oil content and composition in plant adaptation in a phylogenetic and nonphylogenetic context. It was observed that the seed oil content in tropical plants (28.4 %) was significantly higher than the temperate plants (24.6 %). A significant relationship between oil content and latitude was observed in three families Papaveraceae, Sapindaceae and Sapotaceae indicating that selective forces correlated with latitude influence seed oil content. Evaluation of the response of seed oil content and composition to latitude and the correlation between seed oil content and composition showed that multiple seed traits, seed oil content and composition contribute towards plant adaptation. Investigation of the presence or absence of phylogenetic signals across 168 angiosperm families in 62 clades revealed that members of seven clades evolved to have high or low seed oil content independently as they did not share a common evolutionary path. The study provides us an insight into the biogeographical distribution and the adaptive role of seed oil content in plants. The study indicates that multiple seed traits like seed oil content and the fatty acid composition of the seed oils determine the fitness of the plants and validate the adaptive hypothesis that seed oil quantity and quality are crucial to plant adaptation.
Kynast, Ralf G; Joseph, Jeffrey A; Pellicer, Jaume; Ramsay, Margaret M; Rudall, Paula J
• Hydatellaceae are minute annual herbs with potential as a model system for studying early angiosperm evolution, but their karyology and ploidy levels are almost unknown. We investigated these aspects of Trithuria submersa, a widespread species that we show to be amenable to extended vegetative propagation.• We cultivated plants of T. submersa in vitro after developing and optimizing culture conditions. We estimated genome size using flow cytometry, counted chromosome numbers using root-meristem squashes after Feulgen staining, and examined meiotic chromosome behavior using microsporocytes.• We developed methods to reliably germinate seeds of T. submersa and to propagate them vegetatively in critical thermo- and photoperiod regimes on 1/2 Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with vitamins and 2% sucrose solidified with 0.7% agar-agar. Seedling growth requires the medium be supplemented with activated charcoal. The mean nuclear DNA content of T. submersa sporophytes is 2C = 2.74 pg (∼2.68 Gbp). The sporophytic chromosome number is 2n = 56 with a bimodal complement, which may suggest an allopolyploid origin. Some of the largest chromosomes lack a recognizable constriction, which relates to a highly unusual and irregular chromosome behavior. Microsporocytes undergo reduced and asynchronous meioses that show a modified intermediate cell division with a nucleus division by fractional postreduction, indicating partially inverted microsporogenesis.• In vitro cultivation and karyological assessment of T. submersa open new opportunities for investigating early-divergent angiosperms. The remarkably different meiotic behavior exhibits new insights into a potentially ancestral microsporogenesis. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.
Hilu Khidir W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic analyses of angiosperm relationships have used only a small percentage of available sequence data, but phylogenetic data matrices often can be augmented with existing data, especially if one allows missing characters. We explore the effects on phylogenetic analyses of adding 378 matK sequences and 240 26S rDNA sequences to the complete 3-gene, 567-taxon angiosperm phylogenetic matrix of Soltis et al. Results We performed maximum likelihood bootstrap analyses of the complete, 3-gene 567-taxon data matrix and the incomplete, 5-gene 567-taxon data matrix. Although the 5-gene matrix has more missing data (27.5% than the 3-gene data matrix (2.9%, the 5-gene analysis resulted in higher levels of bootstrap support. Within the 567-taxon tree, the increase in support is most evident for relationships among the 170 taxa for which both matK and 26S rDNA sequences were added, and there is little gain in support for relationships among the 119 taxa having neither matK nor 26S rDNA sequences. The 5-gene analysis also places the enigmatic Hydrostachys in Lamiales (BS = 97% rather than in Cornales (BS = 100% in 3-gene analysis. The placement of Hydrostachys in Lamiales is unprecedented in molecular analyses, but it is consistent with embryological and morphological data. Conclusion Adding available, and often incomplete, sets of sequences to existing data sets can be a fast and inexpensive way to increase support for phylogenetic relationships and produce novel and credible new phylogenetic hypotheses.
Busse-Wicher, Marta; Li, An; Silveira, Rodrigo L; Pereira, Caroline S; Tryfona, Theodora; Gomes, Thiago C F; Skaf, Munir S; Dupree, Paul
The interaction between cellulose and xylan is important for the load-bearing secondary cell wall of flowering plants. Based on the precise, evenly spaced pattern of acetyl and glucuronosyl (MeGlcA) xylan substitutions in eudicots, we recently proposed that an unsubstituted face of xylan in a 2-fold helical screw can hydrogen bond to the hydrophilic surfaces of cellulose microfibrils. In gymnosperm cell walls, any role for xylan is unclear, and glucomannan is thought to be the important cellulose-binding polysaccharide. Here, we analyzed xylan from the secondary cell walls of the four gymnosperm lineages (Conifer, Gingko, Cycad, and Gnetophyta). Conifer, Gingko, and Cycad xylan lacks acetylation but is modified by arabinose and MeGlcA. Interestingly, the arabinosyl substitutions are located two xylosyl residues from MeGlcA, which is itself placed precisely on every sixth xylosyl residue. Notably, the Gnetophyta xylan is more akin to early-branching angiosperms and eudicot xylan, lacking arabinose but possessing acetylation on alternate xylosyl residues. All these precise substitution patterns are compatible with gymnosperm xylan binding to hydrophilic surfaces of cellulose. Molecular dynamics simulations support the stable binding of 2-fold screw conifer xylan to the hydrophilic face of cellulose microfibrils. Moreover, the binding of multiple xylan chains to adjacent planes of the cellulose fibril stabilizes the interaction further. Our results show that the type of xylan substitution varies, but an even pattern of xylan substitution is maintained among vascular plants. This suggests that 2-fold screw xylan binds hydrophilic faces of cellulose in eudicots, early-branching angiosperm, and gymnosperm cell walls. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.
Hodgson, J G; Sharafi, M; Jalili, A; Díaz, S; Montserrat-Martí, G; Palmer, C; Cerabolini, B; Pierce, S; Hamzehee, B; Asri, Y; Jamzad, Z; Wilson, P; Raven, J A; Band, S R; Basconcelo, S; Bogard, A; Carter, G; Charles, M; Castro-Díez, P; Cornelissen, J H C; Funes, G; Jones, G; Khoshnevis, M; Pérez-Harguindeguy, N; Pérez-Rontomé, M C; Shirvany, F A; Vendramini, F; Yazdani, S; Abbas-Azimi, R; Boustani, S; Dehghan, M; Guerrero-Campo, J; Hynd, A; Kowsary, E; Kazemi-Saeed, F; Siavash, B; Villar-Salvador, P; Craigie, R; Naqinezhad, A; Romo-Díez, A; de Torres Espuny, L; Simmons, E
Genome size is a function, and the product, of cell volume. As such it is contingent on ecological circumstance. The nature of 'this ecological circumstance' is, however, hotly debated. Here, we investigate for angiosperms whether stomatal size may be this 'missing link': the primary determinant of genome size. Stomata are crucial for photosynthesis and their size affects functional efficiency. Stomatal and leaf characteristics were measured for 1442 species from Argentina, Iran, Spain and the UK and, using PCA, some emergent ecological and taxonomic patterns identified. Subsequently, an assessment of the relationship between genome-size values obtained from the Plant DNA C-values database and measurements of stomatal size was carried out. Stomatal size is an ecologically important attribute. It varies with life-history (woody species < herbaceous species < vernal geophytes) and contributes to ecologically and physiologically important axes of leaf specialization. Moreover, it is positively correlated with genome size across a wide range of major taxa. Stomatal size predicts genome size within angiosperms. Correlation is not, however, proof of causality and here our interpretation is hampered by unexpected deficiencies in the scientific literature. Firstly, there are discrepancies between our own observations and established ideas about the ecological significance of stomatal size; very large stomata, theoretically facilitating photosynthesis in deep shade, were, in this study (and in other studies), primarily associated with vernal geophytes of unshaded habitats. Secondly, the lower size limit at which stomata can function efficiently, and the ecological circumstances under which these minute stomata might occur, have not been satisfactorally resolved. Thus, our hypothesis, that the optimization of stomatal size for functional efficiency is a major ecological determinant of genome size, remains unproven.
Coiffard, Clément; Mohr, Barbara
Early Cretaceous Northern Gondwana seems to be the cradle of many early flowering plants, especially mesangiosperms that include magnoliids and monocots and basal eudicots. So far our knowledge was based mostly on dispersed pollen and small flowering structures. New fossil finds from Brazil include more complete plants with attached roots, leaves and flowers. Taxonomic studies show that these fossils belonged to clades which are, based on macroscopic characters and molecular data, also considered to be rather basal, such as several members of Nymphaeales, Piperales, Laurales, Magnoliales, monocots (Araliaceae) and Ranunculales. Various parameters can be used in order to understand the physiology and habitat of these plants. Adaptations to climate and habitat are partly mirrored in their root anatomy (evidence of tap roots), leaf size and shape, leaf anatomy including presence of glands, and distribution of stomata. An important ecophysiolocical parameter is vein density as an indicator for the plants' cabability to pump water, and the stomatal pore index, representing the proportion of stomatal pore area on the leaf surface, which is related to the water vapor resistance of the leaf epidermis. During the mid-Cretaceous leaf vein density started to surpass that of gymnosperms, one factor that made angiosperms very successful in conquering many kinds of new environments. Using data on these parameters we deduce that during the late Early to mid Cretaceous angiosperms were already diverse, being represented as both herbs, with aquatic members, such as Nymphaeles, helophytes (e.g. some monocots) and plants that may have grown in shady locations. Other life forms included shrubs and perhaps already small trees (e.g. Magnoliales). These flowering plants occupied various habitats, ranging from xeric (e.g. some Magnoliales) to mesic and shady (e.g. Piperales) or aquatic (e.g. Araceae, Nymphaeales). Overall, it seems that several of these plants clearly exhibited some
Cavallin, Evelin K S; Munhoz, Cássia B R; Harris, Stephen A; Villarroel, Daniel; Proença, Carolyn E B
By convention, scientific naming of angiosperm species began in 1753; it is estimated that 10-20% of species remain undescribed. To complete this task before rare, undescribed species go extinct, a better understanding of the description process is needed. The South American Cerrado biodiversity hotspot was considered a suitable model due to a high diversity of plants, habitats, and social history of species description. A randomized sample of 214 species (2% of the angiosperm flora) and 22 variables were analyzed using multivariate analyses and analysis of variance. Plants with wide global distributions, recorded from many areas, and above 2.6 m were described significantly earlier than narrowly distributed, uncommon species of smaller stature. The beginning of the career of the botanist who first collected the species was highly significant, with an average delay between first collection and description of 29 yr, and between type collection and description 19 yr; standard deviations were high and rose over time. Over a third of first collections were not cited in descriptions. Trends such as scientific specialization and decline of undescribed species were highlighted. Descriptions that involved potential collaboration between collectors and authors were significantly slower than those that did not. Results support four recommendations to hasten discovery of new species: (1) preferential collecting of plants below 2.6 m, at least in the Cerrado; (2) access to undetermined material in herbaria; (3) fieldwork in areas where narrow-endemic species occur; (4) fieldwork by knowledgeable botanists followed by descriptive activity by the same. © 2016 Proenca et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC).
Paulo Henrique Franco Lucinda
Full Text Available Osteological and soft anatomical features of representatives of poeciliine genera were studied to test the monophyly of the poeciliine tribes and to advance a hypothesis of relationships within the subfamily. The resultant hypothesis supports the proposal of a new classification for the subfamily Poeciliinae. Diagnoses are provided for suprageneric clades. The tribe Tomeurini is resurrected and the new tribes Brachyrhaphini and Priapichthyini as well as the supertribe Poeciliini are described. New usages of old tribe names are proposed based on the phylogenetic framework.
Khai C Ang
Full Text Available Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10-20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest to 75 (darkest; both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively. Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes.
Ang, Khai C; Ngu, Mee S; Reid, Katherine P; Teh, Mei S; Aida, Zamzuraida S; Koh, Danny Xr; Berg, Arthur; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Salleh, Hood; Clyde, Mahani M; Md-Zain, Badrul M; Canfield, Victor A; Cheng, Keith C
Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10-20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest) to 75 (darkest); both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively). Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes.
Troge, Michael [Little Bear Development Center, Oneida, WI (United States)
Oneida Nation is located in Northeast Wisconsin. The reservation is approximately 96 square miles (8 miles x 12 miles), or 65,000 acres. The greater Green Bay area is east and adjacent to the reservation. A county line roughly splits the reservation in half; the west half is in Outagamie County and the east half is in Brown County. Land use is predominantly agriculture on the west 2/3 and suburban on the east 1/3 of the reservation. Nearly 5,000 tribally enrolled members live in the reservation with a total population of about 21,000. Tribal ownership is scattered across the reservation and is about 23,000 acres. Currently, the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin (OTIW) community members and facilities receive the vast majority of electrical and natural gas services from two of the largest investor-owned utilities in the state, WE Energies and Wisconsin Public Service. All urban and suburban buildings have access to natural gas. About 15% of the population and five Tribal facilities are in rural locations and therefore use propane as a primary heating fuel. Wood and oil are also used as primary or supplemental heat sources for a small percent of the population. Very few renewable energy systems, used to generate electricity and heat, have been installed on the Oneida Reservation. This project was an effort to develop a reasonable renewable energy portfolio that will help Oneida to provide a leadership role in developing a clean energy economy. The Energy Optimization Model (EOM) is an exploration of energy opportunities available to the Tribe and it is intended to provide a decision framework to allow the Tribe to make the wisest choices in energy investment with an organizational desire to establish a renewable portfolio standard (RPS).
Ali, Muhammad; Perveen, Rukhsana; Naqvi, Arif-Un-Nisa; Ahmed, Khalil; Raza, Ghulam; Hussain, Ishtiaq
Coccinellids are important natural enemies of aphids, scale insects, mealybugs, whiteflies, jassids and mites. They are being augmented or conserved for population reduction of different agricultural crop pests in the concept of Integrated Pest Management throughout the world. The genera and species in the tribe Scymnini known from Pakistan are revised and redescribed. Two genera including two subgenera and six species among which three species are newly reported, is therefore, a new addition to Coccinellid fauna of Pakistan. Keys to all taxa, descriptions of the higher taxa, species diagnoses, synonymies, and distribution records are included. PMID:26454480
Full Text Available We examine the occurrence of the tribe Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in Peru based on the collection at Museo de Historia Natural of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos and on data provided in literature. Each species is presented with citations of its diagnosis, distribution and related comments. Peruvian Phanaeini includes 30 species in nine genera: Coprophanaeus, Dendropaemon, Gromphas, Oruscatus, Oxysternon, Phanaeus, Sulcophanaeus, Tetramereia and Megatharsis. Oruscatus davus is the only species distributed in the high Andes; Phanaeus lunaris and P. achilles occur in the northern arid zone shared by Peru and Ecuador; the remaining species are Amazonian.
Horikx, Maurits; Dinis, Jorge L.; Heimhofer, Ulrich
The Lusitanian Basin in Portugal is one of the most important areas to investigate the rise and radiation of early angiosperms. Here, important micro-, macro- and mesofossil remains including pollen, reproductive organs, fruits and seeds have been found. In this study, a high-resolution Early to Late Albian pollen record from a thick (~160m) coastal succession in the Lusitanian Basin containing mixed carbonate-siliciclastic near-shore deposits is generated. The outcrop is located near the town of Ericeira (São Julião) and exhibits some important new features compared to existing records from the Lusitanian basin. The comparatively proximal depositional setting and high sedimentation rate of the São Julião outcrop is well suited for high-resolution palynological sampling compared to previously studied, more distal outcrops. In addition, the succession covers almost the entire Albian including a thick interval representing Late Albian strata. Dating of the succession was obtained using dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy, bulk C-isotope analysis and strontium isotope analysis of low-Mg oysters and rudist shells. The high-resolution pollen record shows a distinct radiation pattern of early angiosperm pollen as well as significant changes in the accompanying palynoflora. During most of the section gymnosperm pollen types such as Classopollis spp., Inaperturopollenites spp. and Exesipollenites spp. are dominant. Angiosperm pollen abundances do not exceed 20%, although angiosperms increase slightly from the Early Albian onwards. Monoaperturate grains of magnoliid or monocot affinity remain the most dominant angiosperm pollen type, both in abundances and diversity. Tricolpate and zonoaperturate pollen grains are also present. In addition, the occurrence of several odd-shaped Dichastopollenites-type pollen types is intriguing. The palynological results indicate a warm and dry climate during most of the Albian, although a rise in the spores over pollen ratio in the
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives. 219.15 Section 219.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... Collaborative Planning for Sustainability § 219.15 Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does OTFM disburse money to a tribe? 115.817 Section 115.817 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS... OTFM disburse money to a tribe? Upon receipt of all necessary documentation, OTFM will process the...
... conflict with the Agreement, the terms of the Agreement control. Taxation 3.06.620 Tribal Liquor Tax The... exercise the Tribe's jurisdiction to regulate the sale, distribution and taxation of liquor within the... over liquor distribution, sales and taxation within the Tribe's Indian Country. Therefore, in the...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selection criteria for tribes/consortia to receive a negotiation grant. 1001.8 Section 1001.8 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SELF-GOVERNANCE PROGRAM § 1001.8 Selection criteria for tribes/consortia to receive a...
.... FEMA-4123-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] Standing Rock Sioux Tribe; Major Disaster and Related... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe (FEMA-4123-DR), dated June 25...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage to the lands associated with the Standing Rock Sioux...
Ekaphan Kraichak; Sittiporn Parnmen; Robert Lücking; Eimy Rivas Plata; Andre Aptroot; Marcela E.S. Caceres; Damien Ertz; Armin Mangold; Joel A. Mercado-Diaz; Khwanruan Papong; Dries Van der Broeck; Gothamie Weerakoon; H. Thorsten. Lumbsch; NO-VALUE
We present an updated 3-locus molecular phylogeny of tribe Ocellularieae, the second largest tribe within subfamily Graphidoideae in the Graphidaceae. Adding 165 newly generated sequences from the mitochondrial small subunit rDNA (mtSSU), the nuclear large subunit rDNA (nuLSU), and the second largest subunit of the DNA-directed RNA polymerase II (RPB2), we currently...
... determination of eligibility. 145.56 Section 145.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... which the Indian Tribe asserts jurisdiction; a statement by the Tribal Attorney General (or equivalent... Indian Tribe to administer an effective Underground Injection Control program which should include: (1) A...
... contain the items listed below. (a) Proof that the tribe has notified its members of its intent to remove... proof that the tribe has notified its members of intent to transfer the funds. The resolution must... governing body has the legal authority to withdraw funds from trust status and that the withdrawal does not...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe... publishes the Secretary's certification of the Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians (Gun.... The Tribal Council of the Gun Lake Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance adopted this Liquor Ordinance on...
... OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Remedial Response Cooperative Agreements § 35.6110 Indian Tribe-lead... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian Tribe-lead remedial Cooperative...
Fifty-one Brazilian species and varieties of Swartzia Schreber and eight other genera from the tribe Swartzieae were examined. Features with the greatest diagnostic value for the tribe are intervascular pit size, ray width and frequency, storied structure, axial parenchyma strand length, parenchyma band width, and vessel diameter. We analyzed the wood anatomical data...
Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.; Welle, ter B.J.H.
The wood anatomy of the tribe Castilleae sensu Berg is described. Similarities and differences are discussed in relation to his concepts of the taxonomy of the tribe. The wood anatomical variation does not enable to distinguish between Maquira, Perebea and Pseudolmedia. Antiaris, Castilla,
Feb 2, 2017 ... tribe in Nigeria. The paper examines the socio-cultural attitudes of Мgbуmмnа tribe toward marriage and abortion in Osun and Kwara states, Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered to 1036 (Osun: ..... Uniqueness of cultural and religious attitudes of Мgbуmмnа. In 1985, United Nations estimates showed ...
..., with the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin (Tribe), the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC), the... III gaming would be conducted inside the existing clubhouse until the new casino is built. The FEIS..., environmental justice, cumulative effects, indirect effects and mitigation. The BIA has afforded other...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban Indian Communities Division of Epidemiology and Disease Prevention; Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban Indian Communities Announcement Type...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban Indian Communities; Correction AGENCY: Indian Health Service, HHS... Epidemiology Centers serving American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and urban Indian communities. The document...
Vorontsova, Maria S; Hoffmann, Petra; Maurin, Olivier; Chase, Mark W
Novel insights into the evolutionary history of a taxonomically complex tropical plant group were gained in this study using DNA sequence data. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the newly circumscribed and expanded tribe Poranthereae (Phyllanthaceae) is presented. Sampling included 97 accessions for 63 of c. 120 species. Largely congruent results have been obtained from nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid matK sequences. These analyses support the recognition of Andrachne and Leptopus as distinct genera. The deceptively similar Andrachne section Phyllanthopsis, Andrachne ovalis, and Leptopus decaisnei are separate lineages to be segregated. Zimmermannia and Zimmermanniopsis are embedded in Meineckia; Oreoporanthera is embedded in Poranthera; and Archileptopus is embedded in Leptopus. Andrachne section Pseudophyllanthus is polyphyletic, the two Madagascan endemics emerging as a sister clade to Meineckia. The noncontiguous distributions of Andrachne sensu lato and Leptopus sensu lato were found to be the result of separate evolutionary histories of morphologically similar clades, whereas Andrachne sensu stricto and Meineckia remain geographically disjunct. Actephila and Leptopus are sisters with a sympatric distribution in humid Asia. Presence of petals appears to be plesiomorphic for the tribe. Petals are reduced in Actephila and Oreoporanthera and lost in the Meineckia clade.
Rapp, Jim [Parametrix; Duncan, Ken [San Carlos Apache Tribe; Albert, Steve [Parametrix
The San Carlos Apache Tribe (Tribe) in the interests of strengthening tribal sovereignty, becoming more energy self-sufficient, and providing improved services and economic opportunities to tribal members and San Carlos Apache Reservation (Reservation) residents and businesses, has explored a variety of options for renewable energy development. The development of renewable energy technologies and generation is consistent with the Tribe’s 2011 Strategic Plan. This Study assessed the possibilities for both commercial-scale and community-scale solar development within the southwestern portions of the Reservation around the communities of San Carlos, Peridot, and Cutter, and in the southeastern Reservation around the community of Bylas. Based on the lack of any commercial-scale electric power transmission between the Reservation and the regional transmission grid, Phase 2 of this Study greatly expanded consideration of community-scale options. Three smaller sites (Point of Pines, Dudleyville/Winkleman, and Seneca Lake) were also evaluated for community-scale solar potential. Three building complexes were identified within the Reservation where the development of site-specific facility-scale solar power would be the most beneficial and cost-effective: Apache Gold Casino/Resort, Tribal College/Skill Center, and the Dudleyville (Winkleman) Casino.
Liebler, Carolyn; Zacher, Meghan
Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, most aspects of ethnicity are tightly associated with the person's tribal origins. Language, history, foods, land, and traditions differ among the hundreds of tribes indigenous to the United States. With this in mind, we ask why almost one million American Indians failed to respond to the tribal affiliation part of the Census 2000 race question. We investigate four hypotheses about why one-third of multiracial American Indians and one-sixth of single-race American Indians did not write any response to the tribal affiliation question: (1) survey item non-response which undermines all fill-in-the-blank questions, (2) a non-salient tribal identity, (3) a genealogy-based affiliation, and (4) a mestizo identity which does not require a tribe. We use multivariate logistic regression models and high-density restricted-use Census 2000 data. We find support for the first two hypotheses and note that predictors differ substantially for single-race versus multiple-race American Indians.
This newsletter describes key activities of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs for Summer 2012. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) has selected 11 Tribes - five in Alaska and six in the contiguous United States - to receive on-the-ground technical support for community-based energy efficiency and renewable energy projects as part of DOE-IE's Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program. START finalists were selected based on the clarity of their requests for technical assistance and the ability of START to successfully work with their projects or community. Technical experts from DOE and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will work directly with community-based project teams to analyze local energy issues and assist the Tribes in moving their projects forward. In Alaska, the effort will be bolstered by DOE-IE's partnership with the Denali Commission, which will provide additional assistance and expertise, as well as funding to fuel the Alaska START initiative.
Full Text Available Recent large-scale studies of tree growth in the Iberian Peninsula reported contrasting positive and negative effects of temperature in Mediterranean angiosperms and conifers. Here we review the different hypotheses that may explain these trends and propose that the observed contrasting responses of tree growth to temperature in this region could be associated with a continuum of trait differences between angiosperms and conifers. Angiosperm and conifer trees differ in the effects of phenology in their productivity, in their growth allometry, and in their sensitivity to competition. Moreover, angiosperms and conifers significantly differ in hydraulic safety margins, sensitivity of stomatal conductance to vapor-pressure deficit, xylem recovery capacity or the rate of carbon transfer. These differences could be explained by key features of the xylem such as non-structural carbohydrate content (NSC, wood parenchymal fraction or wood capacitance. We suggest that the reviewed trait differences define two contrasting ecophysiological strategies that may determine qualitatively different growth responses to increased temperature and drought. Improved reciprocal common garden experiments along altitudinal or latitudinal gradients would be key to quantify the relative importance of the different hypotheses reviewed. Finally, we show that warming impacts in this area occur in an ecological context characterized by the advance of forest succession and increased dominance of angiosperm trees over extensive areas. In this context, we examined the empirical relationships between the responses of tree growth to temperature and hydraulic safety margins in angiosperm and coniferous trees. Our findings suggest a future scenario in Mediterranean forests characterized by contrasting demographic responses in conifer and angiosperm trees to both temperature and forest succession, with increased dominance of angiosperm trees, and particularly negative impacts in pines.
Philippe, Marc; Cuny, Gilles Guy Roger; Bashforth, Arden Roy
Fossil wood specimens from the late Early–early Middle Jurassic of Jameson Land, Eastern Greenland, have several unexpected features: tracheids of irregular size and shape, thinly pitted ray cell walls, heterogeneous rays, partially scalariform radial pitting, both areolate and simple pits...... is an early bench-mark in the evolution that led from homoxylous conifer-like wood to that of the angiosperms. Its particular biogeography (Arctic) could renew the discussion about the area of origin of the angiosperms....
