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Sample records for angiosperm tribe sileneae

  1. Early evolution of angiosperms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ While many characters have been used to define the nature of the angiosperms in living plants, the list must be reduced to a single character that can be found in the fossil record in order to proceed with our search for the earliest flowering plants.

  2. Creating Tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn, Elisa

    2000-01-01

    Suggests the use of the "tribal" metaphor to foster team building and collaborative learning in college classes. Offers examples of how linking students in the classroom in tribes builds identification and interdependence through such activities as creating a group myth and participating in membership rituals. The tribal metaphor has also led to…

  3. Schmeissneria: An angiosperm from the Early Jurassic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin WANG

    2010-01-01

    The origin of angiosperms has been a focus of intensive research for a long time. The so-called preCretaceous angiosperms, including Schmeissneria, are usually clouded with doubt. To expel the cloud around the enigmatic Schmeissneria, the syntype and new materials of Schmeissneria collected previously in Germany and recently in China are studied. These materials include female inflorescences and infructescences. The latter are old materials but were under-studied previously. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscope observations indicate that the fruits in these infructescences have in situ seeds enclosed, and that the ovaries are closed before pollination. Thus the plants meet two strict criteria for angiosperms: angiospermy plus angio-ovuly. Placing Schmeissneria in angiosperms will extend the record of angiosperms up to the Early Jurassic, more compatible with many molecular dating conclusions on the age of angiosperms, and demanding a reassessment of the current doctrines on the origin of angiosperms. Although the phylogenetic relationship of Schmeissneria to other angiosperms apparently is still an open question, this study adds to research concerning the origin of angiosperms.

  4. The Early Flowers and Angiosperm Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Else Marie; Crane, P.R.; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard

    The recent discovery of diverse fossil flowers and floral organs in Cretaceous strata has revealed astonishing details about the structural and systematic diversity of early angiosperms. Exploring the rich fossil record that has accumulated over the last three decades, this is a unique study...... based on research into Early and Late Cretaceous fossil floras from Europe and North America, the authors draw on direct palaeontological evidence of the pattern of angiosperm evolution through time. Synthesising palaeobotanical data with information from living plants, this unique book explores...... the latest research in the field, highlighting connections with phylogenetic systematics, structure and the biology of extant angiosperms....

  5. A combinatorial morphospace for angiosperm pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke

    2016-04-01

    The morphology of angiosperm (flowering plant) pollen is extraordinarily diverse. This diversity results from variations in the morphology of discrete anatomical components. These components include the overall shape of a pollen grain, the stratification of the exine, the number and form of any apertures, the type of dispersal unit, and the nature of any surface ornamentation. Different angiosperm pollen morphotypes reflect different combinations of these discrete components. In this talk, I ask the following question: given the anatomical components of angiosperm pollen that are known to exist in the plant kingdom, how many unique biologically plausible combinations of these components are there? I explore this question from the perspective of enumerative combinatorics using an algorithm I have written in the Python programming language. This algorithm (1) calculates the number of combinations of these components; (2) enumerates those combinations; and (3) graphically displays those combinations. The result is a combinatorial morphospace that reflects an underlying notion that the process of morphogenesis in angiosperm pollen can be thought of as an n choose k counting problem. I compare the morphology of extant and fossil angiosperm pollen grains to this morphospace, and suggest that from a combinatorial point of view angiosperm pollen is not as diverse as it could be, which may be a result of developmental constraints.

  6. Formation and development of sperms in angiosperms

    OpenAIRE

    S. Tatintseva

    2014-01-01

    Spermiogelnesis has been studied in a large number of Angiosperm species characterizing different levels of phylogenetic system. The formation and development of male gamets can be described as formation of sperm cells that undergo ontogenesis which stimulates changes up to full maturity of the pollen grain. The process of ontogenesis is aimed at creating a suitable delivery system by the pollen tube to a female gamete.

  7. Consumer Tribes: Rezension

    OpenAIRE

    Janowitz, Klaus M.

    2008-01-01

    Der 2007 erschienene Sammelband Consumer Tribes bietet einen systematischen Überblick über Vergemeinschaftungen in modernen Gesellschaften, die als (Sub-) Cultures of Consumption, Brand Communities oder eben als Consumer Tribes bezeichnet werden. Die einzelnen Beiträge sind geographisch weit gestreut - aus Nordamerika, wie aus unterschiedlichen europäischen Ländern. Herausgeber sind der kanadische Marketer Rob Kozinets, auch als Protagonist der Netnographie-Methode bekannt, Bernard Cova, ...

  8. An Undercover Angiosperm from the Jurassic of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shaolin; WANG Xin

    2010-01-01

    Searching for early angiosperms is a riveting activity in botany because it helps to resolve the phylogenetic relationships among seed plants and among angiosperms themselves.One of the challenges for this job is what the target fossils look like.Most possibly early angiosperms may elude our scrutiny with gymnospermous appearances.This possibility becomes a reality in a Jurassic plant,Solaranthus gen.nov,which bears a peltaspermalean appearance and enclosed ovules.According to knowledge available hitherto,the latter feature makes it an angiosperm.However,such a feature is more likely to be eclipsed by its gymnospermous appearance.The early age and unexpected character assemblage of Solaranthus urge for a fresh look on the assumed-simple relationship between angiosperms and gymnosperms.Its resemblance to the order Peltaspermales favors the Mostly Male Theory.

  9. Design of biomimetic camouflage materials based on angiosperm leaf organs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The micro structures and reflectance spectra of angiosperm leaves were compared with those of angiosperm petals. The study indicated that angiosperm leaf organs had identical micro structures and reflectance characteristics in the wave band of near infrared. Micro structures and compositions of leaf organs were the crucial factors influencing their reflectance spectra. The model of biomimetic materials based on angiosperm leaf organs was introduced and verified. From 300 to 2600 nm, the similarity coefficients of reflectance spectra of the foam containing water and Platanus Orientalis Linn. leaves were all above 0.969. The biomimetic camou- flage material exhibited almost the same reflectance spectra with those of green leaves in ultraviolet, visible and near infrared wave bands. And its "concolor and conspectrum" effect might take on reconnaissance of hyperspectral and ultra hy- perspectral imaging.

  10. Fruit evolution and diversification in campanulid angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Donoghue, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    With increases in both the size and scope of phylogenetic trees, we are afforded a renewed opportunity to address long-standing comparative questions, such as whether particular fruit characters account for much of the variation in diversity among flowering plant clades. Studies to date have reported conflicting results, largely as a consequence of taxonomic scale and a reliance on potentially conservative statistical measures. Here we examine a larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer the rates of character transitions among the major fruit types, emphasizing the evolution of the achene fruits that are most frequently observed within the group. Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated bearing capsules, and that all subsequent fruit diversity was derived from various modifications of this dry fruit type. We also found that the preponderance of lineages bearing achenes is a consequence of not only being a fruit type that is somewhat irreversible once it evolves, but one that also seems to have a positive association with diversification rates. Although these results imply the achene fruit type is a significant correlate of diversity patterns observed across campanulids, we conclude that it remains difficult to confidently and directly view this character state as the actual cause of increased diversification rates.

  11. Plant Sterol Diversity in Pollen from Angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villette, Claire; Berna, Anne; Compagnon, Vincent; Schaller, Hubert

    2015-08-01

    Here we have examined the composition of free sterols and steryl esters of pollen from selected angiosperm species, as a first step towards a comprehensive analysis of sterol biogenesis in the male gametophyte. We detected four major sterol structural groups: cycloartenol derivatives bearing a 9β,19-cyclopropyl group, sterols with a double bond at C-7(8), sterols with a double bond at C-5(6), and stanols. All these groups were unequally distributed among species. However, the distribution of sterols as free sterols or as steryl esters in pollen grains indicated that free sterols were mostly Δ(5)-sterols and that steryl esters were predominantly 9β,19-cyclopropyl sterols. In order to link the sterol composition of a pollen grain at anthesis with the requirement for membrane lipid constituents of the pollen tube, we germinated pollen grains from Nicotiana tabacum, a model plant in reproductive biology. In the presence of radiolabelled mevalonic acid and in a time course series of measurements, we showed that cycloeucalenol was identified as the major neosynthesized sterol. Furthermore, the inhibition of cycloeucalenol neosynthesis by squalestatin was in full agreement with a de novo biogenesis and an apparent truncated pathway in the pollen tube.

  12. Evolution of angiosperm seed disperser mutualisms: the timing of origins and their consequences for coevolutionary interactions between angiosperms and frugivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Ove

    2016-02-01

    The origins of interactions between angiosperms and fruit-eating seed dispersers have attracted much attention following a seminal paper on this topic by Tiffney (1984). This review synthesizes evidence pertaining to key events during the evolution of angiosperm-frugivore interactions and suggests some implications of this evidence for interpretations of angiosperm-frugivore coevolution. The most important conclusions are: (i) the diversification of angiosperm seed size and fleshy fruits commenced around 80 million years ago (Mya). The diversity of seed sizes, fruit sizes and fruit types peaked in the Eocene around 55 to 50 Mya. During this first phase of the interaction, angiosperms and animals evolving frugivory expanded into niche space not previously utilized by these groups, as frugivores and previously not existing fruit traits appeared. From the Eocene until the present, angiosperm-frugivore interactions have occurred within a broad frame of existing niche space, as defined by fruit traits and frugivory, motivating a separation of the angiosperm-frugivore interactions into two phases, before and after the peak in the early Eocene. (ii) The extinct multituberculates were probably the most important frugivores during the early radiation phase of angiosperm seeds and fleshy fruits. Primates and rodents are likely to have been important in the latter part of this first phase. (iii) Flying frugivores, birds and bats, evolved during the second phase, mainly during the Oligocene and Miocene, thus exploiting an existing diversity of fleshy fruits. (iv) A drastic climate shift around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (around 34 Mya) resulted in more semi-open woodland vegetation, creating patchily occurring food resources for frugivores. This promoted evolution of a 'flying frugivore niche' exploited by birds and bats. In particular, passerines became a dominant frugivore group worldwide. (v) Fleshy fruits evolved at numerous occasions in many angiosperm families

  13. Oneida Tribe Energy Audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Ray [Energy Controls Manager; Schubert, Eugene [Policy Analyst

    2014-08-15

    Project funding energy audits of 44 Tribally owned buildings operated by the Oneida Tribe of Indians of WI. Buildings were selected for their size, age, or known energy concerns and total over 1 million square feet. Audits include feasibility studies, lists of energy improvement opportunities, and a strategic energy plan to address cost effective ways to save energy via energy efficiency upgrades over the short and long term.

  14. Herbaceous Angiosperms Are Not More Vulnerable to Drought-Induced Embolism Than Angiosperm Trees1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, Chloé E.L.; Buttler, Alexandre; Chauvin, Thibaud; Doria, Larissa Chacon; del Arco, Marcelino

    2016-01-01

    The water transport pipeline in herbs is assumed to be more vulnerable to drought than in trees due to the formation of frequent embolisms (gas bubbles), which could be removed by the occurrence of root pressure, especially in grasses. Here, we studied hydraulic failure in herbaceous angiosperms by measuring the pressure inducing 50% loss of hydraulic conductance (P50) in stems of 26 species, mainly European grasses (Poaceae). Our measurements show a large range in P50 from −0.5 to −7.5 MPa, which overlaps with 94% of the woody angiosperm species in a worldwide, published data set and which strongly correlates with an aridity index. Moreover, the P50 values obtained were substantially more negative than the midday water potentials for five grass species monitored throughout the entire growing season, suggesting that embolism formation and repair are not routine and mainly occur under water deficits. These results show that both herbs and trees share the ability to withstand very negative water potentials without considerable embolism formation in their xylem conduits during drought stress. In addition, structure-function trade-offs in grass stems reveal that more resistant species are more lignified, which was confirmed for herbaceous and closely related woody species of the daisy group (Asteraceae). Our findings could imply that herbs with more lignified stems will become more abundant in future grasslands under more frequent and severe droughts, potentially resulting in lower forage digestibility. PMID:27268961

  15. The Tribe of Educational Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Lily, Abdulrahman Essa

    2014-01-01

    This article looks into the claim that the international academic community of educational technologies seems to have functioned in a "tribal" way, having formed themselves around tribe-like patterns. It therefore addresses the research question: What are these claimed tribe-like practices that such a community exhibits? This question is…

  16. Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from sequences of four mitochondrial genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Long QIU; Zhi-Duan CHEN; Libo LI; Bin WANG; Jia-Yu XUE; Tory A. HENDRY; Rui-Qi LI; Joseph W. BROWN; Yang LIU; Geordan T. HUDSON

    2010-01-01

    An angiosperm phylogeny was reconstructed in a maximum likelihood analysis of sequences of four mitochondrial genes, atpl, matR, had5, and rps3, from 380 species that represent 376 genera and 296 families of seed plants. It is largely congruent with the phylogeny of angiosperms reconstructed from chloroplast genes atpB, matK, and rbcL, and nuclear 18S rDNA. The basalmost lineage consists of Amborella and Nymphaeales (including Hydatellaceae). Austrobaileyales follow this clade and are sister to the mesangiosperms, which include Chloranthaceae, Ceratophyllum, magnoliids, monocots, and eudicots. With the exception of Chloranthaceae being sister to Ceratophyllum, relationships among these five lineages are not well supported. In eudicots, Ranunculales, Sabiales, Proteales, Trochodendrales, Buxales, Gunnerales, Saxifragales, Vitales, Berberidopsidales, and Dilleniales form a basal grade of lines that diverged before the diversification of rosids and asterids. Within rosids, the COM (Celastrales-Oxalidales-Malpighiales) clade is sister to malvids (or rosid Ⅱ), instead of to the nitrogen-fixing clade as found in all previous large-scale molecular analyses of angiosperms. Santalales and Caryophyllales are members of an expanded asterid clade. This study shows that the mitochondrial genes are informative markers for resolving relationships among genera, families, or higher rank taxa across angiosperms. The low substitution rates and low homoplasy levels of the mitochondrial genes relative to the chloroplast genes, as found in this study, make them particularly useful for reconstructing ancient phylogenetic relationships. A mitochondrial gene-based angiosperm phylogeny provides an independent and essential reference for comparison with hypotheses of angiosperm phylogeny based on chloroplast genes, nuclear genes, and non-molecular data to reconstruct the underlying organismal phylogeny.

  17. STUDY OF AQUATIC ANGIOSPERMIC PLANTS OF ANAND CITY, GUJARAT, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. PATEL1 AND N. K. PATEL2

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the taxonomic study of Aquatic Angiosperms growing throughout the Anand city. The plants are listed along with their brief taxonomic account of each species with current nomenclature, vernacular name, family and uses. The  collected plants are systematically observed during present work, During my study I observed various aquatic angiospermic plants such as   Ceratophyllum demersum, Colocasia esculenta, Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea aquatica, Nymphoides indicum, Ludwigia repens, Polygonum orientale, Typha elephantina, Lemna perpusilla, Spirodella polyrrhiza, Xanthium indicum, Phyllanthus reticulatus, Cynodon dactylon, Hydrilla verticillata were very common. Whereas Nymphaea nouchali, Polygonum barbatum, Scirpus articulatus were very rare in the study area.

  18. Lower Cretaceous angiosperm leaf from Wuhe in Anhui, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new early angiosperm leaf species is reported from the Xinzhuang Formation in Wuhe County, Anhui Province. It is probably of Barremian or slightly later in geological age. The fossil leaf is small, no more than 0.6 cm both in length and in width. The leaf veins are well preserved and clearly visible under a low power microscope. Leaf architectural analysis shows that such a leaf should belong to the first leaf rank of Hickey, I.e. The most primitive one. There are no early angiosperm leaves published completely similar to ours. A new species name of Dicotylophyllum minutissimum sp. Nov. Is established for the present leaf fossils.

  19. Evolutionary aspects of life forms in angiosperm families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, P; VanAndel, J

    1995-01-01

    The distribution patterns of life forms among extant families, subclasses and classes are described with the aim of detecting evolutionary trends. The explosive diversification of angiosperms constrains the possibilities for detecting such trends. Moreover, the extant groups of seed plants are only

  20. Seed morphology and anatomy and its utility in recognizing subfamilies and tribes of Zingiberaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, John C.; Smith, Selena Y.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Leong-Skornickova, Jana; Specht, Chelsea D.; Marone, Federica; Xiao, Xianghui; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.

    2015-11-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Recent phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data suggested that the monocot family Zingiberaceae be separated into four subfamilies and four tribes. Robust morphological characters to support these clades are lacking. Seeds were analyzed in a phylogenetic context to test independently the circumscription of clades and to better understand evolution of seed characters within Zingiberaceae. METHODS: Seventy-five species from three of the four subfamilies were analyzed using synchrotron based x-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) and scored for 39 morphoanatomical characters. KEY RESULTS: Zingiberaceae seeds are some of the most structurally complex seeds in angiosperms. No single seed character was found to distinguish each subfamily, but combinations of characters were found to differentiate between the subfamilies. Recognition of the tribes based on seeds was possible for Globbeae, but not for Alpinieae, Riedelieae, or Zingibereae, due to considerable variation. CONCLUSIONS: SRXTM is an excellent, nondestructive tool to capture morphoanatomical variation of seeds and allows for the study of taxa with limited material available. Alpinioideae, Siphonochiloideae, Tamijioideae, and Zingiberoideae are well supported based on both molecular and morphological data, including multiple seed characters. Globbeae are well supported as a distinctive tribe within the Zingiberoideae, but no other tribe could be differentiated using seeds due to considerable homoplasy when compared with currently accepted relationships based on molecular data. Novel seed characters suggest tribal affinities for two currently unplaced Zingiberaceae taxa: Siliquamomum may be related to Riedelieae and Monolophus to Zingibereae, but further work is needed before formal revision of the family.

  1. Epiphytic leafy liverworts diversified in angiosperm-dominated forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldberg, Kathrin; Schneider, Harald; Stadler, Tanja; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Schmidt, Alexander R.; Heinrichs, Jochen

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for pulses in the diversification of angiosperms, ferns, gymnosperms, and mosses as well as various groups of animals during the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, evidence for such pulses has not been reported so far for liverworts. Here we provide new insight into liverwort evolution by integrating a comprehensive molecular dataset with a set of 20 fossil age constraints. We found evidence for a relative constant diversification rate of generalistic liverworts (Jungermanniales) since the Palaeozoic, whereas epiphytic liverworts (Porellales) show a sudden increase of lineage accumulation in the Cretaceous. This difference is likely caused by the pronounced response of Porellales to the ecological opportunities provided by humid, megathermal forests, which were increasingly available as a result of the rise of the angiosperms.

  2. Angiosperm polyploids and their road to evolutionary success

    OpenAIRE

    Fawcett, Jeffrey A.; Van de Peer, Yves; Jeffrey A, FAWCETT

    2010-01-01

    The abundance of polyploidy among flowering plants has long been recognized, and recent studies have uncovered multiple ancient polyploidization events in the evolutionary history of several angiosperm lineages. Once polyploids are formed they must get locally established and then propagate and survive while adapting to different environments and avoiding extinction. This might ultimately lead to their long-term evolutionary success, where their descendant lineages survive for tens of million...

  3. New universal matK primers for DNA barcoding angiosperms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing YU; Jian-Hua XUE; Shi-Liang ZHOU

    2011-01-01

    The chloroplast maturase K gene (matK) is one of the most variable coding genes of angiosperms and has been suggested to be a "barcode" for land plants. However, matK exhibits low amplification and sequencing rates due to low universality of currently available primers and mononucleotide repeats. To resolve these technical problems, we evaluated the entire matK region to find a region of 600-800 bp that is highly variable, represents the best of all matK regions with priming sites conservative enough to design universal primers, and avoids the mononucleotide repeats. After careful evaluation, a region in the middle was chosen and a pair of primers named natK472F and matK1248R was designed to amplify and sequence the matK fragment of approximately 776 bp. This region encompasses the most variable sites, represents the entire matK region best, and also exhibits high amplification rates and quality of sequences. The universality of this primer pair was tested using 58 species from 47 families of angiosperm plants. The primers showed a strong amplification (93.1%) and sequencing (92.6%)successes in the species tested. We propose that the new primers will solve, in part, the problems encountered when using matK and promote the adoption of matK as a DNA barcode for angiosperms.

  4. Three Affliated Tribes Renewable Energy Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belvin Pete; Kent Good; Krista Gordon; Ed McCarthy,

    2006-05-26

    The Three Affliated Tribes on the Fort Berthold Reservation studied the feasibility of a commercial wind facility on land selected and owned by the Tribes and examined the potential for the development of renewable energy resources on Tribal Lands.

  5. Leaf evolution in Southern Hemisphere conifers tracks the angiosperm ecological radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Biffin, Ed; Brodribb, Timothy J.; Hill, Robert S.; Thomas, Philip; Lowe, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    The angiosperm radiation has been linked to sharp declines in gymnosperm diversity and the virtual elimination of conifers from the tropics. The conifer family Podocarpaceae stands as an exception with highest species diversity in wet equatorial forests. It has been hypothesized that efficient light harvesting by the highly flattened leaves of several podocarp genera facilitates persistence with canopy-forming angiosperms, and the angiosperm ecological radiation may have preferentially favour...

  6. Endophytic bacterial community of a Mediterranean marine angiosperm (Posidonia oceanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus eGarcias-Bonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes and leaves by DGGE. A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled, and the band patterns obtained for each meadow were compared for the three sampled tissues. Endophytic bacterial sequences were detected in most of the samples analyzed. A total of 34 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units were detected. The main OTUs of endophytic bacteria present in P. oceanica tissues belonged primarily to Proteobacteria (α, γ and δ subclasses and Bacteroidetes. The OTUs found in roots significantly differed from those of rhizomes and leaves. Moreover, some OTUs were found to be associated to each type of tissue. Bipartite network analysis revealed differences in the bacterial endophyte communities present on different islands. The results of this study provide a pioneering step toward the characterization of the endophytic bacterial community associated with tissues of a marine angiosperm and reveal the presence of bacterial endophytes that differed among locations and tissue types.

  7. Floral gene resources from basal angiosperms for comparative genomics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaohong

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Results Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04 generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Conclusion Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage

  8. Rapid and accurate pyrosequencing of angiosperm plastid genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmerie William G

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plastid genome sequence information is vital to several disciplines in plant biology, including phylogenetics and molecular biology. The past five years have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of completely sequenced plastid genomes, fuelled largely by advances in conventional Sanger sequencing technology. Here we report a further significant reduction in time and cost for plastid genome sequencing through the successful use of a newly available pyrosequencing platform, the Genome Sequencer 20 (GS 20 System (454 Life Sciences Corporation, to rapidly and accurately sequence the whole plastid genomes of the basal eudicot angiosperms Nandina domestica (Berberidaceae and Platanus occidentalis (Platanaceae. Results More than 99.75% of each plastid genome was simultaneously obtained during two GS 20 sequence runs, to an average depth of coverage of 24.6× in Nandina and 17.3× in Platanus. The Nandina and Platanus plastid genomes shared essentially identical gene complements and possessed the typical angiosperm plastid structure and gene arrangement. To assess the accuracy of the GS 20 sequence, over 45 kilobases of sequence were generated for each genome using conventional sequencing. Overall error rates of 0.043% and 0.031% were observed in GS 20 sequence for Nandina and Platanus, respectively. More than 97% of all observed errors were associated with homopolymer runs, with ~60% of all errors associated with homopolymer runs of 5 or more nucleotides and ~50% of all errors associated with regions of extensive homopolymer runs. No substitution errors were present in either genome. Error rates were generally higher in the single-copy and noncoding regions of both plastid genomes relative to the inverted repeat and coding regions. Conclusion Highly accurate and essentially complete sequence information was obtained for the Nandina and Platanus plastid genomes using the GS 20 System. More importantly, the high accuracy

  9. Entrepreneurial Business Development Through Building Tribes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzweber, Markus; Mattsson, Jan; Standing, Craig

    2015-01-01

    this single in-depth case study and a comprehensive literature review, a model is developed comprising the necessary components to succeed in tribe building efforts in social media. These components include social cohesion of the inner tribe (founders) in terms of vision, the creation of an icon (a......Understanding tribe development can be critical to the survival of entrepreneurial e-service ventures. This article presents findings on how a Swedish start-up industrial design company termed BETTER-DESIGN attempted to build a global presence by creating a tribe of followers on the web. From...

  10. Statistical analysis on adaptive evolution of SQUA genes in angiosperms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yongyan; ZHONG Yang; TIAN Bo; YANG Ji; LI Dezhu

    2005-01-01

    SQUAMOSA (SQUA) subfamily includes important perianth identity genes of MADS-box gene family. SQUA genes of Dendrocalamus latiflorus were sequenced, and phylogenetic form on SQUA genes in angiosperms was analyzed. Relative rate and adaptive evolution after SQUA gene duplication in recent common ancestor of monocots and eudicots were analyzed using the methods of relative rate test, statistic on synonymous and non-synonymous coden substitution sites and likelihood rate test. The results show that both of relative rate and synonymous and non-synonymous coden substitution in eudicot clade are significantly higher than those in monocot clade, and the value of dN/ds uncovered possible positive selective pressure in eudicot clade.

  11. The Pace and Shape of Senescence in Angiosperms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baudisch, Annette; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Jones, Owen;

    2013-01-01

    (‘senescence’), decreases (‘negative senescence’) or remains constant over age (‘negligible senescence’). 3. We extract mortality trajectories from ComPADRe III, a data base that contains demographic information for several hundred plant species. We apply age-from-stage matrix decomposition methods to obtain...... age-specific trajectories from 290 angiosperm species of various growth forms distributed globally. From these trajectories, we survey pace and shape values and investigate how growth form and ecoregion influence these two aspects of mortality using a Bayesian regression analysis that accounts...... analysis that accounts for phylogenetic history and in the distinction between metrics of pace and shape as two separate aspects of mortality. We believe that our approach could prove useful in future comparative studies of mortality patterns....

  12. Early Cretaceous Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous angiosperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Oki Wong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Archaeamphora longicervia H.Q.Li was described as an herbaceous, Sarraceniaceae-like pitcher plant from the mid Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, northeastern China. Here, a re-investigation of A. longicervia specimens from the Yixian Formation provides new insights into its identity and the morphology of pitcher plants claimed by Li. We demonstrate that putative pitchers of Archaeamphora are insect-induced leaf galls that consist of three components: (1 an innermost larval chamber with a distinctive outer wall; (2 an intermediate zone of nutritive tissue; and (3 an outermost zone of sclerenchyma. Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous, Sarraceniaceae-like angiosperm, but represents insect-galled leaves of the formerly reported gymnosperm Liaoningocladus boii G.Sun et al. from the Yixian Formation.

  13. Early Cretaceous Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous angiosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William Oki; Dilcher, David Leonard; Labandeira, Conrad C; Sun, Ge; Fleischmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Archaeamphora longicervia H. Q. Li was described as an herbaceous, Sarraceniaceae-like pitcher plant from the mid Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, northeastern China. Here, a re-investigation of A. longicervia specimens from the Yixian Formation provides new insights into its identity and the morphology of pitcher plants claimed by Li. We demonstrate that putative pitchers of Archaeamphora are insect-induced leaf galls that consist of three components: (1) an innermost larval chamber; (2) an intermediate zone of nutritive tissue; and (3) an outermost wall of sclerenchyma. Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous, Sarraceniaceae-like angiosperm, but represents insect-galled leaves of the previously reported gymnosperm Liaoningocladus boii G. Sun et al. from the Yixian Formation. PMID:25999978

  14. Exceptional preservation of tiny embryos documents seed dormancy in early angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Else Marie; Crane, Peter R; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard; Stampanoni, Marco; Marone, Federica

    2015-12-24

    The rapid diversification of angiosperms through the Early Cretaceous period, between about 130-100 million years ago, initiated fundamental changes in the composition of terrestrial vegetation and is increasingly well understood on the basis of a wealth of palaeobotanical discoveries over the past four decades and their integration with improved knowledge of living angiosperms. Prevailing hypotheses, based on evidence both from living and from fossil plants, emphasize that the earliest angiosperms were plants of small stature with rapid life cycles that exploited disturbed habitats in open, or perhaps understorey, conditions. However, direct palaeontogical data relevant to understanding the seed biology and germination ecology of Early Cretaceous angiosperms are sparse. Here we report the discovery of embryos and their associated nutrient storage tissues in exceptionally well-preserved angiosperm seeds from the Early Cretaceous. Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy of the fossil embryos from many taxa reveals that all were tiny at the time of dispersal. These results support hypotheses based on extant plants that tiny embryos and seed dormancy are basic for angiosperms as a whole. The minute size of the fossil embryos, and the modest nutrient storage tissues dictated by the overall small seed size, is also consistent with the interpretation that many early angiosperms were opportunistic, early successional colonizers of disturbance-prone habitats.

  15. Principles for Managing a Tribe's Financial Investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Gelvin

    1996-01-01

    Argues that to manage a tribe's investment portfolio well requires knowledge of the tribe's needs as well as of the money management industry and its concepts and language. Discusses opportunities for the investment of tribal funds, examining mutual funds, the use of investment advisors and consultants, diversification, and levels of risk. (MAB)

  16. Heterogeneous Rates of Molecular Evolution and Diversification Could Explain the Triassic Age Estimate for Angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; O'Meara, Brian C; Crane, Peter; Donoghue, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Dating analyses based on molecular data imply that crown angiosperms existed in the Triassic, long before their undisputed appearance in the fossil record in the Early Cretaceous. Following a re-analysis of the age of angiosperms using updated sequences and fossil calibrations, we use a series of simulations to explore the possibility that the older age estimates are a consequence of (i) major shifts in the rate of sequence evolution near the base of the angiosperms and/or (ii) the representative taxon sampling strategy employed in such studies. We show that both of these factors do tend to yield substantially older age estimates. These analyses do not prove that younger age estimates based on the fossil record are correct, but they do suggest caution in accepting the older age estimates obtained using current relaxed-clock methods. Although we have focused here on the angiosperms, we suspect that these results will shed light on dating discrepancies in other major clades.

  17. Cellulose Orientation in the Outer Epidermal Wall of Angiosperm Roots: Implications for Biosystematics

    OpenAIRE

    KERSTENS, SVEN; VERBELEN, JEAN‐PIERRE

    2002-01-01

    The net orientation of cellulose fibrils in the outer epidermal wall of the root elongation zone of 57 angiosperm species belonging to 29 families was determined by means of Congo Red fluorescence and polarization confocal microscopy. The angiosperms can be divided in three groups. In all but four plant families, the net orientation of the cellulose fibrils is transverse to the root axis. Three families, the Poaceae, Juncaceae and Cyperaceae, have a totally different organization. In the root...

  18. Unique responsiveness of angiosperm stomata to elevated CO2 explained by calcium signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Brodribb

    Full Text Available Angiosperm and conifer tree species respond differently when exposed to elevated CO2, with angiosperms found to dynamically reduce water loss while conifers appear insensitive. Such distinct responses are likely to affect competition between these tree groups as atmospheric CO2 concentration rises. Seeking the mechanism behind this globally important phenomenon we targeted the Ca(2+-dependent signalling pathway, a mediator of stomatal closure in response to elevated CO2, as a possible explanation for the differentiation of stomatal behaviours. Sampling across the diversity of vascular plants including lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms we show that only angiosperms possess the stomatal behaviour and prerequisite genetic coding, linked to Ca(2+-dependent stomatal signalling. We conclude that the evolution of Ca(2+-dependent stomatal signalling gives angiosperms adaptive benefits in terms of highly efficient water use, but that stomatal sensitivity to high CO2 may penalise angiosperm productivity relative to other plant groups in the current era of soaring atmospheric CO2.

  19. The angiosperm radiation revisited, an ecological explanation for Darwin's 'abominable mystery'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendse, Frank; Scheffer, Marten

    2009-09-01

    One of the greatest terrestrial radiations is the diversification of the flowering plants (Angiospermae) in the Cretaceous period. Early angiosperms appear to have been limited to disturbed, aquatic or extremely dry sites, suggesting that they were suppressed in most other places by the gymnosperms that still dominated the plant world. However, fossil evidence suggests that by the end of the Cretaceous the angiosperms had spectacularly taken over the dominant position from the gymnosperms around the globe. Here, we suggest an ecological explanation for their escape from their subordinate position relative to gymnosperms and ferns. We propose that angiosperms due to their higher growth rates profit more rapidly from increased nutrient supply than gymnosperms, whereas at the same time angiosperms promote soil nutrient release by producing litter that is more easily decomposed. This positive feedback may have resulted in a runaway process once angiosperms had reached a certain abundance. Evidence for the possibility of such a critical transition to angiosperm dominance comes from recent work on large scale vegetation shifts, linking long-term field observations, large scale experiments and the use of simulation models.

  20. STATUS OF SCHEDULE TRIBES IN ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. P. Subramanyachary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schedule Tribes (ST’s are Indian population groups that are explicitly recognized by the constitution of India order 1950. The order lists 744 tribes across 22 states in its first schedule. In Andhra Pradesh 33 types of Schedule Tribes are living in 8 districts. ST’s are 6.6% are in total population of Andhra Pradesh. They have rich heritage along with their innocent life style. As they are living in hill areas and forests they have some peculiar characters like indications of primitive traits, distinctive culture, and shyness of contact with other communities, geographical isolation, backwardness etc. So, for their development central and state governments are implementing different programmes and schemes since 1951. After the Ministry of Tribal affairs were constituted in 1999, there is more focus on development of Schedule Tribes in Indian society especially in Andhra Pradesh. The persisting problems like low literacy and high drop-outs, inadequate health services, lack of nutrition food, extreme poverty, and ineffective implementation of schemes etc are putting them away from economic development. Hence, there should be more commitment by both central and state government and local bodies to develop Schedule Tribes in the society. As literacy is 37% NGO’s and other voluntary organizations have to play key role to bring awareness among schedule tribes regarding programs and scheme for their development. Awareness and participation of Schedule Tribes in the implementation of policies leads to prosperity of ST community in the state as well as country.

  1. Bark thickness across the angiosperms: more than just fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Julieta A

    2016-07-01

    Global variation in total bark thickness (TBT) is traditionally attributed to fire. However, bark is multifunctional, as reflected by its inner living and outer dead regions, meaning that, in addition to fire protection, other factors probably contribute to TBT variation. To address how fire, climate, and plant size contribute to variation in TBT, inner bark thickness (IBT) and outer bark thickness (OBT), I sampled 640 species spanning all major angiosperm clades and 18 sites with contrasting precipitation, temperature, and fire regime. Stem size was by far the main driver of variation in thickness, with environment being less important. IBT was closely correlated with stem diameter, probably for metabolic reasons, and, controlling for size, was thicker in drier and hotter environments, even fire-free ones, probably reflecting its water and photosynthate storage role. OBT was less closely correlated with size, and was thicker in drier, seasonal sites experiencing frequent fires. IBT and OBT covaried loosely and both contributed to overall TBT variation. Thickness variation was higher within than across sites and was evolutionarily labile. Given high within-site diversity and the multiple selective factors acting on TBT, continued study of the different drivers of variation in bark thickness is crucial to understand bark ecology. PMID:26890029

  2. Renewable Energy Opportunities Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe Planning Department; Smiley, Steve; Bennett, Keith, DOE Project Officer

    2008-10-22

    The Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe has a vision to become self-sufficient in its energy needs and to maintain its culture and protect Mother Earth with respect and honor for the next seven generations. To achieve this vision, green energy sources such as solar, wind and biomass energy are the best energy paths to travel. In this feasibility study the Tribe has analyzed and provided data on the nature of the renewable resources available to the Tribe and the costs of implementing these technologies.

  3. Tribes of Users and System Developers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Dingley

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective communication is essential for information systems development crossing functional, organisational and national boundaries. As organisations attempt to overcome cultural barriers to communication across the world, communication with colleagues across the corridor remains problematic; cultural barriers between departments remain unchallenged. This paper introduces the concepts of 'culture' and 'tribe' into the discussion of the relationship between business users and information systems developers. Previous research has focused on identifying specific barriers to user-systems developer communication and on ways of eliminating these barriers. In contrast, this paper suggests that much can be learnt through the recognition of cultural differences inherent to the differing roles of user and systems developer. Maintenance of cultural identity is essential to the individual if he/she is to function effectively as a member of his/her tribe, whether it is the 'tribe' of developers or the 'tribe' of users. Communication problems within the systems development process may be addressed by a mutual understanding of cultural differences between the 'tribes' of users and systems developers. This degree of understanding cannot be achieved by attempting to change, persuade or convert the other tribe. The problems of user-systems developer communication need to be addressed through effective communication which acknowledges the differing cultures.

  4. Physiological mechanisms drive differing foliar calcium content in ferns and angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jennifer L; Amatangelo, Kathryn L

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence points to ferns containing significantly lower contents of foliar calcium and other cations than angiosperms. This is especially true of more ancient 'non-polypod' fern lineages, which predate the diversification of angiosperms. Calcium is an important plant nutrient, the lack of which can potentially slow plant growth and litter decomposition, and alter soil invertebrate communities. The physiological mechanisms limiting foliar calcium (Ca) content in ferns are unknown. While there is a lot we do not know about Ca uptake and transport in plants, three physiological processes are likely to be important. We measured transpiration rate, cation exchange capacity, and leaching loss to determine which process most strongly regulates foliar Ca content in a range of fern and co-occurring understory angiosperm species from a montane Hawaiian rainforest. We found higher instantaneous and lifetime (corrected for leaf lifespan) transpiration rates in angiosperms relative to ferns. Ferns preferentially incorporated Ca into leaves relative to strontium, which suggests that root or stem cation exchange capacity differs between ferns and angiosperms, potentially affecting calcium transport in plants. There were no differences in foliar Ca leaching loss between groups. Among the physiological mechanisms measured, foliar Ca was most strongly correlated with leaf-level transpiration rate and leaf lifespan. This suggests that inter-specific differences in a leaf's lifetime transpiration may play a significant role in determining plant nutrition.

  5. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions. PMID:27354109

  6. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions. PMID:27354109

  7. Darwin's second 'abominable mystery': Why are there so many angiosperm species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepet, William L; Niklas, Karl J

    2009-01-01

    The rapid diversification and ecological dominance of the flowering plants beg the question "Why are there so many angiosperm species and why are they so successful?" A number of equally plausible hypotheses have been advanced in response to this question, among which the most widely accepted highlights the mutually beneficial animal-plant relationships that are nowhere better developed nor more widespread than among angiosperm species and their biotic vectors for pollination and dispersal. Nevertheless, consensus acknowledges that there are many other attributes unique to or characteristic of the flowering plants. In addition, the remarkable coevolution of the angiosperms and pollination/dispersal animal agents could be an effect of the intrinsic adaptability of the flowering plants rather than a primary cause of their success, suggesting that the search for underlying causes should focus on an exploration of the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that might facilitate adaptive evolution and speciation. Here, we explore angiosperm diversity promoting attributes in their general form and draw particular attention to those that, either individually or collectively, have been shown empirically to favor high speciation rates, low extinction rates, or broad ecological tolerances. Among these are the annual growth form, homeotic gene effects, asexual/sexual reproduction, a propensity for hybrid polyploidy, and apparent "resistance" to extinction. Our survey of the literature suggests that no single vegetative, reproductive, or ecological feature taken in isolation can account for the evolutionary success of the angiosperms. Rather, we believe that the answer to Darwin's second "abominable mystery" lies in a confluence of features that collectively make the angiosperms unique among the land plants. PMID:21628194

  8. Do quantitative vessel and pit characters account for ion-mediated changes in the hydraulic conductance of angiosperm xylem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Gortan, E.; Lens, F.; Assunta Lo Gullo, M.; Salleo, S.; Scholtz, A.; Stein, A.; Trifilò, P.; Nardini, A.

    2011-01-01

    • The hydraulic conductance of angiosperm xylem has been suggested to vary with changes in sap solute concentrations because of intervessel pit properties. • The magnitude of the ‘ionic effect’ was linked with vessel and pit dimensions in 20 angiosperm species covering 13 families including six Laur

  9. Molecular phylogeny of tribe Stachydeae (Lamiaceae subfamily Lamioideae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmaki, Yasaman; Zarre, Shahin; Ryding, Per Olof;

    2013-01-01

    Although tribe Stachydeae (Lamiaceae) is considered monophyletic, relationships within the tribe are still poorly understood. The complexity of Stachydeae includes paraphyletic genera, considerable morphological plasticity, a range of ploidy levels, and presumably frequent natural hybridization. ...

  10. Federally-Recognized Tribes of the Columbia-Snake Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1997-11-01

    This is an omnibus publication about the federally-recognized Indian tribes of the Columbia-Snake river basin, as presented by themselves. It showcases several figurative and literal snapshots of each tribe, bits and pieces of each tribe`s story. Each individual tribe or tribal confederation either submitted its own section to this publication, or developed its own section with the assistance of the writer-editor. A federally-recognized tribe is an individual Indian group, or confederation of Indian groups, officially acknowledged by the US government for purposes of legislation, consultation and benefits. This publication is designed to be used both as a resource and as an introduction to the tribes. Taken together, the sections present a rich picture of regional indian culture and history, as told by the tribes.

  11. Mescalero Apache Tribe Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, authorizes the siting, construction and operation of a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS is intended to be used for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel from the nation's nuclear power plants beginning as early as 1998. Pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created. On October 7, 1991, the Nuclear Waste Negotiator invited the governors of states and the Presidents of Indian tribes to apply for government grants in order to conduct a study to assess under what conditions, if any, they might consider hosting an MRS facility. Pursuant to this invitation, on October 11, 1991 the Mescalero Apache Indian Tribe of Mescalero, NM applied for a grant to conduct a phased, preliminary study of the safety, technical, political, environmental, social and economic feasibility of hosting an MRS. The preliminary study included: (1) An investigative education process to facilitate the Tribe's comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social, political, and economic aspects of hosting an MRS, and; (2) The development of an extensive program that is enabling the Tribe, in collaboration with the Negotiator, to reach an informed and carefully researched decision regarding the conditions, (if any), under which further pursuit of the MRS would be considered. The Phase 1 grant application enabled the Tribe to begin the initial activities necessary to determine whether further consideration is warranted for hosting the MRS facility. The Tribe intends to pursue continued study of the MRS in order to meet the following objectives: (1) Continuing the education process towards a comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social and economic aspects of the MRS; (2) Conducting an effective public participation and information program; (3) Participating in MRS meetings

  12. Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Welle, ter, B.J.H.; Loureiro, A.A.; Lisboa, P.L.B.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae). The wood anatomy of nearly all genera of the Guettardeae (Rubiaceae, Guettardoideae) has been examined, and in this respect the tribe is heterogeneous. Suggestions are made for a delimitation of the tribe. Guettarda, Bobea, Antirhea, Malanea and Chomelia Jacq. are sufficiently similar in their wood anatomical characters to warrant retention in the same tribe. Machaonia, Timonius and Dichilanthe are anomalous. Suggestions are given ...

  13. Thismia tentaculata (Burmanniaceae tribe Thismieae) from Hong Kong: first record of the genus and tribe from continental China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George W. C. HO; Shek Shing MAR; Richard M. K. SAUNDERS

    2009-01-01

    Populations of Thismia tentaculata (Burmanniaceae tribe Thismieae) are described and illustrated from Tai Mo Shah in Hong Kong, southern China. This represents the first report of the genus and tribe from continental China.

  14. Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter B.J.H.; Loureiro, A.A.; Lisboa, P.L.B.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae). The wood anatomy of nearly all genera of the Guettardeae (Rubiaceae, Guettardoideae) has been examined, and in this respect the tribe is heterogeneous. Suggestions are made for a delimitation of the tribe. Guettarda, Bobea, Antirhea, Mala

  15. Molecular data from the chloroplast rpoC1 gene suggest a deep and distinct dichotomy of contemporary spermatophytes into two monophyla: gymnosperms (including Gnetales) and angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samigullin, T K; Martin, W F; Troitsky, A V; Antonov, A S

    1999-09-01

    Partial sequences of the rpoC1 gene from two species of angiosperms and three species of gymnosperms (8330 base pairs) were determined and compared. The data obtained support the hypothesis that angiosperms and gymnosperms are monophyletic and none of the recent groups of the latter is sister to angiosperms.

  16. Seed Size and Dispersal Systems of Early Cretaceous Angiosperms from Famalicão, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson; Friis; Pedersen; Crane

    2000-03-01

    Seeds and fruits of Early Cretaceous (Barremian-Aptian) angiosperms from the Famalicão locality in Portugal were analyzed to establish seed and fruit size (volume) distributions and to infer the proportion of animal-dispersed fruits. On the basis of a sample of 106 angiosperm fruit and seed taxa, the average seed size was 0.78 mm3 (range 0.02-6.86 mm3), whereas the average fruit size was 2.06 mm3 (range 0.12-8.34 mm3). Variation in seed size among taxa is smaller than in modern plant communities, but within-taxon variation is similar to that known for extant plants. No significant difference in the size of "fleshy" versus other fruits was observed. The proportion of fleshy fruits was 24.5%. This high figure was surprising and indicates that the significance of animal dispersal during an early stage in angiosperm evolution has been underestimated. We suggest that reptiles and multituberculates, and perhaps other mammals and birds as well, were the likely seed dispersers and that the early angiosperms from Famalicão probably were herbs or small shrubs that inhabited a semiopen coniferous woodland.

  17. Nested radiations and the pulse of angiosperm diversification: increased diversification rates often follow whole genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, David C; Eastman, Jonathan M; Pennell, Matthew W; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Hinchliff, Cody E; Brown, Joseph W; Sessa, Emily B; Harmon, Luke J

    2015-07-01

    Our growing understanding of the plant tree of life provides a novel opportunity to uncover the major drivers of angiosperm diversity. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny, we characterized hot and cold spots of lineage diversification across the angiosperm tree of life by modeling evolutionary diversification using stepwise AIC (MEDUSA). We also tested the whole-genome duplication (WGD) radiation lag-time model, which postulates that increases in diversification tend to lag behind established WGD events. Diversification rates have been incredibly heterogeneous throughout the evolutionary history of angiosperms and reveal a pattern of 'nested radiations' - increases in net diversification nested within other radiations. This pattern in turn generates a negative relationship between clade age and diversity across both families and orders. We suggest that stochastically changing diversification rates across the phylogeny explain these patterns. Finally, we demonstrate significant statistical support for the WGD radiation lag-time model. Across angiosperms, nested shifts in diversification led to an overall increasing rate of net diversification and declining relative extinction rates through time. These diversification shifts are only rarely perfectly associated with WGD events, but commonly follow them after a lag period.

  18. Unequal plastid distribution during the development of the male gametophyte of angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hagemann

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The difference between the uniparental maternal and biparental type of plastid inheritance is based upon a relatively simple mechanism. In the uniparental type plastids are excluded from the generative or siperm cells during the firts pollen mitosis or during pollen development. In some angiosperms this exclusion is completely lacking or carried out partially.

  19. Genetic enablers underlying the clustered evolutionary origins of C4 photosynthesis in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Arakaki, Mónica; Osborne, Colin P; Edwards, Erika J

    2015-04-01

    The evolutionary accessibility of novel adaptations varies among lineages, depending in part on the genetic elements present in each group. However, the factors determining the evolutionary potential of closely related genes remain largely unknown. In plants, CO2-concentrating mechanisms such as C4 and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis have evolved numerous times in distantly related groups of species, and constitute excellent systems to study constraints and enablers of evolution. It has been previously shown for multiple proteins that grasses preferentially co-opted the same gene lineage for C4 photosynthesis, when multiple copies were present. In this work, we use comparative transcriptomics to show that this bias also exists within Caryophyllales, a distantly related group with multiple C4 origins. However, the bias is not the same as in grasses and, when all angiosperms are considered jointly, the number of distinct gene lineages co-opted is not smaller than that expected by chance. These results show that most gene lineages present in the common ancestor of monocots and eudicots produced gene descendants that were recruited into C4 photosynthesis, but that C4-suitability changed during the diversification of angiosperms. When selective pressures drove C4 evolution, some copies were preferentially co-opted, probably because they already possessed C4-like expression patterns. However, the identity of these C4-suitable genes varies among clades of angiosperms, and C4 phenotypes in distant angiosperm groups thus represent genuinely independent realizations, based on different genetic precursors.

  20. The angiosperm radiation revisited, an ecological explanation for Darwin's 'abominable mystery'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendse, F.; Scheffer, M.

    2009-01-01

    One of the greatest terrestrial radiations is the diversification of the flowering plants (Angiospermae) in the Cretaceous period. Early angiosperms appear to have been limited to disturbed, aquatic or extremely dry sites, suggesting that they were suppressed in most other places by the gymnosperms

  1. Rgyas bzang Tibetan Tribe Hunting Lore

    OpenAIRE

    Bkra shis dpal 'bar

    2011-01-01

    The Yul shul (Yushu) Rgyas bzang Tribe historically possessed a rich hunting tradition. Wildlife was hunted for food and other animal products. By 2007, hunting culture had diminished due to improvements in living conditions, wildlife protection laws, greater state control of wildlife product skin market and gun ownership, animal diseases, and the absence of such wildlife as wild yaks in local areas.

  2. Sault Tribe Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Osterhout; Global Energy Concepts

    2005-07-31

    The Sault Tribe conducted a feasibility study on tribal lands in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to determine the technical and economic feasibility of both small and large-scale wind power development on tribal lands. The study included a wind resource assessment, transmission system analysis, engineering and regulatory analyzes and assessments.

  3. Sault Tribe Building Efficiency Energy Audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Jeffrey W.

    2013-09-26

    The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will conduct energy audits of nine Tribally-owned governmental buildings in three counties in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to provide a basis for evaluating and selecting the technical and economic viability of energy efficiency improvement options. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will follow established Tribal procurement policies and procedures to secure the services of a qualified provider to conduct energy audits of nine designated buildings. The contracted provider will be required to provide a progress schedule to the Tribe prior to commencing the project and submit an updated schedule with their monthly billings. Findings and analysis reports will be required for buildings as completed, and a complete Energy Audit Summary Report will be required to be submitted with the provider?s final billing. Conducting energy audits of the nine governmental buildings will disclose building inefficiencies to prioritize and address, resulting in reduced energy consumption and expense. These savings will allow Tribal resources to be reallocated to direct services, which will benefit Tribal members and families.

  4. Exploring Early Angiosperm Fire Feedbacks using Coupled Experiments and Modelling Approaches to Estimate Cretaceous Palaeofire Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria

    2016-04-01

    Using the fossil record we are typically limited to exploring linkages between palaeoecological changes and palaeofire activity by assessing the abundance of charcoals preserved in sediments. However, it is the behaviour of fires that primarily governs their ecological effects. Therefore, the ability to estimate variations in aspects of palaeofire behaviour such as palaeofire intensity and rate of spread would be of key benefit toward understanding the coupled evolutionary history of ecosystems and fire. The Cretaceous Period saw major diversification in land plants. Previously, conifers (gymnosperms) and ferns (pteridophytes) dominated Earth's ecosystems until flowering plants (angiosperms) appear in the fossil record of the Early Cretaceous (~135Ma). We have created surface fire behaviour estimates for a variety of angiosperm invasion scenarios and explored the influence of Cretaceous superambient atmospheric oxygen levels on the fire behaviour occurring in these new Cretaceous ecosystems. These estimates are then used to explore the hypothesis that the early spread of the angiosperms was promoted by the novel fire regimes that they created. In order to achieve this we tested the flammability of Mesozoic analogue fuel types in controlled laboratory experiments using an iCone calorimeter, which measured the ignitability as well as the effective heat of combustion of the fuels. We then used the BehavePlus fire behaviour modelling system to scale up our laboratory results to the ecosystem scale. Our results suggest that fire-angiosperm feedbacks may have occurred in two phases: The first phase being a result of weedy angiosperms providing an additional easily ignitable fuel that enhanced both the seasonality and frequency of surface fires. In the second phase, the addition of shrubby understory fuels likely expanded the number of ecosystems experiencing more intense surface fires, resulting in enhanced mortality and suppressed post-fire recruitment of gymnosperms

  5. Additions of angiosperms to the Flora of Peru from the Andean-Amazonian forests of southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isau Huamantupa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We present 25 new records of angiosperms for the Peruvian flora, as a result of different botanical explorations conducted in southern Peru, mainly in the areas of the departments of Cusco, Apurimac and Madre de Dios.

  6. Rgyas bzang Tibetan Tribe Hunting Lore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bkra shis dpal 'bar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Yul shul (Yushu Rgyas bzang Tribe historically possessed a rich hunting tradition. Wildlife was hunted for food and other animal products. By 2007, hunting culture had diminished due to improvements in living conditions, wildlife protection laws, greater state control of wildlife product skin market and gun ownership, animal diseases, and the absence of such wildlife as wild yaks in local areas.

  7. Yerington Paiute Tribe Energy Plan Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consulting, BB9 [BB9 Consulting; Director, Environmental

    2014-04-01

    The Yerington Paiute Tribe has made energy management and planning a priority. The Tribal Council has recognized that energy is an important component of their goal of self-sufficiency. Recognizing energy development as a component of the Tribe’s natural resources provides for needed economic development.A number of priorities have been identified for energy development. These range from immediate housing needs such as weatherization and solar to interest in energy as economic development.

  8. Comparative chloroplast genomics: Analyses including new sequencesfrom the angiosperms Nuphar advena and Ranunculus macranthus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raubeso, Linda A.; Peery, Rhiannon; Chumley, Timothy W.; Dziubek,Chris; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2007-03-01

    The number of completely sequenced plastid genomes available is growing rapidly. This new array of sequences presents new opportunities to perform comparative analyses. In comparative studies, it is most useful to compare across wide phylogenetic spans and, within angiosperms, to include representatives from basally diverging lineages such as the new genomes reported here: Nuphar advena (from a basal-most lineage) and Ranunculus macranthus (from the basal group of eudicots). We report these two new plastid genome sequences and make comparisons (within angiosperms, seed plants, or all photosynthetic lineages) to evaluate features such as the status of ycf15 and ycf68 as protein coding genes, the distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and longer dispersed repeats (SDR), and patterns of nucleotide composition.

  9. Testing the recent theories for the origin of the hermaphrodite flower by comparison of the transcriptomes of gymnosperms and angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavares Raquel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different theories for the origin of the angiosperm hermaphrodite flower make different predictions concerning the overlap between the genes expressed in the male and female cones of gymnosperms and the genes expressed in the hermaphrodite flower of angiosperms. The Mostly Male (MM theory predicts that, of genes expressed primarily in male versus female gymnosperm cones, an excess of male orthologs will be expressed in flowers, excluding ovules, while Out Of Male (OOM and Out Of Female (OOF theories predict no such excess. Results In this paper, we tested these predictions by comparing the transcriptomes of three gymnosperms (Ginkgo biloba, Welwitschia mirabilis and Zamia fisheri and two angiosperms (Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, using EST data. We found that the proportion of orthologous genes expressed in the reproductive organs of the gymnosperms and in the angiosperms flower is significantly higher than the proportion of orthologous genes expressed in the reproductive organs of the gymnosperms and in the angiosperms vegetative tissues, which shows that the approach is correct. However, we detected no significant differences between the proportion of gymnosperm orthologous genes expressed in the male cone and in the angiosperms flower and the proportion of gymnosperm orthologous genes expressed in the female cone and in the angiosperms flower. Conclusions These results do not support the MM theory prediction of an excess of male gymnosperm genes expressed in the hermaphrodite flower of the angiosperms and seem to support the OOM/OOF theories. However, other explanations can be given for the 1:1 ratio that we found. More abundant and more specific (namely carpel and ovule expression data should be produced in order to further test these theories.

  10. Astronomy of the Korku Tribe of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahia, M. N.; Halkare, Ganesh; Dahedar, Purushottam

    2016-08-01

    The Korku are an ancient tribe of India believed to be of Austro-Asian origin. They trace their origin to the eastern Indian region of Chota Nagpur but large numbers of these people are settled in the forest reserves of central India. We visited twelve villages almost exclusively populated by Korku people in Northern Maharashtra about 200 km north of the city of Amravati, and focused on recording their astronomical beliefs. While living in the same Satpuda Mountain ranges, these groups differ in their astronomical beliefs from other tribes in the region. They focus on the Big Dipper (part of Ursa Major), and also show an understanding of some other aspects of the sky. They are particularly fascinated by eclipses (but treat solar and lunar eclipses the same) and have elaborate ways of measuring time. They also are aware of conjunctions of Mars and Venus and consider these to be of importance for marriages. They also are fascinated by Taurus. In this paper we report on the astronomical beliefs of the Korkus and compare these with the astronomical beliefs of other tribes in the region that have already been reported.

  11. Preferential fertilization in Plumbago: Ultrastructural evidence for gamete-level recognition in an angiosperm

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Scott D.

    1985-01-01

    Gametic fusion patterns in the angiosperm Plumbago zeylanica were determined by using cytoplasmically dimorphic sperm cells differing in mitochondrion and plastid content and then identifying paternal organelles through their ultrastructural characteristics within the maternal cytoplasm at the time of fertilization. The virtual absence of plastids within the sperm cell that is physically associated with the vegetative nucleus allows paternal plastids to be used to trace the fate of the two ma...

  12. New taxa of angiosperms from coal-bearing continental deposits in Amur area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tat'yana V. KEZINA

    2008-01-01

    Considered the question about stratigraphic position of coal-beating continental deposits of the Amur area, the main attention is paid to the definition of pollen of angiosperms. Khlonova (1960), Zaklinskaya (1963), Bratseva (1969) and other scientists reported a lot about the significance of the pollen. Among the new taxa the special interest represents the first description of Engelhardtia pollen of late Maestrichtian and Paleocene deposits. A new kind of pollen Vacuopollis triplicatus sp. nov. is described.

  13. New Caledonia : a Pleistocene refugium for rain forest lineages of relict angiosperms

    OpenAIRE

    Pouteau, Robin; Trueba, S.; Feild, T.S.; Isnard, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Aim In New Caledonia, relictual angiosperm lineages are over-represented. However, the mechanisms responsible for such a distribution remain unclear. Two key hypotheses are that: (1) the diversity reflects adaptation to ultramafic substrates that ecologically filtered plant colonists; and (2) the diversity stems from wet climatic conditions that have persisted in New Caledonia during the late Quaternary while Australia and some nearby islands experienced widespread extinction events. Here, we...

  14. Oil biosynthesis in a basal angiosperm: transcriptome analysis of Persea Americana mesocarp

    OpenAIRE

    Kilaru, Aruna; Cao, Xia; Dabbs, Parker B.; Sung, Ha-Jung; Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Thrower, Nicholas; Zynda, Greg; Podicheti, Ram; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Ohlrogge, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The mechanism by which plants synthesize and store high amounts of triacylglycerols (TAG) in tissues other than seeds is not well understood. The comprehension of controls for carbon partitioning and oil accumulation in nonseed tissues is essential to generate oil-rich biomass in perennial bioenergy crops. Persea americana (avocado), a basal angiosperm with unique features that are ancestral to most flowering plants, stores ~ 70 % TAG per dry weight in its mesocarp, a nonseed tissu...

  15. Divergence of RNA polymerase α subunits in angiosperm plastid genomes is mediated by genomic rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazier, J Chris; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Weng, Mao-Lun; Rehman, Sumaiyah K; Sabir, Jamal S M; Jansen, Robert K

    2016-01-01

    Genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) persist in the plastid genomes of all photosynthetic angiosperms. However, three unrelated lineages (Annonaceae, Passifloraceae and Geraniaceae) have been identified with unusually divergent open reading frames (ORFs) in the conserved region of rpoA, the gene encoding the PEP α subunit. We used sequence-based approaches to evaluate whether these genes retain function. Both gene sequences and complete plastid genome sequences were assembled and analyzed from each of the three angiosperm families. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that the rpoA sequences are likely functional despite retaining as low as 30% nucleotide sequence identity with rpoA genes from outgroups in the same angiosperm order. The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions indicated that these genes are under purifying selection, and bioinformatic prediction of conserved domains indicated that functional domains are preserved. One of the lineages (Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) contains species with multiple rpoA-like ORFs that show evidence of ongoing inter-paralog gene conversion. The plastid genomes containing these divergent rpoA genes have experienced extensive structural rearrangement, including large expansions of the inverted repeat. We propose that illegitimate recombination, not positive selection, has driven the divergence of rpoA. PMID:27087667

  16. The tracheid-vessel element transition in angiosperms involves multiple independent features: cladistic consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlquist, Sherwin; Schneider, Edward L

    2002-02-01

    Current definitions of tracheids and vessel elements are overly simple. These definitions are based on light microscope studies and have not incorporated information gained with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Current definitions are based primarily on angiosperms, especially eudicots, and were devised before many basal angiosperms were carefully studied. When all sources of information are taken into account, one can recognize changes in six characters in the evolution of tracheids into vessel elements in angiosperms (or vice versa) as well as in other groups of vascular plants. There is an appreciable number of taxa in which all criteria for vessel origin are not met, and thus incipient vessels are present. At the very least, vessel presence or absence should not be treated as a single binary character state change in construction of cladistic matrices. Increase in conductive area of an end wall by means of lysis of progressively greater areas of pit membrane and increase in pit area on the end wall (as compared to pit area on equivalent portions of lateral walls) are considered the most important usable criteria for recognizing intermediacy between tracheids and vessel elements. Primitive character states in vessel elements are briefly discussed to differentiate them from changes in character states that can be regarded as intermediate between tracheids and vessel elements.

  17. Divergence of RNA polymerase α subunits in angiosperm plastid genomes is mediated by genomic rearrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazier, J. Chris; Ruhlman, Tracey A.; Weng, Mao-Lun; Rehman, Sumaiyah K.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) persist in the plastid genomes of all photosynthetic angiosperms. However, three unrelated lineages (Annonaceae, Passifloraceae and Geraniaceae) have been identified with unusually divergent open reading frames (ORFs) in the conserved region of rpoA, the gene encoding the PEP α subunit. We used sequence-based approaches to evaluate whether these genes retain function. Both gene sequences and complete plastid genome sequences were assembled and analyzed from each of the three angiosperm families. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that the rpoA sequences are likely functional despite retaining as low as 30% nucleotide sequence identity with rpoA genes from outgroups in the same angiosperm order. The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions indicated that these genes are under purifying selection, and bioinformatic prediction of conserved domains indicated that functional domains are preserved. One of the lineages (Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) contains species with multiple rpoA-like ORFs that show evidence of ongoing inter-paralog gene conversion. The plastid genomes containing these divergent rpoA genes have experienced extensive structural rearrangement, including large expansions of the inverted repeat. We propose that illegitimate recombination, not positive selection, has driven the divergence of rpoA. PMID:27087667

  18. A Targeted Enrichment Strategy for Massively Parallel Sequencing of Angiosperm Plastid Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory W. Stull

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: We explored a targeted enrichment strategy to facilitate rapid and low-cost next-generation sequencing (NGS of numerous complete plastid genomes from across the phylogenetic breadth of angiosperms. Methods and Results: A custom RNA probe set including the complete sequences of 22 previously sequenced eudicot plastomes was designed to facilitate hybridization-based targeted enrichment of eudicot plastid genomes. Using this probe set and an Agilent SureSelect targeted enrichment kit, we conducted an enrichment experiment including 24 angiosperms (22 eudicots, two monocots, which were subsequently sequenced on a single lane of the Illumina GAIIx with single-end, 100-bp reads. This approach yielded nearly complete to complete plastid genomes with exceptionally high coverage (mean coverage: 717×, even for the two monocots. Conclusions: Our enrichment experiment was highly successful even though many aspects of the capture process employed were suboptimal. Hence, significant improvements to this methodology are feasible. With this general approach and probe set, it should be possible to sequence more than 300 essentially complete plastid genomes in a single Illumina GAIIx lane (achieving 50× mean coverage. However, given the complications of pooling numerous samples for multiplex sequencing and the limited number of barcodes (e.g., 96 available in commercial kits, we recommend 96 samples as a current practical maximum for multiplex plastome sequencing. This high-throughput approach should facilitate large-scale plastid genome sequencing at any level of phylogenetic diversity in angiosperms.

  19. The rise of angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras: Insights from Ranunculaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lin, Li; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Ortiz, Rosa Del C; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Kun-Li; Yu, Sheng-Xiang; Xing, Yao-Wu; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2016-01-01

    The rise of angiosperms has been regarded as a trigger for the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the timeframe of the rise angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras (ADHFs) is lacking. Here, we used the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) as a proxy to provide insights into the rise of ADHFs. An integration of phylogenetic, molecular dating, ancestral state inferring, and diversification analytical methods was used to infer the early evolutionary history of Ranunculaceae. We found that Ranunculaceae became differentiated in forests between about 108-90 Ma. Diversification rates markedly elevated during the Campanian, mainly resulted from the rapid divergence of the non-forest lineages, but did not change across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Our data for Ranunculaceae indicate that forest-dwelling ADHFs may have appeared almost simultaneously with angiosperm-dominated forests during the mid-Cretaceous, whereas non-forest ADHFs arose later, by the end of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Furthermore, ADHFs were relatively unaffected by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. PMID:27251635

  20. Diffusional limitations explain the lower photosynthetic capacity of ferns as compared with angiosperms in a common garden study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriquí, M; Cabrera, H M; Conesa, M À; Coopman, R E; Douthe, C; Gago, J; Gallé, A; Galmés, J; Ribas-Carbo, M; Tomás, M; Flexas, J

    2015-03-01

    Ferns are thought to have lower photosynthetic rates than angiosperms and they lack fine stomatal regulation. However, no study has directly compared photosynthesis in plants of both groups grown under optimal conditions in a common environment. We present a common garden comparison of seven angiosperms and seven ferns paired by habitat preference, with the aims of (1) confirming that ferns do have lower photosynthesis capacity than angiosperms and quantifying these differences; (2) determining the importance of diffusional versus biochemical limitations; and (3) analysing the potential implication of leaf anatomical traits in setting the photosynthesis capacity in both groups. On average, the photosynthetic rate of ferns was about half that of angiosperms, and they exhibited lower stomatal and mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm ), maximum velocity of carboxylation and electron transport rate. A quantitative limitation analysis revealed that stomatal and mesophyll conductances were co-responsible for the lower photosynthesis of ferns as compared with angiosperms. However, gm alone was the most constraining factor for photosynthesis in ferns. Consistently, leaf anatomy showed important differences between angiosperms and ferns, especially in cell wall thickness and the surface of chloroplasts exposed to intercellular air spaces.

  1. Operating TANF: Opportunities and Challenges for Tribes and Tribal Consortia.

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Hillabrant; Mack B. Rhoades; Jr., \\,; Nancy Pindus

    2003-01-01

    Federal law permits American Indian tribes to operate TANF programs for their members, an option that entails benefits as well as risks and costs. This reports discusses the experiences of 10 tribes and examines the benefits, as well as challenges and lessons, from the experience. It notes that tribes have adopted strategies to prepare participants for employment; improve education, job skills, and work experience; and address barriers to employment. Significant challenges remain, however, pa...

  2. Council of Energy Resources Tribes 1993 summer internship report: Nez Perce Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, J.S.

    1993-08-01

    This paper is designed to be a working part of a larger project which would deal with the topic of Tribal interests affected by the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program and the approaches by which those Tribal interests can be advanced. Topics discussed in this paper include: background history of the Nez Perce Tribe`s relations with the US government; a Nez Perce view of tribal interests affected by DOE activities at Hanford; and a Nez Perce framework for private/governmental/tribal interest.

  3. The SLEEPER genes: a transposase-derived angiosperm-specific gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knip Marijn

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DAYSLEEPER encodes a domesticated transposase from the hAT-superfamily, which is essential for development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Little is known about the presence of DAYSLEEPER orthologs in other species, or how and when it was domesticated. We studied the presence of DAYSLEEPER orthologs in plants and propose a model for the domestication of the ancestral DAYSLEEPER gene in angiosperms. Results Using specific BLAST searches in genomic and EST libraries, we found that DAYSLEEPER-like genes (hereafter called SLEEPER genes are unique to angiosperms. Basal angiosperms as well as grasses (Poaceae and dicotyledonous plants possess such putative orthologous genes, but SLEEPER-family genes were not found in gymnosperms, mosses and algae. Most species contain more than one SLEEPER gene. All SLEEPERs contain a C2H2 type BED-zinc finger domain and a hATC dimerization domain. We designated 3 motifs, partly overlapping the BED-zinc finger and dimerization domain, which are hallmark features in the SLEEPER family. Although SLEEPER genes are structurally conserved between species, constructs with SLEEPER genes from grapevine and rice did not complement the daysleeper phenotype in Arabidopsis, when expressed under control of the DAYSLEEPER promoter. However these constructs did cause a dominant phenotype when expressed in Arabidopsis. Rice plant lines with an insertion in the RICESLEEPER1 or 2 locus displayed phenotypic abnormalities, indicating that these genes are functional and important for normal development in rice. We suggest a model in which we hypothesize that an ancestral hAT transposase was retrocopied and stably integrated in the genome during early angiosperm evolution. Evidence is also presented for more recent retroposition events of SLEEPER genes, such as an event in the rice genome, which gave rise to the RICESLEEPER1 and 2 genes. Conclusions We propose the ancestral SLEEPER gene was formed after a process of retro

  4. 40 CFR 130.15 - Processing application for Indian tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Processing application for Indian tribes. 130.15 Section 130.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.15 Processing application for Indian tribes....

  5. Legends from the Dakota, Ojibwe, and Winnebago Tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Seven legends of the Dakota, Ojibwe, and Winnebago tribes are presented, each in a separate booklet, and many feature the common character, or trickster, of the tribe's legends. The booklets follow a picture book format with large type, limited number of words per page, and black-and-white illustrations accompanying all text. The Dakota legends…

  6. Spermiotaxonomy of the tribe Rhodniini (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravazi, A; Oliveira, J; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Alevi, K C C

    2016-01-01

    The tribe Rhodniini is a monophyletic group composed of 22 species, with 19 in the Rhodnius genus and three in the Psammolestes genus. These insects are morphologically very similar (cryptic species), and new tools are important for investigating the taxonomy of these vectors. Spermiotaxonomy is an important tool in differentiating between related species, and this study analyzed the spermatids of Rhodniini species to elucidate their spermiotaxonomy. All of the Rhodniini species contained two heteropyknotic filaments in the extremities of their cells. Although spermiotaxonomy has been an important tool in differentiating between species of the Triatoma genus, all of the species in the Rhodnius genus exhibited the same characteristics in their male gametes. However, spermatid analysis made it possible to confirm the monophyly of the Rhodniini tribe, because Psammolestes tertius had the same pattern as that described for Rhodnius. The results of this study demonstrate that spermiotaxonomy, in addition to being an important tool for differentiating between related species of Triatoma, can be used as an optimization tool in phylogenetic analyses. PMID:27050980

  7. [How are You, My Tribe? The Health Relationship Among the Tribe, Ethnic Group, and the Self].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasirisir, Kui

    2016-06-01

    Most papers on the status of indigenous health focus on health problems from the individual perspective in the hope that this will spread from the individual to tribal/ethnic perspectives. For most indigenous people, the 'tribe' is their home and this home has been affected by colonial society, which has changed tribal ethics and influenced the status of indigenous health. Similarly, there are fissures in the links between indigenous people and their tribes, their ancestry, and their land because of the loss of their land, traditional culture, and racial discrimination and prejudice. These result in an imbalance between indigenous people and their environment and have a deeply felt influence on indigenous health. Transitional justice is an approach to coping with these issues that include colonization, capitalism, relationships with production, and promoting indigenous health. PMID:27250955

  8. Evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite distribution in plants: insight from the comparison of sequenced brassica, Arabidopsis and other angiosperm species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqin Shi

    Full Text Available Despite their ubiquity and functional importance, microsatellites have been largely ignored in comparative genomics, mostly due to the lack of genomic information. In the current study, microsatellite distribution was characterized and compared in the whole genomes and both the coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the sequenced Brassica, Arabidopsis and other angiosperm species to investigate their evolutionary dynamics in plants. The variation in the microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species was much smaller than those for their microsatellite numbers and genome sizes, suggesting that microsatellite frequency may be relatively stable in plants. The microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species were significantly negatively correlated with both their genome sizes and transposable elements contents. The pattern of microsatellite distribution may differ according to the different genomic regions (such as coding and non-coding sequences. The observed differences in many important microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif length, type and repeat number of these angiosperm species were generally accordant with their phylogenetic distance, which suggested that the evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite distribution may be generally consistent with plant divergence/evolution. Importantly, by comparing these microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif type the angiosperm species (aside from a few species all clustered into two obviously different groups that were largely represented by monocots and dicots, suggesting a complex and generally dichotomous evolutionary pattern of microsatellite distribution in angiosperms. Polyploidy may lead to a slight increase in microsatellite frequency in the coding sequences and a significant decrease in microsatellite frequency in the whole genome/non-coding sequences, but have little effect on the microsatellite

  9. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Ampelopsis: gene organization, comparative analysis and phylogenetic relationships to other angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusamy eRaman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ampelopsis brevipedunculata is an economically important plant that belongs to the Vitaceae family of angiosperms. The phylogenetic placement of Vitaceae is still unresolved. Recent phylogenetic studies suggested that it should be placed in various alternative families including Caryophyllaceae, asteraceae, Saxifragaceae, Dilleniaceae, or with the rest of the rosid families. However, these analyses provided weak supportive results because they were based on only one of several genes. Accordingly, complete chloroplast genome sequences are required to resolve the phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on the complete chloroplast genome sequence suggested strong support for the position of Vitaceae as the earliest diverging lineage of rosids and placed it as a sister to the remaining rosids. These studies also revealed relationships among several major lineages of angiosperms; however, they highlighted the significance of taxon sampling for obtaining accurate phylogenies. In the present study, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of A. brevipedunculata and used these data to assess the relationships among 32 angiosperms, including 18 taxa of rosids. The Ampelopsis chloroplast genome is 161,090 bp in length, and includes a pair of inverted repeats of 26,394 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,036 bp and 89,266 bp, respectively. The gene content and order of Ampelopsis is identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including Vitis and tobacco. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on 70 protein-coding genes of 33 angiosperms showed that both Saxifragales and Vitaceae diverged from the rosid clade and formed two clades with 100% bootstrap value. The position of the Vitaceae is sister to Saxifragales, and both are the basal and earliest diverging lineages. Moreover, Saxifragales forms a sister clade to Vitaceae of rosids. Overall, the results of

  10. The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jeanine L; Rouzé, Pierre; Verhelst, Bram; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Bayer, Till; Collen, Jonas; Dattolo, Emanuela; De Paoli, Emanuele; Dittami, Simon; Maumus, Florian; Michel, Gurvan; Kersting, Anna; Lauritano, Chiara; Lohaus, Rolf; Töpel, Mats; Tonon, Thierry; Vanneste, Kevin; Amirebrahimi, Mojgan; Brakel, Janina; Boström, Christoffer; Chovatia, Mansi; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry W; Jueterbock, Alexander; Mraz, Amy; Stam, Wytze T; Tice, Hope; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Green, Pamela J; Pearson, Gareth A; Procaccini, Gabriele; Duarte, Carlos M; Schmutz, Jeremy; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Van de Peer, Yves

    2016-02-18

    Seagrasses colonized the sea on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals unique insights into the genomic losses and gains involved in achieving the structural and physiological adaptations required for its marine lifestyle, arguably the most severe habitat shift ever accomplished by flowering plants. Key angiosperm innovations that were lost include the entire repertoire of stomatal genes, genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoids and ethylene signalling, and genes for ultraviolet protection and phytochromes for far-red sensing. Seagrasses have also regained functions enabling them to adjust to full salinity. Their cell walls contain all of the polysaccharides typical of land plants, but also contain polyanionic, low-methylated pectins and sulfated galactans, a feature shared with the cell walls of all macroalgae and that is important for ion homoeostasis, nutrient uptake and O2/CO2 exchange through leaf epidermal cells. The Z. marina genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of functional ecological studies from adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming, to unravelling the mechanisms of osmoregulation under high salinities that may further inform our understanding of the evolution of salt tolerance in crop plants. PMID:26814964

  11. The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea

    KAUST Repository

    Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2016-01-27

    Seagrasses colonized the sea1 on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet2. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals unique insights into the genomic losses and gains involved in achieving the structural and physiological adaptations required for its marine lifestyle, arguably the most severe habitat shift ever accomplished by flowering plants. Key angiosperm innovations that were lost include the entire repertoire of stomatal genes3, genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoids and ethylene signalling, and genes for ultraviolet protection and phytochromes for far-red sensing. Seagrasses have also regained functions enabling them to adjust to full salinity. Their cell walls contain all of the polysaccharides typical of land plants, but also contain polyanionic, low-methylated pectins and sulfated galactans, a feature shared with the cell walls of all macroalgae4 and that is important for ion homoeostasis, nutrient uptake and O2/CO2 exchange through leaf epidermal cells. The Z. marina genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of functional ecological studies from adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming5, 6, to unravelling the mechanisms of osmoregulation under high salinities that may further inform our understanding of the evolution of salt tolerance in crop plants7.

  12. The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jeanine L; Rouzé, Pierre; Verhelst, Bram; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Bayer, Till; Collen, Jonas; Dattolo, Emanuela; De Paoli, Emanuele; Dittami, Simon; Maumus, Florian; Michel, Gurvan; Kersting, Anna; Lauritano, Chiara; Lohaus, Rolf; Töpel, Mats; Tonon, Thierry; Vanneste, Kevin; Amirebrahimi, Mojgan; Brakel, Janina; Boström, Christoffer; Chovatia, Mansi; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry W; Jueterbock, Alexander; Mraz, Amy; Stam, Wytze T; Tice, Hope; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Green, Pamela J; Pearson, Gareth A; Procaccini, Gabriele; Duarte, Carlos M; Schmutz, Jeremy; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Van de Peer, Yves

    2016-02-18

    Seagrasses colonized the sea on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals unique insights into the genomic losses and gains involved in achieving the structural and physiological adaptations required for its marine lifestyle, arguably the most severe habitat shift ever accomplished by flowering plants. Key angiosperm innovations that were lost include the entire repertoire of stomatal genes, genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoids and ethylene signalling, and genes for ultraviolet protection and phytochromes for far-red sensing. Seagrasses have also regained functions enabling them to adjust to full salinity. Their cell walls contain all of the polysaccharides typical of land plants, but also contain polyanionic, low-methylated pectins and sulfated galactans, a feature shared with the cell walls of all macroalgae and that is important for ion homoeostasis, nutrient uptake and O2/CO2 exchange through leaf epidermal cells. The Z. marina genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of functional ecological studies from adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming, to unravelling the mechanisms of osmoregulation under high salinities that may further inform our understanding of the evolution of salt tolerance in crop plants.

  13. Genome size and ploidy influence angiosperm species' biomass under nitrogen and phosphorus limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignard, Maïté S; Nichols, Richard A; Knell, Robert J; Macdonald, Andy; Romila, Catalina-Andreea; Trimmer, Mark; Leitch, Ilia J; Leitch, Andrew R

    2016-06-01

    Angiosperm genome sizes (GS) range c. 2400-fold, and as nucleic acids are amongst the most phosphorus- (P) and nitrogen (N)-demanding cellular biomolecules, we test the hypothesis that a key influence on plant biomass and species composition is the interaction between N and P availability and plant GS. We analysed the impact of different nutrient regimes on above-ground biomass of angiosperm species with different GS, ploidy level and Grime's C-S-R (competitive, stress-tolerant, ruderal) plant strategies growing at the Park Grass Experiment (Rothamsted, UK), established in 1856. The biomass-weighted mean GS of species growing on plots with the addition of both N and P fertilizer were significantly higher than that of plants growing on control plots and plots with either N or P. The plants on these N + P plots are dominated by polyploids with large GS and a competitive plant strategy. The results are consistent with our hypothesis that large genomes are costly to build and maintain under N and P limitation. Hence GS and ploidy are significant traits affecting biomass growth under different nutrient regimes, influencing plant community composition and ecosystem dynamics. We propose that GS is a critical factor needed in models that bridge the knowledge gap between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. PMID:26875784

  14. Evolution of a unique anatomical precision in angiosperm leaf venation lifts constraints on vascular plant ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Boyce, Charles K

    2014-03-22

    The main role of leaf venation is to supply water across the photosynthetic surface to keep stomata open and allow access to atmospheric CO2 despite evaporative demand. The optimal uniform delivery of water occurs when the distance between veins equals the depth of vein placement within the leaf away from the evaporative surface. As presented here, only angiosperms maintain this anatomical optimum across all leaf thicknesses and different habitats, including sheltered environments where this optimization need not be required. Intriguingly, basal angiosperm lineages tend to be underinvested hydraulically; uniformly high optimization is derived independently in the magnoliids, monocots and core eudicots. Gymnosperms and ferns, including available fossils, are limited by their inability to produce high vein densities. The common association of ferns with shaded humid environments may, in part, be a direct evolutionary consequence of their inability to produce hydraulically optimized leaves. Some gymnosperms do approach optimal vein placement, but only by virtue of their ability to produce thick leaves most appropriate in environments requiring water conservation. Thus, this simple anatomical metric presents an important perspective on the evolution and phylogenetic distribution of plant ecologies and further evidence that the vegetative biology of flowering plants-not just their reproductive biology-is unique.

  15. Non-equilibrium dynamics and floral trait interactions shape extant angiosperm diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Brian C; Smith, Stacey D; Armbruster, W Scott; Harder, Lawrence D; Hardy, Christopher R; Hileman, Lena C; Hufford, Larry; Litt, Amy; Magallón, Susana; Smith, Stephen A; Stevens, Peter F; Fenster, Charles B; Diggle, Pamela K

    2016-05-11

    Why are some traits and trait combinations exceptionally common across the tree of life, whereas others are vanishingly rare? The distribution of trait diversity across a clade at any time depends on the ancestral state of the clade, the rate at which new phenotypes evolve, the differences in speciation and extinction rates across lineages, and whether an equilibrium has been reached. Here we examine the role of transition rates, differential diversification (speciation minus extinction) and non-equilibrium dynamics on the evolutionary history of angiosperms, a clade well known for the abundance of some trait combinations and the rarity of others. Our analysis reveals that three character states (corolla present, bilateral symmetry, reduced stamen number) act synergistically as a key innovation, doubling diversification rates for lineages in which this combination occurs. However, this combination is currently less common than predicted at equilibrium because the individual characters evolve infrequently. Simulations suggest that angiosperms will remain far from the equilibrium frequencies of character states well into the future. Such non-equilibrium dynamics may be common when major innovations evolve rarely, allowing lineages with ancestral forms to persist, and even outnumber those with diversification-enhancing states, for tens of millions of years. PMID:27147092

  16. Recalibrated tree of leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae indicates independent diversification of angiosperms and their insect herbivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gómez-Zurita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The great diversity of the "Phytophaga" (weevils, longhorn beetles and leaf beetles has been attributed to their co-radiation with the angiosperms based on matching age estimates for both groups, but phylogenetic information and molecular clock calibrations remain insufficient for this conclusion. METHODOLOGY: A phylogenetic analysis of the leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae was conducted based on three partial ribosomal gene markers (mitochondrial rrnL, nuclear small and large subunit rRNA including over 3000 bp for 167 taxa representing most major chrysomelid lineages and outgroups. Molecular clock calibrations and confidence intervals were based on paleontological data from the oldest (K-T boundary leaf beetle fossil, ancient feeding traces ascribed to hispoid Cassidinae, and the vicariant split of Nearctic and Palearctic members of the Timarchini. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The origin of the Chrysomelidae was dated to 73-79 Mya (confidence interval 63-86 Mya, and most subfamilies were post-Cretaceous, consistent with the ages of all confirmed body fossils. Two major monocot feeding chrysomelid lineages formed widely separated clades, demonstrating independent colonization of this ancient (early Cretaceous angiosperm lineage. CONCLUSIONS: Previous calibrations proposing a much older origin of Chrysomelidae were not supported. Therefore, chrysomelid beetles likely radiated long after the origin of their host lineages and their diversification was driven by repeated radiaton on a pre-existing diverse resource, rather than ancient host associations.

  17. 77 FR 34981 - Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians-Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Country and those persons and businesses doing business on and/or visiting the Tribe's Indian Country. The... Tribe's Indian Country. (3) Any person who resides, conducts business, engages in a business transaction... Tribe's Indian Country shall secure a business license from the Tribe in the manner provided for...

  18. 18 CFR 2.1c - Policy statement on consultation with Indian tribes in Commission proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... standards in its dealings with Indian tribes. (c) The Commission will endeavor to work with Indian tribes on... tribal governments and cultures and to educate tribes about the Commission's various statutory functions... process and the importance of tribal participation, to learn more about each tribe's culture, and...

  19. San Carlos Apache Tribe - Energy Organizational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, James; Albert, Steve

    2012-04-01

    The San Carlos Apache Tribe (SCAT) was awarded $164,000 in late-2011 by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Tribal Energy Program's "First Steps Toward Developing Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency on Tribal Lands" Grant Program. This grant funded:  The analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of tribal energy organization (this Energy Organization Analysis, hereinafter referred to as "EOA").  Start-up staffing and other costs associated with the Phase 1 SCAT energy organization.  An intern program.  Staff training.  Tribal outreach and workshops regarding the new organization and SCAT energy programs and projects, including two annual tribal energy summits (2011 and 2012). This report documents the analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of a tribal energy organization.

  20. Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jennifer [Washoe Tribe of NV and CA

    2014-10-01

    The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California was awarded funding to complete the Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study project. The main goal of the project was to complete an alternative energy feasibility study. This study was completed to evaluate “the potential for development of a variety of renewable energy projects and to conduct an alternative energy feasibility study that determines which alternative energy resources have the greatest economic opportunity for the Tribe, while respecting cultural and environmental values” (Baker-Tilly, 2014). The study concluded that distributed generation solar projects are the best option for renewable energy development and asset ownership for the Washoe Tribe. Concentrating solar projects, utility scale wind projects, geothermal, and biomass resource projects were also evaluated during the study and it was determined that these alternatives would not be feasible at this time.

  1. Reindeer breeding along the Finno-Ugric tribes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the reindeer breeding practices among the Finno-Urgic tribes located in the northern territories of the Soviet Union and frontier districts...

  2. A synopsis of the tribe Desmodieae (Fabaceae) in southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Schrire, B D

    1988-01-01

    The tribe Desmodieae has a pantropical distribution and is one of the most advanced tribes in the subfamily Papilionoideae. Its greatest centres of development are in tropical Asia and America. Africa is relatively poorly endowed and only four genera comprising 16 species occur in the flora of southern Africa. Many of these species are widespread in the Old World tropics and the few African endemics appear to be closely related to them. A synopsis of the genera Desmodium, Pseudarthria, Alysic...

  3. A case of Spinocerebellar Ataxia from ethnic tribe of Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayal Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the case of a 17-year-old girl belonging to an ethnic tribe (Bodo tribe of Assam, presenting with bilateral cerebellar signs and with history suggestive of an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, who was found to have spinocerebellar ataxia 7 on genetic testing. This case throws light on the probability of more such cases in the multi-ethnic society of the North-Eastern Indian states, which are not studied or reported till date.

  4. Conservation and canalization of gene expression during angiosperm diversification accompany the origin and evolution of the flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanderbali, André S; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Zahn, Laura M; Brockington, Samuel F; Wall, P Kerr; Gitzendanner, Matthew A; Albert, Victor A; Leebens-Mack, James; Altman, Naomi S; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2010-12-28

    The origin and rapid diversification of the angiosperms (Darwin's "Abominable Mystery") has engaged generations of researchers. Here, we examine the floral genetic programs of phylogenetically pivotal angiosperms (water lily, avocado, California poppy, and Arabidopsis) and a nonflowering seed plant (a cycad) to obtain insight into the origin and subsequent evolution of the flower. Transcriptional cascades with broadly overlapping spatial domains, resembling the hypothesized ancestral gymnosperm program, are deployed across morphologically intergrading organs in water lily and avocado flowers. In contrast, spatially discrete transcriptional programs in distinct floral organs characterize the more recently derived angiosperm lineages represented by California poppy and Arabidopsis. Deep evolutionary conservation in the genetic programs of putatively homologous floral organs traces to those operating in gymnosperm reproductive cones. Female gymnosperm cones and angiosperm carpels share conserved genetic features, which may be associated with the ovule developmental program common to both organs. However, male gymnosperm cones share genetic features with both perianth (sterile attractive and protective) organs and stamens, supporting the evolutionary origin of the floral perianth from the male genetic program of seed plants.

  5. Weak coordination among petiole, leaf, vein, and gas-exchange traits across 41 Australian angiosperm species and its possible implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Aims Close coordination between leaf gas exchange and maximal hydraulic supply has been reported across diverse plant life-forms. However, recent reports suggest that this relationship may become weak or break down completely within the angiosperms. Methods To examine this possi...

  6. American Indian tribes and electric industry restructuring: Issues and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, D. [Morse, Richard, and Weisenmiller, and Associates Inc., Oakland, CA (United States); Busch, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Starrs, T. [Kelso, Starrs, and Associates LLC, Vashon, WA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The US electric utility industry is undergoing a period of fundamental change that has significant implications for Native American tribes. Although many details remain to be determined, the future electric power industry will be very different from that of the present. It is anticipated that the new competitive electric industry will be more efficient, which some believe will benefit all participants by lowering electricity costs. Recent developments in the industry, however, indicate that the restructuring process will likely benefit some parties at the expense of others. Given the historical experience and current situation of Native American tribes in the US, there is good reason to pay attention to electric industry changes to ensure that the situation of tribes is improved and not worsened as a result of electric restructuring. This paper provides a review of electricity restructuring in the US and identifies ways in which tribes may be affected and how tribes may seek to protect and serve their interests. Chapter 2 describes the current status of energy production and service on reservations. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the evolution of the electric industry to its present form and introduces the regulatory and structural changes presently taking place. Chapter 4 provides a more detailed discussion of changes in the US electric industry with a specific focus on the implications of these changes for tribes. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the conclusions reached in this paper.

  7. Planning for seven generations: Energy planning of American Indian tribes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of energy resources on American Indian lands, the links between energy management and tribal sovereignty, and recent federal government incentives make tribal energy planning an interesting case study for community energy planning in the US. This paper studies the strategic energy planning efforts, energy resource development, and energy efficiency policies established by tribes within the continental US. The paper analyzes the results of a survey of various tribes′ energy resource development and planning efforts and supplements the responses with publicly available information on resources, economics, and demographics. We find that incentives and advisory services from the federal government are key to developing the capacity of the tribes to pursue energy planning and energy resource development. These incentives largely avoid the misdeeds of past federal policy by promoting tribal control over energy planning and energy resource development efforts. Tribes with formal energy plans or visions are more likely to develop energy resources than tribes without them and are engaged in a more comprehensive and sustainable approach to energy resource development and energy efficiency. - Highlights: • American Indian tribal energy planning is an understudied topic. • Tribal energy planning is interconnected with tribal sovereignty and sustainability. • We report the results of a survey of energy planning and development efforts. • Federal Government assistance is critical to the efforts of the tribes. • Tribes with energy plans take a more comprehensive approach to energy resource development

  8. 25 CFR 1000.27 - How does the Director select which Tribes in the applicant pool become self-governance Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applicant pool become self-governance Tribes? 1000.27 Section 1000.27 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... for Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.27 How does the Director select which Tribes in the applicant pool become self-governance Tribes? The Director selects...

  9. Effects of plant diversity on primary production and species interactions in brackish water angiosperm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina; Gustafsson, Camilla; Boström, Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    plant productivity in brackish water angiosperm communities, a 14 wk field experiment was conducted. Using a replacement design with a standardized initial aboveground biomass, shoots of Zostera marina, Potamogeton filiformis and P. perfoliatus were planted on a shallow, sandy bottom in replicated...... production in bicultures in general, while a positive net effect was found in the P. perfoliatus and P. filiformis biculture. Despite the absence of significant results for other treatments and plant variables, a trend of positive complementarity and negative selection effects were present. Plant diversity......Research on plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has mainly focused on terrestrial ecosystems, and our understanding of how plant species diversity and interactions affect processes in marine ecosystems is still limited. To investigate if plant species richness and composition influence...

  10. Uneven HAK/KUP/KT protein diversity among angiosperms: species distribution and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eNieves-Cordones

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available HAK/KUP/KT K+ transporters have been widely associated with K+ transport across membranes in bacteria, fungi and plants. Indeed some members of the plant HAK/KUP/KT family contribute to root K+ uptake, notably at low external concentrations. Besides such role in acquisition, several studies carried out in Arabidopsis have shown that other members are also involved in developmental processes. With the publication of new plant genomes, a growing interest on plant species other than Arabidopsis has become evident. In order to understand HAK/KUP/KT diversity in these new plant genomes, we discuss the evolutionary trends of 913 HAK/KUP/KT sequences identified in 46 genomes revealing five major groups with an uneven distribution among angiosperms, notably between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous species. This information evidenced the richness of crop genomes in HAK/KUP/KT transporters and supports their study for unraveling novel physiological roles of such transporters in plants.

  11. Gymnosperms have increased capacity for electron leakage to oxygen (Mehler and PTOX reactions) in photosynthesis compared with angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirao, Masayoshi; Kuroki, Shu; Kaneko, Kaoru; Kinjo, Yuriko; Tsuyama, Michito; Förster, Britta; Takahashi, Shunichi; Badger, Murray R

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in photosynthesis by participating in a number of O2-consuming reactions. O2 inhibits CO2 fixation by stimulating photorespiration, thus reducing plant production. O2 interacts with photosynthetic electron transport in the chloroplasts' thylakoids in two main ways: by accepting electrons from PSI (Mehler reaction); and by accepting electrons from reduced plastoquinone (PQ) mediated by the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX). In this study, we show, using 101 plant species, that there is a difference in the potential for photosynthetic electron flow to O2 between angiosperms and gymnosperms. We found, from measurements of Chl fluorescence and leaf absorbance at 830 nm, (i) that electron outflow from PSII, as determined by decay kinetics of Chl fluorescence after application of a saturating light pulse, is more rapid in gymnosperms than in angiosperms; (ii) that the reaction center Chl of PSI (P700) is rapidly and highly oxidized in gymnosperms during induction of photosynthesis; and (iii) that these differences are dependent on oxygen. Finally, rates of O2 uptake measured by mass spectrometry in the absence of photorespiration were significantly promoted by illumination in dark-adapted leaves of gymnosperms, but not in those of angiosperms. The light-stimulated O2 uptake was around 10% of the maximum O2 evolution in gymnosperms and 1% in angiosperms. These results suggest that gymnosperms have increased capacity for electron leakage to oxygen in photosynthesis compared with angiosperms. The involvement of the Mehler reaction and PTOX in the electron flow to O2 is discussed.

  12. Evolution of Xylan Substitution Patterns in Gymnosperms and Angiosperms: Implications for Xylan Interaction with Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse-Wicher, Marta; Li, An; Silveira, Rodrigo L; Pereira, Caroline S; Tryfona, Theodora; Gomes, Thiago C F; Skaf, Munir S; Dupree, Paul

    2016-08-01

    The interaction between cellulose and xylan is important for the load-bearing secondary cell wall of flowering plants. Based on the precise, evenly spaced pattern of acetyl and glucuronosyl (MeGlcA) xylan substitutions in eudicots, we recently proposed that an unsubstituted face of xylan in a 2-fold helical screw can hydrogen bond to the hydrophilic surfaces of cellulose microfibrils. In gymnosperm cell walls, any role for xylan is unclear, and glucomannan is thought to be the important cellulose-binding polysaccharide. Here, we analyzed xylan from the secondary cell walls of the four gymnosperm lineages (Conifer, Gingko, Cycad, and Gnetophyta). Conifer, Gingko, and Cycad xylan lacks acetylation but is modified by arabinose and MeGlcA. Interestingly, the arabinosyl substitutions are located two xylosyl residues from MeGlcA, which is itself placed precisely on every sixth xylosyl residue. Notably, the Gnetophyta xylan is more akin to early-branching angiosperms and eudicot xylan, lacking arabinose but possessing acetylation on alternate xylosyl residues. All these precise substitution patterns are compatible with gymnosperm xylan binding to hydrophilic surfaces of cellulose. Molecular dynamics simulations support the stable binding of 2-fold screw conifer xylan to the hydrophilic face of cellulose microfibrils. Moreover, the binding of multiple xylan chains to adjacent planes of the cellulose fibril stabilizes the interaction further. Our results show that the type of xylan substitution varies, but an even pattern of xylan substitution is maintained among vascular plants. This suggests that 2-fold screw xylan binds hydrophilic faces of cellulose in eudicots, early-branching angiosperm, and gymnosperm cell walls. PMID:27325663

  13. A Step Towards Conservation for Interior Alaska Tribes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly Carlo

    2012-07-07

    This project includes a consortium of tribes. The tribes include Hughes (representing the consortium) Birch Creek, Huslia, and Allakaket. The project proposed by Interior Regional Housing Authority (IRHA) on behalf of the villages of Hughes, Birch Creek, Huslia and Allakaket is to develop an energy conservation program relevant to each specific community, educate tribe members and provide the tools to implement the conservation plan. The program seeks to achieve both energy savings and provide optimum energy requirements to support each tribe's mission. The energy management program will be a comprehensive program that considers all avenues for achieving energy savings, from replacing obsolete equipment, to the design and construction of energy conservation measures, the implementation of energy saving operation and maintenance procedures, the utilization of a community-wide building energy management system, and a commitment to educating the tribes on how to decrease energy consumption. With the implementation of this program and the development of an Energy Management Plan, these communities can then work to reduce the high cost of living in rural Alaska.

  14. Ethnoveterinary practices of aborigine tribes in Odisha, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bikram K Mallik; Tribhuban Panda; Rabindra N Padhy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To record ethnoveterinary information of numerous aboriginal tribes of Kalahandi district of Odisha state, India. Methods: A survey of about 20 hamlets in the district was done with a questioner and personal interviews using the snowball technique in survey and sampling.Results:Seventy-three plants belonging to 41 families (Acanthaceae, Alangiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacadiaceae, Annonaceae, Araceae, Arecaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Asteraceae, Bombaceae, Brassicaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Combretaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ebenaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Lecythidaceae, Loganiaceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Menispermaceae, Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Moringaceae, Musaceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae, Umbelliferae, Verbenaceae, Vitaceae and Zingiberaceae) are used by aborigine tribes of Kalahandi district, Odisha, India, for treating ailments of domestic animals. Conclusion: Aborigine tribes of Kalahandi district use about 73 plants for treating ailments of animals.

  15. A synopsis of the tribe Desmodieae (Fabaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Schrire

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Desmodieae has a pantropical distribution and is one of the most advanced tribes in the subfamily Papilionoideae. Its greatest centres of development are in tropical Asia and America. Africa is relatively poorly endowed and only four genera comprising 16 species occur in the flora of southern Africa. Many of these species are widespread in the Old World tropics and the few African endemics appear to be closely related to them. A synopsis of the genera Desmodium, Pseudarthria, Alysicarpus and Lespedeza is given for southern Africa.

  16. Insights into the dynamics of genome size and chromosome evolution in the early diverging angiosperm lineage Nymphaeales (water lilies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer, J; Kelly, L J; Magdalena, C; Leitch, I J

    2013-08-01

    Nymphaeales are the most species-rich lineage of the earliest diverging angiosperms known as the ANA grade (Amborellales, Nymphaeales, Austrobaileyales), and they have received considerable attention from morphological, physiological, and ecological perspectives. Although phylogenetic relationships between these three lineages of angiosperms are mainly well resolved, insights at the whole genome level are still limited because of a dearth of information. To address this, genome sizes and chromosome numbers in 34 taxa, comprising 28 species were estimated and analysed together with previously published data to provide an overview of genome size and chromosome diversity in Nymphaeales. Overall, genome sizes were shown to vary 10-fold and chromosome numbers and ploidy levels ranged from 2n = 2x = 18 to 2n = 16x = ∼224. Distinct patterns of genome diversity were apparent, reflecting the differential incidence of polyploidy, changes in repetitive DNA content, and chromosome rearrangements within and between genera. Using model-based approaches, ancestral genome size and basic chromosome numbers were reconstructed to provide insights into the dynamics of genome size and chromosome number evolution. Finally, by combining additional data from Amborellales and Austrobaileyales, a comprehensive overview of genome sizes and chromosome numbers in these early diverging angiosperms is presented.