Kim, Sangtae; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Albert, Victor A; Farris, James S; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E
B-function MADS-box genes play crucial roles in floral development in model angiosperms. We reconstructed the structural and functional implications of B-function gene phylogeny in the earliest extant flowering plants based on analyses that include 25 new AP3 and PI sequences representing critical lineages of the basalmost angiosperms: Amborella, Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae), and Illicium (Austrobaileyales). The ancestral size of exon 5 in PI-homologues is 42 bp, typical of exon 5 in other plant MADS-box genes. This 42-bp length is found in PI-homologues from Amborella and Nymphaeaceae, successive sisters to all other angiosperms. Following these basalmost branches, a deletion occurred in exon 5, yielding a length of 30 bp, a condition that unites all other angiosperms. Several shared amino acid strings, including a prominent "DEAER" motif, are present in the AP3- and PI-homologues of Amborella. These may be ancestral motifs that were present before the duplication that yielded the AP3 and PI lineages and subsequently were modified after the divergence of Amborella. Other structural features were identified, including a motif that unites the previously described TM6 clade and a deletion in AP3-homologues that unites all Magnoliales. Phylogenetic analyses of AP3- and PI-homologues yielded gene trees that generally track organismal phylogeny as inferred by multigene data sets. With both AP3 and PI amino acid sequences, Amborella and Nymphaeaceae are sister to all other angiosperms. Using nonparametric rate smoothing (NPRS), we estimated that the duplication that produced the AP3 and PI lineages occurred approximately 260 mya (231-290). This places the duplication after the split between extant gymnosperms and angiosperms, but well before the oldest angiosperm fossils. A striking similarity in the multimer-signalling C domains of the Amborella proteins suggests the potential for the formation of unique transcription-factor complexes. The earliest angiosperms may have been
Costa, Suzana Maria; Barbosa, Tiago Domingos Mouzinho; Bittrich, Volker; do Amaral, Maria do Carmo Estanislau
We provide and discuss a floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park (VNP). The VNP is located in the northern Amazon basin and displays phytophysiognomies distributed in a mosaic where these plants occur, as flooded forests, hydromorphic white-sand savannas, "buritizais" and waterbodies. After expeditions between February/2010 and January/2015 and the analysis of specimens from regional herbaria, we list 207 species of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms for the VNP, distributed in 85 genera in 37 families. We recorded six new occurrences for Brazil, two for the northern Brazilian region and 21 for Roraima state. These new occurrences, added to the other species listed here, highlight the floristic similarity between the study site and the Guiana Shield, an adjacent phytogeographical unit and geologically related to the origin of white-sand savannas.
Boore Jeffrey L
Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of completely sequenced plastid genomes available is growing rapidly. This array of sequences presents new opportunities to perform comparative analyses. In comparative studies, it is often useful to compare across wide phylogenetic spans and, within angiosperms, to include representatives from basally diverging lineages such as the genomes reported here: Nuphar advena (from a basal-most lineage and Ranunculus macranthus (a basal eudicot. We report these two new plastid genome sequences and make comparisons (within angiosperms, seed plants, or all photosynthetic lineages to evaluate features such as the status of ycf15 and ycf68 as protein coding genes, the distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs and longer dispersed repeats (SDR, and patterns of nucleotide composition. Results The Nuphar [GenBank:NC_008788] and Ranunculus [GenBank:NC_008796] plastid genomes share characteristics of gene content and organization with many other chloroplast genomes. Like other plastid genomes, these genomes are A+T-rich, except for rRNA and tRNA genes. Detailed comparisons of Nuphar with Nymphaea, another Nymphaeaceae, show that more than two-thirds of these genomes exhibit at least 95% sequence identity and that most SSRs are shared. In broader comparisons, SSRs vary among genomes in terms of abundance and length and most contain repeat motifs based on A and T nucleotides. Conclusion SSR and SDR abundance varies by genome and, for SSRs, is proportional to genome size. Long SDRs are rare in the genomes assessed. SSRs occur less frequently than predicted and, although the majority of the repeat motifs do include A and T nucleotides, the A+T bias in SSRs is less than that predicted from the underlying genomic nucleotide composition. In codon usage third positions show an A+T bias, however variation in codon usage does not correlate with differences in A+T-richness. Thus, although plastome nucleotide composition shows "A
Raubeson, Linda A; Peery, Rhiannon; Chumley, Timothy W; Dziubek, Chris; Fourcade, H Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L; Jansen, Robert K
The number of completely sequenced plastid genomes available is growing rapidly. This array of sequences presents new opportunities to perform comparative analyses. In comparative studies, it is often useful to compare across wide phylogenetic spans and, within angiosperms, to include representatives from basally diverging lineages such as the genomes reported here: Nuphar advena (from a basal-most lineage) and Ranunculus macranthus (a basal eudicot). We report these two new plastid genome sequences and make comparisons (within angiosperms, seed plants, or all photosynthetic lineages) to evaluate features such as the status of ycf15 and ycf68 as protein coding genes, the distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and longer dispersed repeats (SDR), and patterns of nucleotide composition. The Nuphar [GenBank:NC_008788] and Ranunculus [GenBank:NC_008796] plastid genomes share characteristics of gene content and organization with many other chloroplast genomes. Like other plastid genomes, these genomes are A+T-rich, except for rRNA and tRNA genes. Detailed comparisons of Nuphar with Nymphaea, another Nymphaeaceae, show that more than two-thirds of these genomes exhibit at least 95% sequence identity and that most SSRs are shared. In broader comparisons, SSRs vary among genomes in terms of abundance and length and most contain repeat motifs based on A and T nucleotides. SSR and SDR abundance varies by genome and, for SSRs, is proportional to genome size. Long SDRs are rare in the genomes assessed. SSRs occur less frequently than predicted and, although the majority of the repeat motifs do include A and T nucleotides, the A+T bias in SSRs is less than that predicted from the underlying genomic nucleotide composition. In codon usage third positions show an A+T bias, however variation in codon usage does not correlate with differences in A+T-richness. Thus, although plastome nucleotide composition shows "A+T richness", an A+T bias is not apparent upon more in
C?t?, Caroline L; Boileau, Francis; Roy, Vicky; Ouellet, Mario; Levasseur, Caroline; Morency, Marie-Jos?e; Cooke, Janice EK; S?guin, Armand; MacKay, John J
Abstract Background Class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-Zip III) proteins have been implicated in the regulation of cambium identity, as well as primary and secondary vascular differentiation and patterning in herbaceous plants. They have been proposed to regulate wood formation but relatively little evidence is available to validate such a role. We characterised and compared HD-Zip III gene family in an angiosperm tree, Populus spp. (poplar), and the gymnosperm Picea glauca (white spruc...
Costa, Suzana Maria; Barbosa, Tiago Domingos Mouzinho; Bittrich, Volker; do Amaral, Maria do Carmo Estanislau
Abstract We provide and discuss a floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viru? National Park (VNP). The VNP is located in the northern Amazon basin and displays phytophysiognomies distributed in a mosaic where these plants occur, as flooded forests, hydromorphic white-sand savannas, ?buritizais? and waterbodies. After expeditions between February/2010 and January/2015 and the analysis of specimens from regional herbaria, we list 207 species of herb...
Legrand, Julien; Yamada, Toshihiro; Nishida, Harufumi
Palynomorphs are reported for the first time from the Nishihiro Formation (Wakayama Prefecture, Outer Zone of southwest Japan). The Nishihiro Formation consists of brackish to shallow marine deposits, dated as late Barremian to Aptian from geological correlations. Spores prevail in the assemblage, representing Filicopsida (mainly Cyatheaceae and Anemiaceae), Marchantiopsida and Lycopsida. The pollen assemblage is dominated by Coniferales, whereas Gnetales and Bennettitales/Cycadales are only rarely observed. Moreover, we report angiosperm pollen grains of the genus Retimonocolpites for the first time in the Early Cretaceous sediments of Japan. Pollen grains of the Retimonocolpites Group are typical of early angiosperms and commonly found in assemblages from the early to mid-Cretaceous of all paleofloristic provinces. Until this paper, the oldest angiosperm fossils in Japan were represented by a single seed and a wood reported from the Albian of Hokkaido. The oldest reliable angiosperm pollen grains were reported in Hokkaido from the Cenomanian, and in Honshu from the Coniacian. Thus, Retimonocolpites pollen grains reported in the present study represent the oldest record of angiosperms in Japan. They indicate an appearance of the angiosperms in Japan older than thought until now, which is consistent with that proposed elsewhere in eastern Asia.
Background Recent phylogenetic analyses have identified Amborella trichopoda, an understory tree species endemic to the forests of New Caledonia, as sister to a clade including all other known flowering plant species. The Amborella genome is a unique reference for understanding the evolution of angiosperm genomes because it can serve as an outgroup to root comparative analyses. A physical map, BAC end sequences and sample shotgun sequences provide a first view of the 870 Mbp Amborella genome. Results Analysis of Amborella BAC ends sequenced from each contig suggests that the density of long terminal repeat retrotransposons is negatively correlated with that of protein coding genes. Syntenic, presumably ancestral, gene blocks were identified in comparisons of the Amborella BAC contigs and the sequenced Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Vitis vinifera and Oryza sativa genomes. Parsimony mapping of the loss of synteny corroborates previous analyses suggesting that the rate of structural change has been more rapid on lineages leading to Arabidopsis and Oryza compared with lineages leading to Populus and Vitis. The gamma paleohexiploidy event identified in the Arabidopsis, Populus and Vitis genomes is shown to have occurred after the divergence of all other known angiosperms from the lineage leading to Amborella. Conclusions When placed in the context of a physical map, BAC end sequences representing just 5.4% of the Amborella genome have facilitated reconstruction of gene blocks that existed in the last common ancestor of all flowering plants. The Amborella genome is an invaluable reference for inferences concerning the ancestral angiosperm and subsequent genome evolution. PMID:21619600
Wang, Dan-Yang; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Yang; Lin, Zhi-Fu; Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Sun, Meng-Xiang; Sodmergen
The mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial inheritance are not yet clear, even though it is 100 years since the first description of non-Mendelian genetics. Here, we quantified the copy numbers of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the gametic cells of angiosperm species. We demonstrate that each egg cell from Arabidopsis thaliana, Antirrhinum majus, and Nicotiana tabacum possesses 59.0, 42.7, and 73.0 copies of mtDNA on average, respectively. These values are equivalent to those in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells, at 61.7 copies per cell. On the other hand, sperm or generative cells from Arabidopsis, A. majus, and N. tabacum possess minor amounts of mtDNA, at 0.083, 0.47, and 1 copy on average, respectively. We further reveal a 50-fold degradation of mtDNA during pollen development in A. majus. In contrast, markedly high levels of mtDNA are found in the male gametic cells of Cucumis melo and Pelargonium zonale (1296.3 and 256.7 copies, respectively). Our results provide direct evidence for mitochondrial genomic insufficiency in the eggs and somatic cells and indicate that a male gamete of an angiosperm may possess mtDNA at concentrations as high as 21-fold (C. melo) or as low as 0.1% (Arabidopsis) of the levels in somatic cells. These observations reveal the existence of a strong regulatory system for the male gametic mtDNA levels in angiosperms with regard to mitochondrial inheritance.
Wang, Dan-Yang; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Yang; Lin, Zhi-Fu; Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Sun, Meng-Xiang; Sodmergen
The mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial inheritance are not yet clear, even though it is 100 years since the first description of non-Mendelian genetics. Here, we quantified the copy numbers of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the gametic cells of angiosperm species. We demonstrate that each egg cell from Arabidopsis thaliana, Antirrhinum majus, and Nicotiana tabacum possesses 59.0, 42.7, and 73.0 copies of mtDNA on average, respectively. These values are equivalent to those in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells, at 61.7 copies per cell. On the other hand, sperm or generative cells from Arabidopsis, A. majus, and N. tabacum possess minor amounts of mtDNA, at 0.083, 0.47, and 1 copy on average, respectively. We further reveal a 50-fold degradation of mtDNA during pollen development in A. majus. In contrast, markedly high levels of mtDNA are found in the male gametic cells of Cucumis melo and Pelargonium zonale (1296.3 and 256.7 copies, respectively). Our results provide direct evidence for mitochondrial genomic insufficiency in the eggs and somatic cells and indicate that a male gamete of an angiosperm may possess mtDNA at concentrations as high as 21-fold (C. melo) or as low as 0.1% (Arabidopsis) of the levels in somatic cells. These observations reveal the existence of a strong regulatory system for the male gametic mtDNA levels in angiosperms with regard to mitochondrial inheritance. PMID:20605854
... consortia. Each Tribe's annual FMAP shall be based on the per capita income of the service population of the... consistent national data regarding per capita income for each Indian Tribe. However, the source of these data... only complete source of per capita income data for Indian Tribes and tribal communities is that of the...
... participate in self-governance? 137.16 Section 137.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-GOVERNANCE Selection of Indian Tribes for Participation in Self-Governance § 137.16 What if more than 50 Indian Tribes apply to participate in self-governance? The first Indian Tribes who apply and are...
... INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Welfare Reform § 20.203 Can a tribe incorporate assistance from other sources into a tribal redesign plan? Yes, when a tribe redesigns... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe incorporate assistance from other sources...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When are Indian tribe or tribal organization management... Organization Management Systems General § 900.40 When are Indian tribe or tribal organization management... Indian tribe or tribal organization submits an initial contract proposal. (b) Management systems are...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What audit requirements must a self-governance Tribe... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.394 What audit requirements must a self-governance Tribe/Consortium follow? The Tribe/Consortium must provide to the designated...
... SELF-GOVERNANCE Selection of Indian Tribes for Participation in Self-Governance Planning Phase § 137.21... Tribe provides evidence that, for the three years prior to participation in self-governance, the Indian Tribe has had no uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions in the required annual audit of...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under either...
Pratt, R Brandon; Jacobsen, Anna L
The secondary xylem of woody plants transports water mechanically supports the plant body and stores resources. These three functions are interdependent giving rise to tradeoffs in function. Understanding the relationships among these functions and their structural basis forms the context in which to interpret xylem evolution. The tradeoff between xylem transport efficiency and safety from cavitation has been carefully examined with less focus on other functions, particularly storage. Here, we synthesize data on all three xylem functions in angiosperm branch xylem in the context of tradeoffs. Species that have low safety and efficiency, examined from a resource economics perspective, are predicted to be adapted for slow resource acquisition and turnover as characterizes some environments. Tradeoffs with water storage primarily arise because of differences in fibre traits, while tradeoffs in carbohydrate storage are driven by parenchyma content of tissue. We find support for a tradeoff between safety from cavitation and storage of both water and starch in branch xylem tissue and between water storage capacity and mechanical strength. Living fibres may facilitate carbohydrate storage without compromising mechanical strength. The division of labour between different xylem cell types allows for considerable functional and structural diversity at multiple scales. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dyer, Adrian G; Boyd-Gerny, Skye; McLoughlin, Stephen; Rosa, Marcello G P; Simonov, Vera; Wong, Bob B M
Flowering plants in Australia have been geographically isolated for more than 34 million years. In the Northern Hemisphere, previous work has revealed a close fit between the optimal discrimination capabilities of hymenopteran pollinators and the flower colours that have most frequently evolved. We collected spectral data from 111 Australian native flowers and tested signal appearance considering the colour discrimination capabilities of potentially important pollinators. The highest frequency of flower reflectance curves is consistent with data reported for the Northern Hemisphere. The subsequent mapping of Australian flower reflectances into a bee colour space reveals a very similar distribution of flower colour evolution to the Northern Hemisphere. Thus, flowering plants in Australia are likely to have independently evolved spectral signals that maximize colour discrimination by hymenoptera. Moreover, we found that the degree of variability in flower coloration for particular angiosperm species matched the range of reflectance colours that can only be discriminated by bees that have experienced differential conditioning. This observation suggests a requirement for plasticity in the nervous systems of pollinators to allow generalization of flowers of the same species while overcoming the possible presence of non-rewarding flower mimics.
Carbonero, Pilar; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesús
Seed development follows zygotic embryogenesis; during the maturation phase reserves accumulate and desiccation tolerance is acquired. This is tightly regulated at the transcriptional level and the AFL (ABI3/FUS3/LEC2) subfamily of B3 transcription factors (TFs) play a central role. They alter hormone biosynthesis, mainly in regards to abscisic acid and gibberellins, and also regulate the expression of other TFs and/or modulate their downstream activity via protein-protein interactions. This review deals with the origin of AFL TFs, which can be traced back to non-vascular plants such as Physcomitrella patens and achieves foremost expansion in the angiosperms. In green algae, like the unicellular Chlamydomonas reinhardtii or the pluricellular Klebsormidium flaccidum, a single B3 gene and four B3 paralogous genes are annotated, respectively. However, none of them present with the structural features of the AFL subfamily, with the exception of the B3 DNA-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis groups the AFL TFs into four Major Clusters of Ortologous Genes (MCOGs). The origin and function of these genes is discussed in view of their expression patterns and in the context of major regulatory interactions in seeds of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Bouizgarne, Brahim; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Madiona, Karine; Biligui, Bernadette; Monestiez, Michèle; Pennarun, Anne Marie; Amiar, Zahia; Rona, Jean Pierre; Ouhdouch, Yedir; El Hadrami, Ismaïl; Bouteau, François
Fusarium spp. are ubiquitous fungi found in soil worldwide as both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. The signals leading to disease or the absence of disease are poorly understood. We recently showed that fusaric acid (FA), a nonspecific toxin produced by most Fusarium spp., could elicit various plant defense responses at 100 nM without toxic effect. In this study, we checked for the effect of FA on root and root hairs, probable first site of contact between the fungi and the host. Large FA concentrations reduce root and root-hair growth and induce a rapid transient membrane hyperpolarization, followed by a large depolarization, due to the inhibition of H(+)-ATPase currents. Nanomolar concentrations of FA induced only an early transient membrane hyperpolarization of root hairs compatible with the induction of a signal transduction pathway. FA at 10(-7) M failed to induce salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent defense-related genes but inhibited the germination of the angiosperm parasite Orobanche ramosa in contact of FA-pretreated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. These data suggest that FA at nontoxic concentrations could activate signal transduction components necessary for plant-defense responses that could contribute to biocontrol activity of Fusarium spp.
Guan, Hexin; Zheng, Zhengui; Grey, Paris H; Li, Yuhua; Oppenheimer, David G
Floral transition is a critical and strictly regulated developmental process in plants. Mutations in Arabidopsis LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 (AtLHP1)/TERMINAL FLOWER 2 (TFL2) result in early and terminal flowers. Little is known about the gene expression, function and evolution of plant LHP1 homologs, except for Arabidopsis LHP1. In this study, the conservation and divergence of plant LHP1 protein sequences was analyzed by sequence alignments and phylogeny. LHP1 expression patterns were compared among taxa that occupy pivotal phylogenetic positions. Several relatively conserved new motifs/regions were identified among LHP1 homologs. Phylogeny of plant LHP1 proteins agreed with established angiosperm relationships. In situ hybridization unveiled conserved expression of plant LHP1 in the axillary bud/tiller, vascular bundles, developing stamens, and carpels. Unlike AtLHP1, cucumber CsLHP1-2, sugarcane SoLHP1 and maize ZmLHP1, rice OsLHP1 is not expressed in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and the OsLHP1 transcript level is consistently low in shoots. "Unequal crossover" might have contributed to the divergence in the N-terminal and hinge region lengths of LHP1 homologs. We propose an "insertion-deletion" model for soybean (Glycine max L.) GmLHP1s evolution. Plant LHP1 homologs are more conserved than previously expected, and may favor vegetative meristem identity and primordia formation. OsLHP1 may not function in rice SAM during floral induction.
Silva Pares-Regali, Marilia da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
Tucanopollis, a new genus of early angiosperms,is described and figured. The amplitude of its genotype, Tucanopollis crisopolensis, ranges from the Barremian to the Early Aptian and, as far as we know, its geographic distribution is restricted to northeastern Brazil and western Africa. T. crisopolensis appeared in the Reconcavo Basin and its extinction is noted in the Alagoas Basin; its acme occurred in the Tucano Basin, during the Late Barremian. Relationships between T. crisopolensis, monosulcates and ornament tricolpates, and Afropollis spp. are illustrated on a composite palynogram, which also shows the frequency inversion of Gnetales and Cheirolepidiales, linked to the acme of T. crisopolensis. It is demonstrated that the sulcated shapes, with circular central areas, appear and become extinct at the same time. The holotype for this new genus is the same as that figured by Regali, Uesugui and Santos (1974) and is part of the type collection of the Biostratigraphy and Paleoecology Sector of PETROBRAS`s Leopoldo A. Miguez de Mello Research and Development Center, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (author). 13 refs., 3 figs.
Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Tank, David C; Donoghue, Michael J
New powerful biogeographic methods have focused attention on long-standing hypotheses regarding the influence of the break-up of Gondwana on the biogeography of Southern Hemisphere plant groups. Studies to date have often concluded that these groups are too young to have been influenced by these ancient continental movements. Here we examine a much larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer its biogeographic history by combining Bayesian divergence time information with a likelihood-based biogeographic model focused on the Gondwanan landmasses. Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated in the middle Albian (~105 Ma), and that a substantial portion of the early evolutionary history of campanulids took place in the Southern Hemisphere, despite their greater species richness in the Northern Hemisphere today. We also discovered several disjunctions that show biogeographic and temporal correspondence with the break-up of Gondwana. While it is possible to discern traces of the break-up of Gondwana in clades that are old enough, it will generally be difficult to be confident in continental movement as the prime cause of geographic disjunctions. This follows from the need for the geographic disjunction, the inferred biogeographic scenario, and the dating of the lineage splitting events to be consistent with the causal hypothesis.
Plavcová, Lenka; Hacke, Uwe G
Intervessel pits act as safety valves that prevent the spread of xylem embolism. Pectin-calcium crosslinks within the pit membrane have been proposed to affect xylem vulnerability to cavitation. However, as the chemical composition of pit membranes is poorly understood, this hypothesis has not been verified. Using electron microscopy, immunolabeling, an antimonate precipitation technique, and ruthenium red staining, we studied the distribution of selected polysaccharides and calcium in the pit membranes of four angiosperm tree species. We tested whether shifts in xylem vulnerability resulting from perfusion of stems with a calcium chelating agent corresponded with the distribution of pectic homogalacturonans (HG) and/or calcium within interconduit pit membranes. No HG were detected in the main part of intervessel pit membranes, but were consistently found in the marginal membrane region known as the annulus. Calcium colocalized with HG in the annulus. In contrast to intervessel pits, the membrane of vessel-ray pits showed a high pectin content. The presence of two distinct chemical domains, the annulus and the actual pit membrane, can have substantial implications for pit membrane functioning. We propose that the annulus could affect the observed shift in xylem vulnerability after calcium removal by allowing increased pit membrane deflection. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.
Full Text Available In plants, actin filaments have an important role in organelle movement and cytoplasmic streaming. Otherwise microtubules have a role in restricting organelles to specific areas of the cell and in maintaining organelle morphology. In somatic plant cells, microtubules also participate in cell division and morphogenesis, allowing cells to take their definitive shape in order to perform specific functions. In the latter case, microtubules influence assembly of the cell wall, controlling the delivery of enzymes involved in cellulose synthesis and of wall modulation material to the proper sites.In angiosperm pollen tubes, organelle movement is generally attributed to the acto-myosin system, the main role of which is in distributing organelles in the cytoplasm and in carrying secretory vesicles to the apex for polarized growth. Recent data on membrane trafficking suggests a role of microtubules in fine delivery and repositioning of vesicles to sustain pollen tube growth. This review examines the role of microtubules in secretion and endocytosis, highlighting new research cues regarding cell wall construction and pollen tube-pistil crosstalk, that help unravel the role of microtubules in polarized growth.
Full Text Available Bacterial leaf symbiosis is a unique and intimate interaction between bacteria and flowering plants, in which endosymbionts are organized in specialized leaf structures. Previously, bacterial leaf symbiosis has been described as a cyclic and obligate interaction in which the endosymbionts are vertically transmitted between plant generations and lack autonomous growth. Theoretically this allows for co-speciation between leaf nodulated plants and their endosymbionts. We sequenced the nodulated Burkholderia endosymbionts of 54 plant species from known leaf nodulated angiosperm genera, i.e. Ardisia, Pavetta, Psychotria and Sericanthe. Phylogenetic reconstruction of bacterial leaf symbionts and closely related free-living bacteria indicates the occurrence of multiple horizontal transfers of bacteria from the environment to leaf nodulated plant species. This rejects the hypothesis of a long co-speciation process between the bacterial endosymbionts and their host plants. Our results indicate a recent evolutionary process towards a stable and host specific interaction confirming the proposed maternal transmission mode of the endosymbionts through the seeds. Divergence estimates provide evidence for a relatively recent origin of bacterial leaf symbiosis, dating back to the Miocene (5-23 Mya. This geological epoch was characterized by cool and arid conditions, which may have triggered the origin of bacterial leaf symbiosis.
Dinant, Sylvie; Clark, Anna M.; Zhu, Yanmin; Vilaine, Françoise; Palauqui, Jean-Christophe; Kusiak, Chantal; Thompson, Gary A.
Phloem protein 2 (PP2) is one of the most abundant and enigmatic proteins in the phloem sap. Although thought to be associated with structural P-protein, PP2 is translocated in the assimilate stream where its lectin activity or RNA-binding properties can exert effects over long distances. Analyzing the diversity of these proteins in vascular plants led to the identification of PP2-like genes in species from 17 angiosperm and gymnosperm genera. This wide distribution of PP2 genes in the plant kingdom indicates that they are ancient and common in vascular plants. Their presence in cereals and gymnosperms, both of which lack structural P-protein, also supports a wider role for these proteins. Within this superfamily, PP2 proteins have considerable size polymorphism. This is attributable to variability in the length of the amino terminus that extends from a highly conserved domain. The conserved PP2 domain was identified in the proteins encoded by six genes from several cucurbits, celery (Apium graveolens), and Arabidopsis that are specifically expressed in the sieve element-companion cell complex. The acquisition of additional modular domains in the amino-terminal extensions of other PP2-like proteins could reflect divergence from its phloem function. PMID:12529520
Mariana Victória Irume
Full Text Available This survey aimed to describe the floristic composition and structure of the epiphytic community occurring in a terra firme forest in the city of Coari, Brazil, in the Amazon region. Data collection was performed with a 1.5 ha plot method, with which upland, slope and lowland habitats were sampled. All angiosperm epiphytes and their host plants (diameter at breast height > 10 cm were sampled. We recorded 3.528 individuals in 13 families, 48 genera and 164 species. Araceae was the most prevalent family with regard to the importance value and stood out in all related parameters, followed by Bromeliaceae, Cyclanthaceae and Orchidaceae. The species with the highest epiphytic importance values were Guzmania lingulata (L. Mez. and Philodendron linnaei Kunth. The predominant life form was hemiepiphytic. Estimated floristic diversity was 3.2 (H'. The studied epiphytic community was distributed among 727 host plants belonging to 40 families, 123 genera and 324 species. One individual of Guarea convergens T.D. Penn. was the host with the highest richness and abundance of epiphytes. Stems/trunks of host plants were the most colonized segments, and the most favorable habitat for epiphytism was the lowlands, where 84.1% of species and 48.2% of epiphytic specimens were observed.
Abstract The generation of plant diversity involves complex interactions between geography, environment and organismal traits. Many macroevolutionary processes and emergent patterns have been identified in different plant groups through the study of spatial data, but rarely in the context of a large radiation of tropical herbaceous angiosperms. A powerful system for testing interrelated biogeographical hypotheses is provided by the terrestrial bromeliads, a Neotropical group of extensive ecological diversity and importance. In this investigation, distributional data for 564 species of terrestrial bromeliads were used to estimate variation in the position and width of species-level hydrological habitat occupancy and test six core hypotheses linking geography, environment and organismal traits. Taxonomic groups and functional types differed in hydrological habitat occupancy, modulated by convergent and divergent trait evolution, and with contrasting interactions with precipitation abundance and seasonality. Plant traits in the Bromeliaceae are intimately associated with bioclimatic differentiation, which is in turn strongly associated with variation in geographical range size and species richness. These results emphasize the ecological relevance of structural-functional innovation in a major plant radiation. PMID:29479409
Schmidt, John P; Drake, John M; Stephens, Patrick
Although critical to progress in understanding (i) if, and (ii) at what rate, introduced plants will naturalize and potentially become invasive, establishing causal links between traits and invasion success is complicated by data gaps, phylogenetic nonindependence of species, the inability to control for differences between species in residence time and propagule pressure, and covariance among traits. Here, we focus on statistical relationships between genomic factors, life history traits, native range size, and naturalization status of angiosperms introduced to Australia. In a series of analyses, we alternately investigate the role of phylogeny, incorporate introduction history, and use graphical models to explore the network of conditional probabilities linking traits and introduction history to naturalization status. Applying this ensemble of methods to the largest publicly available data set on plant introductions and their fates, we found that, overall, residence time and native range size best predicted probability of naturalization. Yet, importantly, probability of naturalization consistently increased as genome size decreased, even when the effects of shared ancestry and residence time in Australia were accounted for, and that this pattern was stronger in species without a history of cultivation, but present across annual-biennials, and herbaceous and woody perennials. Thus, despite introduction biases and indirect effects of traits via introduction history, across analyses, reduced genome size was nevertheless consistently associated with a tendency to naturalize.