  17. 77 FR 10547 - Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas-First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas--First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance... to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance. The Ordinance regulates... adopted this amendment to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance...

  18. 25 CFR 115.810 - May a tribe directly invest and manage its trust funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... funds must be in accordance with the requirements of the Trust Reform Act and 25 CFR part 1200, subpart... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a tribe directly invest and manage its trust funds... Funds § 115.810 May a tribe directly invest and manage its trust funds? A tribe may apply to...

  19. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  20. 43 CFR 30.271 - How must the tribe pay for the interests it purchases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How must the tribe pay for the interests it purchases? 30.271 Section 30.271 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... the tribe pay for the interests it purchases? (a) A tribe must pay the full fair market value of...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.23 - How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.23 How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool? To be considered for admission in the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must submit an application to the...

  2. The systematic wood anatomy of the Moraceae (Urticales) II. Tribe Dorstenieae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the tribe Dorstenieae sensu Berg is described. Similarities and differences are discussed in relation to his concepts of the taxonomy of the tribe. Wood anatomically the tribe Dorstenieae is fairly homogeneous, Dorstenia deviating most in the juvenilistic composition of its rays,

  3. 25 CFR 18.111 - What will happen if a tribe repeals its probate code?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What will happen if a tribe repeals its probate code? 18... CODES Approval of Tribal Probate Codes § 18.111 What will happen if a tribe repeals its probate code? If a tribe repeals its tribal probate code: (a) The repeal will not become effective sooner than...

  4. 25 CFR 170.300 - May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise prohibited by law. (a) Tribes may issue bonds or enter into other debt financing instruments under... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR... Financing § 170.300 May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects? Yes....

  5. Emerging roles for microtubules in angiosperm pollen tube growth highlight new research cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eMoscatelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In plants, actin filaments have an important role in organelle movement and cytoplasmic streaming. Otherwise microtubules have a role in restricting organelles to specific areas of the cell and in maintaining organelle morphology. In somatic plant cells, microtubules also participate in cell division and morphogenesis, allowing cells to take their definitive shape in order to perform specific functions. In the latter case, microtubules influence assembly of the cell wall, controlling the delivery of enzymes involved in cellulose synthesis and of wall modulation material to the proper sites.In angiosperm pollen tubes, organelle movement is generally attributed to the acto-myosin system, the main role of which is in distributing organelles in the cytoplasm and in carrying secretory vesicles to the apex for polarized growth. Recent data on membrane trafficking suggests a role of microtubules in fine delivery and repositioning of vesicles to sustain pollen tube growth. This review examines the role of microtubules in secretion and endocytosis, highlighting new research cues regarding cell wall construction and pollen tube-pistil crosstalk, that help unravel the role of microtubules in polarized growth.

  6. General Botany of the Angiosperms in high school: a comparative analysis of textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Cardoso Marinho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Much of the textbooks content in Brazil is related to the historical period lived. With the advancement in the field of scientific research, the textbooks have become key pieces in the transfer/adaptation of this knowledge for the basic levels of education influencing positively or negatively in approach and presentation of content. The purpose of this study was to examine comparatively how the contents of General Botany of the Angiosperms are approached in three biology textbooks of high school (1974, 1999 and 2011. The 1974 book have long texts that include an elaborated discussion and there is a tendency to simplify the content. The book of the 1999 presents the content in the form of direct and specific concepts split into separate chapters. In this work, the reduced form compromises the discussion, giving up themes that enrich the study. The book of the 2011 separate the content into different chapters and keeps reducing the content but without losing the quality and clarity of their information. Over the years, from the best understanding of the textbooks objectives and scientific research involving these documents, it is clear that the most current book is more attractive and less dense, contributing of the deconstruct the idea of a boring and decorative Botany.

  7. Coalescence vs. concatenation: Sophisticated analyses vs. first principles applied to rooting the angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Mark P; Gatesy, John

    2015-10-01

    It has recently been concluded that phylogenomic data from 310 nuclear genes support the clade of (Amborellales, Nymphaeales) as sister to the remaining angiosperms and that shortcut coalescent phylogenetic methods outperformed concatenation for these data. We falsify both of those conclusions here by demonstrating that discrepant results between the coalescent and concatenation analyses are primarily caused by the coalescent methods applied (MP-EST and STAR) not being robust to the highly divergent and often mis-rooted gene trees that were used. This result reinforces the expectation that low amounts of phylogenetic signal and methodological artifacts in gene-tree reconstruction can be more problematic for shortcut coalescent methods than is the assumption of a single hierarchy for all genes by concatenation methods when these approaches are applied to ancient divergences in empirical studies. We also demonstrate that a third coalescent method, ASTRAL, is more robust to mis-rooted gene trees than MP-EST or STAR, and that both Observed Variability (OV) and Tree Independent Generation of Evolutionary Rates (TIGER), which are two character subsampling procedures, are biased in favor of characters with highly asymmetrical distributions of character states when applied to this dataset. We conclude that enthusiastic application of novel tools is not a substitute for rigorous application of first principles, and that trending methods (e.g., shortcut coalescent methods applied to ancient divergences, tree-independent character subsampling), may be novel sources of previously under-appreciated, systematic errors. PMID:26002829

  8. Variation in ovule and seed size and associated size-number trade-offs in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Carly A; Harder, Lawrence D

    2007-05-01

    Unlike pollen and seed size, the extent and causes of variation in ovule size remain unexplored. Based on 45 angiosperm species, we assessed whether intra- and interspecific variation in ovule size is consistent with cost minimization during ovule production or allows maternal plants to dominate conflict with their seeds concerning resource investment. Despite considerable intraspecific variation in ovule volume (mean CV = 0.356), ovule production by few species was subject to a size-number trade-off. Among the sampled species, ovule volume varied two orders of magnitude, whereas seed volume varied four orders of magnitude. Ovule volume varied positively among species with flower mass and negatively with ovule number. Tenuinucellate ovules were generally larger that crassinucellate ovules, and species with apical placentation (which mostly have uniovulate ovaries) had smaller ovules than those with other placentation types. Seed volume varied positively among species with fruit mass and seed development time, but negatively with seed number. Seeds grew a median 93-fold larger than the ovules from which they originated. Our results provide equivocal evidence that selection minimizes ovule size to allow efficient resource allocation after fertilization, but stronger evidence that ovule size affords maternal plants an advantage in parent-offspring conflict. PMID:21636453

  9. Historical biogeography of the Angelica group (Apiaceae tribe Selineae) inferred from analyses of nrDNA and cpDNA sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Yang LIAO; Stephen R.DOWNIE; Yan YU; Xing-Jin HE

    2012-01-01

    Biogeographical patterns and diversification processes of Asia-centered angiosperm groups have been significantly affected by the multistage uplift of the Himalayas-Tibetan Plateau since the Late Tertiary.The divergence time of the largely East Asian Angelica group (Apiaceae,subfamily Apioideae,tribe Selineae) was initially analyzed using BEAST and nrDNA internal transcribed spacer sequence data from 96 representatives of tribe Selineae and relatives.Further analyses of the biogeographical history of the Angelica group were carried out using BEAST,S-DIVA,RASP,and LAGRANGE on datasets containing all or some of the following loci:nrDNA internal and external transcribed spacers; cpDNA rps16 intron; and cpDNA rps16-trnK,rpl32-trnL,and trnL-trnT intergenic spacers.The results suggested that the Angelica group was originally present in the East Palearctic during the global cooling of the late Middle Miocene (13.6 Mya) and that the Angelica s.s.clade originated in the same region at 10.2Mya.Subsequent diversifications of the Angelica s.s.clade intensified in the East Palearctic during the middle Late Miocene (10.0-7.0 Mya) and in the eastern Himalayan Zone during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene (<4.0Mya).These diversifications likely corresponded with plateau uplift-driven climatic changes.Considering elevational reconstructions,the differential responses to altitude appear to be the primary factor explaining the recent radiation of the group in the eastern Himalayas.The North American species of the Angelica group were retrieved as polyphyletic and their migrations involved six independent dispersals to North America at least since the middle Late Miocene,including four times from northeast Asia and twice from Europe.

  10. Strange country this: lesbianism and North American Indian tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, J

    1986-05-01

    This article is an exploration of historical names and functions of gay and lesbian people among traditional North American Indian tribes. Some detailed descriptions of individual offices are included, such as "manly hearted" women and shamanic cross-dressing men, as well as the original definition of "dyke" and "ceremonial lesbian" as described by Paula Gunn Allen (Laguna Pueblo). PMID:3531323

  11. 34 CFR 300.21 - Indian and Indian tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian and Indian tribe. 300.21 Section 300.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  12. 78 FR 39820 - Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Disaster #SD-00058

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Disaster SD-00058 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... Assistance Only for the Standing Rock Indian Reservation (FEMA-4123-DR), dated 06/25/2013. Incident:...

  13. 42 CFR 136.360 - Leases with Indian tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Leases with Indian tribes. 136.360 Section 136.360 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE... pursuant to paragraph (a) shall be subject to the requirements of section 322 of the Economy Act (40...

  14. Does multiple paternity affect seed mass in angiosperms? An experimental test in Dalechampia scandens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélabon, C; Albertsen, E; Falahati-Anbaran, M; Wright, J; Armbruster, W S

    2015-09-01

    Flowers fertilized by multiple fathers may be expected to produce heavier seeds than those fertilized by a single father. However, the adaptive mechanisms leading to such differences remain unclear, and the evidence inconsistent. Here, we first review the different hypotheses predicting an increase in seed mass when multiple paternity occurs. We show that distinguishing between these hypotheses requires information about average seed mass, but also about within-fruit variance in seed mass, bias in siring success among pollen donors, and whether siring success and seed mass are correlated. We then report the results of an experiment on Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae), assessing these critical variables in conjunction with a comparison of seed mass resulting from crosses with single vs. multiple pollen donors. Siring success differed among males when competing for fertilization, but average seed mass was not affected by the number of fathers. Furthermore, paternal identity explained only 3.8% of the variance in seed mass, and siring success was not correlated with the mass of the seeds produced. Finally, within-infructescence variance in seed mass was not affected by the number of fathers. These results suggest that neither differential allocation nor sibling rivalry has any effect on the average mass of seeds in multiply sired fruits in D. scandens. Overall, the limited paternal effects observed in most studies and the possibility of diversification bet hedging among flowers (but not within flowers), suggest that multiple paternity within fruits or infructescence is unlikely to affect seed mass in a large number of angiosperm species. PMID:26174371

  15. Bark ecology of twigs vs. main stems: functional traits across eighty-five species of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Julieta A; Castorena, Matiss; Laws, Claire A; Westoby, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Although produced by meristems that are continuous along the stem length, marked differences in bark morphology and in microenvironment would suggest that main stem and twig bark might differ ecologically. Here, we examined: (1) how closely associated main stem and twig bark traits were, (2) how these associations varied across sites, and (3) used these associations to infer functional and ecological differences between twig and main stem bark. We measured density, water content, photosynthesis presence/absence, total, outer, inner, and relative thicknesses of main stem and twig bark from 85 species of angiosperms from six sites of contrasting precipitation, temperature, and fire regimes. Density and water content did not differ between main stems and twigs across species and sites. Species with thicker twig bark had disproportionately thicker main stem bark in most sites, but the slope and degree of association varied. Disproportionately thicker main stem bark for a given twig bark thickness in most fire-prone sites suggested stem protection near the ground. The savanna had the opposite trend, suggesting that selection also favors twig protection in these fire-prone habitats. A weak main stem-twig bark thickness association was observed in non fire-prone sites. The near-ubiquity of photosynthesis in twigs highlighted its likely ecological importance; variation in this activity was predicted by outer bark thickness in main stems. It seems that the ecology of twig bark can be generalized to main stem bark, but not for functions depending on the amount of bark, such as protection, storage, or photosynthesis.

  16. A test of the hydraulic vulnerability segmentation hypothesis in angiosperm and conifer tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel M; Wortemann, Remi; McCulloh, Katherine A; Jordan-Meille, Lionel; Ward, Eric; Warren, Jeffrey M; Palmroth, Sari; Domec, Jean-Christophe

    2016-08-01

    Water transport from soils to the atmosphere is critical for plant growth and survival. However, we have a limited understanding about many portions of the whole-tree hydraulic pathway, because the vast majority of published information is on terminal branches. Our understanding of mature tree trunk hydraulic physiology, in particular, is limited. The hydraulic vulnerability segmentation hypothesis (HVSH) stipulates that distal portions of the plant (leaves, branches and roots) should be more vulnerable to embolism than trunks, which are nonredundant organs that require a massive carbon investment. In the current study, we compared vulnerability to loss of hydraulic function, leaf and xylem water potentials and the resulting hydraulic safety margins (in relation to the water potential causing 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity) in leaves, branches, trunks and roots of four angiosperms and four conifer tree species. Across all species, our results supported strongly the HVSH as leaves and roots were less resistant to embolism than branches or trunks. However, branches were consistently more resistant to embolism than any other portion of the plant, including trunks. Also, calculated whole-tree vulnerability to hydraulic dysfunction was much greater than vulnerability in branches. This was due to hydraulic dysfunction in roots and leaves at less negative water potentials than those causing branch or trunk dysfunction. Leaves and roots had narrow or negative hydraulic safety margins, but trunks and branches maintained positive safety margins. By using branch-based hydraulic information as a proxy for entire plants, much research has potentially overestimated embolism resistance, and possibly drought tolerance, for many species. This study highlights the necessity to reconsider past conclusions made about plant resistance to drought based on branch xylem only. This study also highlights the necessity for more research of whole-plant hydraulic physiology to better

  17. A test of the hydraulic vulnerability segmentation hypothesis in angiosperm and conifer tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel M; Wortemann, Remi; McCulloh, Katherine A; Jordan-Meille, Lionel; Ward, Eric; Warren, Jeffrey M; Palmroth, Sari; Domec, Jean-Christophe

    2016-08-01

    Water transport from soils to the atmosphere is critical for plant growth and survival. However, we have a limited understanding about many portions of the whole-tree hydraulic pathway, because the vast majority of published information is on terminal branches. Our understanding of mature tree trunk hydraulic physiology, in particular, is limited. The hydraulic vulnerability segmentation hypothesis (HVSH) stipulates that distal portions of the plant (leaves, branches and roots) should be more vulnerable to embolism than trunks, which are nonredundant organs that require a massive carbon investment. In the current study, we compared vulnerability to loss of hydraulic function, leaf and xylem water potentials and the resulting hydraulic safety margins (in relation to the water potential causing 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity) in leaves, branches, trunks and roots of four angiosperms and four conifer tree species. Across all species, our results supported strongly the HVSH as leaves and roots were less resistant to embolism than branches or trunks. However, branches were consistently more resistant to embolism than any other portion of the plant, including trunks. Also, calculated whole-tree vulnerability to hydraulic dysfunction was much greater than vulnerability in branches. This was due to hydraulic dysfunction in roots and leaves at less negative water potentials than those causing branch or trunk dysfunction. Leaves and roots had narrow or negative hydraulic safety margins, but trunks and branches maintained positive safety margins. By using branch-based hydraulic information as a proxy for entire plants, much research has potentially overestimated embolism resistance, and possibly drought tolerance, for many species. This study highlights the necessity to reconsider past conclusions made about plant resistance to drought based on branch xylem only. This study also highlights the necessity for more research of whole-plant hydraulic physiology to better

  18. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Neeraja M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Azadirachta indica (neem tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. Results The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. Conclusions This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides.

  19. Economic Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Measures: Tribal Case Studies with the Yurok Tribe, the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation, and the Pascua Yaqui Tribe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Thomas L.; Auberle, William M.; Eastwood, John D.; Laroche, David R.; Slack, Robert P.; Smith, Dean H.; Ormond, Amanda S.

    2005-01-01

    The results of three energy-efficiency case studies conducted with three different Native American tribes in the western United States is presented. The case studies demonstrate that energy-efficiency is economically feasible and has the potential to reduce air pollution, and can potentially help tribes meet other important tribal objectives.

  20. 侏罗纪的花化石与被子植物起源%Jurassic flower fossils and the origin of angiosperms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鑫; 刘仲健

    2015-01-01

    理解被子植物的历史对于人们了解现代被子植物之间的关系十分重要。以前欧美古植物学家认为,被子植物的历史不会早于白垩纪,使得被子植物看起来似乎是在白垩纪早期突然爆发的。但是分子钟和系统分析显示,被子植物应当早在三叠纪,至少在侏罗纪就已经出现了,但是问题的关键是相应化石证据的缺失。因此侏罗纪的花化石成为解决两个学派之间争斗的关键证据。本文简要地介绍了产出于中国辽西同一地层的、侏罗纪的三个被子植物属种及其特征,确认了被子植物在侏罗纪的存在,提出了新的被子植物雌蕊同源性理论,并为下一步植物系统学的发展打下了坚实的基础。%Understanding on the history of angiosperms is hinged with our appreciation of the relationship among extant angiosperms. Formerly European and American palaeobotanists believed that angiosperms cannot be older than the Cretaceous, leaving the origin of angiosperms as if a sudden explosion during the Early Cretaceous. But molecular clock and systematic analysis suggested that angiosperms should have been in place in the Triassic or at least the Jurassic, but this point of view lacked fossil support. Therefore the fates of angiosperm evolution hypotheses are hinged with the existence of fossilflowers in the Jurassic. Herein we introduce three taxa of angiosperms from a single Jurassic fossil locality in western Liaoning, China, confirming the existence of angiosperms in the Jurassic, advancing a new theory on the homology of angiosperm gynoecium, and paving the road for further development of plant systematics.

  1. Phylogenetic assemblage structure of North American trees is more strongly shaped by glacial-interglacial climate variability in gymnosperms than in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ziyu; Sandel, Brody; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-05-01

    How fast does biodiversity respond to climate change? The relationship of past and current climate with phylogenetic assemblage structure helps us to understand this question. Studies of angiosperm tree diversity in North America have already suggested effects of current water-energy balance and tropical niche conservatism. However, the role of glacial-interglacial climate variability remains to be determined, and little is known about any of these relationships for gymnosperms. Moreover, phylogenetic endemism, the concentration of unique lineages in restricted ranges, may also be related to glacial-interglacial climate variability and needs more attention. We used a refined phylogeny of both angiosperms and gymnosperms to map phylogenetic diversity, clustering and endemism of North American trees in 100-km grid cells, and climate change velocity since Last Glacial Maximum together with postglacial accessibility to recolonization to quantify glacial-interglacial climate variability. We found: (1) Current climate is the dominant factor explaining the overall patterns, with more clustered angiosperm assemblages toward lower temperature, consistent with tropical niche conservatism. (2) Long-term climate stability is associated with higher angiosperm endemism, while higher postglacial accessibility is linked to to more phylogenetic clustering and endemism in gymnosperms. (3) Factors linked to glacial-interglacial climate change have stronger effects on gymnosperms than on angiosperms. These results suggest that paleoclimate legacies supplement current climate in shaping phylogenetic patterns in North American trees, and especially so for gymnosperms.

  2. Inference of phylogenetic relationships among key angiosperm lineages using a compatibility method on a molecular data set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Long QIU; George F.ESTABROOK

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the five key angiosperm lineages,Ceratophyllum,Chloranthaceae,eudicots,magnoliids,and monocots,have resisted resolution despite several large-scale analyses sampling taxa and characters extensively and using various analytical methods.Meanwhile,compatibility methods,which were explored together with parsimony and likelihood methods during the early development stage of phylogenetics.have been greatly under-appreciated and not been used to analyze the massive amount of sequence data to reconstruct thye basal angiosperm phylogeny.In this study,we used a compatibility method on a data set of eight genes (mitochondrial atp1,matR,and nad5,plastid atpB,marK,rbcL,and rpoC2,and nuclear 18S rDNA)gathered in an earlier study.We selected two sets of characters that are compatible with more of the other characters than a random character would be with at probabilities of pM<0.1 and p<0.5 respectively.The resulting data matrices were subjected to parsimony and likelihood bootstrap analyses.Our unrooted parsimony analyses showed that Ceratophyllum was immediately related to eudicots,this larger lineage was immediately related to magnoliids,and monocots were closely related to Chloranthaceae.All these relationships received 76%-96% bootstrap support.A likelihood analysis of the 8 gene pM<0.5 compatible site matrix recovered the same topology but with low support.Likelihood analyses of other compatible site matrices produced different topologies that were all weakly supported.The topology reconstructed in the parsimony analyses agrees with the one recovered in the previous study using both parsimony and likelihood methods when no character was eliminated.Parts of this topology have also been recovered in several earlier studies.Hence,this topology plausibly reflects the true relationships among the five key angiosperm lineages.

  3. Nez Perce Tribe Energy Efficient Facilities Installation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Kinder

    2012-11-12

    Although Idaho's electrical rates are among the lowest in the country, the Nez Perce Tribe's electrical bills take a large bite out of the operating budget every year. Tribal programs are located in forty some buildings, in six counties, in two states. Ninety-five percent, or more, are heated electrically. The age of the Tribal office buildings located in Lapwai, Idaho vary from forty to over a hundred years old. Only sporadic updates, in the buildings themselves, have been made over the years. Working with the Tribe's electrical provider (Avista Corporation), it was determine that a minimum financial commitment could reap large rewards in the form of lower operating costs.

  4. Barcoding success as a function of phylogenetic relatedness in Viburnum, a clade of woody angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Wendy L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chloroplast genes matK and rbcL have been proposed as a “core” DNA barcode for identifying plant species. Published estimates of successful species identification using these loci (70-80% may be inflated because they may have involved comparisons among distantly related species within target genera. To assess the ability of the proposed two-locus barcode to discriminate closely related species, we carried out a hierarchically structured set of comparisons within Viburnum, a clade of woody angiosperms containing ca. 170 species (some 70 of which are currently used in horticulture. For 112 Viburnum species, we evaluated rbcL + matK, as well as the chloroplast regions rpl32-trnL, trnH-psbA, trnK, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (nrITS. Results At most, rbcL + matK could discriminate 53% of all Viburnum species, with only 18% of the comparisons having genetic distances >1%. When comparisons were progressively restricted to species within major Viburnum subclades, there was a significant decrease in both the discriminatory power and the genetic distances. trnH-psbA and nrITS show much higher levels of variation and potential discriminatory power, and their use in plant barcoding should be reconsidered. As barcoding has often been used to discriminate species within local areas, we also compared Viburnum species within two regions, Japan and Mexico and Central America. Greater success in discriminating among the Japanese species reflects the deeper evolutionary history of Viburnum in that area, as compared to the recent radiation of a single clade into the mountains of Latin America. Conclusions We found very low levels of discrimination among closely related species of Viburnum, and low levels of variation in the proposed barcoding loci may limit success within other clades of long-lived woody plants. Inclusion of the supplementary barcodes trnH-psbA and nrITS increased discrimination rates but

  5. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, Tiffany L. [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States); Sorter, Andy [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study (EEFS) is the culminating document that compiles the energy efficiency and building performance assessment and project prioritization process completed on 36 Tribally owned and operated facilities within Tribal lands. The EEFS contains sections on initial findings, utility billing analyses, energy conservation measures and prioritization and funding sources and strategies for energy project implementation.

  6. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, Tiffany L.; Sorter, Andy

    2015-01-13

    The Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study (EEFS) is the culminating document that compiles the energy efficiency and building performance assessment and project prioritization process completed on 36 Tribally owned and operated facilities within Tribal lands. The EEFS contains sections on initial findings, utility billing analyses, energy conservation measures and prioritization and funding sources and strategies for energy project implementation.

  7. Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Community-Scale Solar Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Jim [Parametrix; Knight, Tawnie [Ute Mountain Ute Tribe

    2014-01-30

    Parametrix Inc. conducted a feasibility study for the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe to determine whether or not a community-scale solar farm would be feasible for the community. The important part of the study was to find where the best fit for the solar farm could be. In the end, a 3MW community-scale solar farm was found best fit with the location of two hayfield sites.

  8. New cranial characters in the tribe Hydropsini (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Diego O. Di Pietro; Leandro Alcalde; Williams, Jorge D.

    2014-01-01

    We here describe the skull in four species of the three genera of the tribe Hydropsini (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae): Helicops infrataeniatus, H. leopardinus, Hydrops caesurus and Pseudoeryx plicatilis. We compare them with several genera of Dipsadidae. We found that the unpaired foramen on the parabasisphenoid with anterior position is the only skull feature shared by all Hydropsini genera. This feature also occurs in semi-aquatic (Erythrolamphrus semiaureus) and fully-aquatic (Faran...

  9. Revision of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae) in the Marquesas Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Warren Wagner; David Lorence

    2011-01-01

    Abstract During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands three new species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae) have come to light and are described herein: Coprosma fatuhivaensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, Coprosma meyeri W. L. Wagner & Lorence, and Coprosma temetiuensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence. Descriptions, illustrations, conservation status, and specimen citations are provided. Amended descriptions of three previously described Marquesan Coprosma species are also...

  10. Primary productivity of angiosperm and macroalgae dominated habitats in a New England Salt Marsh: a Comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, C. T.; Able, K. W.; Lazzari, M. A.; Heck, K. L.

    1990-01-01

    Net primary productivity estimates were made for the major macrophyte dominated habitats of the Nauset Marsh system, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Above-ground primary productivity of short form Spartina alterniflora, the dominant habitat of the system, was 664 g m -2 y -1. Productivity of the other dominant angiosperm ( Zostera marina) was estimated to range from 444-987 g m -2 y -1. The marsh creekbank habitat was dominated by an intertidal zone of fucoid algae ( Ascophyllum nodosum ecad. scorpioides, 1179 g m -2 y -1; Fucus vesiculosus, 426 g m -2 y -1), mixed intertidal filamentous algae (91 g m -2 y -1), and a subtidal zone of assorted macroalgae (68 g m -2 y -1). Intertidal mudflats were dominated by Cladophora gracilis, with net production ranging from 59-637 g m -2 y -1. These angiosperm and macrophyte and macrophyte dominated habitats produce over 3 × 10 6 kg y -1 of biomass (1·2 × 10 6 kg carbon y -1). Twenty-eight per cent (28%) of this carbon production is derived from the Zostera and macroalgae habitats. Although S. alterniflora is considered the major macrophyte primary producer in Nauset Marsh and other north temperate salt marshes, it is concluded that other habitats also contribute significantly to total system carbon production.

  11. Putting scales into evolutionary time: the divergence of major scale insect lineages (Hemiptera) predates the radiation of modern angiosperm hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vea, Isabelle M; Grimaldi, David A

    2016-01-01

    The radiation of flowering plants in the mid-Cretaceous transformed landscapes and is widely believed to have fuelled the radiations of major groups of phytophagous insects. An excellent group to test this assertion is the scale insects (Coccomorpha: Hemiptera), with some 8,000 described Recent species and probably the most diverse fossil record of any phytophagous insect group preserved in amber. We used here a total-evidence approach (by tip-dating) employing 174 morphological characters of 73 Recent and 43 fossil taxa (48 families) and DNA sequences of three gene regions, to obtain divergence time estimates and compare the chronology of the most diverse lineage of scale insects, the neococcoid families, with the timing of the main angiosperm radiation. An estimated origin of the Coccomorpha occurred at the beginning of the Triassic, about 245 Ma [228-273], and of the neococcoids 60 million years later [210-165 Ma]. A total-evidence approach allows the integration of extinct scale insects into a phylogenetic framework, resulting in slightly younger median estimates than analyses using Recent taxa, calibrated with fossil ages only. From these estimates, we hypothesise that most major lineages of coccoids shifted from gymnosperms onto angiosperms when the latter became diverse and abundant in the mid- to Late Cretaceous.

  12. Global DNA cytosine methylation as an evolving trait: phylogenetic signal and correlated evolution with genome size in Angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conchita eAlonso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA cytosine methylation is a widespread epigenetic mechanism in eukaryotes, and plant genomes commonly are densely methylated. Genomic methylation can be associated with functional consequences such as mutational events, genomic instability or altered gene expression, but little is known on interspecific variation in global cytosine methylation in plants. In this paper, we compare global cytosine methylation estimates obtained by HPLC and use a phylogenetically-informed analytical approach to test for significance of evolutionary signatures of this trait across 54 angiosperm species in 25 families. We evaluate whether interspecific variation in global cytosine methylation is statistically related to phylogenetic distance and also whether it is evolutionarily correlated with genome size (C-value. Global cytosine methylation varied widely between species, ranging between 5.3% (Arabidopsis and 39.2% (Narcissus. Differences between species were related to their evolutionary trajectories, as denoted by the strong phylogenetic signal underlying interspecific variation. Global cytosine methylation and genome size were evolutionarily correlated, as revealed by the significant relationship between the corresponding phylogenetically independent contrasts. On average, a ten-fold increase in genome size entailed an increase of about 10% in global cytosine methylation. Results show that global cytosine methylation is an evolving trait in angiosperms whose evolutionary trajectory is significantly linked to changes in genome size, and suggest that the evolutionary implications of epigenetic mechanisms are likely to vary between plant lineages.

  13. Phylogenetic assemblage structure of North American trees is more strongly shaped by glacial–interglacial climate variability in gymnosperms than in angiosperms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ziyu; Sandel, Brody Steven; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    How fast does biodiversity respond to climate change? The relationship of past and current climate with phylogenetic assemblage structure helps us to understand this question. Studies of angiosperm tree diversity in North America have already suggested effects of current water-energy balance......-interglacial climate variability and needs more attention. We used a refined phylogeny of both angiosperms and gymnosperms to map phylogenetic diversity, clustering and endemism of North American trees in 100-km grid cells, and climate change velocity since Last Glacial Maximum together with postglacial accessibility...... that paleoclimate legacies supplement current climate in shaping phylogenetic patterns in North American trees, and especially so for gymnosperms....

  14. Engaging Southwestern Tribes in Sustainable Water Resources Topics and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karletta Chief

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples in North America have a long history of understanding their societies as having an intimate relationship with their physical environments. Their cultures, traditions, and identities are based on the ecosystems and sacred places that shape their world. Their respect for their ancestors and ‘Mother Earth’ speaks of unique value and knowledge systems different than the value and knowledge systems of the dominant United States settler society. The value and knowledge systems of each indigenous and non-indigenous community are different but collide when water resources are endangered. One of the challenges that face indigenous people regarding the management of water relates to their opposition to the commodification of water for availability to select individuals. External researchers seeking to work with indigenous peoples on water research or management must learn how to design research or water management projects that respect indigenous cultural contexts, histories of interactions with settler governments and researchers, and the current socio-economic and political situations in which indigenous peoples are embedded. They should pay particular attention to the process of collaborating on water resource topics and management with and among indigenous communities while integrating Western and indigenous sciences in ways that are beneficial to both knowledge systems. The objectives of this paper are to (1 to provide an overview of the context of current indigenous water management issues, especially for the U.S. federally recognized tribes in the Southwestern United States; (2 to synthesize approaches to engage indigenous persons, communities, and governments on water resources topics and management; and (3 to compare the successes of engaging Southwestern tribes in five examples to highlight some significant activities for collaborating with tribes on water resources research and management. In discussing the engagement

  15. Phylogeny of the herbaceous tribe spermacoceae (rubiaceae) based on plastid dna data

    OpenAIRE

    Groeninckx, Inge; Dessein, Steven; Ochoterena, Helga; Person, Clases; MOTLEY, TIMOTHY J.; Karehed, Jesper; Bremer, Birgitta; Huysmans, Suzy; Smets, Eric

    2009-01-01

    In its current circumscription, the herbaceous tribe Spermacoceae s.l. (Rubiaceae, Rubioideae) unites the former tribes Spermacoceae s. str., Maneltieae, and the Hedyotis-Oldenlandia group. Within Spermacoceae, an(] particularly within the Hedyotis-Oldenlandia group, the generic delimitations tire problematic. Up until now, molecular studies have focused on specific taxonomic problems within the tribe. This study is the first to address phylogenetic relationships within Spermacoceae front a t...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.16 - What criteria must a Tribe/Consortium satisfy to be eligible for admission to the “applicant pool”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .../Consortium satisfy to be eligible for admission to the “applicant pool”? To be admitted into the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must either be an Indian Tribe or a Consortium of Indian Tribes and...

  17. Cytogenetics of Chilean angiosperms: Advances and prospects Citogenética de angiospermas chilenas: Avances y proyecciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO JARA-SEGUEL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic data on Chilean angiosperms have been reported since at least eight decades ago; however, much of this information is disperse in diverse sources and is not readily available as a comprehensive document that allows having a general vision on advances and gaps in this matter. The goal of this paper is to summarize the advances and prospets on cytogenetic studies of the Chilean angiosperms based on compiled publications from 1929 to 2010. We found 78 publications supplied by four groups of Chilean researchers and some foreign specialists. Cytogenetic data have been reported for 139 Chilean angiosperm species (2.8 % of the total, which belong to 58 genera and 34 families. During 2001-2010 there was an increase in the number of publications, being available 40 reports including 95 additional species. Based on these data, we hope that such a trend can be maintained in the next decade if the current research groups and young specialists continue to be interested in the study of native plants.Los datos citogenéticos sobre angiospermas chilenas han sido reportados desde al menos ocho décadas atrás; sin embargo, mucha de esta información está dispersa en diversas fuentes y no está disponible como un documento completo que permita tener una visión general sobre los avances y vacíos en esta materia. El objetivo de este trabajo es resumir los avances y proyecciones sobre los estudios citogenéticos disponibles para angiospermas chilenas, basado en publicaciones recopiladas desde 1929 hasta el 2010. Nosotros encontramos 78 publicaciones aportadas por cuatro grupos de investigadores chilenos y por algunos especialistas extranjeros. Datos citogenéticos han sido reportados para 139 especies de angiospermas chilenas (2.8 % del total, las cuales pertenecen a 58 géneros y 34 familias. Durante los años 2001-2010, existió un incremento en el número de publicaciones estando disponibles 40 reportes que incluyen 95 especies adicionales. Basados

  18. Geranyllinalool synthases in solanaceae and other angiosperms constitute an ancient branch of diterpene synthases involved in the synthesis of defensive compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Falara; J.M. Alba; M.R. Kant; R.C. Schuurink; E. Pichersky

    2014-01-01

    Many angiosperm plants, including basal dicots, eudicots, and monocots, emit (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene, which is derived from geranyllinalool, in response to biotic challenge. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) geranyllinalool synthase (GLS) belonging to the e/f clade of the

  19. The complete nucleotide sequence of the coffee (Coffea arabica L.) chloroplast genome: organization and implications for biotechnology and phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chloroplast genome sequence of Coffea arabica L., first member of family Rubiaceae (fourth largest family of angiosperms) is reported. The genome is 155,189 bp in length, including a pair of inverted repeats of 25,943 bp, separated by a small single copy region of 18,137 bp and a large single co...

  20. Skin color variation in Orang Asli tribes of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai C Ang

    Full Text Available Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10-20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest to 75 (darkest; both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively. Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes.

  1. Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin Energy Optimization Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troge, Michael [Little Bear Development Center, Oneida, WI (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Oneida Nation is located in Northeast Wisconsin. The reservation is approximately 96 square miles (8 miles x 12 miles), or 65,000 acres. The greater Green Bay area is east and adjacent to the reservation. A county line roughly splits the reservation in half; the west half is in Outagamie County and the east half is in Brown County. Land use is predominantly agriculture on the west 2/3 and suburban on the east 1/3 of the reservation. Nearly 5,000 tribally enrolled members live in the reservation with a total population of about 21,000. Tribal ownership is scattered across the reservation and is about 23,000 acres. Currently, the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin (OTIW) community members and facilities receive the vast majority of electrical and natural gas services from two of the largest investor-owned utilities in the state, WE Energies and Wisconsin Public Service. All urban and suburban buildings have access to natural gas. About 15% of the population and five Tribal facilities are in rural locations and therefore use propane as a primary heating fuel. Wood and oil are also used as primary or supplemental heat sources for a small percent of the population. Very few renewable energy systems, used to generate electricity and heat, have been installed on the Oneida Reservation. This project was an effort to develop a reasonable renewable energy portfolio that will help Oneida to provide a leadership role in developing a clean energy economy. The Energy Optimization Model (EOM) is an exploration of energy opportunities available to the Tribe and it is intended to provide a decision framework to allow the Tribe to make the wisest choices in energy investment with an organizational desire to establish a renewable portfolio standard (RPS).

  2. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck var 'Ridge Pineapple': organization and phylogenetic relationships to other angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Robert K

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of Citrus, the largest fruit crop of international economic value, has recently been imperiled due to the introduction of the bacterial disease Citrus canker. No significant improvements have been made to combat this disease by plant breeding and nuclear transgenic approaches. Chloroplast genetic engineering has a number of advantages over nuclear transformation; it not only increases transgene expression but also facilitates transgene containment, which is one of the major impediments for development of transgenic trees. We have sequenced the Citrus chloroplast genome to facilitate genetic improvement of this crop and to assess phylogenetic relationships among major lineages of angiosperms. Results The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Citrus sinensis is 160,129 bp in length, and contains 133 genes (89 protein-coding, 4 rRNAs and 30 distinct tRNAs. Genome organization is very similar to the inferred ancestral angiosperm chloroplast genome. However, in Citrus the infA gene is absent. The inverted repeat region has expanded to duplicate rps19 and the first 84 amino acids of rpl22. The rpl22 gene in the IRb region has a nonsense mutation resulting in 9 stop codons. This was confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing using primers that flank the IR/LSC boundaries. Repeat analysis identified 29 direct and inverted repeats 30 bp or longer with a sequence identity ≥ 90%. Comparison of protein-coding sequences with expressed sequence tags revealed six putative RNA edits, five of which resulted in non-synonymous modifications in petL, psbH, ycf2 and ndhA. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony (MP and maximum likelihood (ML methods of a dataset composed of 61 protein-coding genes for 30 taxa provide strong support for the monophyly of several major clades of angiosperms, including monocots, eudicots, rosids and asterids. The MP and ML trees are incongruent in three areas: the position of Amborella and

  3. Influences of evergreen gymnosperm and deciduous angiosperm tree species on the functioning of temperate and boreal forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augusto, Laurent; De Schrijver, An; Vesterdal, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    It has been recognized for a long time that the overstorey composition of a forest partly determines its biological and physical-chemical functioning. Here, we review evidence of the influence of evergreen gymnosperm (EG) tree species and deciduous angiosperm (DA) tree species on the water balance...... and processes that require further research. Relatively larger amounts of nutrients enter the soil-plant biogeochemical cycle under the influence of EGs than DAs, but recycling of nutrients appears to be slightly enhanced by DAs. Understanding the mechanisms underlying forest ecosystem functioning is essential...... of their tissues, higher soil moisture and favourable conditions for earthworms. Forest floors consequently tend to be thicker in EG forests compared to DA forests. Many factors, such as litter lignin content, influence litter decomposition and it is difficult to identify specific litter-quality parameters...

  4. Evolution and Floral Development in Wax Palms (Ceroxylon) and Vegetable Ivory Palms (Tribe Phytelepheae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders S.; Stauffer, Fred W.; Balhara, Manju;

    To most palm systematists it came as a surprise when molecular evidence pointed to a sister group relationship between the tribe Ceroxyleae in the subfamily Ceroxyloideae and the Phytelephantoid palms formerly referred to a subfamily of their own, now placed in the tribe Phytelepheae. Here we com...

  5. The systematic wood anatomy of the Moraceae (Urticales) I. Tribe Castilleae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the tribe Castilleae sensu Berg is described. Similarities and differences are discussed in relation to his concepts of the taxonomy of the tribe. The wood anatomical variation does not enable to distinguish between Maquira, Perebea and Pseudolmedia. Antiaris, Castilla, Helicosty

  6. 30 CFR 756.17 - Approval of the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... procurement; Part XI—Management accounting; sections 884.13(e) (1), (2), and (3)—Purpose of Hopi Tribe plan... Memorandum from the Hopi Tribe Office of Financial Management to DNR dated September 7, 1995—Purchasing... Figure 5; Preface to Amended Reclamation Plan—Introductory paragraph, program goals and objectives,...

  7. 77 FR 50121 - Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes National Indian Health Outreach and Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes National Indian... Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes on the National Indian Health Outreach and Education... national Indian organization plans to demonstrate improved health education and outreach services to...

  8. 77 FR 50128 - Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes; National Indian Health Outreach and Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes; National Indian... Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes on the National Indian Health Outreach and Education... national Indian organization plans to demonstrate improved health education and outreach services to...

  9. Unfinished Justice: Completing the Restoration and Acknowledgement of California Indian Tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagle, Allogan

    1989-01-01

    Examines circumstances of Californian Indians' unacknowledged and terminated tribes, the legal history and current status of their claims, and cultural and economic problems facing many tribes. Recommends a study of California Indian conditions leading to appropriate comprehensive federal legislation. Includes lists of restoration and…

  10. 76 FR 72969 - Proclaiming Certain Lands as Reservation for the Fort Sill Apache Indian Tribe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Proclaiming Certain Lands as Reservation for the Fort Sill Apache Indian Tribe... acres, more or less, as the Fort Sill Apache Indian Reservation for the Fort Sill Apache Tribe of... Apache Indian Reservation for the exclusive use of Indians entitled by enrollment or by tribal...

  11. 40 CFR 35.6110 - Indian Tribe-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Remedial Response Cooperative Agreements § 35.6110 Indian Tribe-lead... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian Tribe-lead remedial...

  12. 25 CFR 115.817 - How does OTFM disburse money to a tribe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does OTFM disburse money to a tribe? 115.817 Section 115.817 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS... OTFM disburse money to a tribe? Upon receipt of all necessary documentation, OTFM will process...

  13. Identifying the Basal Angiosperm Node in Chloroplast GenomePhylogenies: Sampling One's Way Out of the Felsenstein Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leebens-Mack, Jim; Raubeson, Linda A.; Cui, Liying; Kuehl,Jennifer V.; Fourcade, Matthew H.; Chumley, Timothy W.; Boore, JeffreyL.; Jansen, Robert K.; dePamphilis, Claude W.

    2005-05-27

    While there has been strong support for Amborella and Nymphaeales (water lilies) as branching from basal-most nodes in the angiosperm phylogeny, this hypothesis has recently been challenged by phylogenetic analyses of 61 protein-coding genes extracted from the chloroplast genome sequences of Amborella, Nymphaea and 12 other available land plant chloroplast genomes. These character-rich analyses placed the monocots, represented by three grasses (Poaceae), as sister to all other extant angiosperm lineages. We have extracted protein-coding regions from draft sequences for six additional chloroplast genomes to test whether this surprising result could be an artifact of long-branch attraction due to limited taxon sampling. The added taxa include three monocots (Acorus, Yucca and Typha), a water lily (Nuphar), a ranunculid(Ranunculus), and a gymnosperm (Ginkgo). Phylogenetic analyses of the expanded DNA and protein datasets together with microstructural characters (indels) provided unambiguous support for Amborella and the Nymphaeales as branching from the basal-most nodes in the angiospermphylogeny. However, their relative positions proved to be dependent on method of analysis, with parsimony favoring Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, and maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining methods favoring an Amborella + Nympheales clade as sister. The maximum likelihood phylogeny supported the later hypothesis, but the likelihood for the former hypothesis was not significantly different. Parametric bootstrap analysis, single gene phylogenies, estimated divergence dates and conflicting in del characters all help to illuminate the nature of the conflict in resolution of the most basal nodes in the angiospermphylogeny. Molecular dating analyses provided median age estimates of 161 mya for the most recent common ancestor of all extant angiosperms and 145 mya for the most recent common ancestor of monocots, magnoliids andeudicots. Whereas long sequences reduce variance in

  14. Noncoding sequences from the slowly evolving chloroplast inverted repeat in addition to rbcL data do not support gnetalean affinities of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goremykin, V; Bobrova, V; Pahnke, J; Troitsky, A; Antonov, A; Martin, W

    1996-02-01

    We developed PCR primers against highly conserved regions of the rRNA operon located within the inverted repeat of the chloroplast genome and used these to amplify the region spanning from the 3' terminus of the 23S rRNA gene to the 5' terminus of the 5S rRNA gene. The sequence of this roughly 500-bp region, which includes the 4.5S rRNA gene and two chloroplast intergenic transcribed spacer regions (cpITS2 and cpITS3), was determined from 20 angiosperms, 7 gymnosperms, and 16 ferns (21,700 bp). Sequences for the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL) from the same or confamilial genera were analyzed in both separate and combined data sets. Due to the low substitution rate in the inverted repeat region, noncoding sequences in the cpITS region are not saturated with substitutions, in contrast to synonymous sites in rbcL, which are shown to evolve roughly six times faster than noncoding cpITS sequences. Several length polymorphisms with very clear phylogenetic distributions were detected in the data set. Results of phylogenetic analyses provide very strong bootstrap support for monophyly of both spermatophytes and angiosperms. No support for a sister group relationship between Gnetales and angiosperms in either cpITS or rbcL data was found. Rather, weak bootstrap support for monophyly of gymnosperms studied and for a basal position for the aquatic angiosperm Nymphaea among angiosperms studied was observed. Noncoding sequences from the inverted repeat region of chloroplast DNA appear suitable for study of land plant evolution.

  15. Scaling of stomatal size and density optimizes allocation of leaf epidermal space for gas exchange in angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hugo Jan; Price, Charles A.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Dekker, Stefan C.; Franks, Peter J.; Veneklaas, Erik J.

    2015-04-01

    Stomata on plant leaves are key traits in the regulation of terrestrial fluxes of water and carbon. The basic morphology of stomata consists of a diffusion pore and two guard cells that regulate the exchange of CO2 and water vapour between the leaf interior and the atmosphere. This morphology is common to nearly all land plants, yet stomatal size (defined as the area of the guard cell pair) and stomatal density (the number of stomata per unit area) range over three orders of magnitude across species. Evolution of stomatal sizes and densities is driven by selection pressure on the anatomical maximum stomatal conductance (gsmax), which determines the operational range of leaf gas exchange. Despite the importance of stomata traits for regulating leaf gas exchange, a quantitative understanding of the relation between adaptation of gsmax and the underlying co-evolution of stomatal sizes and densities is still lacking. Here we develop a theoretical framework for a scaling relationship between stomatal sizes and densities within the constraints set by the allocation of epidermal space and stomatal gas exchange. Our theory predicts an optimal scaling relationship that maximizes gsmax and minimizes epidermal space allocation to stomata. We test whether stomatal sizes and densities reflect this optimal scaling with a global compilation of stomatal trait data on 923 species reflecting most major clades. Our results show optimal scaling between stomatal sizes and densities across all species in the compiled data set. Our results also show optimal stomatal scaling across angiosperm species, but not across gymnosperm and fern species. We propose that the evolutionary flexibility of angiosperms to adjust stomatal sizes underlies their optimal allocation of leaf epidermal space to gas exchange.

  16. Ailing and treatment seeking behavior of schedule tribes of Madhya Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarda Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The highest percentages of tribes are living in North East region of India and in Madhya Pradesh in the central India. This study is based on the NSSO 60 th round data, with the two objectives - Tribal′s ailing and hospitalization pattern and treatment seeking behavior of ailing Madhya Pradesh and India. Result shows that around 7% of Indian tribes were ailing 15 days before the survey and about 10% of them were hospitalized during 365 days before the survey. Rural tribes were more ailing and went to hospital for treatment than urban tribes. Odds ratio show that rural, male, old-aged, educated up to primary, not in labor force, currently married, and Hindu tribes were more likely to be hospitalized in Madhya Pradesh. Odds ratio also depicts that the household that have no drainage, used water from tube well and hand pump were more likely to be ailing.

  17. 25 CFR 170.301 - Can a tribe use IRR Program funds to leverage other funds or pay back loans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or pay back loans? 170.301 Section 170.301 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Financing § 170.301 Can a tribe use IRR Program funds to leverage other funds or pay back loans? (a) A tribe can use IRR Program funds to leverage other funds. (b) A tribe can use IRR Program funds to pay...

  18. 25 CFR 900.153 - Does an Indian tribe or tribal organization have any options besides an appeal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Suspension, Withholding Or Delay in Payment § 900.153 Does an Indian tribe or tribal organization have any options besides an appeal? Yes. The Indian tribe or tribal organization may request an informal conference... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does an Indian tribe or tribal organization have...

  19. 45 CFR 309.75 - What administrative and management procedures must a Tribe or Tribal organization include in a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a Tribe or Tribal organization include in a Tribal IV-D plan? 309.75 Section 309.75 Public Welfare... procedures must a Tribe or Tribal organization include in a Tribal IV-D plan? A Tribe or Tribal organization... section: (a) A description of the structure of the IV-D agency and the distribution of...

  20. 42 CFR 137.286 - Do Self-Governance Tribes become Federal agencies when they assume these Federal environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Self-Governance Tribes are required to assume Federal environmental responsibilities for projects in... performing these Federal environmental responsibilities, Self-Governance Tribes will be considered the... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do Self-Governance Tribes become Federal...

  1. 42 CFR 137.292 - How do Self-Governance Tribes assume environmental responsibilities for construction projects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do Self-Governance Tribes assume environmental...-Governance Tribes assume environmental responsibilities for construction projects under section 509 of the Act ? Self-Governance Tribes assume environmental responsibilities by: (a) Adopting a resolution...

  2. 42 CFR 137.304 - May Self-Governance Tribes buy back environmental services from the IHS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes buy back environmental...-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.304 May Self-Governance Tribes buy back environmental services from the IHS? Yes, Self-Governance Tribes may “buy back” project related services in their...

  3. 42 CFR 137.66 - May a Self-Governance Tribe keep interest earned on statutorily mandated grant funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe keep interest earned on...-GOVERNANCE Statutorily Mandated Grants § 137.66 May a Self-Governance Tribe keep interest earned on statutorily mandated grant funds? Yes, a Self-Governance Tribe may keep Interest Earned on...

  4. 42 CFR 137.160 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address potential conflicts of interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address...-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Conflicts of Interest § 137.160 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address potential conflicts of interest? Yes, self-Governance Tribes participating in...

  5. 42 CFR 137.178 - May Self-Governance Tribes store patient records at the Federal Records Centers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes store patient records at... SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Records § 137.178 May Self-Governance Tribes store patient records at the Federal Records Centers? Yes, at the option of a Self-Governance Tribe, patient records...

  6. 42 CFR 137.16 - What if more than 50 Indian Tribes apply to participate in self-governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... participate in self-governance? 137.16 Section 137.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-GOVERNANCE Selection of Indian Tribes for Participation in Self-Governance § 137.16 What if more than 50 Indian Tribes apply to participate in self-governance? The first Indian Tribes who apply and...

  7. 25 CFR 900.232 - What must an Indian tribe or tribal organization do if an organizational conflict of interest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... What must an Indian tribe or tribal organization do if an organizational conflict of interest arises... conflict of interest, the Indian tribe or tribal organization must immediately disclose the conflict to the... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must an Indian tribe or tribal organization do if...

  8. 25 CFR 900.233 - When must an Indian tribe or tribal organization regulate its employees or subcontractors to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Conflicts of Interest § 900.233 When must an Indian tribe or tribal organization regulate its employees or subcontractors to avoid a personal conflict of interest? An Indian tribe or tribal organization must maintain... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When must an Indian tribe or tribal organization...

  9. Solar Feasibility Study May 2013 - San Carlos Apache Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Jim [Parametrix; Duncan, Ken [San Carlos Apache Tribe; Albert, Steve [Parametrix

    2013-05-01

    The San Carlos Apache Tribe (Tribe) in the interests of strengthening tribal sovereignty, becoming more energy self-sufficient, and providing improved services and economic opportunities to tribal members and San Carlos Apache Reservation (Reservation) residents and businesses, has explored a variety of options for renewable energy development. The development of renewable energy technologies and generation is consistent with the Tribe’s 2011 Strategic Plan. This Study assessed the possibilities for both commercial-scale and community-scale solar development within the southwestern portions of the Reservation around the communities of San Carlos, Peridot, and Cutter, and in the southeastern Reservation around the community of Bylas. Based on the lack of any commercial-scale electric power transmission between the Reservation and the regional transmission grid, Phase 2 of this Study greatly expanded consideration of community-scale options. Three smaller sites (Point of Pines, Dudleyville/Winkleman, and Seneca Lake) were also evaluated for community-scale solar potential. Three building complexes were identified within the Reservation where the development of site-specific facility-scale solar power would be the most beneficial and cost-effective: Apache Gold Casino/Resort, Tribal College/Skill Center, and the Dudleyville (Winkleman) Casino.

  10. Astronomy of two Indian tribes: Banjaras and Kolams

    CERN Document Server

    Vahia, Mayank N; Menon, Kishore; Calamur, Harini

    2014-01-01

    We report field studies of the astronomical beliefs of two Indian tribes: the Banjaras and the Kolams. The Banjaras are an ancient tribe connected with the gypsies of Europe while the Kolams have been foragers until recently. They share their landscape with each other and also with the Gonds whose astronomy was reported previously (Vahia and Halkare, 2013). The primary profession of the Banjaras was trade, based on the large-scale movement of goods over long distances, but their services were taken over by the railways about one hundred years ago. Since then the Banjaras have begun the long journey to a sedentary lifestyle. Meanwhile, the Kolams were foragers until about fifty years ago when the Government of India began to help them lead a settled life. Here, we compare their astronomical beliefs of the Banjaras and the Kolams, which indicate the strong sense of identity that each community possesses. Our study also highlights their perspective about the sky and its relation to their daily lives. We show tha...

  11. Eleven Tribes Jump START Clean Energy Projects, Summer 2012 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    This newsletter describes key activities of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs for Summer 2012. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) has selected 11 Tribes - five in Alaska and six in the contiguous United States - to receive on-the-ground technical support for community-based energy efficiency and renewable energy projects as part of DOE-IE's Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program. START finalists were selected based on the clarity of their requests for technical assistance and the ability of START to successfully work with their projects or community. Technical experts from DOE and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will work directly with community-based project teams to analyze local energy issues and assist the Tribes in moving their projects forward. In Alaska, the effort will be bolstered by DOE-IE's partnership with the Denali Commission, which will provide additional assistance and expertise, as well as funding to fuel the Alaska START initiative.

  12. 42 CFR 137.248 - What effect will a retrocession have on a retroceding Self-Governance Tribe's rights to contract...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Tribe may request; and (c) Any future request by such Self-Governance Tribe or an Indian Tribe to... retroceding Self-Governance Tribe's rights to contract or compact under the Act? 137.248 Section 137.248..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Retrocession § 137.248 What effect will...

  13. Revision of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae in the Marquesas Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Wagner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands three new species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae have come to light and are described herein: C. fatuhivaensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, C. meyeri W. L. Wagner & Lorence, and C. temetiuensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence. Descriptions, illustrations, conservation status, and specimen citations are provided. Amended descriptions of three previously described Marquesan Coprosma species are also provided as well as a key to the species, four of which fall into the Critically Endangered (CR and two into the Endangered (EN category. With the description of these the new species, Coprosma becomes the sixth largest lineage in the Marquesas Islands with six species after Psychotria (one lineage which has 9 spp., Cyrtandra (8 spp., Bidens (8 spp., and Melicope (7 spp., and Ixora (7 spp..

  14. Bleeding disorders in the tribe: result of consanguineous in breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhany Munira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the frequency and clinical features of bleeding disorders in the tribe as a result of consanguineous marriages. Design Cross Sectional Study Introduction Countries in which consanguinity is a normal practice, these rare autosomal recessive disorders run in close families and tribes. Here we describe a family, living in village Ali Murad Chandio, District Badin, labeled as haemophilia. Patients & Methods Our team visited the village & developed the pedigree of the whole extended family, up to seven generations. Performa was filled by incorporating patients, family history of bleeding, signs & symptoms, and bleeding from any site. From them 144 individuals were screened with CBC, bleeding time, platelet aggregation studies & RiCoF. While for PT, APTT, VWF assay and Factor VIII assay, samples were kept frozen at -70 degrees C until tested. Results The family tree of the seven generations comprises of 533 individuals, 63 subjects died over a period of 20 years and 470 were alive. Out of all those 144 subjects were selected on the basis of the bleeding history. Among them 98(68.1% were diagnosed to have a bleeding disorder; 44.9% patients were male and 55.1% patients were female. Median age of all the patients was 20.81, range (4 months- 80 yrs. The results of bleeding have shown that majority had gum bleeding, epistaxis and menorrhagia. Most common bleeding disorder was Von Willebrand disease and Platelet functional disorders. Conclusion Consanguineous marriages keep all the beneficial and adversely affecting recessive genes within the family; in homozygous states. These genes express themselves and result in life threatening diseases. Awareness, education & genetic counseling will be needed to prevent the spread of such common occurrence of these bleeding disorders in the community.

  15. Ailing and treatment seeking behavior of schedule tribes of Madhya Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sarda Prasad

    2014-01-01

    The highest percentages of tribes are living in North East region of India and in Madhya Pradesh in the central India. This study is based on the NSSO 60 th round data, with the two objectives - Tribal′s ailing and hospitalization pattern and treatment seeking behavior of ailing Madhya Pradesh and India. Result shows that around 7% of Indian tribes were ailing 15 days before the survey and about 10% of them were hospitalized during 365 days before the survey. Rural tribes were more ailing and...

  16. Early Angiosperm Flowers and Angiosperm Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Else Marie; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Boletim de Resumos XXIV Congresso Brasileiro de Paleontologia pp43 Paleontoiogi em Destaque Edicao especial-Agosto,2015......Boletim de Resumos XXIV Congresso Brasileiro de Paleontologia pp43 Paleontoiogi em Destaque Edicao especial-Agosto,2015...

  17. Conservation of the abscission signaling peptide IDA during Angiosperm evolution: withstanding genome duplications and gain and loss of the receptors HAE/HSL2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida M. Stø

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The peptide INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA, which signals through the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases HAESA (HAE and HAESA-LIKE2 (HSL2, controls different cell separation events in Arabidopsis thaliana. We hypothesize the involvement of this signaling module in abscission processes in other plant species even though they may shed other organs than A. thaliana. As the first step towards testing this hypothesis from an evolutionarily perspective we have identified genes encoding putative orthologues of IDA and its receptors by BLAST searches of publically available protein, nucleotide and genome databases for angiosperms. Genes encoding IDA or IDA-LIKE (IDL peptides and HSL proteins were found in all investigated species, which were selected as to represent each angiosperm order with available genomic sequences. The 12 amino acids representing the bioactive peptide in A. thaliana have virtually been unchanged throughout the evolution of the angiosperms; however, the number of IDL and HSL genes varies between different orders and species. The phylogenetic analyses suggest that IDA, HSL2 and the related HSL1 gene, were present in the species that gave rise to the angiosperms. HAE has arisen from HSL1 after a genome duplication that took place after the monocot - eudicots split. HSL1 has also independently been duplicated in the monocots, while HSL2 has been lost in gingers (Zingiberales and grasses (Poales. IDA has been duplicated in eudicots to give rise to functionally divergent IDL peptides. We postulate that the high number of IDL homologs present in the core eudicots is a result of multiple whole genome duplications. We substantiate the involvement of IDA and HAE/HSL2 homologs in abscission by providing gene expression data of different organ separation events from various species.

  18. New Records of Angiosperm from Inner Mongolia, China%内蒙古被子植物分布新资料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵利清; 王乐; 包萨如拉; 庞哲

    2012-01-01

    报道了内蒙古1个新分布记录属:粟草属(Milium L.);2个新分布记录种:翅柄车前(Plantago komarovii Pavl.)和粟草(Milium effusum L.).%New records of angiosperm taxa in Inner Mongolia are reported. Among those, Milium L. is a newly recorded genus,Plantago komarovii Pavl. and Milium effusum L. are two newly recorded species.

  19. A gene family derived from transposable elements during early angiosperm evolution has reproductive fitness benefits in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoé Joly-Lopez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of ever-growing numbers of sequenced eukaryotic genomes will not be fully realized until we learn to decipher vast stretches of noncoding DNA, largely composed of transposable elements. Transposable elements persist through self-replication, but some genes once encoded by transposable elements have, through a process called molecular domestication, evolved new functions that increase fitness. Although they have conferred numerous adaptations, the number of such domesticated transposable element genes remains unknown, so their evolutionary and functional impact cannot be fully assessed. Systematic searches that exploit genomic signatures of natural selection have been employed to identify potential domesticated genes, but their predictions have yet to be experimentally verified. To this end, we investigated a family of domesticated genes called MUSTANG (MUG, identified in a previous bioinformatic search of plant genomes. We show that MUG genes are functional. Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana MUG genes yield phenotypes with severely reduced plant fitness through decreased plant size, delayed flowering, abnormal development of floral organs, and markedly reduced fertility. MUG genes are present in all flowering plants, but not in any non-flowering plant lineages, such as gymnosperms, suggesting that the molecular domestication of MUG may have been an integral part of early angiosperm evolution. This study shows that systematic searches can be successful at identifying functional genetic elements in noncoding regions and demonstrates how to combine systematic searches with reverse genetics in a fruitful way to decipher eukaryotic genomes.

  20. Moisture availability constraints on the leaf area to sapwood area ratio: analysis of measurements on Australian evergreen angiosperm trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Henrique; Prentice, Colin; Evans, Bradley; Forrester, David; Drake, Paul; Feikema, Paul; Brooksbank, Kim; Eamus, Derek; Taylor, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The leaf area to sapwood area ratio (LA:SA) is a key plant trait that links photosynthesis to transpiration. Pipe model theory states that the sapwood cross-sectional area of a stem or branch at any point should scale isometrically with the area of leaves distal to that point. Optimization theory further suggests that LA:SA should decrease towards drier climates. Although acclimation of LA:SA to climate has been reported within species, much less is known about the scaling of this trait with climate among species. We compiled LA:SA measurements from 184 species of Australian evergreen angiosperm trees. The pipe model was broadly confirmed, based on measurements on branches and trunks of trees from one to 27 years old. We found considerable scatter in LA:SA among species. However quantile regression showed strong (0.2

  1. Patterns of ROS Accumulation in the Stigmas of Angiosperms and Visions into Their Multi-Functionality in Plant Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, Adoración; Rejón, Juan D; Hiscock, Simon J; Alché, Juan de Dios

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the stigma of several plant species has been investigated. Four developmental stages (unopened flower buds, recently opened flowers, dehiscent anthers, and flowers after fertilization) were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy using the ROS-specific probe DCFH2-DA. In all plants scrutinized, the presence of ROS in the stigmas was detected at higher levels during those developmental phases considered "receptive" to pollen interaction. In addition, these molecules were also present at early (unopened flower) or later (post-fertilization) stages, by following differential patterns depending on the different species. The biological significance of the presence ROS may differ between these stages, including defense functions, signaling and senescence. Pollen-stigma signaling is likely involved in the different mechanisms of self-incompatibility in these plants. The study also register a general decrease in the presence of ROS in the stigmas upon pollination, when NO is supposedly produced in an active manner by pollen grains. Finally, the distribution of ROS in primitive Angiosperms of the genus Magnolia was determined. The production of such chemical species in these plants was several orders of magnitude higher than in the remaining species evoking a massive displacement toward the defense function. This might indicate that signaling functions of ROS/NO in the stigma evolved later, as fine tune likely involved in specialized interactions like self-incompatibility. PMID:27547207

  2. Perfume-collecting male euglossine bees as pollinators of a basal angiosperm: the case of Unonopsis stipitata (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, H; Dötterl, S; Zimma, B; Ayasse, M; Gottsberger, G

    2009-01-01

    Pollination of Unonopsis stipitata (Annonaceae) by males of two perfume-collecting bees, Euglossa imperialis and Eulaema bombiformis (Euglossini) is described. This is the first detailed account of this pollination mode in a member of a basal angiosperm family. Pollinator behaviour, identification of the odour bouquet and electrophysiological reaction of one of the two pollinators to the odour bouquet were determined. The collected odour is produced by 'osmophores' located adaxially on the petals. Starch and polysaccharides accumulated in petals are metabolized during odour emission. Mainly monoterpenes were detected in the scent samples, among them trans-carvone oxide. This molecule is thought by several authors to be the key attractant for male Eulaema bees and may be pivotal for convergent evolution of the perfume-collecting syndrome among dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants. It is speculated that Unonopsis, which on the basis of molecular age dating is considered a relatively recent genus of the Annonaceae (being 15-30 million years old), has diversified in relation to male euglossine bee pollinators.

  3. Phylogeny of the basal angiosperm genus Pseuduvaria (Annonaceae) inferred from five chloroplast DNA regions, with interpretation of morphological character evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yvonne C F; Smith, Gavin J D; Saunders, Richard M K

    2008-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the magnoliid basal angiosperm genus Pseuduvaria (Annonaceae) are investigated using chloroplast DNA sequences from five regions: psbA-trnH spacer, trnL-F, matK, rbcL, and atpB-rbcL spacer. Over 4000 nucleotides from 51 species (of the total 53) were sequenced. The five cpDNA datasets were analyzed separately and in combination using maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian methods. The phylogenetic trees constructed using all three phylogenetic methods, based on the combined data, strongly support the monophyly of Pseuduvaria following the inclusion of Craibella phuyensis. The trees generated using MP were less well resolved, but relationships are similar to those obtained using the other methods. ML and Bayesian analyses recovered trees with short branch lengths, showing five main clades. This study highlights the evolutionary changes in seven selected morphological characters (floral sex, stamen and carpel numbers, inner petal color, presence of inner petal glands, flowering peduncle length, and monocarp size). Although floral unisexuality is ancestral within the genus, several evolutionary lineages reveal reversal to bisexuality. Other phylogenetic transitions include the evolution of sapromyophily, and fruit-bat frugivory and seed dispersal, thus allowing a wide range of adaptations for species survival.

  4. 78 FR 52538 - Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes; National Indian Health Outreach and Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes; National Indian Health Outreach and Education Funding Opportunity Announcement Type: New Limited Competition. Funding... National Indian Health Outreach and Education (NIHOE) III funding opportunity that includes outreach...

  5. A new genus of the tribe Pambolini from Australia (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Quicke, D.L.J.

    1990-01-01

    A new genus of the tribe Pambolini (Braconidae: Rhyssalinae), Notiopambolus gen. nov. (typespecies: N. depressicauda spec. nov.) from Australia is described and fully illustrated. The new taxon is related to the Palaearctic genus Dimeris Ruthe, 1854.

  6. 40 CFR 35.6155 - State, political subdivision or Indian Tribe-lead enforcement Cooperative Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Tribe-lead enforcement Cooperative Agreements. 35.6155 Section 35.6155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Enforcement Cooperative...

  7. 78 FR 54670 - Miami Tribe of Oklahoma-Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... defined by this Ordinance shall establish prima facie intent of unlawfully keeping liquor for sale... the obligations imposed upon the licensee by the MBRC, by the Miami Tribe of Oklahoma, or any...

  8. Analytical & Morphological evaluation of Tribal Women’s lullabies at Kerman Afshar Tribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aref

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The real purpose of this paper is to make an ethnological evaluation of lullabies of Afshar Tribe women at Kerman city. Lullabies are an integrated part of cultural life and social system of current families at Afshar tribe. According to the findings, it is obvious that lullabies have a great root in public culture of ancestors of Kerman Afshar Tribe who were living at Turkish parts of Iran. Some other parts of lullabies are based upon Kerman culture, nature of Kerman and wishes of both cultures (Afshar tribe & natural conditions at Kerman. Due to its location among different important provinces like Fars, Sistan & Baloochestan, Yazd, Isfahan and Bandar Abbas, Kerman province has a different geographical coverage which may cause distribution of various terms, whispers, sings and lullabies rather than agriculture and animal husbandry. This paper is prepared by focusing on library & field method (participative observation & interview with local specialists.

  9. The use of vascular plants as traditional boat raw material by Yachai tribe in Mappi Regency

    OpenAIRE

    YOHANES YOSEPH RAHAWARIN; ELISA MARKUS KESAULIJA; SERLLY LANOEROE

    2005-01-01

    This research is executed aim to know the plant species and the way of exploiting permanent wood upon which traditional boat making by Yachai tribe in Mappi regency. The Method that used in this research is descriptive method with the structural semi interview technique and direct perception in field. Result of research indicate that the tribe Yachai exploit the plant species have permanent wood upon which traditional boat as much 26 species from 14 family. There are 8 wood species which is ...

  10. The Doryctinae (Braconidae) of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Marsh; Alexander Wild; James Whitfield

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are ...

  11. Washoe Tribe Nevada Inter-Tribal Energy Consortium Energy Organization Enhancement Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jennifer [Washoe Tribe of NV and Ca

    2014-11-06

    The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California was awarded funding from the Department of Energy to complete the Nevada Inter-Tribal Energy Consortium Energy Organization Enhancement Project. The main goal of the project was to enhance the capacity of the Nevada Inter-Tribal Energy Consortium (NITEC) to effectively assist tribes within Nevada to technically manage tribal energy resources and implement tribal energy projects.

  12. Nonmetric tooth crown traits in the Ami tribe, Taiwan aborigines: comparisons with other east Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Y; Rokutanda, A; Kitagawa, Y

    1992-10-01

    The frequencies of occurrence of 17 tooth crown traits in the living Ami tribe, which inhabits the east coast of Taiwan, were investigated and compared with other East Asian populations based on Turner's (1987) Mongoloid dental variation theory. Principal coordinate analysis based on Smith's mean measure of divergence using frequencies of the 17 traits suggests that the Ami tribe together with the Yami tribe and the Bunun tribe is included in the sinodont group typical of the Chinese mainland and northeast Asia. In light of these results and the estimated distribution of sinodonty and sundadonty in the past and the present, we speculate that the gene flow from Chinese mainlanders to native sundadonts, who seem to have migrated northward to Taiwan, contributed significantly to the formation of the living Taiwan aboriginal groups, sinodonts. Among the aboriginal tribes of Taiwan, the Ami have characteristics intermediate between those of the Yami and the Bunun. The relative positions of these tribes in East Asian populations suggests that the extent of sinodontification and of genetic isolation is one of the causes of the intertribal variation.

  13. Clues on Syntenic Relationship among Some Species of Oryzomyini and Akodontini Tribes (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Suárez

    Full Text Available Sigmodontinae rodents represent one of the most diverse and complex components of the mammalian fauna of South America. Among them most species belongs to Oryzomyini and Akodontini tribes. The highly specific diversification observed in both tribes is characterized by diploid complements, which vary from 2n = 10 to 86. Given this diversity, a consistent hypothesis about the origin and evolution of chromosomes depends on the correct establishment of synteny analyzed in a suitable phylogenetic framework. The chromosome painting technique has been particularly useful for identifying chromosomal synteny. In order to extend our knowledge of the homeological relationships between Akodontini and Oryzomyini species, we analyzed the species Akodon montensis (2n = 24 and Thaptomys nigrita (2n = 52 both from the tribe Akodontini, with chromosome probes of Hylaeamys megacephalus (2n = 54 of the tribe Oryzomyini. The results indicate that at least 12 of the 26 autosomes of H. megacephalus show conserved synteny in A. montensis and 14 in T. nigrita. The karyotype of Akodon montensis, as well as some species of the Akodon cursor species group, results from many chromosomal fusions and therefore the syntenic associations observed probably represent synapomorphies. Our finding of a set of such associations revealed by H. megacephalus chromosome probes (6/21; 3/25; 11/16/17; and, 14/19 provides phylogenetic information for both tribes. An extension of these observations to other members of Akodontini and Oryzomyini tribes should improve our knowledge about chromosome evolution in both these groups.

  14. Renewable Energy Development in Indian Country: A Handbook for Tribes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCourt, D. C.

    2010-06-01

    This handbook is designed to be an accessible reference for those who are new to tribal energy project development or seek a refresher on key development issues as they navigate the project development process. It builds upon the wealth of feedback and experiences shared by tribal and other participants in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's tribal energy training sessions to provide tribal leaders, tribal economic and energy enterprises, and those supporting them with a general overview of the renewable energy project development process as well as detailed guidance on the following: how to structure a renewable energy project transaction to protect tribal interests, with an emphasis on joint project development efforts undertaken with nontribal parties; key energy development agreements, including power sale agreements, transmission and interconnection agreements, and land leases; and ways tribes can finance renewable energy projects, including the sources of funding or financing that may be available, the types of investors that may be available, and federal tax incentives for renewable energy projects.

  15. South American leafhoppers of the tribe Typhlocybini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H. Dietrich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of Typhlocybini (sensu stricto, excluding Empoascini endemic to South America is reviewed and comprises seven closely related genera, five described herein as new, and 55 species, 52 here described as new. The genera and species are described and keys and illustrations are provided to aid in their identification. Columbonirvana Linnavuori comprises 17 species, 16 new. Eualebra Baker comprises 19 species, 17 new. Euzyginella gen. nov., comprises four new species. Neozyginella gen. nov., comprises six new species. Pseudhadina gen. nov., comprises one new species. Pseudozyginella gen. nov., comprises three new species. Tahurella gen. nov., comprises five new species. One new synonym is recognized: Eualebra smithii Baker, 1899 equals Dikraneura (Hyloidea reticulata Osborn, 1928, syn. nov. One previously described species placed in Eualebra belongs in tribe Dikraneurini; thus, a new combination is proposed: Alconeura (Hyloidea rubra (Van Duzee, comb. nov. Most of the specimens available for this study were from Malaise trap and canopy fogging samples obtained at very few localities in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, suggesting that further sampling in South America, particularly in the Amazonian rainforest and eastern foothills of the Andes Mountains, will reveal large numbers of additional species.

  16. The matrilocal tribe: an organization of demic expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Doug

    2011-07-01

    This article integrates (1) research in the historical dynamics of state societies relating group solidarity and group expansion to cultural frontiers, (2) comparative research in anthropology relating matrilocality to a particular variety of internal politics and a particular form of warfare, and (3) interdisciplinary reconstructions of large-scale "demic expansions" and associated kinship systems in prehistory. The argument is that "metaethnic frontiers," where very different cultures clash, are centers for the formation of larger, more enduring, and more militarily effective groups. In small-scale non-state societies, the major path toward the formation of such groups is the establishment of cross-cutting ties among men. This often involves the adoption of matrilocal norms. The current distribution of matrilocality and matrilineality around the world may be partly a residue of major demic expansions in prehistory involving matrilocal tribes. This hypothesis is evaluated with a range of evidence, including information regarding the spread of two language families, Bantu and Austronesian. PMID:22388807

  17. New cranial characters in the tribe Hydropsini (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego O. Di Pietro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We here describe the skull in four species of the three genera of the tribe Hydropsini (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae: Helicops infrataeniatus, H. leopardinus, Hydrops caesurus and Pseudoeryx plicatilis. We compare them with several genera of Dipsadidae. We found that the unpaired foramen on the parabasisphenoid with anterior position is the only skull feature shared by all Hydropsini genera. This feature also occurs in semi-aquatic (Erythrolamphrus semiaureus and fully-aquatic (Farancia abacura dipsadids. All species of Hydrops with available skull descriptions and Pseudoeryx plicatilis share four features: (1 The anterior border of the angular is higher than the posterior border of the splenial, (2 the vomerine processes of the premaxilla are long, (3 the ascending process of the premaxilla overlaps the horizontal lamina of the nasals, and (4 an anterior projection of the prefrontal is present. All species of Helicops with available skull descriptions and Pseudoeryx plicatilis share three features: (1 A vertical lamina of the nasal with a notch, (2 a single foramen rotundum, and (3 the presence of a ventral projection of the transverse crista of the basioccipital. Finally, we found small, paired parietal foramina in most of the dipsadids studied here, which are filled with a Sudan-Black-positive tissue of possible nervous origin.

  18. Useful ethnophytomedicinal recipes of angiosperms used against diabetes in South East Asian Countries (India, Pakistan & Sri Lanka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khakwani, Abdul Aziz; Ullah, Imdad; Khan, Kaleem Ullah; Khan, Inam Ullah

    2014-09-01

    This paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in South East Asia (India, Pakistan and Srilanka). Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 Angiospermic families were collected. From the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, Cucurbitaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (15 spp.), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (13 spp. each), Moraceae (11 spp.), Acanthaceae (10 spp.), Mimosaceae (09 spp.), Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae (08 spp. each), Hippocrateaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (07 spp. each), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (06 spp. each), Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae (05 spp.each). The most active plants are Syzigium cumini (14 recipes), Phyllanthus emblica (09 recipes), Centella asiatica and Momordica charantia (08 recipes each), Azadirachta indica (07 recipes), Aegle marmelos, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gymnema sylvestre (06 recipes each), Allium cepa, A. sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (05 recipes each), Citrullus colocynthis, Justicia adhatoda, Nelumbo nucifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ziziphus mauritiana and Wattakaka volubilis (4 recipes each). These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures. Data inventory consists of botanical name, recipe, vernacular name, English name. Some of the plants of the above data with experimentally confirmed antidiabetic properties have also been recorded. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of diabetic medicinal plants. Toxicity of these plants should also be explained. Scientific validation of these recipes may help in discovering new drugs from

  19. Socio-cultural factors and marriage among Jenukuruba and Kadukuruba tribes of Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutharayappa, R

    1993-03-01

    This study examines the differences in marriage, multiple marriage, and mate selection and factors influencing divorce, separation, and remarriage among the Jenukuruba and Kadukuruba tribes of Karnataka state, India. The sample includes 600 tribal households for each tribe. 1133 ever married women are included in in-depth interviews. Findings indicate that both tribes have a low age at marriage for males and females, and both sanction divorce, separation, and remarriage with the consent of spouses. Virginity is not valued among tribals. Marriage age is dependent upon the age at puberty. The tribes exhibit sociocultural differences. Elopement marriages are common among the Jenukuruba, and arranged marriage is prevalent among the Kadukuruba. There are more nuclear families among the Jenukuruba. 83% of the Kadukuruba and 97% of the Jenukuruba belong to nuclear families. The custom that men and women must not eat cooked food at the house of their married sister or brother and other taboos reinforce the formation of families separate from Jenukuruba kin. Consanguineous groups have a higher incidence of divorce, separation, and remarriage than nonconsanguineous groups. Separation is more common among the Jenukuruba. Divorce is more common among the Kadukuruba. 25% of ever married Jenukuruba women and 16% of ever married Kadukuruba women are married twice. Second marriages are common among women who eloped the first time. 77.3% of Jenukuruba tribes have consanguineous marriages, while only 22.83% of Kadukuruba do so. The Kadukuruba identify descent through the male line and have many clan or patri-sib groups. Cross cousin marriages are preferred among both tribes. The Jenukuruba avoid parallel cousin marriages, unless on the maternal side and with the blessings of the gods. The Jenukuruba do not have much, if any clan organization. Knowledge of blood relatives, if known at all, does not go back more than one or two generations. The conclusion is drawn that tribes living

  20. The plastid genome of Najas flexilis: adaptation to submersed environments is accompanied by the complete loss of the NDH complex in an aquatic angiosperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena L Peredo

    Full Text Available The re-colonization of aquatic habitats by angiosperms has presented a difficult challenge to plants whose long evolutionary history primarily reflects adaptations to terrestrial conditions. Many aquatics must complete vital stages of their life cycle on the water surface by means of floating or emergent leaves and flowers. Only a few species, mainly within the order Alismatales, are able to complete all aspects of their life cycle including pollination, entirely underwater. Water-pollinated Alismatales include seagrasses and water nymphs (Najas, the latter being the only freshwater genus in the family Hydrocharitaceae with subsurface water-pollination. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the plastid genome of Najas flexilis. The plastid genome of N. flexilis is a circular AT-rich DNA molecule of 156 kb, which displays a quadripartite structure with two inverted repeats (IR separating the large single copy (LSC from the small single copy (SSC regions. In N. flexilis, as in other Alismatales, the rps19 and trnH genes are localized in the LSC region instead of within the IR regions as in other monocots. However, the N. flexilis plastid genome presents some anomalous modifications. The size of the SSC region is only one third of that reported for closely related species. The number of genes in the plastid is considerably less. Both features are due to loss of the eleven ndh genes in the Najas flexilis plastid. In angiosperms, the absence of ndh genes has been related mainly to the loss of photosynthetic function in parasitic plants. The ndh genes encode the NAD(PH dehydrogenase complex, believed essential in terrestrial environments, where it increases photosynthetic efficiency in variable light intensities. The modified structure of the N. flexilis plastid genome suggests that adaptation to submersed environments, where light is scarce, has involved the loss of the NDH complex in at least some photosynthetic angiosperms.

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic angiosperm family Podostemaceae inferred from 18S rDNA and rbcL sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, D E; Mort, M E; Soltis, P S; Hibsch-Jetter, C; Zimmer, E A; Morgan, D

    1999-03-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of some angiosperm families have remained enigmatic despite broad phylogenetic analyses of rbcL sequences. One example is the aquatic family Podostemaceae, the relationships of which have long been controversial because of major morphological modifications associated with their aquatic habit. Podostemaceae have variously been associated with Piperaceae, Nepenthaceae, Polygonaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Rosaceae, Crassulaceae, and Saxifragaceae. Two recent analyses of rbcL sequences suggest a possible sister-group relationship of Podostemaceae to Crassulaceae (Saxifragales). However, the branch leading to Podostemaceae was long, and use of different outgroups resulted in alternative placements. We explored the phylogenetic relationships of Podostemaceae using 18S rDNA sequences and a combined rbcL + 18S rDNA matrix representing over 250 angiosperms. In analyses based on 18S rDNA data, Podostemaceae are not characterized by a long branch; the family consistently appears as part of a Malpighiales clade that also includes Malpighiaceae, Turneraceae, Passifloraceae, Salicaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Violaceae, Linaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Trigoniaceae, Humiriaceae, and Ochnaceae. Phylogenetic analyses based on a combined 18S rDNA + rbcL data set (223 ingroup taxa) with basal angiosperms as the outgroup also suggest that Podostemaceae are part of a Malpighiales clade. These searches swapped to completion, and the shortest trees showed enhanced resolution and increased internal support compared to those based on 18S rDNA or rbcL alone. However, when Gnetales are used as the outgroup, Podostemaceae appear with members of the nitrogen fixing clade (e.g., Elaeagnaceae, Ulmaceae, Rhamnaceae, Cannabaceae, Moraceae, and Urticaceae). None of the relationships suggested here for Podostemaceae receives strong bootstrap support. Our analyses indicate that Podostemaceae are not closely allied with Crassulaceae or with other members of the

  2. Geranyllinalool Synthases in Solanaceae and Other Angiosperms Constitute an Ancient Branch of Diterpene Synthases Involved in the Synthesis of Defensive Compounds1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falara, Vasiliki; Alba, Juan M.; Kant, Merijn R.; Schuurink, Robert C.; Pichersky, Eran

    2014-01-01

    Many angiosperm plants, including basal dicots, eudicots, and monocots, emit (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene, which is derived from geranyllinalool, in response to biotic challenge. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) geranyllinalool synthase (GLS) belonging to the e/f clade of the terpene synthase (TPS) family and two Fabaceae GLSs that belong to the TPS-g clade have been reported, making it unclear which is the main route to geranyllinalool in plants. We characterized a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) TPS-e/f gene, TPS46, encoding GLS (SlGLS) and its homolog (NaGLS) from Nicotiana attenuata. The Km value of SlGLS for geranylgeranyl diphosphate was 18.7 µm, with a turnover rate value of 6.85 s–1. In leaves and flowers of N. attenuata, which constitutively synthesize 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool glycosides, NaGLS is expressed constitutively, but the gene can be induced in leaves with methyl jasmonate. In tomato, SlGLS is not expressed in any tissue under normal growth but is induced in leaves by alamethicin and methyl jasmonate treatments. SlGLS, NaGLS, AtGLSs, and several other GLSs characterized only in vitro come from four different eudicot families and constitute a separate branch of the TPS-e/f clade that diverged from kaurene synthases, also in the TPS-e/f clade, before the gymnosperm-angiosperm split. The early divergence of this branch and the GLS activity of genes in this branch in diverse eudicot families suggest that GLS activity encoded by these genes predates the angiosperm-gymnosperm split. However, although a TPS sequence belonging to this GLS lineage was recently reported from a basal dicot, no representative sequences have yet been found in monocot or nonangiospermous plants. PMID:25052853

  3. Slow but not low: genomic comparisons reveal slower evolutionary rate and higher dN/dS in conifers compared to angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buschiazzo Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Comparative genomics can inform us about the processes of mutation and selection across diverse taxa. Among seed plants, gymnosperms have been lacking in genomic comparisons. Recent EST and full-length cDNA collections for two conifers, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, together with full genome sequences for two angiosperms, Arabidopsis thaliana and poplar (Populus trichocarpa, offer an opportunity to infer the evolutionary processes underlying thousands of orthologous protein-coding genes in gymnosperms compared with an angiosperm orthologue set. Results Based upon pairwise comparisons of 3,723 spruce and pine orthologues, we found an average synonymous genetic distance (dS of 0.191, and an average dN/dS ratio of 0.314. Using a fossil-established divergence time of 140 million years between spruce and pine, we extrapolated a nucleotide substitution rate of 0.68 × 10-9 synonymous substitutions per site per year. When compared to angiosperms, this indicates a dramatically slower rate of nucleotide substitution rates in conifers: on average 15-fold. Coincidentally, we found a three-fold higher dN/dS for the spruce-pine lineage compared to the poplar-Arabidopsis lineage. This joint occurrence of a slower evolutionary rate in conifers with higher dN/dS, and possibly positive selection, showcases the uniqueness of conifer genome evolution. Conclusions Our results are in line with documented reduced nucleotide diversity, conservative genome evolution and low rates of diversification in conifers on the one hand and numerous examples of local adaptation in conifers on the other hand. We propose that reduced levels of nucleotide mutation in large and long-lived conifer trees, coupled with large effective population size, were the main factors leading to slow substitution rates but retention of beneficial mutations.

  4. Nonmetric cranial trait variation and population history of medieval East Slavic tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsesian, Alla A

    2013-12-01

    The population history of the East Slavs is complicated. There are still many unanswered questions relating to the origins and formation of the East Slavic gene pool. The aims of the current study were as follows: (1) to assess the degree of biological affinity in medieval East Slavic tribes and to test the hypothesis that East Slavic peoples have a common origin; (2) to show their genetic connections to the autochthonous populations of the northern part of Eastern Europe (Baltic and Finno-Ugric tribes); and (3) to identify a genetic continuity between the bearers of Chernyakhov culture and medieval Eastern Slavs. In this study, nonmetric cranial trait data for medieval East Slavic tribes and comparative samples from unrelated groups were examined. Analyzes of phenotypic differentiation were based on Nei's standard genetic distance and hierarchical GST statistics. The results obtained suggest that the genetic affinity of the East Slavic tribes is due not only to inter-tribal gene flow, but is, more importantly, a result of their common population history. Evidence of gene flow from the Baltic and Finno-Ugric groups was showed in the gene pool of Eastern Slavs, as was genetic continuity between medieval East Slavic tribes and the populations of the preceding Chernyakhov culture. These findings support a "generalizing" hypothesis of East Slavic origin, in which a Slavic community was formed in some particular ancestral area, and subsequently spread throughout Eastern Europe.

  5. Distributional patterns and possible origins of the tribes and genera of Coelidiinae (Homoptera, Membracoidea, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin W Nielson

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Leafhoppers are well known biological indicators of zoogeographical regions owing, in part, to their phytodependency, high host plant specificity and relatively low vagility. In this connection, we discuss distributional patterns and possible zoogeographical origins of nine constituent tribes and their genera of the pantropical subfamily Coelidiinae. Among 118 known genera, only eight currently occupy more than one zoogeographical region, indicating an extremely high endemic profile which supports the proposed centers of origin and relatively low rate of intercontinental dispersal. The pantropical tribe Coelidiini is suggested as the basal group of the subfamily which is believed to have arisen prior to continental drift (late Jurassic-early Cretaceous because there appears to be no other evidence at the present time to explain its near cosmopolitan distribution. Possible origins of three Old World tribes, Hikangiini (Ethiopian, Thagriini (Oriental and Thanini (Australian and four New World -(Neotropical tribes, Teruliini, Tinobregmini, Gabritini and Sandersellini are elucidated. The tribe Youngolidiini occupies the Neotropical and Ethiopian realms but its origin is problematical. There appears to be ample evidence that origin/dispersal patterns are related to the geological history of the areas occupied by its faunal members.

  6. EyeTribe Tracker Data Accuracy Evaluation and Its Interconnection with Hypothesis Software for Cartographic Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popelka, Stanislav; Stachoň, Zdeněk; Šašinka, Čeněk; Doležalová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    The mixed research design is a progressive methodological discourse that combines the advantages of quantitative and qualitative methods. Its possibilities of application are, however, dependent on the efficiency with which the particular research techniques are used and combined. The aim of the paper is to introduce the possible combination of Hypothesis with EyeTribe tracker. The Hypothesis is intended for quantitative data acquisition and the EyeTribe is intended for qualitative (eye-tracking) data recording. In the first part of the paper, Hypothesis software is described. The Hypothesis platform provides an environment for web-based computerized experiment design and mass data collection. Then, evaluation of the accuracy of data recorded by EyeTribe tracker was performed with the use of concurrent recording together with the SMI RED 250 eye-tracker. Both qualitative and quantitative results showed that data accuracy is sufficient for cartographic research. In the third part of the paper, a system for connecting EyeTribe tracker and Hypothesis software is presented. The interconnection was performed with the help of developed web application HypOgama. The created system uses open-source software OGAMA for recording the eye-movements of participants together with quantitative data from Hypothesis. The final part of the paper describes the integrated research system combining Hypothesis and EyeTribe.

  7. Dispersing towards Madagascar: Biogeography and evolution of the Madagascan endemics of the Spermacoceae tribe (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Steven B; Groeninckx, Inge; De Block, Petra J; Verstraete, Brecht; Smets, Erik F; Dessein, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Despite the close proximity of the African mainland, dispersal of plant lineages towards Madagascar remains intriguing. The composition of the Madagascan flora is rather mixed and shows besides African representatives, also floral elements of India, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Neotropics. Due to its proportionally large number of Madagascan endemics, the taxonomically troublesome Spermacoceae tribe is an interesting group to investigate the origin and evolution of the herbaceous Rubiaceae endemic to Madagascar. The phylogenetic position of these endemics were inferred using four plastid gene markers. Age estimates were obtained by expanding the Spermacoceae dataset with representatives of all Rubiaceae tribes. This allowed incorporation of multiple fossil-based calibration points from the Rubiaceae fossil record. Despite the high morphological diversity of the endemic herbaceous Spermacoceae on Madagascar, only two colonization events gave rise to their current diversity. The first clade contains Lathraeocarpa, Phylohydrax and Gomphocalyx, whereas the second Madagascan clade includes the endemic genera Astiella, Phialiphora, Thamnoldenlandia and Amphistemon. The tribe Spermacoceae is estimated to have a Late Eocene origin, and diversified during Oligocene and Miocene. The two Madagascan clades of the tribe originated in the Oligocene and radiated in the Miocene. The origin of the Madagascan Spermacoceae cannot be explained by Gondwanan vicariance but only by means of Cenozoic long distance dispersal events. Interestingly, not only colonization from Africa occurred but also long distance dispersal from the Neotropics shaped the current diversity of the Spermacoceae tribe on Madagascar. PMID:26639100

  8. Geranyllinalool synthases in solanaceae and other angiosperms constitute an ancient branch of diterpene synthases involved in the synthesis of defensive compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Falara, V.; Alba, J.M.; Kant, M.R.; Schuurink, R. C.; Pichersky, E

    2014-01-01

    Many angiosperm plants, including basal dicots, eudicots, and monocots, emit (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene, which is derived from geranyllinalool, in response to biotic challenge. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) geranyllinalool synthase (GLS) belonging to the e/f clade of the terpene synthase (TPS) family and two Fabaceae GLSs that belong to the TPS-g clade have been reported, making it unclear which is the main route to geranyllinalool in plants. We characterized a to...

  9. Allelopathic effects of microcystin-LR on the germination, growth and metabolism of five charophyte species and a submerged angiosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Carmen; Segura, Matilde; Cortés, Francisco; Rodrigo, María A

    2013-11-15

    Microcystins (MCs) are produced by cyanobacteria in aquatic environments and adversely affect macrophytes at very high concentrations. However, the effects of MC on macrophytes at concentrations of environmental relevance are largely unknown. The main objective of this study was to analyze the allelopathic effects of MC-LR at natural concentrations (1, 8 and 16 μg MC-LR/L) on five charophyte species (Chara aspera, C. baltica, C. hispida, C. vulgaris and Nitella hyalina) and the angiosperm Myriophyllum spicatum. Macrophyte specimens were obtained from a restored area located in Albufera de València Natural Park, a protected coastal Mediterranean wetland. Two different experiments were conducted involving (i) the addition of MC-LR to natural sediment to evaluate its effects on seed germination and (ii) the addition of MC-LR to water cultures of macrophytes to evaluate its effects on growth and metabolic functions. In water, the MC-LR concentration decreased by 84% in two weeks; the loss was not significant in sediment. The first seedlings (all C. hispida) emerged from the wetland sediment following a delay of a few days in the presence of MC-LR. The germination rates in 8 and 16 μg MC-LR/L treatments were 44% and 11% of that occurring in the absence of MC, but these differences disappeared over time. The final density was 6-7 germlings/dm(3). Final germling length was unaffected by MC-LR. Rotifers (Lecane spp.) emerging from the natural sediment during the experiment were favored by MC-LR; the opposite pattern was observed in the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The growth rates of C. vulgaris, C. baltica and N. hyalina were unaffected by MC exposure, whereas those of C. hispida and C. aspera were reduced in the MC treatments relative to the control treatment. The concentration of chlorophyll-a and the in vivo net photosynthetic rate were lower in the presence of MC-LR, even at the lowest concentration, for all of the characeans tested. M. spicatum was sensitive to the

  10. Antioxidant, anticholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibition activities, and fatty acids of Crocus mathewii - A forgotten endemic angiosperm of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiztekin, Fatma; Nadeem, Said; Erol, Ebru; Yildiztekin, Mahmut; Tuna, Atilla L; Ozturk, Mehmet

    2016-09-01

    Context We report the first ever chemical/biochemical study on Crocus mathewii Kerndorff (Iridaceae) - a Turkish endemic angiosperm. This plant has never been explored for its phytochemistry and bioactivities. Objective This study explores C. mathewii corm and aerial parts for the chemical and biological properties of hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water fractions of the extracts. Material and methods Plant material (20 g) was extracted by methanol (250 mL × 5, 3 days each) and fractioned into hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. All fractions were subjected to β-carotene-linoleic acid, DPPH(·), ABTS(·)(+), CUPRAC, metal chelating and tyrosinase inhibition activities. Hexane fractions were submitted to GC-MS analysis. Results Ethyl acetate fractions showed excellent IC50 values in DPPH(·) (aerial 36.21 ± 0.76 and corm 33.87 ± 0.02 mg/L) and ABTS(·)(+) (aerial 33.01 ± 0.79 and bulb 27.87 ± 0.33 mg/L); higher than the IC50 of the standard α-tocopherol (DPPH 116.25 ± 1.97; ABTS 52.64 ± 0.37 mg/L), higher than BHA in DPPH (57.31 ± 0.25 mg/L), but slightly lower in ABTS (19.86 ± 2.73 mg/L). Methanol extract of aerial parts also showed higher activity than α-tocopherol in DPPH (85.56 ± 11.51 mg/L) but slightly less (72.90 ± 3.66 mg/L) than both the standards in ABTS. Linoleic (aerial 53.9%, corm 43.9%) and palmitic (aerial 22.2%, corm 18%) were found as the major fatty acids. Discussion and conclusion Some fractions of C. mathewii showed higher antioxidant activities than the standards. There is a need to explore more about this plant.

  11. 13 CFR 124.109 - Do Indian tribes and Alaska Native Corporations have any special rules for applying to the 8(a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as the tribe's constitution or business charter. (ii) Evidence of its recognition as a tribe eligible... the two previous tax years showing operating revenues in the primary industry in which the...

  12. Tribal Wind Assessment by the Eastern Shoshone Tribe of the Wind River Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pete, Belvin; Perry, Jeremy W.; Stump, Raphaella Q.

    2009-08-28

    The Tribes, through its consultant and advisor, Distributed Generation Systems (Disgen) -Native American Program and Resources Division, of Lakewood CO, assessed and qualified, from a resource and economic perspective, a wind energy generation facility on tribal lands. The goal of this feasibility project is to provide wind monitoring and to engage in preproject planning activities designed to provide a preliminary evaluation of the technical, economic, social and environmental feasibility of developing a sustainable, integrated wind energy plan for the Eastern Shoshone and the Northern Arapahoe Tribes, who resides on the Wind River Indian Reservation. The specific deliverables of the feasibility study are: 1) Assessments of the wind resources on the Wind River Indian Reservation 2) Assessments of the potential environmental impacts of renewable development 3) Assessments of the transmission capacity and capability of a renewable energy project 4) Established an economic models for tribal considerations 5) Define economic, cultural and societal impacts on the Tribe

  13. Alkaloids from the Tribe Bocconieae (Papaveraceae: A Chemical and Biological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelong Yu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Bocconieae tribe, consisting of only the genera Macleaya and Bocconia, possesses significant economic and medicinal value and plays an important role in health management for people in developing countries. During the past decades, research on metabolites and relative pharmacology, including the isolation and identification of a variety of molecules, has shed light on the tribe. Among those molecules, isoquinoline alkaloids, and their antimicrobial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory activities are especially noteworthy. This paper presents a comprehensive compilation of current research progress, with emphasis on the alkaloids and their distribution, phytochemical and pharmacological investigation, toxicity and side effects, related chemotaxonomy and future use prospects, and hopefully provides a valuable reference as an effort to promote further exploration and application of this tribe.

  14. Taxonomic Significance of Glume Morphology and Leaf Epidermal Characteristics in some Taxa of Tribe Aveneae (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel EL-GAZZAR

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The numerical classification of tribe Aveneae (Poaceae is discussed regarding the glume morphology and silica skeleton morphologies. The present study dealt with 18 species belonging to 10 genera of the tribe to cover as many groups as possible within Aveneae. The total of 31 structural characters and 71 character states were scored comparatively. The resulted data matrix was analyzed under a combination of Euclidean distance measure and Ward’s clustering method included in the program package PC-ORD version 5. The resulted dendrogram separated the tribe into five basic sub-ordinate groups created from three major groups A, B and C. The taxonomic significance of these results was discussed. The results showed congruence between the clustering and PCA method, in suggesting three major groups and 5 sub-ordinate groups.

  15. 42 CFR 137.21 - How does an Indian Tribe demonstrate financial stability and financial management capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does an Indian Tribe demonstrate financial stability and financial management capacity? 137.21 Section 137.21 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... How does an Indian Tribe demonstrate financial stability and financial management capacity? The...

  16. 25 CFR 900.154 - How does an Indian tribe or tribal organization request an informal conference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... an informal conference? The Indian tribe or tribal organization shall file its request for an... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does an Indian tribe or tribal organization request an informal conference? 900.154 Section 900.154 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. 45 CFR 287.140 - With whom should the Tribe coordinate in the operation of its work activities and services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false With whom should the Tribe coordinate in the operation of its work activities and services? 287.140 Section 287.140 Public Welfare Regulations Relating... and Operations § 287.140 With whom should the Tribe coordinate in the operation of its work...

  18. 78 FR 35048 - Notice of Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Trust Funds for Tribes and Individual Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... information collection was published on March 27, 2013 (78 FR 18623). No comments were received. This notice...: Trust Funds for Tribes and Individual Indians AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Office of the Special... approval for the collection of information for ``Trust Funds for Tribes and Individual Indians, 25 CFR...

  19. 25 CFR 170.303 - Can a tribe apply for loans or credit from a State infrastructure bank?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 170.303 Can a tribe apply for loans or credit from a State infrastructure bank? Yes. Upon the request... facilitate obtaining loans and other forms of credit for an IRR project. A state infrastructure bank is a... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe apply for loans or credit from a...

  20. 42 CFR 137.275 - May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction programs in a construction project agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... programs in a construction project agreement or in a funding agreement? 137.275 Section 137.275 Public...-Governance Tribes include IHS construction programs in a construction project agreement or in a funding agreement? Yes, Self-Governance Tribes may choose to assume construction programs in a construction...