Qian, Hong; Jin, Yi; Ricklefs, Robert E
Although eastern Asia (EAS) and eastern North America (ENA) have similar climates, plant species richness in EAS greatly exceeds that in ENA. The degree to which this diversity difference reflects the ages of the floras or their rates of evolutionary diversification has not been quantified. Measures of species diversity that do not incorporate the ages of lineages disregard the evolutionary distinctiveness of species. In contrast, phylogenetic diversity integrates both the number of species and their history of evolutionary diversification. Here we compared species diversity and phylogenetic diversity in a large number of flowering plant (angiosperm) floras distributed across EAS and ENA, two regions with similar contemporary environments and broadly shared floristic history. After accounting for climate and sample area, we found both species diversity and phylogenetic diversity to be significantly higher in EAS than in ENA. When we controlled the number of species statistically, we found that phylogenetic diversity remained substantially higher in EAS than in ENA, although it tended to converge at high latitude. This pattern held independently for herbs, shrubs, and trees. The anomaly in species and phylogenetic diversity likely resulted from differences in regional processes, related in part to high climatic and topographic heterogeneity, and a strong monsoon climate, in EAS. The broad connection between tropical and temperate floras in southern Asia also might have played a role in creating the phylogenetic diversity anomaly.
Jud, Nathan A
Eudicot flowering plants comprise roughly 70% of land plant species diversity today, but their early evolution is not well understood. Fossil evidence has been largely restricted to their distinctive tricolpate pollen grains and this has limited our understanding of the ecological strategies that characterized their primary radiation. I describe megafossils of an Early Cretaceous eudicot from the Potomac Group in Maryland and Virginia, USA that are complete enough to allow reconstruction of important life-history traits. I draw on quantitative and qualitative analysis of functional traits, phylogenetic analysis and sedimentological evidence to reconstruct the biology of this extinct species. These plants were small and locally rare but widespread, fast-growing herbs. They had complex leaves and they were colonizers of bright, wet, disturbance-prone habitats. Other early eudicot megafossils appear to be herbaceous rather than woody, suggesting that this habit was characteristic of their primary radiation. A mostly herbaceous initial diversification of eudicots could simultaneously explain the heretofore sparse megafossil record as well as their rapid diversification during the Early Cretaceous because the angiosperm capacity for fast reproduction and fast evolution is best expressed in herbs. © 2015 The Author(s).
Full Text Available During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands three new species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae have come to light and are described herein: C. fatuhivaensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, C. meyeri W. L. Wagner & Lorence, and C. temetiuensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence. Descriptions, illustrations, conservation status, and specimen citations are provided. Amended descriptions of three previously described Marquesan Coprosma species are also provided as well as a key to the species, four of which fall into the Critically Endangered (CR and two into the Endangered (EN category. With the description of these the new species, Coprosma becomes the sixth largest lineage in the Marquesas Islands with six species after Psychotria (one lineage which has 9 spp., Cyrtandra (8 spp., Bidens (8 spp., and Melicope (7 spp., and Ixora (7 spp..
Cláudia da Silva Pereira
Full Text Available Orkut is a virtual relationship network through which it is possible to identify a system of classification determined by the way users interact inside of the communities. The wannabee is one of the types that are part of this universe. The main goals of this article are to analyze how adolescence constructs its identity from distinction and social control processes in the Internet, taking the aspects related to gender and body as central issues for discussion, and to reflect on the meanings attributed, in this phase of life, to concepts as “life style” and “mood”, inside two types of virtual communities: the “gothics”, urban tribe representative of one given femininity, and the “pro-anas”, strictly virtual, that defends anorexic practices as a life style.
This article integrates (1) research in the historical dynamics of state societies relating group solidarity and group expansion to cultural frontiers, (2) comparative research in anthropology relating matrilocality to a particular variety of internal politics and a particular form of warfare, and (3) interdisciplinary reconstructions of large-scale "demic expansions" and associated kinship systems in prehistory. The argument is that "metaethnic frontiers," where very different cultures clash, are centers for the formation of larger, more enduring, and more militarily effective groups. In small-scale non-state societies, the major path toward the formation of such groups is the establishment of cross-cutting ties among men. This often involves the adoption of matrilocal norms. The current distribution of matrilocality and matrilineality around the world may be partly a residue of major demic expansions in prehistory involving matrilocal tribes. This hypothesis is evaluated with a range of evidence, including information regarding the spread of two language families, Bantu and Austronesian.
Carroll, Herbert B.; Chen, K.C.; Guo, Genliang; Johnson, W.I.; Reeves,T.K.; Sharma,Bijon
To determine current acquisition procedures and costs and to further the goals of the President's Initiative for Native Tribes, a seismic-survey project is to be conducted on Osage tribal lands. The goals of the program are to demonstrate the capabilities, costs, and effectiveness of 3-D seismic work in a small-operator setting and to determine the economics of such a survey. For these purposes, typical small-scale independent-operator practices are being followed and a shallow target chose in an area with a high concentration of independent operators. The results will be analyzed in detail to determine if there are improvements and/or innovations which can be easily introduced in field-acquisition procedures, in processing, or in data manipulation and interpretation to further reduce operating costs and to make the system still more active to the small-scale operator.
Hatcher, P.G.; Wilson, M.A.; Vassalo, M.; Lerch, H. E.
Many Tertiary coals contain abundant fossilized remains of angiosperms that often dominated some ancient peat-swamp environments; modern analogs of which can be found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Comparisons of angiospermous woods from Australian brown coal with similar woods buried in modern peat swamps of Indonesia have provided some new insights into coalification reactions. These comparisons were made by using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-gc-ms), two modern techniques especially suited for detailed structural evaluation of the complex macromolecules in coal. From these studies, we conclude that the earliest transformation (peatification) of organic matter in angiospermous wood is the degradation of cellulosic components. The efficiency of removal of cellulosic components in the wood varies considerably in peat, which results in variable levels of cellulose in peatified wood. However, the net trend is towards eventual removal of the cellulose. The angiospermous lignin that becomes enriched in wood as a result of cellulose degradation also is modified by coalifications reactions; this modification, however, does not involve degradation and removal. Rather, the early coalification process transforms the lignin phenols (guaiacyl and syringyl) to eventually yield the aromatic structures typically found in brown coal. One such transformation, which is determined from the NMR data, involves the cleavage of aryl ether bonds that link guaiacyl and syringyl units in lignin and leads to the formation of free lignin phenols. Another transformation, which is also determined from the NMR data, involves the loss of methoxyl groups, probably via demethylation, to produce catechol-like structures. Coincident with ether-cleavage and demethylation, the aromatic rings derived from lignin phenols become more carbon-substituted and cross-linked, as determined by dipolar
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the frequency and clinical features of bleeding disorders in the tribe as a result of consanguineous marriages. Design Cross Sectional Study Introduction Countries in which consanguinity is a normal practice, these rare autosomal recessive disorders run in close families and tribes. Here we describe a family, living in village Ali Murad Chandio, District Badin, labeled as haemophilia. Patients & Methods Our team visited the village & developed the pedigree of the whole extended family, up to seven generations. Performa was filled by incorporating patients, family history of bleeding, signs & symptoms, and bleeding from any site. From them 144 individuals were screened with CBC, bleeding time, platelet aggregation studies & RiCoF. While for PT, APTT, VWF assay and Factor VIII assay, samples were kept frozen at -70 degrees C until tested. Results The family tree of the seven generations comprises of 533 individuals, 63 subjects died over a period of 20 years and 470 were alive. Out of all those 144 subjects were selected on the basis of the bleeding history. Among them 98(68.1% were diagnosed to have a bleeding disorder; 44.9% patients were male and 55.1% patients were female. Median age of all the patients was 20.81, range (4 months- 80 yrs. The results of bleeding have shown that majority had gum bleeding, epistaxis and menorrhagia. Most common bleeding disorder was Von Willebrand disease and Platelet functional disorders. Conclusion Consanguineous marriages keep all the beneficial and adversely affecting recessive genes within the family; in homozygous states. These genes express themselves and result in life threatening diseases. Awareness, education & genetic counseling will be needed to prevent the spread of such common occurrence of these bleeding disorders in the community.
Full Text Available Background Epidendreae is one of the most diverse tribes among the orchids with remarkable variation in life form, floral morphology and pollination syndromes. Its circumscription was recently revised and subtribes Agrostophyllinae and Calypsoinae were transferred into this tribe. One of the principal floral characters utilized in classification of orchids is the incumbency or bending of the column. This study records and compares late stages of anther, column and lip development, and discusses anther characters in fifteen representative taxa of five of the six subtribes in Epidendreae with respect to classification and pollination biology. Methods A series of late floral stages were sampled and fixed for examination under scanning electron microscope. Results Anther incumbency or bending in this group varies from 90° to almost 180°. Incumbency in the late stages of development is reached in Bletiinae, Ponerinae, Pleurothallidinae and Laeliinae whereas incumbency is reached early in its development in Corallorhiza and Govenia of Calypsoinae. Discussion Our observations indicate that the position of Chysis in subtribe Bletiinae needs revision based on differences in a number floral, and in particular of anther characters; and that Coelia only shares the early anther incumbency with Calypsoinae members, but not the rest of floral and anther characters. Anatomical characters such as crystals around the actinocytic stomata on the anther cap and sugar crystals in Laeliinae; lack of rostellum in Bletiinae; coalescent anther with the column, lack of trichomes and papillae on lip keels, and underdeveloped rostellum in Chysis; a mechanism by which the anther cap comes off (it is joined with the grooved lip by a claw in Isochilus are all related to pollination syndromes and reproductive biology.
Briceno, I; Gomez, A; Bernal, J E; Papiha, S S
HLA-DPB1 allele frequencies were investigated in seven geographically and linguistically distinct Amerindian tribes of Colombia. Allele *1301 was found only in the Embera tribe living along the Pacific coast, while allele *0101 was found only in two individuals of the Wayuu tribe inhabiting the Guajira desert. Significant geographical variation was observed in the other two alleles (*1401 and *0402), which were found in all seven tribal groups. The possible reasons for this restricted polymorphism and the genetic diversity found in the investigation are discussed.
... agency are adopted by a Self-Governance Tribe, is the Self-Governance Tribe responsible for ensuring the... INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa...-Governance Tribe, is the Self-Governance Tribe responsible for ensuring the agency's policies and procedures...
Thorogood, C J; Rumsey, F J; Hiscock, S J
Orobanche minor is a root-holoparasitic angiosperm that attacks a wide range of host species, including a number of commonly cultivated crops. The extent to which genetic divergence among natural populations of O. minor is influenced by host specificity has not been determined previously. Here, the host specificity of natural populations of O. minor is quantified for the first time, and evidence that this species may comprise distinct physiological races is provided. A tripartite approach was used to examine the physiological basis for the divergence of populations occurring on different hosts: (1) host-parasite interactions were cultivated in rhizotron bioassays in order to quantify the early stages of the infection and establishment processes; (2) using reciprocal-infection experiments, parasite races were cultivated on their natural and alien hosts, and their fitness determined in terms of biomass; and (3) the anatomy of the host-parasite interface was investigated using histochemical techniques, with a view to comparing the infection process on different hosts. Races occurring naturally on red clover (Trifolium pratense) and sea carrot (Daucus carota ssp. gummifer) showed distinct patterns of host specificity: parasites cultivated in cross-infection studies showed a higher fitness on their natural hosts, suggesting that races show local adaptation to specific hosts. In addition, histological evidence suggests that clover and carrot roots vary in their responses to infection. Different root anatomy and responses to infection may underpin a physiological basis for host specificity. It is speculated that host specificity may isolate races of Orobanche on different hosts, accelerating divergence and ultimately speciation in this genus. The rapid life cycle and broad host range of O. minor make this species an ideal model with which to study the interactions of parasitic plants with their host associates.
Pélabon, C; Albertsen, E; Falahati-Anbaran, M; Wright, J; Armbruster, W S
Flowers fertilized by multiple fathers may be expected to produce heavier seeds than those fertilized by a single father. However, the adaptive mechanisms leading to such differences remain unclear, and the evidence inconsistent. Here, we first review the different hypotheses predicting an increase in seed mass when multiple paternity occurs. We show that distinguishing between these hypotheses requires information about average seed mass, but also about within-fruit variance in seed mass, bias in siring success among pollen donors, and whether siring success and seed mass are correlated. We then report the results of an experiment on Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae), assessing these critical variables in conjunction with a comparison of seed mass resulting from crosses with single vs. multiple pollen donors. Siring success differed among males when competing for fertilization, but average seed mass was not affected by the number of fathers. Furthermore, paternal identity explained only 3.8% of the variance in seed mass, and siring success was not correlated with the mass of the seeds produced. Finally, within-infructescence variance in seed mass was not affected by the number of fathers. These results suggest that neither differential allocation nor sibling rivalry has any effect on the average mass of seeds in multiply sired fruits in D. scandens. Overall, the limited paternal effects observed in most studies and the possibility of diversification bet hedging among flowers (but not within flowers), suggest that multiple paternity within fruits or infructescence is unlikely to affect seed mass in a large number of angiosperm species. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Lazzaro, Mark D; Cardenas, Luis; Bhatt, Aadra P; Justus, Charles D; Phillips, Monique S; Holdaway-Clarke, Terena L; Hepler, Peter K
Pollen tubes are an established model system for examining polarized cell growth. The focus here is on pollen tubes of the conifer Norway spruce (Picea abies, Pinaceae); examining the relationship between cytosolic free Ca2+, tip elongation, and intracellular motility. Conifer pollen tubes show important differences from their angiosperm counterparts; they grow more slowly and their organelles move in an unusual fountain pattern, as opposed to reverse fountain, in the tip. Ratiometric ion imaging of growing pollen tubes, microinjected with fura-2-dextran, reveals a tip-focused [Ca2+]i gradient extending from 450 nM at the extreme apex to 225 nM at the base of the tip clear zone. Injection of 5,5' dibromo-BAPTA does not dissipate the apical gradient, but stops cell elongation and uniquely causes rapid, transient increases of apical free Ca2+. The [Ca2+]i gradient is, however, dissipated by reversible perfusion of extracellular caffeine. When the basal cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration falls below 150 nM, again a large increase in apical [Ca2+]i occurs. An external source of calcium is not required for germination but significantly enhances elongation. However, both germination and elongation are significantly inhibited by the inclusion of calcium channels blockers, including lanthanum, gadolinium, or verapamil. Modulation of intracellular calcium also affects organelle position and motility. Extracellular perfusion of lanthanides reversibly depletes the apical [Ca2+]i gradient, altering organelle positioning in the tip. Later, during recovery from lanthanide perfusion, organelle motility switches direction to a reverse fountain. When taken together these data show a unique interplay in Picea abies pollen tubes between intracellular calcium and the motile processes controlling cellular organization.
Krishnan Neeraja M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Azadirachta indica (neem tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. Results The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. Conclusions This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides.
Ma, Ziyu; Sandel, Brody; Svenning, Jens-Christian
How fast does biodiversity respond to climate change? The relationship of past and current climate with phylogenetic assemblage structure helps us to understand this question. Studies of angiosperm tree diversity in North America have already suggested effects of current water-energy balance and tropical niche conservatism. However, the role of glacial-interglacial climate variability remains to be determined, and little is known about any of these relationships for gymnosperms. Moreover, phylogenetic endemism, the concentration of unique lineages in restricted ranges, may also be related to glacial-interglacial climate variability and needs more attention. We used a refined phylogeny of both angiosperms and gymnosperms to map phylogenetic diversity, clustering and endemism of North American trees in 100-km grid cells, and climate change velocity since Last Glacial Maximum together with postglacial accessibility to recolonization to quantify glacial-interglacial climate variability. We found: (1) Current climate is the dominant factor explaining the overall patterns, with more clustered angiosperm assemblages toward lower temperature, consistent with tropical niche conservatism. (2) Long-term climate stability is associated with higher angiosperm endemism, while higher postglacial accessibility is linked to to more phylogenetic clustering and endemism in gymnosperms. (3) Factors linked to glacial-interglacial climate change have stronger effects on gymnosperms than on angiosperms. These results suggest that paleoclimate legacies supplement current climate in shaping phylogenetic patterns in North American trees, and especially so for gymnosperms.
Silvia da Silva Santos Passos
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Understand the quotidian relationships of accompanying family members in an environment of care, which are close to the metaphor of a tribe in hospital environment. METHODQualitative study with data gathered from semi-structured interviews and observations with 16 family members accompanying hospitalized individuals with dependence on self-care. Data were submitted to thematic analysis, and analyzed through the metaphor of "tribe" proposed by comprehensive sociology. RESULTS Family members build up social clusters around caring, where we find traits typical of tribes: emotional ambience; solidarity based on links of sympathy and mutual assistance; an affectual nebula in the process of interaction; a logic of fusion in tactile relations; and communion/religiosity in the process of connecting in a collective identity. CONCLUSION In the presence of tragedy, families build social clusters similar to tribes having care as a totem.
... annual report must contain the following information: (a) An accounting of the expenditures of funds... Council and the Secretary; and (c) Sufficient documentation for us to determine that the Tribe has...
Endress, Peter K
Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae are two angiosperm families with extreme flower synorganization. They are unrelated, the former in eudicots, the latter in monocots, but they converge in the formation of pollinia and pollinaria, which do not occur in any other angiosperm family, and for which extreme synorganization of floral organs is a precondition. In each family extensive studies on flower development and evolution have been performed; however, newer comparative studies focusing on flower synorganization and involving both families together are lacking. For this study an extensive search through the morphological literature has been conducted. Based on this and my own studies on flowers in various Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae and complex flowers in other angiosperms with scanning electron microscopy and with microtome section series, a review on convergent floral traits in flower development and architecture in the two families is presented. There is a tendency of protracted development of synorganized parts in Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae (development of synorganization of two or more organs begins earlier the more accentuated it is at anthesis). Synorganization (or complexity) also paves the way for novel structures. One of the most conspicuous such novel structures in Apocynaceae is the corona, which is not the product of synorganization of existing organs; however, it is probably enhanced by synorganization of other, existing, floral parts. In contrast to synorganized parts, the corona appears developmentally late. Synorganization of floral organs may lead to a large number of convergences in clades that are only very distantly related. The convergences that have been highlighted in this comparative study should be developmentally investigated directly in parallel in future studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Löhne, Cornelia; Borsch, Thomas
Sequences of spacers and group I introns in plant chloroplast genomes have recently been shown to be very effective in phylogenetic reconstruction at higher taxonomic levels and not only for inferring relationships among species. Group II introns, being more frequent in those genomes than group I introns, may be further promising markers. Because group II introns are structurally constrained, we assumed that sequences of a group II intron should be alignable across seed plants. We designed universal amplification primers for the petD intron and sequenced this intron in a representative selection of 47 angiosperms and three gymnosperms. Our sampling of taxa is the most representative of major seed plant lineages to date for group II introns. Through differential analysis of structural partitions, we studied patterns of molecular evolution and their contribution to phylogenetic signal. Nonpairing stretches (loops, bulges, and interhelical nucleotides) were considerably more variable in both substitutions and indels than in helical elements. Differences among the domains are basically a function of their structural composition. After the exclusion of four mutational hotspots accounting for less than 18% of sequence length, which are located in loops of domains I and IV, all sequences could be aligned unambiguously across seed plants. Microstructural changes predominantly occurred in loop regions and are mostly simple sequence repeats. An indel matrix comprising 241 characters revealed microstructural changes to be of lower homoplasy than are substitutions. In showing Amborella first branching and providing support for a magnoliid clade through a synapomorphic indel, the petD data set proved effective in testing between alternative hypotheses on the basal nodes of the angiosperm tree. Within angiosperms, group II introns offer phylogenetic signal that is intermediate in information content between that of spacers and group I introns on the one hand and coding sequences
Endress, Peter K.
Background and Aims Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae are two angiosperm families with extreme flower synorganization. They are unrelated, the former in eudicots, the latter in monocots, but they converge in the formation of pollinia and pollinaria, which do not occur in any other angiosperm family, and for which extreme synorganization of floral organs is a precondition. In each family extensive studies on flower development and evolution have been performed; however, newer comparative studies focusing on flower synorganization and involving both families together are lacking. Scope For this study an extensive search through the morphological literature has been conducted. Based on this and my own studies on flowers in various Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae and complex flowers in other angiosperms with scanning electron microscopy and with microtome section series, a review on convergent floral traits in flower development and architecture in the two families is presented. Key Findings There is a tendency of protracted development of synorganized parts in Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae (development of synorganization of two or more organs begins earlier the more accentuated it is at anthesis). Synorganization (or complexity) also paves the way for novel structures. One of the most conspicuous such novel structures in Apocynaceae is the corona, which is not the product of synorganization of existing organs; however, it is probably enhanced by synorganization of other, existing, floral parts. In contrast to synorganized parts, the corona appears developmentally late. Conclusions Synorganization of floral organs may lead to a large number of convergences in clades that are only very distantly related. The convergences that have been highlighted in this comparative study should be developmentally investigated directly in parallel in future studies. PMID:26292994
Rudall, Paula J; Remizowa, Margarita V; Beer, Anton S; Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Stevenson, Dennis W; Macfarlane, Terry D; Tuckett, Renee E; Yadav, Shrirang R; Sokoloff, Dmitry D
The embryo sac, nucellus and integuments of the early-divergent angiosperms Hydatellaceae and other Nymphaeales are compared with those of other seed plants, in order to evaluate the evolutionary origin of these characters in the angiosperms. Using light microscopy, ovule and embryo sac development are described in five (of 12) species of Trithuria, the sole genus of Hydatellaceae, and compared with those of Cabombaceae and Nymphaeaceae. The ovule of Trithuria is bitegmic and tenuinucellate, rather than bitegmic and crassinucellate as in most other Nymphaeales. The seed is operculate and possesses a perisperm that develops precociously, which are both key features of Nymphaeales. However, in the Indian species T. konkanensis, perisperm is relatively poorly developed by the time of fertilization. Perisperm cells in Trithuria become multinucleate during development, a feature observed also in other Nymphaeales. The outer integument is semi-annular ('hood-shaped'), as in Cabombaceae and some Nymphaeaceae, in contrast to the annular ('cap-shaped') outer integument of some other Nymphaeaceae (e.g. Barclaya) and Amborella. The megagametophyte in Trithuria is monosporic and four-nucleate; at the two-nucleate stage both nuclei occur in the micropylar domain. Double megagametophytes were frequently observed, probably developed from different megaspores of the same tetrad. Indirect, but strong evidence is presented for apomictic embryo development in T. filamentosa. Most features of the ovule and embryo sac of Trithuria are consistent with a close relationship with other Nymphaeales, especially Cabombaceae. The frequent occurrence of double megagametophytes in the same ovule indicates a high degree of developmental flexibility, and could provide a clue to the evolutionary origin of the Polygonum-type of angiosperm embryo sac.
Marsh, Paul; Wild, Alexander; Whitfield, James
Abstract A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are ...
We describe σ-additive states on effect-tribes by integrals. Effect-tribes are monotone σ-complete effect algebras of functions where operations are defined pointwise. Then we show that every state on an effect algebra is an integral through a Borel regular probability measure. Finally, we show that every σ-convex combination of extremal states on a monotone σ-complete effect algebra is a Jauch-Piron state.
Conclusion: Although the Taiwanese Austronesian Aboriginal tribes are considered to share a common origin, different gene preferences of MSUD were noted. The novel DBT mutation c.650-651insT was more prevalent than the deleted 4.7-kb heterozygote in the Amis population. The reported 4.7-kb deletion indicating a possible founder mutation may be preserved in the southern and eastern, but not in northern Aboriginal tribes of Taiwan.
Johnson, Jennifer [Washoe Tribe of NV and Ca
The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California was awarded funding from the Department of Energy to complete the Nevada Inter-Tribal Energy Consortium Energy Organization Enhancement Project. The main goal of the project was to enhance the capacity of the Nevada Inter-Tribal Energy Consortium (NITEC) to effectively assist tribes within Nevada to technically manage tribal energy resources and implement tribal energy projects.
Côté, Caroline L; Boileau, Francis; Roy, Vicky; Ouellet, Mario; Levasseur, Caroline; Morency, Marie-Josée; Cooke, Janice E K; Séguin, Armand; MacKay, John J
Class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-Zip III) proteins have been implicated in the regulation of cambium identity, as well as primary and secondary vascular differentiation and patterning in herbaceous plants. They have been proposed to regulate wood formation but relatively little evidence is available to validate such a role. We characterised and compared HD-Zip III gene family in an angiosperm tree, Populus spp. (poplar), and the gymnosperm Picea glauca (white spruce), representing two highly evolutionarily divergent groups. Full-length cDNA sequences were isolated from poplar and white spruce. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that some of the gymnosperm sequences were derived from lineages that diverged earlier than angiosperm sequences, and seem to have been lost in angiosperm lineages. Transcript accumulation profiles were assessed by RT-qPCR on tissue panels from both species and in poplar trees in response to an inhibitor of polar auxin transport. The overall transcript profiles HD-Zip III complexes in white spruce and poplar exhibited substantial differences, reflecting their evolutionary history. Furthermore, two poplar sequences homologous to HD-Zip III genes involved in xylem development in Arabidopsis and Zinnia were over-expressed in poplar plants. PtaHB1 over-expression produced noticeable effects on petiole and primary shoot fibre development, suggesting that PtaHB1 is involved in primary xylem development. We also obtained evidence indicating that expression of PtaHB1 affected the transcriptome by altering the accumulation of 48 distinct transcripts, many of which are predicted to be involved in growth and cell wall synthesis. Most of them were down-regulated, as was the case for several of the poplar HD-Zip III sequences. No visible physiological effect of over-expression was observed on PtaHB7 transgenic trees, suggesting that PtaHB1 and PtaHB7 likely have distinct roles in tree development, which is in agreement with the functions that
Cooke Janice EK
Full Text Available Abstract Background Class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-Zip III proteins have been implicated in the regulation of cambium identity, as well as primary and secondary vascular differentiation and patterning in herbaceous plants. They have been proposed to regulate wood formation but relatively little evidence is available to validate such a role. We characterised and compared HD-Zip III gene family in an angiosperm tree, Populus spp. (poplar, and the gymnosperm Picea glauca (white spruce, representing two highly evolutionarily divergent groups. Results Full-length cDNA sequences were isolated from poplar and white spruce. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that some of the gymnosperm sequences were derived from lineages that diverged earlier than angiosperm sequences, and seem to have been lost in angiosperm lineages. Transcript accumulation profiles were assessed by RT-qPCR on tissue panels from both species and in poplar trees in response to an inhibitor of polar auxin transport. The overall transcript profiles HD-Zip III complexes in white spruce and poplar exhibited substantial differences, reflecting their evolutionary history. Furthermore, two poplar sequences homologous to HD-Zip III genes involved in xylem development in Arabidopsis and Zinnia were over-expressed in poplar plants. PtaHB1 over-expression produced noticeable effects on petiole and primary shoot fibre development, suggesting that PtaHB1 is involved in primary xylem development. We also obtained evidence indicating that expression of PtaHB1 affected the transcriptome by altering the accumulation of 48 distinct transcripts, many of which are predicted to be involved in growth and cell wall synthesis. Most of them were down-regulated, as was the case for several of the poplar HD-Zip III sequences. No visible physiological effect of over-expression was observed on PtaHB7 transgenic trees, suggesting that PtaHB1 and PtaHB7 likely have distinct roles in tree development
Renner, S. S.; Schaefer, H.