  1. 42 CFR 137.344 - May a Self-Governance Tribe reallocate funds among construction project agreements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... construction project agreements? 137.344 Section 137.344 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.344 May a Self-Governance Tribe reallocate funds among construction project agreements? Yes, a Self-Governance Tribe may reallocate funds...

  2. 42 CFR 137.350 - Is a Self-Governance Tribe responsible for completing a construction project in accordance with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... completing a construction project in accordance with the negotiated construction project agreement? 137.350...-Governance Tribe in Establishing and Implementing Construction Project Agreements § 137.350 Is a Self-Governance Tribe responsible for completing a construction project in accordance with the...

  3. 42 CFR 137.305 - May Self-Governance Tribes act as lead, cooperating, or joint lead agencies for environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Governance Tribes assuming Federal environmental responsibilities for construction projects under section 509... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes act as lead, cooperating, or joint lead agencies for environmental review purposes? 137.305 Section 137.305 Public...

  4. 42 CFR 137.295 - May Self-Governance Tribes elect to develop their own environmental review process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... own environmental review process? Yes, Self-Governance Tribes may develop their own environmental... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes elect to develop their own environmental review process? 137.295 Section 137.295 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...

  5. 42 CFR 137.299 - Are Federal funds available to cover the cost of Self-Governance Tribes carrying out...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Self-Governance Tribes carrying out environmental responsibilities? 137.299 Section 137.299 Public... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.299 Are Federal funds available to cover the cost of Self-Governance Tribes carrying out environmental...

  6. 42 CFR 137.285 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction project agreement? 137.285 Section...

  7. 42 CFR 137.293 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to adopt a separate resolution or take equivalent Tribal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to adopt a separate resolution or take equivalent Tribal action to assume environmental responsibilities for each...-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.293 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to adopt a...

  8. 25 CFR 170.135 - Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism, and trails program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.135 Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism... funds for recreation, tourism, and trails programs if the programs are included in the...

  9. 42 CFR 137.291 - May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.291 May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal...

  10. 42 CFR 137.203 - May a Self-Governance Tribe participate in a voluntary national uniform data collection effort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe participate in a... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Health Status Reports § 137.203 May a Self-Governance Tribe participate in a voluntary national uniform data collection effort with the IHS? Yes,...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.382 - What may the Tribe's/Consortium's annual report on self-governance address?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-governance address? 1000.382 Section 1000.382 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... report on self-governance address? (a) The Tribe's/Consortium's annual self-governance report may address... the programs and services funded under self-governance, summarized and annotated as the Tribe may...

  12. 24 CFR 1000.24 - If an Indian tribe assumes environmental review responsibility, how will HUD assist the Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If an Indian tribe assumes environmental review responsibility, how will HUD assist the Indian tribe in performing the environmental review? 1000.24 Section 1000.24 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  13. 42 CFR 137.71 - May the Secretary and the Self-Governance Tribe develop separate programmatic reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... develop separate programmatic reporting requirements for statutorily mandated grants? 137.71 Section 137... Secretary and the Self-Governance Tribe develop separate programmatic reporting requirements for statutorily mandated grants? Yes, the Secretary and the Self-Governance Tribe may develop separate...

  14. 25 CFR 900.65 - What programmatic reports and data shall the Indian tribe or tribal organization provide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What programmatic reports and data shall the Indian tribe... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Programmatic Reports and Data Requirements § 900.65 What programmatic reports and data shall the Indian tribe or tribal organization provide?...

  15. 42 CFR 137.298 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to comply with Executive Orders to fulfill their...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....298 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to comply with Executive Orders to fulfill their environmental... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to comply with Executive Orders to fulfill their environmental responsibilities under section 509 of the Act ?...

  16. 25 CFR 291.3 - When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... III gaming procedures? 291.3 Section 291.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.3 When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to issue Class...

  17. 25 CFR 224.115 - When in the petition process must the Director investigate a tribe's compliance with a TERA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When in the petition process must the Director investigate a tribe's compliance with a TERA? 224.115 Section 224.115 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... process must the Director investigate a tribe's compliance with a TERA? The Director must investigate...

  18. Phylogenetic utility of ribosomal genes for reconstructing the phylogeny of five Chinese satyrine tribes (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsheng Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Satyrinae is one of twelve subfamilies of the butterfly family Nymphalidae, which currently includes nine tribes. However, phylogenetic relationships among them remain largely unresolved, though different researches have been conducted based on both morphological and molecular data. However, ribosomal genes have never been used in tribe level phylogenetic analyses of Satyrinae. In this study we investigate for the first time the phylogenetic relationships among the tribes Elymniini, Amathusiini, Zetherini and Melanitini which are indicated to be a monophyletic group, and the Satyrini, using two ribosomal genes (28s rDNA and 16s rDNA and four protein-coding genes (EF-1α, COI, COII and Cytb. We mainly aim to assess the phylogenetic informativeness of the ribosomal genes as well as clarify the relationships among different tribes. Our results show the two ribosomal genes generally have the same high phylogenetic informativeness compared with EF-1α; and we infer the 28s rDNA would show better informativeness if the 28s rDNA sequence data for each sampling taxon are obtained in this study. The placement of the monotypic genus Callarge Leech in Zetherini is confirmed for the first time based on molecular evidence. In addition, our maximum likelihood (ML and Bayesian inference (BI trees consistently show that the involved Satyrinae including the Amathusiini is monophyletic with high support values. Although the relationships among the five tribes are identical among ML and BI analyses and are mostly strongly-supported in BI analysis, those in ML analysis are lowly- or moderately- supported. Therefore, the relationships among the related five tribes recovered herein need further verification based on more sampling taxa.

  19. A synopsis of the tribe Micrutalini Haupt (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Micrutalini and its two genera, Trachytalis Fowler and Micrutalis Fowler, are redescribed. The following species are treated and, in some cases, nomenclatura! changes introduced: Trachytalis isabellina Fowler, 1895; T. distinguenda Fowler, 1895; T. retrofasciata (Lethierry, 1890, comb.n.; Micrutalis alrovena Goding, 1930; M. balteata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Aculalis lucidus Buckton, 1902, syn.n.; M. bella Goding, 1929; M. biguttula (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.; M. binaria (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis flavivenlris Lethierry, 1890, syn.n.; M. callan-gensis Goding, 1930; M. calva (Say, 1830; M. discalis (Walker, 1858; M. dorsalis (Fitch, 1851; M. dubia Fowler, 1895 = M. zeteki Goding, 1928, syn.n.; M. flava Goding, 1929; M. flavozonala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n. = Acutalis geniculata Stál, 1862, syn.n. = Acutalis modesta Stál, 1862, syn.n.; M. godfreyi Sakakibara, 1976; M. incerla Sakakibara, 1976; M. lata Goding, 1930; M. litlerala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.;M lugubrina(Stál, 1862;M malleiferaFovj]er, 1895 = M binariamutabilis Fowler, 1895, syn.n.; M. minutus Buckton, 1902; M. nigrolineata (Stál, 1864; M. nigromarginata Funkhouser, 1940; M. notalipennis Fowler, 1895; M. occidentalis (Goding, 1893; M. pollens Fowler, 1895; M. parva (Goding, 1893; M. plagíala (Stál, l&62 = AcutalisvariabiIisBerg, 1879,syn.n. =M. chapadensisGoding, 1930,syn.n.; M. punctifera (Walker, 1858; M. semialba (Stál, 1862; M. stipulipennis Buckton, 1902; M. tau Goding, 1930; M. trifurcala Goding, 1893; M. tripunctata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis moesta Stál, 1859, syn.n. = M. tartaredoides Goding, 1930, syn.n.. New species: Micrutalis diminuta sp.n. (Ecuador, Pichincha; Micrutalis divisa sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis henki sp.n. (Panama, Canal Zone; Micrutalis infúscala sp.n. (Venezuela, Portuguesa; Micrutalis margínala sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis meridana sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis mucuya sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis robustula

  20. DISTRIBUTION OF CCR2-64I GENE AMONG THE TRIBES AND CASTE POPULATION OF VIDARBHA, INDIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind B Chavhan

    2013-08-01

    Results: The genotyping for the CCR2-64I mutation among the selected tribe and a caste reveal that all of the tribes and a caste was found to be heterozygous for the CCR2-64I mutation. Among the tribes Gonds showed highest genotype frequency (29.28% and (11.76% for heterozygous (CCR2/64I and Homozygous (64I/64I respectively, having an allelic frequency (0.233. A pooled allelic frequencies of the wild-type allele CCR2 and CCR2 64I the variant were found to be 0.854 and 0.146, respectively. No significant deviations from the HWE were observed for tribes and a caste population for the CCR2- 64I mutant χ2=2.76. The study reports the presence of mutant CCR2- 64I gene in tribes and caste population from Vidarbha region.

  1. Darwin-Wallace Demons: survival of the fastest in populations of duckweeds and the evolutionary history of an enigmatic group of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, U; Niklas, K J

    2015-01-01

    In evolutionary biology, the term 'Darwinian fitness' refers to the lifetime reproductive success of an individual within a population of conspecifics. The idea of a 'Darwinian Demon' emerged from this concept and is defined here as an organism that commences reproduction almost immediately after birth, has a maximum fitness, and lives forever. It has been argued that duckweeds (sub-family Lemnoideae, order Alismatales), a group containing five genera and 34 species of small aquatic monocotyledonous plants with a reduced body plan, can be interpreted as examples of 'Darwinian Demons'. Here we focus on the species Spirodela polyrhiza (Great duckweed) and show that these miniaturised aquatic angiosperms display features that fit the definition of the hypothetical organism that we will call a 'Darwin-Wallace Demon' in recognition of the duel proponents of evolution by natural selection. A quantitative analysis (log-log bivariate plot of annual growth in dry biomass versus standing dry body mass of various green algae and land plants) revealed that duckweeds are thus far the most rapidly growing angiosperms in proportion to their body mass. In light of this finding, we discuss the disposable soma and metabolic optimising theories, summarise evidence for and against the proposition that the Lemnoideae (family Araceae) reflect an example of reductive evolution, and argue that, under real-world conditions (environmental constraints and other limitations), 'Darwin-Wallace Demons' cannot exist, although the concept remains useful in much the same way that the Hardy-Weinberg law does. PMID:24674028

  2. 42 CFR 137.297 - If the environmental review procedures of a Federal agency are adopted by a Self-Governance Tribe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... environmental laws, not the Self-Governance Tribe. ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false If the environmental review procedures of a Federal agency are adopted by a Self-Governance Tribe, is the Self-Governance Tribe responsible for ensuring...

  3. 42 CFR 137.306 - How are Self-Governance Tribes recognized as having lead, cooperating, or joint lead agency status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are Self-Governance Tribes recognized as having... SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.306 How are Self-Governance Tribes recognized as having lead, cooperating, or joint lead agency status? Self-Governance Tribes may be...

  4. 42 CFR 137.95 - May a Self-Governance Tribe purchase goods and services from the IHS on a reimbursable basis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe purchase goods and... SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding Acquisition of Goods and Services from the Ihs § 137.95 May a Self-Governance Tribe purchase goods and services from the IHS on a reimbursable basis? Yes, a Self-Governance Tribe...

  5. 42 CFR 137.122 - May a Self-Governance Tribe with a stable base budget receive other funding under its funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe with a stable base... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding Stable Base Budget § 137.122 May a Self-Governance Tribe... may include non-recurring funds, other recurring funds, and other funds the Self-Governance Tribe...

  6. Comprehensive Renewable Energy Feasibility Study for the Makah Indian Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RobertLynette; John Wade; Larry Coupe

    2005-03-31

    The purpose of this project was to determine the technical feasibility, economic viability, and potential impacts of installing and operating a wind power station and/or small hydroelectric generation plants on the Makah reservation. The long-term objective is to supply all or a portion of Tribe's electricity from local, renewable energy sources in order to reduce costs, provide local employment, and reduce power outages. An additional objective was for the Tribe to gain an understanding of the requirements, costs, and benefits of developing and operating such plants on the reservation. The Makah Indian Reservation, with a total land area of forty-seven square miles, is located on the northwestern tip of the Olympic Peninsula in Washington State. Four major watersheds drain the main Reservation areas and the average rainfall is over one hundred inches per year. The reservation's west side borders the Pacific Ocean, but mostly consists of rugged mountainous terrain between 500 and 1,900 feet in elevation. Approximately 1,200 tribal members live on the Reservation and there is an additional non-Indian residential population of about 300. Electric power is provided by the Clallam County PUD. The annual usage on the reservation is approximately 16,700 mWh. Project Work Wind Energy--Two anemometer suites of equipment were installed on the reservation and operated for a more than a year. An off-site reference station was identified and used to project long-term wind resource characteristics at the two stations. Transmission resources were identified and analyzed. A preliminary financial analysis of a hypothetical wind power station was prepared and used to gauge the economic viability of installation of a multi-megawatt wind power station. Small Hydroelectric--Two potential sites for micro/small-hydro were identified by analysis of previous water resource studies, topographical maps, and conversations with knowledgeable Makah personnel. Field trips were

  7. Genetic differences between Chibcha and Non-Chibcha speaking tribes based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups from 21 Amerindian tribes from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solangy Usme-Romero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the frequency of four mitochondrial DNA haplogroups in 424 individuals from 21 Colombian Amerindian tribes. Our results showed a high degree of mtDNA diversity and genetic heterogeneity. Frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups A and C were high in the majority of populations studied. The distribution of these four mtDNA haplogroups from Amerindian populations was different in the northern region of the country compared to those in the south. Haplogroup A was more frequently found among Amerindian tribes in northern Colombia, while haplogroup D was more frequent among tribes in the south. Haplogroups A, C and D have clinal tendencies in Colombia and South America in general. Populations belonging to the Chibcha linguistic family of Colombia and other countries nearby showed a strong genetic differentiation from the other populations tested, thus corroborating previous findings. Genetically, the Ingano, Paez and Guambiano populations are more closely related to other groups of south eastern Colombia, as also inferred from other genetic markers and from archeological data. Strong evidence for a correspondence between geographical and linguistic classification was found, and this is consistent with evidence that gene flow and the exchange of customs and knowledge and language elements between groups is facilitated by close proximity.

  8. Influences of evergreen gymnosperm and deciduous angiosperm tree species on the functioning of temperate and boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Laurent; De Schrijver, An; Vesterdal, Lars; Smolander, Aino; Prescott, Cindy; Ranger, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    It has been recognized for a long time that the overstorey composition of a forest partly determines its biological and physical-chemical functioning. Here, we review evidence of the influence of evergreen gymnosperm (EG) tree species and deciduous angiosperm (DA) tree species on the water balance, physical-chemical soil properties and biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. We used scientific publications based on experimental designs where all species grew on the same parent material and initial soil, and were similar in stage of stand development, former land use and current management. We present the current state of the art, define knowledge gaps, and briefly discuss how selection of tree species can be used to mitigate pollution or enhance accumulation of stable organic carbon in the soil. The presence of EGs generally induces a lower rate of precipitation input into the soil than DAs, resulting in drier soil conditions and lower water discharge. Soil temperature is generally not different, or slightly lower, under an EG canopy compared to a DA canopy. Chemical properties, such as soil pH, can also be significantly modified by taxonomic groups of tree species. Biomass production is usually similar or lower in DA stands than in stands of EGs. Aboveground production of dead organic matter appears to be of the same order of magnitude between tree species groups growing on the same site. Some DAs induce more rapid decomposition of litter than EGs because of the chemical properties of their tissues, higher soil moisture and favourable conditions for earthworms. Forest floors consequently tend to be thicker in EG forests compared to DA forests. Many factors, such as litter lignin content, influence litter decomposition and it is difficult to identify specific litter-quality parameters that distinguish litter decomposition rates of EGs from DAs. Although it has been suggested that DAs can result in higher accumulation of soil carbon stocks, evidence from

  9. 76 FR 709 - Guidelines for Awarding Clean Water Act Section 319 Base Grants to Indian Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... coordination with other environmental programs (tribal, EPA, other federal agency programs, etc.). EPA strongly... October 25, 2006, at 71 FR 62441. Tribes should contact their EPA Regional Tribal NPS Coordinator for... projects that are damaged or destroyed due to a natural disaster (e.g., earthquakes, storm events,...

  10. Gender Inequity in Education and Employment in the Scheduled Castes and Tribes of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Dana

    1993-01-01

    Using ethnographic and statistical data, this paper presents a descriptive profile of scheduled caste and tribe women's status in Indian society. Findings indicate that relative to men, women in these groups have far more limited access to both educational and employment resources. (Contains 73 references.) (MDH)

  11. Tribal Energy Program, Assisting Tribes to Realize Their Energy Visions (Brochure), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This 12-page brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Tribal Energy Program and describes the financial, technical, and educational assistance it provides to help tribes develop their renewable energy resources and reduce their energy consumption.

  12. Radioactive waste management and indigenous peoples: the example of the Chemehuevi tribe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many American Indian Tribes were historically amenable to being involved with the nuclear industry because it seemed likely that it would boost ailing Tribal economies. Today that dream has soured and most of the uranium mining operations on Indian reservations have ceased, but Tribes are left having to deal with abandoned mines and mill tailings, sick Indian mine workers, and polluted reservation environments. The proximity of radioactive wastes facilities with Tribes lands poses in itself a risk which is aggravated by the fact that hazardous materials usually have to be transported through reservation communities to get to or from the site. The California state government is also planning to construct a low level radioactive waste management facility in Ward Valley, which is adjacent to the Chemehuehi Indian reservation, about 20 miles away. There is here a risk that contaminated surface water from Ward Valley could seep into the underground aquifer from which the Indian Tribe draw their water. Radioactive waste is as can be seen a real problem in India that will not go away. Indeed, even if the producing of nuclear wastes are stopped by the end of the decade, humanity would still have to deal with the wastes that currently are stored in interim and long term storage sites. (O.M.)

  13. Tribes and States Working Together: A Guide to Tribal-State Child Care Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to increase the understanding of the rationale and benefits of States and Tribes working together to provide quality child care choices and services for the children and families they serve. The guide provides a description of Tribal sovereignty and the government-to-government relationship; an overview of the…

  14. The systematic wood anatomy of the Moraceae (Urticales) III. Tribe Ficeae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the tribe Ficeae, comprising one genus, Ficus, is described. Considering the large number of species, the genus is remarkably homogeneous. It is characterised by abundant axial parenchyma in regular apotracheal concentric bands and narrow vasicentric rings, and by relatively wide

  15. 'Forest governmentality': A genealogy of subject-making of forest-dependent 'scheduled tribes' in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bose, P.; Arts, B.J.M.; Dijk, van H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the historical trajectories of both British colonial rule and independent India to categorise scheduled tribes and to appropriate and legalise forests in tribal areas. It builds upon Foucault's notion of governmentality to argue that the history of the scheduled tribes’ subject-m

  16. 25 CFR 224.85 - When may a tribe enter into a lease or business agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When may a tribe enter into a lease or business agreement? 224.85 Section 224.85 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS TRIBAL ENERGY RESOURCE AGREEMENTS UNDER THE INDIAN TRIBAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND SELF DETERMINATION...

  17. 24 CFR 1000.232 - Can an Indian tribe or TDHE amend its IHP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... its IHP? 1000.232 Section 1000.232 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... an Indian tribe or TDHE amend its IHP? Yes. Section 103(c) of NAHASDA specifically provides that a recipient may submit modifications or revisions of its IHP to HUD. Unless the initial IHP...

  18. 40 CFR 131.8 - Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... administer a water quality standards program. 131.8 Section 131.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS General Provisions § 131.8 Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program. (a) The Regional Administrator,...

  19. CARPOECOLOGY OF SOME REPRESENTATIVES OF THE TRIBE RANUNCULEAE IN CENTRAL PART OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Devyatov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical structure and sculpture of fruitlet surfaces of Ceratocephala, Ficaria, Myosurus and Ranunculus belonging to the tribe Ranunculeae (Ranunculaceae were studied. Carpoecological peculiarities: relation between fruit morphology, pericarp structure and ecological adaptation, as well as habitat, phenology, way of fruit distribution of the species studied and preservation of fruits in a seed bank of soil are indicated for each group.

  20. 78 FR 46985 - Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes; National Indian Health Outreach and Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes; National Indian... as part of the Annual National U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Tribal Budget and Policy... I. Funding Opportunity Description Statutory Authority The Indian Health Service (IHS) is...

  1. Evolutionary history of Arecaccea tribe Cocoseae inferred from seven WRKY transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfam. Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera, the coconut, and African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Using seven single copy WRKY transcription factor gen...

  2. 77 FR 56652 - Notice of Service Delivery Area Designation for the Mashpee Wampanoag Indian Tribe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... Service Unit population since 1979. \\52\\ This is a newly recognized Tribe, as documented at 67 FR 46329... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Notice of Service Delivery Area Designation for the Mashpee... public that the Indian Health Service (IHS) established the geographic boundaries of the Service...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.220 - What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes? 1000.220 Section 1000.220 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.220 What regulations apply to...

  4. Differential alcohol-related mortality among American Indian tribes in Oklahoma, 1968-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, C M; Dufour, M; Bertolucci, D

    1989-01-01

    Tribal differences in alcohol-related mortality were examined among 11 Indian tribes living in Oklahoma. Data on alcohol-related deaths from 1968 to 1978 were compiled and assigned to various tribes on the basis of population distributions by county. Results showed significant differences in alcohol-related mortality among the various tribes. Of the 267,238 total deaths in Oklahoma during the study period, 9.3% of Indian deaths were alcohol-related while only 3.2% of those among blacks and 2.4% of those among whites were classified as such. Indian males and females are far more likely to die of alcohol-related deaths than their black and white counterparts. Cheyenne-Arapaho, Comanche and Kiowa areas (located in the western++ part of the state) have higher alcohol-related deaths than Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole and Pawnee areas (located in eastern Oklahoma). Indian residents of the Seminole area have the lowest percentage of deaths identified as alcohol-related. The patterns which emerge may be due to different cultural and historical factors among the Indian tribes. PMID:2784011

  5. Malaysian and Bruneian micro-caddisflies in the tribes Stactobiini and Orthotrichiini (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae: Hydroptilinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, A.; Huisman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-eight new species of micro-caddisflies (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) are described from Malaysia and Brunei in the tribes Stactobiini and Orthotrichiini. Thirteen species are referred to the genus Chrysotrichia Schmid, two to Plethus Hagen, 13 to Scelotrichia Ulmer, five to Stactobia McLachlan

  6. Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny of Poliyar, Malaikuravar and Palliyar Tribes of Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Abilash

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the project was to study the inter genetic diversity within and between Poliyar, Malaikuravar and Palliyar tribal populations of Tamil Nadu and to compare these populations with other populations of India and other parts of the world. 50 Poliyar, 24 Malaikuravar and 20 Palliyar samples were taken for the study. Mitochondrial DNA makers HVR1 and from Y-chromosome, SNPs were analysed. The high frequency of C 6 T at 16223 locus of HVR1 region suggests that these populations might fall into “M” haplogroup. Median Joining Network analysis reveals that three populations are endogamous as they showed very less haplotypes. In the Neighbour Joining Tree, Poliyar are clustering with Palliyar, palliyan and kadar tribes of TamilNadu. Malaikuravar are clustering with satmani tribal population whereas Palliyar are clustering with palliyan and kadar tribes of TamilNadu. The mismatch distribution graph reveals that population growth is constant in paliyar while it is expanding in case of Malaikuravar. The Poliyar tribes show this tribes going to show the bottle neck. Y-SNP analysis revealed that Poliyar, Malaikuravar and Palliyar, fall into haplogroup VI, VIII and X suggesting that they must have migrated from South India, Pakistan, South Asia and Central Asia, as there haplotypes are found predominantly in the above region. To elucidate their migration routes, subhaplotyping needed to be done.

  7. 77 FR 4731 - Review and Submittal of a Tribe's Facility License Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... review its regulations, and the process the Commission should utilize to make revisions. 75 FR 70680 (Nov... documentation, while other comments stated that tribes should not be required to provide documents that should... effect on competition, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, or the ability of...

  8. 24 CFR 1000.228 - If HUD changes its IHP format will Indian tribes be involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If HUD changes its IHP format will Indian tribes be involved? 1000.228 Section 1000.228 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  9. 24 CFR 1000.20 - Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities? 1000.20 Section 1000.20 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  10. 76 FR 35221 - Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban Indian Communities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... June 8, 2011, in FR Doc. 2011-14131, on page 33318, in the first column, last complete sentence in the... Urban Indian Communities; Correction AGENCY: Indian Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice; correction... American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and urban Indian communities. The document contained one...

  11. The Tribes Approach. A Resource Manual for Educators of Rural Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallahassee Urban League, Inc., FL.

    Intended for use as a planning tool by adult educators and program administrators, this manual is designed to offer guidance for the development of instructional, self-help, and training programs geared toward rural adults with low education and/or skills. Part I focuses on the "Tribes" process, an educational strategy built around positive peer…

  12. 50 CFR 300.64 - Fishing by U.S. treaty Indian tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, and must comply with the treaty Indian vessel and gear... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing by U.S. treaty Indian tribes. 300.64 Section 300.64 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  13. The use of vascular plants as traditional boat raw material by Yachai tribe in Mappi Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOHANES YOSEPH RAHAWARIN

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is executed aim to know the plant species and the way of exploiting permanent wood upon which traditional boat making by Yachai tribe in Mappi regency. The Method that used in this research is descriptive method with the structural semi interview technique and direct perception in field. Result of research indicate that the tribe Yachai exploit the plant species have permanent wood upon which traditional boat as much 26 species from 14 family. There are 8 wood species which is often used for the body of boat and also own the good quality according to Yachai tribe, that is Atam (Scihizomeria serrata Hochr, Batki (Adinandra forbesii Baker. F, Chomach (Gordonia papuana Kobuski, Rupke (Tristania sp., Bao (Dillenia papuana artelli, Top (Buchanania macrocarpa Laut, Mitbo (Cordia Dichtoma Forst., and Yunun (Camnosperma brevipetiolata Volkens. While to part of oar exploit 2 wood species that is Bach (Buchanania Arborescens.Bi and Tup (Litsea ampala Merr. Yachai Tribe recognized 3 boat model owning different size measure and function, that is Junun Ramchai, Junun Pochoi and Junun Toch.

  14. 77 FR 10545 - Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana-Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Regional Office, Bureau of Indian Affairs, 545 Marriott Drive, Suite 700, Nashville, TN 37214; Telephone... Indian Country of the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana in accordance with federal law, the laws of the State... otherwise: (a) ``Alcoholic beverage'' means any fluid or any solid capable of being converted into...

  15. 40 CFR 35.6010 - Indian Tribe and intertribal consortium eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... federally recognized, and when they meet the criteria set forth in 40 CFR 300.515(b) of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (the National Contingency Plan or NCP), except that Indian Tribes shall not be required to demonstrate jurisdiction under 40 CFR 300.515(b)(3) of the NCP to...

  16. Developing Clean Energy Projects on Tribal Lands: Data and Resources for Tribes (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-12-01

    This is a outreach brochure (booklet) for the DOE Office of Indian Energy summarizing the renewable energy technology potential on tribal lands. The booklet features tech potential maps for various technologies, information about the activities of DOE-IE, and resources for Tribes.

  17. 77 FR 10551 - Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation-Amendment to Liquor Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... this Code shall be subject to criminal punishment as provided in the Criminal Code. All contraband... shall have exclusive jurisdiction to enforce this Code and the civil fines, criminal punishment and... or employee of the Confederated Tribes or the Wildhorse Resort & Casino shall be authorized,...

  18. Childhood Abuse and Later Parenting Outcomes in Two American Indian Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Anne M.; Orton, Heather D.; Beals, Janette; Buchwald, Dedra; Manson, Spero M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship of childhood physical and sexual abuse with reported parenting satisfaction and parenting role impairment later in life among American Indians (AIs). Methods: AIs from Southwest and Northern Plains tribes who participated in a large-scale community-based study (n=3,084) were asked about traumatic events and…

  19. 76 FR 22913 - Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance of the Paiute Tribe of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... accompanied by a nonrefundable application fee, as set by the Tribal Council, and such other information and... fee; d. The Tribal Council finds that granting the license (or renewal thereof) would create a threat... inspection and audit by the Tribe at any time following the end of each year and for eighteen (18)...

  20. Phylogeny and Expression Analyses Reveal Important Roles for Plant PKS III Family during the Conquest of Land by Plants and Angiosperm Diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lulu; Liu, Pingli; Zhu, Zhixin; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Shujiang; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Li, Guoliang; Wei, Yunxiao; Sun, Rifei

    2016-01-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) utilize the products of primary metabolism to synthesize a wide array of secondary metabolites in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. PKSs can be grouped into three distinct classes, types I, II, and III, based on enzyme structure, substrate specificity, and catalytic mechanisms. The type III PKS enzymes function as homodimers, and are the only class of PKS that do not require acyl carrier protein. Plant type III PKS enzymes, also known as chalcone synthase (CHS)-like enzymes, are of particular interest due to their functional diversity. In this study, we mined type III PKS gene sequences from the genomes of six aquatic algae and 25 land plants (1 bryophyte, 1 lycophyte, 2 basal angiosperms, 16 core eudicots, and 5 monocots). PKS III sequences were found relatively conserved in all embryophytes, but not exist in algae. We also examined gene expression patterns by analyzing available transcriptome data, and identified potential cis-regulatory elements in upstream sequences. Phylogenetic trees of dicots angiosperms showed that plant type III PKS proteins fall into three clades. Clade A contains CHS/STS-type enzymes coding genes with diverse transcriptional expression patterns and enzymatic functions, while clade B is further divided into subclades b1 and b2, which consist of anther-specific CHS-like enzymes. Differentiation regions, such as amino acids 196-207 between clades A and B, and predicted positive selected sites within α-helixes in late appeared branches of clade A, account for the major diversification in substrate choice and catalytic reaction. The integrity and location of conserved cis-elements containing MYB and bHLH binding sites can affect transcription levels. Potential binding sites for transcription factors such as WRKY, SPL, or AP2/EREBP may contribute to tissue- or taxon-specific differences in gene expression. Our data shows that gene duplications and functional diversification of plant type III PKS enzymes

  1. Phylogeny and Expression Analyses Reveal Important Roles for Plant PKS III Family during the Conquest of Land by Plants and Angiosperm Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lulu; Liu, Pingli; Zhu, Zhixin; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Shujiang; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Li, Guoliang; Wei, Yunxiao; Sun, Rifei

    2016-01-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) utilize the products of primary metabolism to synthesize a wide array of secondary metabolites in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. PKSs can be grouped into three distinct classes, types I, II, and III, based on enzyme structure, substrate specificity, and catalytic mechanisms. The type III PKS enzymes function as homodimers, and are the only class of PKS that do not require acyl carrier protein. Plant type III PKS enzymes, also known as chalcone synthase (CHS)-like enzymes, are of particular interest due to their functional diversity. In this study, we mined type III PKS gene sequences from the genomes of six aquatic algae and 25 land plants (1 bryophyte, 1 lycophyte, 2 basal angiosperms, 16 core eudicots, and 5 monocots). PKS III sequences were found relatively conserved in all embryophytes, but not exist in algae. We also examined gene expression patterns by analyzing available transcriptome data, and identified potential cis-regulatory elements in upstream sequences. Phylogenetic trees of dicots angiosperms showed that plant type III PKS proteins fall into three clades. Clade A contains CHS/STS-type enzymes coding genes with diverse transcriptional expression patterns and enzymatic functions, while clade B is further divided into subclades b1 and b2, which consist of anther-specific CHS-like enzymes. Differentiation regions, such as amino acids 196-207 between clades A and B, and predicted positive selected sites within α-helixes in late appeared branches of clade A, account for the major diversification in substrate choice and catalytic reaction. The integrity and location of conserved cis-elements containing MYB and bHLH binding sites can affect transcription levels. Potential binding sites for transcription factors such as WRKY, SPL, or AP2/EREBP may contribute to tissue- or taxon-specific differences in gene expression. Our data shows that gene duplications and functional diversification of plant type III PKS enzymes

  2. Phylogeny and Expression Analyses Reveal Important Roles for Plant PKS III Family during the Conquest of Land by Plants and Angiosperm Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lulu; Liu, Pingli; Zhu, Zhixin; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Shujiang; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Li, Guoliang; Wei, Yunxiao; Sun, Rifei

    2016-01-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) utilize the products of primary metabolism to synthesize a wide array of secondary metabolites in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. PKSs can be grouped into three distinct classes, types I, II, and III, based on enzyme structure, substrate specificity, and catalytic mechanisms. The type III PKS enzymes function as homodimers, and are the only class of PKS that do not require acyl carrier protein. Plant type III PKS enzymes, also known as chalcone synthase (CHS)-like enzymes, are of particular interest due to their functional diversity. In this study, we mined type III PKS gene sequences from the genomes of six aquatic algae and 25 land plants (1 bryophyte, 1 lycophyte, 2 basal angiosperms, 16 core eudicots, and 5 monocots). PKS III sequences were found relatively conserved in all embryophytes, but not exist in algae. We also examined gene expression patterns by analyzing available transcriptome data, and identified potential cis-regulatory elements in upstream sequences. Phylogenetic trees of dicots angiosperms showed that plant type III PKS proteins fall into three clades. Clade A contains CHS/STS-type enzymes coding genes with diverse transcriptional expression patterns and enzymatic functions, while clade B is further divided into subclades b1 and b2, which consist of anther-specific CHS-like enzymes. Differentiation regions, such as amino acids 196-207 between clades A and B, and predicted positive selected sites within α-helixes in late appeared branches of clade A, account for the major diversification in substrate choice and catalytic reaction. The integrity and location of conserved cis-elements containing MYB and bHLH binding sites can affect transcription levels. Potential binding sites for transcription factors such as WRKY, SPL, or AP2/EREBP may contribute to tissue- or taxon-specific differences in gene expression. Our data shows that gene duplications and functional diversification of plant type III PKS enzymes

  3. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water and Wildlife Program : Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility Master Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Ronald L.; Woodward-Lilengreen, Kelly L.; Vitale, Angelo J.

    1999-09-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) receives and reviews proposals to mitigate for fish and wildlife losses and refers approved measures to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding. The Northwest Power Act (Act) calls on the Council to include measures in its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses. The Act further states that the Council may include in its Program measures that provide off-site mitigation--mitigation physically removed from the hydro project(s) that caused the need to mitigate. The Program includes a goal ''to recover and preserve the health of native resident fish injured by the hydropower system, where feasible, and, where appropriate, to use resident fish to mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the system.'' Among those recommended measures are off-site mitigation for losses of anadromous fisheries including the measure under analysis in this Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility Master Plan, proposed by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. To meet the need for off-site mitigation for anadromous fish losses in the Columbia River Basin in a manner consistent with the objectives of the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe is proposing that the BPA fund the design, construction, operations and maintenance of a trout production facility on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation. Measures for establishing a Coeur d'Alene fish production facility have been a part of the Council's Program since 1987. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility is intended to rear and release westslope cutthroat trout into rivers and streams with the express purpose of increasing the numbers of fish spawning, incubating and rearing in the natural environment. It will use the modern technology that hatcheries offer to overcome the mortality resulting from habitat degradation in lakes, rivers, and

  4. 25 CFR 900.97 - How can an Indian tribe or tribal organization acquire excess BIA or IHS property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exercise discretion in a way that gives maximum effect to the request of Indian tribes or tribal... INTERIOR, AND INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE...

  5. 25 CFR 170.107 - Should planning organizations and local governments consult with tribes when planning for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Should planning organizations and local governments... planning organizations and local governments consult with tribes when planning for transportation projects... among metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), regional planning organizations (RPOs),...

  6. PATTERN OF CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTIONS, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND OBESITY INDICES AMONG BAIGA AND GOND TRIBES OF MADHYA PRADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Saini, Kapoor AK, Satwanti Kapoor

    2015-01-01

    The Indian population is passing through a nutritional transition with a rise of non-communicable disease burden like cardiovascular disease. Aims: The overall aim was to provide detailed information on the current cardiovascular functions, nutritional status and obesity indices among Baiga and Gond tribes of Madhya Pradesh and to compare with other population groups in India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 177 males of Baiga and Gond tribes of Madhya Pra...

  7. Determinants of family planning acceptance and changing social norms among the tribes of Tamil Nadu – A qualitative exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Niranjan Yadav; Patil, Rajan R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are very few studies done among tribes that explore the contribution of changing social norms which influences the acceptance of family planning methods. Objective: To discover various changing traditional social norms that influence tribal people to accept contraceptive methods. Methodology: Ten in-depth interviews were conducted among Toda and Irula tribes of Nilagiri district, Tamil Nadu. Family planning acceptors were interviewed and sampling was purposive to get data ri...

  8. Protecting Indigenous Peoples through Right to Natural Resources: Lesson from the Existence of Navajo Tribe in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Ngurah Parikesit Widiatedja

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of international law, indigenous peoples have the rights to own, use, and control their natural resources within their territories. In the United States, the Navajo Tribe has enjoyed those rights. In terms of law making process, this tribe can enact some acts to preserve a control over their natural resources. Specifically, the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Solid Waste Act. Concerning law implementation and enforcement, Navajo Trib...

  9. Ethnomedicinal studies on plants used by Yanadi tribe of Chandragiri reserve forest area, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataru Savithramma

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: There is no record of traditional medicinal knowledge of these villages so far, hence the present study is aimed to document the information on medicinal plants used by Yanadi tribe in Chandragiri reserve forest area. Correlation of ethnomedicinal uses with Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical database clearly indicates the high medicinal significance of claimed data of this Yanadi tribe. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 49-56

  10. Final Technical Report. Sault Tribe Building Efficiency Audits of Tribally-Owned Governmental Buildings and Residential Tribal Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Jeffrey W. [Sault Sainte Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians, Marie, MI (United States)

    2015-03-27

    The Tribe is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings and low income housing sites. In 2009, the Tribe applied to the U. S. Department of Energy for funding to conduct energy audits of Tribally-owned governmental buildings. Findings from the energy audits would define the extent and types of energy efficiency improvements needed, establish a basis for energy priorities, strategies and action plans, and provide a benchmark for measuring improvements from energy efficiency implementations. In 2010, the DOE awarded a grant in the amount of $95,238 to the Tribe to fund the energy audits of nine governmental buildings and to pay for travel expenses associated with attendance and participation at the DOE annual program reviews. In 2011, the Tribe applied for and was awarded a DOE grant in the amount of $75,509 to conduct energy audits of the remaining 30 Tribally-owned governmental buildings. Repeating mobilization steps performed during the first DOE energy audits grant, the Tribe initiated the second round of governmental building energy audits by completing energy auditor procurement. The selected energy auditor successfully passed DOE debarment and Sault Tribe background clearances. The energy audits contract was awarded to U. P. Engineers and Architects, Inc. of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. The Tribe continued mobilizing for the energy audits by providing the energy auditor with one year of electric, gas and water utility invoice copies per building, as well as supplemental building information, such as operating hours. The Tribe also contacted building occupants to coordinate scheduling for the on-site energy audit inspections and arranged for facilities management personnel to guide the energy auditor through the buildings and answer questions regarding building systems.

  11. Cypsela morphology and its taxonomic significance for the tribe senecioneae (asteraceae) from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cypsela of 26 species distributed in 9 genera of the tribe Senecioneae were examined from Pakistan. Micromorphological characters of cypsela in this group are not only found useful for assessing relationship but they are also useful for the delimitation of taxa both at the generic and specific levels, except that of the genera Senecio and Doronicum which could not be clearly separated as they do not have exclusive cypsela features. (author)

  12. Taxonomic review of the tribe Junoniini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae from Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zarchi Win

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides keys to the genera and species for the butterfly species belonging to the tribe Junoniini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae from Myanmar. Species accounts include taxonomic description, synonymic lists, distributional ranges, and adult illustrations of nine species: Junonia hierta (Fabricius, Junonia orithya (Linnaeus, Junonia almana (Linnaeus, Junonia lemonias (Linnaeus, Junonia atlites (Linnaeus, Junonia iphita (Cramer, Yoma sabina (Cramer, Hypolimnas bolina (Linnaeus, and Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus.

  13. Medicinal Plant-Lore of Sugali Tribe of Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, M. Hamambara; Reddy, K. Eshwara; Venkataraju, R.R

    2000-01-01

    The preliminary investigations of crude during resources of sugali tribes of Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh with their recipes, preparation of drugs, administration, usage form several centuries. Fifty plant crude drugs (species) belong to twenty nine families were collected based on folk-lore knowledge. Botanical name, family name, part used, mode of preparation and administration and purpose, for which it as been used were enumerated.

  14. The systematic wood anatomy of the Moraceae (Urticales) III. Tribe Ficeae

    OpenAIRE

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.; Welle, ter, B.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the tribe Ficeae, comprising one genus, Ficus, is described. Considering the large number of species, the genus is remarkably homogeneous. It is characterised by abundant axial parenchyma in regular apotracheal concentric bands and narrow vasicentric rings, and by relatively wide vessels. On the basis of these characters. Ficus can easily be recognised within the family. No correlation between wood anatomy and subgeneric classification as proposed by recent taxonomists cou...

  15. Distributional patterns and possible origins of the tribes and genera of Coelidiinae (Homoptera, Membracoidea, Cicadellidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nielson, Mervin W.; William J. Knight; Yalin Zhang

    2000-01-01

    Leafhoppers are well known biological indicators of zoogeographical regions owing, in part, to their phytodependency, high host plant specificity and relatively low vagility. In this connection, we discuss distributional patterns and possible zoogeographical origins of nine constituent tribes and their genera of the pantropical subfamily Coelidiinae. Among 118 known genera, only eight currently occupy more than one zoogeographical region, indicating an extremely high endemic profile which sup...

  16. Molecular phylogeny of tribe Theeae (Theaceae s.s. and its implications for generic delimitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Tribe Theeae, which includes some economically important and widely grown plants, such as beverage tea and a number of woody ornamentals, is the largest member of the Theaceae family. Using five genomic regions (chloroplast: atpI-H, matK, psbA5'R-ALS-11F, rbcL; nuclear: LEAFY and 30 species representing four of the five genera in this tribe (Apterosperma, Camellia, Polyspora, and Pyrenaria s.l., we investigated the phylogeny of Theeae and assessed the delimitation of genera in the tribe. Our results showed that Polyspora was monophyletic and the sister of the three other genera of Theeae investigated, Camellia was paraphyletic and Pyrenaria was polyphyletic. The inconsistent phylogenetic placement of some species of Theeae between the nuclear and chloroplast trees suggested widespread hybridization between Camellia and Pyrenaria, Polyspora and Parapyrenaria. These results indicate that hybridization, rather than morphological homoplasy, has confused the current classification of Theeae. In addition, the phylogenetic placement and possible allies of Laplacea are also discussed.

  17. Updating freeTribe to Support Efficient Synchronous Awareness in the Web Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Delgadillo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The research field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work has been reflected fundamentally in theoretical contributions. This contributions have constitute the base to carry out several intents to facilitate the work of the collaborative systems developers, however, current tool-kits, APIs or class libraries only eliminate partially the gap between the technical aspects that impose the information technology and the stressed social character of the process of collaboration in the World Wide Web. In this paper is presented the framework freeTribe, which involve the domain of the distributed groupwares leaning on the Cooperative Model of the methodology AMENITIES, in the middleware platform ICE and in RIA technologies; freeTribe has been designed as a software framework, to maximize its reusability and adaptability with a minimal programming effort. Support for synchronous group tasks in the Web context is increasingly recognized as a desideratum for collaborative systems and several tools have emerged recently that help groups of people with the same goals to work together, but many issues for these collaborative systems remain under studied. We identified synchronous awareness as one of these issues in collaborative systems, and updated freeTribe with four well-accepted kinds of awareness (group awareness, workspace awareness, contextual awareness, and peripheral awareness by the community focusing our interest in its synchronous mechanism for efficient interaction in Web contexts.

  18. Evolutionary relationships within the lamioid tribe Synandreae (Lamiaceae) based on multiple low-copy nuclear loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tilottama; Catlin, Nathan S.; Garner, Drake M.G.; Cantino, Philip D.; Scheen, Anne-Cathrine

    2016-01-01

    The subfamily Lamioideae (Lamiaceae) comprises ten tribes, of which only Stachydeae and Synandreae include New World members. Previous studies have investigated the phylogenetic relationships among the members of Synandreae based on plastid and nuclear ribosomal DNA loci. In an effort to re-examine the phylogenetic relationships within Synandreae, the current study incorporates data from four low-copy nuclear loci, PHOT1, PHOT2, COR, and PPR. Our results confirm previous studies based on chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal markers in supporting the monophyly of tribe Synandreae, as well as sister relationships between Brazoria and Warnockia, and between that pair of genera and a monophyletic Physostegia. However, we observe incongruence in the relationships of Macbridea and Synandra. The placement of Synandreae within Lamioideae is poorly resolved and incongruent among different analyses, and the sister group of Synandreae remains enigmatic. Comparison of the colonization and migration patterns corroborates a single colonization of the New World by Synandreae during the Late Miocene/Tortonian age. This is in contrast to the only other lamioid tribe that includes New World members, Stachydeae, which colonized the New World at least twice—during the mid-Miocene and Pliocene. Edaphic conditions and intolerance of soil acidity may be factors that restricted the distribution of most genera of Synandreae to southeastern and south–central North America, whereas polyploidy could have increased the colonizing capability of the more wide-ranging genus, Physostegia. PMID:27547537

  19. Southeast Asian origins of five Hill Tribe populations and correlation of genetic to linguistic relationships inferred with genome-wide SNP data

    OpenAIRE

    Listman, JB; Malison, RT; Sanichwankul, K; Ittiwut, C; Mutirangura, A.; Gelernter, J

    2011-01-01

    In Thailand, the term Hill Tribe is used to describe populations whose members traditionally practice slash and burn agriculture and reside in the mountains. These tribes are thought to have migrated throughout Asia for up to 5,000 years, including migrations through Southern China and/or Southeast Asia. There have been continuous migrations southward from China into Thailand for approximately the past thousand years and the present geographic range of any given tribe straddles multiple polit...

  20. 被子植物的早期胚胎形态建成%Research Progress on Early Embryogenesis in Angiosperms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 伍晓明

    2012-01-01

    被子植物早期胚胎形态建成是其有性生殖过程中一个重要发育阶段.在这一阶段中,被子植物形体基本特征形成,包括顶-基轴极性建立、不同细胞层分化以及分生组织形成.合子极性直接与顶基细胞命运相关,但其极性产生机理仍然不明.研究表明,WOX家族转录因子、生长素定向运输以及生长素响应应答可能参与了早期顶-基模型建成;辐射对称模型的建立可能由细胞与细胞间相互作用来介导;生长素流可能参与胚胎顶端组织形成.该文对近年来被子植物早期胚胎形态建成过程中的合子极性建立与生长、合子分裂及其顶基细胞的形成、胚根原特化及根极的形成、辐射对称模式及表皮原特化、顶端分生组织特化及子叶起始等方面的研究进展进行了综述.%Early embryogenesis in angiosperms is an important developmental stage of sexual reproductive process. At this stage,the basic morphology of seedling is established,including apical-basal axial polarity, different cell layers differentiation,and meristem formation. Zygote polarity directly affects the cell fates of apical and basal cell,but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Previous studies suggested that WOX family transcription factors,direct auxin transportation as well as auxin response may be involved in the establishment of apical-basal patterning. Cell-cell communication may mediate the radial patterning. Additionally, auxin flow participates in the process of apical organization. This paper will review the late research progresses on early embryogenesis of angiosperms,including zygote polarity and elongation,zygote division and apical and basal cell formation, hypophysis specification and root pole formation, radial patterning and protoderm specification,shoot meristem specification and cotyledon initiation.