The interactions between bees that depend on floral oil for their larvae and flowers that offer oil involve an intricate mix of obligate and facultative mutualisms. Using recent phylogenies, new data on oil-offering Cucurbitaceae, and molecular-dating, we ask when and how often oil-offering flowers and oil-foraging bees evolved, and how frequently these traits were lost in the cause of evolution. Local phylogenies and an angiosperm-wide tree show that oil flowers evolved at least 28 times and...
Wall, P. Kerr; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Müller, Kai F.; Field, Dawn; Altman, Naomi S.; dePamphilis, Claude W.
The PlantTribes database (http://fgp.huck.psu.edu/tribe.html) is a plant gene family database based on the inferred proteomes of five sequenced plant species: Arabidopsis thaliana, Carica papaya, Medicago truncatula, Oryza sativa and Populus trichocarpa. We used the graph-based clustering algorithm MCL [Van Dongen (Technical Report INS-R0010 2000) and Enright et al. (Nucleic Acids Res. 2002; 30: 1575–1584)] to classify all of these species’ protein-coding genes into putative gene families, called tribes, using three clustering stringencies (low, medium and high). For all tribes, we have generated protein and DNA alignments and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees. A parallel database of microarray experimental results is linked to the genes, which lets researchers identify groups of related genes and their expression patterns. Unified nomenclatures were developed, and tribes can be related to traditional gene families and conserved domain identifiers. SuperTribes, constructed through a second iteration of MCL clustering, connect distant, but potentially related gene clusters. The global classification of nearly 200 000 plant proteins was used as a scaffold for sorting ∼4 million additional cDNA sequences from over 200 plant species. All data and analyses are accessible through a flexible interface allowing users to explore the classification, to place query sequences within the classification, and to download results for further study. PMID:18073194
Full Text Available Tripura is inhabited by many indigenous communities having unique ethno-socio-cultural lifestyle with age-old rice beer brewing techniques using wild herbs and local rice varieties popularly known as chuwak or zu. The present study is focused on comparative evaluation of brewing methods and nutritional aspects of rice beer among Debbarma, Jamatia, Koloi, and Molsom tribes of Tripura. Sample ingredients and plant species are properly identified before reporting. Rice beer is also prepared in laboratory conditions for comparative studies of qualitative and quantitative aspects. Thirteen different plant species are used by these four tribes for preparation of starter cultures using soaked rice flour. Markhamia stipulate (Wall. Seem. is common to all communities for starter cake preparation. Litsea monopetala (Roxb. Pers. is used by all three communities except Jamatia. The use of Ananus comosus Mill. is common among Debbarma and Jamatia tribes, whereas that of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. is common among Molsom and Koloi tribes. However, Aporusa diocia (Roxb. Muell., Combretum indicum (L. DeFilipps., and Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck. are used only by Debbarma tribe for unique tangy flavor. The physicochemical properties of rice beer varied within tribes for its moisture content, carbohydrate content, reducing sugar, and alcohol percentage. The concentration of alcohol increases with aging and prolonged fermentation. The plants reported here are also reported for having nutritional and medicinal benefits for the metabolic stability in humans, which make the process more prospective for commercialization if a standard for maintaining a quality and associated risk can be determined.
Sanchez-Puerta, M. Virginia; Abbona, Cinthia Carolina
The tribe Hyoscyameae (Solanaceae) is restricted to Eurasia and includes the genera Archihyoscyamus, Anisodus, Atropa, Atropanthe, Hyoscyamus, Physochlaina, Przewalskia and Scopolia. Even though the monophyly of Hyoscyameae is strongly supported, the relationships of the taxa within the tribe remain unclear. Chloroplast markers have been widely used to elucidate plant relationships at low taxonomic levels. Identification of variable chloroplast intergenic regions has been developed based on comparative genomics of chloroplast genomes, but these regions have a narrow phylogenetic utility. In this study, we present the chloroplast genome sequence of Hyoscyamus niger and make comparisons to other solanaceous plastid genomes in terms of gene order, gene and intron content, editing sites, origins of replication, repeats, and hypothetical open reading frames. We developed and sequenced three variable plastid markers from eight species to elucidate relationships within the tribe Hyoscyameae. The presence of a horizontally transferred intron in the mitochondrial cox1 gene of some species of the tribe is considered here a likely synapomorphy uniting five genera of the Hyoscyameae. Alternatively, the cox1 intron could be a homoplasious character acquired twice within the tribe. A homoplasious inversion in the intergenic plastid spacer trnC-psbM was recognized as a source of bias and removed from the data set used in the phylogenetic analyses. Almost 12 kb of plastid sequence data were not sufficient to completely resolve relationships among genera of Hyoscyameae but some clades were identified. Two alternative hypotheses of the evolution of the genera within the tribe are proposed. PMID:24851862
The distribution of grain legume species is not random in Leguminosae. There are two major concentrations in the Phaseoleae and the Vicieae, with the majority in the Phaseoleae. Within the tribe further concentration is apparent in the subtribe Phaseolinae and at the generic level in Phaseolus and Vigna. Since several members of both genera have been domesticated over a large portion of their respective geographic ranges, it is suggested that these taxa and their close relatives are particularly responsive to the particular selection pressures imposed under domestication. As domestication itself is opportunistic, it is possible that considerable potential for domestication remains unexploited in species with distributions remote from ancient agricultural hearths. Some of these species may occur in difficult and marginal environments for agriculture where adaptation of present crop species is poor. They could be the starting point for the domestication and evolution of new crops for problem environments. The major obstacle to such a development is the lack of sufficient genetic variability of the right kind. This deficiency might well be made good by applying techniques of artificial mutagenesis prior to selection. By applying Vavilov's law of homologous series it should be possible to set realistic objectives and monitor progress towards the goals of selection which have been defined. (author). 6 refs, 5 tabs
Tavares, Mara Garcia; Lopes, Denilce Meneses; Campos, L A O
The present study provides a comprehensive review of cytogenetic data on Meliponini and their chromosomal evolution. The compiled data show that only 104 species of stingless bees, representing 32 of the 54 living genera have been studied cytogenetically and that among these species, it is possible to recognize three main groups with n = 9, 15 and 17, respectively. The first group comprises the species of the genus Melipona, whereas karyotypes with n = 15 and n = 17 have been detected in species from different genera. Karyotypes with n = 17 are the most common among the Meliponini studied to date. Cytogenetic information on Meliponini also shows that although chromosome number, in general, is conserved among species of a certain genus, other aspects, such as chromosome morphology, quantity, distribution and composition of heterochromatin, may vary between them. This reinforces the fact that the variations observed in the karyotypes of different Meliponini groups cannot be explained by a single theory or a single type of structural change. In addition, we present a discussion about how these karyotype variations are related to the phylogenetic relationships among the different genera of this tribe.
MacCourt, D. C.
This handbook is designed to be an accessible reference for those who are new to tribal energy project development or seek a refresher on key development issues as they navigate the project development process. It builds upon the wealth of feedback and experiences shared by tribal and other participants in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's tribal energy training sessions to provide tribal leaders, tribal economic and energy enterprises, and those supporting them with a general overview of the renewable energy project development process as well as detailed guidance on the following: how to structure a renewable energy project transaction to protect tribal interests, with an emphasis on joint project development efforts undertaken with nontribal parties; key energy development agreements, including power sale agreements, transmission and interconnection agreements, and land leases; and ways tribes can finance renewable energy projects, including the sources of funding or financing that may be available, the types of investors that may be available, and federal tax incentives for renewable energy projects.
Buske, Alexander; Schmidt, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Petra
Selected species of the tribe Antidesmeae (Euphorbiaceae, subfamily Phyllanthoideae) have been screened for antidesmone occurrence and its content by quantitative HPLC (UV) and qualitative LC-MS/MS analysis. The LC-MS analysis allowing the additional detection of 17,18-bis-nor-antidesmone, 18-nor-antidesmone, 8-dihydroantidesmone and 8-deoxoantidesmone was carried out in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Leaf material from herbarium specimens of 13 Antidesma spp., Hyeronima alchorneoides and Thecacoris stenopetala (all subtribe Antidesminae), as well as Maesobotrya barteri, Aporosa octandra (both Scepinae) and Uapaca robynsii (Uapacinae) were analysed. Additionally, freshly collected samples of different plant parts of two Antidesma spp. were investigated to ensure the significance of the results on herbarium specimens and to compare the antidesmone content in bark, root and leaves. Antidesmone could be unambiguously identified in 12 of 13 Antidesma spp., as well as in the two other investigated genera of subtribe Antidesminae, in levels of up to 65 mg/kg plant dry weight. Antidesmone was not found in specimens from other subtribes. Antidesmone-derived compounds occur in much lower concentrations than antidesmone.
Clement Wendy L
Full Text Available Abstract Background The chloroplast genes matK and rbcL have been proposed as a “core” DNA barcode for identifying plant species. Published estimates of successful species identification using these loci (70-80% may be inflated because they may have involved comparisons among distantly related species within target genera. To assess the ability of the proposed two-locus barcode to discriminate closely related species, we carried out a hierarchically structured set of comparisons within Viburnum, a clade of woody angiosperms containing ca. 170 species (some 70 of which are currently used in horticulture. For 112 Viburnum species, we evaluated rbcL + matK, as well as the chloroplast regions rpl32-trnL, trnH-psbA, trnK, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (nrITS. Results At most, rbcL + matK could discriminate 53% of all Viburnum species, with only 18% of the comparisons having genetic distances >1%. When comparisons were progressively restricted to species within major Viburnum subclades, there was a significant decrease in both the discriminatory power and the genetic distances. trnH-psbA and nrITS show much higher levels of variation and potential discriminatory power, and their use in plant barcoding should be reconsidered. As barcoding has often been used to discriminate species within local areas, we also compared Viburnum species within two regions, Japan and Mexico and Central America. Greater success in discriminating among the Japanese species reflects the deeper evolutionary history of Viburnum in that area, as compared to the recent radiation of a single clade into the mountains of Latin America. Conclusions We found very low levels of discrimination among closely related species of Viburnum, and low levels of variation in the proposed barcoding loci may limit success within other clades of long-lived woody plants. Inclusion of the supplementary barcodes trnH-psbA and nrITS increased discrimination rates but
Bateman, Richard M; Hilton, Jason; Rudall, Paula J
Recent attempts to address the long-debated 'origin' of the angiosperms depend on a phylogenetic framework derived from a matrix of taxa versus characters; most assume that empirical rigour is proportional to the size of the matrix. Sequence-based genotypic approaches increase the number of characters (nucleotides and indels) in the matrix but are confined to the highly restricted spectrum of extant species, whereas morphology-based approaches increase the number of phylogenetically informative taxa (including fossils) at the expense of accessing only a restricted spectrum of phenotypic characters. The two approaches are currently delivering strongly contrasting hypotheses of relationship. Most molecular studies indicate that all extant gymnosperms form a natural group, suggesting surprisingly early divergence of the lineage that led to angiosperms, whereas morphology-only phylogenies indicate that a succession of (mostly extinct) gymnosperms preceded a later angiosperm origin. Causes of this conflict include: (i) the vast phenotypic and genotypic lacuna, largely reflecting pre-Cenozoic extinctions, that separates early-divergent living angiosperms from their closest relatives among the living gymnosperms; (ii) profound uncertainty regarding which (a) extant and (b) extinct angiosperms are most closely related to gymnosperms; and (iii) profound uncertainty regarding which (a) extant and (b) extinct gymnosperms are most closely related to angiosperms, and thus best serve as 'outgroups' dictating the perceived evolutionary polarity of character transitions among the early-divergent angiosperms. These factors still permit a remarkable range of contrasting, yet credible, hypotheses regarding the order of acquisition of the many phenotypic characters, reproductive and vegetative, that distinguish 'classic' angiospermy from 'classic' gymnospermy. The flower remains ill-defined and its mode (or modes) of origin remains hotly disputed; some definitions and hypotheses of
Sloan, Daniel B.; Alverson, Andrew J.; Wu, Martin; Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Taylor, Douglas R.
The angiosperm genus Silene exhibits some of the most extreme and rapid divergence ever identified in mitochondrial genome architecture and nucleotide substitution rates. These patterns have been considered mitochondrial specific based on the absence of correlated changes in the small number of available nuclear and plastid gene sequences. To better assess the relationship between mitochondrial and plastid evolution, we sequenced the plastid genomes from four Silene species with fully sequenced mitochondrial genomes. We found that two species with fast-evolving mitochondrial genomes, S. noctiflora and S. conica, also exhibit accelerated rates of sequence and structural evolution in their plastid genomes. The nature of these changes, however, is markedly different from those in the mitochondrial genome. For example, in contrast to the mitochondrial pattern, which appears to be genome wide and mutationally driven, the plastid substitution rate accelerations are restricted to a subset of genes and preferentially affect nonsynonymous sites, indicating that altered selection pressures are acting on specific plastid-encoded functions in these species. Indeed, some plastid genes in S. noctiflora and S. conica show strong evidence of positive selection. In contrast, two species with more slowly evolving mitochondrial genomes, S. latifolia and S. vulgaris, have correspondingly low rates of nucleotide substitution in plastid genes as well as a plastid genome structure that has remained essentially unchanged since the origin of angiosperms. These results raise the possibility that common evolutionary forces could be shaping the extreme but distinct patterns of divergence in both organelle genomes within this genus. PMID:22247429
Full Text Available DNA cytosine methylation is a widespread epigenetic mechanism in eukaryotes, and plant genomes commonly are densely methylated. Genomic methylation can be associated with functional consequences such as mutational events, genomic instability or altered gene expression, but little is known on interspecific variation in global cytosine methylation in plants. In this paper, we compare global cytosine methylation estimates obtained by HPLC and use a phylogenetically-informed analytical approach to test for significance of evolutionary signatures of this trait across 54 angiosperm species in 25 families. We evaluate whether interspecific variation in global cytosine methylation is statistically related to phylogenetic distance and also whether it is evolutionarily correlated with genome size (C-value. Global cytosine methylation varied widely between species, ranging between 5.3% (Arabidopsis and 39.2% (Narcissus. Differences between species were related to their evolutionary trajectories, as denoted by the strong phylogenetic signal underlying interspecific variation. Global cytosine methylation and genome size were evolutionarily correlated, as revealed by the significant relationship between the corresponding phylogenetically independent contrasts. On average, a ten-fold increase in genome size entailed an increase of about 10% in global cytosine methylation. Results show that global cytosine methylation is an evolving trait in angiosperms whose evolutionary trajectory is significantly linked to changes in genome size, and suggest that the evolutionary implications of epigenetic mechanisms are likely to vary between plant lineages.
Fourcade, Fanny; Pouteau, Robin; Jaffré, Tanguy; Marmey, Philippe
Amborella trichopoda is the sole living angiosperm species belonging to the sister lineage of all other extant flowering plants. In the last decade, the species has been the focus of many phylogenetic, genomic and reproductive biology studies, bringing new highlights regarding the evolution of flowering plants. However, little attention has been paid to in situ A. trichopoda populations, particularly to their fruiting cycle. In this study, an A. trichopoda population was observed during three annual flowering cycles. Individuals and branches were labeled in order to monitor the fruiting cycle precisely, from the flowering stage until the abscission of the fruit. Fruit exocarp was green during the first 9 months following flowering, turned red when the next flowering started a year later then remained on the branch during another year, between fruit ripping and abscission. Presence of fruits with two stages of maturity on shrubs was always noticed. Germination tests showed that seeds acquired their germination capacity 1 year after flowering, when fruits changed color. A. trichopoda's fruiting cycle is a long process overlapping two annual flowering periods. These results introduce a new model for flowering and fruiting cycles. The availability of mature seeds on shrubs for more than 1 year is likely to maximize opportunities to be dispersed, thus promoting the survival of this basal angiosperm.
Naumann, Julia; Salomo, Karsten; Der, Joshua P; Wafula, Eric K; Bolin, Jay F; Maass, Erika; Frenzke, Lena; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie; Neinhuis, Christoph; dePamphilis, Claude W; Wanke, Stefan
Extreme haustorial parasites have long captured the interest of naturalists and scientists with their greatly reduced and highly specialized morphology. Along with the reduction or loss of photosynthesis, the plastid genome often decays as photosynthetic genes are released from selective constraint. This makes it challenging to use traditional plastid genes for parasitic plant phylogenetics, and has driven the search for alternative phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary markers. Thus, evolutionary studies, such as molecular clock-based age estimates, are not yet available for all parasitic lineages. In the present study, we extracted 14 nuclear single copy genes (nSCG) from Illumina transcriptome data from one of the "strangest plants in the world", Hydnora visseri (Hydnoraceae). A ~15,000 character molecular dataset, based on all three genomic compartments, shows the utility of nSCG for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships in parasitic lineages. A relaxed molecular clock approach with the same multi-locus dataset, revealed an ancient age of ~91 MYA for Hydnoraceae. We then estimated the stem ages of all independently originated parasitic angiosperm lineages using a published dataset, which also revealed a Cretaceous origin for Balanophoraceae, Cynomoriaceae and Apodanthaceae. With the exception of Santalales, older parasite lineages tend to be more specialized with respect to trophic level and have lower species diversity. We thus propose the "temporal specialization hypothesis" (TSH) implementing multiple independent specialization processes over time during parasitic angiosperm evolution.
Albert, Béatrice; Matamoro-Vidal, Alexis; Raquin, Christian; Nadot, Sophie
Pollen grains are generally surrounded by an extremely resistant wall interrupted in places by apertures that play a key role in reproduction; pollen tube growth is initiated at these sites. The shift from a proximal to distal aperture location is a striking innovation in seed plant reproduction. Reversals to proximal aperture position have only very rarely been described in angiosperms. The genus Tillandsia belongs to the Bromeliaceae family, and its aperture pattern has been described as distal monosulcate, the most widespread aperture patterns recorded in monocots and basal angiosperms. Here we report developmental and functional elements to demonstrate that the sulcate aperture in Tillandsia leiboldiana is not distal as previously described but proximal. Postmeitotic tetrad observation indicates unambiguously the proximal position of the sulcus, and in vitro germination of pollen grains confirms that the aperture is functional. This is the first report of a sulcate proximal aperture with proximal germination. The observation of microsporogenesis reveals specific features in the patterns of callose thickenings in postmeiotic tetrads.
Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Chanderbali, André S; Altman, Naomi S; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E
Current understanding of floral developmental genetics comes primarily from the core eudicot model Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we explore the floral transcriptome of the basal angiosperm, Nuphar advena (water lily), for insights into the ancestral developmental program of flowers. We identify several thousand Nuphar genes with significantly upregulated floral expression, including homologs of the well-known ABCE floral regulators, deployed in broadly overlapping transcriptional programs across floral organ categories. Strong similarities in the expression profiles of different organ categories in Nuphar flowers are shared with the magnoliid Persea americana (avocado), in contrast to the largely organ-specific transcriptional cascades evident in Arabidopsis, supporting the inference that this is the ancestral condition in angiosperms. In contrast to most eudicots, floral organs are weakly differentiated in Nuphar and Persea, with staminodial intermediates between stamens and perianth in Nuphar, and between stamens and carpels in Persea. Consequently, the predominantly organ-specific transcriptional programs that characterize Arabidopsis flowers (and perhaps other eudicots) are derived, and correlate with a shift towards morphologically distinct floral organs, including differentiated sepals and petals, and a perianth distinct from stamens and carpels. Our findings suggest that the genetic regulation of more spatially discrete transcriptional programs underlies the evolution of floral morphology. © 2010 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Smith, Matthew E; Pfister, Donald H
Tuberculate ectomycorrhizae (TECM) are unique structures in which aggregates of ectomycorrhizal roots are encased in a covering of fungal hyphae. The function of TECM is unknown, but they probably enhance the nitrogen nutrition and disease resistance of host plants. Trees in the Pinaceae form TECM with species of Rhizopogon and Suillus (Suillineae, Boletales). Similar tubercules are found with diverse angiosperms, but their mycobionts have not been phylogenetically characterized. We collected TECM in Mexico and the USA that were similar to TECM in previous reports. We describe these TECM and identify both the plant and fungal symbionts. Plant DNA confirms that TECM hosts are Quercus species. ITS sequences from tubercules and sclerotia (hyphal aggregations that serve as survival structures) matched sporocarps of Boletus rubropunctus. Phylogenetic analyses confirm that this fungus belongs to the suborder Boletineae (Boletales). This is the first published report of TECM formation in the Boletineae and of sclerotia formation by a Boletus species. Our data suggest that the TECM morphology is an adaptive feature that has evolved separately in two suborders of Boletales (Suillineae and Boletineae) and that TECM formation is controlled by the mycobiont because TECM are found on distantly related angiosperm and gymnosperm host plants.
Sokoloff, Dmitry D; Remizowa, Margarita V; Beer, Anton S; Yadav, Shrirang R; Macfarlane, Terry D; Ramsay, Margaret M; Rudall, Paula J
A bipolar embryo with cotyledons is a characteristic feature that appeared early in the evolution of seed plants. Cotyledon number is an important character in angiosperm classification. We explore the links between functional aspects of seed germination and the number and location of the cotyledons, using as a model the early-divergent angiosperm family Hydatellaceae, in which seedlings are superficially monocot-like. • Seedlings of two species of tropical Hydatellaceae were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. • Seedlings of Trithuria cowieana bear two free cotyledons. Each cotyledon possesses a green, filiform, vascularized blade that resembles subsequent leaves, and a basal, nonvascularized, haustorial outgrowth that remains in close contact with the endosperm. Seedlings of Trithuria konkanensis have two free cotyledonary haustoria inserted close to each other and a leaf blade probably belonging to one of the cotyledons. The cotyledonary node elongates between the haustoria and the leaf blade to form a mesocotyl. • To date, the absence or presence of a cotyledonary tube represents the only known qualitative morphological difference between the two major clades of Hydatellaceae. Cotyledons with a haustorium and leaf blade are unusual at the scale of seed plants and probably evolved due to homeosis. The mesocotyl of T. konkanensis resembles that of grasses and sedges. Seedling diversity in Hydatellaceae and other seed plants is linked with the principal physical and spatial constraint of their embryo structure, with the primary root and shoot apical meristems located at opposite poles, and haustorial cotyledon tips.
Feild, Taylor S; Chatelet, David S; Balun, Lawong; Schilling, Edward E; Evans, Robert
• The lack of extant lianescent vessel-less seed plants supports a hypothesis that liana evolution requires large-diameter xylem conduits. Here, we demonstrate an unusual example of a lianoid vessel-less angiosperm, Tasmannia cordata (Winteraceae), from New Guinea. • Wood mechanical, hydraulic and structural measurements were used to determine how T. cordata climbs and to test for ecophysiological shifts related to liana evolution vs 13 free-standing congeners. • The tracheid-based wood of T. cordata furnished low hydraulic capacity compared with that of vessel-bearing lianas. In comparison with most nonclimbing relatives, T. cordata possessed lower photosynthetic rates and leaf and stem hydraulic capacities. However, T. cordata exhibited a two- to five-fold greater wood elastic modulus than its relatives. • Tasmannia cordata provides an unusual example of angiosperm liana evolution uncoupled from xylem conduit gigantism, as well as high plasticity and cell type diversity in vascular development. Because T. cordata lacks vessels, our results suggest that a key limitation for a vessel-less liana is that strong and low hydraulically conductive wood is required to meet the mechanical demands of lianescence. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.
Mast, Austin R; Willis, Crystal L; Jones, Eric H; Downs, Katherine M; Weston, Peter H
Tribe Macadamieae (91 spp., 16 genera; Proteaceae) is widespread across the southern hemisphere on all major fragments of Gondwana except New Zealand and India. Macadamia is cultivated outside its natural range as a "nut" crop (notably in Hawaii, where it is the principal orchard crop). We sampled seven DNA regions and 53 morphological characters from the tribe to infer its phylogeny and address the common assumption that the distribution of the extant diversity of the tribe arose by the rafting of ancestors on Gondwanan fragments. Macadamia proves to be paraphyletic with respect to the African genus Brabejum, the South American genus Panopsis, and the Australian species Orites megacarpus. We erect two new generic names, Nothorites and Lasjia, to produce monophyly at that rank. The earliest disjunctions in the tribe are inferred to be the result of long-distance dispersal out of Australia (with one possible exception), rather than vicariance. Evolution of tardy fruit dehiscence is correlated with these dispersals, and the onset of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) precedes them. We suggest that the ancestors of extant diversity arrived on their respective continents via the ACC, and we recognize that this is a mechanism precluded, rather than facilitated, by Gondwana's terrestrial continuity.
...-Governance Eligibility § 1000.21 When does a Tribe/Consortium have a “material audit exception”? A Tribe/Consortium has a material audit exception if any of the audits that it submitted under § 1000.17(c... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When does a Tribe/Consortium have a âmaterial audit...
T. Z. Moskalets
Full Text Available The cultural species in the process ontogenesis and phylogenesis to favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions produce a number of biological mechanisms (molecular genetic, physiological, biochemical, morphological, biocenotic, plants identification behind them reflects the degree of their ecological of adaptability, plasticity and stability. Studying the and comparison of morphological parameters and relations with consort-species and representatives of tribe Triticeae allowed to find out what plants differently realize their life potential. Which are based on structural and functional features biocenotic mechanisms that manifested in adaptive properties. On example cultural cereal species shows that the basic mechanisms of adaptability are: mechanisms of functional sustainability, morphological tolerance and ontogenetic avoidance. The first group is associated with functional parameters forming and manifestation life potential of plants (accumulation protein, accumulation gluten, duration assimilatory ability flag leaf; erection leaves the upper tier; depth of node tillering; strength of the stem, ie the, low penchant to lodging; total tillering plants; synchronicity growth of main stem; the intensity fading ear after full ripeness. The second group includes mechanisms of morphological tolerance (hairiness of leaves, stems; wax-colored bloom; plaza of leaf; type of bush; density head; beardedness; glossy coating of leaf, culm; glaucous color of leaf, culm; placing spicate of scales near granule; plant height. To mechanisms of ontogenetic avoidance relating such as mismatch of pathogen, phytophage and plant; photoperiodic sensitivity; duration interphase periods in particular florification, ripening; duration of vegetation period; duration of primary dormancy (latent period; multivariation of synontоgenesis; photoperiodic sensitivity. Knowing the biocenotic mechanisms formation of adaptability cultural species discloses up new
Nelson, L. K.; Chang, M.; Howk, F.
The Makah Tribe views climate change as one of the biggest challenges to their natural resource management, threatening their livelihoods, economy, and culture. As part of their work towards climate adaptation planning, the Makah Tribal Council and tribal natural resource managers prioritized early community outreach and engagement efforts in order to accomplish three goals: continually update and inform the tribal community about the Tribe's climate adaptation efforts; gather community input and priorities for the Makah Climate Adaptation Plan; and provide a series of targeted educational events to inform the tribal community about projected climate change impacts to our resources. Our first community climate event, the Makah Climate Change Awareness Dinner, was held on February 8, 2017. At this event, we provided an overview of the Makah Tribe's Climate Vulnerability Assessment and administered an initial climate survey that gathered information regarding community members' observed environmental changes, knowledge about climate change and impacts, and any concerns and priorities to include in the Tribe's adaptation plan. We developed a framework for incorporating community engagement into climate adaptation planning and used results of our community survey to ensure community concerns were being addressed in the plan in addition to risks identified in western science. We also used survey results to inform a series of educational events to address knowledge gaps in the community and requested topics. These are two of next steps that the Makah Tribe is pursuing towards climate adaptation planning.
Mervin W Nielson
Full Text Available Leafhoppers are well known biological indicators of zoogeographical regions owing, in part, to their phytodependency, high host plant specificity and relatively low vagility. In this connection, we discuss distributional patterns and possible zoogeographical origins of nine constituent tribes and their genera of the pantropical subfamily Coelidiinae. Among 118 known genera, only eight currently occupy more than one zoogeographical region, indicating an extremely high endemic profile which supports the proposed centers of origin and relatively low rate of intercontinental dispersal. The pantropical tribe Coelidiini is suggested as the basal group of the subfamily which is believed to have arisen prior to continental drift (late Jurassic-early Cretaceous because there appears to be no other evidence at the present time to explain its near cosmopolitan distribution. Possible origins of three Old World tribes, Hikangiini (Ethiopian, Thagriini (Oriental and Thanini (Australian and four New World -(Neotropical tribes, Teruliini, Tinobregmini, Gabritini and Sandersellini are elucidated. The tribe Youngolidiini occupies the Neotropical and Ethiopian realms but its origin is problematical. There appears to be ample evidence that origin/dispersal patterns are related to the geological history of the areas occupied by its faunal members.
Full Text Available The mixed research design is a progressive methodological discourse that combines the advantages of quantitative and qualitative methods. Its possibilities of application are, however, dependent on the efficiency with which the particular research techniques are used and combined. The aim of the paper is to introduce the possible combination of Hypothesis with EyeTribe tracker. The Hypothesis is intended for quantitative data acquisition and the EyeTribe is intended for qualitative (eye-tracking data recording. In the first part of the paper, Hypothesis software is described. The Hypothesis platform provides an environment for web-based computerized experiment design and mass data collection. Then, evaluation of the accuracy of data recorded by EyeTribe tracker was performed with the use of concurrent recording together with the SMI RED 250 eye-tracker. Both qualitative and quantitative results showed that data accuracy is sufficient for cartographic research. In the third part of the paper, a system for connecting EyeTribe tracker and Hypothesis software is presented. The interconnection was performed with the help of developed web application HypOgama. The created system uses open-source software OGAMA for recording the eye-movements of participants together with quantitative data from Hypothesis. The final part of the paper describes the integrated research system combining Hypothesis and EyeTribe.
Janssens, Steven B; Groeninckx, Inge; De Block, Petra J; Verstraete, Brecht; Smets, Erik F; Dessein, Steven
Despite the close proximity of the African mainland, dispersal of plant lineages towards Madagascar remains intriguing. The composition of the Madagascan flora is rather mixed and shows besides African representatives, also floral elements of India, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Neotropics. Due to its proportionally large number of Madagascan endemics, the taxonomically troublesome Spermacoceae tribe is an interesting group to investigate the origin and evolution of the herbaceous Rubiaceae endemic to Madagascar. The phylogenetic position of these endemics were inferred using four plastid gene markers. Age estimates were obtained by expanding the Spermacoceae dataset with representatives of all Rubiaceae tribes. This allowed incorporation of multiple fossil-based calibration points from the Rubiaceae fossil record. Despite the high morphological diversity of the endemic herbaceous Spermacoceae on Madagascar, only two colonization events gave rise to their current diversity. The first clade contains Lathraeocarpa, Phylohydrax and Gomphocalyx, whereas the second Madagascan clade includes the endemic genera Astiella, Phialiphora, Thamnoldenlandia and Amphistemon. The tribe Spermacoceae is estimated to have a Late Eocene origin, and diversified during Oligocene and Miocene. The two Madagascan clades of the tribe originated in the Oligocene and radiated in the Miocene. The origin of the Madagascan Spermacoceae cannot be explained by Gondwanan vicariance but only by means of Cenozoic long distance dispersal events. Interestingly, not only colonization from Africa occurred but also long distance dispersal from the Neotropics shaped the current diversity of the Spermacoceae tribe on Madagascar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Movsesian, Alla A
The population history of the East Slavs is complicated. There are still many unanswered questions relating to the origins and formation of the East Slavic gene pool. The aims of the current study were as follows: (1) to assess the degree of biological affinity in medieval East Slavic tribes and to test the hypothesis that East Slavic peoples have a common origin; (2) to show their genetic connections to the autochthonous populations of the northern part of Eastern Europe (Baltic and Finno-Ugric tribes); and (3) to identify a genetic continuity between the bearers of Chernyakhov culture and medieval Eastern Slavs. In this study, nonmetric cranial trait data for medieval East Slavic tribes and comparative samples from unrelated groups were examined. Analyzes of phenotypic differentiation were based on Nei's standard genetic distance and hierarchical GST statistics. The results obtained suggest that the genetic affinity of the East Slavic tribes is due not only to inter-tribal gene flow, but is, more importantly, a result of their common population history. Evidence of gene flow from the Baltic and Finno-Ugric groups was showed in the gene pool of Eastern Slavs, as was genetic continuity between medieval East Slavic tribes and the populations of the preceding Chernyakhov culture. These findings support a "generalizing" hypothesis of East Slavic origin, in which a Slavic community was formed in some particular ancestral area, and subsequently spread throughout Eastern Europe. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Cytogenetic data on Chilean angiosperms have been reported since at least eight decades ago; however, much of this information is disperse in diverse sources and is not readily available as a comprehensive document that allows having a general vision on advances and gaps in this matter. The goal of this paper is to summarize the advances and prospets on cytogenetic studies of the Chilean angiosperms based on compiled publications from 1929 to 2010. We found 78 publications supplied by four groups of Chilean researchers and some foreign specialists. Cytogenetic data have been reported for 139 Chilean angiosperm species (2.8 % of the total, which belong to 58 genera and 34 families. During 2001-2010 there was an increase in the number of publications, being available 40 reports including 95 additional species. Based on these data, we hope that such a trend can be maintained in the next decade if the current research groups and young specialists continue to be interested in the study of native plants.Los datos citogenéticos sobre angiospermas chilenas han sido reportados desde al menos ocho décadas atrás; sin embargo, mucha de esta información está dispersa en diversas fuentes y no está disponible como un documento completo que permita tener una visión general sobre los avances y vacíos en esta materia. El objetivo de este trabajo es resumir los avances y proyecciones sobre los estudios citogenéticos disponibles para angiospermas chilenas, basado en publicaciones recopiladas desde 1929 hasta el 2010. Nosotros encontramos 78 publicaciones aportadas por cuatro grupos de investigadores chilenos y por algunos especialistas extranjeros. Datos citogenéticos han sido reportados para 139 especies de angiospermas chilenas (2.8 % del total, las cuales pertenecen a 58 géneros y 34 familias. Durante los años 2001-2010, existió un incremento en el número de publicaciones estando disponibles 40 reportes que incluyen 95 especies adicionales. Basados
Carnicer, Jofre; Brbeta, Adria; Sperlich, Dominik; Coll, Marta; Penuelas, Josep
Recent large-scale studies of tree growth in the Iberian Peninsula reported contrasting positive and negative effects of temperature in Mediterranean angiosperms and conifers. Here we review the different hypotheses that may explain these trends and propose that the observed contrasting responses of
Prychid, Christina J.; Sokoloff, Dmitry D.; Remizowa, Margarita V.; Tuckett, Renee E.; Yadav, Shrirang R.; Rudall, Paula J.
Background and Aims The ultrastructure of the pollen tubes and the unusual multicellular stigmatic hairs of Trithuria, the sole genus of Hydatellaceae, are described in the context of comparative studies of stigmatic and transmitting tissue in other early-divergent angiosperms. Methods Scanning and transmission electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry are used to study the structure and composition of both mature and immature stigmatic hair cells and pollen-tube growth in Trithuria. Key Results Trithuria possesses a dry-type stigma. Pollen tubes grow within the cell walls of the long multicellular stigmatic hairs. Immunocytochemistry results suggest that arabinogalactan proteins are involved in attracting the pollen tubes through the stigmatic cuticle. Most tubes grow along the hair axis towards its base, but some grow towards the hair apex, suggesting that pollen tubes are guided by both physical constraints such as microfibril orientation and the presence of binding factors such as unesterified pectins and adhesive proteins. Conclusions The presence of a dry-type stigma in Trithuria supports the hypothesis that this condition is ancestral in angiosperms. Each multicellular stigmatic hair of Hydatellaceae is morphologically homologous with a stigmatic papilla of other angiosperms, but functions as an independent stigma and style. This unusual combination of factors makes Hydatellaceae a useful model for comparative studies of pollen-tube growth in early angiosperms. PMID:21320877
A molecular marker compound, derived from lignin by the thioacidolysis degradative method, for structures produced when ferulic acid is incorporated into lignification in angiosperms (poplar, Arabidopsis, tobacco), has been structurally identified as 1,2,2-trithioethyl ethylguaiacol [1-(4-hydroxy-3-...
Cheng, Dongliang; Niklas, Karl J; Zhong, Quanlin; Yang, Yusheng; Zhang, Jianhua
Empirical studies and theory indicate that respiration rates (R) of small plants scale nearly isometrically with both leaf biomass (ML) and total plant biomass (MT). These predictions are based on angiosperm species and apply only across a small range of body mass. Whether these relationships hold true for different plants, such as conifers, remains unclear. We tested these predictions using the whole-plant maintenance respiration rates and the biomass allocation patterns of the seedlings of two conifer tree species and two angiosperm tree species. Model Type II regression protocols were used to compare the scaling exponents (α) and normalization constants (β) across all four species and within each of the four species. The data show that the scaling exponents varied among the four species and that all differed significantly from isometry. For conifers, scaling exponents for R vs. MT, and R and ML were numerically smaller than those of the broadleaved angiosperm species. However, across the entire data set, R scaled isometrically with ML and with MT as predicted by the West, Brown, and Enquist (WBE) theory. We also observed higher respiration rates for small conifer seedlings compared to comparably sized angiosperm seedlings. Our data add credence to the view that the R vs. M scaling relationship differs among species, and that in general, the numerical values of this interspecific scaling relationship will depend on the species pooled in the analysis and on the range of body sizes within the data set.
Pete, Belvin; Perry, Jeremy W.; Stump, Raphaella Q.
The Tribes, through its consultant and advisor, Distributed Generation Systems (Disgen) -Native American Program and Resources Division, of Lakewood CO, assessed and qualified, from a resource and economic perspective, a wind energy generation facility on tribal lands. The goal of this feasibility project is to provide wind monitoring and to engage in preproject planning activities designed to provide a preliminary evaluation of the technical, economic, social and environmental feasibility of developing a sustainable, integrated wind energy plan for the Eastern Shoshone and the Northern Arapahoe Tribes, who resides on the Wind River Indian Reservation. The specific deliverables of the feasibility study are: 1) Assessments of the wind resources on the Wind River Indian Reservation 2) Assessments of the potential environmental impacts of renewable development 3) Assessments of the transmission capacity and capability of a renewable energy project 4) Established an economic models for tribal considerations 5) Define economic, cultural and societal impacts on the Tribe
Full Text Available Objective: To explore and enumerate the medicinal plants used by the Chorei tribe residing in Sourthern Assam part of North Eastern India in the treatment of various ailments. Methods: Systematic and intensive field surveys were conducted in Chorei inhabited parts of Southern Assam part of North East India to collect information on medicinal plants used by them in treatment of various ailments. Data was collected through structured questionnaires and personal observations made during the field visit. Results: A total of 53 different medicinal plants were recorded along with their vernacular names, parts used and mode of utilization by the Chorei tribes. Each of the plants was categorized according to their use in treatment of particular disease. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the Chorei tribe is primarily dependent of medicinal plant for treatment of various ailments.
Liu, M.; Lowry, P. P.; Magee, A. R.
Fruit structure of Apiaceae was studied in 19 species representing the 10 genera of the tribe Heteromorpheae. Our results indicate this group has a woody habit, simple leaves, heteromorphic mericarps with lateral wings. fruits with bottle-shaped or bulging epidermal cells which have thickened and cutinized outer wall, regular vittae (one in furrow and two in commissure) and irregular vittae (short, dwarf, or branching and anatosmosing), and dispersed druse crystals. However, lateral winged mericarps, bottle-shaped epidermal cells, and branching and anatosmosing vittae are peculiar in the tribe Heteromorpheae of Apioideae sub family. Although many features share with other early-diverging groups of Apiaceae, including Annesorhiza clade, Saniculoideae sensu lato, Azorelloideae, Mackinlayoideae, as well as with Araliaceae. Our study shows that fruit anatomy can be used to define the tribe by molecular phylogenetic studies and support that Heteromorpheae are close to Annesorhiza clade and both are placed in the basal position of Apioideae. (author)
Santos Coelho, Leandro dos [Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, LAS/PPGEPS, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, 80215-901 Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)], E-mail: email@example.com; Andrade Bernert, Diego Luis de [Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, LAS/PPGEPS, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, 80215-901 Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Recently, the investigation of synchronization and control problems for discrete chaotic systems has stimulated a wide range of research activity including both theoretical studies and practical applications. This paper deals with the tuning of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller using a modified Tribes optimization algorithm based on truncated chaotic Zaslavskii map (MTribes) for synchronization of two identical discrete chaotic systems subject the different initial conditions. The Tribes algorithm is inspired by the social behavior of bird flocking and is also an optimization adaptive procedure that does not require sociometric or swarm size parameter tuning. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization method. In addition, some comparisons of the MTribes optimization algorithm with other continuous optimization methods, including classical Tribes algorithm and particle swarm optimization approaches, are presented.
Santos Coelho, Leandro dos; Andrade Bernert, Diego Luis de
Recently, the investigation of synchronization and control problems for discrete chaotic systems has stimulated a wide range of research activity including both theoretical studies and practical applications. This paper deals with the tuning of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller using a modified Tribes optimization algorithm based on truncated chaotic Zaslavskii map (MTribes) for synchronization of two identical discrete chaotic systems subject the different initial conditions. The Tribes algorithm is inspired by the social behavior of bird flocking and is also an optimization adaptive procedure that does not require sociometric or swarm size parameter tuning. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization method. In addition, some comparisons of the MTribes optimization algorithm with other continuous optimization methods, including classical Tribes algorithm and particle swarm optimization approaches, are presented.
Full Text Available The Bocconieae tribe, consisting of only the genera Macleaya and Bocconia, possesses significant economic and medicinal value and plays an important role in health management for people in developing countries. During the past decades, research on metabolites and relative pharmacology, including the isolation and identification of a variety of molecules, has shed light on the tribe. Among those molecules, isoquinoline alkaloids, and their antimicrobial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory activities are especially noteworthy. This paper presents a comprehensive compilation of current research progress, with emphasis on the alkaloids and their distribution, phytochemical and pharmacological investigation, toxicity and side effects, related chemotaxonomy and future use prospects, and hopefully provides a valuable reference as an effort to promote further exploration and application of this tribe.
Albino M. Sakakibara
Full Text Available The tribe Micrutalini and its two genera, Trachytalis Fowler and Micrutalis Fowler, are redescribed. The following species are treated and, in some cases, nomenclatura! changes introduced: Trachytalis isabellina Fowler, 1895; T. distinguenda Fowler, 1895; T. retrofasciata (Lethierry, 1890, comb.n.; Micrutalis alrovena Goding, 1930; M. balteata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Aculalis lucidus Buckton, 1902, syn.n.; M. bella Goding, 1929; M. biguttula (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.; M. binaria (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis flavivenlris Lethierry, 1890, syn.n.; M. callan-gensis Goding, 1930; M. calva (Say, 1830; M. discalis (Walker, 1858; M. dorsalis (Fitch, 1851; M. dubia Fowler, 1895 = M. zeteki Goding, 1928, syn.n.; M. flava Goding, 1929; M. flavozonala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n. = Acutalis geniculata Stál, 1862, syn.n. = Acutalis modesta Stál, 1862, syn.n.; M. godfreyi Sakakibara, 1976; M. incerla Sakakibara, 1976; M. lata Goding, 1930; M. litlerala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.;M lugubrina(Stál, 1862;M malleiferaFovj]er, 1895 = M binariamutabilis Fowler, 1895, syn.n.; M. minutus Buckton, 1902; M. nigrolineata (Stál, 1864; M. nigromarginata Funkhouser, 1940; M. notalipennis Fowler, 1895; M. occidentalis (Goding, 1893; M. pollens Fowler, 1895; M. parva (Goding, 1893; M. plagíala (Stál, l&62 = AcutalisvariabiIisBerg, 1879,syn.n. =M. chapadensisGoding, 1930,syn.n.; M. punctifera (Walker, 1858; M. semialba (Stál, 1862; M. stipulipennis Buckton, 1902; M. tau Goding, 1930; M. trifurcala Goding, 1893; M. tripunctata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis moesta Stál, 1859, syn.n. = M. tartaredoides Goding, 1930, syn.n.. New species: Micrutalis diminuta sp.n. (Ecuador, Pichincha; Micrutalis divisa sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis henki sp.n. (Panama, Canal Zone; Micrutalis infúscala sp.n. (Venezuela, Portuguesa; Micrutalis margínala sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis meridana sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis mucuya sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis robustula
Ma, Lu; Hatlen, Andrea; Kelly, Laura J; Becher, Hannes; Wang, Wencai; Kovarik, Ales; Leitch, Ilia J; Leitch, Andrew R
The RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway can be divided into three phases: 1) small interfering RNA biogenesis, 2) de novo methylation, and 3) chromatin modification. To determine the degree of conservation of this pathway we searched for key genes among land plants. We used OrthoMCL and the OrthoMCL Viridiplantae database to analyze proteomes of species in bryophytes, lycophytes, monilophytes, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. We also analyzed small RNA size categories and, in two gymnosperms, cytosine methylation in ribosomal DNA. Six proteins were restricted to angiosperms, these being NRPD4/NRPE4, RDM1, DMS3 (defective in meristem silencing 3), SHH1 (SAWADEE homeodomain homolog 1), KTF1, and SUVR2, although we failed to find the latter three proteins in Fritillaria persica, a species with a giant genome. Small RNAs of 24 nt in length were abundant only in angiosperms. Phylogenetic analyses of Dicer-like (DCL) proteins showed that DCL2 was restricted to seed plants, although it was absent in Gnetum gnemon and Welwitschia mirabilis. The data suggest that phases (1) and (2) of the RdDM pathway, described for model angiosperms, evolved with angiosperms. The absence of some features of RdDM in F. persica may be associated with its large genome. Phase (3) is probably the most conserved part of the pathway across land plants. DCL2, involved in virus defense and interaction with the canonical RdDM pathway to facilitate methylation of CHH, is absent outside seed plants. Its absence in G. gnemon, and W. mirabilis coupled with distinctive patterns of CHH methylation, suggest a secondary loss of DCL2 following the divergence of Gnetales. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Leebens-Mack, Jim; Raubeson, Linda A.; Cui, Liying; Kuehl,Jennifer V.; Fourcade, Matthew H.; Chumley, Timothy W.; Boore, JeffreyL.; Jansen, Robert K.; dePamphilis, Claude W.
While there has been strong support for Amborella and Nymphaeales (water lilies) as branching from basal-most nodes in the angiosperm phylogeny, this hypothesis has recently been challenged by phylogenetic analyses of 61 protein-coding genes extracted from the chloroplast genome sequences of Amborella, Nymphaea and 12 other available land plant chloroplast genomes. These character-rich analyses placed the monocots, represented by three grasses (Poaceae), as sister to all other extant angiosperm lineages. We have extracted protein-coding regions from draft sequences for six additional chloroplast genomes to test whether this surprising result could be an artifact of long-branch attraction due to limited taxon sampling. The added taxa include three monocots (Acorus, Yucca and Typha), a water lily (Nuphar), a ranunculid(Ranunculus), and a gymnosperm (Ginkgo). Phylogenetic analyses of the expanded DNA and protein datasets together with microstructural characters (indels) provided unambiguous support for Amborella and the Nymphaeales as branching from the basal-most nodes in the angiospermphylogeny. However, their relative positions proved to be dependent on method of analysis, with parsimony favoring Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, and maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining methods favoring an Amborella + Nympheales clade as sister. The maximum likelihood phylogeny supported the later hypothesis, but the likelihood for the former hypothesis was not significantly different. Parametric bootstrap analysis, single gene phylogenies, estimated divergence dates and conflicting in del characters all help to illuminate the nature of the conflict in resolution of the most basal nodes in the angiospermphylogeny. Molecular dating analyses provided median age estimates of 161 mya for the most recent common ancestor of all extant angiosperms and 145 mya for the most recent common ancestor of monocots, magnoliids andeudicots. Whereas long sequences reduce variance in
Full Text Available Satyrinae is one of twelve subfamilies of the butterfly family Nymphalidae, which currently includes nine tribes. However, phylogenetic relationships among them remain largely unresolved, though different researches have been conducted based on both morphological and molecular data. However, ribosomal genes have never been used in tribe level phylogenetic analyses of Satyrinae. In this study we investigate for the first time the phylogenetic relationships among the tribes Elymniini, Amathusiini, Zetherini and Melanitini which are indicated to be a monophyletic group, and the Satyrini, using two ribosomal genes (28s rDNA and 16s rDNA and four protein-coding genes (EF-1α, COI, COII and Cytb. We mainly aim to assess the phylogenetic informativeness of the ribosomal genes as well as clarify the relationships among different tribes. Our results show the two ribosomal genes generally have the same high phylogenetic informativeness compared with EF-1α; and we infer the 28s rDNA would show better informativeness if the 28s rDNA sequence data for each sampling taxon are obtained in this study. The placement of the monotypic genus Callarge Leech in Zetherini is confirmed for the first time based on molecular evidence. In addition, our maximum likelihood (ML and Bayesian inference (BI trees consistently show that the involved Satyrinae including the Amathusiini is monophyletic with high support values. Although the relationships among the five tribes are identical among ML and BI analyses and are mostly strongly-supported in BI analysis, those in ML analysis are lowly- or moderately- supported. Therefore, the relationships among the related five tribes recovered herein need further verification based on more sampling taxa.
Full Text Available NAC proteins constitute one of the largest groups of plant-specific transcription factors and are known to play essential roles in various developmental processes. They are also important in plant responses to stresses such as drought, soil salinity, cold, and heat, which adversely affect growth. The current knowledge regarding the distribution of NAC proteins in plant lineages comes from relatively small samplings from the available data. In the present study, we broadened the number of plant species containing the NAC family origin and evolution to shed new light on the evolutionary history of this family in angiosperms. A comparative genome analysis was performed on 24 land plant species, and NAC ortholog groups were identified by means of bidirectional BLAST hits. Large NAC gene families are found in those species that have experienced more whole-genome duplication events, pointing to an expansion of the NAC family with divergent functions in flowering plants. A total of 3,187 NAC transcription factors that clustered into six major groups were used in the phylogenetic analysis. Many orthologous groups were found in the monocot and eudicot lineages, but only five orthologous groups were found between P. patens and each representative taxa of flowering plants. These groups were called basal orthologous groups and likely expanded into more recent taxa to cope with their environmental needs. This analysis on the angiosperm NAC family represents an effort to grasp the evolutionary and functional diversity within this gene family while providing a basis for further functional research on vascular plant gene families.
Kay, Kathleen M; Whittall, Justen B; Hodges, Scott A
Background A full understanding of the patterns and processes of biological diversification requires the dating of evolutionary events, yet the fossil record is inadequate for most lineages under study. Alternatively, a molecular clock approach, in which DNA or amino acid substitution rates are calibrated with fossils or geological/climatic events, can provide indirect estimates of clade ages and diversification rates. The utility of this approach depends on the rate constancy of molecular evolution at a genetic locus across time and across lineages. Although the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (nrITS) is increasingly being used to infer clade ages in plants, little is known about the sources or magnitude of variation in its substitution rate. Here, we systematically review the literature to assess substitution rate variation in nrITS among angiosperms, and we evaluate possible correlates of the variation. Results We summarize 28 independently calibrated nrITS substitution rates ranging from 0.38 × 10-9 to 8.34 × 10-9 substitutions/site/yr. We find that herbaceous lineages have substitution rates almost twice as high as woody plants, on average. We do not find any among-lineage phylogenetic constraint to the rates, or any effect of the type of calibration used. Within life history categories, both the magnitude of the rates and the variance among rates tend to decrease with calibration age. Conclusion Angiosperm nrITS substitution rates vary by approximately an order of magnitude, and some of this variation can be attributed to life history categories. We make cautious recommendations for the use of nrITS as an approximate plant molecular clock, including an outline of more appropriate phylogenetic methodology and caveats against over interpretation of results. We also suggest that for lineages with independent calibrations, much of the variation in nrITS substitution rates may come from uncertainty in calibration date estimates, highlighting
Butler, R J; Barrett, P M; Kenrick, P; Penn, M G
Palaeobiologists frequently attempt to identify examples of co-evolutionary interactions over extended geological timescales. These hypotheses are often intuitively appealing, as co-evolution is so prevalent in extant ecosystems, and are easy to formulate; however, they are much more difficult to test than their modern analogues. Among the more intriguing deep time co-evolutionary scenarios are those that relate changes in Cretaceous dinosaur faunas to the primary radiation of flowering plants. Demonstration of temporal congruence between the diversifications of co-evolving groups is necessary to establish whether co-evolution could have occurred in such cases, but is insufficient to prove whether it actually did take place. Diversity patterns do, however, provide a means for falsifying such hypotheses. We have compiled a new database of Cretaceous dinosaur and plant distributions from information in the primary literature. This is used as the basis for plotting taxonomic diversity and occurrence curves for herbivorous dinosaurs (Sauropodomorpha, Stegosauria, Ankylosauria, Ornithopoda, Ceratopsia, Pachycephalosauria and herbivorous theropods) and major groups of plants (angiosperms, Bennettitales, cycads, cycadophytes, conifers, Filicales and Ginkgoales) that co-occur in dinosaur-bearing formations. Pairwise statistical comparisons were made between various floral and faunal groups to test for any significant similarities in the shapes of their diversity curves through time. We show that, with one possible exception, diversity patterns for major groups of herbivorous dinosaurs are not positively correlated with angiosperm diversity. In other words, at the level of major clades, there is no support for any diffuse co-evolutionary relationship between herbivorous dinosaurs and flowering plants. The diversification of Late Cretaceous pachycephalosaurs (excluding the problematic taxon Stenopelix) shows a positive correlation, but this might be spuriously related to
de Boer, Hugo Jan; Price, Charles A.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Dekker, Stefan C.; Franks, Peter J.; Veneklaas, Erik J.