  1. Both water source and atmospheric water impact leaf wax n-alkane 2H/1H values of hydroponically grown angiosperm trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, B. J.; Berke, M. A.; Hambach, B.; Roden, J. S.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    The extent to which both water source and leaf water 2H-enrichment affect the δ2H values of terrestrial plant leaf waxes is an area of active research as ecologists seek a mechanistic understanding of the environmental determinants of leaf wax isotope values before applying δ2H values of leaf waxes to reconstruct past hydrologic conditions. To elucidate the effects of both water source and atmospheric water vapor on δ2H values of leaf waxes for broad-leaved angiosperms, we analyzed hydrogen isotope ratios of high-molecular weight n-alkanes from two tree species that were grown throughout the spring and summer (five months) in a hydroponic system under controlled atmospheric conditions. Here, 12 subpopulations each of Populus fremontii and Betula occidentalis saplings were grown under one of six source different waters ranging in hydrogen isotope ratio values from -120 to +180 ‰ and under either 40 % or 75 % relative humidity conditions. We found n-alkane δ2H values of both species were linearly related to source water δ2H values with differences in slope associated with differing atmospheric humidity. A Craig-Gordon model was used to predict the δ2H values of leaf water and, by extension, n-alkane δ2H values under the range of growth conditions. The modeled leaf water values were found to be linearly related to observed n-alkane δ2H values with a statistically indistinguishable slope between the high and low humidity treatments. These leaf wax observations support a constant biosynthetic fractionation factor between evaporatively-enriched leaf water and n-alkanes for each species. However, we found the calculated biosynthetic fractionation between modeled leaf-water and n-alkane to be different between the two species. We submit that these dissimilarities were due to model inputs and not differences in the specific-species biochemistry. Nonetheless, these results are significant as they indicated that the δ2H value of atmospheric water vapor and

  2. Getting ready for host invasion: elevated expression and action of xyloglucan endotransglucosylases/hydrolases in developing haustoria of the holoparasitic angiosperm Cuscuta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Stian; Striberny, Bernd; Hollmann, Julien; Schwacke, Rainer; Popper, Zoë; Krause, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Changes in cell walls have been previously observed in the mature infection organ, or haustorium, of the parasitic angiosperm Cuscuta, but are not equally well charted in young haustoria. In this study, we focused on the molecular processes in the early stages of developing haustoria; that is, before the parasite engages in a physiological contact with its host. We describe first the identification of differentially expressed genes in young haustoria whose development was induced by far-red light and tactile stimuli in the absence of a host plant by suppression subtractive hybridization. To improve sequence information and to aid in the identification of the obtained candidates, reference transcriptomes derived from two species of Cuscuta, C. gronovii and C. reflexa, were generated. Subsequent quantitative gene expression analysis with different tissues of C. reflexa revealed that among the genes that were up-regulated in young haustoria, two xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) genes were highly expressed almost exclusively at the onset of haustorium development. The same expression pattern was also found for the closest XTH homologues from C. gronovii. In situ assays for XTH-specific action suggested that xyloglucan endotransglucosylation was most pronounced in the cell walls of the swelling area of the haustorium facing the host plant, but was also detectable in later stages of haustoriogenesis. We propose that xyloglucan remodelling by Cuscuta XTHs prepares the parasite for host infection and possibly aids the invasive growth of the haustorium. PMID:26561437

  3. New Distribution Record of Angiosperm in Fujian Province (IV)%福建被子植物分布新记录 IV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成梓; 刘小芬; 黄泽豪; 范世明; 吴锦忠

    2012-01-01

      According to the investigation on the vegetation in Fujian Province, 1 newly recorded genus, Arabis; and 5 newly recorded species, Arabis flagellosa, Sedum emarginatum, Sedum polytrichoides, Sedum tetractinum, Hylotelephium erythrostictum of angiosperms were reported. The voucher specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of FJTCM.%  在福建省药用植物资源调查中,陆续发现了福建省被子植物地理新分布记录属及种多个,经整理鉴定,本文继续报道1个新分布记录属(南芥属 Arabis)和5个新分布记录种(匍匐南芥 Arabis flagellosa、凹叶景天Sedum emarginatum、藓状景天 Sedum polytrichoides、四芒景天 Sedum tetractinum、八宝 Hylotelephium erythrostictum)。标本存放于福建中医药大学药用植物标本室。

  4. Plant functional types are more efficient than climate in predicting spectrums of trait variation in evergreen angiosperm trees of tropical Australia and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, H. F.; Prentice, I. C. C.; Atkin, O. K.; Bloomfield, K. J.; Bradford, M.; Weerasinghe, L. K.; Harrison, S. P.; Evans, B. J.; Liddell, M. J.; Wang, H.; Cao, K. F.; Fan, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The representation of Plant Functional Types (PFTs) in current generation of Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) is excessively simplistically. Key ecophysiological properties, such as photosynthesis biochemistry, are most times merely averaged and trade-off with other plant traits is often neglected. Validation of a PFT framework based in photosynthetic process is crucial to improve reliability of DGVMs. We present 431 leaf-biochemical and wood level measurements in evergreen angiosperm trees of tropical forests in Australia and China that were divided in four spectrums of plant trait variation: metabolic, structural, hydraulic and height dimensions. Plant traits divided in each of these dimensions adopt survival strategies reflected more clearly by trade-off within each spectrum, and in some extent across spectrums. Co-ordination theory (that Rubisco- and electron-transport limited rates of photosynthesis are co-limiting) and least-coast theory (that intercellular to ambient CO2 concentration minimizes the combined costs per unit carbon assimilation, regulating maximum height and wood density) expectations matched PFT (which takes in account canopy position and light access, and life spam) variation. Our findings suggest that climate (air moisture, air temperature, light) has lower power representing these dimensions, in comparison to the PFT framework.

  5. Contradiction between plastid gene transcription and function due to complex posttranscriptional splicing: an exemplary study of ycf15 function and evolution in angiosperms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Shi

    Full Text Available Plant chloroplast genes are usually co-transcribed while its posttranscriptional splicing is fairly complex and remains largely unsolved. On basis of sequencing the three complete Camellia (Theaceae chloroplast genomes for the first time, we comprehensively analyzed the evolutionary patterns of ycf15, a plastid gene quite paradoxical in terms of its function and evolution, along the inferred angiosperm phylogeny. Although many species in separate lineages including the three species reported here contained an intact ycf15 gene in their chloroplast genomes, the phylogenetic mixture of both intact and obviously disabled ycf15 genes imply that they are all non-functional. Both intracellular gene transfer (IGT and horizontal gene transfer (HGT failed to explain such distributional anomalies. While, transcriptome analyses revealed that ycf15 was transcribed as precursor polycistronic transcript which contained ycf2, ycf15 and antisense trnL-CAA. The transcriptome assembly was surprisingly found to cover near the complete Camellia chloroplast genome. Many non-coding regions including pseudogenes were mapped by multiple transcripts, indicating the generality of pseudogene transcriptions. Our results suggest that plastid DNA posttranscriptional splicing may involve complex cleavage of non-functional genes.

  6. The phylogeny of C/S1 bZIP transcription factors reveals a shared algal ancestry and the pre-angiosperm translational regulation of S1 transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peviani, Alessia; Lastdrager, Jeroen; Hanson, Johannes; Snel, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Basic leucine zippers (bZIPs) form a large plant transcription factor family. C and S1 bZIP groups can heterodimerize, fulfilling crucial roles in seed development and stress response. S1 sequences also harbor a unique regulatory mechanism, termed Sucrose-Induced Repression of Translation (SIRT). The conservation of both C/S1 bZIP interactions and SIRT remains poorly characterized in non-model species, leaving their evolutionary origin uncertain and limiting crop research. In this work, we explored recently published plant sequencing data to establish a detailed phylogeny of C and S1 bZIPs, investigating their intertwined role in plant evolution, and the origin of SIRT. Our analyses clarified C and S1 bZIP orthology relationships in angiosperms, and identified S1 sequences in gymnosperms. We experimentally showed that the gymnosperm orthologs are regulated by SIRT, tracing back the origin of this unique regulatory mechanism to the ancestor of seed plants. Additionally, we discovered an earlier S ortholog in the charophyte algae Klebsormidium flaccidum, together with a C ortholog. This suggests that C and S groups originated by duplication from a single algal proto-C/S ancestor. Based on our observations, we propose a model wherein the C/S1 bZIP dimer network evolved in seed plants from pre-existing C/S bZIP interactions. PMID:27457880

  7. New Distribution Record of Angiosperm in Fujian Province (Ⅲ)%福建被子植物分布新记录Ⅲ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成梓; 刘小芬; 黄泽豪; 范世明; 吴锦忠

    2012-01-01

      在福建省药用植物资源调查中,陆续发现了福建省被子植物地理新分布记录属及种多个,经整理鉴定,本文继续报道新分布记录属4个,乳豆属 Galactia、米口袋属 Gueldenstaedtia、山靛属 Mercurialis、刺芹属Eryngium,以及乳豆 Galactia tenuiflora、少花米口袋 Gueldenstaedtia verna、山靛 Mercurialis leiocarpa、刺芹Eryngium foetidum、泡果苘 Herissantia crispa 等5个新分布记录种,标本存放于福建中医药大学药用植物标本室%  According to the investigation on the vegetation in Fujian Province, 4 Newly recorded genera, Galactia, Gueldenstaedtia, Mercurialis, Eryngium, and 5 newly recorded species, Galactia tenuiflora, Gueldenstaedtia verna, Mercurialis leiocarpa, Herissantia crispa, Eryngium foetidum of Angiosperm were found. The voucher specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of FJTCM.

  8. Sociocultural factors influencing decision-making related to fertility among the Kanuri tribe of north-eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkarim G. Mairiga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Kanuri tribe is found in the Lake Chad basin. However, the majority of the tribe lives in Borno State, Nigeria. Before this study was undertaken, factors related to fertility decisions among the tribe were not known. Objectives: This study is aimed at describing and documenting the sociocultural factors affecting decisions related to fertility among the Kanuri tribe. Method: The study applied the qualitative research method. In-depth interviews and focus-group discussions were used as data collection methods. Analysis was done manually.Results: Children among the Kanuri were highly valued and desired irrespective of their gender. The ideal family size, according to most of the respondents, was 16 children. Kanuri men are polygamous and can marry up to four wives in order to form large families. However, it is an abomination among Kanuri women to fall pregnant in quick succession; a phenomenon they termed konkomi. Other reasons for child-spacing were related to child welfare and maternal well-being. Methods for child-spacing included prolonged breastfeeding (Nganji yaye, ornaments in various forms and shapes, spiritual invocations and dried herbs (Nganji Yandeye. Few Kanuri women practiced modern methods of family planning. Conclusion: Trends in fertility among the Kanuri tribe need to be monitored regularly and appropriate measures be taken to introduce and promote modern family planning and child health services to ensure a healthier family life.

  9. The Demographic Characteristics of the Tribes of the Black Sea Region in the first half of the XIX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The social class structure of the Black sea tribes, the resettlement area which was the territory from Anapa to the river Bzyb, has not yet become a subject of research in the historiography. Natukhaitsy and shapsugs of Adygeyan tribe, ubykhs, and also jikis of Abaza tribe lived in the territory during the first half of the XIX century. The data sources on the population in this territory at a specified time are contradictory, thus practically does not reflect the proportion of estates. The authors attracted as sources the statistical materials of 1800-1860-ies, including those published in the modern period on the Abkhazia (Abaza tribe and the Kuban. By the comparison of the different sources there was made an attempt to calculate the proportion of the population on the estates, namely: the proportion of princes, nobles, free inhabitants, dependent inhabitants, slaves separately for coastal and mountain societies. In addition there were attracted the sources of personal origin – diaries and memoirs, the works of Abkhazians who lived among travelers, and, of course, the scientific literature. The authors used the methods of demographic statistics for reconstruction of the population of the tribes of the Black sea region due to the presence of incomplete data on the number of classes. In conclusion the research provides with the accumulated statistical data on total population, population class and gender.

  10. Conodonts, stratigraphy, and relative sea-level changes of the tribes hill formation (lower ordovician, east-central New York)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landing, E.D.; Westrop, S.R.; Knox, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Tremadocian onlap is recorded by the Tribes Hill Formation. The formation is a lower Lower Ordovician (upper conodont Fauna B Interval(?)- Rossodus manitouensis Zone) depositional sequence that unconformably overlies the Upper Cambrian Little Falls Formation. Depositional environments and stratigraphy indicate that the Tribes Hill was deposited on a wave-, not tide-, dominated shelf and that a uniform, 'layer-cake' stratigraphy is present. The deepening-shoaling sequence of the Tribes Hill includes the: 1) Sprakers Member (new; peritidal carbonate and overlying tempestite limestone and shale); 2) Van Wie Member (new; subtidal shale and limestone); 3) Wolf Hollow Member (revised; massive carbonates with thrombolitic cap); and 4) Canyon Road Member (new; glauconitic limestone and overlying evaporitic dolostone). The shoaling half-cycle of the Tribes Hill is older than a shoaling event in western Newfoundland, and suggests epeirogenic factors in earliest Ordovician sea-level change in east Laurentia. Conodont and trilobite biofacies track lithofacies, and Rossodus manitouensis Zone conodonts and Bellefontia Biofacies trilobites appear in the distal, middle Tribes Hill Formation. Twenty-four conodont species are illustrated. Ansella? protoserrata new species, lapetognathus sprakersi new species, Leukorhinion ambonodes new genus and species, and Laurentoscandodus new genus are described.

  11. Optical non-invasive 3D characterization of pottery of pre-colonial Paranaiba valley tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Wagner; Alves, Márcia Angelina; Costa, Manuel F.

    2014-08-01

    Optical non-invasive inspection tools and methods had expensively proven, for several decades now, their invaluable importance in the preservation of cultural heritage and artwork. In this paper we will report on an optical non-invasive microtopographic characterization work on pre-historical and pre-colonial ceramics and pottery of tribes in the Paranaiba valley in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples object of this work were collected at the Inhazinha archeological site (19º 10'00" S / 47° 11'00" W) in the vicinity of Perdizes municipality in transition between the West mining area and the "triangle" area in the center of Brazil. It is a hilly region (850m high) traversed by a number of rivers and streams tributary of Araguari river like Quebra Anzol river and Macaúba and Olegário streams. The Inhazinha site' excavations are part of the Project Jigsaw Hook which since 1980 aimed the establishment of a chrono-cultural framework associated with the study of the socio-cultural dynamics corresponding to successive occupations of hunter-recollector-farmer' tribes in prehistoric and pre-colonial times in the Paranaíba valley in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two groups of indigenous Indian occupations were found. Both of the pre-colonial period dated at 1,095 ± 186 years ago (TL-FATEC/SP for Zone 1) and of the early nineteenth century dated at 212 ± 19 years ago (EMS-CENA-USP/SP) and 190 ± 30 years ago (C14- BETA/USA) in Zone 2 seemingly occupied by southern Kayapós tribes. The pottery found is decorated with incisions with different geometric distributions and levels of complexity.

  12. Comparative Survey of Entomophagy and Entomotherapeutic Practices in Six Tribes of Eastern Arunachal Pradesh (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno

    2013-01-01

    A consolidated list of edible insects used in the eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by Wangcho (Wancho) and Nocte tribes of the Tirap District and the Shingpo, Tangsa, Deori and Chakma of the Changlang District has been prepared. The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 51 insect species, belonging to 9 orders were considered edible. The largest number of the edible species belonged to the Coleoptera (14), f...

  13. Folklore claims of some ethnomedicinal plants used by Bhil Tribes of Dhar District Madhya Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alawa KS,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An ethnobotanical survey was carried out during 2012-2014 in the some ethnomedicinal plants used by tribal communities of Dhar district, Madhya Pradesh. The present paper exclusively deals with the Bhil tribe folk medicinal plants which are used for treating various ailments and disease in their day to day life. They are settled agriculturist and have a very rich knowledge on plant based resources utilization for their survival since time immemorial. During the investigation it has recorded 24 plant species belonging to 24 genera and 21 families which are widely used as medicines by this ethnic community. Some plants used for other purposes are also mentioned.

  14. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure in Qashqai Tribe, Southern Iran, 1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Motabar

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis cross sectional health and morbidity survey was conducted in 1973, an attempt was made to measure the prevalence of high blood pressure among Qashqai Tribe. Our study showed that hypertension is by no means a rare condition among nomads and it tends to be a little higher in women than in men age gtoUp 35 years and o ver , Our figures showed that the pattern of increase of prevalence of high blood pressure with the increase of age.

  15. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure in Qashqai Tribe, Southern Iran, 1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Motabar

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis cross sectional health and morbidity survey was conducted in 1973, an attempt was made to measure the prevalence of high blood pressure among Qashqai Tribe. Our study showed that hypertension is by no means a rare condition among nomads and it tends to be a little higher in women than in men age gtoUp 35 years and o ver , Our figures showed that the pattern of increase of prevalence of high blood pressure with the increase of age.

  16. Unite the tribes ending turf wars for career and business success

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Founder of Practical Strategy Consulting, Christopher Duncan is the bestselling author of Unite the Tribes and The Career Programmer. He's been a frequent guest on radio shows across the country, his monthly columns have been read by hundreds of thousands worldwide, and he is widely acclaimed for his immensely practical approach to success in the real world where self interest and office politics are often more prevalent than common sense. This keen insight does not come by accident. Christopher has an unusually diverse background which includes a career in sales consulting, life as a professi

  17. Protecting Indigenous Peoples through Right to Natural Resources: Lesson from the Existence of Navajo Tribe in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Parikesit Widiatedja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of international law, indigenous peoples have the rights to own, use, and control their natural resources within their territories. In the United States, the Navajo Tribe has enjoyed those rights. In terms of law making process, this tribe can enact some acts to preserve a control over their natural resources. Specifically, the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Solid Waste Act. Concerning law implementation and enforcement, Navajo Tribe has a right to equitable benefit sharing in natural resources and fair court proceeding for breach. As a result, the existence of rights for natural resources requires the U.S federal government to ensure fair administration of natural resources in order to mitigate an economic exploitation of natural resources in indigenous land.

  18. 42 CFR 137.311 - Are Self-Governance Tribes entitled to determine the nature and scope of the limited immunity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes entitled to determine the nature and scope of the limited immunity waiver required under section 509(a)(2) of the Act ? 137... Process § 137.311 Are Self-Governance Tribes entitled to determine the nature and scope of the...

  19. Tsetsaut History: The Forgotten Tribe of Southern Southeast Alaska. Portland Canal Early History (Misty Fiord National Monument). Alaska Historical Commission Studies in History #147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangeli, Reginald H.

    Written by one of the tribe's few remaining members and based on oral history and legend, this study traces the history of the Tsetsaut tribe, ancient original inhabitants of the Portland Canal area of southeastern Alaska. Chapters recount the quest for the coast, legends of Portland Canal, exploration of the area, material culture, establishment…

  20. 42 CFR 137.138 - Once the Indian Tribe's final offer has been accepted or deemed accepted by operation of law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Once the Indian Tribe's final offer has been... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Final Offer § 137.138 Once the Indian Tribe's final offer has been accepted or deemed accepted by operation of law, what is the next step? After...

  1. 25 CFR 170.809 - Can a tribe perform road maintenance under a self-determination contract or self-governance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe perform road maintenance under a self..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.809 Can a tribe perform road maintenance under a self-determination contract or self-governance...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.55 - Can a Tribe/Consortium appeal within DOI the Director's decision not to award a grant under this...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium appeal within DOI the Director's decision not to award a grant under this subpart? 1000.55 Section 1000.55 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... Negotiation Grants Advance Planning Grant Funding § 1000.55 Can a Tribe/Consortium appeal within DOI...

  3. 40 CFR 3.1000 - How does a state, tribe, or local government revise or modify its authorized program to allow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... local government that receives or plans to begin receiving electronic documents in lieu of paper... state, tribe, or local government must submit an application that complies with paragraph (b)(1) of this... state, tribe, or local government that does not have an existing electronic document receiving...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.68 - May non-BIA bureaus provide technical assistance to a Tribe/Consortium in drafting its planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Process § 1000.68 May non-BIA bureaus provide technical assistance to a Tribe/Consortium in drafting its... technical assistance to the Tribe/Consortium in the drafting of its planning grant application. ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May non-BIA bureaus provide technical assistance to...

  5. 42 CFR 137.18 - What criteria must an Indian Tribe satisfy to be eligible to participate in self-governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... eligible to participate in self-governance? 137.18 Section 137.18 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... SELF-GOVERNANCE Selection of Indian Tribes for Participation in Self-Governance § 137.18 What criteria must an Indian Tribe satisfy to be eligible to participate in self-governance? To be eligible...

  6. 42 CFR 137.110 - May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and expend any program income earned pursuant to a compact and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and expend any... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding Program Income § 137.110 May a Self-Governance... Medicare, Medicaid, or other program income earned by a Self-Governance Tribe shall be treated...

  7. 42 CFR 137.444 - If a Self-Governance Tribe objects to the recommended decision, what action will the Secretary take?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false If a Self-Governance Tribe objects to the... SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.444 If a Self-Governance Tribe objects to the recommended decision, what action will the...

  8. 42 CFR 137.100 - May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and spend interest earned on any funds paid under a compact or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and spend... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding Interest Or Other Income on Transfers § 137.100 May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and spend interest earned on any funds paid under a...

  9. 42 CFR 137.379 - Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? 137.379 Section 137.379 Public Health... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Other § 137.379 Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? Davis-Bacon...

  10. 42 CFR 137.78 - May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding agreement for a term longer or shorter than one...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding agreement for a term longer or shorter than one year? 137.78 Section 137.78 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding General § 137.78 May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.50 - What must a Tribe/Consortium seeking a planning grant submit in order to meet the planning phase...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must a Tribe/Consortium seeking a planning grant submit in order to meet the planning phase requirements? 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Indians OFFICE OF THE... seeking a planning grant submit in order to meet the planning phase requirements? A Tribe/Consortium...

  12. 25 CFR 20.209 - Can a tribe operating under a tribal redesign plan go back to operating under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe operating under a tribal redesign plan go back to operating under this part? 20.209 Section 20.209 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT....209 Can a tribe operating under a tribal redesign plan go back to operating under this part? Yes,...

  13. 25 CFR 224.116 - What is the time period in which the Director must investigate a tribe's compliance with a TERA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the time period in which the Director must investigate a tribe's compliance with a TERA? 224.116 Section 224.116 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... period in which the Director must investigate a tribe's compliance with a TERA? (a) If the...

  14. Traditional usages of ichthyotoxic plant Barringtonia asiatica (L. Kurz. by the Nicobari tribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ravikumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Barringtonia asiatica is a medium size tree commonly found in Car Nicobar Island known for its ichthyotoxic property. It grows on sandy and rocky shore areas and has lantern shaped seeds, locally called Kinyav used during the calm season in shallow and low tide waters for killing fishes, octopus, etc. At every successful operation they harvest about 1–3 kg and on the whole about 10–20 kg of fishes per trip. This method of fish catching was popular among the Car Nicobari tribes until massive tsunami of 26th December, 2004, which caused dislocation of tribes from their erstwhile coastal inhabitations to interior areas, damage of coral reefs, permanent water intrusion in the intertidal area and destruction of Kinyav trees. Hence, now-a-days the popularity of this fishing method among them has diminished. The study not only reveals the usefulness of seeds in harvesting of fishes but also the utilization of other parts of tree such as leaves for therapeutic purpose in fracture, wound, de-worming, pain relieving of human beings; log for construction of canoe, wooden houses, sitting stage, handicraft items, fire wood and whole tree for preventing the coastal erosion.

  15. The interaction between tobacco use and oral health among tribes in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Sunali

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of tobacco related practices on oral health of tribes in Central India. The use of smokeless tobacco, gutkha & associated products is on the rise amongst the younger generation making oral precancer & cancer a public health concern. Methodology A pioneering study was conducted to evaluate the tobacco related practices amongst tribes and its impact on oral health. The study included 411 tribals of the Baiga group. Guided dialogue techniques and proforma based evaluation formed a part of the study. Result 53.04% of individuals between 21 to 40yrs are addicted to deleterious habits. There is a marked consumption (72% of tobacco & associated products among the geriatric population (60 yrs & above.Insecure livelihoods, malnutrition & increased stress levels contribute to the stark increase of addiction of tobacco related practices. Conclusion The healthcare infrastructure needs to be upgraded to meet the demands of changing disease profile amongst the vulnerable population. Assessment of impact of disease on existing public health would enable formulation of adaptive measures and suggestions for amelioration.

  16. Wind Generation Feasibility Study for Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa (Meskwaki Nation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasley, Larry C. [Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa

    2013-03-19

    1.2 Overview The Meskwaki Nation will obtain an anemometer tower. Install the tower at the site that has been pre-qualified as the site most likely to produce maximum electric power from the wind. It will collect meteorological data from the tower's sensors for a one year period, as required for due diligence to identify the site as appropriate for the installation of a wind turbine to provide electric power for the community. Have the collected data analyzed by a meteorologist and a professionally certified wind engineer to produce the reports of expected power generation at the site, for the specific wind turbine(s) under consideration for installation. 1.2.1 Goals of the Tribe The feasibility study reports, including technical and business analyses will be used to obtain contracts and financing required to develop and implement a wind turbine project on the Meskwaki Settlement. Our goal is to produce two (2) mega watts of power and to reduce the cost for electricity currently being paid by the Meskwaki Casino. 1.2.2 Project Objectives Meet the energy needs of the community with clean energy. Bring renewable energy to the settlement in a responsible, affordable manner. Maximize both the economic and the spiritual benefits to the tribe from energy independence. Integrate the Tribe's energy policies with its economic development goals. Contribute to achieving the Tribe's long-term goals of self-determination and sovereignty. 1.2.3 Project Location The precise location proposed for the tower is at the following coordinates: 92 Degrees, 38 Minutes, 46.008 Seconds West Longitude 41 Degrees, 59 Minutes, 45.311 Seconds North Latitude. A circle of radius 50.64 meters, enclosing and area of 1.98 acres in PLSS Township T83N, Range R15W, in Iowa. In relative directions, the site is 1,650 feet due west of the intersection of Highway 30 and 305th Street in Tama, Iowa, as approached from the direction of Toledo, Iowa. It is bounded on the north by Highway 30 and

  17. Rattan Jernang (Daemonorops draco management by Anak Dalam Tribe in Jebak Batanghari, Jambi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IIK SRI SULASMI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sulasmi IS, Fatimah S, Nisyawati. 2012. Rattan Jernang (Daemonorops draco management by Anak Dalam Tribe in Jebak Batanghari, Jambi Province. Biodiversitas 13: 152-162. Management of Rattan Jernang (Daemonorops draco Willd. in Jebak Forest, Batanghari, Jambi is not well documented. It is noted that fruits of D. draco is the best income source for Anak Dalam Jambi people since 1624. They harvest fruits of D. draco as many as they need. The management of Jebak forest is an open access, so all the people of Anak Dalam Jambi Tribe have the same right and responsibility on the forest. However, almost 60% of Jebak Forest area have been severed because of illegal logging for palm oil plantation. This is the reason why people of Suku Anak Dalam such as Sudirman and Suin, try to cultivate D. draco by growing 40 clumps of this species at their latex field. The aim of their activity is to conserve D. draco at their forest. Based on the recent situation, research study of rattan jernang’s management in Jebak Forest is conducted. This research method is semi structural interview. All data are analyzed by description. As a result is the management and cultivation of D. draco in Jebak Forest is very difficult because the availability of seeds are not enough for root stocks.

  18. ADAPTIVE POTENTIAL PERFORMANCE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE TRIBE Triticеae L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Z.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of adaptation performance of the tribe Triticeae L. representatives were studied according to biochemical markers. It is shown that drought-tolerant tribe representatives are at the subcellular level characterized by presence of alleles of Dreb 1 genes of drought resistance, Glu-D1 of glutenin, Glі-1B1, Gli-6D2, Gli-6D3, Gli-6B2 of gliadin, and high protein content in grain (14.2–18.0%. Plants with low drought resistance exhibit heightened superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase activity in leaves. It is established that the criteria of frost and winter hardiness of plants are: accumulation of high total sugar content in the tillering node (26–38 mg/g as cryoprotectants and energy sources, and economical consumption of them during the autumn-winter period. Exogenously, high levels of plant organism’s adaptability to various stress conditions in winter are expressed as high photoperiodic sensitivity manifesting as weak differentiation of growth points in the fall and late spring vegetation restoration. Adaptive changes at the subcellular level are consistent with drought resistance indices (high leaf index, glossy cover, lingering green color of the leaf, presence of awns, significant growth in dry weight in dry conditions.

  19. Comparative survey of entomophagy and entomotherapeutic practices in six tribes of eastern Arunachal Pradesh (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno

    2013-07-19

    A consolidated list of edible insects used in the eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by Wangcho (Wancho) and Nocte tribes of the Tirap District and the Shingpo, Tangsa, Deori and Chakma of the Changlang District has been prepared. The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 51 insect species, belonging to 9 orders were considered edible. The largest number of the edible species belonged to the Coleoptera (14), followed by 10 each of the Orthoptera and Hymenoptera, 9 of the Hemiptera, 3 Lepidoptera, 2 Isoptera and one each of Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Mantodea. As far as therapeutic uses of insects are concerned, 4 species (Hemiptera) were mentioned by the Wangcho (Wancho). Food insects are chosen by members of the various tribes according to traditional beliefs, taste, regional and seasonal availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only certain, but sometimes all, developmental stages are consumed. Preparation of the food insects for consumption involves mainly roasting or boiling. With the degradation of natural resources, habitat loss, rapid population growth, and increasing 'westernization' , the traditional wisdom of North-East Indian tribals related to insect uses is at risk of being lost.

  20. Wind Generation Feasibility Study for Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa (Meskwaki Nation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasley, Larry C. [Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa

    2013-03-19

    1.2 Overview The Meskwaki Nation will obtain an anemometer tower. Install the tower at the site that has been pre-qualified as the site most likely to produce maximum electric power from the wind. It will collect meteorological data from the tower's sensors for a one year period, as required for due diligence to identify the site as appropriate for the installation of a wind turbine to provide electric power for the community. Have the collected data analyzed by a meteorologist and a professionally certified wind engineer to produce the reports of expected power generation at the site, for the specific wind turbine(s) under consideration for installation. 1.2.1 Goals of the Tribe The feasibility study reports, including technical and business analyses will be used to obtain contracts and financing required to develop and implement a wind turbine project on the Meskwaki Settlement. Our goal is to produce two (2) mega watts of power and to reduce the cost for electricity currently being paid by the Meskwaki Casino. 1.2.2 Project Objectives Meet the energy needs of the community with clean energy. Bring renewable energy to the settlement in a responsible, affordable manner. Maximize both the economic and the spiritual benefits to the tribe from energy independence. Integrate the Tribe's energy policies with its economic development goals. Contribute to achieving the Tribe's long-term goals of self-determination and sovereignty. 1.2.3 Project Location The precise location proposed for the tower is at the following coordinates: 92 Degrees, 38 Minutes, 46.008 Seconds West Longitude 41 Degrees, 59 Minutes, 45.311 Seconds North Latitude. A circle of radius 50.64 meters, enclosing and area of 1.98 acres in PLSS Township T83N, Range R15W, in Iowa. In relative directions, the site is 1,650 feet due west of the intersection of Highway 30 and 305th Street in Tama, Iowa, as approached from the direction of Toledo, Iowa. It is bounded on the north by Highway 30 and

  1. Prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors among Nomad Tribe groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Sachdev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is strongly correlated with modifiable risk factors such as adiposities, age, stress, high salt intake, Overweight and obesity is conveniently determined from BMI and visceral adiposity is determined by waist circumference. On the other hand, genetic factor has been established as an important non–modifiable predisposing factor. And ABO blood group is one such factor which needs to be investigated. Objectives: To study the prevalence rate of hypertension and various associated risk factors among few select endogamous group of Tribal Population. Methods: Cross-sectional, Tribal population-based study, consisting of a total sample of twelve hundred and eighty-six discrete subjects of age ≥18 years was chosen. BMI, waist circumference, ABO blood group, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were determined and correlated with each other. Results: The results were analyzed by applying correlation analysis and chi-square test. This study revealed that the prevalence of hypertension was high among the entire select tribe groups but seen highest in frequency in Bhopa (31%. It further showed that the subjects with blood group B had high blood pressure in the entire tribal groups except Bhopa Tribe. Conclusion: This study provides population based study on hypertensive tendency among select few endogamous tribal populations.

  2. Phylogenetics of tribe Collabieae (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae based on four chloroplast genes with morphological appraisal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guo Xiang

    Full Text Available Collabieae (Orchidaceae is a long neglected tribe with confusing tribal and generic delimitation and little-understood phylogenetic relationships. Using plastid matK, psaB, rbcL, and trnH-psbA DNA sequences and morphological evidence, the phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Collabieae were assessed as a basis for revising their tribal and generic delimitation. Collabieae (including the previously misplaced mycoheterotrophic Risleya is supported as monophyletic and nested within a superclade that also includes Epidendreae, Podochileae, Cymbidieae and Vandeae. Risleya is nested in Collabiinae and sister to Chrysoglossum, a relationship which, despite their great vegetative differences, is supported by floral characters. Ania is a distinct genus supported by both morphological and molecular evidence, while redefined Tainia includes Nephelaphyllum and Mischobulbum. Calanthe is paraphyletic and consists four clades; the genera Gastrorchis, Phaius and Cephalantheropsis should be subsumed within Calanthe. Calanthe sect. Ghiesbreghtia is nested within sect. Calanthe, to which the disputed Calanthe delavayi belongs as well. Our results indicate that, in Collabieae, habit evolved from being epiphytic to terrestrial.

  3. De novo assembly of the carrot mitochondrial genome using next generation sequencing of whole genomic DNA provides first evidence of DNA transfer into an angiosperm plastid genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iorizzo Massimo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence analysis of organelle genomes has revealed important aspects of plant cell evolution. The scope of this study was to develop an approach for de novo assembly of the carrot mitochondrial genome using next generation sequence data from total genomic DNA. Results Sequencing data from a carrot 454 whole genome library were used to develop a de novo assembly of the mitochondrial genome. Development of a new bioinformatic tool allowed visualizing contig connections and elucidation of the de novo assembly. Southern hybridization demonstrated recombination across two large repeats. Genome annotation allowed identification of 44 protein coding genes, three rRNA and 17 tRNA. Identification of the plastid genome sequence allowed organelle genome comparison. Mitochondrial intergenic sequence analysis allowed detection of a fragment of DNA specific to the carrot plastid genome. PCR amplification and sequence analysis across different Apiaceae species revealed consistent conservation of this fragment in the mitochondrial genomes and an insertion in Daucus plastid genomes, giving evidence of a mitochondrial to plastid transfer of DNA. Sequence similarity with a retrotransposon element suggests a possibility that a transposon-like event transferred this sequence into the plastid genome. Conclusions This study confirmed that whole genome sequencing is a practical approach for de novo assembly of higher plant mitochondrial genomes. In addition, a new aspect of intercompartmental genome interaction was reported providing the first evidence for DNA transfer into an angiosperm plastid genome. The approach used here could be used more broadly to sequence and assemble mitochondrial genomes of diverse species. This information will allow us to better understand intercompartmental interactions and cell evolution.

  4. The role of O2 as an electron acceptor alternative to CO2 in photosynthesis of the common marine angiosperm Zostera marina L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buapet, Pimchanok; Björk, Mats

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the role of O2 as an electron acceptor alternative to CO2 in photosynthesis of the common marine angiosperm Zostera marina L. Electron transport rates (ETRs) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of Z. marina were measured under saturating irradiance in synthetic seawater containing 2.2 mM DIC and no DIC with different O2 levels (air-equilibrated levels, 3 % of air equilibrium and restored air-equilibrated levels). Lowering O2 did not affect ETR when DIC was provided, while it caused a decrease in ETR and an increase in NPQ in DIC-free media, indicating that O2 acted as an alternative electron acceptor under low DIC. The ETR and NPQ as a function of irradiance were subsequently assessed in synthetic seawater containing (1) 2.2 mM DIC, air-equilibrated O2; (2) saturating CO2, no O2; and (3) no DIC, air-equilibrated O2. These treatments were combined with glycolaldehyde pre-incubation. Glycolaldehyde caused a marked decrease in ETR in DIC-free medium, indicating significant electron flow supported by photorespiration. Combining glycolaldehyde with O2 depletion completely suppressed ETR suggesting the operation of the Mehler reaction, a possibility supported by the photosynthesis-dependent superoxide production. However, no notable effect of suppressing the Mehler reaction on NPQ was observed. It is concluded that during DIC-limiting conditions, such as those frequently occurring in the habitats of Z. marina, captured light energy exceeds what is utilised for the assimilation of available carbon, and photorespiration is a major alternative electron acceptor, while the contribution of the Mehler reaction is minor. PMID:27125819

  5. The role of O2 as an electron acceptor alternative to CO2 in photosynthesis of the common marine angiosperm Zostera marina L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buapet, Pimchanok; Björk, Mats

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the role of O2 as an electron acceptor alternative to CO2 in photosynthesis of the common marine angiosperm Zostera marina L. Electron transport rates (ETRs) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of Z. marina were measured under saturating irradiance in synthetic seawater containing 2.2 mM DIC and no DIC with different O2 levels (air-equilibrated levels, 3 % of air equilibrium and restored air-equilibrated levels). Lowering O2 did not affect ETR when DIC was provided, while it caused a decrease in ETR and an increase in NPQ in DIC-free media, indicating that O2 acted as an alternative electron acceptor under low DIC. The ETR and NPQ as a function of irradiance were subsequently assessed in synthetic seawater containing (1) 2.2 mM DIC, air-equilibrated O2; (2) saturating CO2, no O2; and (3) no DIC, air-equilibrated O2. These treatments were combined with glycolaldehyde pre-incubation. Glycolaldehyde caused a marked decrease in ETR in DIC-free medium, indicating significant electron flow supported by photorespiration. Combining glycolaldehyde with O2 depletion completely suppressed ETR suggesting the operation of the Mehler reaction, a possibility supported by the photosynthesis-dependent superoxide production. However, no notable effect of suppressing the Mehler reaction on NPQ was observed. It is concluded that during DIC-limiting conditions, such as those frequently occurring in the habitats of Z. marina, captured light energy exceeds what is utilised for the assimilation of available carbon, and photorespiration is a major alternative electron acceptor, while the contribution of the Mehler reaction is minor.

  6. 25 CFR 1000.26 - Under what circumstances will a Tribe/Consortium be removed from the applicant pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... removed from the applicant pool? 1000.26 Section 1000.26 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.26 Under what circumstances will a Tribe/Consortium be removed from the applicant pool? Once admitted into the applicant pool,...

  7. 25 CFR 170.108 - Should Indian tribes and BIA consult with States' planning organizations and local governments in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...' planning organizations and local governments in the development of their IRRTIP? 170.108 Section 170.108... § 170.108 Should Indian tribes and BIA consult with States' planning organizations and local governments...: (1) Developed in cooperation with State and metropolitan planning organizations; and (2) Included...

  8. 40 CFR 33.304 - Must a Native American (either as an individual, organization, Tribe or Tribal Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must a Native American (either as an... PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS Good Faith Efforts § 33.304 Must a Native American (either as an individual...) A Native American (either as an individual, organization, corporation, Tribe or Tribal...

  9. 75 FR 62395 - Calculation of Annual Federal Medical Assistance Percentages for Indian Tribes for Use in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Calculation of Annual Federal Medical Assistance Percentages for Indian Tribes for Use in... address: tribalFMAP@hhs.gov . Submitting Comments: We welcome comments from the public on the calculation... paragraphs (1), (2), and (5) of section 474(a), the calculation of the per capita income of the Indian...

  10. 42 CFR 137.351 - Is a Self-Governance Tribe required to submit construction project progress and financial reports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... construction project progress and financial reports for construction project agreements? 137.351 Section 137... Establishing and Implementing Construction Project Agreements § 137.351 Is a Self-Governance Tribe required to submit construction project progress and financial reports for construction project agreements? Yes,......

  11. Clarification of the Phylogenetic Framework of the Tribe Baorini (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae) Inferred from Multiple Gene Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoling; Chiba, Hideyuki; Huang, Zhenfu; Fei, Wen; Wang, Min; Sáfián, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    Members of the skipper tribe Baorini generally resemble each other and are characterized by dark brown wings with hyaline white spots. These shared characteristics have caused difficulties with revealing the relationships among genera and species in the group, and some conflicting taxonomic views remain unresolved. The present study aims to infer a more comprehensive phylogeny of the tribe using molecular data, to test the monophyly of the tribe as well as the genera it includes in order to clarify their taxonomic status, and finally to revise the current classification of the group. In order to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree, the mitochondrial COI-COII and 16S genes as well as the nuclear EF-1α and 28S genes were analyzed using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. The analysis included 67 specimens of 41 species, and we confirmed the monophyly of Baorini, and revealed that 14 genera are well supported. The genus Borbo is separated into three clades: Borbo, Pseudoborbo, and Larsenia gen. nov. We confirmed that Polytremis is polyphyletic and separated into three genera: Polytremis, Zinaida, and Zenonoida gen. nov., and also confirmed that the genus Prusiana is a member of the tribe. Relationships among some genera were strongly supported. For example, Zenonia and Zenonoida were found to be sister taxa, closely related to Zinaida and Iton, while Pelopidas and Baoris were also found to cluster together. PMID:27463803

  12. 25 CFR 1000.398 - May a Tribe/Consortium invest funds received under a self-governance agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium invest funds received under a self-governance agreement? 1000.398 Section 1000.398 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... invest funds received under a self-governance agreement? Yes, self-governance funds may be invested...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.15 - How many additional Tribes/Consortia may participate in self-governance per year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... self-governance per year? 1000.15 Section 1000.15 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Eligibility § 1000.15 How many additional Tribes/Consortia may participate in self-governance per year? (a) Sections 402(b) and (c) of the Act authorize the Director...

  14. 75 FR 75641 - Advance Notification to Native American Tribes of Transportation of Certain Types of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... notification to Native American Tribes of transportation of certain types of nuclear waste (64 FR 71331... ``Government-to-Government Relations with Native American Tribal Governments'' (59 FR 22951; May 4, 1994) and... Register (62 FR 46517; Sept. 3, 1997), this proposed rule would be a matter of compatibility between...

  15. 24 CFR 1000.204 - How does an Indian tribe designate itself as recipient of the grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does an Indian tribe designate itself as recipient of the grant? 1000.204 Section 1000.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  16. 24 CFR 1000.222 - Are there separate IHP requirements for small Indian tribes and small TDHEs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are there separate IHP requirements for small Indian tribes and small TDHEs? 1000.222 Section 1000.222 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  17. 24 CFR 1000.336 - How may an Indian tribe, TDHE, or HUD challenge data or appeal HUD formula determinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may an Indian tribe, TDHE, or HUD challenge data or appeal HUD formula determinations? 1000.336 Section 1000.336 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING,...

  18. 24 CFR 1000.402 - Are State recognized Indian tribes eligible for guarantees under title VI of NAHASDA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are State recognized Indian tribes eligible for guarantees under title VI of NAHASDA? 1000.402 Section 1000.402 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT...

  19. 24 CFR 1000.208 - What happens if an Indian tribe had two IHAs as of September 30, 1996?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens if an Indian tribe had two IHAs as of September 30, 1996? 1000.208 Section 1000.208 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  20. 24 CFR 1000.326 - What if a formula area is served by more than one Indian tribe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What if a formula area is served by more than one Indian tribe? 1000.326 Section 1000.326 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  1. Can Education Play a Role in the Prevention of Youth Gangs in Indian Country? One Tribe's Approach. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Arturo

    Traditionally an urban problem, gang involvement is growing on Native American reservations. This digest examines common factors in gang development and one tribe's response through a Native-centric education and juvenile justice system. The sum of handicaps associated with gang involvement has been termed "multiple marginality," and reservation…

  2. 24 CFR 1000.150 - How may Indian tribes and TDHEs receive criminal conviction information on adult applicants or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may Indian tribes and TDHEs receive criminal conviction information on adult applicants or tenants? 1000.150 Section 1000.150 Housing... receive criminal conviction information on adult applicants or tenants? (a) As required by section 208...

  3. A dated phylogeny of the palm tribe Chamaedoreeae supports Eocene dispersal between Africa, North and South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuenca-Navarro, Argelia; Lange, Conny Bruun Asmussen; Borchsenius, Finn

    2008-01-01

    The palm tribe Chamaedoreeae reaches its higher diversity in Central America, however, its distribution ranges from the north eastern part of Mexico to Bolivia with a disjunction to the Mascarene Islands in the Indian Ocean. The disjunct distribution of Chamaedoreeae is generally considered a res...

  4. 25 CFR 900.48 - If the Indian tribe or tribal organization does not propose different standards, what basic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tribes or tribal organizations shall develop their own definition for “major procurement transactions... organization will consider such matters as the contractor's integrity, its compliance with public policy, its..., or anything of monetary value from contractors, potential contractors, or parties to...

  5. Perceptions of the Environment and Health Among Members of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

    OpenAIRE

    Schure, Marc B.; Kile, Molly L.; Harding, Anna; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Uesugi, Sandra; Goins, R. Turner

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous cultures perceive the natural environment as an essential link between traditional cultural practices, social connectedness, identity, and health. Many tribal communities face substantial health disparities related to exposure to environmental hazards. Our study used qualitative methods to better understand the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) members' perspectives about their environment and its connections with their health including views on environ...

  6. Phylogenetic reconstruction and the identification of ancient polymorphism in the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacEachern Sean

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bovinae subfamily incorporates an array of antelope, buffalo and cattle species. All of the members of this subfamily have diverged recently. Not surprisingly, a number of phylogenetic studies from molecular and morphological data have resulted in ambiguous trees and relationships amongst species, especially for Yak and Bison species. A partial phylogenetic reconstruction of 13 extant members of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae from 15 complete or partially sequenced autosomal genes is presented. Results We identified 3 distinct lineages after the Bovini split from the Boselaphini and Tragelaphini tribes, which has lead to the (1 Buffalo clade (Bubalus and Syncerus species and a more recent divergence leading to the (2 Banteng, Gaur and Mithan and (3 Domestic cattle clades. A fourth lineage may also exist that leads to Bison and Yak. However, there was some ambiguity as to whether this was a divergence from the Banteng/Gaur/Mithan or the Domestic cattle clade. From an analysis of approximately 30,000 sites that were amplified in all species 133 sites were identified with ambiguous inheritance, in that all trees implied more than one mutation at the same site. Closer examination of these sites has identified that they are the result of ancient polymorphisms that have subsequently undergone lineage sorting in the Bovini tribe, of which 53 have remained polymorphic since Bos and Bison species last shared a common ancestor with Bubalus between 5–8 million years ago (MYA. Conclusion Uncertainty arises in our phylogenetic reconstructions because many species in the Bovini diverged over a short period of time. It appears that a number of sites with ambiguous inheritance have been maintained in subsequent populations by chance (lineage sorting and that they have contributed to an association between Yak and Domestic cattle and an unreliable phylogenetic reconstruction for the Bison/Yak clade. Interestingly, a number of these

  7. Human Capacity Building in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy System Maintenance for the Yurok Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, R. A.' Zoellick, J J.

    2007-07-31

    From July 2005 to July 2007, the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in the implementation of a program designed to build the Tribe’s own capacity to improve energy efficiency and maintain and repair renewable energy systems in Tribal homes on the Yurok Reservation. Funding for this effort was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Tribal Program under First Steps grant award #DE-FG36-05GO15166. The program’s centerpiece was a house-by-house needs assessment, in which Tribal staff visited and conducted energy audits at over fifty homes. The visits included assessment of household energy efficiency and condition of existing renewable energy systems. Staff also provided energy education to residents, evaluated potential sites for new household renewable energy systems, and performed minor repairs as needed on renewable energy systems.

  8. Fertility and its determinants among the Lamkang Tribe of Chandel District, Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangaina Kameih

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Present study investigates fertility and its determinants among the Lamkang tribe on the basis of household survey collected from 10 villages of Chandel District (Manipur, interviewing 200 ever married women. The findings indicate that the age group of 15-50 years, comprising of the population at peak productive ages, constitutes 64.39% of Lamkang population. The sex ratio of 1105 reveals the preponderance of females over males. Regression analysis suggests that biological and social factors like age at menarche, age at marriage, age at first conception, women’s education have an inverse relationship with number of conceptions and live births whereas education of husband and type of family are inversely proportional with live birth only.

  9. Plant folk medicines for gastrointestinal disorders among the main tribes of Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Salazar, S F; Robles-Zepeda, R E; Johnson, D E

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes the herbal remedies used by ethnic groups from Sonora, Mexico, for treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Twelve types of these illnesses are cured using 85 different species which belong to 38 families. Thirty nine spp. are used to treat diarrhea, 28 for stomach-ache, 12 for constipation, 9 for intestinal parasites, 6 for indigestion, 3 for stomach or intestinal cancer, 3 for stomach inflammation and only 1 to treat gastrointestinal sicknesses, ulcers, gastritis, colitis and colic. Regarding the use of species of plant per ethnic group the following was observed: Mayo 47; Seri, 27; Yaqui, 13; Guarijio, 12, Pima, 5 and Papago, 3. The plants are used by two or more tribes, for the same or different illness but always related to the gastrointestinal system.

  10. STUDY OF THE CRUDE BIRTH RATE AND DELIVERY CONDITION AMONG THE QASHQAI TRIBE, SOUTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Motabar

    1976-11-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a cross-sectional demographic survey that was conducted among the Qashqai Tribe of southern Iran in 1973, the crude birth rate was estimated at 48.2 per thousand per year. The most productive age groups, was 25-29 years. Forty-nine, point seven per cent (49.7% or about one half of the total births occurred among married women aged 20 to 29 years Eighty-seven point three per cent (87.3% of the deliveries took place in tents, only one per cent at maternity hospitals. Ninety point one per cent (90.1% of babies were delivered with the help of relative and friends, while only 6.9 per cent of all deliveries took place with the aid of midwives. Eighty-nine point seven per cent (89.7% of deliveries were performed without medical expenses.

  11. Immatures of the New World treehopper tribe Amastrini (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae) with a key to genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKamey, Stuart H; Wallner, Adam M; Porter, Mitchell J

    2015-01-01

    The immatures stages of 8 of the 11 genera (Amastris Stål, Bajulata Ball, Erosne Stål, Harmonides Kirkaldy, Idioderma Van Duzee, Neotynelia Creão-Duarte & Sakakibara, Tynelia Stål, and Vanduzea Goding) of the tribe Amastrini are described for the first time along with brief diagnoses of Membracidae and the subfamily Smiliinae. A key to genera and notes on biology are provided. Multiple species of most genera are illustrated. Based on its distinct nymphal morphology, Vanduzea laeta nolina Ball is elevated to specific rank as Vanduzea nolina stat. n., and Bajulata, despite the superficial similarity of its adults to those of Vanduzea, is confirmed as warranting generic rank based on its unique nymphal morphology. Colombia is a new country record for Tynelia.

  12. The scarab beetle tribe Pentodontini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) of Colombia: taxonomy, natural history, and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Margarita M; Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor J; Amat-García, Germán

    2015-11-27

    Pentodontini is the most diverse tribe of Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), and most of the genera are restricted to a single biogeographic region. In this work, the taxonomic composition of the Pentodontini in Colombia was determined, and genera and species were diagnosed based on external morphology and male genitalia. Records of 1,580 specimens from 31 departments and 398 localities in Colombia were obtained from 24 species in the genera Bothynus Hope, Denhezia Dechambre, Euetheola Bates, Hylobothynus Ohaus, Oxyligyrus Arrow, Parapucaya Prell, Pucaya Ohaus, and Tomarus Erichson. Oxyligyrus cayennensis Endrödi, Tomarus cicatricosus (Prell), and T. pullus (Prell) are reported for the first time from Colombia. Pucaya punctata Endrödi is reduced to synonymy with Pucaya pulchra Arrow. Possible changes in the classification of Denhezia Dechambre are discussed. Dichotomous keys are provided for Colombian genera and species. Taxonomic descriptions and distribution maps are included for all species.

  13. Proselytization in India. An Ethnographic Account of the tribes in North-East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimai Joy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Religion as one of the basic institution is a system of beliefs usually involving the worship of supernatural forces or beings which continues to have major influence upon the human society and especially to those individuals or communities who lives a religious life. This paper is an attempt to explain the proselytization in India basing on hill tribes in North-East India. The people had a traditional religion which was a belief in the spirits but during the reign of British in India, Christianity swept over the entire region and these tribal communities has since then embraced Christianity. Christianity is now strongly rooted among these tribal communities. The paper is an outcome of my research to establish the coming of Christianity and the process of conversion among the tribal communities.

  14. A cholera epidemic among the Nicobarese tribe of Nancowry, Andaman, and Nicobar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugunan, Attayoor P; Ghosh, Asit R; Roy, Subarna; Gupte, Mohan D; Sehgal, Subhash C

    2004-12-01

    Cholera has not been reported from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in India. In October 2002, an outbreak of diarrhea occurred among the Nicobarese tribe of the Nancowry group of islands. The outbreak affected 16 of the 45 inhabited villages of three islands with an attack rate of 12.8% and a case fatality ratio of 1.3%. Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor was isolated from 18 of the 67 patients tested. A study conducted in one of the villages indicated that the outbreak was started there by a person who traveled to a nearby village where an outbreak was occurring. No specific water source could be identified as the source of infection because persons consuming water from all wells were affected. Water samples from 55 sources were tested and 38 of them were contaminated with Escherichia coli. The possible sources of V. cholerae are effluents from ships or poachers from neighboring countries where cholera is endemic. PMID:15642977

  15. 《部落Ⅱ》(Tribes Ⅱ)的摇滚风格

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dagou

    2000-01-01

    游戏出版商Sierrs工作室日前宣布同八十年代知名摇滚乐队莫特雷·克鲁签订协议,由该乐队为即将上市的游戏《部落Ⅱ》(Tribes 2)制作音轨音乐。根据协议,莫特雷·克鲁乐队将从他们的新专辑——“新纹身”(New Tattoo)里挑选一支歌曲放入游戏中。《部落Ⅱ》的开发商为Dynamix工作室。

  16. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project : Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservaton 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCaire, Richard (Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, Nespelem, WA)

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1980's the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, the Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Washington Dept. of Fish and Wildlife developed a management plan for Lake Roosevelt on the restoration and enhancement of kokanee salmon populations using hatchery out plants and the restoration of natural spawning runs. The plan was incorporated into the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) in their 1987 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife program as partial mitigation for hydropower caused fish losses resulting from the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project, as part of a basin wide effort, is evaluating the status of the natural production kokanee in streams tributary to Lakes Roosevelt and Rufus Woods and is examining entrainment through Grand Coulee Dam. The goal of this project is the protection and enhancement of the natural production kokanee in these two lakes. The project is currently collecting data under four phases or parts. Since 1991, Lake Whatcom Washington origin kokanee have been planted in considerable numbers into the waters of Lake Roosevelt. A natural production kokanee fishery has persisted in the lake since the early 1970's(Cash, 1995), (Scholz, 1991). Historical information alludes to wild Kokanee production in the San Poil River, Nespelem River, Big Sheep Creek, Ora-Pa-Ken Creek, Deep Creek and Onion Creeks. The genetic makeup of the fish within the fishery is unknown, as is their contribution to the fishery. The level of influence by the hatchery out planted stock on wild fish stocks is unknown as well. Project outcomes will indicate the genetic fitness for inclusion of natural production kokanee stocks into current Bonneville Power Administration funded hatchery programs. Other findings may determine contribution/interaction of/between wild/hatchery kokanee stocks found in the waters of Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt.

  17. Identification of a rare blood group, "Bombay (Oh phenotype," in Bhuyan tribe of Northwestern Orissa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balgir R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood group serology plays a vital role in transfusion medicine. The Bombay (Oh phenotype is characterized by the absence of A, B, and H antigens on red cells and occurs rarely, especially in tribal populations of India. Aims and Objectives: This is a field-based random population study in the Bhuyan tribal community. The study reports three cases of the rare Bombay (Oh phenotype for the first time in the Bhuyan tribe of Sundargarh district in North-Western Orissa. Materials and Methods: Taking informed consent, red blood cells of 836 Bhuyan subjects were tested with three antisera, i.e., anti-A, anti-B, and anti-H (lectin for forward reaction. Agglutinations of plasma with A, B, and O (H red cells (reverse reaction were also tested for the presence or absence of antibodies in the serum. Specialized tests like absorption-elution, titration of naturally occurring antibodies at different temperatures, inhibition of anti-H by O saliva secretor, and determination of secretor status were performed. Results: Three cases of a rare blood group, Bombay (Oh phenotype, (2 out of 244 Khandayat Bhuyan and 1 out of 379 Paudi Bhuyan from Hemgiri and Lahunipara blocks, respectively in the Bhuyan tribe of Sundargarh district in North-Western Orissa were detected, giving an incidence of 1 in 122 in Khandayat Bhuyan and 1 in 379 in Paudi Bhuyan, with an average of 1 in 278 among the Bhuyan tribal population. This incidence is high in comparison to earlier studies reported from India. Conclusions: The practice of tribal and territorial endogamy in a smaller effective populations (for example, there are only 3,521 individuals in Paudi Bhuyan results in smaller marital distance and inbreeding, leading to increased homozygous expression of rare recessive genetic characters like the Bombay (Oh phenotype. This study further testifies that the incidence is higher in those states of India where the consanguinity is a common practice.

  18. A review of the leafhopper tribe Hyalojassini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Iassinae) with description of new taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wu; Dietrich, Christopher H; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The morphologically diverse leafhopper tribe Hyalojassini is reinstated from synonymy under Iassini based on distinctive features of the male genitalia and a key to the Oriental genera is given. The previously monotypic genera Hyalojassus Evans and Coriojassus Evans are revised and redescribed based on study of the type species. The following new genera and species are described from Thailand and China and placed in Hyalojassini: Kanchanaburiassus maculatus gen. nov. & sp. nov. from Kanchanaburi, Thailand; Lamelliassus chaingmaiensis gen. & sp. nov. from Chaingmai, Thailand; Siamiassus constanti gen. & sp. nov. from Loei, Thailand ; Decliviassus gen nov. with D. bipunctatus sp. nov., D. maculatus sp. nov., and D. nudus sp. nov., from Thailand; Trocniassus gen. nov. with T. shaanxiensis and T. henanensis sp. nov.; Hyalojassus elongatus sp. nov. and H. punctulatus sp. nov. from Thailand and H. yunnanensis sp. nov. from China; Coriojassus loeiensis sp. nov. from Thailand, C. yunnanensis sp. nov. and C. zhejiangensis sp. nov. from Yunnan and Zhejiang, China, respectively, the latter representing the first records of the genus from China. Sinojassus Dai et al. 2010 (nec Zhang 1985) is a junior homonym, thus a new replacement name, Siniassus nom. nov., is proposed, the genus is transferred to Hyalojassini, and the following new combinations are made: Siniassus loberus (Dai, Zhang & Zhang, 2010), Siniassus aspinus (Dai, Zhang & Zhang, 2010), Siniassus compressus (Dai, Zhang & Zhang, 2010) and Siniassus webbi (Dai & Dietrich, 2010). Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations for all new taxa are provided. The following New World genera share the diagnostic morphological features of Hyalojassini and are newly placed in this tribe: Absheta Blocker, Aztrania Blocker, Baldriga Blocker, Bertawolia Blocker, Betawala Blocker, Comanopa Blocker, Daveyoungana Blocker & Webb, Derakandra Blocker, Donleva Blocker, Gargaropsis Fowler, Garlica Blocker, Gehundra Blocker

  19. Strategic Energy Planning (Area 1) Consultants Reports to Citizen Potawatomi Nation Federally Recognized Indian Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Marvin; Bose, James; Beier, Richard; Chang, Young Bae

    2004-12-01

    The assets that Citizen Potawatomi Nation holds were evaluated to help define the strengths and weaknesses to be used in pursuing economic prosperity. With this baseline assessment, a Planning Team will create a vision for the tribe to integrate into long-term energy and business strategies. Identification of energy efficiency devices, systems and technologies was made, and an estimation of cost benefits of the more promising ideas is submitted for possible inclusion into the final energy plan. Multiple energy resources and sources were identified and their attributes were assessed to determine the appropriateness of each. Methods of saving energy were evaluated and reported on and potential revenue-generating sources that specifically fit the tribe were identified and reported. A primary goal is to create long-term energy strategies to explore development of tribal utility options and analyze renewable energy and energy efficiency options. Associated goals are to consider exploring energy efficiency and renewable economic development projects involving the following topics: (1) Home-scale projects may include construction of a home with energy efficiency or renewable energy features and retrofitting an existing home to add energy efficiency or renewable energy features. (2) Community-scale projects may include medium to large scale energy efficiency building construction, retrofit project, or installation of community renewable energy systems. (3) Small business development may include the creation of a tribal enterprise that would manufacture and distribute solar and wind powered equipment for ranches and farms or create a contracting business to include energy efficiency and renewable retrofits such as geothermal heat pumps. (4) Commercial-scale energy projects may include at a larger scale, the formation of a tribal utility formed to sell power to the commercial grid, or to transmit and distribute power throughout the tribal community, or hydrogen production

  20. Sequencing of the needle transcriptome from Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst L. reveals lower substitution rates, but similar selective constraints in gymnosperms and angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jun

    2012-11-01

    09and 1.1 × 10−09 is an order of magnitude smaller than values reported for angiosperm herbs. However, if one takes generation time into account, most of this difference disappears. The estimates of the dN/dS ratio (non-synonymous over synonymous divergence reported here are in general much lower than 1 and only a few genes showed a ratio larger than 1.

  1. Sero-epidemiological study of hepatitis A virus infection among hill-tribe youth and household environmental sanitation, a hill-tribe community in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Tongpradit, Supranee; Vatanasomboon, Pisit; Utrarachkij, Fuangfa

    2003-09-01

    A cross-sectional analytic study of 190 hill-tribe youth in a community in the north of Thailand was conducted to investigate the sero-prevalence of HAV and factors related to positive anti-HAV antibody. The studied youth, whose ages ranged from 15 to 24 years, were interviewed about socio-economic status and personal hygiene. Blood specimens were collected to detect anti-HAV by ELISA commercial kit. Household environmental sanitation conditions were observed and drinking water samples were screened for bacterial contamination using SI2 medium. Following the anti-HAV assay, the studied youth were divided into two groups: anti-HAV positive, and anti-HAV negative. The studied variables of the two groups were analyzed by chi2 test to find factors related to anti-HAV positivity. The results revealed that 87% of the studied youth were positive for anti-HAV. There was no statistically significant difference between age group/gender and anti-HAV positivity, p = 0.46 and 0.16, respectively. Approximately 35.79 to 45.79% washed their hands with soap before preparing food, before eating and after using the latrine. About 88% did not improve the potability of their drinking water. The results of screening for bacterial contamination in drinking water samples found that 73.53% were contaminated with coliform bacteria. Factors related to positive anti-HAV antibody included monthly income, number of household members, use of latrine, hand-washing with soap after using latrine, household refuse management and control of insects and rodents; p = 0.04, 0.007, 0.013, 0.008, <0.001 and <0.001, respectively. The findings suggested that appropriate household environmental management should be improved in this community to reduce HAV transmission. PMID:15115130

  2. Bilirubin present in diverse angiosperms

    OpenAIRE

    Pirone, Cary; Johnson, Jodie V.; Quirke, J. Martin. E.; Priestap, Horacio A.; Lee, David

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Bilirubin is an orange-yellow tetrapyrrole produced from the breakdown of heme by mammals and some other vertebrates. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria synthesize molecules similar to bilirubin, including the protein-bound bilins and phytochromobilin which harvest or sense light. Recently, we discovered bilirubin in the arils of Strelitzia nicolai, the White Bird of Paradise Tree, which was the first example of this molecule in a higher plant. Subsequently, we identified bil...

  3. 45 CFR 286.115 - What information on time limits for the receipt of assistance must a Tribe include in its Tribal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... family includes an individual who has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty. (b) The Tribe must... include, but are not limited to: Poverty, unemployment, jobless and job surplus rates; education levels...

  4. Genome evolution in an ancient bacteria-ant symbiosis: parallel gene loss among Blochmannia spanning the origin of the ant tribe Camponotini

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Laura E; Wernegreen, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Stable associations between bacterial endosymbionts and insect hosts provide opportunities to explore genome evolution in the context of established mutualisms and assess the roles of selection and genetic drift across host lineages and habitats. Blochmannia, obligate endosymbionts of ants of the tribe Camponotini, have coevolved with their ant hosts for ∼40 MY. To investigate early events in Blochmannia genome evolution across this ant host tribe, we sequenced Blochmannia from two divergent ...

  5. External morphology of the adult of Dynamine postverta (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Biblidinae and patterns of morphological similarity among species from eight tribes of Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Anderson Ribeiro Leite

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of the adult of Dynamine postverta (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Biblidinae and patterns of morphological similarity among species from eight tribes of Nymphalidae. The external structure of the integument of Dynamine postverta postverta (Cramer, 1779 is based on detailed morphological drawings and scanning electron microscopy. The data are compared with other species belonging to eight tribes of Nymphalidae, to assist future studies on the taxonomy and systematics of Neotropical Biblidinae.

  6. Studies on some wild plant species used by the Mising (Miri tribe of Assam in their traditional food items.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Gam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mising peoples are the second largest plain tribes of Assam inhabitation in the Upper Assam particularly along the bank of river Brahmaputra. They are one of the culturally rich ethnic tribe of Assam, mostly dependent on nature for their livelihood. They rear pigs and poultry in every house hold which is a part of their custom. Fishing in rivers and beels is another important practice of these people. Besides, they use plenty of wild plants as vegetables in their daily food items from time immemorial. The paper deals with the investigation and documentation of some important plant species habitually use in their food items particularly in nonvegetarian dishes. In this study, we also observed that the use of some of these plant species is pertaining to their religious belief and festivals also.

  7. NON TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS UTILIZATION DURING ADVERSE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS : A CASE OF SAORA TRIBES OF GANJAM DISTRICT, ODISHA

    OpenAIRE

    MANISH MISHRA, P A JADHAV1 AND MUKTA SHRIVASTAVA2

    2014-01-01

    Saoras are one of the most ancient tribes in Odisha mentioned in Hindu myths and classics are also expert climbers and hunters. Saoras of Ganjam district mostly depend on forest for their livelihood and the area is rich in biodiversity and also have rare medicinal flora. They eat several NTFPs, wild roots, rhizome, seeds, fruits and mushrooms during harsh climatic conditions like severe drought. They use stored wild tubers mostly Dioscoreas like Bowla (Dioscorea bulbifera L.), Bonda, Chun aru...

  8. Housing pattern and food habit of the Mro-tribe community in Bangladesh: A forest dependence perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Shaheed Hossain Chowdhury; Md. Danesh Miah

    2003-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted on the housing pattern and food habit of the Mro tribe in Bandarban region, Bangladesh, highlighting their indigenous knowledge. The study was carried out with respect to three income groups. A total of 36 households (12 from each income groups) were assessed using different participatory appraisals through semi-structured questionnaires. A special type of indigenous knowledge on housing pattern and food habit was explored in the Mro community, which correspond to the severe dependence on forest resources.

  9. Vertebrates used for medicinal purposes by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India)

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer-Rochow V; Chakravorty Jharna; Ghosh Sampat

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Arunachal Pradesh, the easternmost part of India, is endowed with diverse natural resources and inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that have developed skills to exploit the biotic resources of the region for food and medicines. Information on animals and animal parts as components of folk remedies used by local healers and village headmen of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in their respective West Siang and Subansiri districts were obtained through interviews and structured questionn...

  10. Morphology of representatives of the tribe Coronilleae (Adans.) Boiss. (Fabaceae) from Ukrainian flora on early stages of ontogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliia I. Karpenko; Vladislava A. Badanina

    2014-01-01

    The comparative investigations of the morphological peculiarities in 15 species of Coronilleae (Adans.) Boiss. tribe (Fabaceae) at early stages of their ontogenesis were carried out. The morphological descriptions of the young plants of all species studied were presented. The appropriateness of some taxonomic changes was shown, in particular the placement of Coronilla emeroides Boiss. et Sprun. into the genus Hippocrepis L. and Coronilla varia L., С. cretica L., C. elegans Panč. i...

  11. Managing Boundaries, Healing the Homeland: Ecological Restoration and the Revitalization of the White Mountain Apache Tribe, 1933 â 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Tomblin, David Christian

    2009-01-01

    The main argument of this dissertation is that the White Mountain Apache Tribeâ s appropriation of ecological restoration played a vital role in reinstituting control over knowledge production and eco-cultural resources on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation in the second half of the twentieth century. As a corollary, I argue that the shift in knowledge production practices from a paternalistic foundation to a community-based approach resulted in positive consequences for the ecological healt...

  12. Diversity of medicinal plant by Talang Mamak tribe in surrounding of Bukit Tiga Puluh National Park, Riau

    OpenAIRE

    WARDAH; FRANCISCA MURTI SETYOWATI

    2007-01-01

    Local peoples in a certain area is very depends on plants grow on surrounding them for fulfill daily lifelyhoat such as food, clothing, construction material, medicinal, etc. People knowledge in plants utilized especially as medicinal matter was passed on from generation to generation. Documentation and conservation of traditional knowledge from the local people until to do the research of diversity of medicinal plant by Talang Mamak tribe in Bukit Tigapuluh National Park, Riau. Field data co...

  13. A revision of the tribe Coelidiini of the Oriental, Palearctic and Australian biogeographical regions (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Coelidiinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nielson, Mervin W.

    2016-01-01

    Within the tribe Coelidiini, subfamily Coelidiinae (Cicadellidae: Hemiptera), fragmentation of the genera Calodia Nielson, Olidiana McKamey and Taharana Nielson established the following 13 new genera: Cladolidia, type-species, Lodiana cladopenis Zhang; Creberulidia, type-species, Calodia paucita Nielson; Glaberana, type-species, Glaberana spadix, sp. nov.; Hamusolidia, type-species, Hamusolidia introrsa, sp. nov.; Hiatusorus, typespecies, Taharana schonhorsti Nielson; Laosolidia, type-specie...

  14. Evolutionary history of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Lamprologini (Teleostei: Perciformes) derived from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data

    OpenAIRE

    Sturmbauer, Christian; Salzburger, Walter; Duftner, Nina; Schelly, Robert; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika comprises a cichlid species flock with substrate-breeding and mouthbrooding lineages. While sexual selection via mate choice on male mating color is thought to boost speciation rates in mouthbrooding cichlids, this is not the case in substrate-breeding lamprologines, which mostly form stable pairs and lack sexual dichromatism. We present a comprehensive reconstruction of the evolution of the cichlid tribe Lamprologini, based upon mtDNA sequences and multilocus nuclear DNA (AFL...

  15. Revisiting the taxonomy of the Rattini tribe: a phylogeny-based delimitation of species boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waengsothorn Surachit

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rodents are recognized as hosts for at least 60 zoonotic diseases and may represent a serious threat for human health. In the context of global environmental changes and increasing mobility of humans and animals, contacts between pathogens and potential animal hosts and vectors are modified, amplifying the risk of disease emergence. An accurate identification of each rodent at a specific level is needed in order to understand their implications in the transmission of diseases. Among the Muridae, the Rattini tribe encompasses 167 species inhabiting South East Asia, a hotspot of both biodiversity and emerging and re-emerging diseases. The region faces growing economical development that affects habitats, biodiversity and health. Rat species have been demonstrated as significant hosts of pathogens but are still difficult to recognize at a specific level using morphological criteria. DNA-barcoding methods appear as accurate tools for rat species identification but their use is hampered by the need of reliable identification of reference specimens. In this study, we explore and highlight the limits of the current taxonomy of the Rattini tribe. Results We used the DNA sequence information itself as the primary information source to establish group membership and estimate putative species boundaries. We sequenced two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes from 122 rat samples to perform phylogenetic reconstructions. The method of Pons and colleagues (2006 that determines, with no prior expectations, the locations of ancestral nodes defining putative species was then applied to our dataset. To give an appropriate name to each cluster recognized as a putative species, we reviewed information from the literature and obtained sequences from a museum holotype specimen following the ancient DNA criteria. Conclusions Using a recently developed methodology, this study succeeds in refining the taxonomy of one of the most difficult groups of

  16. Phylogenetic relationships of butterflies of the tribe Acraeini (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae) and the evolution of host plant use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Wahlberg, Niklas; Francini, Ronaldo Bastos; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L; Brown, Keith S; Paluch, Márlon; Lees, David C; Freitas, André V L

    2008-02-01

    The tribe Acraeini (Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae) is believed to comprise between one and seven genera, with the greatest diversity in Africa. The genera Abananote, Altinote, and Actinote (s. str.) are distributed in the Neotropics, while the genera Acraea, Bematistes, Miyana, and Pardopsis have a Palaeotropical distribution. The monotypic Pardopsis use herbaceous plants of the family Violaceae, Acraea and Bematistes feed selectively on plants with cyanoglycosides belonging to many plant families, but preferentially to Passifloraceae, and all Neotropical species with a known life cycle feed on Asteraceae only. Here, a molecular phylogeny is proposed for the butterflies of the tribe Acraeini based on sequences of COI, EF-1alpha and wgl. Both Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian analyses showed that the tribe is monophyletic, once the genus Pardopsis is excluded, since it appears to be related to Argynnini. The existing genus Acraea is a paraphyletic group with regard to the South American genera, and the species of Acraea belonging to the group of "Old World Actinote" is the sister group of the Neotropical genera. The monophyly of South American clade is strongly supported, suggesting a single colonization event of South America. The New World Actinote (s. str.) is monophyletic, and sister to Abananote+Altinote (polyphyletic). Based on the present results it was possible to propose a scenario for the evolution in host plant use within Acraeini, mainly concerning the use of Asteraceae by the South American genera.

  17. Traditional use of medicinal plants by the Jaintia tribes in North Cachar Hills district of Assam, northeast India

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    Gosai Kuldip

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of ethnobotany relating to any tribe is in itself a very intricate or convoluted process. This paper documents the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use by the indigenous Jaintia tribes residing in few isolated pockets of northeast India. The present study was done through structured questionnaires in consultations with the tribal practitioners and has resulted in the documentation of 39 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families and 35 genera. For curing diverse form of ailments, the use of aboveground plant parts was higher (76.59% than the underground plant parts (23.41%. Of the aboveground plant parts, leaf was used in the majority of cases (23 species, followed by fruit (4. Different underground plant forms such as root, tuber, rhizome, bulb and pseudo-bulb were also found to be in use by the Jaintia tribe as a medicine. Altogether, 30 types of ailments have been reported to be cured by using these 39 medicinal plant species. The study thus underlines the potentials of the ethnobotanical research and the need for the documentation of traditional ecological knowledge pertaining to the medicinal plant utilization for the greater benefit of mankind.

  18. Polyphase deformation of the cover sequence and granitic rocks of the Zobor part of the Tribeč Mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Lénárt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tribeč Mts. is a significant morphostructure of crystalline basement protruding from beneath Mesozoic and Neogene sediments. With respect to geological composition is divided into two parts. The Rázdiel part is situated on northeast side and comprises the Tatricum, Veporicum, and Hronicum tectonic units. The Tatricum and Fatricum units are presented in the Zobor part which is located on southwest. Kinematics and tectonic evolution of the Tatricum tectonic unit were the objects of study in the Zobor part of the Tribeč Mts. The Tatricum unit contains cover sedimentary sequence in stratigraphic range from the Early Triassic to Early Cretaceous. The crystalline basement comprises granitic rocks affected by mylonitization. Four main tectonic events took place since the Cretaceous to the Neogene. The first phase of ductile deformation (Late Cretaceous is characterized by mylonitization of granitic rocks, folding and thrusting of the cover sequence with the sense of movement top to the NW. During the second phase (Cretaceous/Palaeogene steep mylonitic/shear zones within the granitic rocks were generated in a sinistral transpression with semi-ductile to ductile conditions. The third phase (Palaeogene is characterized by tectonic unroofing which was realized on normal listric faults in semi-brittle conditions. In the final phase of the deformation evolution (Neogene were generated normal faults separating the Tribeč horst structure against to Neogene depressions.

  19. [Health, death, illness, and nursing care concepts in Malagasi Antemoro Tribe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradellini, Martina; Fiaccadori, Cianzia

    2010-01-01

    A collaboration experience with the Fondation Médical d'Ampasimanjeva nurses, in an international cooperation project,permits to analyse the basic nursing concepts, starting from the local cultural approach. Research main outcome is to describe health, death, illness, and nursing care concepts in the Malgasi Antemoro tribe. Closing to the ethnographic research, work has been developed in three different moments: a first job organization starting from a spread literature analysis, the follow work on field about collecting data, and the last data elaboration and discussion Collecting data tool was the focus group which has done with the complete hospital nursing staff, divided by ward places. A fourth one was addressed to a twenty medical patients group. Focus group questions came from the Rising Sun Model guide, by Madeleine Leininger, adapted to the research own needs. Outcomes show an important traditional medicine influence, explained by the way people conceive health, illness, and even life, all elements directly affected the nursing care. It stands out a strong belief that health depends by the ability of person to work. The death concept is saw as a passage's phase to the Razana's spiritual condition. This is the reason supporting fatalism as approach to the death, that appear as an inevitable event managed by God. Disease's concept is related to traditional healers; as a matter of facts, it exists a strong belief that diseases find origin from magician.

  20. Nutritional Status among Females of Bhaina Tribe of Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India: An Anthropological Insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huidrom Suraj Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem of malnutrition increases, being one of the significant national issues in a developing country like India. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the sociodemographic profile and nutritional status among the Bhaina tribes of Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh. A total of 161 females (2–75 years were screened for anthropometric measurements. Nutritional status was evaluated in four groups of female categories: preschool: 2–5 years (n=11, children: 6#x2013;12 years (n=28, adolescent: 13–18 years (n=22, and adults >18 years (n=100 using the age specific cutoff points of body mass index (BMI. Statistical analysis was performed using MS EXCEL and SPSS software. More than 30% of the studied population is observed to be illiterate and unemployed. Significant age group difference is observed for anthropometric variables considered in the present study. Overall prevalence of thinness among the studied population was 32.3% (critical. Occurrence of thinness was found to be highest among children (57.1%. Occupation with wage labourer is significantly higher among parents of normal children (26.6% than parents of undernourished children (19.6%. Findings of the present study suggest significance of anthropological approach in understanding nutritional status among different ethnic groups, specifically tribal community.

  1. Floral development in Tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae): Amherstia, Brownea, and Tamarindus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, S C

    2000-10-01

    Floral development was compared among three taxa in caesalpinioid tribe Detarieae sensu lato: Amherstia nobilis and Tamarindus indica have racemose, helically arranged inflorescences, while Brownea latifolia has cauliflorous capitate flower clusters that arise as racemes. All have acropetal flower order; initiation and development are sequential in all except Brownea, which is synchronous. All have paired persistent showy bracteoles. Floral symmetry is dorsiventral (zygomorphic) in all except Brownea, with radial symmetry at anthesis. Sepals initiate helically on a circular floral apex, starting with a median abaxial sepal, in all. Petals are initiated helically in Brownea, and unidirectionally in Amherstia and Tamarindus. Stamens are initiated unidirectionally in each stamen whorl in all except Amherstia, in which the outer whorl is bidirectional. The carpel initiates concurrently with the petals in Brownea, and with the outer stamens in the other taxa. The two upper (adaxial) sepal primordia become fused during development in all, so that the calyx appears tetramerous. Some reduced petals occur in Amherstia and Tamarindus, and some reduced stamens occur in all. All produce a hypanthium by zonal growth, and all except Tamarindus have the gynoecium attached adaxially to the hypanthial rim. PMID:11034916

  2. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A PETROLEUM REFINERY FOR THE JICARILLA APACHE TRIBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feasibility study for a proposed petroleum refinery for the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation was performed. The available crude oil production was identified and characterized. There is 6,000 barrels per day of crude oil production available for processing in the proposed refinery. The proposed refinery will utilize a lower temperature, smaller crude fractionation unit. It will have a Naphtha Hydrodesulfurizer and Reformer to produce high octane gasoline. The surplus hydrogen from the reformer will be used in a specialized hydrocracker to convert the heavier crude oil fractions to ultra low sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel products. The proposed refinery will produce gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and a minimal amount of lube oil. The refinery will require about $86,700,000 to construct. It will have net annual pre-tax profit of about $17,000,000. The estimated return on investment is 20%. The feasibility is positive subject to confirmation of long term crude supply. The study also identified procedures for evaluating processing options as a means for American Indian Tribes and Native American Corporations to maximize the value of their crude oil production

  3. The Eco-friendly Tharu Tribe: A Study in Socio-cultural Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chandra Verma

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tharu culture is very Eco-Friendly, all cultural thing andactivities of this tribe are deeply related with nature. Their residence, food, cloths, art, religion, economy and many other part of life are based on nature and keep ecological balance. Tharu people worship mainly their tribal Goddess (The Earth called as ‘Bhumsen’ in their folk language. There is a well family system in this community. Women have high reputation, enough social and economic rights in their family system. This community has paternal family system but women have high position and more rights, this is a mark able fact. Tharu youth like changing so they are struggling for advance ness. There are many other communities existing in Tharu area by Industrialization and Business, so the process of cultural exchange is running in Tharu area. Tharu youth are attracting tonew and charming life style. They are ignoring their traditional tribal culture that is why the identity of old Tharu culture is under dangerous. They must have to get advance education, communication, technology etc. But care of old culture is must too for keep their identity.

  4. Raw Materials Inventory and Fermentation Process in Lemea Industry The Traditional Food of Rejang Tribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnia Harlina Dewi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional food is a food that is processed from surrounding natural and treated hereditary, so it became one of the pillars of food tenacity. Lemea is a traditional food of Rejang tribe that has not been properly inventoried. The purpose of this study is an inventory and characterization of physical, chemical and organoleptic of Lemea from various small industries in the districts. Characterization of traditional food Lemea required as a basis for the agro-industry design of Lemea of Rejang traditional standardized food (raw materials and processes, so resulting in consistent product quality, hygienic and attractive so as to compete with other containers food products, as well as preserving traditional food. The research method used was a survey method, by interviewing a small industry regarding raw materials used and the fermentation process of Lemea. Results show that the raw materials used are Mayan bamboo sprout (Kepahiyang and North Bengkulu District, Kepea bamboo sprout (South Lebong District and all kinds of bamboo sprout in the Rejang Lebong District, depending on available bamboo sprouts. The fish used in Central Bengkulu and Kepahiyang District is Tilapia fish, South Lebong District (White fish, North Bengkulu (Mayung fish. The fermentation process classified on 2 groups, namely (1 fermentation with the addition of rice porridge as a source of glucose and (2 without the addition of fermented rice porridge as a source of glucose. Lemea from various sources have variations in color, aroma, acidity, integrality, turbidity and overall appearance of different.

  5. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A PETROLEUM REFINERY FOR THE JICARILLA APACHE TRIBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Jones

    2004-10-01

    A feasibility study for a proposed petroleum refinery for the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation was performed. The available crude oil production was identified and characterized. There is 6,000 barrels per day of crude oil production available for processing in the proposed refinery. The proposed refinery will utilize a lower temperature, smaller crude fractionation unit. It will have a Naphtha Hydrodesulfurizer and Reformer to produce high octane gasoline. The surplus hydrogen from the reformer will be used in a specialized hydrocracker to convert the heavier crude oil fractions to ultra low sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel products. The proposed refinery will produce gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and a minimal amount of lube oil. The refinery will require about $86,700,000 to construct. It will have net annual pre-tax profit of about $17,000,000. The estimated return on investment is 20%. The feasibility is positive subject to confirmation of long term crude supply. The study also identified procedures for evaluating processing options as a means for American Indian Tribes and Native American Corporations to maximize the value of their crude oil production.

  6. Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants Used by the Basotho Tribe of Eastern Free State: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Fatai Oladunni; Tshabalala, Natu Thomas; Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) belongs to the group of five leading important diseases causing death globally and remains a major health problem in Africa. A number of factors such as poverty, poor eating habit, and hormonal imbalance are responsible for the occurrence of the disease. It poses a major health challenge in Africa continent today and the prevalence continues to increase at an alarming rate. Various treatment options particularly the usage of herbs have been effective against diabetes because they have no adverse effects. Interestingly, South Africa, especially the Basotho tribe, is blessed with numerous medicinal plants whose usage in the treatment of DM has been effective since the conventional drugs are expensive and often unaffordable. The present study attempted to update the various scientific evidence on the twenty-three (23) plants originating from different parts of the world but widely used by the Sotho people in the management of DM. Asteraceae topped the list of sixteen (16) plant families and remained the most investigated according to this review. Although limited information was obtained on the antidiabetic activities of these plants, it is however anticipated that government parastatals and scientific communities will pay more attention to these plants in future research. PMID:27437404

  7. A systematic review of population health interventions and Scheduled Tribes in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labonté Ronald

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite India's recent economic growth, health and human development indicators of Scheduled Tribes (ST or Adivasi (India's indigenous populations lag behind national averages. The aim of this review was to identify the public health interventions or components of these interventions that are effective in reducing morbidity or mortality rates and reducing risks of ill health among ST populations in India, in order to inform policy and to identify important research gaps. Methods We systematically searched and assessed peer-reviewed literature on evaluations or intervention studies of a population health intervention undertaken with an ST population or in a tribal area, with a population health outcome(s, and involving primary data collection. Results The evidence compiled in this review revealed three issues that promote effective public health interventions with STs: (1 to develop and implement interventions that are low-cost, give rapid results and can be easily administered, (2: a multi-pronged approach, and (3: involve ST populations in the intervention. Conclusion While there is a growing body of knowledge on the health needs of STs, there is a paucity of data on how we can address these needs. We provide suggestions on how to undertake future population health intervention research with ST populations and offer priority research avenues that will help to address our knowledge gap in this area.

  8. The making and prevention of rain amongst the Pedi tribe of South Africa: A pastoral response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Semenya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article attempted to respond pastorally to the rainmaking and rain prevention rituals which are practised among the Pedi tribes – also called the Northern-Sotho speaking nation of South Africa. The rituals of rainmaking and rain prevention have been practised among the Pedi for a long time – these rituals are in fact still being practised in some of the villages in and around the Limpopo Province. The rituals are practised in time of drought and also during activities such as weddings or traditional gatherings, this is normally called molato. When the village is experiencing drought, community members, upon instruction from the chief of the village, stage a rain ritual and the moroka [rain making traditional doctor] would take the lead in performing such rituals. Families would also perform rain prevention rituals when a gathering or a wedding is being organised to ensure that the rain does not disturb the gathering and everything goes as planned. Thus the purpose of rainfall rituals is to influence the weather conditions in order to cause rain or drought either for good or for destruction. The mentioned rituals and selected scriptural passages were discussed. This article presented the biblical view of rain and conclusion principles were formulated to understand the Bible’s perspective on the mentioned rituals. These conclusions were used for the formulation of practical guidelines.

  9. Gender Disparities in the Prevalence of Undernutrition and the Higher Risk among the Young Women of Indian Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background High undernutrition is a grave concern in India. Marginalized populations like Indian tribes have been under the serious stress of such nutritional extreme. Women, in particular, are the worst sufferers. Gender-related comprehensive studies regarding the prevalence and risks of undernutrition among the tribes have not been properly pursued in India; the vulnerability of the young females has least been examined. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional study during January 2011 to December 2013 among 1066 males and 1090 females (n = 2156) in the 20–60 years age group belonging to the nine major tribes; Santals, Oraons and Koras (West Bengal): Santals, Bhumijs and Bathudis (Odisha): Dhodias, Kuknas and Chaudharis (Gujarat). The undernutrition burden was estimated and such risks were analyzed for the women in comparison to the men. The overall undernutrition among the females was found to be 47.4% (95% CI 44.4–50.4) against 32.1% (95% CI 29.3–34.9) among males, indicating about a half of the female population undernourished. The odds of risks for underweight status among females were observed to be high in comparison to males with an odds of 1.9 (95% CI, 1.6–2.2; p≤0.001) for the overall undernutrition category, 1.7 (95% CI, 1.3–2.3; p≤0.001) for the mild undernutrition category, 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1–1.6; p≤0.01) for combined moderate and mild undernutrition category and 3.3 (95% CI at 2.3–4.6; p≤0.001) for severe undernutrition category. The young females were observed with a high prevalence of undernutrition along with increased risk. The 30-year mean BMI trend of the Indian population in comparison to the males, females, and overall tribal population places the tribal females at the highest risk. Conclusion Indian tribes are suffering from the higher prevalence of undernutrition by further highlighting a high gender bias. The health and empowerment of adolescent and young tribal girls needs additional focus. Overall, no

  10. Systematics, biogeography, and character evolution of the legume tribe Fabeae with special focus on the middle-Atlantic island lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaefer Hanno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tribe Fabeae comprises about 380 legume species, including some of the most ancient and important crops like lentil, pea, and broad bean. Breeding efforts in legume crops rely on a detailed knowledge of closest wild relatives and geographic origin. Relationships within the tribe, however, are incompletely known and previous molecular results conflicted with the traditional morphology-based classification. Here we analyse the systematics, biogeography, and character evolution in the tribe based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. Results Phylogenetic analyses including c. 70% of the species in the tribe show that the genera Vicia and Lathyrus in their current circumscription are not monophyletic: Pisum and Vavilovia are nested in Lathyrus, the genus Lens is nested in Vicia. A small, well-supported clade including Vicia hirsuta, V. sylvatica, and some Mediterranean endemics, is the sister group to all remaining species in the tribe. Fabeae originated in the East Mediterranean region in the Miocene (23–16 million years ago (Ma and spread at least 39 times into Eurasia, seven times to the Americas, twice to tropical Africa and four times to Macaronesia. Broad bean (V. faba and its sister V. paucijuga originated in Asia and might be sister to V. oroboides. Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris is of Mediterranean origin and together with eight very close relatives forms a clade that is nested in the core Vicia, where it evolved c. 14 Ma. The Pisum clade is nested in Lathyrus in a grade with the Mediterranean L. gloeosperma, L. neurolobus, and L. nissolia. The extinct Azorean endemic V. dennesiana belongs in section Cracca and is nested among Mediterranean species. According to our ancestral character state reconstruction results, ancestors of Fabeae had a basic chromosome number of 2n=14, an annual life form, and evenly hairy, dorsiventrally compressed styles. Conclusions Fabeae evolved in the Eastern Mediterranean in the

  11. Southeast Asian origins of five Hill Tribe populations and correlation of genetic to linguistic relationships inferred with genome-wide SNP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listman, J B; Malison, R T; Sanichwankul, K; Ittiwut, C; Mutirangura, A; Gelernter, J

    2011-02-01

    In Thailand, the term Hill Tribe is used to describe populations whose members traditionally practice slash and burn agriculture and reside in the mountains. These tribes are thought to have migrated throughout Asia for up to 5,000 years, including migrations through Southern China and/or Southeast Asia. There have been continuous migrations southward from China into Thailand for approximately the past thousand years and the present geographic range of any given tribe straddles multiple political borders. As none of these populations have autochthonous scripts, written histories have until recently, been externally produced. Northern Asian, Tibetan, and Siberian origins of Hill Tribes have been proposed. All purport endogamy and have nonmutually intelligible languages. To test hypotheses regarding the geographic origins of these populations, relatedness and migrations among them and neighboring populations, and whether their genetic relationships correspond with their linguistic relationships, we analyzed 2,445 genome-wide SNP markers in 118 individuals from five Thai Hill Tribe populations (Akha, Hmong, Karen, Lahu, and Lisu), 90 individuals from majority Thai populations, and 826 individuals from Asian and Oceanean HGDP and HapMap populations using a Bayesian clustering method. Considering these results within the context of results ofrecent large-scale studies of Asian geographic genetic variation allows us to infer a shared Southeast Asian origin of these five Hill Tribe populations as well ancestry components that distinguish among them seen in successive levels of clustering. In addition, the inferred level of shared ancestry among the Hill Tribes corresponds well to relationships among their languages.

  12. Southeast Asian origins of five Hill Tribe populations and correlation of genetic to linguistic relationships inferred with genome-wide SNP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listman, J B; Malison, R T; Sanichwankul, K; Ittiwut, C; Mutirangura, A; Gelernter, J

    2011-02-01

    In Thailand, the term Hill Tribe is used to describe populations whose members traditionally practice slash and burn agriculture and reside in the mountains. These tribes are thought to have migrated throughout Asia for up to 5,000 years, including migrations through Southern China and/or Southeast Asia. There have been continuous migrations southward from China into Thailand for approximately the past thousand years and the present geographic range of any given tribe straddles multiple political borders. As none of these populations have autochthonous scripts, written histories have until recently, been externally produced. Northern Asian, Tibetan, and Siberian origins of Hill Tribes have been proposed. All purport endogamy and have nonmutually intelligible languages. To test hypotheses regarding the geographic origins of these populations, relatedness and migrations among them and neighboring populations, and whether their genetic relationships correspond with their linguistic relationships, we analyzed 2,445 genome-wide SNP markers in 118 individuals from five Thai Hill Tribe populations (Akha, Hmong, Karen, Lahu, and Lisu), 90 individuals from majority Thai populations, and 826 individuals from Asian and Oceanean HGDP and HapMap populations using a Bayesian clustering method. Considering these results within the context of results ofrecent large-scale studies of Asian geographic genetic variation allows us to infer a shared Southeast Asian origin of these five Hill Tribe populations as well ancestry components that distinguish among them seen in successive levels of clustering. In addition, the inferred level of shared ancestry among the Hill Tribes corresponds well to relationships among their languages. PMID:20979205

  13. New Results of Angiosperm Bryophytes of Inner Mongolia in the Post-Bryophytes Time%内蒙古苔藓植物志后时期苔藓植物区系研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赫智霞; 徐杰; 白学良; 田桂泉; 李琴琴

    2012-01-01

    本文综述了《内蒙古苔藓植物志》出版之后内蒙古苔藓植物区系研究的新成果.结果表明,在《内蒙古苔藓植物志》出版之后的十多年间,以白学良教授为领导的研究团队,对内蒙古地区苔藓植物的分布、种类多样性等方面进行了深入研究,特别是沙漠地区.在此期间,发现内蒙古苔藓植物新记录1纲;新记录科3科;新记录属16属;新记录种76种、订正种9种.内蒙古苔藓植物区系研究取得了显著成果,为《内蒙古苔藓植物志》的再版编著奠定了坚实的基础.%The paper has overviewed the research new result of angiosperm bryophytes of Inner Mongolian after the publishing edition of "bryophytes Intramongolica".The results indicate: after the "bryophytes Intramongolica " publish ten more years,under the leadership of the professor Bai Xueliang,distribution and species variety of the Inner Mongolia bryophytes go ahead intensive study,especially in desert area.During this time: 1 new record class,3 new record family;16 new record genus;76 new record species,9 revised species were found.In the post-flora time,the research on angiosperm flora of Inner Mongolia has achieved notable progress,which has provide a strong base of the second edition of " Flora Intramongolica ".

  14. Pollen performance, cell number, and physiological state in the early-divergent angiosperm Annona cherimola Mill. (Annonaceae) are related to environmental conditions during the final stages of pollen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, J; Herrero, M; Hormaza, J I

    2012-09-01

    Pollen performance is an important determinant for fertilization success, but high variability in pollen behavior both between and within species occurs in different years and under varying environmental conditions. Annona cherimola, an early-divergent angiosperm, is a species that releases a variable ratio of bicellular and tricellular hydrated pollen at anther dehiscence depending on temperature. The presence of both bi- and tricellular types of pollen is an uncommon characteristic in angiosperms and makes Annona cherimola an interesting model to study the effect of varying environmental conditions on subsequent pollen performance during the final stages of pollen development. In this work, we study the influence of changes in temperature and humidity during the final stages of pollen development on subsequent pollen performance, evaluating pollen germination, presence of carbohydrates, number of nuclei, and water content. At 25 °C, which is the average field temperature during the flowering period of this species, pollen had a viability of 60-70 %, starch hydrolyzed just prior to shedding, and pollen mitosis II was taking place, resulting in a mixture of bi- and tricellular pollen. This activity may be related to the pollen retaining 70 % water content at shedding. Temperatures above 30 °C resulted in a decrease in pollen germination, whereas lower temperatures did not have a clear influence on pollen germination, although they did have a clear effect on starch hydrolysis. On the other hand, slightly higher dehydration accelerated mitosis II, whereas strong dehydration arrested starch hydrolysis and reduced pollen germination. These results show a significant influence of environmental conditions on myriad pollen characteristics during the final stages of pollen development modifying subsequent pollen behavior and contributing to our understanding of the variability observed in pollen tube performance.

  15. 辽金元时期蒙古弘吉剌部领地考%Research of Mongolia Hongjila Tribe During the Liao、Jin and Yuan Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国军; 康建国

    2015-01-01

    弘吉剌部是早期蒙古部落之一,辽金时期开始活跃在北方地区。金章宗时期弘吉剌部强盛,常裹胁蒙古诸部出兵金朝,成为金朝北方“边患”的主要制造者。弘吉剌部在成吉思汗建立蒙古汗国的过程中起了积极的推动作用,因此在成吉思汗将蒙古诸部重新划分为95个千户进行统治时,弘吉剌部成为少数几个能统其国族者。弘吉剌部自始至终同成吉思汗家族保持着联姻关系,元朝时更被封为一字王,地位已不亚于皇族诸王,世守漠南,成为诸藩之首。%Hongjila Tribe is one of the early Mongolian tribes; Liao and Jin period became active in the north. Hongjila tribe is strong in the Period of JinZhangzong, often forced to Mongolia the invasion of rulers, become the rulers of the north"foreign invasion "of the main manufacturers. Hongjila tribe played a positive role in the process when Genghis khan established the Mongol khanate. So in the Genghis khan is re-districting into the 95 thousands households of rules, Hongjila tribe can become one of the few governs their na-tion. Hongjila tribe from beginning to end with Genghis khan family department maintained ties of marriage, when it comes to the Yuan dynasty was the "Yiziwang", the position as to the Kings of the royal family, genera-tions to protect the Monan, become the first of all the captaincy. In this paper, through carding hisrorical process of the rise of Hongjila tribe, research of change of the fief from one the early of Hongjila tribe to the Yuan dy-nasty, reveals the Hongjila tribe historical role of the guards in Monan.

  16. Sperm bundle and reproductive organs of carabid beetles tribe Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2007-05-01

    The morphological characteristics of sperm and reproductive organs may offer clues as to how reproductive systems have evolved. In this paper, the morphologies of the sperm and male reproductive organs of carabid beetles in the tribe Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are described, and the morphological associations among characters are examined. All species form sperm bundles in which the head of the sperm was embedded in a rod-shaped structure, i.e., spermatodesm. The spermatodesm shape (left-handed spiral, right-handed spiral, or without conspicuous spiral structure) and the condition of the sperm on the spermatodesm surface (with the tail free-moving or forming a thin, sheetlike structure) vary among species. In all species, the spiral directions of the convoluted seminal vesicles and vasa deferentia are the same on both sides of the body; that is, they show an asymmetric structure. The species in which the sperm bundle and the seminal vesicles both have a spiral structure could be classified into two types, with significant differences in sperm-bundle length between the two types. The species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle spiral of almost the same diameter have longer sperm bundles than the species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle tube of almost the same diameter. In the former type, the spiral directions of the sperm bundles and seminal vesicles are inevitably the same, whereas they differ in some species with the later type. Therefore, increased sperm bundle length appears to have been facilitated by the concordance of the sperm bundle’s coiling direction with the coiling direction of the seminal vesicle.

  17. Partnership with the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes: Establishing an Advisory Committee for Pharmacogenetic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Chelsea T.; Muzquiz, LeeAnna I.; Howlett, Kevin; Azure, Bernie; Bodnar, Brenda; Finley, Vernon; Incashola, Tony; Mathias, Cheryl; Laukes, Cindi; Beatty, Patrick; Burke, Wylie; Pershouse, Mark A.; Putnam, Elizabeth A.; Trinidad, Susan Brown; James, Rosalina; Woodahl, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Inclusion of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations in pharmacogenetic research is key if the benefits of pharmacogenetic testing are to reach these communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) offers a model to engage these communities in pharmacogenetics. Objectives An academic-community partnership between the University of Montana and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) was established to engage the community as partners and advisors in pharmacogenetic research. Methods A community advisory committee, the Community Pharmacogenetics Advisory Council (CPAC), was established to ensure community involvement in the research process. To promote bidirectional learning, researchers gave workshops and presentations about pharmacogenetic research to increase research capacity and CPAC members trained researchers in cultural competencies. As part of our commitment to a sustainable relationship, we conducted a self-assessment of the partnership, which included surveys and interviews with CPAC members and researchers. Results Academic and community participants agree that the partnership has promoted a bidirectional exchange of knowledge. Interviews showed positive feedback from the perspectives of both the CPAC and researchers. CPAC members discussed their trust in and support of the partnership as well as having learned more about research processes and pharmacogenetics. Researchers discussed their appreciation of CPAC involvement in the project and guidance the group provided in understanding the CSKT community and culture. Discussion We have created an academic-community partnership to ensure CSKT community input and to share decision-making about pharmacogenetic research. Our CBPR approach may be a model for engaging AI/AN people, and other underserved populations, in genetic research. PMID:27346763

  18. Pollination system of the Pilosocereus leucocephalus columnar cactus (tribe Cereeae) in eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguía-Rosas, M A; Sosa, V J; Jácome-Flores, M E

    2010-07-01

    It has been suggested that there is a geographic dichotomy in the pollination systems of chiropterophilous columnar cacti: in intra-tropical areas they are pollinated almost exclusively by bats, whereas in extratropical areas they are pollinated by bats, birds and bees. However, currently the studies are clumped both taxonomically (mainly Pachycereeae species) and geographically (mainly in the Tehuacan Valley and the Sonoran Desert). This clumping limits the possibility of generalising the pattern to other regions or cactus tribes. Only four of the 36 chiropterophilous cacti in Pilosocereus have been studied. Despite the tropical distribution of two Pilosocereus species, bees account for 40-100% of their fruit set. We examined how specialised is the pollination system of P. leucocephalus in eastern Mexico. As we studied tropical populations, we expected a bat-specialised pollination system. However, previous studies of Pilosocereus suggest that a generalised pollination system is also possible. We found that this cactus is mainly bat-pollinated (bats account for 33-65% of fruit set); although to a lesser degree, diurnal visitors also caused some fruit set (7-15%). Diurnal visitors were more effective in populations containing honeybee hives. P. leucocephalus is partially self-compatible (14-18% of fructification) but unable to set fruit without visitors. Despite the variation in pollination system, P. leucocephalus shows more affinity with other columnar cacti from tropical regions than with those from extratropical regions. Although we report here that a new species of tropical Pilosocereus is relatively bat-specialised, this Cereeae genus is more flexible in its pollination system than the Pachycereeae genera.