Stomata on plant leaves are key traits in the regulation of terrestrial fluxes of water and carbon. The basic morphology of stomata consists of a diffusion pore and two guard cells that regulate the exchange of CO2 and water vapour between the leaf interior and the atmosphere. This morphology is common to nearly all land plants, yet stomatal size (defined as the area of the guard cell pair) and stomatal density (the number of stomata per unit area) range over three orders of magnitude across species. Evolution of stomatal sizes and densities is driven by selection pressure on the anatomical maximum stomatal conductance (gsmax), which determines the operational range of leaf gas exchange. Despite the importance of stomata traits for regulating leaf gas exchange, a quantitative understanding of the relation between adaptation of gsmax and the underlying co-evolution of stomatal sizes and densities is still lacking. Here we develop a theoretical framework for a scaling relationship between stomatal sizes and densities within the constraints set by the allocation of epidermal space and stomatal gas exchange. Our theory predicts an optimal scaling relationship that maximizes gsmax and minimizes epidermal space allocation to stomata. We test whether stomatal sizes and densities reflect this optimal scaling with a global compilation of stomatal trait data on 923 species reflecting most major clades. Our results show optimal scaling between stomatal sizes and densities across all species in the compiled data set. Our results also show optimal stomatal scaling across angiosperm species, but not across gymnosperm and fern species. We propose that the evolutionary flexibility of angiosperms to adjust stomatal sizes underlies their optimal allocation of leaf epidermal space to gas exchange.
Galbraith, David W
Flow cytometry provides a rapid, accurate, and simple means to determine nuclear DNA contents (C-value) within plant homogenates. This parameter is extremely useful in a number of applications in basic and applied plant biology; for example, it provides an important starting point for projects involving whole genome sequencing, it facilitates characterization of plant species within natural and agricultural settings, it allows facile identification of engineered plants that are euploid or that represent desired ploidy classes, it points toward studies concerning the role of C-value in plant growth and development and in response to the environment and in terms of evolutionary fitness, and, in uncovering new and unexpected phenomena (for example endoreduplication), it uncovers new avenues of scientific enquiry. Despite the ease of the method, C-values have been determined for only around 2% of the described angiosperm (flowering plant) species. Within this small subset, one of the most remarkable observations is the range of 2C values, which spans at least two orders of magnitude. In determining C-values for new species, technical issues are encountered which relate both to requirement for a method that can provide accurate measurements across this extended dynamic range, and that can accommodate the large amounts of debris which accompanies flow measurements of plant homogenates. In this study, the use of the Accuri C6 flow cytometer for the analysis of plant C-values is described. This work indicates that the unusually large dynamic range of the C6, a design feature, coupled to the linearity of fluorescence emission conferred by staining of nuclei using propidium iodide, allows simultaneous analysis of species whose C-values span that of almost the entire described angiosperms. Copyright 2009 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
Pereira-Santana, Alejandro; Alcaraz, Luis David; Castaño, Enrique; Sanchez-Calderon, Lenin; Sanchez-Teyer, Felipe; Rodriguez-Zapata, Luis
NAC proteins constitute one of the largest groups of plant-specific transcription factors and are known to play essential roles in various developmental processes. They are also important in plant responses to stresses such as drought, soil salinity, cold, and heat, which adversely affect growth. The current knowledge regarding the distribution of NAC proteins in plant lineages comes from relatively small samplings from the available data. In the present study, we broadened the number of plant species containing the NAC family origin and evolution to shed new light on the evolutionary history of this family in angiosperms. A comparative genome analysis was performed on 24 land plant species, and NAC ortholog groups were identified by means of bidirectional BLAST hits. Large NAC gene families are found in those species that have experienced more whole-genome duplication events, pointing to an expansion of the NAC family with divergent functions in flowering plants. A total of 3,187 NAC transcription factors that clustered into six major groups were used in the phylogenetic analysis. Many orthologous groups were found in the monocot and eudicot lineages, but only five orthologous groups were found between P. patens and each representative taxa of flowering plants. These groups were called basal orthologous groups and likely expanded into more recent taxa to cope with their environmental needs. This analysis on the angiosperm NAC family represents an effort to grasp the evolutionary and functional diversity within this gene family while providing a basis for further functional research on vascular plant gene families. PMID:26569117
Šímová, Irena; Rueda, Marta; Hawkins, Bradford A
Understanding how environmental change alters the composition of plant assemblages, and how this in turn affects ecosystem functioning is a major challenge in the face of global climate change. Assuming that values of plant traits express species adaptations to the environment, the trait-based approach is a promising way to achieve this goal. Nevertheless, how functional traits are related to species' environmental tolerances and how trait spectra respond to broad-scale environmental gradients remains largely unexplored. Here, we identify the main trait spectra for US angiosperm trees by testing hypotheses for the relationships between functional traits and species' environmental tolerances to environmental stresses, as well as quantifying the environmental drivers of assemblage means and variances of these traits. We analyzed >74,000 community assemblages from the US Forest Inventory and Analysis using 12 functional traits, five traits expressing species' environmental tolerances and 10 environmental variables. Results indicated that leaf traits, dispersal traits, and traits related to stem hydraulics were related to cold or drought tolerance, and their assemblage means were best explained by minimum temperatures. Assemblage means of traits related to shade tolerance (tree growth rate, leaf phosphorus content, and bark thickness) were best explained by aridity index. Surprisingly, aridity index, rather than minimum temperature, was the best predictors of assemblage variances of most traits, although these relationships were variable and weak overall. We conclude that temperature is likely to be the most important driver of functional community structure of North American angiosperm trees by selecting for optimum strategies along the cold and drought stress trade-off. In turn, water availability primarily affects traits related to shade tolerance through its effect on forest canopy structure and vegetation openness.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.135 Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism... funds for recreation, tourism, and trails programs if the programs are included in the IRRTIP...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes act as lead, cooperating... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.305 May Self-Governance...-Governance Tribes assuming Federal environmental responsibilities for construction projects under section 509...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is a Self-Governance Tribe responsible for... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Roles of Self-Governance Tribe in Establishing and Implementing Construction Project Agreements § 137.350 Is a Self...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do Self-Governance Tribes become Federal agencies... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.286 Do Self-Governance... Self-Governance Tribes are required to assume Federal environmental responsibilities for projects in...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Purpose and Scope § 137.275 May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction programs in a construction project agreement or in a funding...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.291 May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal environmental...
...-governance address? 1000.382 Section 1000.382 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... report on self-governance address? (a) The Tribe's/Consortium's annual self-governance report may address... the programs and services funded under self-governance, summarized and annotated as the Tribe may deem...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.285 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction...
... reports semiannually or, at the option of the Self-Governance Tribe, on a more frequent basis. Self... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is a Self-Governance Tribe required to submit construction project progress and financial reports for construction project agreements? 137.351 Section 137...
Wilde, de W.J.J.O.
The members of tribe Passifloreae of the Passifloraceae are assumed to be originally all tendril-climbers. They have essentially axillary cymose inflorescences, and the vegetative ramification occurs always through the accessory bud. In tribe Paropsieae and Flacourtiaceae (mostly shrubs or trees, no
... SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Property Management System Standards § 900.51 What is an Indian tribe or tribal organization's property management system expected to do? An Indian tribe or tribal organization's property management...
...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems General § 900.41 How long must an Indian tribe or tribal organization keep management system records? The... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long must an Indian tribe or tribal organization keep...
... administration of self-governance PSFAs. Audits and Cost Principles ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address...-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Conflicts of Interest § 137.160 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to...
... state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet? 3.2000 Section 3.2000 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting... state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet? (a) Authorized programs that receive...
... III gaming procedures? 291.3 Section 291.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.3 When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to issue Class III...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice to Indian tribes of possible harm to cultural or religious sites. 262.7 Section 262.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HERITAGE PRESERVATION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 262.7 Notice to Indian tribes of possible harm to...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Must a tribe enact tribal laws, regulations, or... Petitions § 224.104 Must a tribe enact tribal laws, regulations, or procedures permitting a person or entity... enact tribal laws, regulations, or procedures permitting a person or entity that may be an interested...
... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT... standards that apply to an Indian tribe carrying out a self-determination contract? 900.42 Section 900.42... carrying out a self-determination contract? An Indian tribe shall expend and account for contract funds in...
... a tribe that has contracted or compacted law enforcement under self-determination? 12.34 Section 12.34 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW... apply to a tribe that has contracted or compacted law enforcement under self-determination? Any contract...
... funds available to cover the cost of Self-Governance Tribes carrying out environmental responsibilities... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Federal funds available to cover the cost of Self-Governance Tribes carrying out environmental responsibilities? 137.299 Section 137.299 Public...
Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Belitz, Christine; Keckler, Arliss
"Tribes Sharing Life" is an educational intervention about deceased organ donation for American Indian Tribal College and University (TCU) students. The classroom and web-based program was derived from cultural values and beliefs, and the Transtheoretical Model. The aim of this study was to develop and formatively evaluate the intervention for acceptability and satisfaction among advisory council members (n = 10) and TCU students (n = 22). Council evaluation results were strong. All items met the TCU student evaluation of the revised intervention resulted in overall mean scores that met criterion for acceptability and satisfaction. Tribes Sharing Life is a formatively evaluated intervention that should undergo efficacy testing.
Arvind B Chavhan
Results: The genotyping for the CCR2-64I mutation among the selected tribe and a caste reveal that all of the tribes and a caste was found to be heterozygous for the CCR2-64I mutation. Among the tribes Gonds showed highest genotype frequency (29.28% and (11.76% for heterozygous (CCR2/64I and Homozygous (64I/64I respectively, having an allelic frequency (0.233. A pooled allelic frequencies of the wild-type allele CCR2 and CCR2 64I the variant were found to be 0.854 and 0.146, respectively. No significant deviations from the HWE were observed for tribes and a caste population for the CCR2- 64I mutant χ2=2.76. The study reports the presence of mutant CCR2- 64I gene in tribes and caste population from Vidarbha region.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.22 May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public Law 102-477 Plan? Yes, Indian tribes...
Fay, George E., Comp.
Part IIa of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume contains charters, constitutions, and by-laws of Indian tribes in the Northern Plains (Montana and North Dakota). Documents are presented relative to the Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Reservation, the Blackfeet Tribe of the…
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a state, tribe, or local... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting Under EPA-Authorized State, Tribe, and Local Programs § 3.1000 How does a state, tribe, or local...
... population, and the tribe must demonstrate one or more of the following modern connections to the land: (1... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a tribe establish connections to newly acquired... How does a tribe establish connections to newly acquired lands for the purposes of the “restored lands...
... Transportation Planning § 170.406 How must tribes use planning funds? (a) IRR Program funds as defined in 23 U.S... Office. These funds support development and implementation of tribal transportation planning and associated strategies for identifying transportation needs, including: (1) Attending transportation planning...
Lynn A. Jones; Michael Montgomery; Guoyue Yu; Wenhau. Lu
Adults of lady beetles in the tribe Scymnini imported for biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, in eastern North America can be readily distinguished from native lady beetles (Coccinellidae). The imported lady beetles are in the genera Pseudoscymnus and Scymnus (Neopullus...
Using ethnographic and statistical data, this paper presents a descriptive profile of scheduled caste and tribe women's status in Indian society. Findings indicate that relative to men, women in these groups have far more limited access to both educational and employment resources. (Contains 73 references.) (MDH)
... planned 60 days. WNS is a fungal disease responsible for unprecedented mortality in hibernating bats in... for public review of a draft national plan to assist States, Federal agencies, and Tribes in managing... identifying information from public review, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. [[Page 70947...
Wilde, de W.J.J.O.
A comparison of the structure of the flowers of various genera of the tribe Passifloraceae-Passifloreae supported the view of staminodial origin of the disk. The East African genus Schlechterina is kept separate from the West African genus Crossostemma. The genus Efulensia from Equatorial Africa is
... Affordable Care Act implementation health care issues to be reported at the Quarterly Direct Service Tribes...) Tribal Leadership and Membership; (3) Tribal Employers; (4) Indian Health Facility Administrators; and (5... implementation. 3. Involvement of community based partners and local leadership from all I/T/U levels is an...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? 170... regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? Yes. Tribal governments can regulate travel on roads under their jurisdiction and establish a permitting process to regulate the travel of oversize or overweight vehicles, in...
... Louisiana. (h) ``Tribal Council'' shall mean the duly elected governing body of the Coushatta Tribe of... showing of the following: (a) Satisfactory proof that the applicant is or will be duly licensed by the State of Louisiana; (b) Satisfactory proof that the applicant is of good character and reputation and...
Yuan, Nicole P.; Koss, Mary P.; Polacca, Mona; Goldman, David
Prevalence and correlates of adult physical assault and rape in six Native American tribes are presented (N = 1,368). Among women, 45% reported being physically assaulted and 14% were raped since age 18 years. For men, figures were 36% and 2%, respectively. Demographic characteristics, adverse childhood experiences, adulthood alcohol dependence,…
This is a outreach brochure (booklet) for the DOE Office of Indian Energy summarizing the renewable energy technology potential on tribal lands. The booklet features tech potential maps for various technologies, information about the activities of DOE-IE, and resources for Tribes.
Leivas, M.; Chairman, Sr.
Many American Indian Tribes were historically amenable to being involved with the nuclear industry because it seemed likely that it would boost ailing Tribal economies. Today that dream has soured and most of the uranium mining operations on Indian reservations have ceased, but Tribes are left having to deal with abandoned mines and mill tailings, sick Indian mine workers, and polluted reservation environments. The proximity of radioactive wastes facilities with Tribes lands poses in itself a risk which is aggravated by the fact that hazardous materials usually have to be transported through reservation communities to get to or from the site. The California state government is also planning to construct a low level radioactive waste management facility in Ward Valley, which is adjacent to the Chemehuehi Indian reservation, about 20 miles away. There is here a risk that contaminated surface water from Ward Valley could seep into the underground aquifer from which the Indian Tribe draw their water. Radioactive waste is as can be seen a real problem in India that will not go away. Indeed, even if the producing of nuclear wastes are stopped by the end of the decade, humanity would still have to deal with the wastes that currently are stored in interim and long term storage sites. (O.M.)
Full Text Available The present paper deals with the existence and continuation of living megalith tradition among the Gond tribe in Nuaparha district of Odisha. The mortuary practice of different tribal community have given many ethnographical data, which is used as a primary source to reconstructing the past social and cultural history of megalithic people.
Bose, P.; Arts, B.J.M.; Dijk, van H.
This paper analyses the historical trajectories of both British colonial rule and independent India to categorise scheduled tribes and to appropriate and legalise forests in tribal areas. It builds upon Foucault's notion of governmentality to argue that the history of the scheduled tribes’
... Cooperative Agreements. 35.6070 Section 35.6070 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Pre-Remedial Response Cooperative Agreements § 35.6070 Indian Tribe...
... Tribe-lead enforcement Cooperative Agreements. 35.6155 Section 35.6155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Enforcement Cooperative Agreements...
...) For fiscal years ending on or before June 30, 1996, the audit report must be sent to: National External Audit Review Center, Lucas Place Room 514, 323 W. 8th St., Kansas City, MO 64105. (b) For fiscal... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where do Self-Governance Tribes send their audit...
Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.; Welle, ter B.J.H.
The wood anatomy of the tribe Ficeae, comprising one genus, Ficus, is described. Considering the large number of species, the genus is remarkably homogeneous. It is characterised by abundant axial parenchyma in regular apotracheal concentric bands and narrow vasicentric rings, and by relatively wide
... land reclamation plan amendments. 756.17 Section 756.17 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... of the health, safety, and general welfare of members of the Hopi Tribe; Section I, A(2)—Restoration... Title IV from the draft Hopi Code Mining Ordinance; Hopi Tribal Council Resolution H-134-89, adopted...
This paper is based on the anthropological investigation into ethno-healing practices among two tribes, namely Gond and Halba, in six forest villages of the Kanker district, Chhattisgarh, India. A team of two social anthropologists and one ethnobotanist camped in these villages for three months and conducted the ...
Roč. 41, č. 4 (2005), s. 451-468 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/02/1540 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : state * observable * tribe * conditional independence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.343, year: 2005
Lopes, J C; Chatrou, L W; Mello-Silva, R; Rudall, P J; Sajo, M G
Androdioecy is the rarest sexual system among plants. The majority of androdioecious species are herbaceous plants that have evolved from dioecious ancestors. Nevertheless, some woody and androdioecious plants have hermaphrodite ancestors, as in the Annonaceae, where androdioecious genera have arisen several times in different lineages. The majority of androdioecious species of Annonaceae belong to the Neotropical tribe Malmeeae. In addition to these species, Pseudoxandra spiritus-sancti was recently confirmed to be androdioecious. Here, we describe the morphology of male and bisexual flowers of Pseudoxandra spiritus-sancti, and investigate the evolution of androdioecy in Malmeeae. The phylogeny of tribe Malmeeae was reconstructed using Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood of 32 taxa, using DNA sequences of 66 molecular markers of the chloroplast genome, sequenced by next generation sequencing. The reconstruction of ancestral states was performed for characters associated with sexual systems and floral morphology. The phylogenetic analyses reconstructed three main groups in Malmeeae, (Malmea (Cremastosperma, Pseudoxandra)) sister to the rest of the tribe, and (Unonopsis (Bocageopsis, Onychopetalum)) sister to (Mosannona, Ephedranthus, Klarobelia, Oxandra, Pseudephedranthus fragrans, Pseudomalmea, Ruizodendron ovale). Hermaphroditism is plesiomorphic in the tribe, with four independent evolutions of androdieocy, which represents a synapomorphy of two groups, one that includes three genera and 14 species, the other with a single genus of seven species. Male flowers are unisexual from inception and bisexual flowers possess staminodes and functional stamens. Pseudoxandra spiritus-sancti is structurally androdioecious. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Apr 23, 2014 ... To date, the only effective treatment avail- able for CD patients is a strict exclusion of gluten ... this tribe with less immunogenicity to CD patients would help breeders to generate wheat cultivars with ... jgenet/) were extracted from fresh leaves with a CTAB pro- tocol (Doyle and Doyle 1987). Classification of ...
.... Potter, SD, Stanley, SD, Sully, SD Walworth, SD, Ziebach, SD. Chippewa-Cree Indians of the Rocky Chouteau.... Northwestern Band of Shoshoni Nation Box Elder, UT.\\36\\ of Utah (Washakie). Oglala Sioux Tribe of the Pine...\\ Historically part of the Northern Cheyenne Service Unit population since 1979. \\36\\ Land of Box Elder County...
... ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.222 How does a Tribe/Consortium obtain a waiver? To...; (b) Identify the regulation to be waived and the reasons for the request; (c) Identify the programs...
... INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.220 What regulations apply to self-governance... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes? 1000...
Wells, A.; Huisman, J.
Thirty-eight new species of micro-caddisflies (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) are described from Malaysia and Brunei in the tribes Stactobiini and Orthotrichiini. Thirteen species are referred to the genus Chrysotrichia Schmid, two to Plethus Hagen, 13 to Scelotrichia Ulmer, five to Stactobia McLachlan
... food, except in those areas classified by the California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control as... service of liquor/ alcoholic beverage in a tribally licensed liquor/alcohol establishment if such person... beverages within the jurisdiction of the Bishop Paiute Tribe. This Ordinance will increase the ability of...
... areas: lounge(s), restaurant(s), bingo/ multipurpose hall when used for entertainment, food service, or... alcoholic beverages within the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla's Reservation. This Code will increase... government and the delivery of tribal services. DATES: Effective Date: This Amendment is effective 30 days...
... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Chapter I [EPA-HQ-OA-2010-0992 FRL-9239-4] Proposed Final Policy on Consultation and Coordination With Indian Tribes AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of document for public comment. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is...
Agung Dwi Laksono
Full Text Available Background: Muyu Tribes have an open mind toward modernization, while still holding fast to some beliefs that often collide with each other, not to mentional so the case in the original Muyu health workers. For health workers who came from the tribe Muyu, in daily life, it seems as if stuck on the pull two poles of different beliefs, and even sometimes the opposite.Medical concepts are studied and are believed to be a health worker was overlap and collide with the belief in the concept as part of the cultural tradition of his tribe. This study was conducted to explore in depth the pull of tradition surrounding the Muyu health workers. Methods: This research is a case study carried out in depth on indigenous health workers Muyutribe. This ethnography research was conducted in Mindiptana, District Digoel. Data collection was performed by means of participant observation, in-depth interviews and document searches. Result: The research results showed the infl uence of western and migrants in some ways helped change the mindset or perspective of health workers to be able to receivethe pattern rationalistic offered. But within certain limits if health workers are stuck in the old tradition of Muyu who tend to be irrational and mystical. Conclusion: Empirical fact that their tradition Muyu Tribe (indigenous health workers Tribe Muyu believe, they often receive repetitive, making them not to circumvent these beliefs. Although, rationalistic culture completely different they have learned indifferent practice. Recommendation: Appropriate supervision can be a task thatshould be done by health personnel.
Ma, Ziyu; Sandel, Brody Steven; Svenning, Jens-Christian
to recolonization to quantify glacial-interglacial climate variability. We found: i) Current climate is the dominant factor explaining the overall patterns, with more clustered angiosperm assemblages towards lower temperature, consistent with tropical niche conservatism. ii) Long-term climate stability...... and tropical niche conservatism. However, the role of glacial-interglacial climate variability remains to be determined, and little is known about any of these relationships for gymnosperms. Moreover, phylogenetic edemism, patterns of unique lineages in restricted ranges is also related to glacial......-interglacial climate variability and needs more attention. We used a refined phylogeny of both angiosperms and gymnosperms to map phylogenetic diversity, clustering and endemism of North American trees in 100-km grid cells, and climate change velocity since Last Glacial Maximum together with postglacial accessibility...
King, D. P.; Schubert, B.; Foelber, K.; Jahren, H.
The prevalence and diagenetic resilience of palynomorphs in Proterozoic and Phanerozoic sediments has led researchers to investigate its potential as an environmental proxy based on its stable isotope composition. Towards this, Loader and Hemming (2001), noted that the carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of modern Pinus sylvestris pollen exine correlates with the developmental period temperature (°C) of the pollen (R2=0.68), implying that the δ13C of gymnosperm pollen could be quantitatively utilized as a paleotemperature proxy. However, the majority of pollen-producing organisms during the last ~120 million years have been angiosperms, which are subject to complex internal signaling for reproduction, in addition to environmental triggers. Because these internal signals control the relative proportion of lipids, long-chain fatty acids, and polysaccharides within pollen grains, we hypothesized that the δ13C variability in pollen (δ13Cpollen) from several plants subject to the same external environmental parameters is of the same magnitude as the amount attributed to the environment for gymnosperms. Within growth chambers, the test organism (Brassica rapa) was cultivated under constant light, water, pCO2, and nutrient supply, but exhibited average δ13Cpollen variability = 4.35% within any chamber (n = 6 to 8 plants per chamber). Field experiments were also conducted in which the pollen from the test organism (Hibiscus spp.) was sampled from several botanical gardens within the state of Hawaii. Pollen collected from any one botanical garden exhibited an average δ13Cpollen variability = 4.5% (up to 5 plants per garden). Upon comparing chambers operating at different temperatures (17°C to 32°C), we discovered no correlation (R2=0.01) between the developmental period temperature (°C) and the δ13C of B. rapa pollen; similarly, no correlation was found between the δ13C of Hibiscus pollen and its developmental period temperature (°C) (R2=0.12). This work
Andrews, M. Y.; Ague, J. J.; Berner, R. A.
Knowledge of the long-term carbon cycle and its control on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels over the Phanerozoic is crucial to understanding the impending dynamics of contemporary anthropogenic carbon contributions to the atmosphere. One aspect of the long-term carbon cycle that is poorly understood is the role of large vascular plants (trees) in contributing to the chemical weathering of silicate minerals. In particular, little is known about the differences in weathering rates between gymnosperms and angiosperms and how these dissimilarities may have impacted the carbon cycle subsequent to the evolution of angiosperm trees in the Mesozoic. One approach to evaluating these potential differences in weathering is to examine and quantitatively compare the chemistry and petrology of the soil mineral constituents from beneath modern groves of each broad tree type, where the groves have been subject to nearly identical environmental and geological conditions. This particular study focuses on field samples collected along transects through adjacent groves of angiosperms and gymnosperms in the Cascade Mountains of Washington State. Preliminary data demonstrate a significant difference in the soil texture and composition beneath the two types of trees. While soil at each field site has been generated from a homogeneous parent material, and subjected to similar inorganic environmental phenomena, soil density, particle size, and organic content vary across the transects. Soils beneath the angiosperms are denser and have a more clay-like texture, while soils beneath the gymnosperms are more organic-rich and have a sandy texture. Additional macroscopic and microscopic differences in the chemistry and petrology of these soils will illuminate the varied impacts these trees have on the silicate minerals in their immediate environment, and therefore lend insight into the potential impact these groups of organisms have had on the long-term carbon cycle over the past five hundred
Hein, Anke; Polsakiewicz, Monika; Knoop, Volker
RNA editing by cytidine-to-uridine conversions is an essential step of RNA maturation in plant organelles. Some 30-50 sites of C-to-U RNA editing exist in chloroplasts of flowering plant models like Arabidopsis, rice or tobacco. We now predicted significantly more RNA editing in chloroplasts of early-branching angiosperm genera like Amborella, Calycanthus, Ceratophyllum, Chloranthus, Illicium, Liriodendron, Magnolia, Nuphar and Zingiber. Nuclear-encoded RNA-binding pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are key editing factors expected to coevolve with their cognate RNA editing sites in the organelles. With an extensive chloroplast transcriptome study we identified 138 sites of RNA editing in Amborella trichopoda, approximately the 3- to 4-fold of cp editing in Arabidopsis thaliana or Oryza sativa. Selected cDNA studies in the other early-branching flowering plant taxa furthermore reveal a high diversity of early angiosperm RNA editomes. Many of the now identified editing sites in Amborella have orthologues in ferns, lycophytes or hornworts. We investigated the evolution of CRR28 and RARE1, two known Arabidopsis RNA editing factors responsible for cp editing events ndhBeU467PL, ndhDeU878SL and accDeU794SL, respectively, all of which we now found conserved in Amborella. In a phylogenetically wide sampling of 65 angiosperm genomes we find evidence for only one single loss of CRR28 in chickpea but several independent losses of RARE1, perfectly congruent with the presence of their cognate editing sites in the respective cpDNAs. Chloroplast RNA editing is much more abundant in early-branching than in widely investigated model flowering plants. RNA editing specificity factors can be traced back for more than 120 million years of angiosperm evolution and show highly divergent patterns of evolutionary losses, matching the presence of their target editing events.
Ida M. Stø
Full Text Available The peptide INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA, which signals through the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases HAESA (HAE and HAESA-LIKE2 (HSL2, controls different cell separation events in Arabidopsis thaliana. We hypothesize the involvement of this signaling module in abscission processes in other plant species even though they may shed other organs than A. thaliana. As the first step towards testing this hypothesis from an evolutionarily perspective we have identified genes encoding putative orthologues of IDA and its receptors by BLAST searches of publically available protein, nucleotide and genome databases for angiosperms. Genes encoding IDA or IDA-LIKE (IDL peptides and HSL proteins were found in all investigated species, which were selected as to represent each angiosperm order with available genomic sequences. The 12 amino acids representing the bioactive peptide in A. thaliana have virtually been unchanged throughout the evolution of the angiosperms; however, the number of IDL and HSL genes varies between different orders and species. The phylogenetic analyses suggest that IDA, HSL2 and the related HSL1 gene, were present in the species that gave rise to the angiosperms. HAE has arisen from HSL1 after a genome duplication that took place after the monocot - eudicots split. HSL1 has also independently been duplicated in the monocots, while HSL2 has been lost in gingers (Zingiberales and grasses (Poales. IDA has been duplicated in eudicots to give rise to functionally divergent IDL peptides. We postulate that the high number of IDL homologs present in the core eudicots is a result of multiple whole genome duplications. We substantiate the involvement of IDA and HAE/HSL2 homologs in abscission by providing gene expression data of different organ separation events from various species.
Dong, Wenpan; Xu, Chao; Cheng, Tao; Lin, Kui; Zhou, Shiliang
Plastid genomes are an invaluable resource for plant biological studies. However, the number of completely sequenced plant plastid genomes is still small compared with the vast number of species. To provide an alternative generalized approach, we designed a set of 138 pairs of universal primers for amplifying (termed “short-range PCR”) and sequencing the entire genomes of the angiosperm plastid genomes. The universality of the primers was tested by using species from the basal to asterid angiosperms. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) success rate was higher than 96%. We sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of Liquidambar formosana as an example using this method and compared it to the genomes independently determined by long-range PCR (from 6.3 kb to 13.3 kb) and next-generation sequencing methods. The three genomes showed that they were completely identical. To test the phylogenetic efficiency of this method, we amplified and sequenced 18 chloroplast regions of 19 Saxifragales and Saxifragales-related taxa, as a case study, to reconstruct the phylogeny of all families of the order. Phylograms based on a combination of our data, together with those from GenBank, clearly indicate three family groups and three single families within the order. This set of universal primers is expected to accelerate the accumulation of angiosperm plastid genomes and to make faster mass data collection of plastid genomes for molecular systematics. PMID:23595020
Peters, Ronald L.; Woodward-Lilengreen, Kelly L.; Vitale, Angelo J.
The Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) receives and reviews proposals to mitigate for fish and wildlife losses and refers approved measures to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding. The Northwest Power Act (Act) calls on the Council to include measures in its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses. The Act further states that the Council may include in its Program measures that provide off-site mitigation--mitigation physically removed from the hydro project(s) that caused the need to mitigate. The Program includes a goal ''to recover and preserve the health of native resident fish injured by the hydropower system, where feasible, and, where appropriate, to use resident fish to mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the system.'' Among those recommended measures are off-site mitigation for losses of anadromous fisheries including the measure under analysis in this Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility Master Plan, proposed by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. To meet the need for off-site mitigation for anadromous fish losses in the Columbia River Basin in a manner consistent with the objectives of the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe is proposing that the BPA fund the design, construction, operations and maintenance of a trout production facility on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation. Measures for establishing a Coeur d'Alene fish production facility have been a part of the Council's Program since 1987. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility is intended to rear and release westslope cutthroat trout into rivers and streams with the express purpose of increasing the numbers of fish spawning, incubating and rearing in the natural environment. It will use the modern technology that hatcheries offer to overcome the mortality resulting from habitat degradation in lakes, rivers, and
Petersen, A.; Nasser, E.; Stone, D.; Krosby, M.; Whitley-Binder, L.; Morgan, H.; Rupp, D. E.; Dello, K.; Dalton, M. M.; Fox, M.; Rodgers, K.
The Shoshone-Bannock Tribes reside in the Upper Snake River Watershed in southeast Idaho. Their lives and culture are intertwined with the lands where they live; lands which continue to sustain the Tribes cultural, spiritual, dietary and economic needs. Climate change presents a new threat to the region requiring innovative approaches to prepare for changes as well as to protect the natural resources within the region. As a critical first step in building climate resilience, the Tribes worked with Adaptation International, the University of Washington's Climate Impacts Group (CIG) and the Oregon Climate Change Research Institute (OCCRI) to complete a collaborative climate change vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning process. This presentation provides an overview of collaborative process, shares the results of the project, and includes a 3-minute video presentation. The project started with the identification of 34 plant and animal species to focus the vulnerability assessment. OCCRI analyzed detailed downscaled climate projections for two key climate scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) and timescales (2050s and 2080s). CIG then used NatureServe's Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI) to develop initial relative vulnerability results for these species. A core team of Tribal staff members from various departments refined these results, drawing upon and integrating rich local and traditional knowledges of the natural environmental and cultural resources. The adaptation planning phase of the project continued in a similar collaborative manner with the project team identifying promising adaptation actions and working directly with Tribal staff to refine and customize these strategies. Tailoring the actions to the local context provides a framework for action that the Tribes can continue to build on in the future. By engaging in these efforts to identify vulnerable species and adaptation strategies and actions to minimize the negative effects of climate
Joly-Lopez, Zoé; Forczek, Ewa; Hoen, Douglas R; Juretic, Nikoleta; Bureau, Thomas E
The benefits of ever-growing numbers of sequenced eukaryotic genomes will not be fully realized until we learn to decipher vast stretches of noncoding DNA, largely composed of transposable elements. Transposable elements persist through self-replication, but some genes once encoded by transposable elements have, through a process called molecular domestication, evolved new functions that increase fitness. Although they have conferred numerous adaptations, the number of such domesticated transposable element genes remains unknown, so their evolutionary and functional impact cannot be fully assessed. Systematic searches that exploit genomic signatures of natural selection have been employed to identify potential domesticated genes, but their predictions have yet to be experimentally verified. To this end, we investigated a family of domesticated genes called MUSTANG (MUG), identified in a previous bioinformatic search of plant genomes. We show that MUG genes are functional. Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana MUG genes yield phenotypes with severely reduced plant fitness through decreased plant size, delayed flowering, abnormal development of floral organs, and markedly reduced fertility. MUG genes are present in all flowering plants, but not in any non-flowering plant lineages, such as gymnosperms, suggesting that the molecular domestication of MUG may have been an integral part of early angiosperm evolution. This study shows that systematic searches can be successful at identifying functional genetic elements in noncoding regions and demonstrates how to combine systematic searches with reverse genetics in a fruitful way to decipher eukaryotic genomes.
Boyce, C Kevin; Zwieniecki, Maciej A
Declining CO(2) over the Cretaceous has been suggested as an evolutionary driver of the high leaf vein densities (7-28 mm mm(-2)) that are unique to the angiosperms throughout all of Earth history. Photosynthetic modeling indicated the link between high vein density and productivity documented in the modern low-CO(2) regime would be lost as CO(2) concentrations increased but also implied that plants with very low vein densities (less than 3 mm mm(-2)) should experience substantial disadvantages with high CO(2). Thus, the hypothesized relationship between CO(2) and plant evolution can be tested through analysis of the concurrent histories of alternative lineages, because an extrinsic driver like atmospheric CO(2) should affect all plants and not just the flowering plants. No such relationship is seen. Regardless of CO(2) concentrations, low vein densities are equally common among nonangiosperms throughout history and common enough to include forest canopies and not just obligate shade species that will always be of limited productivity. Modeling results can be reconciled with the fossil record if maximum assimilation rates of nonflowering plants are capped well below those of flowering plants, capturing biochemical and physiological differences that would be consistent with extant plants but previously unrecognized in the fossil record. Although previous photosynthetic modeling suggested that productivity would double or triple with each Phanerozoic transition from low to high CO(2), productivity changes are likely to have been limited before a substantial increase accompanying the evolution of flowering plants.
Hilu, Khidir W; Black, Chelsea M; Oza, Dipan
Rate of substitution of genomic regions is among the most debated intrinsic features that impact phylogenetic informativeness. However, this variable is also coupled with rates of nonsynonymous substitutions that underscore the nature and degree of selection on the selected genes. To empirically address these variables, we constructed four completely overlapping data sets of plastid matK, atpB, rbcL, and mitochondrial matR genes and used the rosid lineage (angiosperms) as a working platform. The genes differ in combinations of overall rates of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions. Tree robustness, homoplasy, accuracy in contrast to a reference tree, and phylogenetic informativeness are evaluated. The rapidly evolving/unconstrained matK faired best, whereas remaining genes varied in degrees of contribution to rosid phylogenetics across the lineage's 108 million years evolutionary history. Phylogenetic accuracy was low with the slowly evolving/unconstrained matR despite least amount of homoplasy. Third codon positions contributed the highest amount of parsimony informative sites, resolution and informativeness, but magnitude varied with gene mode of evolution. These findings are in clear contrast with the views that rapidly evolving regions and the 3rd codon position have inevitable negative impact on phylogenetic reconstruction at deep historic level due to accumulation of multiple hits and subsequent elevation in homoplasy and saturation. Relaxed evolutionary constraint in rapidly evolving genes distributes substitutions across codon positions, an evolutionary mode expected to reduce the frequency of multiple hits. These findings should be tested at deeper evolutionary histories.
Havird, Justin C; Whitehill, Nicholas S; Snow, Christopher D; Sloan, Daniel B
Interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial gene products are critical for eukaryotic cell function. Nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial-targeted proteins (N-mt genes) experience elevated rates of evolution, which has often been interpreted as evidence of nuclear compensation in response to elevated mitochondrial mutation rates. However, N-mt genes may be under relaxed functional constraints, which could also explain observed increases in their evolutionary rate. To disentangle these hypotheses, we examined patterns of sequence and structural evolution in nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded oxidative phosphorylation proteins from species in the angiosperm genus Silene with vastly different mitochondrial mutation rates. We found correlated increases in N-mt gene evolution in species with fast-evolving mitochondrial DNA. Structural modeling revealed an overrepresentation of N-mt substitutions at positions that directly contact mutated residues in mitochondrial-encoded proteins, despite overall patterns of conservative structural evolution. These findings support the hypothesis that selection for compensatory changes in response to mitochondrial mutations contributes to the elevated rate of evolution in N-mt genes. We discuss these results in light of theories implicating mitochondrial mutation rates and mitonuclear coevolution as drivers of speciation and suggest comparative and experimental approaches that could take advantage of heterogeneity in rates of mtDNA evolution across eukaryotes to evaluate such theories. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
A palynological investigation of samples from various boreholes in the Maghrabi Formation (Kharga Oasis, southern Egypt) resulted in the recovery of pollen and spore assemblages associated with rare marine palynofossils (dinoflagellates, foraminiferal linings) and freshwater algae (e.g. Botryococcus, Ovoidites parvus, Pediastrum, Scenedesmus). The general composition of the assemblages is largely consistent with the estuarine and tidal flat conditions characteristic of the Maghrabi Formation.The formal descriptions of the following new taxa are given: Cicatricosisporites kedvesii Schrank, sp. nov., Equisetosporites lawalii Schrank, sp. nov., Dettmannaepollenites clavatus Schrank, sp. nov., and Integritetradites porosus Schrank and Mahmoud, gen. nov. and sp. nov. Combined scanning electron microscopic and light microscopic techniques have been applied to hand-picked grains to illustrate the new taxa. The palynological ages assigned to the Maghrabi samples are mainly based on angiosperm pollen and range from undifferentiated Cenomanian for an Integritetradites porosus assemblage without triporates to Late Cenomanian-Early Turonian for another assemblage which has I. porosus associated with rare triporate pollen grains (Proteacidites/'Triorites' spp.).
Ziemińska, Kasia; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J
Just as people with the same weight can have different body builds, woods with the same wood density can have different anatomies. Here, our aim was to assess the magnitude of anatomical variation within a restricted range of wood density and explore its potential ecological implications. Twig wood of 69 angiosperm tree and shrub species was analyzed. Species were selected so that wood density varied within a relatively narrow range (0.38-0.62 g cm-3). Anatomical traits quantified included wood tissue fractions (fibres, axial parenchyma, ray parenchyma, vessels, and conduits with maximum lumen diameter below 15 μm), vessel properties, and pith area. To search for potential ecological correlates of anatomical variation the species were sampled across rainfall and temperature contrasts, and several other ecologically-relevant traits were measured (plant height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity). Despite the limited range in wood density, substantial anatomical variation was observed. Total parenchyma fraction varied from 0.12 to 0.66 and fibre fraction from 0.20 to 0.74, and these two traits were strongly inversely correlated (r = -0.86, P wood density spectrum, a fibre-parenchyma spectrum, and a vessel area spectrum. The fibre-parenchyma spectrum does not yet have any clear or convincing ecological interpretation.
Ziemińska, Kasia; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J.
Objectives Just as people with the same weight can have different body builds, woods with the same wood density can have different anatomies. Here, our aim was to assess the magnitude of anatomical variation within a restricted range of wood density and explore its potential ecological implications. Methods Twig wood of 69 angiosperm tree and shrub species was analyzed. Species were selected so that wood density varied within a relatively narrow range (0.38–0.62 g cm-3). Anatomical traits quantified included wood tissue fractions (fibres, axial parenchyma, ray parenchyma, vessels, and conduits with maximum lumen diameter below 15 μm), vessel properties, and pith area. To search for potential ecological correlates of anatomical variation the species were sampled across rainfall and temperature contrasts, and several other ecologically-relevant traits were measured (plant height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity). Results Despite the limited range in wood density, substantial anatomical variation was observed. Total parenchyma fraction varied from 0.12 to 0.66 and fibre fraction from 0.20 to 0.74, and these two traits were strongly inversely correlated (r = -0.86, P wood density spectrum, a fibre-parenchyma spectrum, and a vessel area spectrum. The fibre-parenchyma spectrum does not yet have any clear or convincing ecological interpretation. PMID:25906320
Renner, S S; Schaefer, H
The interactions between bees that depend on floral oil for their larvae and flowers that offer oil involve an intricate mix of obligate and facultative mutualisms. Using recent phylogenies, new data on oil-offering Cucurbitaceae, and molecular-dating, we ask when and how often oil-offering flowers and oil-foraging bees evolved, and how frequently these traits were lost in the cause of evolution. Local phylogenies and an angiosperm-wide tree show that oil flowers evolved at least 28 times and that floral oil was lost at least 36-40 times. The oldest oil flower systems evolved shortly after the K/T boundary independently in American Malpighiaceae, tropical African Cucurbitaceae and Laurasian Lysimachia (Myrsinaceae); the ages of the South African oil flower/oil bee systems are less clear. Youngest oil flower clades include Calceolaria (Calceolariaceae), Iridaceae, Krameria (Krameriaceae) and numerous Orchidaceae, many just a few million years old. In bees, oil foraging evolved minimally seven times and dates back to at least 56 Ma (Ctenoplectra) and 53 Ma (Macropis). The co-occurrence of older and younger oil-offering clades in three of the four geographical regions (but not the Holarctic) implies that oil-foraging bees acquired additional oil hosts over evolutionary time. Such niche-broadening probably started with exploratory visits to flowers resembling oil hosts in scent or colour, as suggested by several cases of Muellerian or Batesian mimicry involving oil flowers.
Staal, M.; Elzenga, J.T.M.; Prins, H.B.A.
Protoplasts were isolated from leaves of the aquatic angiosperm Potamogeton lucens L. The leaves utilize bicarbonate as a carbon source for photosynthesis, and show polarity; that is acidification of the periplasmic space of the lower, and alkalinization of the space near the upper leaf side. At present there are two models under consideration for this photosynthetic bicarbonate utilization process: conversion of bicarbonate into free carbon dioxide as a result of acidification and, second, a bicarbonate-proton symport across the plasma membrane. Carbon fixation of protoplasts was studied at different pH values and compared with that in leaf strips. Using the isotopic disequilibrium technique, it was established that carbon dioxide and not bicarbonate was the form in which DIC actually crossed the plasma membrane. It is concluded that there is probably no true bicarbonate transport system at the plasma membrane of these cells and that bicarbonate utilization in this species apparently rests on the conversion of bicarbonate into carbon dioxide. Experiments with acetazolamide, an inhibitor of periplasmic carbonic anhydrase, and direct measurements of carbonic anhydrase activity in intact leaves indicate that in this species the role of this enzyme for periplasmic conversion of bicarbonate into carbon dioxide is insignificant
Full Text Available Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the stigma of several plant species has been investigated. Four developmental stages (unopened flower buds, recently opened flowers, dehiscent anthers and flowers after fertilization were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy using the ROS-specific probe DCFH2-DA. In all plants scrutinized, the presence of ROS in the stigmas was detected at higher levels during those developmental phases considered receptive to pollen interaction. In addition, these molecules were also present at early (unopened flower or later (post-fertilization stages, by following differential patterns depending on the different species. The biological significance of the presence ROS may differ between these stages, including defense functions, signaling and senescence. Pollen-stigma signaling is likely involved in the different mechanisms of self-incompatibility in these plants. The study also register a general decrease in the presence of ROS in the stigmas upon pollination, when NO is supposedly produced in an active manner by pollen grains.Finally, the distribution of ROS in primitive Angiosperms of the genus Magnolia was determined. The production of such chemical species in these plants was several orders of magnitude higher than in the remaining species evoking a massive displacement towards the defense function. This might indicate that signaling functions of ROS/NO in the stigma evolved later, as fine tune likely involved in specialized interactions like self-incompatibility.
Full Text Available The benefits of ever-growing numbers of sequenced eukaryotic genomes will not be fully realized until we learn to decipher vast stretches of noncoding DNA, largely composed of transposable elements. Transposable elements persist through self-replication, but some genes once encoded by transposable elements have, through a process called molecular domestication, evolved new functions that increase fitness. Although they have conferred numerous adaptations, the number of such domesticated transposable element genes remains unknown, so their evolutionary and functional impact cannot be fully assessed. Systematic searches that exploit genomic signatures of natural selection have been employed to identify potential domesticated genes, but their predictions have yet to be experimentally verified. To this end, we investigated a family of domesticated genes called MUSTANG (MUG, identified in a previous bioinformatic search of plant genomes. We show that MUG genes are functional. Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana MUG genes yield phenotypes with severely reduced plant fitness through decreased plant size, delayed flowering, abnormal development of floral organs, and markedly reduced fertility. MUG genes are present in all flowering plants, but not in any non-flowering plant lineages, such as gymnosperms, suggesting that the molecular domestication of MUG may have been an integral part of early angiosperm evolution. This study shows that systematic searches can be successful at identifying functional genetic elements in noncoding regions and demonstrates how to combine systematic searches with reverse genetics in a fruitful way to decipher eukaryotic genomes.
The Spokane Tribe initiated a long-term planning process for a water and wastewater infrastructure system that can support the tribe’s goals to add compact, mixed-use development in the town of Wellpinit.
Welle, ter B.J.H.; Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.
The wood anatomy of the genera of the tribe Moreae with urticaceous stamens, viz. Broussonetia, Madura s.l. (including Cardiogyne, Chlorophora, and Cudrania), Malaisia, Milicia, Morus, Olmedia, Pachytrophe, Plecospermum, Sloetiopsis, Streblus s.l. (including Paratrophis, Phyllochlamys,
Hatcher, P.G.; Wilson, M.A.; Vassallo, A.M.; Lerch, H. E.
Many Tertiary coals contain abundant fossilized remains of angiosperms, which commonly dominated the ancient peat-swamp environments; modern analogs of such swamps can be found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Comparisons of angiospermous wood from Australian brown coal with similar wood buried in modern peat swamps of Indonesia have provided some new insights into coalification reactions. These comparisons were made by using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and pyrolsis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-gc-ms). These two modern techniques are especially suited for detailed structural evaluation of the complex macromolecules in coal. The earliest transformation (peatification) of organic matter in angiospermous wood is the degradation and removal of cellulosic components and the concomitant selective preservation of lignin-derived components. The angiospermous lignin that becomes enriched in wood as a result of cellulose degradation also is modified by coalification reactions; this modification, however, does not involve degradation and removal of the lignin. Rather, the early coalification process transforms the lignin phenols (guiacyl and syringyl) to eventually yield the aromatic structures typically found in brown coal. One such transformation, which is determined from NMR data, involves the cleavage of aryl-ether bonds that link guaiacyl and syringyl units in lignin, and this transformation leads to the formation of free lignin phenols. Another transformation, which is also determined from the NMR data, involves the loss of methoxyl groups, probably via demethylation, to produce catechol-like structures. Coincident with ether-cleavage and demethylation, the aromatic rings derived from lignin phenols become more carbon-substituted and cross linked, as determined by dipolar-dephasing NMR studies. This cross linking is probably responsible for preventing the lignin phenols, which are freed from the lignin
I Gusti Ngurah Parikesit Widiatedja
From the perspective of international law, indigenous peoples have the rights to own, use, and control their natural resources within their territories. In the United States, the Navajo Tribe has enjoyed those rights. In terms of law making process, this tribe can enact some acts to preserve a control over their natural resources. Specifically, the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Solid Waste Act. Concerning law implementation and enforcement, Navajo Trib...
Full Text Available Various types of anatomical landmarks of the face should match its proportions with the size of the teeth which is the interalar width, intercomissural width, interpupillary width, Intercanthal width, and byzigomatic width. Some of face landmarks can be used as a guide in the selection of anterior teeth in complete denture, especially if the pre extraction record such as radiography image, extracted teeth, model study, the remaining teeth, face shape, and the shape of the curved jaw have been lost. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between interalar width and intercommisural width against mesiodistal incisivus centralis width in a group of Buginese tribe. Ninety nine Buginese tribe subjects aged 17-25 were selected. The interalar width, intercommisural width, and mesiodistal incisor centralis teeth were measured using caliper about three times for accuracy and precision. Mean of interalar width and mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla width in males more width than females (p0.05. The degree of correlation between interalar width against mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla width was 0.030, -0.246, 0,225 in Buginese tribe, males, and females (p>0.05. : The degree of correlation between intercommisural width against mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla width in Buginese tribe was 0,054, 0,013, 0,153 in Buginese tribe, males, and females (p>0.05. The degree of correlation between interalar width and intercommisural width was 0.301 and 0.356 in Buginese tribe and males (p0.05. In conclusion, there is no significant correlation between interalar width and intercommisural width against mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla width in a group of Buginese tribe. Interalar width and intercommisural width directly proportional to mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla in a group of Buginese tribe. Interalar width and intercommisural width inversely proportional to mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla in males and directly
Storozhenko, Sergey Yu; Benediktov, Alexander A; Huang, Jianhua
Anagaracris is considered as a monotypic genus in the tribe Bryodemini (Acrididae: Oedipodinae). New synonymy is proposed: Angaracris barabensis (Pallas, 1773) = Angaracris morulimarginis Huang, 1981, syn. nov.; = Angaracris ulashanicus Li, 1981, syn. nov.; Angaracris acrohylina Bi, 1986, syn. nov.; = Angaracris nigrimarginis Zheng et Ren, 1993, syn. nov.; = Angaracris morulipennis Zheng et Ren, 1994, syn. nov.; = Angaracris neimongolensis Zeng et Han, 1998, syn. nov. The diagnosis of the tribe Bryodemini is clarified and a key to the genera and subgenera is provided.
Holt, Jeffrey W. [Sault Sainte Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians, Marie, MI (United States)
The Tribe is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings and low income housing sites. In 2009, the Tribe applied to the U. S. Department of Energy for funding to conduct energy audits of Tribally-owned governmental buildings. Findings from the energy audits would define the extent and types of energy efficiency improvements needed, establish a basis for energy priorities, strategies and action plans, and provide a benchmark for measuring improvements from energy efficiency implementations. In 2010, the DOE awarded a grant in the amount of $95,238 to the Tribe to fund the energy audits of nine governmental buildings and to pay for travel expenses associated with attendance and participation at the DOE annual program reviews. In 2011, the Tribe applied for and was awarded a DOE grant in the amount of $75,509 to conduct energy audits of the remaining 30 Tribally-owned governmental buildings. Repeating mobilization steps performed during the first DOE energy audits grant, the Tribe initiated the second round of governmental building energy audits by completing energy auditor procurement. The selected energy auditor successfully passed DOE debarment and Sault Tribe background clearances. The energy audits contract was awarded to U. P. Engineers and Architects, Inc. of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. The Tribe continued mobilizing for the energy audits by providing the energy auditor with one year of electric, gas and water utility invoice copies per building, as well as supplemental building information, such as operating hours. The Tribe also contacted building occupants to coordinate scheduling for the on-site energy audit inspections and arranged for facilities management personnel to guide the energy auditor through the buildings and answer questions regarding building systems.
Dehingia, Madhusmita; Thangjam devi, Kanchal; Talukdar, Narayan C.; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Reddy, Nageshwar; Mande, Sharmila S.; Deka, Manab; Khan, Mojibur R.
The gut bacteria exert phenotypic traits to the host but the factors which determine the gut bacterial profile (GBP) is poorly understood. This study aimed to understand the effect of ethnicity and geography on GBP of Mongoloid and Proto-Australoid tribes of India. Fecal bacterial diversity was studied in fifteen tribal populations representing four geographic regions (Assam, Telangana, Manipur and Sikkim) by DGGE followed by NGS analysis on Illumina MiSeq platform. Geography and diet had significant effect on GBP of the Indian tribes which was dominated by Prevotella. The effects were more prominent with lower taxonomic levels, indicating probable functional redundancy of the core GBP. A comparison with the worldwide data revealed that GBP of the Indian population was similar to the Mongolian population (Mongolia). The bacterial genera Faecalibacterium, Eubacterium, Clostridium, Blautia, Ruminococcus and Roseburia were found to be core genera in the representative populations of the world. PMID:26689136
Anggerainy, Shinta Widiastuty; Wanda, Dessie; Hayati, Happy
Instead of seeking conventional health care, the Dayak tribe in Borneo, Indonesia, treats sick children at home with traditional medicine. The objective of this descriptive, qualitative study was to explore the Dayak tribe's use of traditional medicine to care for sick children. Comprehensive interviews were conducted with 10 caregivers, with collected data analyzed using content analysis. Key recurring themes identified were: 1) traditional medicine as first aid; 2) ease of access and cost-effectiveness; 3) traditional medicine was not always effective; 4) a combination of natural ingredients and beliefs; 5) the importance of "communicating" with plants; and 6) engagement with metaphysical forces. Health professionals should respect familial cultures' beliefs regarding the provision of health care at home. Furthermore, they need to develop competency in performing cultural assessments and providing information to these parents on the risks of not seeking professional emergency care for children with conditions that can't be handled at home with traditional medicine.
Full Text Available Global Tribe si inserisce in un filone di ricerca, quello che indaga la musica dance nelle sue numerose manifestazioni, che negli ultimi anni sta acquisendo una prominenza sempre maggiore in seno agli studi musicologici. A ciò ha contribuito negli ultimi anni Graham St John, caporedattore della rivista accademica Dancecult e autore o curatore di numerose pubblicazioni sul tema, tra cui The Local Scenes and Global Culture of Psytrance, che anticipa alcuni dei temi di questo volume. L’autore spiega di essere stato direttamente coinvolto nella scena di Melbourne fin dalla metà degli anni Novanta, estendendo successivamente la sua partecipazione alle comunità psytrance a livello globale; in questo contesto ha sviluppato in parallelo un interesse accademico, che costituisce la base delle idee e delle esperienze confluite in Global Tribe.
Saxena, Vibhor; Bhattacharya, P.C.
Using the National Sample Survey Organisation data from the 68th round (2011–12) of 88,939 households, this paper investigates the inequalities in access to Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) and electricity usage by the households belonging to the three major disadvantaged groups in India, viz., the scheduled castes, the scheduled tribes, and the Muslims. The results of our analysis suggest that, after controlling for the other socio-economic factors which impinge on the households’ demand and suppl...