  19. The Usage of Animals in the Lives of the Lanoh and Temiar Tribes of Lenggong, Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Fatan Hamamah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the Orang Asli communities are natives that comprise the Negrito, Senoi and Proto-Malay peoples. Traditionally, the Orang Asli live in isolated forests or in forest peripheries. Although Globalisation occurs in Malaysia, its occurrence does not affect the traditional values of the said Orang Asli, who still depend on the natural environment to live. Nature provides the Orang Asli with a community resource for acquiring animals that are not just consumed as food, but also used in medicine, hunting and myth creation. This study intends to identify the animal species and the methods the Senoi and Negrito use these animals, within the aspects of their diet, medicine, hunting methods and their myth creation. Empirical data collection is focused only on the Lanoh and Temiar tribes who live in Lenggong. The method of data collection involves in-depth interviews with key informants that comprise Tok Batins (tribal chiefs and focus groups from the chosen Orang Asli village communities in Kampung Air Bah and Kampung Lubuk Chupak, Lenggong. The findings of this study reveal a wide variety of animals are still being hunted by the Orang Asli community for food and medicine. Apart from that, there are specific beliefs regarding the animals hunted narrated through myths and legends. Therefore, this study is significant in order to determine that the animal usage in the lives of the Orang Asli community continue for the sake of the demands of their heritage and families in order to preserve its pristine continuity. This is because while findings show that wildlife is still used by the Orang Asli, their usage among the younger generation is increasingly eroded due to such factors as wildlife extinction, dwindling availability, new religious taboos and modern progress which continues to find its place within the Orang Asli community.

  20. Assessment of Risk and Sero-Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Colonization among Remote Orang Asli Tribes in Peninsula Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevakumar, Kavitha; Chandren, Josephine Rebecca; Perez-Perez, Guillermo Ignacio; Chua, Eng Guan; Teh, Lay Kek; Salleh, Mohd Zaki; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Leow, Alex Hwong Ruey; Goh, Khean Lee; Tay, Alfred Chin Yen; Marshall, Barry J.; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Loke, Mun Fai; Wong, Li Ping

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is related to human poverty with marked differences between developing and developed countries. Socioeconomic factors and living standards are the main determinants of the age-dependent acquisition rate of H. pylori, and consequently its prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the risk and sero-prevalence of H. pylori colonization among Orang Asli in Peninsula Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted on Orang Asli subjects in seven isolated settlements spanning across all three major tribes (Negrito, Proto Malay and Senoi) in Malaysia. Socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects were obtained through interview. Subjects were tested for H. pylori colonization based on CagA and whole cell (WC) antigen serological assays. A total of 275 subjects participated in this study. Among these subjects, 115 (44.7%) were H. pylori sero-positive with highest sero-prevalence among Negrito (65.7%). Among subjects who were H. pylori sero-positive, CagA sero positivity was also significantly higher among Negrito. The highest proportion of respondents reported to be H. pylori sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (57.9%), males (56.2%), Negrito (48.6%) and live in bamboo house (92.3%). The highest proportion of respondents reported to be CagA sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (41.4%), males (35.6%) and Negrito (48.6%). The results of this study demonstrate that H. pylori colonization can be related to age, gender, tribes and house materials and CagA sero-positive stain closely associated with age, gender and tribes. PMID:27441568

  1. At the southeast fringe of the Bantu expansion: genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships to other sub-Saharan tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowold, Diane; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Calderon, Silvia; Rivera, Luis; Benedico, David Perez; Alfonso Sanchez, Miguel A; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Varela, Mangela; Herrera, Rene J

    2014-12-01

    Here, we present 12 loci paternal haplotypes (Y-STR profiles) against the backdrop of the Y-SNP marker system of Bantu males from the Maputo Province of Southeast Africa, a region believed to represent the southeastern fringe of the Bantu expansion. Our Maputo Bantu group was analyzed within the context of 27 geographically relevant reference populations in order to ascertain its genetic relationship to other Bantu and non Bantu (Pygmy, Khoisan and Nilotic) sub-equatorial tribes from West and East Africa. This study entails statistical pair wise comparisons and multidimensional scaling based on YSTR Rst distances, network analyses of Bantu (B2a-M150) and Pygmy (B2b-M112) lineages as well as an assessment of Y-SNP distribution patterns. Several notable findings include the following: 1) the Maputo Province Bantu exhibits a relatively close paternal affinity with both east and west Bantu tribes due to high proportion of Bantu Y chromosomal markers, 2) only traces of Khoisan (1.3%) and Pygmy (1.3%) markers persist in the Maputo Province Bantu gene pool, 3) the occurrence of R1a1a-M17/M198, a member of the Eurasian R1a-M420 branch in the population of the Maputo Province, may represent back migration events and/or recent admixture events, 4) the shared presence of E1b1b1-M35 in all Tanzanian tribes examined, including Bantu and non-Bantu groups, in conjunction with its nearly complete absence in the West African populations indicate that, in addition to a shared linguistic, cultural and genetic heritage, geography (e.g., east vs. west) may have impacted the paternal landscape of sub-Saharan Africa, 5) the admixture and assimilation processes of Bantu elements were both highly complex and region-specific.

  2. At the southeast fringe of the Bantu expansion: genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships to other sub-Saharan tribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Rowold

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present 12 loci paternal haplotypes (Y-STR profiles against the backdrop of the Y-SNP marker system of Bantu males from the Maputo Province of Southeast Africa, a region believed to represent the southeastern fringe of the Bantu expansion. Our Maputo Bantu group was analyzed within the context of 27 geographically relevant reference populations in order to ascertain its genetic relationship to other Bantu and non Bantu (Pygmy, Khoisan and Nilotic sub-equatorial tribes from West and East Africa. This study entails statistical pair wise comparisons and multidimensional scaling based on YSTR Rst distances, network analyses of Bantu (B2a-M150 and Pygmy (B2b-M112 lineages as well as an assessment of Y-SNP distribution patterns. Several notable findings include the following: 1 the Maputo Province Bantu exhibits a relatively close paternal affinity with both east and west Bantu tribes due to high proportion of Bantu Y chromosomal markers, 2 only traces of Khoisan (1.3% and Pygmy (1.3% markers persist in the Maputo Province Bantu gene pool, 3 the occurrence of R1a1a-M17/M198, a member of the Eurasian R1a-M420 branch in the population of the Maputo Province, may represent back migration events and/or recent admixture events, 4 the shared presence of E1b1b1-M35 in all Tanzanian tribes examined, including Bantu and non-Bantu groups, in conjunction with its nearly complete absence in the West African populations indicate that, in addition to a shared linguistic, cultural and genetic heritage, geography (e.g., east vs. west may have impacted the paternal landscape of sub-Saharan Africa, 5 the admixture and assimilation processes of Bantu elements were both highly complex and region-specific.

  3. [A careful look to postmodern tribes: caring for adolescent health in the context of their everyday lives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Nóbrega, Juliana Fernandes; Nitschke, Rosane Gonçalves; da Silva, Fernanda Pravato; Carraro, Cláudia Anita Gomes; Alves, Cristiane

    2013-09-01

    This is a theoretical reflection, based on Michel Maffesoli's Comprehensive Sociology, which is concerned with the health care of adolescents in contemporary everyday life, and particularly with the phenomenon of urban tribes. These are understood as groups of people who have emotional ties, building a bond of sociality towards a common goal. This study focuses on the importance to take into account the lifestyle of adolescents and aims to raise awareness among health professionals about such issues, seeking for strategies tuned with reality and care needs in order to promote health, devising ways to improve caring, rethinking health policies for adolescents in contemporary society. PMID:24344604

  4. OBSERVATIONS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY KUKNA TRIBES OF JHAVADA VILLAGES OF WAGHAI FOREST, DANGS DT, GUJARAT, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Navaroja D

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotanical survey was carried out among the Kukna tribes in Jhavada villages of Dangs district, Gujarat located in Waghai forest. There are 46 plant species belonging to 30 families were identified from the study site based on the information collected from herbal healers to cure diseases such as diarrhoea, skin disease, cough, cold, ulcer, diabetes, constipation and Jaundice. Study of indigenous knowledge and herbal medical practices has very much welcoming by modern drug designers due to their positive results. The goal is to preserve, manage and use the biodiversity and the tribal knowledge for their welfare and others.

  5. Ethnomedicinal plant use by Lepcha tribe of Dzongu valley, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in North Sikkim, India

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    Badola Hemant K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lepcha is the oldest and the first tribe reported from Sikkim, India; majority of its population inhabiting in Dzongu valley, an officially demarcated reserve for Lepcha community, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in north district. Lepchas of Dzongu are known for their retention of rich cultural heritage. In view of the on-going cultural and economic changes brought in by the process of globalization, the immediate need was felt to document in details the under-explored ethnomedicinal practices of Lepchas of Dzongu valley. This paper reports 118 species, belonging to 71 families and 108 genera, under ethnomedicinal utility by the Lepchas for curing approximately 66 ailments, which could be grouped under 14 broad categories. Zingiberaceae appeared as the most used family (8 species and 5 genera. As per use pattern, maximum of 30.50% species are to cure stomach related disorders/ailments, followed by 19.49% for curing cut, wounds, inflammation, sprains and joint pains. Administration of medicine orally is recorded in 75% cases. Root and rhizome harvesting targeted 30 species. The changing scenario over time both at socio-cultural front and passing traditional knowledge interests from older to younger generation and rich ethnomicinal wealth of the oldest tribe of Sikkim are discussed in the light of conservation strategies and techniques to adopt.

  6. Austro-Asiatic tribes of Northeast India provide hitherto missing genetic link between South and Southeast Asia.

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    B Mohan Reddy

    Full Text Available Northeast India, the only region which currently forms a land bridge between the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, has been proposed as an important corridor for the initial peopling of East Asia. Given that the Austro-Asiatic linguistic family is considered to be the oldest and spoken by certain tribes in India, Northeast India and entire Southeast Asia, we expect that populations of this family from Northeast India should provide the signatures of genetic link between Indian and Southeast Asian populations. In order to test this hypothesis, we analyzed mtDNA and Y-Chromosome SNP and STR data of the eight groups of the Austro-Asiatic Khasi from Northeast India and the neighboring Garo and compared with that of other relevant Asian populations. The results suggest that the Austro-Asiatic Khasi tribes of Northeast India represent a genetic continuity between the populations of South and Southeast Asia, thereby advocating that northeast India could have been a major corridor for the movement of populations from India to East/Southeast Asia.

  7. NON TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS UTILIZATION DURING ADVERSE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS : A CASE OF SAORA TRIBES OF GANJAM DISTRICT, ODISHA

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    MANISH MISHRA, P A JADHAV1 AND MUKTA SHRIVASTAVA2

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Saoras are one of the most ancient tribes in Odisha mentioned in Hindu myths and classics are also expert climbers and hunters. Saoras of Ganjam district mostly depend on forest for their livelihood and the area is rich in biodiversity and also have rare medicinal flora. They eat several NTFPs, wild roots, rhizome, seeds, fruits and mushrooms during harsh climatic conditions like severe drought. They use stored wild tubers mostly Dioscoreas like Bowla (Dioscorea bulbifera L., Bonda, Chun aru  (D. daemona Roxb., Karondi aru (D.bellophylla L., Pani aru (D. oppositifolia L. and Arguna (Cycas spp. to fulfill their food, medicinal and nutritional requirements particularly in harsh climatic conditions. They eat various wild leafy vegetables like Kolod (Lathyrus sativa L.,Bilo (Pisum sativum L., Kulthi (Microtylum uniflorumLam., Banana stem (Musa superba L. Ban poi (Basella alba L.. They also utilize NTFPs like Bamboo karda (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad exJC Wendl., Moha (Madhuca indica J.F Gmel., Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn., fruits. Some wild mushrooms like Banschattu, Ambachattu (Agaricus spp. after drying and crushing were eaten by them. Indigenous practices of Saora tribes to cope up extreme environmental conditions and utilization of forest products during drought were discussed in the paper.

  8. The relationships of forest biodiversity and rattan jernang (Deamonorops draco sustainable harvesting by Anak Dalam tribe in Jambi, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRIO ADIWIBOWO

    Full Text Available Adiwibowo A, Sulasmi IS. 2012. Relationships of forest biodiversity and rattan jernang (Deamonorops draco sustainable harvesting by Anak Dalam tribe in Jambi, Sumatra. Biodiversitas 13: 00-00. Conservation of tropical trees can be achieved if supported by the sustainable use of forest by community live nearby through harvesting of non timber woods, for instance rattan. Furthermore, rattan jernang individuals and trees have significant associations. Therefore, objective of this paper is to investigate the utilization of rattan jernang (Deamonorops draco Wild related to the forest tree biodiversity by Anak Dalam tribe in several villages in Jambi, Sumatra. The study has identified that populations of Deamonorops draco were varied among villages, ranged from 40 to 71 clumps in the forests and up to 500 clumps in plantations. Moreover, 73 individual trees consisted of 32 species were identified as rattan host and conserved by the community. Dialium platyespalyum. Quercus elmeri, and Adinandra dumosa were rattan host trees with the highest populations. Meanwhile, a biodiversity of non-host trees consisted of 30 individual trees from 16 species. Interviews revealed that traditional harvesters have acknowledged that trees have significant important ecological roles for the rattan livelihood and therefore it is very important to conserve the forests for the sustainability of harvest in the future. Furthermore, to secure the availability of rattan, the traditional harvesters had started rattan plantation.

  9. Diversity of medicinal plant by Talang Mamak tribe in surrounding of Bukit Tiga Puluh National Park, Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WARDAH

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Local peoples in a certain area is very depends on plants grow on surrounding them for fulfill daily lifelyhoat such as food, clothing, construction material, medicinal, etc. People knowledge in plants utilized especially as medicinal matter was passed on from generation to generation. Documentation and conservation of traditional knowledge from the local people until to do the research of diversity of medicinal plant by Talang Mamak tribe in Bukit Tigapuluh National Park, Riau. Field data collection of medicinal plants was done by direct observation and interview with the figure or tribe-head and community is used medicinal plant in surrounding them. From the survey it result that at least 77 species of plants are used as medicines. Five species from these was categorised as endangered species such as pulai (Alstonia scholaris, gaharu (Aquilaria malaccensis, kapung-kapung (Oroxylum indicum, pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia, and akar kuning (Arcangelisia flava. Kinds of diseases can be cover with ingredient of traditional medicines, the process and method, part of plant used, and species having potency for develop in the future is discussed in this paper.

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera arecae (Insecta: Tephritidae) by next-generation sequencing and molecular phylogeny of Dacini tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chow, Wan-Loo; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    The whole mitochondrial genome of the pest fruit fly Bactrocera arecae was obtained from next-generation sequencing of genomic DNA. It had a total length of 15,900 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding region (A + T-rich control region). The control region (952 bp) was flanked by rrnS and trnI genes. The start codons included 6 ATG, 3 ATT and 1 each of ATA, ATC, GTG and TCG. Eight TAA, two TAG, one incomplete TA and two incomplete T stop codons were represented in the protein-coding genes. The cloverleaf structure for trnS1 lacked the D-loop, and that of trnN and trnF lacked the TΨC-loop. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 protein-coding genes was concordant with 37 mitochondrial genes, with B. arecae having closest genetic affinity to B. tryoni. The subgenus Bactrocera of Dacini tribe and the Dacinae subfamily (Dacini and Ceratitidini tribes) were monophyletic. The whole mitogenome of B. arecae will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26472633

  11. 25 CFR 1000.17 - What documents must a Tribe/Consortium submit to OSG to apply for admission to the applicant pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What documents must a Tribe/Consortium submit to OSG to apply for admission to the applicant pool? 1000.17 Section 1000.17 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT.../Consortium submit to OSG to apply for admission to the applicant pool? In addition to the...

  12. An Analysis of Huarui (dpav-ris) Tibetan Tribes' Social Forms%华锐藏族部落社会形态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洲塔; 吕志祥; Qin Lili

    2010-01-01

    @@ Historically, the Huarui(dpav-ris) Tibetans inhabited areas including Tianzhu in Gansu Province, Huangcheng to the south of Gansu, and some regions in the east of Qinghai Province.The existence and development of the Huarui tribes also maintained the progress of these areas.

  13. 25 CFR 900.158 - How does an Indian tribe or tribal organization appeal the initial decision, if it does not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tribal organization appeal the initial decision, if it does not request an informal conference or if it... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does an Indian tribe or tribal organization appeal the initial decision, if it does not request an informal conference or if it does not agree with...

  14. Tribes and Territories in the 21st Century: Rethinking the Significance of Disciplines in Higher Education. International Studies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowler, Paul, Ed.; Saunders, Murray, Ed.; Bamber, Veronica, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The "tribes and territories" metaphor for the cultures of academic disciplines and their roots in different knowledge characteristics has been used by those interested in university life and work since the early 1990s. This book draws together research, data and theory to show how higher education has gone through major change since then and how…

  15. 25 CFR 1000.251 - What happens when a Tribe/Consortium is suspended for substantial failure to carry out the terms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... substantial failure to carry out the terms of an AFA without good cause and does not correct the failure... AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Construction § 1000.251 What happens when a Tribe/Consortium is suspended for substantial failure to carry out the terms of an AFA without...

  16. 42 CFR 137.325 - What does a Self-Governance Tribe do if it wants to perform a construction project under section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... perform a construction project under section 509 of the Act ? 137.325 Section 137.325 Public Health PUBLIC... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.325 What does a Self-Governance Tribe do if it wants to perform a construction project under section 509 of the Act ? (a) A...

  17. 25 CFR 224.83 - What must a tribe do after executing a lease or business agreement, or granting a right-of-way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT AND SELF DETERMINATION ACT Implementation of Tribal Energy Resource Agreements Leases, Business... agreement, or granting a right-of-way? Following the execution of a lease, business agreement, or grant of... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must a tribe do after executing a lease or...

  18. 24 CFR 1000.332 - Will data used by HUD to determine an Indian tribe's or TDHE's formula allocation be provided to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Allocation Formula § 1000.332 Will data used by HUD... before the allocation? Yes. HUD shall provide notice to the Indian tribe or TDHE of the data to be used... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will data used by HUD to...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.69 - How can a Tribe/Consortium obtain comments or selection documents received or utilized after OSG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can a Tribe/Consortium obtain comments or selection documents received or utilized after OSG has made a decision on a planning grant application? 1000.69... selection documents received or utilized after OSG has made a decision on a planning grant application?...

  20. 42 CFR 137.65 - May a Self-Governance Tribe receive statutorily mandated grant funding in an annual lump sum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe receive statutorily mandated grant funding in an annual lump sum advance payment? 137.65 Section 137.65 Public Health PUBLIC... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Statutorily Mandated Grants § 137.65 May a Self-Governance...

  1. 42 CFR 137.211 - How does a Self-Governance Tribe learn whether self-governance activities have resulted in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does a Self-Governance Tribe learn whether self-governance activities have resulted in savings as described in § 137.210. 137.211 Section 137.211 Public... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Savings § 137.211 How...

  2. 42 CFR 137.167 - What cost principles must a Self-Governance Tribe follow when participating in self-governance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What cost principles must a Self-Governance Tribe follow when participating in self-governance under Title V? 137.167 Section 137.167 Public Health PUBLIC... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Audits and Cost Principles § 137.167...

  3. 25 CFR 900.57 - What if the Indian tribe or tribal organization chooses not to take title to property furnished...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Property Management System Standards § 900.57 What if... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What if the Indian tribe or tribal organization...

  4. Statement of Hubert Velarde, Jicarilla Apache Tribe to United States Commission on Civil Rights at Albuquerque Convention Center (Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 14, 1972).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Hubert

    The statement by the President of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe emphasizes reservation problems that need to be examined. Presented at a 1972 Civil Rights Commission hearing on Indian Concerns, Velarde's statement listed employment, education, the administration of justice, water rights, and medical services as areas for investigation. (KM)

  5. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America; Part III: The Southwest (Apache--Mohave). Occasional Publications in Anthropology Ethnology Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    The Museum of Anthropology of the University of Northern Colorado (formerly known as Colorado State College) has assembled a large number of Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to be reproduced as a series of publications. Included in this volume are the amended charter and constitution of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe, Dulce, New…

  6. 42 CFR 137.202 - What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the reports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What types of information will Self-Governance Tribes be expected to include in the reports? 137.202 Section 137.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Health Status Reports § 137.202 What types of information...

  7. 24 CFR 1000.28 - May a self-governance Indian tribe be exempted from the applicability of § 1000.26?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a self-governance Indian tribe be exempted from the applicability of § 1000.26? 1000.28 Section 1000.28 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT...

  8. 24 CFR 1000.328 - What is the minimum amount that an Indian tribe may receive under the need component of the formula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the minimum amount that an Indian tribe may receive under the need component of the formula? 1000.328 Section 1000.328 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN...

  9. 24 CFR 1000.210 - What happens to existing 1937 Act units in those jurisdictions for which Indian tribes do not or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens to existing 1937 Act units in those jurisdictions for which Indian tribes do not or cannot submit an IHP? 1000.210 Section 1000.210 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC...

  10. 24 CFR 1000.506 - If the TDHE is the recipient, must it submit its monitoring evaluation/results to the Indian tribe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If the TDHE is the recipient, must it submit its monitoring evaluation/results to the Indian tribe? 1000.506 Section 1000.506 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN...

  11. 24 CFR 1000.334 - May Indian tribes, TDHEs, or HUD challenge the data from the U.S. Decennial Census or provide an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May Indian tribes, TDHEs, or HUD challenge the data from the U.S. Decennial Census or provide an alternative source of data? 1000.334 Section 1000.334 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY...

  12. 24 CFR 1000.550 - If the TDHE is the recipient, does it have to submit a copy of its audit to the Indian tribe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If the TDHE is the recipient, does it have to submit a copy of its audit to the Indian tribe? 1000.550 Section 1000.550 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN...

  13. 24 CFR 1000.340 - What if an Indian tribe is allocated less funding under the IHBG Formula than it received in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What if an Indian tribe is allocated less funding under the IHBG Formula than it received in Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 for operating subsidy and modernization? 1000.340 Section 1000.340 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued)...

  14. 24 CFR 1000.408 - How does an Indian tribe or TDHE show that it has made efforts to obtain financing without a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does an Indian tribe or TDHE show that it has made efforts to obtain financing without a guarantee and cannot complete such financing in a timely manner? 1000.408 Section 1000.408 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  15. 24 CFR 1000.327 - What is the order of preference for allocating the IHBG formula needs data for Indian tribes in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the order of preference for allocating the IHBG formula needs data for Indian tribes in Alaska not located on reservations due to the unique circumstances in Alaska? 1000.327 Section 1000.327 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  16. 43 CFR 30.263 - May a surviving spouse reserve a life estate when a tribe exercises its statutory option to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a surviving spouse reserve a life... Interests Under Special Statutes § 30.263 May a surviving spouse reserve a life estate when a tribe... tribal purchase option is a surviving spouse, the spouse may reserve a life estate in one-half of...

  17. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.212 - What is the role of the Tribe/Consortium when a bureau initiates a public meeting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT.../Consortium should meet to plan and discuss the conduct of the meeting, meeting protocols, and general... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the role of the Tribe/Consortium when a...

  19. The Doryctinae (Braconidae) of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Paul M; Wild, Alexander L; Whitfield, James B

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are described from Costa Rica: Paraheterospilus gen. n., P. ceciliaensis sp. n., P. eumekus sp. n., P. wilbotgardus sp. n., Heterospilus achi sp. n., H. achterbergi sp. n., H. aesculapius sp. n., H. agujas sp. n., H. agujasensis sp. n., H. alajuelus sp. n., H. albocoxalis sp. n., H. alejandroi sp. n., H. amuzgo sp. n., H. angelicae sp. n., H. angustus sp. n., H. aphrodite sp. n., H. apollo sp. n., H. arawak sp. n., H. areolatus sp. n., H. artemis sp. n., H. athena sp. n., H. attraholucus sp. n., H. aubreyae sp. n., H. austini sp. n., H. azofeifai sp. n., H. bacchus sp. n., H. barbalhoae sp. n., H. bennetti sp. n., H. bicolor sp. n., H. boharti sp. n., H. borucas sp. n., H. braeti sp. n., H. brethesi sp. n., H. breviarius sp. n., H. brevicornus sp. n., H. bribri sp. n., H. brullei sp. n., H. bruesi sp. n., H. cabecares sp. n., H. cacaoensis sp. n., H. cachiensis sp. n., H. cameroni sp. n., H. cangrejaensis sp. n., H. careonotaulus sp. n., H. caritus sp. n., H. carolinae sp. n., H. cartagoensis sp. n., H. catiensis sp. n., H. catorce sp. n., H. cero sp. n., H. chaoi sp. n., H. chilamatensis sp. n., H. chocho sp. n., H. chorotegus sp. n., H. chorti sp. n., H. cinco sp. n., H. cocopa sp. n., H. colliletus sp. n., H. colonensis sp. n., H. complanatus sp. n., H. conservatus sp. n., H. cora sp. n., H. corcovado sp. n., H. corrugatus sp. n., H. costaricensis sp. n., H. cressoni sp. n., H. cuatro sp. n., H. curtisi sp. n., H. cushmani sp. n., H. dani sp. n., H. demeter sp. n., H. dianae sp. n., H

  20. The Doryctinae (Braconidae of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Marsh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are described from Costa Rica: Paraheterospilus gen. n., P. ceciliaensis sp. n., P. eumekus sp. n., P. wilbotgardus sp. n., Heterospilus achi sp. n., H. achterbergi sp. n., H. aesculapius sp. n., H. agujas sp. n., H. agujasensis sp. n., H. alajuelus sp. n., H. albocoxalis sp. n., H. alejandroi sp. n., H. amuzgo sp. n., H. angelicae sp. n., H. angustus sp. n., H. aphrodite sp. n., H. apollo sp. n., H. arawak sp. n., H. areolatus sp. n., H. artemis sp. n., H. athena sp. n., H. attraholucus sp. n., H. aubreyae sp. n., H. austini sp. n., H. azofeifai sp. n., H. bacchus sp. n., H. barbalhoae sp. n., H. bennetti sp. n., H. bicolor sp. n., H. boharti sp. n., H. borucas sp. n., H. braeti sp. n., H. brethesi sp. n., H. breviarius sp. n., H. brevicornus sp. n., H. bribri sp. n., H. brullei sp. n., H. bruesi sp. n., H. cabecares sp. n., H. cacaoensis sp. n., H. cachiensis sp. n., H. cameroni sp. n., H. cangrejaensis sp. n., H. careonotaulus sp. n., H. caritus sp. n., H. carolinae sp. n., H. cartagoensis sp. n., H. catiensis sp. n., H. catorce sp. n., H. cero sp. n., H. chaoi sp. n., H. chilamatensis sp. n., H. chocho sp. n., H. chorotegus sp. n., H. chorti sp. n., H. cinco sp. n., H. cocopa sp. n., H. colliletus sp. n., H. colonensis sp. n., H. complanatus sp. n., H. conservatus sp. n., H. cora sp. n., H. corcovado sp. n., H. corrugatus sp. n., H. costaricensis sp. n., H. cressoni sp. n., H. cuatro sp. n., H. curtisi sp. n., H. cushmani sp. n., H. dani sp. n., H. demeter sp. n., H

  1. One nutritional symbiosis begat another: Phylogenetic evidence that the ant tribe Camponotini acquired Blochmannia by tending sap-feeding insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady Seán G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial endosymbiosis has a recurring significance in the evolution of insects. An estimated 10-20% of insect species depend on bacterial associates for their nutrition and reproductive viability. Members of the ant tribe Camponotini, the focus of this study, possess a stable, intracellular bacterial mutualist. The bacterium, Blochmannia, was first discovered in Camponotus and has since been documented in a distinct subgenus of Camponotus, Colobopsis, and in the related genus Polyrhachis. However, the distribution of Blochmannia throughout the Camponotini remains in question. Documenting the true host range of this bacterial mutualist is an important first step toward understanding the various ecological contexts in which it has evolved, and toward identifying its closest bacterial relatives. In this study, we performed a molecular screen, based on PCR amplification of 16S rDNA, to identify bacterial associates of diverse Camponotini species. Results Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA gave four important insights: (i Blochmannia occurs in a broad range of Camponotini genera including Calomyrmex, Echinopla, and Opisthopsis, and did not occur in outgroups related to this tribe (e.g., Notostigma. This suggests that the mutualism originated in the ancestor of the tribe Camponotini. (ii The known bacteriocyte-associated symbionts of ants, in Formica, Plagiolepis, and the Camponotini, arose independently. (iii Blochmannia is nestled within a diverse clade of endosymbionts of sap-feeding hemipteran insects, such as mealybugs, aphids, and psyllids. In our analyses, a group of secondary symbionts of mealybugs are the closest relatives of Blochmannia. (iv Blochmannia has cospeciated with its known hosts, although deep divergences at the genus level remain uncertain. Conclusions The Blochmannia mutualism occurs in Calomyrmex, Echinopla, and Opisthopsis, in addition to Camponotus, and probably originated in the ancestral lineage leading

  2. A copal-8-ol diphosphate synthase from the angiosperm Cistus creticus subsp. creticus is a putative key enzyme for the formation of pharmacologically active, oxygen-containing labdane-type diterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falara, Vasiliki; Pichersky, Eran; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2010-09-01

    The resin of Cistus creticus subsp. creticus, a plant native to Crete, is rich in labdane-type diterpenes with significant antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. The full-length cDNA of a putative diterpene synthase was isolated from a C. creticus trichome cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence of this protein is highly similar (59%-70% identical) to type B diterpene synthases from other angiosperm species that catalyze a protonation-initiated cyclization. The affinity-purified recombinant Escherichia coli-expressed protein used geranylgeranyl diphosphate as substrate and catalyzed the formation of copal-8-ol diphosphate. This diterpene synthase, therefore, was named CcCLS (for C. creticus copal-8-ol diphosphate synthase). Copal-8-ol diphosphate is likely to be an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the oxygen-containing labdane-type diterpenes that are abundant in the resin of this plant. RNA gel-blot analysis revealed that CcCLS is preferentially expressed in the trichomes, with higher transcript levels found in glands on young leaves than on fully expanded leaves, while CcCLS transcript levels increased after mechanical wounding. Chemical analyses revealed that labdane-type diterpene production followed a similar pattern, with higher concentrations in trichomes of young leaves and increased accumulation upon wounding.

  3. A copal-8-ol diphosphate synthase from the angiosperm Cistus creticus subsp. creticus is a putative key enzyme for the formation of pharmacologically active, oxygen-containing labdane-type diterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falara, Vasiliki; Pichersky, Eran; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2010-09-01

    The resin of Cistus creticus subsp. creticus, a plant native to Crete, is rich in labdane-type diterpenes with significant antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. The full-length cDNA of a putative diterpene synthase was isolated from a C. creticus trichome cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence of this protein is highly similar (59%-70% identical) to type B diterpene synthases from other angiosperm species that catalyze a protonation-initiated cyclization. The affinity-purified recombinant Escherichia coli-expressed protein used geranylgeranyl diphosphate as substrate and catalyzed the formation of copal-8-ol diphosphate. This diterpene synthase, therefore, was named CcCLS (for C. creticus copal-8-ol diphosphate synthase). Copal-8-ol diphosphate is likely to be an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the oxygen-containing labdane-type diterpenes that are abundant in the resin of this plant. RNA gel-blot analysis revealed that CcCLS is preferentially expressed in the trichomes, with higher transcript levels found in glands on young leaves than on fully expanded leaves, while CcCLS transcript levels increased after mechanical wounding. Chemical analyses revealed that labdane-type diterpene production followed a similar pattern, with higher concentrations in trichomes of young leaves and increased accumulation upon wounding. PMID:20595348

  4. A review of traditional plants used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribes of northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muazu, J; Kaita, A H

    2008-01-01

    Five prescriptions used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribe of Northern Nigeria were collected from traditional healers. The five prescriptions containing eight plants were reviewed as in literature to ascertain scientific basis of their use in treatment of epilepsy. Securidaca longipedunculata (family Polygalaceace) was reported to have such property; Mitragyna inermis (family Rubiaceae) has alkaloids structurally similar to clinically useful anticonvulsant. Celtis integrefolia (family Ulmaceae) was reported to contain gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) that its deficiency may lead to convulsions. The remaining plants were basically helpful in alleviation of associated symptoms of epilepsy except Centaurea praecox (family Asteraceae) which was reported to have neurotoxic substances that may worsen the disease. PMID:20161961

  5. Systematic of genera Pulicaria Gaertn. and Platycheteae Boiss. from tribe Inuleae s.str (Asteraceae in Iran

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    Peyman Zarin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pulicaria Gaertn belongs to the tribe Inuleae (Asteraceae. This genus includes five species in Iran (P. dysenterica, P. vulgaris, P. Arabica, P. gnaphalodes and P. salvifolia. The most diagnostic morphological characteristics were kind of pappus, achene, corolla, phyllaries and form of leafs. In the recent study by Anderberg, focusing on the close relationship between the genus Pulicaria and platychaete, they have been announced synonymous. Platychaete includes five species in Iran (P. glucescens, P. carnosa, P. velutina, P. mucronifolia and P. aucheri. In this study the relationships between them were confirmed and therefore, the Anderberg’s view of convergence of the two genera was attested. Also, species identification key, phenogram and distribution map in Iran were provided and discussed.

  6. 安粉蚧族Antoninini中国种类记述%The tribe Antoninini of China (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武三安

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the tribe Antoninini of China. Seven generaand 16 species were studied. Of which, two species are new to science, and are described and illustrated. They are Antonina hubeiana sp. nov. and Nesticoccus fanjingensis sp. nov. The type specimens are deposited in Insect Collections, Beijing Forestry University.%该文研究了粉蚧科安粉蚧族的中国种类,计有7属16种,其中包括2新种,即湖北安粉蚧Antonina hubeianasp.nov.和梵净巢粉蚧Nesticoccus fanjingensis sp.nov.,并提供了该群中国种类的分属分种检索表.新种模式标本保存在北京林业大学昆虫标本室.

  7. Traditional Use of Plants against Snakebite in Sugali tribes of Yerramalais of Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SKhaleel Basha; Gsudarsanam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To conduct ethnobotanical survey in Yerramalais forest among Sugali tribes and collect information on medicinal plants to used to in the treatment of snake bite. Snakebite has been a major cause of mortality of tribals and their livestock. Methods: The study was conducted during 2009-2011 visiting regularly Sugali Thandas and Lobais. Following the method of Jain and Goel. First hand information on their traditional medicine was recorded, repeated enquiries were made to understand their knowledge, methods of diagnosis and treatment. Data were collected on the specific part of the plants used collection, method of usage of the drug and dosage of the drug ,dosage of administration. Results: The paper provides information about Ehanobatanical and Scientific evidences of 23 medicinal plants which are used by sugalis as antidote for snake bite. Conclusion: Traditional medicine remains an integral part of the health system in this area Antidote medicinal plants play an important role in health and livelihood of Sugali Tribal people.

  8. Cytogenetic studies in some representatives of the subfamily Pooideae (Poaceae in South Africa. 3. The tribe Poeae

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    J. J. Spies

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a report on chromosome numbers for the tribe Poeae, which is represented in South Africa mainly by naturalized exotics. Chromosome numbers of 67 specimens, representing 26 species and 11 genera, are presented. These numbers include the first reports on Poa binata Nees (n = 3x = 21 and n = 4x = 28, Puccinellia acroxantha C.A.Sm. & CE.Hubb. (n = 3x = 21 and P. angusta (Nees C.A.Sm. & C.E.Hubb. (n = x = 7. New ploidy levels are reported for Catapodium rigidum (L. CE.Hubb.(n = 2x = 14, Festuca caprina Nees (n = 2x = 14 and F. scabra Vahl (n = x = 7.

  9. Ethnobotany, traditional knowledge and socioeconomic importance of native drink among the Oraon tribe of Malda district in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Manas Ranjan; Rai, Ritu; Kar, Pallab; Sen, Arnab; Sarker, Dilip De

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Preparation of daily traditional drink by the indigenous tribes is a common phenomenon in India. Oraon tribes in Malda district of West Bengal, India are very much practiced in making of their own native brew, known as Chullu. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the whole Chullu procedure technology of the region and its socioeconomic effect on Oraon. Ethnomedicinal investigation of local plants involved in Chullu preparation was another aspect of this study. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted from April 2012 to June 2013. Consecutive field surveys were performed to collect information from Chullu producers to focus the procedure technology of local brew by means of semi-structured individual interviews, informal interviews and group discussion. A semi-structured questionnaire process was also performed to obtain the information regarding the ethnic use of plant species involved in Chullu preparation. Results: The present study revealed that four medicinal plant species along with rice having strong local ethnomedicinal value were used to prepare this indigenous drink. Oraon prepare the brew using their unique home-made distillation process. Commercialization of this local brew represents an alternative income to develop their economic condition, especially for poor households. The index of importance value was considered to evaluate the importance, usage, and knowledge of the five studied species. Conclusion: It could be concluded that practices of Chullu preparation represent a bonding between ethnic knowledge and Oraon people of the province. Commercialization of Chullu may be considered as a source of alternative way of income for poor households in the region. PMID:26401382

  10. American Education Policy Towards Indian Tribes (the End of the 18th – Beginning of 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelin Timur Vladimirovich-

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the policy of the first presidential administrations of the USA in relation to the Native Americans. The policy was established during the period of George Washington’s presidency. The key factor of this policy was the education of aboriginals, the inurement of skills necessary for the integration with white people. The development of trade relations between nations became the beginning of this process. Trade relations required competent management and special laws regulating the process of trade and intercourse with the Native Americans. Government trading houses (factories had to urge the process of civilization. The author shows the influence of the Enlightenment philosophy of Thomas Jefferson on his idea to educate the aboriginals. The close attention is paid not only to the political views of the third president of the USA, but also to his activity in the process of realizing the educational policy towards the Natives. Educational programs had a purpose to integrate aboriginal tribes into the US society. It was uneasy task and the government tried to find more constructive forms of working instead of common trade and intercourse acts with the Indians. The Louisiana Purchase gave new opportunities for developing the federal policy. Lewis and Clark explored the West and collected comprehensive information about its tribes, their habits and way of life. It was very useful for the government in its idea to civilize the indigenous peoples. The author studies the letters of Thomas Jefferson to some American politics and to the Natives, that the president wrote about his plans about the future of the American Indians. Revival movement of the Second Great Awaking found good allies for the US government. The author shows the role of protestant missionaries in the educational policy of the USA towards the Natives.

  11. Making Mosquito Taxonomy Useful: A Stable Classification of Tribe Aedini that Balances Utility with Current Knowledge of Evolutionary Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Richard C; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Fonseca, Dina M; Schultz, Ted R; Price, Dana C; Strickman, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    The tribe Aedini (Family Culicidae) contains approximately one-quarter of the known species of mosquitoes, including vectors of deadly or debilitating disease agents. This tribe contains the genus Aedes, which is one of the three most familiar genera of mosquitoes. During the past decade, Aedini has been the focus of a series of extensive morphology-based phylogenetic studies published by Reinert, Harbach, and Kitching (RH&K). Those authors created 74 new, elevated or resurrected genera from what had been the single genus Aedes, almost tripling the number of genera in the entire family Culicidae. The proposed classification is based on subjective assessments of the "number and nature of the characters that support the branches" subtending particular monophyletic groups in the results of cladistic analyses of a large set of morphological characters of representative species. To gauge the stability of RH&K's generic groupings we reanalyzed their data with unweighted parsimony jackknife and maximum-parsimony analyses, with and without ordering 14 of the characters as in RH&K. We found that their phylogeny was largely weakly supported and their taxonomic rankings failed priority and other useful taxon-naming criteria. Consequently, we propose simplified aedine generic designations that 1) restore a classification system that is useful for the operational community; 2) enhance the ability of taxonomists to accurately place new species into genera; 3) maintain the progress toward a natural classification based on monophyletic groups of species; and 4) correct the current classification system that is subject to instability as new species are described and existing species more thoroughly defined. We do not challenge the phylogenetic hypotheses generated by the above-mentioned series of morphological studies. However, we reduce the ranks of the genera and subgenera of RH&K to subgenera or informal species groups, respectively, to preserve stability as new data become

  12. Making Mosquito Taxonomy Useful: A Stable Classification of Tribe Aedini that Balances Utility with Current Knowledge of Evolutionary Relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Wilkerson

    Full Text Available The tribe Aedini (Family Culicidae contains approximately one-quarter of the known species of mosquitoes, including vectors of deadly or debilitating disease agents. This tribe contains the genus Aedes, which is one of the three most familiar genera of mosquitoes. During the past decade, Aedini has been the focus of a series of extensive morphology-based phylogenetic studies published by Reinert, Harbach, and Kitching (RH&K. Those authors created 74 new, elevated or resurrected genera from what had been the single genus Aedes, almost tripling the number of genera in the entire family Culicidae. The proposed classification is based on subjective assessments of the "number and nature of the characters that support the branches" subtending particular monophyletic groups in the results of cladistic analyses of a large set of morphological characters of representative species. To gauge the stability of RH&K's generic groupings we reanalyzed their data with unweighted parsimony jackknife and maximum-parsimony analyses, with and without ordering 14 of the characters as in RH&K. We found that their phylogeny was largely weakly supported and their taxonomic rankings failed priority and other useful taxon-naming criteria. Consequently, we propose simplified aedine generic designations that 1 restore a classification system that is useful for the operational community; 2 enhance the ability of taxonomists to accurately place new species into genera; 3 maintain the progress toward a natural classification based on monophyletic groups of species; and 4 correct the current classification system that is subject to instability as new species are described and existing species more thoroughly defined. We do not challenge the phylogenetic hypotheses generated by the above-mentioned series of morphological studies. However, we reduce the ranks of the genera and subgenera of RH&K to subgenera or informal species groups, respectively, to preserve stability as new

  13. Karyotype analysis of seven species of the tribe Lophiohylini (Hylinae, Hylidae, Anura, with conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques

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    Simone Gruber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Few species of the tribe Lophiohylini have been karyotyped so far, and earlier analyses were performed mainly with standard staining. Based on the analysis of seven species with use of routine banding and molecular cytogenetic techniques, the karyotypes were compared and the cytogenetic data were evaluated in the light of the current phylogenies. A karyotype with 2n = 24 and NOR in the chromosome 10 detected by Ag-impregnation and FISH with an rDNA probe was shared by Aparasphenodon bokermanni Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920, Itapotihyla langsdorffii (Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Trachycephalus sp., T. mesophaeus (Hensel, 1867, and T. typhonius (Linnaeus, 1758. Phyllodytes edelmoi Peixoto, Caramaschi et Freire, 2003 and P. luteolus (Wied-Neuwied, 1824 had reduced the diploid number from 2n = 24 to 2n = 22 with one of the small-sized pairs clearly missing, and NOR in the large chromosome 2, but the karyotypes were distinct regarding the morphology of chromosome pairs 4 and 6. Based on the cytogenetic and phylogenetic data, it was presumed that the chromosome evolution occurred from an ancestral type with 2n = 24, in which a small chromosome had been translocated to one or more unidentified chromosomes. Whichever hypothesis is more probable, other rearrangements should have occurred later, to explain the karyotype differences between the two species of Phyllodytes Wagler, 1830. The majority of the species presented a small amount of centromeric C-banded heterochromatin and these regions were GC-rich. The FISH technique using a telomeric probe identified the chromosome ends and possibly (TTAGGGn-like sequences in the repetitive DNA out of the telomeres in I. langsdorffii and P. edelmoi. The data herein obtained represent an important contribution for characterizing the karyotype variability within the tribe Lophiohylini scarcely analysed so far.

  14. Making Mosquito Taxonomy Useful: A Stable Classification of Tribe Aedini that Balances Utility with Current Knowledge of Evolutionary Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Richard C; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Fonseca, Dina M; Schultz, Ted R; Price, Dana C; Strickman, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    The tribe Aedini (Family Culicidae) contains approximately one-quarter of the known species of mosquitoes, including vectors of deadly or debilitating disease agents. This tribe contains the genus Aedes, which is one of the three most familiar genera of mosquitoes. During the past decade, Aedini has been the focus of a series of extensive morphology-based phylogenetic studies published by Reinert, Harbach, and Kitching (RH&K). Those authors created 74 new, elevated or resurrected genera from what had been the single genus Aedes, almost tripling the number of genera in the entire family Culicidae. The proposed classification is based on subjective assessments of the "number and nature of the characters that support the branches" subtending particular monophyletic groups in the results of cladistic analyses of a large set of morphological characters of representative species. To gauge the stability of RH&K's generic groupings we reanalyzed their data with unweighted parsimony jackknife and maximum-parsimony analyses, with and without ordering 14 of the characters as in RH&K. We found that their phylogeny was largely weakly supported and their taxonomic rankings failed priority and other useful taxon-naming criteria. Consequently, we propose simplified aedine generic designations that 1) restore a classification system that is useful for the operational community; 2) enhance the ability of taxonomists to accurately place new species into genera; 3) maintain the progress toward a natural classification based on monophyletic groups of species; and 4) correct the current classification system that is subject to instability as new species are described and existing species more thoroughly defined. We do not challenge the phylogenetic hypotheses generated by the above-mentioned series of morphological studies. However, we reduce the ranks of the genera and subgenera of RH&K to subgenera or informal species groups, respectively, to preserve stability as new data become

  15. CHS基因起源初探及其在被子植物中的进化分析%A Preliminary Study on the Origin and Evolution of Chalcone Synthase (CHS) Gene in Angiosperms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金霞; 瞿礼嘉; 杨继; 银好; 顾红雅

    2004-01-01

    nudum (L.) Griseb. and Equisetum arvense L., as outgroups, the phylogenetic trees of about 250 CHSs from 29 families of angiosperm plants were constructed by using the neighbour-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP) and quartet puzzle (QP)methods. The results showed that the CHSs from most plant families were separated into two or more clades while sequences from the families Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae were each grouped into an independent monophyletic clade. The relative base substitution rates were estimated for CHS genes in three plant families, Solanaceae, Convolvulaceae, and Asteraceae, where the heterogeneity rate was detected both within and among the families. Results indicated that CHS genes in angiosperm plants were greatly diverse in terms of copy number, base substitution rate, and duplication/deletion events, which might be correlated with the diversity of life history, habitat, floral characters, and defense system of angiosperm plants.

  16. Subdivision of the tribe Oligaphorurini in the light of new and lesser known species from North-East Russia (Collembola, Onychiuridae, Onychiurinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Babenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to a taxonomic review of Oligaphorurini from the north-eastern part of Palaearctic. Two new species, i.e. Oligaphorura ambigua sp. n. and O. duocellata sp. n., are described. Four species, O. nataliae (Fjellberg, 1987, O. interrupta (Fjellberg, 1987, O. pingicola (Fjellberg, 1987, and Micraphorura alnus (Fjellberg, 1987, are redescribed on base of the types and new material, and remarks on other species known for the region, O. groenlandica (Tullberg, 1876, O. ursi (Fjellberg, 1984, O. aborigensis (Fjellberg, 1987, and M. absoloni (Börner, 1901, are given to clarify their generic affiliation. Finally, merits and disadvantages of the current subdivision of the tribe are discussed and a key to the northern species of the tribe is provided.

  17. A re-evaluation of the milliped genus Motyxia Chamberlin : with a re-diagnosis of the tribe Xystocheirini and remarks on the bioluminescence (Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley, Rowland M.

    2011-01-01

    Motyxia Chamberlin is comprised of eight species of bioluminescent xystocheirine millipeds in which the gonopodal solenomere arises at different positions, from basally and subbasally on the acropodite to being fused with the companion acropodal branch and detaching proximad or near midlength. Previous synonymies of Amplocheir Chamberlin and LuminodeslnllS Loomis and Davenport under Motyxia are confirmed as is its assignment to the tribe Xystocheirini, which is redefined. Component species ar...

  18. Nuevas especies de la tribu Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae para la flora de Brasil New species of the tribe Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae for the Brazil flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa L Cabral

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran cuatro especies nuevas para la flora de Brasil: Borreria paulista del Estado de São Paulo, B. rosmariinifolia del Estado de Minas Gerais, Mitracarpus steyermarkii y Psyllocarpus intermedias del Estado de Bahia.Four new species of the tribe Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae, for Brazil are described and illustrated: Borreria paulista (São Paulo, B. rosmariinifolia (Minas Gerais, Mitracarpus steyermarkii and Psyllocarpus intermedius (Bahia.

  19. Multiple-Locus Departures from Panmictic Equilibrium within and between Village Gene Pools of Amerindian Tribes at Different Stages of Agglomeration

    OpenAIRE

    Smouse, Peter E.; Neel, James V.; Liu, Wanda

    1983-01-01

    A comparative analysis of departures from multiple-locus Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is presented for a set of four tribal Indian groups (the Yanomama, Makiritare, Wapishana and Ticuna) from the lowlands of South America. These tribes span a range of agglomeration and acculturation from the most traditional, swidden horticulturalists to frontier townspeople. The small-group social organization typical of traditional horticulturalists leads to substantial departures from tribal panmixia, as man...

  20. Ancyrocephalidae (Monogenea) of Lake Tanganyika. III : Cichlidogyrus infecting the world's biggest cichlid and the non-endemic tribes Haplochromini, Oreochromini and Tylochromini (Teleostei, Cichlidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bukinga, F. M.; Vanhove, M.P.M.; Van Steenberge, M.; Pariselle, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika is the deepest and oldest African Great Lake and of economic importance. While the diversity of its endemic cichlid radiations yielded scientific interest, a number of cichlid tribes have few representatives in the lake. Some of those, namely Oreochromini (ex-Tilapiini), Haplochromini and Tylochromini, reach higher species numbers in riverine systems. Conversely, the phylogenetic position of the monospecific and endemic Boulengerochromini is unclear. The oreochromines Oreochro...