Passos, Silvia da Silva Santos; Pereira, Álvaro; Nitschke, Rosane Gonçalves
Compreender o relacionamento no quotidiano dos familiares acompanhantes nos cenários de cuidado que se aproximam da metáfora da tribo no ambiente hospitalar. Estudo qualitativo com dados coletados a partir de entrevistas semiestruturadas e observação com 16 familiares acompanhantes de pessoas hospitalizadas com dependência para o autocuidado. Os dados foram submetidos à análise temática e analisados através da metáfora da tribo proposta pela sociologia compreensiva. Os familiares formam um agrupamento social em torno do cuidado onde encontramos as características das tribos: a ambiência emocional; a solidariedade baseada nos vínculos de simpatia e ajuda mútua; a nebulosa afetual no processo interacional; a lógica da fusão nas relações tácteis e a comunhão/religiosidade no processo de ligação numa identidade coletiva. Os familiares na presença do trágico criam agrupamentos sociais que se assemelham a tribos cujo totem é o cuidado. Understand the quotidian relationships of accompanying family members in an environment of care, which are close to the metaphor of a tribe in hospital environment. METHODQualitative study with data gathered from semi-structured interviews and observations with 16 family members accompanying hospitalized individuals with dependence on self-care. Data were submitted to thematic analysis, and analyzed through the metaphor of "tribe" proposed by comprehensive sociology. Family members build up social clusters around caring, where we find traits typical of tribes: emotional ambience; solidarity based on links of sympathy and mutual assistance; an affectual nebula in the process of interaction; a logic of fusion in tactile relations; and communion/religiosity in the process of connecting in a collective identity. In the presence of tragedy, families build social clusters similar to tribes having care as a totem.
Ghosh, Sushanta; Rahaman, Lovely; Kaipeng, David Lalvohbika; Deb, Dipankar; Nath, Nandita; Tribedi, Prosun; Sharma, Bipin Kumar
Tripura is inhabited by many indigenous communities having unique ethno-socio-cultural lifestyle with age-old rice beer brewing techniques using wild herbs and local rice varieties popularly known as chuwak or zu. The present study is focused on comparative evaluation of brewing methods and nutritional aspects of rice beer among Debbarma, Jamatia, Koloi, and Molsom tribes of Tripura. Sample ingredients and plant species are properly identified before reporting. Rice beer is also prepared in l...
Supplementary data: The γ-gliadin-like γ-prolamin genes in the tribe Triticeae. Peng-Fei Qi, Cheng-Xing Le, Zhao Wang, Yu-Bin Liu, Qing Chen, Zhen-Zhen Wei, Bin-Jie Xu, Zheng-Yuan Wei,. Shou-Fen Dai, Yu-Ming Wei and You-Liang Zheng. J. Genet. 93, 35–41. Table 1. The γ-prolamin genes of diploid Triticeae species.
non- state cyber actors. The Air Force values a professional workplace that strictly prohibits racism , sexism, lewd material, and most forms of...AU/ACSC/LIDOWSKI, R/AY15 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY ANONYMOUS AS A CYBER TRIBE: A NEW MODEL FOR COMPLEX, NON- STATE ...government or the Department of Defense. In accordance with Air Force Instruction 51-303, it is not copyrighted, but is the property of the United
Jaroli DP; Mahawar Madan
Abstract The present zootherapeutic study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the Saharia tribe reside in the Shahabad and Kishanganj Panchayat Samiti's of Baran district of Rajasthan, India. A field survey was conducted from April to June 2006 by performing interview through structured questionnaire with 21 selected respondents, who provided information regarding use of animals and their products in folk medi...
Full Text Available Nabidae, a family of predatory heteropterans, includes two subfamilies and five tribes. We previously reported the complete mitogenome of Alloeorhynchus bakeri, a representative of the tribe Prostemmatini in the subfamily Prostemmatinae. To gain a better understanding of architecture and evolution of mitogenome in Nabidae, mitogenomes of five species representing two tribes (Gorpini and Nabini in the subfamily Nabinae were sequenced, and a comparative mitogenomic analysis of three nabid tribes in two subfamilies was carried out.Nabid mitogenomes share a similar nucleotide composition and base bias, except for the control region, where differences are observed at the subfamily level. In addition, the pattern of codon usage is influenced by the GC content and consistent with the standard invertebrate mitochondrial genetic code and the preference for A+T-rich codons. The comparison among orthologous protein-coding genes shows that different genes have been subject to different rates of molecular evolution correlated with the GC content. The stems and anticodon loops of tRNAs are extremely conserved, and the nucleotide substitutions are largely restricted to TψC and DHU loops and extra arms, with insertion-deletion polymorphisms. Comparative analysis shows similar rates of substitution between the two rRNAs. Long non-coding regions are observed in most Gorpini and Nabini mtDNAs in-between trnI-trnQ and/or trnS2-nad1. The lone exception, Nabis apicalis, however, has lost three tRNAs. Overall, phylogenetic analysis using mitogenomic data is consistent with phylogenies constructed mainly form morphological traits.This comparative mitogenomic analysis sheds light on the architecture and evolution of mitogenomes in the family Nabidae. Nucleotide diversity and mitogenomic traits are phylogenetically informative at subfamily level. Furthermore, inclusion of a broader range of samples representing various taxonomic levels is critical for the understanding
Li, Hu; Liu, Haiyu; Song, Fan; Shi, Aimin; Zhou, Xuguo; Cai, Wanzhi
Nabidae, a family of predatory heteropterans, includes two subfamilies and five tribes. We previously reported the complete mitogenome of Alloeorhynchus bakeri, a representative of the tribe Prostemmatini in the subfamily Prostemmatinae. To gain a better understanding of architecture and evolution of mitogenome in Nabidae, mitogenomes of five species representing two tribes (Gorpini and Nabini) in the subfamily Nabinae were sequenced, and a comparative mitogenomic analysis of three nabid tribes in two subfamilies was carried out. Nabid mitogenomes share a similar nucleotide composition and base bias, except for the control region, where differences are observed at the subfamily level. In addition, the pattern of codon usage is influenced by the GC content and consistent with the standard invertebrate mitochondrial genetic code and the preference for A+T-rich codons. The comparison among orthologous protein-coding genes shows that different genes have been subject to different rates of molecular evolution correlated with the GC content. The stems and anticodon loops of tRNAs are extremely conserved, and the nucleotide substitutions are largely restricted to TψC and DHU loops and extra arms, with insertion-deletion polymorphisms. Comparative analysis shows similar rates of substitution between the two rRNAs. Long non-coding regions are observed in most Gorpini and Nabini mtDNAs in-between trnI-trnQ and/or trnS2-nad1. The lone exception, Nabis apicalis, however, has lost three tRNAs. Overall, phylogenetic analysis using mitogenomic data is consistent with phylogenies constructed mainly form morphological traits. This comparative mitogenomic analysis sheds light on the architecture and evolution of mitogenomes in the family Nabidae. Nucleotide diversity and mitogenomic traits are phylogenetically informative at subfamily level. Furthermore, inclusion of a broader range of samples representing various taxonomic levels is critical for the understanding of mitogenomic
Simmons, Mark P; McKenna, Miles J; Bacon, Christine D; Yakobson, Kendra; Cappa, Jennifer J; Archer, Robert H; Ford, Andrew J
The phylogeny of Celastraceae tribe Euonymeae (≈ 230 species in eight genera in both the Old and New Worlds) was inferred using morphological characters together with plastid (matK, trnL-F) and nuclear (ITS and 26S rDNA) genes. Tribe Euonymeae has been defined as those genera of Celastraceae with generally opposite leaves, isomerous carpels, loculicidally dehiscent capsules, and arillate seeds (except Microtropis). Euonymus is the most diverse (129 species) and widely cultivated genus in the tribe. We infer that tribe Euonymeae consists of at least six separate lineages within Celastraceae and that a revised natural classification of the family is needed. Microtropis and Quetzalia are inferred to be distinct sister groups that together are sister to Zinowiewia. The endangered Monimopetalum chinense is an isolated and early derived lineage of Celastraceae that represents an important component of phylogenetic diversity within the family. Hedraianthera is sister to Brassiantha, and we describe a second species (Brassiantha hedraiantheroides A.J. Ford) that represents the first reported occurrence of this genus in Australia. Euonymus globularis, from eastern Australia, is sister to Menepetalum, which is endemic to New Caledonia, and we erect a new genus (Dinghoua R.H. Archer) for it. The Madagascan species of Euonymus are sister to Pleurostylia and recognized as a distinct genus (Astrocassine ined.). Glyptopetalum, Torralbasia, and Xylonymus are all closely related to Euonymus sensu stricto and are questionably distinct from it. Current intrageneric classifications of Euonymus are not completely natural and require revision. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gouvêa, Cantídio Fernando; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Rodriguez, Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli
Floral development of Cedrela and Toona, the genera comprising the basal tribe Cedreleae of the sub-family Swietenioideae of Meliaceae, is described. The focus was on three endangered, ecologically and economically important species: Cedrela fissilis, Cedrela odorata and Toona ciliata. The aims of the study were to characterize the patterns of floral development in the tribe and to establish apomorphic and plesiomorphic floral characters in relation to other taxa within the family based on the current molecular phylogeny of Meliaceae. A detailed floral structural and developmental study was completed using both scanning electron microscopy and visualization of microtome sections with a light microscope. Twelve floral developmental stages were identified. The initial development of the pentamerous flowers of both Toona and Cedrela is strikingly similar. The morphological differences observed between them are due to differential patterns of organ elongation and adnation/connation occurring late in development. Additionally, the formation of functionally male and female flowers was found to occur at specific positions within the inflorescence. Due to the basal position of the tribe Cedreleae in the phylogeny of Meliaceae, functionally either male or female pentamerous flowers and the presence of (at least partially) free stamens may be considered plesiomorphic traits within the family. In contrast, sympetaly and the absence of nectaries in Cedrela species are synapomorphies.
Shawn A. LaRoche; Tracey LeBeau; Innovation Investments, LLC
The Lower Brule Sioux Tribe is a federally recognized Indian tribe organized pursuant to the 1934 Wheeler-Howard Act (“Indian Reorganization Act”). The Lower Brule Sioux Indian Reservation lies along the west bank of Lake Francis Case and Lake Sharpe, which were created by the Fort Randall and Big Bend dams of the Missouri River pursuant to the Pick Sloan Act. The grid accessible at the Big Bend Dam facility operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is less than one mile of the wind farm contemplated by the Tribe in this response. The low-head hydroelectric turbines further being studied would be placed below the dam and would be turned by the water released from the dam itself. The riverbed at this place is within the exterior boundaries of the reservation. The low-head turbines in the tailrace would be evaluated to determine if enough renewable energy could be developed to pump water to a reservoir 500 feet above the river.
Gouvêa, Cantídio Fernando; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Rodriguez, Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli
Background and Aims Floral development of Cedrela and Toona, the genera comprising the basal tribe Cedreleae of the sub-family Swietenioideae of Meliaceae, is described. The focus was on three endangered, ecologically and economically important species: Cedrela fissilis, Cedrela odorata and Toona ciliata. The aims of the study were to characterize the patterns of floral development in the tribe and to establish apomorphic and plesiomorphic floral characters in relation to other taxa within the family based on the current molecular phylogeny of Meliaceae. Methods A detailed floral structural and developmental study was completed using both scanning electron microscopy and visualization of microtome sections with a light microscope. Key Results Twelve floral developmental stages were identified. The initial development of the pentamerous flowers of both Toona and Cedrela is strikingly similar. The morphological differences observed between them are due to differential patterns of organ elongation and adnation/connation occurring late in development. Additionally, the formation of functionally male and female flowers was found to occur at specific positions within the inflorescence. Conclusions Due to the basal position of the tribe Cedreleae in the phylogeny of Meliaceae, functionally either male or female pentamerous flowers and the presence of (at least partially) free stamens may be considered plesiomorphic traits within the family. In contrast, sympetaly and the absence of nectaries in Cedrela species are synapomorphies. PMID:17981877
Full Text Available Tribe Theeae, which includes some economically important and widely grown plants, such as beverage tea and a number of woody ornamentals, is the largest member of the Theaceae family. Using five genomic regions (chloroplast: atpI-H, matK, psbA5'R-ALS-11F, rbcL; nuclear: LEAFY and 30 species representing four of the five genera in this tribe (Apterosperma, Camellia, Polyspora, and Pyrenaria s.l., we investigated the phylogeny of Theeae and assessed the delimitation of genera in the tribe. Our results showed that Polyspora was monophyletic and the sister of the three other genera of Theeae investigated, Camellia was paraphyletic and Pyrenaria was polyphyletic. The inconsistent phylogenetic placement of some species of Theeae between the nuclear and chloroplast trees suggested widespread hybridization between Camellia and Pyrenaria, Polyspora and Parapyrenaria. These results indicate that hybridization, rather than morphological homoplasy, has confused the current classification of Theeae. In addition, the phylogenetic placement and possible allies of Laplacea are also discussed.
Full Text Available Foram analisadas 33 espécies, entre nativas e introduzidas, pertencentes a 20 famílias de angiospermas ocorrentes no Estado de Pernambuco. A caracterização cariotípica da maioria das espécies foi baseada no número e morfologia cromossômica, padrão de condensação de cromossomos profásicos e estrutura de núcleo interfásico. Cinco espécies tiveram seus números cromossômicos determinados pela primeira vez, sendo elas: Cereus jamacaru (2n=22, Clitoria fairchildiana (2n=22, Eugenia luschnathiana (2n=22, Licania tomentosa (2n=22 e Spondias tuberosa (n=16. No caso de Licania tomentosa esta é a primeira citação de número cromossômico para o gênero. Das outras 28 espécies, três (Cecropia cf. palmata, 2n=26; Crinum erubescens, 2n=70; e Schinus terebentifolius, 2n=28 apresentaram números cromossômicos diferentes dos registrados previamente na literatura.Thirty three native and introduced species from 20 families of angiosperms collected in the State of Pernambuco were analysed. The karyotype description of the majority of the species was based on chromosome number and morphology, condensation pattern of prophase chromosomes as well as interphase nuclear structure. In five species (Cereus jamacaru, 2n=22; Clitoria fairchildiana, 2n=22; Eugenia luschnathiana, 2n=22; Licania tomentosa, 2n=22; and Spondias tuberosa, n=16 the chromosome number is reported here for the first time. In the case of Licania tomentosa, this is also the first report for the genus. Among the other 28 species, three (Cecropia cf. palmata, 2n=26; Crinum erubescens, 2n=70; and Schinus terebentifolius, 2n=28 showed chromosome numbers different from what has previously been reported.
Gianna Maria Griz Carvalheira
Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados os números cromossômicos observados em 22 espécies pertencentes a 19 gêneros de angiospermas coletadas em Pernambuco. Os dados principais foram resumidos em uma tabela incluindo referências de herbário, locais de coleta, números diplóides e determinações cromossômicas prévias. Para oito espécies não encontramos nenhuma referência anterior na literatura específica. Por outro lado, alguns autores têm relatado números cromossômicos diferentes para uma mesma espécie. Nossas observações sugerem que essas discordâncias, em geral, podem ser atribuídas à ocorrência, nessas espécies, de cromossomos satelitados com constrições secundárias elásticas. Características citogenéticas especiais, observadas em algumas espécies, são também apresentadas e discutidas.Chromosome numbers are reported for 22 species belonging to 19 genera of angiosperms collected in the State of Pernambuco. A table with the herbarium voucher, collecting sites, diploid numbers and previous chromosomes counts for all the species is presented. Eight of the species have no previous counts. For some species, two or more different chromosome numbers have been presented in the literature. Our data suggest that most of such disagreements might be due to the presence of satellited chromosomes with elastic secondary constriction. Furthermore, special cytogenetics features of every species are hereby presented and discussed.
Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khakwani, Abdul Aziz; Ullah, Imdad; Khan, Kaleem Ullah; Khan, Inam Ullah
This paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in South East Asia (India, Pakistan and Srilanka). Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 Angiospermic families were collected. From the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, Cucurbitaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (15 spp.), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (13 spp. each), Moraceae (11 spp.), Acanthaceae (10 spp.), Mimosaceae (09 spp.), Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae (08 spp. each), Hippocrateaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (07 spp. each), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (06 spp. each), Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae (05 spp.each). The most active plants are Syzigium cumini (14 recipes), Phyllanthus emblica (09 recipes), Centella asiatica and Momordica charantia (08 recipes each), Azadirachta indica (07 recipes), Aegle marmelos, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gymnema sylvestre (06 recipes each), Allium cepa, A. sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (05 recipes each), Citrullus colocynthis, Justicia adhatoda, Nelumbo nucifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ziziphus mauritiana and Wattakaka volubilis (4 recipes each). These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures. Data inventory consists of botanical name, recipe, vernacular name, English name. Some of the plants of the above data with experimentally confirmed antidiabetic properties have also been recorded. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of diabetic medicinal plants. Toxicity of these plants should also be explained. Scientific validation of these recipes may help in discovering new drugs from
Full Text Available Background Comparative genomics can inform us about the processes of mutation and selection across diverse taxa. Among seed plants, gymnosperms have been lacking in genomic comparisons. Recent EST and full-length cDNA collections for two conifers, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, together with full genome sequences for two angiosperms, Arabidopsis thaliana and poplar (Populus trichocarpa, offer an opportunity to infer the evolutionary processes underlying thousands of orthologous protein-coding genes in gymnosperms compared with an angiosperm orthologue set. Results Based upon pairwise comparisons of 3,723 spruce and pine orthologues, we found an average synonymous genetic distance (dS of 0.191, and an average dN/dS ratio of 0.314. Using a fossil-established divergence time of 140 million years between spruce and pine, we extrapolated a nucleotide substitution rate of 0.68 × 10-9 synonymous substitutions per site per year. When compared to angiosperms, this indicates a dramatically slower rate of nucleotide substitution rates in conifers: on average 15-fold. Coincidentally, we found a three-fold higher dN/dS for the spruce-pine lineage compared to the poplar-Arabidopsis lineage. This joint occurrence of a slower evolutionary rate in conifers with higher dN/dS, and possibly positive selection, showcases the uniqueness of conifer genome evolution. Conclusions Our results are in line with documented reduced nucleotide diversity, conservative genome evolution and low rates of diversification in conifers on the one hand and numerous examples of local adaptation in conifers on the other hand. We propose that reduced levels of nucleotide mutation in large and long-lived conifer trees, coupled with large effective population size, were the main factors leading to slow substitution rates but retention of beneficial mutations.
Kitazaki, Kazuyoshi; Kubo, Tomohiko; Kagami, Hiroyo; Matsumoto, Takuma; Fujita, Asami; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Matsunaga, Muneyuki; Mikami, Tetsuo
Of the two tRNA(Cys) (GCA) genes, trnC1-GCA and trnC2-GCA, previously identified in mitochondrial genome of sugar beet, the former is a native gene and probably a pseudo-copy, whereas the latter, of unknown origin, is transcribed into a tRNA [tRNA(Cys2) (GCA)]. In this study, the trnC2-GCA sequence was mined from various public databases. To evaluate whether or not the trnC2-GCA sequence is located in the mitochondrial genome, the relative copy number of its sequence to nuclear gene was assessed in a number of angiosperm species, using a quantitative real-time PCR assay. The trnC2-GCA sequence was found to exist sporadically in the mitochondrial genomes of a wide range of angiosperms. The mitochondrial tRNA(Cys2) (GCA) species from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), spinach (Spinacea oleracea) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) were found to be aminoacylated, indicating that they may participate in translation. We also identified a sugar beet nuclear gene that encodes cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase, which is dual-targeted to mitochondria and plastids, and may aminoacylate tRNA(Cys2) (GCA). What is of particular interest is that trnC1-GCA and trnC2-GCA co-exist in the mitochondrial genomes of eight diverse angiosperms, including spinach, and that the spinach tRNA(Cys1) (GCA) is also aminoacylated. Taken together, our observations lead us to surmise that trnC2-GCA may have been horizontally transferred to a common ancestor of eudicots, followed by co-existence and dual expression of trnC1-GCA and trnC2-GCA in mitochondria with occasional loss or inactivation of either trnC-GCA gene during evolution. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Abdulkarim G. Mairiga
Full Text Available Background: The Kanuri tribe is found in the Lake Chad basin. However, the majority of the tribe lives in Borno State, Nigeria. Before this study was undertaken, factors related to fertility decisions among the tribe were not known. Objectives: This study is aimed at describing and documenting the sociocultural factors affecting decisions related to fertility among the Kanuri tribe. Method: The study applied the qualitative research method. In-depth interviews and focus-group discussions were used as data collection methods. Analysis was done manually. Results: Children among the Kanuri were highly valued and desired irrespective of their gender. The ideal family size, according to most of the respondents, was 16 children. Kanuri men are polygamous and can marry up to four wives in order to form large families. However, it is an abomination among Kanuri women to fall pregnant in quick succession; a phenomenon they termed konkomi. Other reasons for child-spacing were related to child welfare and maternal well-being. Methods for child-spacing included prolonged breastfeeding (Nganji yaye, ornaments in various forms and shapes, spiritual invocations and dried herbs (Nganji Yandeye. Few Kanuri women practiced modern methods of family planning. Conclusion: Trends in fertility among the Kanuri tribe need to be monitored regularly and appropriate measures be taken to introduce and promote modern family planning and child health services to ensure a healthier family life.
Abdulkarim G. Mairiga
Full Text Available Background: The Kanuri tribe is found in the Lake Chad basin. However, the majority of the tribe lives in Borno State, Nigeria. Before this study was undertaken, factors related to fertility decisions among the tribe were not known. Objectives: This study is aimed at describing and documenting the sociocultural factors affecting decisions related to fertility among the Kanuri tribe. Method: The study applied the qualitative research method. In-depth interviews and focus-group discussions were used as data collection methods. Analysis was done manually.Results: Children among the Kanuri were highly valued and desired irrespective of their gender. The ideal family size, according to most of the respondents, was 16 children. Kanuri men are polygamous and can marry up to four wives in order to form large families. However, it is an abomination among Kanuri women to fall pregnant in quick succession; a phenomenon they termed konkomi. Other reasons for child-spacing were related to child welfare and maternal well-being. Methods for child-spacing included prolonged breastfeeding (Nganji yaye, ornaments in various forms and shapes, spiritual invocations and dried herbs (Nganji Yandeye. Few Kanuri women practiced modern methods of family planning. Conclusion: Trends in fertility among the Kanuri tribe need to be monitored regularly and appropriate measures be taken to introduce and promote modern family planning and child health services to ensure a healthier family life.
Yildiztekin, Fatma; Nadeem, Said; Erol, Ebru; Yildiztekin, Mahmut; Tuna, Atilla L; Ozturk, Mehmet
Context We report the first ever chemical/biochemical study on Crocus mathewii Kerndorff (Iridaceae) - a Turkish endemic angiosperm. This plant has never been explored for its phytochemistry and bioactivities. Objective This study explores C. mathewii corm and aerial parts for the chemical and biological properties of hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water fractions of the extracts. Material and methods Plant material (20 g) was extracted by methanol (250 mL × 5, 3 days each) and fractioned into hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. All fractions were subjected to β-carotene-linoleic acid, DPPH(·), ABTS(·)(+), CUPRAC, metal chelating and tyrosinase inhibition activities. Hexane fractions were submitted to GC-MS analysis. Results Ethyl acetate fractions showed excellent IC50 values in DPPH(·) (aerial 36.21 ± 0.76 and corm 33.87 ± 0.02 mg/L) and ABTS(·)(+) (aerial 33.01 ± 0.79 and bulb 27.87 ± 0.33 mg/L); higher than the IC50 of the standard α-tocopherol (DPPH 116.25 ± 1.97; ABTS 52.64 ± 0.37 mg/L), higher than BHA in DPPH (57.31 ± 0.25 mg/L), but slightly lower in ABTS (19.86 ± 2.73 mg/L). Methanol extract of aerial parts also showed higher activity than α-tocopherol in DPPH (85.56 ± 11.51 mg/L) but slightly less (72.90 ± 3.66 mg/L) than both the standards in ABTS. Linoleic (aerial 53.9%, corm 43.9%) and palmitic (aerial 22.2%, corm 18%) were found as the major fatty acids. Discussion and conclusion Some fractions of C. mathewii showed higher antioxidant activities than the standards. There is a need to explore more about this plant.
Rojo, Carmen; Segura, Matilde; Cortés, Francisco; Rodrigo, María A
Microcystins (MCs) are produced by cyanobacteria in aquatic environments and adversely affect macrophytes at very high concentrations. However, the effects of MC on macrophytes at concentrations of environmental relevance are largely unknown. The main objective of this study was to analyze the allelopathic effects of MC-LR at natural concentrations (1, 8 and 16 μg MC-LR/L) on five charophyte species (Chara aspera, C. baltica, C. hispida, C. vulgaris and Nitella hyalina) and the angiosperm Myriophyllum spicatum. Macrophyte specimens were obtained from a restored area located in Albufera de València Natural Park, a protected coastal Mediterranean wetland. Two different experiments were conducted involving (i) the addition of MC-LR to natural sediment to evaluate its effects on seed germination and (ii) the addition of MC-LR to water cultures of macrophytes to evaluate its effects on growth and metabolic functions. In water, the MC-LR concentration decreased by 84% in two weeks; the loss was not significant in sediment. The first seedlings (all C. hispida) emerged from the wetland sediment following a delay of a few days in the presence of MC-LR. The germination rates in 8 and 16 μg MC-LR/L treatments were 44% and 11% of that occurring in the absence of MC, but these differences disappeared over time. The final density was 6-7 germlings/dm(3). Final germling length was unaffected by MC-LR. Rotifers (Lecane spp.) emerging from the natural sediment during the experiment were favored by MC-LR; the opposite pattern was observed in the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The growth rates of C. vulgaris, C. baltica and N. hyalina were unaffected by MC exposure, whereas those of C. hispida and C. aspera were reduced in the MC treatments relative to the control treatment. The concentration of chlorophyll-a and the in vivo net photosynthetic rate were lower in the presence of MC-LR, even at the lowest concentration, for all of the characeans tested. M. spicatum was sensitive to the
Debbarma, Maria; Pala, Nazir A; Kumar, Munesh; Bussmann, Rainer W
The present study was carried out in Mandwi area and its outskirts of Tripura district of tribal areas Autonomous district council to document the available ethno-medicinal plants and their traditional application among Mandwi tribes. Field explorations were carried out during the months of March-June 2013. The ethno-medicinal survey was conducted particularly with Tripuri tribe in Mandai area, with the help of local medicine men, locally known as bhoidho (Tripuri). Data were collected through structure questionnaires and observations during the field visits. In the present study the local population used a total of 51 plant species belonging to 32 families to cure a variety of diseases. Of the 51 plants, 21 were herbs, followed by trees (17) and shrubs (8). Climbers and ferns had reported 2 species for each one grass species was found. Fabaceae was the dominant family with the highest number of species (6) followed by Asteracae (4 species) and Lamiaceae (5 species). Seven other families had 2 species each and 22 families were represented by a single species. In case single diseases, the highest number of plants (7 species) was used for dysentery, followed by body pain (6 species), cough (6 species) and toothache (6 species). The present study concluded that, the Tripuri tribes of the study area possess rich knowledge on the medicinal plants and their utilization. Thus the present study focuses on the documentation of the traditional knowledge of these valuable plants, which could enhance the potential of these medicinal plants to other communities as well and by understanding the importance, other communities can also be helpful for conservation of these resources for further use.